Besse, M; Methfessel, I; Wiltfang, J; Zilles, D
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a potent and successful method for the treatment of severe psychiatric disorders. Severe depressive and psychotic disorders may lead to legal incapacity and inability to consent. In Germany, administration of ECT against the patient's will is feasible under certain constellations and is regulated under the terms of the guardianship law. This article outlines the prevalence, effectiveness and tolerability of ECT when applied in nonconsenting patients. Case report and literature review. The literature on ECT as a treatment in nonconsenting patients is relatively sparse. In 2008 the prevalence in Germany was less than 0.5 % of all patients receiving ECT. Case reports and case series suggest a good and equal level of effectiveness when compared to consenting patients. In the course of treatment the majority of patients consented to receive further ECT and retrospectively judged ECT as helpful. The use of ECT is a highly effective treatment in severe psychiatric disorders even when administered as treatment in nonconsenting patients. It can be lifesaving and lead to a rapid improvement of symptoms and relief from severe suffering also from the patients' perspective. Thus, it seems unethical not to consider ECT as a treatment against the nonautonomous will of legally incompetent patients in individual cases. Nevertheless, physicians should always seek to obtain the patients' consent as soon as possible for both legal and ethical reasons.
Urban-Kowalczyk, Małgorzata; Rudecki, Tomasz; Wróblewski, Dariusz; Smigielski, Janusz; Kałużyńska, Olga; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta
Safety of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in depressive patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is still discussed and based solely on case reports. This kind of therapy was used in both unipolar depression and depression in bipolar disorder. It was suggested that ECT might cause the deterioration of neurological state (new MS lesions in magnetic resonance imaging). Moreover, there were also data indicating some anesthesiological complications and difficulties in patients with MS. We have presented a case of a patient who was treated with ECT and developed grand mal seizure after 14th electroconvulsive treatment.
Calderón-Fajardo, Humberto; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Llorens-Arenas, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Bermudez, Jesús; Ruiz-Chow, Ángel; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela
Purpose To analyze the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy for the management of depression and/or psychosis refractory to drug therapy in patients with Parkinson disease.Methods A retrospective study was carried out including patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy during the period between 2002 and 2013. A review of the literature was performed.Results A total of 27 patients were included. In regards to the neuropsychiatric diagnosis, 14 patients had major depression, 12 patients had both psychosis and depression, and only one patient had isolated psychosis. The mean number of electroconvulsive therapy sessions was 12 ± 2.8. After electroconvulsive therapy, all patients showed a statistically significant improvement in the Brief Psychiatric Rating scale (reduction of 52% points) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (reduction of 50% points) independent of the presence of psychosis, depression or both.Conclusion Electroconvulsive therapy is effective for the treatment of refractory neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.
Maguire, S; Rea, S M; Convery, P
The Regulation and Quality Improvement Authority (RQIA) monitors the administration of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Northern Ireland (NI). As part of their inspection methodology RQIA wished to include feedback from ECT patients. The aim of this report is to summarise the opinions of ECT patients over a 1-year period and to compare their feedback about treatment with the standards of best practice, as defined by the Electroconvulsive Therapy Accreditation Service (ECTAS). RQIA was granted permission to use the ECTAS patient questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to all the ECT clinics in NI and staff were requested to give them to patients who had received a course of ECT. A total of 42 individuals returned questionnaires, 24 females (57.1%) and 18 (42.9%) males. The response rate was 26%. Almost half of respondents were detained under the Mental Health (Northern Ireland) Order 1986 (n=19, 45.2%), with one third receiving ECT as a day patient (n=14, 33.3%). Respondents reported having detailed information about ECT, with ECTAS standards 4.2 and 4.3 being affirmed in over 80% of cases. Eighty percent of respondents (n=34) believed they benefited from ECT. The results are mainly favourable towards ECT. The majority felt they benefited from treatment.
Narayanan, Aravind; Lal, Chandar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed
Objectives This study aimed to review general anaesthesia protocols for patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at a tertiary care hospital in Oman, particularly with regards to clinical profile, potential drug interactions and patient outcomes. Methods This retrospective study took place at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman. The electronic medical records of patients undergoing ECT at SQUH between January 2010 and December 2014 were reviewed for demographic characteristics and therapy details. Results A total of 504 modified ECT sessions were performed on 57 patients during the study period. All of the patients underwent a uniform general anaesthetic regimen consisting of propofol and succinylcholine; however, they received different doses between sessions, as determined by the treating anaesthesiologist. Variations in drug doses between sessions in the same patient could not be attributed to any particular factor. Self-limiting tachycardia and hypertension were periprocedural complications noted among all patients. One patient developed aspiration pneumonitis (1.8%). Conclusion All patients undergoing ECT received a general anaesthetic regimen including propofol and succinylcholine. However, the interplay of anaesthetic drugs with ECT efficacy could not be established due to a lack of comprehensive data, particularly with respect to seizure duration. In addition, the impact of concurrent antipsychotic therapy on anaesthetic dose and subsequent complications could not be determined. PMID:28417028
Ozaki, Yuki; Kawasoe, Koichiro; Ochi, Shinichiro; Niiya, Takanori; Sonobe, Naomi; Matsumoto, Teruhisa; Ueno, Shu-ichi
Clozapine is well-known for successful use in schizophrenic patients treatment resistant to other antipsychotics. However, even with clozapine, 25% of schizophrenic patients are not in remission. Recently, as adjunctive treatment with clozapine, electroconvulsive therapy has been reported to be an effective and safe adjunctive treatment. We report a Japanese schizophrenic woman who was not in remission with clozapine alone but with both clozapine and electroconvulsive therapy. PMID:25191508
Moksnes, Kjell Martin
In principle, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can only be administered to patients who consent to the treatment. If the patient does not consent, the treatment can be given in exceptional cases, in situations where a plea of necessity can be made. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the issue of consent was documented in the patient records at Dikemark Hospital in the period 1960-95, and to study the outcomes for patients who were given ECT treatment without having consented. The article is based on a review of the ECT protocols and the records of patients who were given this treatment during the period 1960-95 in three psychiatric wards at Dikemark Hospital. We registered whether the issue of consent had been documented, and if so, whether consent had been provided or not. The material encompasses 241 ECT series administered to 141 patients. The issue of consent had been documented for 107 of a total of the 241 series. Seven patients were given the therapy against their wishes. The median age of these seven was 68 years (range 56-82 years). All of them had been diagnosed with depressive psychosis and were given electroconvulsive therapy on a vital indication under a plea of necessity. Insufficient intake of nourishment was described as the main reason for the vital indication in all the seven patients. According to their records, they showed signs of improvement on the day after the first treatment. Their lifespan after the treatment varied from three to 19 years. On the basis of the records in which it was documented that the patient had not provided consent, electroconvulsive therapy was administered exclusively as a life-saving intervention.
Mehta, Vinay; Mueller, Paul S; Gonzalez-Arriaza, Heydy L; Pankratz, V Shane; Rummans, Teresa A
To investigate the safety of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients receiving long-term warfarin therapy. Retrospective data were reviewed for 35 consecutively hospitalized patients who received long-term warfarin therapy and ECT at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn, between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2001. A total of 300 ECT treatments were administered to the 35 patients. Of 284 ECT treatments for which data were available, no ECT-related complications due to anticoagulation occurred despite increases in blood pressure and pulse rate. One patient experienced ventricular tachycardia, resulting in transfer to a cardiology service for temporary monitoring. No other serious ECT-related adverse effects were noted. The rate of intertreatment delirium was similar to that reported in other studies. Electroconvulsive therapy in patients receiving long-term warfarin therapy appears to be safe. Although no major adverse effects were identified in our case series, additional prospective evaluation is warranted.
Shock treatment; Shock therapy; ECT; Depression - ECT; Bipolar - ECT ... ECT is a highly effective treatment for depression, most commonly severe depression. It can be very helpful for treating depression in people who: Are having delusions or other psychotic ...
Rose, Diana S; Wykes, Til H; Bindman, Jonathan P; Fleischmann, Pete S
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a procedure that attracts special safeguards under common law for voluntary patients and under both current and proposed mental health legislation, for those receiving compulsory treatment. To review patients' views on issues of information, consent and perceived coercion. Seventeen papers and reports were identified that dealt with patients' views on information and consent in relation to ECT; 134 'testimonies' or first-hand accounts were identified. The papers and reports were subjected to a descriptive systematic review. The testimony data were analysed qualitatively. Approximately half the patients reported that they had received sufficient information about ECT and side-effects. Approximately a third did not feel they had freely consented to ECT even when they had signed a consent form. Clinician-led research evaluates these findings to mean that patients trust their doctors, whereas user-led work evaluates similar findings as showing inadequacies in informed consent. Neither current nor proposed safeguards for patients are sufficient to ensure informed consent with respect to ECT, at least in England and Wales.
Şenyurt, Mahmut; Aybek, Hulya; Herken, Hasan; Kaptanoglu, Bunyamin; Korkmaz, Ali
Objective Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used in the treatment of many psychiatric diseases and this therapy may be effective on antioxidant defence system. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of ECT on oxidative stress. Methods Fourteen major depression, 11 schizophrenia and 8 bipolar affective disorder patients diagnosed and received ECT treatment, and 37 healthy volunteers enrolled in the study. ECT was applied to all patients. Before ECT, after the first and last ECTs, serum samples were obtained. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and calculated oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured in patients before and after ECTs. Results TOS values before ECT were higher in major depression (p=0.005) and schizophrenia (p=0.001) groups compared to the control group. TAS values were lower in major depression (p=0.0001), schizophrenia (p=0.004), bipolar affective disorder (p=0.004) groups compared to the controls. Also OSI values were higher in major depression (p=0.0001), schizophrenia (p=0.001), bipolar affective disorder (p=0.009) groups compared to healthy group. After the last ECT, TOS values were significantly lower compared to TOS values before ECT in major depression (p=0.004) and schizophrenia patients (p=0.004). TAS values after the first ECT were higher compared to values before ECT in major depression patients (p=0.004). After last ECT, OSI values were significantly lower compared to before ECT in schizophrenia patients (p=0.006). Conclusion As a result, it can be said that ECT did not increase oxidative stress. However, further studies with more patients are needed. PMID:28138109
Steen, Katie; Narang, Puneet
We performed a literature search regarding the safety and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Literature review was conducted via PubMed databases. Of the cases we reviewed, most subjects with multiple sclerosis reported significant psychiatric symptom relief, with only a handful reporting neurologic deterioration. There was some evidence that active white matter lesions may be predictive of neurologic deterioration when electroconvulsive therapy is used in patients with multiple sclerosis. A brief description of the pathophysiology and effects of depression in patients with multiple sclerosis is also provided. Although no clinical recommendations or meaningful conclusions can be drawn without further investigation, the literature suggests that electroconvulsive therapy for treatment of psychiatric illnesses in patients with multiple sclerosis is safe and efficacious. PMID:26351621
Steen, Katie; Narang, Puneet; Lippmann, Steven
We performed a literature search regarding the safety and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Literature review was conducted via PubMed databases. Of the cases we reviewed, most subjects with multiple sclerosis reported significant psychiatric symptom relief, with only a handful reporting neurologic deterioration. There was some evidence that active white matter lesions may be predictive of neurologic deterioration when electroconvulsive therapy is used in patients with multiple sclerosis. A brief description of the pathophysiology and effects of depression in patients with multiple sclerosis is also provided. Although no clinical recommendations or meaningful conclusions can be drawn without further investigation, the literature suggests that electroconvulsive therapy for treatment of psychiatric illnesses in patients with multiple sclerosis is safe and efficacious.
Luchini, Federica; Medda, Pierpaolo; Mariani, Michela Giorgi; Mauri, Mauro; Toni, Cristina; Perugi, Giulio
Recent evidence favors the view of catatonia as an autonomous syndrome, frequently associated with mood disorders, but also observed in neurological, neurodevelopmental, physical and toxic conditions. From our systematic literature review, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) results effective in all forms of catatonia, even after pharmacotherapy with benzodiazepines has failed. Response rate ranges from 80% to 100% and results superior to those of any other therapy in psychiatry. ECT should be considered first-line treatment in patients with malignant catatonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, delirious mania or severe catatonic excitement, and in general in all catatonic patients that are refractory or partially responsive to benzodiazepines. Early intervention with ECT is encouraged to avoid undue deterioration of the patient’s medical condition. Little is known about the long-term treatment outcomes following administration of ECT for catatonia. The presence of a concomitant chronic neurologic disease or extrapyramidal deficit seems to be related to ECT non-response. On the contrary, the presence of acute, severe and psychotic mood disorder is associated with good response. Severe psychotic features in responders may be related with a prominent GABAergic mediated deficit in orbitofrontal cortex, whereas non-responders may be characterized by a prevalent dopaminergic mediated extrapyramidal deficit. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that ECT is more effective in “top-down” variant of catatonia, in which the psychomotor syndrome may be sustained by a dysregulation of the orbitofrontal cortex, than in “bottom-up” variant, in which an extrapyramidal dysregulation may be prevalent. Future research should focus on ECT response in different subtype of catatonia and on efficacy of maintenance ECT in long-term prevention of recurrent catatonia. Further research on mechanism of action of ECT in catatonia may also contribute to the development of
Dabrowski, Marek; Parnowski, Tadeusz
The aim of the study was to assess efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy. 43 patients included into the study were hospitalised in The Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology and received all together over 400 bilateral electroconvulsive procedures. Most of the patients (N = 25) were qualified for electroconvulsive therapy due to treatment resistant depression (58.1%). Six patients: 2 with catatonia and 4 with depression had life saving indications for electroconvulsive therapy. Three patients (7%) were excluded from electroconvulsive therapy, following 1 or 2 electroconvulsive procedures. Forty patients continued electroconvulsive therapy. There were no complications and serious adverse events in patients who continued electroconvulsive therapy. Generally, electroconvulsive therapy was well tolerated and treatment had been cut down in only one case due to adverse events and high risk related to the procedure. Transient cardiac arrhythmias (10% of patients) were the most often occurring adverse events and patients (35%) mostly reported headaches. We observed remission in 22 patients (58%) and improvement in 14 patients (35%) following electroconvulsive treatment. Only 4 patients (10%) had no benefit after a series of electroconvulsive procedures. Electroconvulsive treatment was most effective in patients with catatonia (80% patients had full recovery) and in depressive patients with bipolar disorder (73% patients had full recovery). Electroconvulsive procedures were safe and effective. Electroconvulsive treatment was most effective in catatonic patients with schizophrenia and in depressive patients with bipolar disorder.
Feliu, Miriam; Edwards, Christopher L; Sudhakar, Shiv; McDougald, Camela; Raynor, Renee; Johnson, Stephanie; Byrd, Goldie; Whitfield, Keith; Jonassaint, Charles; Romero, Heather; Edwards, Lekisha; Wellington, Chante’; Hill, LaBarron K; Sollers, James; Logue, Patrick E
The current study examined the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on neuropsychological test performance. Forty-six patients completed brief neuropsychological and psychological testing before and after receiving ECT for the treatment of recalcitrant and severe depression. Neuropsychological testing consisted of the Levin Selective Reminding Test (Levin) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Edition (WMS-R). Self-report measures included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Short-Term Memory Questionnaire (STMQ), and several other measures of emotional functioning and patient attitudes toward ECT. The mean number of days between pre-ECT and post-ECT testing was 24. T-test revealed a significant decrease in subjective ratings of depression as rated by the BDI, t(45) = 9.82, P < 0.0001 (Pre-BDI = 27.9 ± 20.2; post-BDI = 13.5 ± 9.7). Objective ratings of memory appeared impaired following treatment, and patients’ self-report measures of memory confirmed this decline. More specifically, repeated measures MANOVA [Wilks Lambda F(11,30) = 4.3, p < 0.001] indicated significant decreases for measures of immediate recognition memory (p < 0.005), long-term storage (p < 0.05), delayed prose passage recall (p < 0.0001), percent retained of prose passages (p < 0.0001), and percent retained of visual designs (p < 0.0001). In addition, the number of double mentions on the Levin increased (p < 0.02). This study suggests that there may be a greater need to discuss the intermittent cognitive risks associated with ECT when obtaining informed consent prior to treatment. Further that self-reports of cognitive difficulties may persist even when depression has remitted. However, patients may not acknowledge or be aware of changes in their memory functioning, and post-ECT self-reports may not be reliable. PMID:18830401
Lin, Ching-Hua; Yang, Wei-Cheng
We aimed to compare the degree of symptom relief to psychosocial functional (abbreviated as "functional") improvement and explore the relationships between symptom relief and functional improvement during acute electroconvulsive therapy for patients with major depressive disorder. Major depressive disorder inpatients (n=130) requiring electroconvulsive therapy were recruited. Electroconvulsive therapy was generally performed for a maximum of 12 treatments. Symptom severity, using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and psychosocial functioning (abbreviated as "functioning"), using the Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale, were assessed before electroconvulsive therapy, after every 3 electroconvulsive therapy treatments, and after the final electroconvulsive therapy. Both 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale scores were converted to T-score units to compare the degrees of changes between depressive symptoms and functioning after electroconvulsive therapy. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships between 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale during acute electroconvulsive therapy. One hundred sixteen patients who completed at least the first 3 electroconvulsive therapy treatments entered the analysis. Reduction of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale T-scores was significantly greater than that of Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale T-scores at assessments 2, 3, 4, and 5. The model analyzed by structural equation modeling satisfied all indices of goodness-of-fit (chi-square = 32.882, P =.107, TLI = 0.92, CFI = 0.984, RMSEA = 0.057). The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale change did not predict subsequent Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale change. Functioning improved less than depressive symptoms during acute electroconvulsive therapy. Symptom reduction did not predict subsequent functional improvement
Tanney, Bryan L.
When the effectiveness and mortality-morbidity of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are compared with those of drug therapies, it appears that ECT is an effective and preferred treatment strategy. It remains underutilized as a modality of suicide prevention. Addresses controversies that presently limit the use of this treatment. (Author/ABB)
Tanney, Bryan L.
When the effectiveness and mortality-morbidity of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are compared with those of drug therapies, it appears that ECT is an effective and preferred treatment strategy. It remains underutilized as a modality of suicide prevention. Addresses controversies that presently limit the use of this treatment. (Author/ABB)
Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Del Casale, Antonio; Simonetti, Alessio; Milioni, Mara; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Scatena, Paola; Fensore, Claudio; Carbonetti, Paolo; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Tatarelli, Roberto; Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo
A woman with bipolar disorder I, histrionic personality disorder, and suicidal ideation with repeated suicide attempts, who had been treated for 2 years with mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines, received a total of 8 bitemporal-biparietal electroconvulsive therapy sessions. Her suicidal ideation and self-harm behavior disappeared immediately after the first session and her psychopathology soon after. This supports the existence of a relatively independent suicidal syndrome and confirms data on its immediate responsiveness to electroconvulsive therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy must not be long withheld from patients with such characteristics to reduce unnecessary sufferance and suicidality.
A middle-aged white man with a diagnosis of chorea neuroacanthocytosis developed progressive and distressing persecutory delusions with an obsessional component. Pharmacotherapy was ineffective in controlling the symptoms or halting their progression. Electroconvulsive therapy was attempted with very limited success but had to be discontinued owing to mild elation and increased irritability. The patient's distress was only improved after his transfer to a nursing home specializing in Huntington disease.
Wei, Qiang; Xie, Xinhui; Chen, Yang; Tian, Yanghua; Wang, Honghao; Wang, Keyong; Wang, Kai
Klinefelter syndrome is a common sex chromosome disorder characterized by the presence of 1 or more extra X chromosomes, and the most prevalent karyotype is 47,XXY. Epidemiological studies have showed that patients with Klinefelter syndrome had a significantly increased risk of psychosis. We presented a case of a patient with Klinefelter syndrome who was characterized by psychiatric symptoms. The patients had been refractory to clozapine and sodium valproate, but a remarkable improvement occurred after a cycle of 11 sessions of modified electroconvulsive therapy.
Sajith, Sreedharan Geetha; Liew, Siew Fai; Tor, Phern Chern
There are several reports of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) used in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the context of catatonic symptoms. We describe response to ECT in two adults with ASD and intellectual disability with intractable aggression and self-injurious behaviors associated with catatonic symptoms who had not responded to standard interventions. Unilateral ECT at a frequency of 3 times a week was given followed by weekly maintenance ECT. Patients' catatonic symptoms included episodes of agitation and echophenomena. Electroconvulsive therapy resulted in significant improvement in their behavior problems but 1 patient relapsed when the ECT was discontinued or frequency of treatment reduced. The second patient required 2 courses of ECT before improvement which was maintained on weekly ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy could be a potentially beneficial intervention in patients with ASD and severe challenging behaviors associated with catatonic symptoms including agitated or excited forms of catatonia.
Heijnen, Willemijn T C J; Pluijms, Esther M; Birkenhager, Tom K
This report describes a 55-year-old woman who had 1 previous episode of major depression that responded favorably to treatment with tricyclic antidepressants. After the development of Addison disease, she experienced a new episode of major depression that failed to respond to adequate treatment with imipramine and was subsequently successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with steroid cover. The patient did not experience adrenal crisis or adverse effects. After 9 ECT sessions, she attained full remission. These findings support the suggestion that ECT treatment is safe in patients with Addison disease when using 100 mg intravenous hydrocortisone as prophylaxis.
Narang, Puneet; Glowacki, Anna; Lippmann, Steven
Electroconvulsive therapy is an established means to improve function in a variety of psychiatric and neurologic conditions, particularly for patients who remain treatment-refractory. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that sometimes does not respond well to conventional pharmacotherapies. Reports have indicated that electroconvulsive therapy may be an effective and safe treatment for those patients with Parkinson's disease who are not optimally responding to first-line treatments. Despite these reports, however, electroconvulsive therapy is not often used by clinicians in patients with treatment-resistant Parkinson's disease, perhaps due to stigma, lack of knowledge regarding its safety and efficacy, and/or inability to predict the duration of therapeutic benefit. Our objective was to determine if the available literature on ECT supports it as a safe and effective treatment option in patients with treatment-refractory Parkinson's disease. Motoric improvement induced by electroconvulsive therapy has been documented for decades in persons with Parkinson's disease. Efficacy and safety are reported following electroconvulsive therapy in people with Parkinson's disease who have sub-optimal response to medicines or experience the "on/off" phenomenon to L-dopa. Electroconvulsive therapy is an effective option for acute and maintenance treatment of Parkinson's disease in select patients. Inability to predict how long the beneficial effects of ECT therapy will last in patients with Parkinson's disease may be a reason why this treatment is underutilized by clinicians. More research is warranted to clarify parameters for application and duration of therapeutic benefit in individuals with difficult-to-treat Parkinson's disease.
Franklin, Andrew D; Sobey, Jenna H; Stickles, Eric T
Electroconvulsive therapy is being used more frequently in the treatment of many chronic and acute psychiatric illnesses in children. The most common psychiatric indications for pediatric electroconvulsive therapy are refractory depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, catatonia, and autism. In addition, a relatively new indication is the treatment of pediatric refractory status epilepticus. The anesthesiologist may be called upon to assist in the care of this challenging and vulnerable patient population. Unique factors for pediatric electroconvulsive therapy include the potential need for preoperative anxiolytic and inhalational induction of anesthesia, which must be weighed against the detrimental effects of anesthetic agents on the evoked seizure quality required for a successful treatment. Dexmedetomidine is likely the most appropriate preoperative anxiolytic as oral benzodiazepines are relatively contraindicated. Methohexital, though becoming less available at many institutions, remains the gold standard for induction of anesthesia for pediatric electroconvulsive therapy though ketamine, propofol, and sevoflurane are becoming increasingly viable options. Proper planning and communication between the multidisciplinary teams involved in the care of children presenting for electroconvulsive therapy treatments is vital to mitigating risks and achieving the greatest therapeutic benefit. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mon, T; L'ecuyer, S; Farber, N B; White, A J; Baszis, K W; Hearn, J K; Spiegel, T E; French, A R; Kitcharoensakkul, M
Catatonia is a rare manifestation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). As catatonia can be associated with both psychiatric and organic conditions, this could create a diagnostic dilemma once this occurs in SLE patients. The report describes a 15-year-old female with SLE who developed catatonia three days after the diagnosis of SLE was made. Her catatonia was refractory to the treatment with immunosuppressive therapy, which included pulse methylprednisolone, intravenous cyclophosphamide, rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and plasmapheresis. Given her persistent catatonia, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was initiated three months after the onset of her symptoms. After the third ECT treatment, her mental status dramatically improved and returned nearly to baseline while she was continued on the immunosuppression. This is the first report of a successful ECT therapy in catatonic lupus in children.
Li, Yang; An, Feng-Rong; Zhu, Hui; Chiu, Helen F K; Ungvari, Gabor S; H Ng, Chee; Lai, Kelly Y C; Xiang, Yu-Tao
To examine the knowledge and attitudes of patients and their relatives as well as patients' subjective experience with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in China. Up to 420 responders including patients receiving ECT (n = 210) and their relatives (n = 210) were assessed with self-reported questionnaires. Patients and their relatives did not receive adequate information before ECT, particularly about the mode of its delivery, risks, and adverse effects. The most common adverse effect of ECT reported by patients was memory impairment. Both patients and their relatives had positive attitudes toward ECT and appeared satisfied with its therapeutic effects. Mental health professionals need to address the inadequate information on ECT provided to patients and their relatives prior to the treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bharadwaj, Vineet; Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha
Background: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used quite frequently among the bipolar patients in developing countries, very little data are available with regard to its effectiveness from the developing countries. Aim: A retrospective case note review was carried out of bipolar disorder patients who were given ECT. Materials and Methods: Details of demographic and clinical profile, indications for ECT, response patterns, adverse effects, etc. were recorded. Results: Among all the patients who received ECT, 18% were diagnosed to have bipolar disorder. ECT was administered most commonly for mania with psychotic symptoms, followed by severe depression with psychotic symptoms. Comorbid physical problems were seen in many patients. Nearly 90% of patients in both the subgroups showed more than 50% response (based on reduction in the standardized rating scales) with ECT. Few patients (22%) reported some kind of side effects. Conclusions: ECT is useful in the management of acute phase of mania and depression. PMID:22556436
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has demonstrated to be highly effective and safe, even life saving for many psychiatric disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Most patients who require ECT are also on concurrent pharmacotherapy. As such, the objective of this article is to provide a review of the most recent literature focusing on the medications used during an ECT procedure and on the effects of concurrent psychiatric and non-psychiatric medications on the effectiveness and safety of ECT. The review also attempts to summarize the recommendations derived from existing documents to guide pharmacotherapy decisions for patients undergoing ECT. For this purpose, using electronic databases, an extensive search of the current literature was made using ECT and medications or drug classes as keywords. PMID:27143894
Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna; Próchnicki, Michał; Kiciński, Paweł; Olajossy, Marcin; Pelczarska-Jamroga, Agnieszka; Dzikowski, Michał; Jaroszyński, Andrzej
Since electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was introduced as treatment for psychiatric disorders in 1938, it has remained one of the most effective therapeutic methods. ECT is often used as a "treatment of last resort" when other methods fail, and a life-saving procedure in acute clinical states when a rapid therapeutic effect is needed. Mortality associated with ECT is lower, compared to the treatment with tricyclic antidepressants, and comparable to that observed in so-called minor surgery. In the literature, cases of effective and safe electroconvulsive therapy have been described in patients of advanced age, with a burden of many somatic disorders. However, cases of acute cardiac episodes have also been reported during ECT. The qualification of patients for ECT and the selection of a group of patients at the highest risk of cardiovascular complications remains a serious clinical problem. An assessment of the predictive value of parameters of standard electrocardiogram (ECG), which is a simple, cheap and easily available procedure, deserves special attention. This paper reports a case of a 74-year-old male patient treated with ECT for a severe depressive episode, in the context of cardiologic safety. Both every single ECT session and the full course were assessed to examine their impact on levels of troponin T, which is a basic marker of cardiac damage, and selected ECG parameters (QTc, QRS). In the presented case ECT demonstrated its high general and cardiac safety with no negative effect on cardiac troponin (TnT) levels, corrected QT interval (QTc) duration, or other measured ECG parameters despite initially increased troponin levels, the patient's advanced age, the burden of a severe somatic disease and its treatment (anticancer therapy). © 2015 MEDPRESS.
Freeman, G Mark; Perry, Matthew T; Manatt, George S; Cristancho, Pilar
A growing body of literature suggests that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be safely utilized in patients with craniofacial metallic implants. Here we provide radiographic images and the clinical course of a 49-year-old woman with both maxillary and mandibular metallic implants who safely received ECT.
Winkler, Dietmar; Pjrek, Edda; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Baldinger, Pia; Eitel, Daniel; Kasper, Siegfried; Frey, Richard
Depressive disorder is frequently accompanied by changes in psychomotor activity and disturbances of the sleep-wake cycle. The chronobiological effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) are largely unknown. The objective of the current study was to measure the influence of ECT on patients' activity and sleep. 15 patients with unipolar TRD were treated with ECT. Activity levels were measured with wrist actigraphy before and after ECT. Remission rate (score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale lower than 8 points) was 40.0%. Remitters had increases of 56.0% on light activity, 49.8% on total activity, and 70.2% on circadian amplitude, while there was no significant change of these variables in subjects who did not experience remission. The circadian acrophase and actigraphic sleep-parameters were not significantly affected by treatment.
Girardi, Paolo; Rapinesi, Chiara; Cuomo, Ilaria; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Del Casale, Antonio; Serata, Daniele; Campi, Sandra; Caloro, Matteo; De Chiara, Lavinia; Tamorri, Stefano Maria; Scatena, Paola; Caccia, Federica; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Carbonetti, Paolo; Vento, Alessandro; Dimitri-Valente, Giorgia; Tatarelli, Roberto; Fensore, Claudio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Angeletti, Gloria
A young woman with bipolar I disorder and comorbid catatonia on enteral nutrition from several months, developed a form of near-lethal catatonia with weight loss, pressure sores, muscle atrophy, electrolyte imbalance, and depression of vital signs. A compulsory treatment was necessary, and informed consent was obtained from her mother for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). After 7 ECT sessions, the patient recovered and resumed feeding. ECT may save the life of a patient with catatonia provided that legal obstacles are overcome. Clinicians should carefully evaluate patients with near-lethal catatonia, taking into account the risk of pulmonary embolism and other fatal events. The medical-legal issues, which vary across state regulations, should be addressed in detail to avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful delay in intervention.
Martinez, Matthew W; Rasmussen, Keith G; Mueller, Paul S; Jaffe, Allan S
Electroconvulsive therapy is used to treat patients with severe or resistant depression. Troponin elevations are associated with an adverse prognosis, and it is well known that central nervous system insults can cause biochemical evidence of cardiac injury. No study previously has studied this with electroconvulsive therapy. Patients scheduled for electroconvulsive therapy were enrolled. Clinical information, an electrocardiogram, and a baseline sample for cardiac troponin I and T (cTnI and cTnT) were obtained. Electroconvulsive therapy was done with standard techniques. Subsequently, electrocardiograms and additional samples were obtained. cTnT was measured with the Roche assay and cTnI with the Dade Stratus equipment. Values above the 99th percentile were considered abnormal. Seventy patients completed the study. Four patients had elevated levels of cTn before treatment. In 3 patients, the elevations persisted. Four additional patients developed elevated cTn levels during electroconvulsive therapy. Two of the patients with cTn elevations died. No other events occurred during follow-up. Elevations of cTn occurred in 11.5% of patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy. Some of the elevations preceded therapy and some occurred during treatment. Given the adverse prognostic importance of cTn elevations in general, in addition to additional studies, an increased degree of medical scrutiny may be appropriate for this group of patients and for those receiving electroconvulsive therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bryson, Ethan O; Aloysi, Amy S; Farber, Kate G; Kellner, Charles H
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains an indispensable treatment for severe psychiatric illness. It is practiced extensively in the United States and around the world, yet there is little guidance for anesthesiologists involved with this common practice. Communication between the anesthesiologist and the proceduralist is particularly important for ECT, because the choice of anesthetic and management of physiologic sequelae of the therapeutic seizure can directly impact both the efficacy and safety of the treatment. In this review, we examine the literature on anesthetic management for ECT. A casual or "one-size-fits-all" approach may lead to less-than-optimal outcomes; customizing the anesthetic management for each patient is essential and can significantly increase treatment success rate and patient satisfaction.
Electroconvulsive therapy is a therapeutic option offered as part of the global treatment of certain severe forms of psychiatric disorders. Carried out under general anaesthesia, this treatment is subject to specific clinical monitoring and support in which the nurse plays an active role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Li, Peng; Jing, Ri-Xing; Zhao, Rong-Jiang; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Shi, Le; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lin, Xiao; Fan, Teng-Teng; Dong, Wen-Tian; Fan, Yong; Lu, Lin
Previous studies suggested that electroconvulsive therapy can influence regional metabolism and dopamine signaling, thereby alleviating symptoms of schizophrenia. It remains unclear what patients may benefit more from the treatment. The present study sought to identify biomarkers that predict the electroconvulsive therapy response in individual patients. Thirty-four schizophrenia patients and 34 controls were included in this study. Patients were scanned prior to treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics only (n = 16) or a combination of antipsychotics and electroconvulsive therapy (n = 13). Subject-specific intrinsic connectivity networks were computed for each subject using a group information-guided independent component analysis technique. Classifiers were built to distinguish patients from controls and quantify brain states based on intrinsic connectivity networks. A general linear model was built on the classification scores of first scan (referred to as baseline classification scores) to predict treatment response. Classifiers built on the default mode network, the temporal lobe network, the language network, the corticostriatal network, the frontal-parietal network, and the cerebellum achieved a cross-validated classification accuracy of 83.82%, with specificity of 91.18% and sensitivity of 76.47%. After the electroconvulsive therapy, psychosis symptoms of the patients were relieved and classification scores of the patients were decreased. Moreover, the baseline classification scores were predictive for the treatment outcome. Schizophrenia patients exhibited functional deviations in multiple intrinsic connectivity networks which were able to distinguish patients from healthy controls at an individual level. Patients with lower classification scores prior to treatment had better treatment outcome, indicating that the baseline classification scores before treatment is a good predictor for treatment outcome. CONNECTIVITY NETWORKS
Graff, Veena; Wingfield, Peter; Adams, David; Rabinowitz, Terry
Patients often feel anxious before electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which can lead to avoidance of treatments. Music is a noninvasive safe option to reduce anxiety in the preoperative setting. Therefore, we examined patients' preferences of listening to music while receiving ECT by providing music-by way of headphones or speakers-to participants before treatment. Patients receiving ECT were recruited for this study. Patients served as their own controls in 3 separate music intervention sessions: 1) randomization to music via headphones or speakers, 2) no music, 3) the remaining music intervention. Patients completed a questionnaire related to satisfaction and preferences of music being played before ECT. Patients received a final questionnaire at the end of the study asking which intervention they preferred. Thirty patients completed the study. Ninety percent enjoyed listening to music through speakers. Eighty percent liked listening to music through headphones. Seventeen percent preferred not having any music. The difference in preference between speakers and headphones was not significant (P = 0.563; McNemar-Bowker test). There was no association between preference at the end of the study and the initial assignment of speakers or headphones (P = 0.542 and P = 0.752, respectively; Pearson χ tests). No adverse events were reported. Music is a low-cost intervention with virtually no side effects that could be offered as an adjunctive therapy for patients receiving ECT. A significant proportion of patients liked hearing music before treatment.
Li, Peng; Jing, Ri-Xing; Zhao, Rong-Jiang; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Shi, Le; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lin, Xiao; Fan, Teng-Teng; Dong, Wen-Tian; Fan, Yong; Lu, Lin
Previous studies suggested that electroconvulsive therapy can influence regional metabolism and dopamine signaling, thereby alleviating symptoms of schizophrenia. It remains unclear what patients may benefit more from the treatment. The present study sought to identify biomarkers that predict the electroconvulsive therapy response in individual patients. Thirty-four schizophrenia patients and 34 controls were included in this study. Patients were scanned prior to treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics only (n = 16) or a combination of antipsychotics and electroconvulsive therapy (n = 13). Subject-specific intrinsic connectivity networks were computed for each subject using a group information-guided independent component analysis technique. Classifiers were built to distinguish patients from controls and quantify brain states based on intrinsic connectivity networks. A general linear model was built on the classification scores of first scan (referred to as baseline classification scores) to predict treatment response. Classifiers built on the default mode network, the temporal lobe network, the language network, the corticostriatal network, the frontal-parietal network, and the cerebellum achieved a cross-validated classification accuracy of 83.82%, with specificity of 91.18% and sensitivity of 76.47%. After the electroconvulsive therapy, psychosis symptoms of the patients were relieved and classification scores of the patients were decreased. Moreover, the baseline classification scores were predictive for the treatment outcome. Schizophrenia patients exhibited functional deviations in multiple intrinsic connectivity networks which were able to distinguish patients from healthy controls at an individual level. Patients with lower classification scores prior to treatment had better treatment outcome, indicating that the baseline classification scores before treatment is a good predictor for treatment outcome.
Biedermann, S V; Bumb, J M; Demirakca, T; Ende, G; Sartorius, A
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and well-tolerated therapy for severe and treatment-resistant depression. Cognitive side-effects are still feared by some patients and clinicians. Importantly, cognitive impairments are among the most disabling symptoms of depression itself. Patients suffering from a severe episode of depression were treated with either ECT or treatment as usual (TAU) in an in-patient setting. Matched healthy participants served as controls (HC). Verbal memory was tested with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) before the specific treatment started (ECT = 15, TAU = 16, HC = 31) and 2 months after the last ECT session or 2 months after discharge respectively. Before the specific treatment started, depressed patients performed substantially worse compared with HC in total, short- and long-delay recall in the CVLT, while the ECT group showed the worst performance. More severely depressed patients showed worse performances in these measures. Intriguingly, verbal memory showed a significant improvement in ECT-treated patients, but not in the other groups. No differences between the groups were found at follow-up. Contrary to the widely feared assumption that ECT has long-term impact on memory functions, we found evidence that ECT is superior to TAU in improving verbal memory in depressed patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kristensen, Diana; Bauer, Jeanett; Hageman, Ida; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev
To examine disease and treatment characteristics of patients with schizophrenia treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We examined charts from 79 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 55), persistent delusional disorders (n = 7), and schizoaffective disorders (n = 17) between 2003 and 2008. We recorded age, sex, indication for ECT, number of ECT sessions, ECT series, outcome, maintenance ECT, use of antipsychotics, duration of illness, and duration of the current exacerbation. All patients were taking antipsychotics at the time of enrolment in the study. Acute ECT included 2-26 sessions; maintenance ECT (M-ECT) was given to 18 patients for up to 12 years. Initial indications for ECT included psychosis (n = 28), pronounced affective symptoms (n = 28), delirious states (n = 20), and M-ECT (n = 3). Most patients experienced excellent/good outcomes (n = 66), but others experienced moderate (n = 8) or poor (n = 5) outcomes. No factors were identified that predicted treatment responses in individual patients. ECT proved to be effective in a population of patients that were severely ill with treatment-refractory schizophrenia. This does not imply that the patients were cured from schizophrenia. Rather, it reflects the degree of relief from psychosis and disruptive behaviour, as described in the patient charts. The treatment was often offered to patients after considerable disease durations.
Kristensen, Diana; Brandt-Christensen, Mette; Ockelmann, Hans Henrik; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev
In Denmark, over 2500 people are in psychiatric treatment in forensic mental health services at any one time, most suffering from schizophrenia. Many of them have illnesses that are resistant to medication. There is evidence of the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for schizophrenia, but not explicitly for this complex forensic group. The aim of this study was to describe the outcome of using ECT as augmentation therapy in a cohort of forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia who were failing to respond to antipsychotic medication. In one university-based psychiatric clinic, data were extracted from the medical records of all patients treated with ECT during a 6-year period. Fifty-nine of these patients were diagnosed within the schizophrenia spectrum and eight were in specialist forensic hospital services. The mean duration of illness for the forensic cohort was 16 years (range 3-33 years), with the index episode having lasted a mean of 34 months (3 weeks to 8 years) in spite of treatment with at least two antipsychotic drugs. Psychotic symptoms were accompanied by seriously assaultive behaviour in all cases. All but one of these patients had an excellent or good symptomatic and behavioural response to ECT. Half (four) went on to maintenance ECT. No adverse effects were documented. ECT is rarely used in specialist secure services, but should not be forgotten as a treatment that may enable medication-resistant, assaultive psychotic patients to progress safely out to the community. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kavanagh, Adam; McLoughlin, Declan M
Modified electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a controlled medical procedure in which a seizure is induced in an anaesthetized patient to produce a therapeutic effect. ECT is the most acutely effective treatment available for affective disorders and is more effective than antidepressant drugs. Although in use for 70 years, ECT continues to attract controversy and there is considerable stigma associated with its use that often overshadows the empirical evidence for its effectiveness. One way to overcome this is for health professionals to be educated about contemporary ECT practice. Patients need to make informed decisions when consenting to ECT and this process can be influenced by preconceived ideas and scientific fact. It is, therefore, essential that nurses possess sufficient information to help patients make rational and informed treatment decisions and be able to care for both the clinical and psychological needs of patients treated with ECT. This review outlines the nursing role in ECT and summarizes the main aspects of contemporary ECT practice relevant to general and psychiatric nursing practice.
Bruce, Erica C; Guo, Ying; Lawson, Kathryn C; Manatunga, Amita K; Auyeung, S Freda; McDonald, William M; Rushing, Natasha; Brown, Angelo R; Gilles, Natalie; Emery, Milburn; Bonsall, Robert; Porquez, Jocelyn; Stowe, Zachary; Nemeroff, Charles B; Musselman, Dominique L
To determine a) whether clinical response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is associated with decreased platelet activation in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and b) if any medical/demographic characteristics predict response to ECT or changes in platelet activation. Increased platelet activation may underlie the increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with MDD. Before their first and sixth ECT treatments, study patients (n = 44) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to assess the severity of depressive symptoms. Activity of the platelet thromboxane (TBX) A(2) pathway was assessed by measuring the morning spot urinary concentrations of 11-dehydroxy-thromboxane B(2) (11-D-TBX B(2)), a major metabolite of platelet-derived TBX A(2). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that improvement on the BDI was significantly more likely in patients without a history of hypertension (p = .02) and in patients who were prescribed a greater number of "platelet-altering" medications (p = .03). During a course of ECT, a decrease in urinary 11-D-TBX B(2) was significantly more likely to occur in ECT nonresponders (p = .01) and younger patients (p = .02). Clinical response to ECT coadministered may not be associated with decreases in platelet-derived TBX. Future studies will confirm which somatic "antidepression" treatments offer optimal thrombovascular benefits for depressed patients with multiple risk factors for, or clinically evident, cerebral disease or CAD.
Baghai, Thomas C.; Möller, Hans-Jürgen
In spite of recent developments in the pharmacotherapy of depressive disorders, the delay until clinical improvement can be achieved, and the considerable rate of nonresponse and nonremission, are major problems which remain unresolved. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a nonpharmacoloqic bioloqical treatment which has been proven to be a highly effective treatment option, predominantly for depression, but also for schizophrenia and other indications. Though there is a lack of controlled investigations on long-term treatments, ECT can also be used for relapse prevention during maintenance therapies. The safety and tolerabitity of electroconvulsive treatment have been enhanced by the use of modified stimulation techniques and by progress in modern anesthesia. Thus, today a safe treatment can also be offered to patients with higher somatic risks, ECT still represents an important option, especially in the therapy of treatmentresistant psychiatric disorders after medication treatment failures. Earlier consideration of ECT may reduce the rate of chronic and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorders. PMID:18472488
Shelef, Assaf; Mazeh, Doron; Berger, Uri; Baruch, Yehuda; Barak, Yoram
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for patients with severe mental illness (SMI). Maintenance ECT (M-ECT) is required for many elderly patients experiencing severe recurrent forms of mood disorders, whereas M-ECT for schizophrenia patients is a poorly studied treatment. We report on the outcomes in aged patients with SMI: schizophrenia and severe affective disorders treated by M-ECT of varying duration to prevent relapse after a successful course of acute ECT. The study measured the effectiveness of M-ECT in preventing hospital readmissions and reducing admission days. A retrospective chart review of 42 consecutive patients comparing the number and length of psychiatric admissions before and after the start of M-ECT was used. We analyzed diagnoses, previous ECT treatments, number of ECT treatments, and number and length of psychiatric admissions before and after M-ECT. Mean age in our sample was 71.5 (6.9) years. Twenty-two (52%) patients experienced severe affective disorders and 20 (48%) experienced schizophrenia. Patients were administered 92.8 (85.9) M-ECT treatments. Average duration of the M-ECT course was 34 (29.8) months. There were on average 1.88 admissions before M-ECT and only 0.38 admissions in the M-ECT period (P < 0.001). Duration of mean hospitalization stay decreased from 215.9 to 12.4 days during the M-ECT (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that acute ECT followed by M-ECT is highly effective in selected elderly patients with SMIs.
Wynhoven, L M L; Scherders, M J W T; van Suijlekom, J A
A 57-year-old woman with medication-resistant major depression was referred to our clinic for electroconvulsive therapy. After an extensive evaluation of our patient's condition we concluded that in this case the comorbid myotonic dystrophy was a contraindication for the performance of electroconvulsive therapy. However, in the current Dutch Psychiatric Association guidelines this illness is not mentioned as a possible contraindication for electroconvulsive therapy. This raises the question of whether myotonic dystrophy should now be incorporated in these guidelines and makes us wonder to what extent our conclusion could have consequences for the treatment of other neuromuscular illnesses.
Okazaki, Ryoko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ueno, Kanji; Takahashi, Koichi; Higashima, Masato; Wada, Yuji
The exact neurophysiological mechanism of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for treating patients with depression remains elusive. Results of previous neurophysiological studies support the hypothesis that aberrant functional connectivity underlies the pathophysiology of depression, which engenders abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) complexity. Recently developed multiscale entropy analysis, which has underpinned aberrant functional connectivity in mental disorders, was introduced to explore changes in EEG complexity occurring with ECT in three patients with depression. All patients demonstrated a decrease in EEG complexity, especially at higher frequencies. This decrease was associated with improvement of depressive symptoms. The generalizability of our findings was constrained because of the small sample size and lack of a comparison with healthy controls. The decrease in EEG complexity with ECT might be a result of amelioration of functional connectivity in the brain of a depressed patient. Multiscale entropy analysis might be a useful analytical method to elucidate neurophysiological mechanisms and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of ECT in depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lin, Ching-Hua; Chen, Ming-Chao; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Lane, Hsien-Yuan
The aim of this study was to test whether early symptom improvement predicts final response and remission for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). MDD inpatients (N=130) requiring ECT were recruited. ECT was generally performed for a maximum of 12 sessions. Symptom severity was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) before ECT, after every 3 ECT sessions, and after the last ECT. Early improvement was defined as a reduction in the HAMD-17 score by at least 20%, 25%, or 30% after 3 and 6 ECT sessions. Response was defined as 60% HAMD-17 score reduction, while remission was defined as an end point HAMD-17 score of ≦7. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine whether 3 or 6 ECT sessions had better discriminative capacity. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for the different definitions of early improvement. Of the 105 patients entering the analysis, 85.7% (n=90) and 70.5% (n=74) were classified as responders and remitters, respectively. Early improvement after 6 ECT sessions showed better discriminative capacity, with areas under the ROC curve at least 0.8. It had high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for all cutoffs in predicting response and remission. High response and remission rates were observed. Final response and remission could be predicted by early improvement after 6 ECT sessions. Patients without early improvement were unlikely to reach response and remission.
Royster, Erica B.; Trimble, Lisa M.; Cotsonis, George; Schmotzer, Brian; Manatunga, Amita; Rushing, Natasha N.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Auyeung, S. Freda; Brown, Angelo R.; Schoenbeck, Joel; Murthy, Smitha; McDonald, William M.; Musselman, Dominique L.
Objective. As few, small studies have examined the impact of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) upon the heart rate variability of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), we sought to confirm whether ECT-associated improvement in depressive symptoms would be associated with increases in HRV linear and nonlinear parameters. Methods. After providing consent, depressed study participants (n = 21) completed the Beck Depression Index (BDI), and 15-minute Holter monitor recordings, prior to their 1st and 6th ECT treatments. Holter recordings were analyzed for certain HRV indices: root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), low-frequency component (LF)/high-frequency component (HF) and short-(SD1) versus long-term (SD2) HRV ratios. Results. There were no significant differences in the HRV indices of RMSDD, LF/HF, and SD1/SD2 between the patients who responded, and those who did not, to ECT. Conclusion. In the short term, there appear to be no significant improvement in HRV in ECT-treated patients whose depressive symptoms respond versus those who do not. Future studies will reveal whether diminished depressive symptoms with ECT are reliably associated with improved sympathetic/parasympathetic balance over the long-term, and whether acute changes in sympathetic/parasympathetic balance predict improved mental- and cardiac-related outcomes. PMID:22966422
Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Guest, Paul C; Rothermundt, Matthias; Sondermann, Carina; Michael, Nikolaus; Schwarz, Emanuel; Rahmoune, Hassan; Bahn, Sabine
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is mainly used to treat medication resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, with a remission rate of up to 90%. However, little is known about the serum molecular changes induced by this treatment. Understanding the mechanisms of action of ECT at the molecular level could lead to identification of response markers and potential new drug targets for more effective antidepressant treatments. We have carried out a pilot study which analysed serum samples of MDD patients who received a series of ECT treatments over 4 weeks. Patients received only ECT treatments over the first two weeks and a combination of ECT and antidepressant drugs (AD) over the subsequent two weeks. Blood serum analyses were carried out using a combination of multiplex Human MAP® immunoassay and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS(E)) profiling. This showed that ECT had a predominant acute effect on the levels of serum proteins and small molecules, with changes at the beginning of ECT treatment and after administration of the ECT+AD combination treatment. This suggested a positive interaction between the two types of treatment. Changed molecules included BDNF, CD40L, IL-8, IL-13, EGF, IGF-1, pancreatic polypeptide, SCF, sortilin-1 and others which have already been implicated in MDD pathophysiology. We conclude that ECT appears to exert mainly acute effects on serum molecules.
Simsek, Gulnihal Gokce; Zincir, Selma; Gulec, Huseyin; Eksioglu, Sevgin; Semiz, Umit Basar; Kurtulmus, Yasemin Sipka
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between features of electroencephalography (EEG), including seizure time, energy threshold level and post-ictal suppression time, and clinical variables, including treatment outcomes and side-effects, among schizophrenia inpatients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This is a naturalistic follow-up study on schizophrenia patients, diagnosed using DSM-IV-TR criteria, treated by a psychosis inpatient service. All participants completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and a Data Collection Form. Assessments were made before treatment, during ECT and after treatment. Statistically significant improvements in both clinical and cognitive outcome were noted after ECT in all patients. Predictors of improvement were sought by evaluating electrophysiological variables measured at three time points (after the third, fifth and seventh ECT sessions). Logistic regression analysis showed that clinical outcome/improvement did not differ by seizure duration, threshold energy level or post-ictal suppression time. We found that ictal EEG parameters measured at several ECT sessions did not predict clinical recovery/outcomes. This may be because our centre defensively engages in "very specific patient selection" when ECT is contemplated. ECT does not cause short-term cognitive functional impairment and indeed improves cognition, because symptoms of the schizophrenic episode are alleviated.
Sicher, Sarah; Gedzior, Joanna
This article aims to promote awareness among primary care providers and support electroconvulsive therapy as a generally well-tolerated, effective therapeutic modality to treat specific psychiatric conditions in appropriately selected patients. There seem to be several potential barriers to treatment with electroconvulsive therapy including stigma, lack of providers who preform it, and lack of awareness among providers referring patients who may be appropriate candidates. The article provides a brief overview of electroconvulsive therapy principles and topics and includes a case report to illustrate clinical utility. The article proposes the concept that a potential way to overcome barriers to treatment with electroconvulsive therapy may be to promote education and awareness of it as a viable treatment modality among primary care providers.
Kaliora, Styliani C; Braga, Raphael J; Petrides, Georgios; Chatzimanolis, John; Papadimitriou, George N; Zervas, Iannis M
To describe the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Greece. A survey was conducted during the academic year 2008-2009. Electroconvulsive therapy use was investigated for 2007. All civilian institutions providing inpatient care were included. Centers that provided ECT completed a 57-item questionnaire. Centers that did not offer ECT completed a 13-item questionnaire. Fifty-five (82.1%) of 67 institutions responded. Electroconvulsive therapy was offered in 18 hospitals. Only 2 of 10 university hospitals offered ECT. Overall, 137 patients were treated with 1271 sessions in 2007. Only 1.47% discontinued treatment owing to adverse events. There were no deaths. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (41.3%) among those receiving ECT, followed by major depression (28.9%), bipolar depression (9.1%), catatonia (4.1%), suicidal ideation (3.3%), and schizoaffective disorder (2.5%). Physicians considered major depression (93.8%), catatonia (86.5%), schizophrenia (56.3%), and mania (50%) the most appropriate indications. Written informed consent was required in 77.8% of the institutions, whereas the rest required verbal consent. Bilateral ECT was the preferred electrode placement (88.9%). Modified ECT was used exclusively. Propofol was the preferred anesthetic (44.4%), followed by thiopental (38.9%). Seven (38.9%) of 18 hospitals used a fixed stimulus dose at first treatment. Five (27.8%) of 18 hospitals used the half-age method. Continuation/maintenance ECT was used in 33.3% of the hospitals. Outpatient ECT was seldom used. Lack of training, difficult access to anesthesiology, billing issues, and stigma were cited as the main impediments to the practice of ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy is practiced in moderate numbers in Greece and almost exclusively on an inpatient basis. Lack of training and lack of availability of anesthesiologists were cited as the most common obstacles to providing ECT.
Haghighi, Mohammad; Sedighinejad, Abbas; Naderi Nabi, Bahram; Emiralavi, Cyrus; Biazar, Gelareh; Mirmozaffari, Kaveh; Zahedan, Cyrus; Jafari, Mehdi
Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and effective mode of therapy for a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. However, it is associated with some disturbing side effects, such as nausea and vomiting, dental and tongue injury, confusion, dizziness, headache, and myalgia. Objectives: The present study focused on the evaluation of myalgia and headache and their predictors after ECT. Patients and Methods: A prospective analytical descriptive study was conducted from October 2014 to January 2015, in an academic hospital in northern Iran. Before sampling, the study was approved by the ethics committee of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. 621 patients with psychiatric disorders who were referred to Shafa hospital enrolled in the study. They were evaluated based on a verbal rating scale (4 point scales) 6 hours after ECT, regarding headache and myalgia side effects. Results: 6 hours after ECT, 126 patients (21.9%) reported headaches, and 56 patients (9%) reported myalgia. The presence of headache or myalgia 6 hours after ECT was not correlated to the duration of convulsion, treatment sessions, sex, or age. But myalgia at 2 hours after treatment was correlated with sex (0.04). Sex, age, duration of seizure, and treatment sessions were not predictors of headache and myalgia 6 hours after ECT (log regression, enter mode). The intensity and frequency of headaches decreased during 6 hours after ECT (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, respectively), and myalgia frequency decreased (P = 0.062) but the intensity increased (P = 0.87). Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate that headache after ECT procedures was more common than myalgia, but it was mild, tolerable, and decreased within 6 hours of the treatment. It is also notable that we did not found any predictors for post-ECT headache and myalgia. PMID:27761416
Boiteux, J; Roubaud, L; Gandelet, N; Nezelof, S; Vittouris, N; Bonin, B; Sechter, D; Bizouard, P
ECT, in which first experiments were made by the italian Cerletti more than half a century ago, underwent, in the seventies, a definite decline, as it was less and less applied to patients, a result of the influence of anti psychiatry. During the last fifteen years, there has been a legitimate renewal of the interest for this therapy; its indications seem now well codified and its techniques and practises have evolved considerably. Actually, in order to carry out ECT under general anaesthesia, it is necessary to have a pluridisciplinary team, assembling nurses, anaesthesists and psychiatrists that will use more and more effective appliances and adequate anaesthetics. Many of the parameters able to influence ECT's effectiveness are now well known and can be used and adapted according the individual characteristics of each patient. These parameters are: the lateralisation of the electrodes, the intensity of the electric current, the duration of the epileptic fit, the modification that appear in electroencephalography and the frequence of the sessions. According to different investigations, it seems that we must systematically question the medical treatments we associate to ECT. For instance, it is highly recommended not to prescribe with ECT benzodiazepines or antiepileptic mood stabilizers, while antidepressants or neuroleptics do not seem to exert any influence on the effectiveness of the treatment. Some authors think caffeine and triiodothyronin (T3) could have an interesting effect when combined with ECT. As to the indications of shock therapy, they can be now more and more precisely defined making of this treatment an indispensable instrument in the cure of depressive disorders. But ECT is also appropriate in maniac disorders once neuroleptic treatment has failed or else in the very beginning in highly acute cases, and mainly in mixed episodes for which medical treatment is often difficult to adapt. In schizophrenia, ECT can also be prescribed in definite
Depping, Malte S; Nolte, Henrike M; Hirjak, Dusan; Palm, Elisa; Hofer, Stefan; Stieltjes, Bram; Maier-Hein, Klaus; Sambataro, Fabio; Wolf, Robert C; Thomann, Philipp A
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is remarkably effective in severe major depressive disorder (MDD). Growing evidence has accumulated for brain structural and functional changes in response to ECT, primarily within cortico-limbic regions that have been considered in current neurobiological models of MDD. Despite increasing evidence for important cerebellar contributions to affective, cognitive and attentional processes, investigations on cerebellar effects of ECT in depression are yet lacking. In this study, using cerebellum-optimized voxel-based analysis methods, we investigated cerebellar volume in 12 MDD patients who received right-sided unilateral ECT. 16 healthy controls (HC) were included. Structural MRI data was acquired before and after ECT and controls were scanned once. Baseline structural differences in MDD compared to HC were located within the "cognitive cerebellum" and remained unchanged with intervention. ECT led to gray matter volume increase of left cerebellar area VIIa crus I, a region ascribed to the "affective/limbic cerebellum". The effects of ECT on cerebellar structure correlated with overall symptom relief. These findings provide preliminary evidence that structural change of the cerebellum in response to ECT may be related to the treatment's antidepressant effects. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ozsoy, Saliha; Eşel, Ertuğrul; Hacimusalar, Yunus; Candan, Zaliha; Kula, Mustafa; Turan, Tayfun
Baseline serum levels of neuroactive steroids such as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), testosterone, and cortisol were measured, and the acute and long-term effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on these hormones and the effect of gender on alterations in steroid hormones were investigated in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The study included 25 inpatients (11 male, 14 female) diagnosed with MDD that responded to ECT, and 37 healthy controls (17 male, 20 female). Serum levels of cortisol, DHEAS, 17-OHP, and testosterone were measured 2 days before and 10 min after the first ECT, and 3 days after the last ECT in the patients. These measurements were obtained only once in the controls. Basal DHEAS increased, testosterone and 17-OHP decreased, and cortisol levels remained unchanged in MDD patients as compared to the controls. After completion of the therapeutic course of ECT, DHEAS levels in the patients were higher than they were before the treatment. After ECT treatment, cortisol and 17-OHP levels in the patients were lower than those in the controls; however, testosterone levels did not differ between the groups. In the MDD patients, increases in DHEAS and decreases in testosterone were only observed in men, while decreases in 17-OHP were only seen in women. Alterations were observed in some neuroactive steroids in MDD patients and it appears that ECT affected these hormones. It is not clear whether the observed alterations in neuroactive steroids are associated with the pathophysiology of depression or whether they play a role in the therapeutic effects of ECT.
Roh, Jihyun; Kang, Min-Hee; Kim, Chul-Eung; Lee, Jeong-Seop; Bae, Jae-Nam
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective and safe treatment method for a variety of psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder. Although there is no absolute contraindication to ECT, clinicians often hesitate to apply this method to patients with a skull defect. We report a case of ECT performed on a major depressive disorder patient with an open wound after craniectomy. We summarize successful ECT cases of patients with a permanent skull defect and discuss various factors that may influence ECT outcomes in patients with a skull defect, including electrode placement, benzodiazepines, and anticonvulsants.
Navidian, Ali; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Keykha, Roghaieh
Background: Patient satisfaction is the most important criterion in evaluating the quality of care. Besides, its assessment in patients with severe mental disorder treated by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is highly appropriate. The ECT is accompanied by lower satisfaction and may exacerbate the patients’ condition. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the effect of supportive nursing care on the satisfaction of patients receiving ECT. Patients and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in the education center of Baharan psychiatric hospital, Zahedan, Iran. Seventy hospitalized patients receiving ECT were randomly divided into two groups of control (n = 35) and intervention (n = 35).The socio-personal and Webster Satisfaction Questionnaire were used as data collection tools. The intervention group received supportive nursing care by nurses trained in informational, emotional, and physical aspects. The control group received only regular nursing care. The levels of satisfaction were measured and compared between groups, before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software, and Chi-square, independent and paired t tests, as well as covariance analysis were performed. Results: The results showed similarities in socio-personal characteristics of both groups. However, there was a significant difference (P < 0.001) between the means of satisfaction in the groups, predominantly for the intervention group. In other words, a significant difference (P < 0.001) was observed between the means of satisfaction of the intervention (54.71 ± 5.27) and control (36.28 ± 7.00) groups after intervention by controlling the effect of socio-personal variables. Conclusions: Results of the current study confirmed the effect of supportive nursing care on increasing the level of satisfaction in ECT receiving patients, recommending the use of this therapeutic method. PMID:26473077
Njau, Stephanie; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Espinoza, Randall; Leaver, Amber M.; Vasavada, Megha; Marquina, Antonio; Woods, Roger P.; Narr, Katherine L.
Background Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective brain stimulation treatment for severe depression. Identifying neurochemical changes linked with ECT may point to biomarkers and predictors of successful treatment response. Methods We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to measure longitudinal changes in glutamate/glutamine (Glx), creatine (Cre), choline (Cho) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the dorsal (dACC) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and bilateral hippocampus in patients receiving ECT scanned at baseline, after the second ECT session and after the ECT treatment series. Patients were compared with demographically similar controls at baseline. Controls were assessed twice to establish normative values and variance. Results We included 50 patients (mean age 43.78 ± 14 yr) and 33 controls (mean age 39.33 ± 12 yr) in our study. Patients underwent a mean of 9 ± 4.1 sessions of ECT. At baseline, patients showed reduced Glx in the sgACC, reduced NAA in the left hippocampus and increased Glx in the left hippocampus relative to controls. ECT was associated with significant increases in Cre in the dACC and sgACC and decreases in NAA in the dACC and right hippocampus. Lower NAA levels in the dACC at baseline predicted reductions in depressive symptoms. Both ECT and symptom improvement were associated with decreased Glx in the left hippocampus and increased Glx in the sgACC. Limitations Attrition and clinical heterogeneity may have masked more subtle findings. Conclusion ECT elicits robust effects on brain chemistry, impacting Cre, NAA and Glx, which suggests restorative and neurotrophic processes. Differential effects of Glx in the sgACC and hippocampus, which approach control values with treatment, may reflect previously implicated underactive cortical and overactive subcortical limbic circuitry in patients with major depression. NAA levels at baseline are predictive of therapeutic outcome and could inform future
Flamarique, Itziar; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Pons, Alexandre; Bernardo, Miguel; Baeza, Inmaculada
The purpose of this study was to assess, in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) who received electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) prior to the age of 18, their experience, knowledge, and attitudes toward ECT, and to compare the findings with those obtained in adolescents treated only with antipsychotics. Patients diagnosed with SSD (n = 19) and treated with ECT before the age of 18 years (ECT group; n = 19) were compared with a randomly selected group of patients with SSD treated only with antipsychotics (non-ECT group, n = 21). A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess their experience, knowledge, and attitudes. Most adolescents in the ECT group thought that the intervention had been helpful (78.9%) and believed that their illness had been worse than ECT or medication (68.4%). Similarly, almost three quarters of these patients did not believe the treatment to be cruel (73.7%) or outdated (73.7%), or that it should be illegal (68.4%). Patients in the non-ECT group often chose "don't know" as their response to the survey questions, and significant differences between the groups were observed. Most patients in both the ECT group (84.2%) and the non-ECT group (80%) said that they would accept the treatment in the future if necessary, there being no differences between the groups in this respect (p = 0.2). Most adolescents in the ECT group had positive views about ECT. By contrast, most adolescents in the non-ECT group either did not know or did not have a clear opinion regarding ECT treatment, although they did not have negative views about it.
Iancu, Iulian; Pick, Nimrod; Seener-Lorsh, Orit; Dannon, Pinhas
Background While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used for many years, there is insufficient research regarding the indications for continuation/maintenance (C/M)-ECT, its safety and efficacy, and the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple ECT sessions. The aims of this study were to characterize a series of patients who received 30 ECT sessions or more, to describe treatment regimens in actual practice, and to examine the results of C/M-ECT in terms of safety and efficacy, especially the effect on aggression and functioning. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients (mean age 64.6 years) with schizophrenia (n=16) or schizoaffective disorder (n=4) who received at least 30 ECT sessions at our ECT unit, and also interviewed the treating physician and filled out the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised. Results Patients received a mean of 91.3 ECT sessions at a mean interval of 2.6 weeks. All had been hospitalized for most or all of the previous 3 years. There were no major adverse effects, and cognitive side effects were relatively minimal (cognitive deficit present for several hours after treatment). We found that ECT significantly reduced scores on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised subscales for verbal aggression and self-harm, and improved Global Assessment of Functioning scores. There were reductions in total aggression scores, subscale scores for harm to objects and to others, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores, these were not statistically significant. Conclusion C/M-ECT is safe and effective for chronically hospitalized patients. It improves general functioning and reduces verbal aggression and self-harm. More research using other aggression tools is needed to determine its effects and to reproduce our findings in prospective and controlled studies. PMID
Bag, Sevda; Canbek, Ozge; Atagun, Ilhan Murat; Kutlar, Tarik Mehmet
Context: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered a very effective tool for the treatment of psychiatric diseases, memory disturbances are among the most important adverse effects. Aims: This study aimed to assess prospectively early subjective memory complaints in depressive and manic patients due to bilateral, brief-pulse ECT, at different stages of the treatment, compare the associations between psychiatric diagnosis, sociodemographic characteristics, and ECT characteristics. Settings and Design: This prospective study was done with patients undergoing ECT between November 2008 and April 2009 at a tertiary care psychiatry hospital of 2000 beds. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 patients, scheduled for ECT with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (depressive or manic episode) or unipolar depression according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV diagnostic criteria, were included in the study and invited to complete the Squire Subjective Memory Questionnaire (SSMQ) before ECT, after the first and third sessions and end of ECT treatment. Statistical Analysis: Mean values were compared with the Kruskal–Wallis test and comparison of the longitudinal data was performed with a nonparametric longitudinal data analysis method, F1_LD_F1 design. Results: SSMQ scores of the patients before ECT were zero. SSMQ scores showed a decrease after the first and third ECT sessions and before discharge, showing a memory disturbance after ECT and were significantly less severe in patients with mania in comparison to those with depression. Conclusions: These findings suggest an increasing degree of subjective memory complaints with bilateral brief-pulse ECT parallel to the increasing number of ECT sessions. PMID:27385854
Duma, Andreas; Pal, Swatilika; Johnston, Joshua; Helwani, Mohammad A; Bhat, Adithya; Gill, Bali; Rosenkvist, Jessica; Cartmill, Christopher; Brown, Frank; Miller, J Philip; Scott, Mitchell G; Sanchez-Conde, Francisco; Jarvis, Michael; Farber, Nuri B; Zorumski, Charles F; Conway, Charles; Nagele, Peter
While electroconvulsive therapy is widely regarded as a lifesaving and safe procedure, evidence regarding its effects on myocardial cell injury is sparse. The objective of this investigation was to determine the incidence and magnitude of new cardiac troponin elevation after electroconvulsive therapy using a novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay. This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy in a single academic center (up to three electroconvulsive therapy treatments per patient). The primary outcome was new high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I elevation after electroconvulsive therapy, defined as an increase of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I greater than 100% after electroconvulsive therapy compared to baseline with at least one value above the limit of quantification (10 ng/l). Twelve-lead electrocardiogram and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I values were obtained before and 15 to 30 min after electroconvulsive therapy; in a subset of patients, an additional 2-h high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I value was obtained. The final study population was 100 patients and a total of 245 electroconvulsive therapy treatment sessions. Eight patients (8 of 100; 8%) experienced new high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I elevation after electroconvulsive therapy with a cumulative incidence of 3.7% (9 of 245 treatments; one patient had two high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I elevations), two of whom had a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (incidence 2 of 245; 0.8%). Median high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations did not increase significantly after electroconvulsive therapy. Tachycardia and/or elevated systolic blood pressure developed after approximately two thirds of electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Electroconvulsive therapy appears safe from a cardiac standpoint in a large majority of patients. A small subset of patients with preexisting cardiovascular risk factors, however, may develop new
Xiang, Yu-Tao; Ungvari, Gabor S; Correll, Christoph U; Chiu, Helen F K; Lai, Kelly Y C; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Si, Tian-Mei; Lee, Edwin H M; He, Yan-Ling; Yang, Shu-Yu; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Kua, Ee-Heok; Fujii, Senta; Sim, Kang; Yong, Michael K H; Trivedi, Jitendra K; Chung, Eun-Kee; Udomratn, Pichet; Chee, Kok-Yoon; Sartorius, Norman; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Shinfuku, Naotaka
Little is known about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) use in Asian inpatients with schizophrenia. This study examined trends of ECT use for schizophrenia patients in Asia between 2001 and 2009 and its independent demographic and clinical correlates. Data on 6761 hospitalized schizophrenia patients (2001 = 2399, 2004 = 2136, and 2009 = 2226) in nine Asian countries and territories were collected by either chart review or interviews during a 1-month period. Patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, prescriptions of psychotropic drugs and ECT use were recorded using a standardized protocol and data-collection procedure. The frequency of ECT was 3.3% in the whole sample; rising from 1.8% in 2001 to 3.3% in 2004 and 4.9% in 2009 (P < 0.0001). However, this increased trend was driven solely by increased ECT use in China (P < 0.0001), and the inclusion of India in the 2009 survey. There were wide inter-country variations: 2001, 0% (Hong Kong, Korea) to 5.9% (China); 2004, 0% (Singapore) to 11.1% (China); 2009, 0% (Hong Kong) to 13.8% (India) and 15.2% (China). Multiple logistic regression analysis of the whole sample revealed that patients receiving ECT were less likely in the 35-64-year age group, had shorter length of current hospitalization and fewer negative symptoms, and were more likely to receive second-generation antipsychotic medications compared to those who were not treated with ECT (R(2) = 0.264, P < 0.001). ECT use for schizophrenia has increased over the past decade in China, being low/relatively stable in other Asian countries/regions. Reasons for substantial variations in ECT frequency in Asia require further study. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Tominaga, Keiichiro; Okazaki, Mioto; Higuchi, Hisashi; Utagawa, Itaru; Nakamura, Etsuko; Yamaguchi, Noboru
Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used for treatment-resistant depression. However, predictors of response to ECT have not been adequately studied using the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, especially in older patients with treatment-resistant depression. Methods: This study included 18 Japanese patients who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision criteria for a diagnosis of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder with a current major depressive episode, and met the definition of treatment-resistant depression outlined by Thase and Rush, scoring ≥21 on the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. The three-factor model of the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale was used for analysis. Factor 1 was defined by three items, factor 2 by four items, and factor 3 by three items, representing dysphoria, retardation, and vegetative symptoms, respectively. ECT was performed twice a week for a total of six sessions using a Thymatron System IV device with the brief pulse technique. Clinical responses were defined on the basis of a ≥50% decrease in total pretreatment Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores. Results: The mean pretreatment factor 2 score for responders (n = 7) was significantly lower than that for nonresponders (n = 11). Furthermore, a significant difference in mean factor 3 score between responders and nonresponders was observed one week after six sessions of ECT, indicating a time lag of response. No significant differences were observed for age, number of previous episodes, and duration of the current episode between responders and nonresponders. Conclusion: This study suggests that a low pretreatment factor 2 score is a good predictor of response to ECT in older patients with major depression. PMID:21845058
Selva-Sevilla, Carmen; Gonzalez-Moral, Maria Luisa; Tolosa-Perez, Maria Teresa
Background: Clinical practice protocols should consider both the psychological criteria related to a patient’s satisfaction as a consumer of health services and the economic criteria to allocate resources efficiently. An electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) program was implemented in our hospital to treat psychiatric patients. The main objective of this study was to determine the cost associated with the ECT sessions implemented in our hospital between 2008 and 2014. A secondary objective was to calculate the cost of sessions that were considered ineffective, defined as those sessions in which electrical convulsion did not reach the preset threshold duration, in order to identify possible ways of saving money and improving satisfaction among psychiatric patients receiving ECT. Methods: A descriptive analysis of the direct health costs related to ECT from the perspective of the public health system between 2008 and 2014 was performed using a retrospective chart review. All of the costs are in euros (2011) and were discounted at a rate of 3%. Based on the base case, a sensitivity analysis of the changes of those variables showing the greatest uncertainty was performed. Results: Seventy-six patients received 853 sessions of ECT. The cumulative cost of these sessions was €1409528.63, and 92.9% of this cost corresponded to the hospital stay. A total of €420732.57 (29.8%) was inefficiently spent on 269 ineffective sessions. A sensitivity analysis of the economic data showed stable results to changes in the variables of uncertainty. Conclusion: The efficiency of ECT in the context outlined here could be increased by discerning a way to shorten the associated hospital stay and by reducing the number of ineffective sessions performed. PMID:27303347
Burgese, Daniel Fortunato; Bassitt, Débora Pastore
More than 60 years after the introduction of modern psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) continues to be an essential therapeutic modality in the treatment of mental disorders, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Hormones play an essential role in the development and expression of a series of behavioral changes. One aspect of the influence of hormones on behavior is their potential contribution to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and the mechanism of action of psychotropic drugs and ECT. We measured blood levels of the hormone cortisol in patients with unipolar depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) and compared results with levels found in healthy adults. Blood cortisol levels were measured before the beginning of treatment with ECT, at the seventh session, and at the last session, at treatment completion. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Cortisol levels remained stable in both men and women between the seventh and the last sessions of ECT; values ranged from 0.686±9.6330 g/dL for women, and there was a mean decrease of 5.825±6.0780 g/dL (p = 0.024). Mean number of ECT sessions was 12. After the seventh and the last ECT sessions, patients with depression and individuals in the control group had similar cortisol levels, whereas BDI scores remained different. Cortisol levels decreased during ECT treatment. ECT seems to act as a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis.
Kalogerakou, Stamatina; Oulis, Panagiotis; Anyfandi, Eleni; Konstantakopoulos, George; Papakosta, Vasiliki-Maria; Kontis, Dimitrios; Theochari, Eirini; Angelopoulos, Elias; Zervas, Ioannis M; Mellon, Robert C; Papageorgiou, Charalambos C; Tsaltas, Eleftheria
This study is a follow-up of a previous one reporting that the neuropsychological profile of pharmacoresistant patients with major depressive disorder referred for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, ECT group) contrasted with that of their pharmacorespondent counterparts (NECT group). The NECT group exhibited severe visuospatial memory and minor executive deficits; the ECT group presented the reverse pattern. In that same ECT group, the current follow-up study examined the effects of clinically effective ECT on both cognitive domains 2 months later. Fifteen ECT patients were administered Hamilton Depression (HAMD-24), Hamilton Anxiety (HAMA), Mini-Mental State Examination Scales and 5 tests of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery at intake (pre-ECT), end of ECT course (post-ECT), and 2 months thereafter (follow-up). Electroconvulsive therapy was effective in relieving clinical depression. After a post-ECT decline, the patients exhibited significant improvement in both Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, paired associate learning, and Stockings of Cambridge. By contrast, their major pre-ECT deficit in intra/extradimensional set shifting remained virtually unaffected. Our findings suggest that attentional flexibility deficits may constitute a neuropsychological trait-like feature of pharmacoresistant, ECT-referred major depressive disorder patients. However, this deficit does not seem generalized, given patient improvement in episodic visual learning/memory and some indication of improvement in spatial planning after ECT.
Schwieler, Lilly; Samuelsson, Martin; Frye, Mark A; Bhat, Maria; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Jungholm, Oscar; Johansson, Anette G; Landén, Mikael; Sellgren, Carl M; Erhardt, Sophie
Neuroinflammation is increasingly recognized as contributing to the pathogenesis of depression. Key inflammatory markers as well as kynurenic acid (KYNA) and quinolinic acid (QUIN), both tryptophan metabolites, have been associated with depressive symptoms and suicidality. The aim of the present study is to investigate the peripheral concentration of cytokines and tryptophan and kynurenine metabolites in patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression before and after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), the most effective treatment for depression. Cytokines in plasma from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 19) and healthy volunteers (n = 14) were analyzed with electrochemiluminescence detection. Tryptophan and kynurenine metabolites were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and LC/MS. KYNA was analyzed in a second healthy control cohort (n = 22). Patients with MDD had increased plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared to healthy volunteers (P < 0.05). We also found an altered kynurenine metabolism in these patients displayed by decreased plasma levels of KYNA (P < 0.0001) as well as a significantly increased QUIN/KYNA ratio (P < 0.001). Plasma levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, and QUIN did not differ between patients and controls. Treatment with ECT was associated with a significant decrease in the plasma levels of tryptophan (P < 0.05), kynurenine (P < 0.01), and QUIN (P < 0.001), whereas plasma levels of KYNA did not change. The QUIN/KYNA ratio was found to significantly decrease in ECT-treated patients (P < 0.05). There was a significant inverse correlation between symptom severity and kynurenine levels at baseline (r = -0.67, P = 0.002). This study confirms an imbalanced kynurenine pathway in MDD supporting the hypothesis of a netstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors in the disorder. Treatment with ECT profoundly decreased QUIN, an NMDA
Johnston, Natalie E
A comparison of the timing, rates and characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy use between urban and rural populations. The medical records of patients who received an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy at two rural and two urban psychiatric hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Main outcome measures were the time from symptom onset, diagnosis and admission to commencing electroconvulsive therapy. Rates of use of electroconvulsive therapy were also compared between rural and urban hospitals using NSW statewide data. There was a significant delay in the time it took for rural patients to receive electroconvulsive therapy compared with urban patients when measured both from the time of symptom onset and from when they received a diagnosis. There were corresponding delays in the time taken for rural patients to be admitted to hospital compared with urban patients. There was no difference in the time it took to commence electroconvulsive therapy once a patient was admitted to hospital. NSW statewide urban-rural comparisons showed rates of electroconvulsive therapy treatment were significantly higher in urban hospitals. Patients in rural areas receive electroconvulsive therapy later in their acute illness due to delays in being admitted to hospital. The rate of use of electroconvulsive therapy also differs geographically. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Rocha, Renan Boeira; Dondossola, Eduardo Ronconi; Grande, Antônio José; Colonetti, Tamy; Ceretta, Luciane Bisognin; Passos, Ives C; Quevedo, Joao; da Rosa, Maria Inês
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). A comprehensive search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, LILACS, Grey literature, and EMBASE was performed for papers published from January 1990 to April 2016. The following key terms were searched: "major depressive disorder", "unipolar depression", "brain-derived neurotrophic factor", and "electroconvulsive therapy". A total of 252 citations were identified by the search strategy, and nine studies met the inclusion criteria of the meta-analysis. BDNF levels were increased among patients with MDD after ECT (P value = 0.006). The standardized mean difference was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.17-0.96). Additionally, we found significant heterogeneity between studies (I(2) = 73%). Our findings suggest a potential role of BDNF as a marker of treatment response after ECT in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin, Donel M; Gálvez, Verònica; Loo, Colleen K
Loss of personal memories experienced prior to receiving electroconvulsive therapy is common and distressing and in some patients can persist for many months following treatment. Improved understanding of the relationships between individual patient factors, electroconvulsive therapy treatment factors, and clinical indicators measured early in the electroconvulsive therapy course may help clinicians minimize these side effects through better management of the electroconvulsive therapy treatment approach. In this study we examined the associations between the above factors for predicting retrograde autobiographical memory changes following electroconvulsive therapy. Seventy-four depressed participants with major depressive disorder were administered electroconvulsive therapy 3 times per week using either a right unilateral or bitemporal electrode placement and brief or ultrabrief pulse width. Verbal fluency and retrograde autobiographical memory (assessed using the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form) were tested at baseline and after the last electroconvulsive therapy treatment. Time to reorientation was measured immediately following the third and sixth electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Results confirmed the utility of measuring time to reorientation early during the electroconvulsive therapy treatment course as a predictor of greater retrograde amnesia and the importance of assessing baseline cognitive status for identifying patients at greater risk for developing later side effects. With increased number of electroconvulsive therapy treatments, older age was associated with increased time to reorientation. Consistency of verbal fluency performance was moderately correlated with change in Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form scores following right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy treatment techniques associated with lesser cognitive side effects should be particularly considered for
Gálvez, Verònica; Loo, Colleen K.
Background: Loss of personal memories experienced prior to receiving electroconvulsive therapy is common and distressing and in some patients can persist for many months following treatment. Improved understanding of the relationships between individual patient factors, electroconvulsive therapy treatment factors, and clinical indicators measured early in the electroconvulsive therapy course may help clinicians minimize these side effects through better management of the electroconvulsive therapy treatment approach. In this study we examined the associations between the above factors for predicting retrograde autobiographical memory changes following electroconvulsive therapy. Methods: Seventy-four depressed participants with major depressive disorder were administered electroconvulsive therapy 3 times per week using either a right unilateral or bitemporal electrode placement and brief or ultrabrief pulse width. Verbal fluency and retrograde autobiographical memory (assessed using the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview – Short Form) were tested at baseline and after the last electroconvulsive therapy treatment. Time to reorientation was measured immediately following the third and sixth electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Results: Results confirmed the utility of measuring time to reorientation early during the electroconvulsive therapy treatment course as a predictor of greater retrograde amnesia and the importance of assessing baseline cognitive status for identifying patients at greater risk for developing later side effects. With increased number of electroconvulsive therapy treatments, older age was associated with increased time to reorientation. Consistency of verbal fluency performance was moderately correlated with change in Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview – Short Form scores following right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Conclusions: Electroconvulsive therapy treatment techniques associated with lesser cognitive side
Yrondi, Antoine; Péran, Patrice; Sauvaget, Anne; Schmitt, Laurent; Arbus, Christophe
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a non-pharmacological treatment that is effective in treating severe and treatment-resistant depression. Although the efficacy of ECT has been demonstrated to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), the brain mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Structural-functional changes occur with the use of ECT as a treatment for depression based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For this reason, we have tried to identify the changes that were identified by MRI to try to clarify some operating mechanisms of ECT. We focus to brain changes on MRI [structural MRI (sMRI), functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imging (DTI)] after ECT. A systematic search of the international literature was performed using the bibliographic search engines PubMed and Embase. The research focused on papers published up to 30 September 2015. The following Medical Subject Headings (MESH) terms were used: electroconvulsive therapy AND (MRI OR fMRI OR DTI). Papers published in English were included. Four authors searched the database using a predefined strategy to identify potentially eligible studies. There were structural changes according to the sMRI performed before and after ECT treatment. These changes do not seem to be entirely due to oedema. This investigation assessed the functional network connectivity associated with the ECT response in MDD. ECT response reverses the relationship from negative to positive between the two pairs of networks. We found structural-functional changes in MRI post-ECT. Because of the currently limited MRI data on ECT in the literature, it is necessary to conduct further investigations using other MRI technology.
Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Jiyu
Sudden deaths associated with the use of electroconvulsive therapy are rare. In this case report a 58-year-old male with a 20-year history of bipolar disorder and no history or signs of cardiac illness died from cardiac arrest within one hour of receiving an initial session of modified electroconvulsive therapy (MECT) to treat a recurrent episode of non-psychotic mania. The patient regained consciousness and was medically stable immediately after the MECT session (which did not produce a convulsion) but deteriorated rapidly after transfer to the recovery room. It was not possible to conduct an autopsy, but the authors surmise that the most probable cause was that the use of haloperidol 17 hours prior to MECT exacerbated the cardiac effects of nonconvulsive MECT. The case highlights the need for a thorough cardiac work-up on patients being considered for MECT (possibly including assessment of cardiac enzymes in older individuals) and careful consideration of the concurrent use of antipsychotic medications and MECT.
Jacob, Preeti; Gogi, Prabhu Kiran Vishwanath; Srinath, Shoba; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Girimaji, Satish; Seshadri, Shekhar; Sagar, John Vijay
The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in children and adolescents is a controversial issue. This study was done to examine the pattern and practice as well as the outcome of electroconvulsive therapy administered to children and adolescents admitted to a tertiary care centre. A 10 year retrospective chart review of all children and adolescents (up to 16 years of age) admitted in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Centre, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) who had received at least 1 session of ECT was done. Information regarding diagnosis, reasons for prescribing electroconvulsive therapy, details regarding the procedure and outcome variables was collected from the records. Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale rating of the severity of illness and improvement seen were done by 2 trained psychiatrists independently. 22 children and adolescents received electroconvulsive therapy over 10 years. There were an equal number of boys and girls. All received modified ECT. Most patients who received electroconvulsive therapy were severely ill. Catatonic symptoms 54.5% (12) were the most common reason for prescribing electroconvulsive therapy. It was efficacious in 77.3% (17) of the patients. Electroconvulsive therapy was relatively safe, and most experienced no acute side effects. 68.2% (15) who were on follow up and did not experience any long term side effects due to the electroconvulsive therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy has a place in the acute management of severe childhood psychiatric disorders. Further long term prospective studies are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electroconvulsive therapy device. 882.5940 Section 882.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Electroconvulsive therapy device. (a) Identification. An electroconvulsive therapy device is a device used...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electroconvulsive therapy device. 882.5940 Section 882.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Electroconvulsive therapy device. (a) Identification. An electroconvulsive therapy device is a device used...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electroconvulsive therapy device. 882.5940 Section 882.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Electroconvulsive therapy device. (a) Identification. An electroconvulsive therapy device is a device used...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electroconvulsive therapy device. 882.5940 Section 882.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Electroconvulsive therapy device. (a) Identification. An electroconvulsive therapy device is a device used...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electroconvulsive therapy device. 882.5940 Section 882.5940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Electroconvulsive therapy device. (a) Identification. An electroconvulsive therapy device is a device used...
Ray-Griffith, Shona L; Coker, Jessica L; Rabie, Nader; Eads, Lou Ann; Golden, Kimberly J; Stowe, Zachary N
To scrutinize a series of pregnant women treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at a tertiary treatment center and combine these data with a literature review to refine the treatment guidelines for ECT during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review of mentally ill pregnant patients treated with ECT since the establishment of a formal women's mental health program. A total of 8 pregnant women treated with ECT were identified from January 2012 to August 2014. Information was extracted from the medical records of a total of 30 ECT treatments across this group. Subjects received an average of 3.75 ECT treatments (range, 1-7). All women were diagnosed as having a mood disorder (either unipolar or bipolar), and 5 of the 8 women had suicidal ideation. The treatment team for ECT was consistent across all treatments. Two women experienced significant complications after the initial treatment: 1) an acute episode of complete heart block; and 2) acute onset of mania after ECT. Obstetrical complications included 2 women with preterm delivery-one secondary to premature rupture of membranes. No other complications or adverse outcomes were recorded. The 5 women with suicidal ideation had symptom resolution, and significant symptom improvement was noted in 6 of the 8 women. Electroconvulsive therapy is a safe and effective treatment during pregnancy and of particular benefit in the acute treatment of suicidal ideation.
Ray-Griffith, Shona L.; Coker, Jessica L.; Rabie, Nader; Eads, Lou Ann; Golden, Kimberly J.; Stowe, Zachary N.
Objective To scrutinize a series of pregnant women treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at a tertiary treatment center and combine this data with a literature review to refine the treatment guidelines for ECT during pregnancy. Methods A retrospective chart review of mentally ill pregnant patients treated with ECT since the establishment of a formal women’s mental health program. Results A total of eight pregnant women treated with ECT were identified from 01/2012–08/2014. Information was extracted from the medical record from a total of 30 ECT treatments across this group. Subjects received an average of 3.75 ECT treatments (range 1–7). All women were diagnosed with a mood disorder (either unipolar or bipolar), and five of the eight women had suicidal ideation. The treatment team for ECT was consistent across all treatments. Two women experienced significant complications following the initial treatment: 1) an acute episode of complete heart block; and 2) acute onset of mania following ECT. Obstetrical complications included two women with pre-term delivery – one secondary to premature rupture of membranes. No other complications or adverse outcomes were recorded. The five women with suicidal ideation had symptom resolution, and significant symptom improvement was noted in six of the eight women. Conclusions Electroconvulsive therapy is a safe and effective treatment during pregnancy and of particular benefit in the acute treatment of suicidal ideation. PMID:26796501
Goodman, Theodore; McCall, W Vaughn
Malpractice cases involving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are rare. Even rarer are those malpractice cases alleging ECT-related brain damage. The few cases of ECT malpractice lawsuits are not described in the medical literature in detail. We provide a detailed account of a case of a patient and subsequent alleged ECT-related malpractice. The details of the case were collated using the handwritten notes of one of the authors who was present at the trial and the pretrial documents of discovery that were entered into evidence. The plaintiff alleged complete autobiographical amnesia after ECT, supposedly as a result of ECT-related brain damage. The defense was aided by the presence of extensive neurological examination and brain imaging both before and after ECT. The defense team also offered to the jury the concept of "dissociative amnesia" as an alternative explanation for the plaintiff's memory complaints. The case went to trial and was successfully defended. Electroconvulsive therapy malpractice cases alleging brain damage can be successfully defended, and the successful defense is aided by adequate documentation before, during, and after ECT. Malpractice cases, especially if they are baseless, can occur unpredictably, but they can be defended if the medical documentation is thorough.
Payne, Nancy A.; Prudic, Joan
The myths surrounding electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and the misconceptions held by the general public, clinicians, and patients have interfered with acceptance of this treatment throughout its history. Misunderstandings surrounding ECT, and its consequent stigmatization, are reviewed, including negative depictions of ECT in film, print media, and on the Internet. Clinicians involved in the delivery of ECT benefit from gaining an understanding of how ECT may be perceived by patients and other mental health professionals; they can play a vital role in educating patients and helping ensure the delivery of a successful course of ECT. Guidance is provided for clinicians on how to support patients and families through the ECT process using a model team approach. Anxiety reduction, meeting individual needs, patient and family psychoeducation, assessment of psychosocial supports, and discharge planning are discussed. PMID:19820554
Bouckaert, Filip; De Winter, François-Laurent; Emsell, Louise; Dols, Annemieke; Rhebergen, Didi; Wampers, Martien; Sunaert, Stefan; Stek, Max; Sienaert, Pascal; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu
The evidence on the mechanisms of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has grown over the past decades. Recent studies show an ECT-related increase in hippocampal, amygdala and subgenual cortex volume. We examined grey matter volume changes following ECT using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) whole brain analysis in patients with severe late life depression (LLD). Elderly patients with unipolar depression were treated twice weekly with right unilateral ECT until remission on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was achieved. Cognition (Mini Mental State Examination) and psychomotor changes (CORE Assessment) were monitored at baseline and 1 week after the last session of ECT. We performed 3 T structural MRI at both time points. We used the VBM8 toolbox in SPM8 to study grey matter volume changes. Paired t tests were used to compare pre- and post-ECT grey matter volume (voxel-level family-wise error threshold p < 0.05) and to assess clinical response. Twenty-eight patients (mean age 71.9 ± 7.8 yr, 8 men) participated in our study. Patients received a mean of 11.2 ± 4 sessions of ECT. The remission rate was 78.6%. Cognition, psychomotor agitation and psychomotor retardation improved significantly (p < 0.001). Right-hemispheric grey matter volume was increased in the caudate nucleus, medial temporal lobe (including hippocampus and amygdala), insula and posterior superior temporal regions but did not correlate with MADRS score. Grey matter volume increase in the caudate nucleus region correlated significantly with total CORE Assessment score (r = 0.63; p < 0.001). Not all participants were medication-free. Electroconvulsive therapy in patients with LLD is associated with significant grey matter volume increase, which is most pronounced ipsilateral to the stimulation side.
Bouckaert, Filip; De Winter, François-Laurent; Emsell, Louise; Dols, Annemieke; Rhebergen, Didi; Wampers, Martien; Sunaert, Stefan; Stek, Max; Sienaert, Pascal; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu
Background The evidence on the mechanisms of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has grown over the past decades. Recent studies show an ECT-related increase in hippocampal, amygdala and subgenual cortex volume. We examined grey matter volume changes following ECT using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) whole brain analysis in patients with severe late life depression (LLD). Methods Elderly patients with unipolar depression were treated twice weekly with right unilateral ECT until remission on the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was achieved. Cognition (Mini Mental State Examination) and psychomotor changes (CORE Assessment) were monitored at baseline and 1 week after the last session of ECT. We performed 3 T structural MRI at both time points. We used the VBM8 toolbox in SPM8 to study grey matter volume changes. Paired t tests were used to compare pre- and post-ECT grey matter volume (voxel-level family-wise error threshold p < 0.05) and to assess clinical response. Results Twenty-eight patients (mean age 71.9 ± 7.8 yr, 8 men) participated in our study. Patients received a mean of 11.2 ± 4 sessions of ECT. The remission rate was 78.6%. Cognition, psychomotor agitation and psychomotor retardation improved significantly (p < 0.001). Right- hemispheric grey matter volume was increased in the caudate nucleus, medial temporal lobe (including hippocampus and amygdala), insula and posterior superior temporal regions but did not correlate with MADRS score. Grey matter volume increase in the caudate nucleus region correlated significantly with total CORE Assessment score (r = 0.63; p < 0.001). Limitations Not all participants were medication-free. Conclusion Electroconvulsive therapy in patients with LLD is associated with significant grey matter volume increase, which is most pronounced ipsilateral to the stimulation side. PMID:26395813
Mirzakhani, Hooman; van Noorden, Martijn S; Swen, Jesse; Nozari, Ala; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of patients with depression and other mental illnesses who do not respond to psychotropic medications or need urgent control of their symptoms. Pharmacogenetics contributes to an individual's sensitivity and response to a variety of drugs. Clinical insights into pharmacogenetics of ECT and adjunctive medications not only improves its safety and efficacy in the indicated patients, but can also lead to the identification of novel treatments in psychiatric disorders through understanding of potential molecular and biological mechanisms involved. In this review, we explore the indications of pharmacogenetics role in safety and efficacy of ECT and present the evidence for its role in patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing ECT.
Geduldig, Emma T; Kellner, Charles H
This paper reviews recent research on the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in elderly depressed patients. The PubMed database was searched for literature published within the past 4 years, using the search terms: "electroconvulsive elderly," "electroconvulsive geriatric," "ECT and elderly," and "ECT elderly cognition." The studies in this review indicate excellent efficacy for ECT in geriatric patients. Adverse cognitive effects of ECT in this population are usually transient and not typically severe. In addition, continuation/maintenance ECT (C/M-ECT) may be a favorable strategy for relapse prevention in the elderly after a successful acute course of ECT. ECT is an important treatment option for depressed geriatric patients with severe and/or treatment-resistant illness. New data add to the evidence demonstrating that ECT is a highly effective, safe, and well-tolerated antidepressant treatment option for geriatric patients.
Jiménez-Cornejo, Magdalena; Zamorano-Levi, Natalia; Jeria, Álvaro
Therapeutic options for psychiatric conditions are limited during pregnancy because many drugs are restricted or contraindicated. Electroconvulsive therapy constitutes an alternative, however there is controversy over its safety. Using the Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by searching multiple databases, we found five systematic reviews, including 81 studies overall describing case series or individual cases. Data were extracted from the identified reviews and summary tables of the results were prepared using the GRADE method. We concluded it is not clear what are the risks associated with electroconvulsive therapy during pregnancy because the certainty of the existing evidence is very low. Likewise, existing systematic reviews and international clinical guidelines differ in their conclusions and recommendations.
Lihua, Peng; Su, Min; Ke, Wei; Ziemann-Gimmel, Patrick
Depression is a common mental disorder. It affects millions of people worldwide and is considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be one of the leading causes of disability. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a well-established treatment for severe depression. Intravenous anaesthetic medication is used to minimize subjective unpleasantness and adverse side effects of the induced tonic-clonic seizure. The influence of different anaesthetic medications on the successful reduction of depressive symptoms and adverse effects is unclear. This review evaluated the effects of different regimens of intravenous sedatives and hypnotics on anti-depression efficacy, recovery and seizure duration in depressed adults undergoing ECT. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2012, Issue 12); MEDLINE via Ovid SP (from 1966 to 31 December 2012); and EMBASE via Ovid SP (from 1966 to 31 December 2012). We handsearched related journals and applied no language restrictions. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cross-over trials evaluating the effects of different intravenous sedatives and hypnotics for ECT. We excluded studies and trials using placebo or inhalational anaesthetics and studies that used no anaesthetic. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. When possible, data were pooled and risk ratios (RRs) and mean differences (MDs), each with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were computed using the Cochrane Review Manager statistical package (RevMan). We included in the review 18 RCTs (599 participants; published between 1994 and 2012). Most of the included trials were at high risk of bias.We analysed the results of studies comparing six different intravenous anaesthetics.Only a few studies comparing propofol with methohexital (four studies) and with thiopental (three studies) could be pooled.No difference was noted in the reduction of depression scores observed in participants treated with
Kramer, B A
Concern has been raised regarding the erratic and sometimes less than adequate teaching of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) to health professionals. The development of standardized curricula will ultimately improve the quality of care for patients receiving ECT and help to minimize the myths and misinformation clinicians have regarding ECT. An outline for teaching ECT is presented that covers the following areas: preconceptions, history, patient selection, conditions of increased risk, medical and neurological side effects, memory issues, technical aspects, electrode placement, clinical problems, management of the post-ECT course, legal and ethical issues, mechanisms of action, and educational issues. This outline can be expanded to encompass up to a 6-hour course for psychiatric residents, or compressed to provide the basics to nursing, medical, or pharmacy students.
Weiss, Alan Micheal; Hansen, Shane Michael; Safranko, Ivan; Hughes, Pequita
Unilateral and bitemporal electrode placement has been the dominant mode of delivery in electroconvulsive therapy. We report 3 patients receiving maintenance electroconvulsive therapy where the use of dominant electrode placements was ineffective. Changing to left anterior right temporal electrode placement resulted in marked clinical improvement. This supports the limited literature on this electrode placement.
Chaturvedi, S; Chadda, R K; Rusia, U; Jain, N
Although a complete blood count is part of the evaluation before the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), there are no known hematological contraindications for the procedure. A preliminary study was done on 31 randomly selected psychiatric patients (chronic schizophrenia, n=10; acute depression, n=8; acute mania, n=6; acute psychosis, n=6; delusional disorder, n=1) receiving ECT to study its hematological effects. Blood samples were drawn just before and 0, 1 and 2 h after ECT. Hemoglobin (Hb%), total and differential leukocyte count (TLC and DLC), red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and platelet count were measured on a fully automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex K-1000). Significant changes were found in TLC, percentage of polymorphs and lymphocytes, and Hb%. Changes in other parameters were not statistically significant. More such studies are needed to substantiate these observations and to understand the mechanism and implication of these effects.
Tokutsu, Yuki; Shinkai, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Reiji; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Katsuki, Asuka; Hori, Hikaru; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Hayashi, Kenji; Atake, Kiyokazu; Nakamura, Jun
Objective Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has proven to be effective in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). In recent reports, 70% to 90% of patients with TRD responded to ECT. However, post-ECT relapse is a significant problem. There are no studies investigating risk factors associated with reintroducing ECT in depressive patients after remission previously achieved with former ECT. The aim of the present study is to examine such risk factors using a sample of TRD patients. Methods We conducted a chart review to examine patient outcomes and adverse events over short- and long-term periods. Forty-two patients met the criteria for major depressive disorder. Results The response rate was 85.7% (36/42). There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of patients exhibiting remission, response or non-response. The rate of adverse events was 21.4% (9/42). Among 34 patients who were available for follow-up, 18 patients relapsed (relapse rate, 52.9%), and 6 patients were reintroduced to ECT. The patients' age and age of onset were significantly higher in the re-ECT group than non re-ECT group. Conclusion Our results suggest that older age and older age of onset might be considered for requirement of re-ECT after remission previously achieved with former ECT. PMID:23678353
Litvan, Zsuzsa; Bauer, Martin; Kasper, Siegfried; Frey, Richard
Information on efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with dementia is sparse. The current case report describes a patient suffering from severe depression and dementia who received electroconvulsive therapy with S-ketamine anesthesia at our psychiatric intensive care unit for the treatment of her therapy-resistant catatonic stupor. The patient's condition improved remarkably through the treatment. By the end of 16 electroconvulsive therapy sessions, her catatonic symptoms remitted entirely, her affect was brighter and she performed markedly better at the cognitive testing.
McRackan, Theodore R; Rivas, Alejandro; Hedley-Williams, Andrea; Raj, Vidya; Dietrich, Mary S; Clark, Nathaniel K; Labadie, Robert F
Cochlear implants (CI) are neural prostheses that restore hearing to individuals with profound sensorineural hearing loss. The surgically implanted component consists of an electrode array, which is threaded into the cochlea, and an electronic processor, which is buried under the skin behind the ear. The Food and Drug Administration and CI manufacturers contend that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is contraindicated in CI recipients owing to risk of damage to the implant and/or the patient. We hypothesized that ECT does no electrical damage to CIs. Ten functional CIs were implanted in 5 fresh cadaveric human heads. Each head then received a consecutive series of 12 unilateral ECT sessions applying maximum full pulse-width energy settings. Electroconvulsive therapy was delivered contralaterally to 5 CIs and ipsilaterally to 5 CIs. Electrical integrity testing (impedance testing) of the electrode array was performed before and after CI insertion, and after the first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and 12th ECT sessions. Electroconvulsive therapy was performed by a staff psychiatrist experienced with the technique. Explanted CIs were sent back to the manufacturer for further integrity testing. No electrical damage was identified during impedance testing. Overall, there were statistically significant decreases in impedances (consistent with no electrical damage) when comparing pre-ECT impedance values to those after 12 sessions. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in impedance values comparing ipsilateral to contralateral ECT. Manufacturer testing revealed no other electrical damage to the CIs. Electroconvulsive therapy does not seem to cause any detectable electrical injury to CIs.
Unal, Ahmet; Altindag, Abdurrahman; Demir, Bahadir; Aksoy, Ihsan
Lorazepam and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are effective treatments for catatonia. However, systematic data on these treatments in catatonia are limited. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the clinical and treatment-related characteristics of patients with catatonia who underwent lorazepam and/or ECT. Between January 2012 and December 2016, we received 60 patients with catatonia hospitalized in the Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine Clinic of Psychiatry. Lorazepam and/or ECT were used in the patients' treatment schedule. Treatment results were evaluated using the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement. Thirty-five patients (58.3%) in the sample were in their first catatonic episode. The most common comorbidity was mood disorder (n = 34, 56.7%), whereas the most frequent catatonic sign was mutism (n = 43, 71.7%). Moreover, 31 patients (51.7%) had some form of medical comorbidity. Cerebral abnormalities were detected in computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging in 22 patients (36.7%). Furthermore, 95% of the patients (n = 57) fully recovered after administration of the treatment. Lorazepam is a reasonable initial choice in the treatment of catatonia, with rapid consideration for ECT if there is no rapid response to lorazepam.
Rami-González, L; Boget-Llucià, T; Bernardo, M; Marcos, T; Cañizares-Alejos, S; Penadés, R; Portella, M J; Castelví, M; Raspall, T; Salamero, M
The reversible electrochemical effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on specific areas of the brain enable the neuroanatomical bases of some cognitive functions to be studied. In research carried out on memory systems, a selective alteration of the declarative ones has been observed after treatment with ECT. Little work has been done to explore the differential alteration of the memory subsystems in patients with a high number of ECT sessions. AIM. To study the declarative and non declarative memory system in psychiatric patients submitted to maintenance ECT treatment, with a high number of previous ECT sessions. 20 patients submitted to treatment with ECT (10 diagnosed as having depression and 10 with schizophrenia) and 20 controls, who were paired by age, sex and psychopathological diagnosis. For the evaluation of the declarative memory system, the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) logical memory test was used. The Hanoi Tower procedural test was employed to evaluate the non declarative system. Patients treated with ECT performed worse in the WMS logical memory test, but this was only significant in patients diagnosed as suffering from depression. No significant differences were observed in the Hanoi Tower test. A selective alteration of the declarative systems was observed in patients who had been treated with a high number of ECT sessions, while the non declarative memory systems remain unaffected.
Hoirisch-Clapauch, Silvia; Mezzasalma, Marco A U; Nardi, Antonio E
Electroconvulsive therapy is an important treatment option for major depressive disorders, acute mania, mood disorders with psychotic features, and catatonia. Several hypotheses have been proposed as electroconvulsive therapy's mechanism of action. Our hypothesis involves many converging pathways facilitated by increased synthesis and release of tissue-plasminogen activator. Human and animal experiments have shown that tissue-plasminogen activator participates in many mechanisms of action of electroconvulsive therapy or its animal variant, electroconvulsive stimulus, including improved N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated signaling, activation of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, increased bioavailability of zinc, purinergic release, and increased mobility of dendritic spines. As a result, tissue-plasminogen activator helps promote neurogenesis in limbic structures, modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity, improves cognitive function, and mediates antidepressant effects. Notably, electroconvulsive therapy seems to influence tissue-plasminogen activator metabolism. For example, electroconvulsive stimulus increases the expression of glutamate decarboxylase 65 isoform in γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing neurons, which enhances the release of tissue-plasminogen activator, and the expression of p11, a protein involved in plasminogen and tissue-plasminogen activator assembling. This paper reviews how electroconvulsive therapy correlates with tissue-plasminogen activator. We suggest that interventions aiming at increasing tissue-plasminogen activator levels or its bioavailability - such as daily aerobic exercises together with a carbohydrate-restricted diet, or normalization of homocysteine levels - be evaluated in controlled studies assessing response and remission duration in patients who undergo electroconvulsive therapy.
Ocampo, María Victoria; Ramírez, Clara Isabel; Franco, José G; Gómez, Lina María; Cardona, Gloria; Restrepo, Carolina
To describe the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients undergoing Electroconvulsive Therapy with Anesthesia and Relaxation (ECTAR) for 10 years in a university clinic. Review of 276 medical records of patients who had undergone ECTAR between 1997 and 2007 at the Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana de Medellín, Colombia. Data was collected through an instrument designed for that purpose and then was analyzed. During 10 years, more than 2000 ECT procedures were performed; most of the patients were female 67.4%, between 15 and 86 years old. The first indication was a major depressive episode without psychotic symptoms (56.5%) almost half of the patients had a minor and temporary complication, and no major complications or deaths were reported. Pre-oxygenation, intravenous anesthesia and muscular relaxation were used in all procedures. The ECT used in a third-level hospital with participation of a trained, interdisciplinary team (psychiatrist, anesthesiologist, nursing assistants) and the use of the modified technique (oxygenation, monitoring, general anesthesia, and relaxation is safe for certain psychiatric pathologies disorders that have not responded to medication or when medication is counter-indicated. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Magne Bjølseth, Tor; Engedal, Knut; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Bergsholm, Per; Strømnes Dybedal, Gro; Lødøen Gaarden, Torfinn; Tanum, Lars
No study has previously investigated whether the speed of recovery from disorientation in the post-ictal period may predict the short-term treatment outcome of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This longitudinal cohort study included 57 elderly patients with unipolar or bipolar major depression, aged 60-85 years, treated with formula-based ECT. Treatment outcome was assessed weekly during the ECT course using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17). The post-ictal reorientation time (PRT) was assessed at the first and third treatments. Longer PRTs at the first and third treatments predicted a more rapid decline and a lower end-point in continuous HRSD17 scores (p=0.002 and 0.019, respectively). None of the patients who recovered from disorientation in less than 5 min met the remission criterion, defined as an HRSD17 score of 7 or less. A greater increment in stimulus dosage from the first to the third ECT session rendered a smaller relative decline in PRT (p<0.001). The limited number of subjects may reduce the generalizability of the findings. The speed of recovery from disorientation at the first and third sessions seems to be a predictor of the treatment outcome of formula-based ECT, at least in elderly patients with major depression. It remains to be clarified how the PRT may be utilized to guide stimulus dosing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dybedal, Gro Strømnes; Tanum, Lars; Sundet, Kjetil; Bjølseth, Tor Magne
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective biological treatment option for severely depressed elderly patients; however, it can cause cognitive side effects, including anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Elderly patients with "cognitive impairment no dementia" (CIND) are reported as being more vulnerable to the cognitive side effects of ECT compared with patients with "no cognitive impairment" (NCI). The few studies that have reached this conclusion can be criticized for using insensitive outcome measures. The present study investigated cognitive side effects using standard neuropsychological tests before and after twice-weekly ECT. Patients were assessed at baseline (T1) and within one week after a course of ECT (consisting of a mean of 10 treatments) (T2), and were followed up for three months after T2 (T3). The sample included 54 patients with NCI (n = 36) or CIND (n = 18). For a control group, we recruited 17 healthy elderly persons. Tests of anterograde memory, information-processing speed, executive function, and retrograde memory were administered. We computed reliable change indices using simple regression methods. Short-term side effects were detected at T2 in a large minority of patients, with no significant differences between NCI and CIND patients. Considerable improvement in global cognitive function from T1 to T3 was observed in 44% of the CIND patients. At the group level, information-processing speed improved significantly in CIND vs. NCI patients. CIND patients were not more vulnerable to amnesia than were NCI patients. Long-term cognitive side effects of ECT were not detected.
Wachtel, Lee E; Hermida, Adriana; Dhossche, Dirk M
The usage of electroconvulsive therapy for the acute resolution of catatonia in autistic children and adults is a novel area that has received increased attention over the past few years. Reported length of the acute ECT course varies among these patients, and there is no current literature on maintenance ECT in autism. The maintenance ECT courses of three patients with autism who developed catatonia are presented. Clinical, research, legal, and administrative implications for ECT treatment in this special population are discussed.
Hassamal, Sameer; Jolles, Paul; Pandurangi, Ananda
AB, a 74-year-old Caucasian woman, was admitted for acute onset of psychosis, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Pharmacotherapy was unsuccessful and the patient was referred for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Pre-ECT, (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography showed extensive frontal, parietal, and temporal cortical hypometabolism suggestive of a neurodegenerative disease. After eight ECT sessions, the psychotic and anxiety symptoms as well as the cognitive impairment resolved. The rapid improvement in symptoms was more suggestive of a psychotic episode rather than dementia. Two days after the ECT course, (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/computed tomography showed improvements in cerebral cortical hypometabolism, especially in the left parietal cortex, left temporal/occipital cortex. and bifrontal regions. At a follow-up visit 2 months after the ECT course, the psychotic episode was still in remission, and (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/computed tomography continued to show improved cerebral cortical hypometabolism in these areas. This case illustrated the effect of ECT in reversing cerebral glucose hypometabolism on PET. The improvement in cerebral glucose hypometabolism may represent the neurophysiological mechanism of ECT in the treatment of a psychotic episode. Improved cerebral glucose hypometabolism was present 2 months post-ECT, which suggests that ECT caused sustained functional neural changes. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
Coughlin, Jennifer M; Rodenbach, Kyle; Lee, Pin-Hsuan; Hayat, Mathew J; Griffin, Margaret M; Mirski, Marek A; Reti, Irving M
Ultrabrief (UB) pulse electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been gaining popularity in recent years because of its improved cognitive adverse effect profile compared with treatments triggered by brief pulses. When delivered at maximal charge, UB pulses are administered for 8 seconds. Because electrical stimulation triggers a parasympathetic surge and transient asystole, we checked whether UB pulses delivered for 8 seconds were associated with prolonged cardiac pause compared with maximal charge delivered for 4 seconds with brief pulses. This is a retrospective study of cardiac pause length of all patients undergoing ECT treatment at The Johns Hopkins Hospital during 1 year. Electrocardiac pause length for patients undergoing ECT with right unilateral placement at maximal charge was not affected by pulse width. However, we did find cardiac pause length to be sensitive to 2- versus 4-second duration stimuli using brief pulses (P < 0.0001). Notwithstanding the clear limitations of small sample size and retrospective design, we found that right unilateral ECT was not affected by pulse width when maximal charge was delivered.
Li, Dian-Jeng; Wang, Fu-Chiang; Chu, Che-Sheng; Chen, Tien-Yu; Tang, Chia-Hung; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Chow, Philip Chik-Keung; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Tseng, Ping-Tao; Lin, Pao-Yen
Add-on ketamine anesthesia in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been studied in depressive patients in several clinical trials with inconclusive findings. Two most recent meta-analyses reported insignificant findings with regards to the treatment effect of add-on ketamine anesthesia in ECT in depressive patients. The aim of this study is to update the current evidence and investigate the role of add-on ketamine anesthesia in ECT in depressive patients via a systematic review and meta-analysis. We performed a thorough literature search of the PubMed and ScienceDirect databases, and extracted all relevant clinical variables to compare the antidepressive outcomes between add-on ketamine anesthesia and other anesthetics in ECT. Total 16 articles with 346 patients receiving add-on ketamine anesthesia in ECT and 329 controls were recruited. We found that the antidepressive treatment effect of add-on ketamine anesthesia in ECT in depressive patients was significantly higher than that of other anesthetics (p<0.001). This significance persisted in both short-term (1-2 weeks) and moderate-term (3-4 weeks) treatment courses (all p<0.05). However, the side effect profiles and recovery time profiles were significantly worse in add-on ketamine anesthesia group than in control group. Our meta-analysis highlights the significantly higher antidepressive treatment effect of add-on ketamine in depressive patients receiving ECT compared to other anesthetics. However, clinicians need to take undesirable side effects into consideration when using add-on ketamine anesthesia in ECT in depressive patients.
Smith, D L; Angst, M S; Brock-Utne, J G; DeBattista, C
The object of this study was to test whether substituting part of the methohexital dose with the short-acting opioid remifentanil would prolong seizure duration in middle-aged patients while providing a similar depth of anesthesia as with methohexital alone. This has been reported for the combined use of methohexital and remifentanil in elderly patients, but has not been investigated in middle-aged patients likely to require a higher total dose of methohexital for inducing anesthesia. Seven patients (42+/-10 years; mean +/-SD) receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) were anesthetized with methohexital (1.25 mg kg-1) or with methohexital (0.625 mg kg-1) plus remifentanil (1 micro g kg-1) in this randomized, double blind, crossover study. Additional methohexital was given as needed until loss of eyelash reflex was observed. Suxamethonium (1 mg kg-1) was used for muscular paralysis. Motor and EEG seizure durations were significantly longer after induction with methohexital plus remifentanil (45+/-14 and 58+/-15 s) than with methohexital alone (31+/-11 and 42+/-18 s). A methohexital dose of 1.2+/-0.3 and 1.9+/-0.3 mg was necessary to achieve loss of eyelash reflex if methohexital was used with and without remifentanil. Peak heart rate after ECT was significantly higher if remifentanil was coadministered with methohexital (148+/-12 vs. 126+/-24 b.p.m). Substituting part of the methohexital dose with remifentanil is a useful anesthetic technique to prolong seizure duration in middle-aged patients requiring a 1.5-fold higher induction dose of methohexital than elderly patients, the only population studied to date for the combined use of methohexital and remifentanil in ECT.
Dragovic, Milan; Allet, Lindsay; Janca, Aleksandar
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) often results in a number of short- and long-time side effects including memory impairment for past and current events, which can last for several months after ECT treatment. It has been suggested that unilateral ECT (uECT) with electrodes placed over the non-dominant (typically right) hemisphere significantly reduces side effects, especially memory disturbances. It is important to note that cerebral dominance equates to speech dominance and avoiding this area of the brain also reduces speech dysfunction after ECT. Traditionally, the routine clinical determination of cerebral dominance has been through the assessment of hand, foot and eye dominance, which is an easy and inexpensive approach that, however, does not ensure accuracy. This review of literature on different methods and techniques for determination of cerebral dominance and provides evidence that functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) represents a valid and safe alternative to invasive techniques for identifying speech lateralisation. It can be concluded that fTCD, notwithstanding its costs, could be used as a standard procedure prior to uECT treatment to determine cerebral dominance, thereby further reducing cognitive side-effects of ECT and possibly making it more acceptable to both patients and clinicians.
Janke, C; Bumb, J M; Aksay, S S; Thiel, M; Kranaster, L; Sartorius, A
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a well-established, safe and effective treatment for severe psychiatric disorders. Ketamine is known as a core medication in anesthesiology and has recently gained interest in ECT practice as there are three potential advantages: (1) ketamine has no anticonvulsive actions, (2) according to recent studies ketamine could possess a unique intrinsic antidepressive potential and (3) ketamine may exhibit neuroprotective properties, which again might reduce the risk of cognitive side effects associated with ECT. The use of ketamine in psychiatric patients has been controversially discussed due to its dose-dependent psychotropic and psychotomimetic effects. This study was carried out to test if the occurrence of side effects is comparable and if seizure quality is better with ketamine when compared to thiopental. This retrospective study analyzed a total of 199 patients who received ketamine anesthesia for a total of 2178 ECT sessions. This cohort was compared to patients who were treated with thiopental for 1004 ECT sessions. A repeated measurement multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significant advantages in the ketamine group for seizure concordance and postictal suppression (both are surrogates for central inhibition). S-ketamin also necessitated the use of a higher dose of urapidil and a higher maximum postictal heart frequency. Clinically relevant psychiatric side effects were rare in both groups. No psychiatric side effects occurred in the subgroup of patients with schizophrenia (ketamine: n = 30). The mean dose of S-ketamine used increased in the first years but stabilized at 63 mg per patient in 2014. From these experiences it can be concluded that S-ketamine can be recommended at least as a safe alternative to barbiturates.
de la Serna, Elena; Flamarique, Itziar; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Pons, Alexandre; Puig, Olga; Andrés-Perpiña, Susana; Lázaro, Luisa; Garrido, Juan Miguel; Bernardo, Miguel; Baeza, Inmaculada
The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a sample of adolescent patients in whom schizophrenia spectrum disorders were diagnosed. The sample was composed of nine adolescent subjects in whom schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria on whom ECT was conducted (ECT group) and nine adolescent subjects matched by age, socioeconomic status, and diagnostic and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at baseline on whom ECT was not conducted (NECT group). Clinical and neuropsychological assessments were carried out at baseline before ECT treatment and at 2-year follow-up. Significant differences were found between groups in the number of unsuccessful medication trials. No statistically significant differences were found between the ECT group and the NECT group in either severity as assessed by the PANSS, or in any cognitive variables at baseline. At follow-up, both groups showed significant improvement in clinical variables (subscales of positive, general, and total scores of PANSS and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement). In the cognitive assessment at follow-up, significant improvement was found in both groups in the semantic category of verbal fluency task and digits forward. However, no significant differences were found between groups in any clinical or cognitive variable at follow-up. Repeated measures analysis found no significant interaction of time×group in any clinical or neuropsychological measures. The current study showed no significant differences in change over time in clinical or neuropsychological variables between the ECT group and the NECT group at 2-year follow-up. Thus, ECT did not show any negative influence on long-term neuropsychological variables in our sample.
Elias, Alby; Chathanchirayil, Saji J; Bhat, Ravi; Prudic, Joan
Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (m-ECT) is effective in preventing recurrences of depressive episodes. There is little information on long-term m-ECT extending over several years and its impact on cognitive functions. This study was an attempt to determine the efficacy and side effects of long-term m-ECT. Depressive episodes and admissions before m-ECT for a period equal to the duration of m-ECT and during m-ECT were compared using medical records. Cognitive functions assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) before and after m-ECT were compared along with the review of Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive Assessment Tool (NUCOG). 17 patients had m-ECT that extended from 6 to 153 months (mean 39, SD=44.46). The average number of episodes before and during m-ECT was 2.47 (SD=2.23) and 0.88 (SD=1.31) respectively (Wilcoxon ranked test Z=3.06, r=0.55, two-tailed p=0.002). Average number of admissions dropped from 2.05 (SD=1.88) to 0.23 (SD=0.43) during m-ECT (Z=3.471, r=0.71, p=0.001). The average time to recurrence was 24.24 months (SD=25.20) with longest depression free survival of 105 months. There was no significant difference in MMSE score before and after the commencement m-ECT or progressive deterioration in NUCOG score. This study was limited by retrospective nature of data collection, small sample size, confounding effects of antidepressants along with m-ECT and absence of a highly sensitive cognitive screening tool that can capture all types of cognitive impairments following m-ECT. In a naturalistic setting the efficacy of m-ECT may extend over several years while cognitive functions remain largely unaffected. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Introduction It is difficult to treat patients who, in addition to having severe anorexia nervosa, also have severe symptoms of major depressive disorder and a tendency for impulsive acting out behaviour. Our case report considers the feasibility of maintenance electroconvulsive therapy in such complicated cases. Case presentation This is a case report of a woman with anorexia nervosa and co-morbid severe major depressive disorder who was treated with electroconvulsive therapy as a maintenance treatment. The maintenance electroconvulsive therapy was conducted without immediate complications. It had a positive effect on the patient's depressive symptoms and lability and her general wellbeing, although some cognitive deficits were observed. Conclusion The maintenance electroconvulsive therapy seemed to support recovery in a case of refractory anorexia nervosa and a tendency for labile mood. The symptoms of co-occurring major depressive disorder were partly relieved and maintenance electroconvulsive therapy had some positive effect on weight gain. PMID:20062609
This is the case report of a 44-year-old woman presented with an acute stroke immediately after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The patient had no significant medical history other than chronic depression. She was taking sertraline, and she had had multiple previous ECT treatments without any complications. While being monitored in the recovery room within 10 minutes after the last ECT session, she was found to have sudden onset of left-sided flaccid hemiplegia and numbness along with slurred speech. On arrival to our hospital, she was found to have flaccid hemiplegia on the left side involving the face, arm, and leg (face and arm more than the leg involvement), severe dysarthria, and mild neglect syndrome (National Health Institute Stroke Scale of 14). Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) of the head showed no signs of early ischemia, and iodine contrast CT angiography revealed right middle cerebral artery (MCA) (distal M1 segment) clot. Patient received intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen (rt-PA) at 2.5 hours after the onset of symptoms, and then a total of 3.0 mg of intra-arterial (IA) rt-PA. Angiography at the end of the procedure showed successful recanalization of the M1 segment and normal vessel caliber with adequate distal flow. After the procedure, the patient made rapid improvements in all of her initial symptoms during the first 24 hours. An extensive stroke workup failed to reveal any cause of the stroke, including usual stroke and hypercoagulable risk factors. This was an acute embolic stroke immediately following an ECT, and without the aggressive thrombolytic therapy, the patient's outcome would have been poor because there was an M1 segment clot with a major MCA syndrome with relatively high National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. The neurological side effect profile of ECT is reported to be minimal with most common symptoms being headache, disorientation, and memory complaints. There is no clear cause-and-effect relationship in this case
Grover, Sandeep; Malhotra, Savita; Varma, Sannidhya; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit; Mattoo, Surendra K
There are minimal data on the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in adolescents from India. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical profile and effectiveness of ECT in adolescents (aged 13-18 years). A retrospective chart review was carried out to identify adolescents (aged 13-18 years) who had received ECT during the period 1999-2011. During the study period, 39 such patients received ECT; complete records of 25 patients were available. Details regarding their sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment data were extracted from these records for the present study. During the study period, 658 patients received ECT, of which 39 were aged 18 or younger (5.9%). Schizophrenia (n = 14; 56%) was the commonest diagnosis for which ECT was used in adolescents, followed by depression (n = 3; 12%). Catatonic symptoms (n = 17; 68%) were the most common symptoms among these subjects. Electroconvulsive therapy was considered as a treatment of choice taking the clinical picture account in about three fourths of the patients (n = 19; 76%). The mean (SD) numbers of ECTs administered per patient were 10.1 (4.87) (range, 2-21). The mean (SD) response rate to ECT was 76% (23.3%) (range, 31%-100%). Response rates according to diagnosis were the following: 76.3% for schizophrenia, 87.2% for depression, 81.8% for psychosis (not otherwise specified), and 77.7% for acute and transient psychosis. Response rate in patients with catatonia was 91.6%. Prolonged seizures, nausea and vomiting, and headache were reported in 2 cases each. Electroconvulsive therapy is used less frequently in children and adolescents compared to the older patients. This study shows that ECT is effective in the treatment of severe psychiatric disorders in adolescents and is associated with the same frequency of adverse effects as the adults.
Duthie, Ashleigh C; Perrin, Jennifer S; Bennett, Daniel M; Currie, James; Reid, Ian C
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is held to confer anticonvulsant effects, although the role of rise in seizure threshold upon clinical effect is uncertain. This study investigated the relationship in a large, consecutive, retrospective sample of patients receiving ECT in Aberdeen. We have tested the hypotheses of previous authors to further examine the relationship between seizure and therapeutic effect as well as discuss the potential underlying neurobiological mechanisms. All patients receiving ECT at the Royal Cornhill Hospital between 2000 and the end of 2008 were identified from the Scottish ECT Accreditation Network. Electroconvulsive therapy was administered twice weekly with a bifrontotemporal electrode placement using routine dosage schedules. Data were gathered from the Scottish ECT Accreditation Network and case notes regarding ECT course and clinical effect. The seizure threshold increased in 219 (94.4%) patients, stayed the same in 13 (5.6%) patients, and decreased in 0 patient (n = 232). No significant relationship was present between change in seizure threshold and change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score (P = 0.39; Kendall τ b r = 0.047; n = 182), although responders did display greater increase in seizure threshold than nonresponders. Electroconvulsive therapy confers anticonvulsant effects in a consecutive sample of real-life patients. Neither initial seizure threshold nor magnitude of seizure threshold increase is a predictor of clinical response to ECT. A rise in seizure threshold is not essential for therapeutic effect but may represent an important marker of underlying neuronal state. The evidence reviewed in this article supports a link between neuroplastic effects of ECT and the evidenced rise in seizure threshold.
Cumper, Samantha K; Ahle, Gabriella M; Liebman, Lauren S; Kellner, Charles H
In addition to its effects in major psychiatric illness, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is known to have a beneficial effect on the core motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). This effect is believed to be mediated via dopamine in the striatum. Electroconvulsive shock (ECS), the animal analogue of ECT, is the model in which investigators have sought to elucidate the specific dopaminergic mechanisms by which ECT exerts its therapeutic effect in PD. Electroconvulsive shock has been given to intact animals as well as to animals with neurotoxic lesions that create parkinsonism. In this paper, we selectively review the electroconvulsive shock literature on dopamine in the striatum. Electroconvulsive shock, and by extension, ECT, is associated with increased dopamine release and modulation of dopamine receptors. Better understanding of how ECT works to enhance dopaminergic systems in the brain could help to make it a more accepted treatment for PD.
Minelli, Alessandra; Abate, Maria; Zampieri, Elisa; Gainelli, Giulio; Trabucchi, Luigi; Segala, Matilde; Sartori, Riccardo; Gennarelli, Massimo; Conca, Andreas; Bortolomasi, Marco
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective therapy for patients with treatment-resistant depression; however, some patients do not respond or relapse in a short time. Electroconvulsive therapy stimulus parameters may be related to the outcome. We carried out a retrospective study review to investigate various ECT parameters in relation to the outcome, clinical variables, and pharmacological treatments. Our aim was to understand which factors could be considered putative seizure quality markers and which are relevant to clinical practice. Two physicians evaluated the seizure length, the postictal suppression index, the wave amplitude, tachycardia, and hemispheric brain wave synchronicity in a double-blind manner for 45 treatment-resistant depression patients receiving ECT. The analysis showed a significant association between the outcome and the ECT seizure quality measured by the parameters (P = 9.9 × 10). Among patients with poor-quality seizures, 61.5% relapsed after approximately 1 month from the last ECT session. Particularly, there was an association between higher symptomatology decrease and higher quality of hemispheric brain wave synchronicity (P = 5.0 × 10), as well as a higher wave amplitude (P = 0.01). Our results confirm that ECT seizure quality was strongly correlated with the decrease of depressive symptomatology.
Post, Thomas; Kemmler, Georg; Krassnig, Tristan; Brugger, Anita; Hausmann, Armand
Continuation and maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (c/m ECT) is a long-term treatment option in severely and chronically ill patients with mood disorders, who are unresponsive or intolerant to medication. Due to the current lack of empirical studies, c/m ECT is still a clinical tool with little evidence. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients' charts who received c/m ECT over a 10-year period. Outcome was measured by comparing the number of pre-c/m ECT and post-c/m ECT hospitalizations, as well as inpatient days per year and mean duration of hospital stays. In 19 patients (63% female; mean age 53.5 ± 12.0 years) with either bipolar (42%) or unipolar (58%) mood disorder, with the majority of patients suffering from a depressive episode at hospital admission (95%), c/m ECT was initiated after a successful series of ECT. In a 5-year interval before and after starting c/m ECT the number of hospitalizations per year (0.87 vs. 0.28, p < 0.001), inpatient days per year (30.8 vs. 4.5 days, p < 0.001), as well as the mean duration of hospital days (30.5 vs. 16.7 days, p = 0.02) decreased significantly. Our data support previous results showing that c/m ECT is an efficacious option in treating and favourably altering the course of therapy-resistant affective disorders. Further research using a controlled study design and larger sample sizes are needed to convincingly define indication and performance of c/m ECT.
Bolwig, Tom G
This article reviews 3 current theories of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). One theory points to generalized seizures as essential for the therapeutic efficacy of ECT. Another theory highlights the normalization of neuroendocrine dysfunction in melancholic depression as a result of ECT. A third theory is based on recent findings of increased hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in experimental animals given electroconvulsive seizures. Presently, the endocrine theory has the strongest foundation to explain the working mechanism of ECT.
Kerner, Nancy; Prudic, Joan
SUMMARY Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is utilized worldwide for various severe and treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders. Research studies have shown that ECT is the most effective and rapid treatment available for elderly patients with depression, bipolar disorder and psychosis. For patients who suffer from intractable catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, ECT can be life saving. For elderly patients who cannot tolerate or respond poorly to medications and who are at a high risk for drug-induced toxicity or toxic drug interactions, ECT is the safest treatment option. Organic causes are frequently associated with late-life onset of neuropsychiatric conditions, such as parkinsonism, dementia and stroke. ECT has proven to be efficacious even when these conditions are present. During the next decade, research studies should focus on the use of ECT as a synergistic therapy, to enhance other biological and psychological treatments, and prevent symptom relapse and recurrence. PMID:24778709
Assessing the Association Between Electrical Stimulation Dose, Subsequent Cognitive Function and Depression Severity in Patients Receiving Bilateral Electroconvulsive Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder.
Sinclair, Jenny Elisabeth; Fernie, Gordon; Bennett, Daniel Mark; Reid, Ian Cameron; Cameron, Isobel Mary
To assess the relationship between electrical stimulation administered to patients undergoing bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and subsequent measures of cognitive function and depression severity. Stimulus dose titrated patients receiving bilateral ECT were assessed with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) Spatial Recognition Memory test and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) at baseline, after 4 ECT treatments and on course completion. Changes in CANTAB and MADRS scores were assessed in relation to electrical dosage, initial stimulus dose, and demographic variables using linear mixed models. Data pertained to 143 patients (mean age, 56.85 [SD, 14.94], 43% male). Median change in CANTAB score was -10% (-20% to 5%) after 4 ECT treatments and -10% (-20% to 5%) at course completion. Median change in MADRS score was -22 (-33 to -13) after 4 ECT treatments and -14 (-25 to -7) at course completion. Electrical dosage had no effect on CANTAB or MADRS change scores either after 4 treatments or course completion. Improvement in CANTAB score at end of course was associated with female sex (P < 0.05), higher intelligence quotient (P = 0.01), and age. After 4 treatments, improvement in CANTAB score was associated with younger age (P < 0.001) and higher intelligence quotient (P < 0.01). Improved MADRS score at course completion was associated with older age (P < 0.001 at end of course and after 4 treatments). Electroconvulsive therapy has significant antidepressant and cognitive effects which are not associated with the total electrical dose administered. Other, unalterable variables, such as age and sex, have an influence on these effects.
Okazaki, Ryoko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ueno, Kanji; Takahashi, Koichi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Higashima, Masato; Wada, Yuji
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders that are reportedly characterized by aberrant neural networks. Recently developed multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) can characterize the complexity inherent in electroencephalography (EEG) dynamics over multiple temporal scales in the dynamics of neural networks. We encountered an 18-year-old man with ASD whose refractory catatonic obsessive–compulsive symptoms were improved dramatically after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). In this clinical case study, we strove to clarify the neurophysiological mechanism of ECT in ASD by assessing EEG complexity using MSE. Along with ECT, the frontocentral region showed decreased EEG complexity at higher temporal scales, whereas the occipital region expressed an increase at lower temporal scales. Furthermore, these changes were associated with clinical improvement associated with the elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is a molecular hypothesis of ECT, playing key roles in ASD pathogenesis. Changes in EEG complexity in a region-specific and temporal scale-specific manner that we found might reflect atypical EEG dynamics in ASD. Although MSE is not a direct approach to measuring neural connectivity and the results are from only a single case, they might reflect specific aberrant neural network activity and the therapeutic neurophysiological mechanism of ECT in ASD. PMID:25767444
Narayanan, A; Russell, M D; Sundararaman, S; Shankar, K K; Artman, B
Treatment of patients with severe depressive illnesses requiring electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is challenging. This is compounded by the presence of physical comorbidities and potential complications. We report the case of a patient, on long-term bisoprolol, who developed acute epigastric pain and dyspnoea shortly after receiving ECT for treatment-refractory depression. An ECG showed new-onset ischaemic changes and a troponin-I level was elevated at 12 h. A diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was reached following angiography, which demonstrated left ventricular hypokinesia in the absence of coronary artery disease. With supportive treatment the patient made a good recovery. This report highlights the risk of developing Takotsubo cardiomyopathy following ECT despite β-adrenergic receptor blockade, and adds to a growing number of cases reporting this complication. Clinicians involved in the care of patients undergoing ECT must be aware of this complication and should consider Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in patients who develop atypical chest pain after ECT. PMID:25425252
Leon, T; Aguirre, A; Pesce, C; Sanhueza, P; Toro, P
Neuropsychiatric manifestations are serious and frequent complications of systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor disturbance (including waxy flexibility and catalepsy), stupor, excitement, negativism, mutism, echopraxia and echolalia. Catatonia associated with SLE has been only rarely reported, especially in children. Here we present a case of a 14-year-old patient encountered in consultation-liaison psychiatry who presented catatonia associated with SLE. Her catatonia was refractory to treatment with pulse methylprednisolone, intravenous cyclophosphamide and rituximab. The patient responded to a combined therapy of electroconvulsive therapy and benzodiazepines. The present case suggests that although rarely reported, catatonia seen in the background of SLE should be promptly identified and treated to reduce the morbidity.
Zyssi, Tomasz; Rachel, Wojciech; Datka, Wojciech; Hese, Robert T; Gorczyca, Piotr; Szwajca, Krzysztof; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Zięba, Andrzej
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an important method of biological treatment in serious psychic disturbances. Similarly to drug therapy it is marked by a determined schematics of applying including the list of indications, contraindications, procedures of the performance, as well as the list of adverse invents. Applying defined schemas allows for minimizing the risk and influences the final effectiveness of therapy.
Mahato, Ram S; San Gabriel, Maria Chona P; Longshore, Carrol T; Schnur, David B
Body dysmorphic disorder is a common, often disabling condition, and is frequently comorbid with major depressive disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors constitute first line set of somatic interventions but the management of refractory patients remains challenging. Electroconvulsive therapy, an often highly beneficial treatment for medication resistant-depression, is not considered an effective therapeutic alternative for treatment refractory body dysmorphic disorder. Here we present a 50-year-old woman with body dysmorphic disorder and comorbid major depressive disorder who remained incapacitated and suicidal despite several trials with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotic medication. Depressive and dysmorphic symptoms appeared to resolve with electroconvulsive therapy, and remission was sustained for two months. Electroconvulsive therapy has an important place in the management of treatment- resistant depression associated with body dysmorphic disorder, and, in select cases, may be effective for dysmorphic symptoms as well.
Cohen, D; Dubos, P F; Basquin, M
Despite the progress of pharmocotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is still used in a majority of countries to treat severe intractable mental disorders of the youth, yet few studies have been conducted to assess its use for individuals under 20-year-old. Efficacy, indications, side effects, technical characteristics and outcome are uncertain. A review of the 96 cases reported in the literature shows that: 1) its average frequency in adolescent psychiatric practice is similar throughout western nations and can be estimated around one ECT every year per million people; 2) intractable mood disorders, both manic and depressive episodes, are its main indications, since ECT treated more than 90% of the 66 cases reported; ECT can also offer an interesting alternative in some schizoaffective and schizophrenic episodes, in particular catatonic ones; 3) tolerance appears to be good, although secondary effects may occur. The most serious ones are infrequent spontaneous seizures and more common memory loss. Although no prospective studies are available on the evolution of cognitive side effects, they seem to disappear within a few weeks.
Oremus, Carolina; Oremus, Mark; McNeely, Heather; Losier, Bruno; Parlar, Melissa; King, Matthew; Hasey, Gary; Fervaha, Gagan; Graham, Allyson C; Gregory, Caitlin; Hanford, Lindsay; Nazarov, Anthony; Restivo, Maria; Tatham, Erica; Truong, Wanda; Hall, Geoffrey B C; Lanius, Ruth; McKinnon, Margaret
Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, affecting approximately 350 million people. Evidence indicates that only 60-70% of persons with major depressive disorder who tolerate antidepressants respond to first-line drug treatment; the remainder become treatment resistant. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered an effective therapy in persons with treatment-resistant depression. The use of ECT is controversial due to concerns about temporary cognitive impairment in the acute post-treatment period. We will conduct a meta-analysis to examine the effects of ECT on cognition in persons with depression. This systematic review and meta-analysis has been registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42014009100). We developed our methods following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. We are searching MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane from the date of database inception to the end of October 2014. We are also searching the reference lists of published reviews and evidence reports for additional citations. Comparative studies (randomised controlled trials, cohort and case-control) published in English will be included in the meta-analysis. Three clinical neuropsychologists will group the cognitive tests in each included article into a set of mutually exclusive cognitive subdomains. The risk of bias of randomised controlled trials will be assessed using the Jadad scale. We will supplement the Jadad scale with additional questions based on the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The risk of bias of cohort and case-control studies will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We will employ the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) to assess the strength of evidence. Separate meta-analyses will be conducted for each ECT treatment modality and cognitive subdomain using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis V.2.0. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For
McNeely, Heather; Losier, Bruno; Parlar, Melissa; King, Matthew; Hasey, Gary; Fervaha, Gagan; Graham, Allyson C; Gregory, Caitlin; Hanford, Lindsay; Nazarov, Anthony; Restivo, Maria; Tatham, Erica; Truong, Wanda; Hall, Geoffrey B C; Lanius, Ruth; McKinnon, Margaret
Introduction Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, affecting approximately 350 million people. Evidence indicates that only 60–70% of persons with major depressive disorder who tolerate antidepressants respond to first-line drug treatment; the remainder become treatment resistant. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered an effective therapy in persons with treatment-resistant depression. The use of ECT is controversial due to concerns about temporary cognitive impairment in the acute post-treatment period. We will conduct a meta-analysis to examine the effects of ECT on cognition in persons with depression. Methods This systematic review and meta-analysis has been registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42014009100). We developed our methods following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. We are searching MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane from the date of database inception to the end of October 2014. We are also searching the reference lists of published reviews and evidence reports for additional citations. Comparative studies (randomised controlled trials, cohort and case–control) published in English will be included in the meta-analysis. Three clinical neuropsychologists will group the cognitive tests in each included article into a set of mutually exclusive cognitive subdomains. The risk of bias of randomised controlled trials will be assessed using the Jadad scale. We will supplement the Jadad scale with additional questions based on the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The risk of bias of cohort and case–control studies will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We will employ the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) to assess the strength of evidence. Statistical analysis Separate meta-analyses will be conducted for each ECT treatment modality and cognitive subdomain using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis V.2
Mota, Jorge; Rodrigues-Silva, Nuno
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a technique with proven efficacy in the treatment of severe psychiatric disorders. However, studies regarding its use as a maintenance therapy are scarce. The aim of the present study was to build knowledge in this area. Data from 28 patients receiving maintenance ECT (M-ECT) were retrospectively collected and analyzed using a mirror-image design. Length of stay and readmissions were compared before M-ECT (control condition) and after M-ECT (experimental condition). Our results showed a decrease in both length of stay and number of readmissions after M-ECT, although the decrease in readmissions was moderated by a site effect. The present study results reveal the potential benefit of M-ECT. Further studies are urgently needed to establish its usefulness as an alternative treatment for severe psychiatric disorders.
Dhossche, Dirk M; Reti, Irving M; Shettar, Shashidhar M; Wachtel, Lee E
Tics have rarely been described in catatonia although tics are sudden and nonrhythmic variants of stereotypic or repetitive movement abnormalities that are considered cardinal symptoms of catatonia. We describe 2 men with tics and self-injurious behavior, who met criteria for catatonia. One patient met criteria for autism. We reported 2 new cases and performed a literature review using PubMed to identify other cases of tics that were treated with electroconvulsive therapy. Tics along with other catatonic symptoms and self-injurious behavior responded to electroconvulsive therapy in 2 men. Eight other patients with tics that were treated with electroconvulsive therapy were found in the literature. Catatonia was recognized in 4 of the 8 patients. Two patients met criteria for autism. Tics, with or without self-injurious behavior, may be signs of catatonia. Patients with tics or Tourette syndrome warrant assessment for catatonia. If catatonia is present, electroconvulsive therapy provides a safe but rarely used alternative to pharmacotherapy, psychosurgery, or invasive brain stimulation in the treatment of tics and Tourette syndrome. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Gangadhar, Bangalore N.; Phutane, Vivek H.; Thirthalli, Jagadisha
The contribution of researchers from India in the field of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been substantial. Over 250 papers have been published by authors from India in the past five decades on this issue; about half of these have appeared in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. This article summarizes the papers on ECT research that have appeared in the Journal. A bulk of these articles has focused on establishing the efficacy in different disorders. Considerable numbers of papers describe refinement in the ECT procedure, including anesthetic modification, ECT machine and EEG monitoring. Papers on neurobiology of ECT and long-term follow-up of ECT-treated patients form a minority. Despite the decline in the use of ECT across the globe, papers on ECT have only increased in the recent decades in the Journal. PMID:21836706
The aim of the study was to collect and analyse historical material on nurses' attitudes to electroconvulsive therapy in Britain between 1945-2000. Electroconvulsive therapy became widely used in Britain from the late 1940s onwards and remains in current use, but became one of the main targets of the 'antipsychiatry' movement of the 1960s and 1970s. A cultural history design was used to recreate the perspectives of mental health nurses in the period under review. A range of primary sources including journal articles, textbooks and oral history sources were combined to create a coherent historical account. The controversy surrounding electroconvulsive therapy created a deep-seated ambivalence towards it among mental health nurses. While a sizeable minority were critical of its use and may have taken steps to avoid involvement with it, most acquiesced in providing the treatment. Recorded incidents of outright refusal to participate are few. Mental health nurses' views on electroconvulsive therapy are reflective of the profession's growing knowledge of the use of evidence in debating whether particular therapies should be used. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Comparison between neurostimulation techniques repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation vs electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of resistant depression: patient preference and cost-effectiveness
Magnezi, Racheli; Aminov, Emanuel; Shmuel, Dikla; Dreifuss, Merav; Dannon, Pinhas
Objectives Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common disorder, widely distributed in the population, and is often associated with severe symptoms and functional impairment. It has been estimated that 30% of MDD patients do not benefit adequately from therapeutic interventions, including pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is generally defined as a failure to achieve remission, despite therapeutic interventions. Aim The most effective treatment alternatives for TRD are hospitalization, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here we compared the clinical effectiveness of ECT and TMS, including success rates, patient responses, side-effect profiles, and financial worthiness. Results We found that ECT (P<0.0001) was more effective than TMS (P<0.012) (not statistically significant in group effect) in TRD patients. However, ECT patients reported a higher percentage of side effects (P<0.01) and the TMS treatment scored better in terms of patient preference. The cost benefit of ECT was higher than that of TMS (US$2075 vs US$814). Patient’s preferences for treatment could be more intense in the TMS, if the TMS is included in the Health Maintenance Organization’s service list. Conclusion We propose that both of these treatment options should be available in psychiatric wards, thus expanding the therapeutic toolkit for TRD. PMID:27536079
Ghaziuddin, Neera; Kutcher, Stanley P.; Knapp, Penelope
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be an effective treatment for adolescents with severe mood disorders and other Axis I psychiatric disorders when more conservative treatments have been unsuccessful. ECT may be considered when there is a lack of response to two or more trials of pharmacotherapy or when the severity of symptoms precludes waiting…
Leinbaugh, Tracy C.
Electroconvulsive therapy is the treatment of choice for severe depressive episodes. Although little definitive research exists to explain its effectiveness, since its development in 1938 it has proven effective for the treatment of depression with psychotic features and suicidal ideation. Explains the procedure and discusses implications for the…
Dolenc, Tamara J.; Philbrick, Kemuel L.
Objective: This article illustrates a model electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) curriculum with specific parameters of both practice-based learning and medical knowledge. Method: The authors review the recommendations of the APA Task Force on ECT as they relate to training in ECT in psychiatry residency programs, and discuss diverse educational…
Dolenc, Tamara J.; Philbrick, Kemuel L.
Objective: This article illustrates a model electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) curriculum with specific parameters of both practice-based learning and medical knowledge. Method: The authors review the recommendations of the APA Task Force on ECT as they relate to training in ECT in psychiatry residency programs, and discuss diverse educational…
National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a treatment for severe mental illness in which a brief application of electric stimulus is used to produce a generalized seizure, has been in use for over 45 years. Controversies still exist today concerning the use of ECT. In 1985, the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Mental Health held…
Ghaziuddin, Neera; Kutcher, Stanley P.; Knapp, Penelope
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be an effective treatment for adolescents with severe mood disorders and other Axis I psychiatric disorders when more conservative treatments have been unsuccessful. ECT may be considered when there is a lack of response to two or more trials of pharmacotherapy or when the severity of symptoms precludes waiting…
Leinbaugh, Tracy C.
Electroconvulsive therapy is the treatment of choice for severe depressive episodes. Although little definitive research exists to explain its effectiveness, since its development in 1938 it has proven effective for the treatment of depression with psychotic features and suicidal ideation. Explains the procedure and discusses implications for the…
Wei, Q; Tian, Y; Yu, Y; Zhang, F; Hu, X; Dong, Y; Chen, Y; Hu, P; Hu, X; Wang, K
Considerable evidence suggests that depression is related to interhemispheric functional coordination deficits. For depression, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most rapid and effective therapy, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ECT on the interhemispheric functional coordination in depression patients. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to observe the change of interhemispheric functional coordination with the method of voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) in 11 depressed patients before and after ECT, compared with 15 healthy controls. The results showed that, compared with depression patients before ECT, VMHC was significantly increased in superior frontal gyri (BA 8), middle frontal gyri (two clusters: BA 8/9 and BA 10) and angular gyri (BA 39) in depression patients after ECT. Compared with healthy controls, VMHC in those areas was significantly lower in the middle frontal gyri (BA 8/9) and angular gyri (BA 39) in depression patients before ECT, but no significant difference was observed in the superior frontal gyri (BA 8) and middle frontal gyri (BA 10). There was no significant correlation between the changes of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and changed VMHC values in those four areas in depression patients. The results suggest that ECT selectively modulated interhemispheric functional coordination in depression patients. Such may play an important mechanistic role in the treatment of depression, and may afford a useful avenue for optimizing treatment. PMID:25268257
Cunningham, Miles G; Yadollahikhales, Golnaz; Vitaliano, Gordana; van Horne, Craig
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be effective for parkinsonian symptoms poorly responsive to medications. DBS is typically well-tolerated, as are the maintenance battery changes. Here we describe an adverse event during a battery replacement procedure that caused rapid onset of severe depression. The patient is a 58-year-old woman who was in a serious motor vehicle accident and sustained a concussion with loss of consciousness. Within weeks of the accident she began developing parkinsonian symptoms that progressively worsened over the subsequent 10 years. Responding poorly to medications, she received DBS, which controlled her movement symptoms. Five years after initiating DBS, during a routine battery change, an apparent electrical event occurred that triggered the rapid onset of severe depression. Anti-seizure and antidepressant medications were ineffective, and the patient was offered a course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which resulted in complete reversal of her depressive episode. Parkinson's syndrome can be seen after a single closed head injury event. Post-traumatic parkinsonism is responsive to DBS; however, DBS has been associated with an infrequent occurrence of dramatic disruption in mood. ECT is a therapeutic option for patients who develop intractable depressive illness associated with DBS.
Mousavi, Seyed Ghafur; Mohsen, Ghasemi; Reza, Maracy M; Amrollah, Ebrahimi; Majid, Barekatain; Fariba, Noori
Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most efficacious treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), it is also used as a rapid and efficacious treatment for other psychiatric disorders, especially treatment resistant ones. The cognitive impairment is one of the most important side effects of ECT. This study examined the Memoral herbal efficacy in prevention of ECT-induced memory impairment. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 70 patients with mood disorders who were candidates for ECT enrolled in either Memoral or Control group, and received either Memoral or placebo. The memory was assessed by Addenbrook Cognitive Examination (ACE), and the findings were analyzed by ANOVA under SPSS18. Results: The Memoral group patients showed significantly higher total ACE scores than placebo group (P < 0.001). The scores of attention and orientation, verbal fluency and memory subscales not only never decreased during the study in Memoral group, but also increased. There was no significant difference between these scores of Memoral and placebo groups for the subscales of language and visuospacial ability. Conclusion: The Memoral herbal is an efficacious and safe choice in prevention of ECT- induced cognitive impairment. PMID:22891152
O'Reardon, John P; Cristancho, Mario A; Ryley, Barbara; Patel, Kajal R; Haber, Howard L
Although there is no specific age cutoff for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and no absolute contraindication to its use, very old age and the presence of cardiac conditions such as aortic stenosis are factors that may negatively affect the physician's decision to administer ECT in individual cases. We report our follow-up of a 100-year-old woman with severe aortic stenosis who has received ECT safely for 5 years now. No cardiac complications have emerged during this period. Her prior unipolar depressive episode with catatonic features remains in remission with a single prophylactic ECT session every 3 months. We have observed from our experience with this unique case that periodic multidisciplinary re-evaluation of the evolving risk-benefit profile of ECT is essential along with the inclusion of family members in this dialogue. Our patient's course illustrates that neither advanced age nor severe aortic stenosis is an absolute contraindication to ECT even over an extended period of time. Each case needs to be evaluated on its merits. To our knowledge, this case represents the oldest patient in the literature where ECT has been administered safely for such an extended period in the setting of severe aortic stenosis.
Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Se Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; Youn, Tak; Lee, Jeoung Hyuk; Chung, Seunghyun; Kim, Yong Sik
Objective This retrospective case series study of the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) augmentation on clozapine-resistant schizophrenia was conducted by EMR review. Methods Clozapine-resistance was defined as persistent psychotic symptoms despite at least 12 weeks of clozapine administration with blood levels over 350 ng/mL in order to rule out pseudo-resistance. Seven in-patients who were taking clozapine and treated with ECT were selected. We analyzed the psychopathology and subscales changed by ECT. Results The average number of ECT sessions was 13.4 (±4.6). Total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score was significantly reduced by 17.9 (±12.8) points (p=0.0384) on average, which represented a reduction of 25.5% (±14.3). 71.4% (5/7) of patients were identified as clinical remission, with at least a 20% reduction in PANSS score. PANSS reduction was associated with number of ECT sessions, stimulus level in the final session, and blood clozapine levels before ECT. However, the negative subscale on the PANSS were not reduced by ECT in any patient. We did not observe any persistent adverse cognitive effects. Conclusion This study supports that ECT augmentation on clozapine-resistant schizophrenia reveals clinically effective and safe. Further research should be done involving a larger number of patients to investigate the effectiveness of clozapine/ECT combination therapy. PMID:28096876
Quinn, Davin K; Rees, Caleb; Brodsky, Aaron; Deligtisch, Amanda; Evans, Daniel; Khafaja, Mohamad; Abbott, Christopher C
The presence of a deep brain stimulator (DBS) in a patient who develops neuropsychiatric symptoms poses unique diagnostic challenges and questions for the treating psychiatrist. Catatonia has been described only once, during DBS implantation, but has not been reported in a successfully implanted DBS patient. We present a case of a patient with bipolar disorder and renal transplant who developed catatonia after DBS for essential tremor. The patient was successfully treated for catatonia with lorazepam and electroconvulsive therapy after careful diagnostic workup. Electroconvulsive therapy has been successfully used with DBS in a handful of cases, and certain precautions may help reduce potential risk. Catatonia is a rare occurrence after DBS but when present may be safely treated with standard therapies such as lorazepam and electroconvulsive therapy.
Lõokene, Margus; Kisuro, Aigars; Mačiulis, Valentinas; Banaitis, Valdas; Ungvari, Gabor S; Gazdag, Gábor
While the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been investigated worldwide, nothing is known about its use in the Baltic states. The purpose of this study was thus to explore ECT practice in the three Baltic countries. A 21-item, semi-structured questionnaire was sent out to all psychiatric inpatient settings that provided ECT in 2010. In Lithuania, four services provided ECT in 2010. Only modified ECT with anaesthesia and muscle relaxation is performed in the country. In 2010, approximately 120 patients received ECT, i.e., 0.375 patients/10,000 population. Only two centres offer ECT in Latvia. The first centre treated only three patients with ECT in 2010, while the second centre six patients. In both centres outdated Soviet machines are used. The main indication for ECT was severe, malignant catatonia. ECT is practiced in five psychiatric facilities in Estonia. In 2010, it was used in the treatment of 362 patients (17% women) nationwide, i.e., 2.78 patients/10,000 population. Only a senior psychiatrist may indicate ECT in Estonia and pregnancy is no contraindication. In 2010, the main indication for ECT was schizophrenia (47.8%). This 2010 survey revealed significant differences in the use and availability of ECT between the Baltic countries.
Borisovskaya, Anna; Bryson, William Culbertson; Buchholz, Jonathan; Samii, Ali; Borson, Soo
We performed a systematic review of evidence regarding treatment of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) utilizing electroconvulsive therapy. The search led to the inclusion of 43 articles, mainly case reports or case series, with the largest number of patients totaling 19. The analysis included 116 patients with depression and PD; depression improved in 93.1%. Where motor symptoms' severity was reported, 83% of patients improved. Cognition did not worsen in the majority (94%). Many patients experienced delirium or transient confusion, sometimes necessitating discontinuation of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Little is known about maintenance ECT in this population. ECT can benefit patients suffering from PD and depression. We recommend an algorithm for treatment of depression in PD, utilizing ECT sooner rather than later.
Salehi, Iraj; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
To treat patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), research has focused on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET). Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be key in MDD. The aims of the present study were therefore two-fold, to investigate in a three-arm interventional study the differential effects of ECT, ECT plus AET, and AET alone in patients suffering from TR-MDD on 1. depressive symptoms and 2. plasma BDNF (pBDNF). 60 patients with MDD (mean age: 31 years; 31.6% female patients) were randomly assigned either to the ECT, ECT + AET, or AET condition. The AET condition consisted of treadmill exercise for 45 min, three times a week. Both depression severity and pBDNF levels were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks later. All patients were further treated with an SSRI standard medication. pBDNF levels increased over time in all three study conditions, though, highest increase was observed in the ECT + EAT condition, and lowest increase was observed in the AET condition. Depressive symptoms decreased in all three conditions over time, though, strongest decrease was observed in the ECT + AET condition. The combination of ECT + AET led to significantly greater remission rates than in either the ECT or AET alone conditions. BDNF levels were not associated with symptoms of depression. The pattern of results suggests that ECT, AET and particularly their combination are promising directions for the treatment of patients suffering from MDD, and that it remains unclear to what extent pBDNF is key and a reliable biomarker for MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salehi, Iraj; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Kirov, Roumen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
To treat patients suffering from treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (TR-MDD), research has focused on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET). Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be key in MDD. The aims of the present study were therefore two-fold, to investigate in a three-arm interventional study the differential effects of ECT, ECT plus AET, and AET alone in patients suffering from TR-MDD on 1. depressive symptoms and 2. 60 patients with TR-MDD (mean age: 31 years; 31.6% female patients) were randomly assigned either to the ECT, ECT + AET, or AET condition. The AET condition consisted of treadmill exercise for 30 min, three times a week. Both depression severity and BDNF levels were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks later. All patients were further treated with an SSRI standard medication. BDNF levels increased over time in all three study conditions. After completion of the intervention program, the ECT group showed significantly higher BDNF levels compared to the ECT + AET and the AET conditions. Depressive symptoms decreased in all three conditions over time. The combination of ECT + AET led to a significantly greater decrease than in either the ECT or AET alone conditions. BDNF levels were not associated with symptoms of depression. The pattern of results suggests that ECT, AET and particularly their combination are promising directions for treatment patients suffering from TR-MDD, and that it remains unclear to what extent BDNF is key and a reliable biomarker for TR-MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kemp, Michael F; Allard, Jacques; Pâquet, Myriam; Marcotte, Patrick
The aim of this study was to determine the safety and impact of an oral theophylline loading dose calculated to achieve a 10- to 15-mg/L plasma concentration when administered 1.5 hours before electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We conducted a retrospective study using inpatient hospital records between January 2007 and June 2012 at the Dr. Georges L. Dumont University Hospital Centre. Patients receiving a series of ECTs with a calculated theophylline loading dose were selected. Variables collected include ECT parameters for each ECT, medications received, and treatment-related side effects. We identified 35 patients and analyzed 14 who had no treatment modifications except for the addition of theophylline. The mean predicted theophylline plasma concentration was 12.99 (SD, 1.09) mg/L with dosages ranging from 260 to 600 mg. Eight patients (89%) with abortive seizures and 4 (80%) with missed seizures achieved a seizure duration of greater than 15 seconds with theophylline. Seizure duration increased by 165.6% (+21.3 seconds; P = 0.048) with theophylline, and all patients (N = 5) with a maximum sustained coherence of less than 92% achieved an increase after theophylline; however, the overall increase (+8.8%, P = 0.087) was not significant. No theophylline-related adverse events were documented in 128 ECTs with theophylline, and no seizure exceeded 120 seconds. A calculated theophylline loading dose before ECT is well tolerated and effective in prolonging seizure duration and aiding with seizure generation in patients who do not seize readily. Its positive impact in patients with lower maximum sustained coherence, in addition to the potential existence of a dose-response relationship, should be further investigated.
Ray, Anindya Kumar
"Unmodified"-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) being considered unethical remained away from the scientific literature, but continued in practice in many parts of the world. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011, proposed for its banning in India. The aim of this study is to retrospectively observe "how bad was unmodified-ECT" to the patients in a naturalistic setting. The study was done at the Central Institute of Psychiatry, India. Files of patients receiving unmodified ECT during 1990-1995 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome was evaluated in terms of desired effectiveness and the side effects as noted in the files by the treating team. Six hundred and thirty-seven patients (6.94% of total admission) received ECT with meticulous standard-of-care except provision of anesthesia. Satisfactory improvement was noted in 95.45% patients with no noticeable/reported complication in 89.05%. Premature termination of ECT for complications occurred in 2.19% patients. "Unmodified"-ECT, though unethical, still could ensure favorable outcome with proper case selection and meticulous standard-of-care.
Ray, Anindya Kumar
“Unmodified”-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) being considered unethical remained away from the scientific literature, but continued in practice in many parts of the world. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011, proposed for its banning in India. The aim of this study is to retrospectively observe “how bad was unmodified-ECT” to the patients in a naturalistic setting. The study was done at the Central Institute of Psychiatry, India. Files of patients receiving unmodified ECT during 1990–1995 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome was evaluated in terms of desired effectiveness and the side effects as noted in the files by the treating team. Six hundred and thirty-seven patients (6.94% of total admission) received ECT with meticulous standard-of-care except provision of anesthesia. Satisfactory improvement was noted in 95.45% patients with no noticeable/reported complication in 89.05%. Premature termination of ECT for complications occurred in 2.19% patients. “Unmodified”-ECT, though unethical, still could ensure favorable outcome with proper case selection and meticulous standard-of-care. PMID:27385857
McClintock, Shawn M.; Choi, Jimmy; Deng, Zhi-De; Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; Krystal, Andrew D.; Lisanby, Sarah H.
For many patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses, standard psychiatric treatments with mono or combination pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation are ineffective. For these patients with treatment resistant neuropsychiatric illnesses, a main therapeutic option is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Decades of research have found ECT to be highly effective; however, it can also result in adverse neurocognitive effects. Specifically, ECT results in disorientation after each session, anterograde amnesia for recently learned information, and retrograde amnesia for previously learned information. Unfortunately, the neurocognitive effects and underlying mechanisms of action of ECT remain poorly understood. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize the multiple moderating and mediating factors that are thought to underlie the neurocognitive effects of ECT into a coherent model. Such factors include demographic and neuropsychological characteristics, neuropsychiatric symptoms, ECT technical parameters, and ECT associated neurophysiological changes. Future research is warranted to evaluate and test this model, so that these findings may support the development of more refined clinical seizure therapy delivery approaches and efficacious cognitive remediation strategies to improve the utility of this important and widely used intervention tool for neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:24820942
Ghaziuddin, Neera; Gih, Daniel; Barbosa, Virginia; Maixner, Daniel F; Ghaziuddin, Mohammad
Catatonia is a syndrome of motor and behavioral disturbance. It is a poorly understood condition, which is underrecognized and may go untreated despite intensive medical workup and numerous unsuccessful medication trials. However, with treatments known to be effective, such as benzodiazepines and/or electroconvulsive therapy, patients may return to their baseline functioning. Autism and catatonia have been previously reported together. We report 2 patients with autism and mental retardation who developed catatonic symptoms at the onset of puberty. Both patients experienced persistent symptoms over several years and presented with a history of motor disturbance, functional decline, and episodic aggression. Both patients were treated with electroconvulsive therapy resulting in a positive response and functional improvement. Catatonia may persist as a chronic condition, lasting over several months or years, if not recognized and treated.
Blease, Charlotte Rosalind
Major depressive disorder is not only the most widespread mental disorder in the world, it is a disorder on the rise. In cases of particularly severe forms of depression, when all other treatment options have failed, the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a recommended treatment option for patients. ECT has been in use in psychiatric practice for over 70 years and is now undergoing something of a restricted renaissance following a sharp decline in its use in the 1970s. Despite its success in treating severe depression there is continued debate as to the effectiveness of ECT: in some studies, it is argued that ECT is marginally more effective than sham ECT. In addition, there is still no clear explanation of how ECT works; among the range of hypotheses proposed it is claimed that ECT may work by harnessing placebo effects. In light of the uncertainties over the mechanism of action of ECT and given the risk of serious side effects that ECT may produce, I contend that the process of informed consent must include comprehensive accounts of these uncertainties. I examine the possible consequences of providing adequate information to potential ECT patients, including the consideration that ECT may still prove to be effective even if physicians are open about the possibility of it working as a placebo. I conclude that if we value patient autonomy as well as the professional reputation of medical practitioners, a fuller description of ECT must be provided to patients and their carers.
Shibasaki, Chiyo; Takebayashi, Minoru; Itagaki, Kei; Abe, Hiromi; Kajitani, Naoto; Okada-Tsuchioka, Mami; Yamawaki, Shigeto
Inflammatory processes could underlie mood disorders. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP) are inflammation-related molecules. The current study sought an association between mood disorders and systemic levels of MMPs and TIMPs. Serum was obtained from patients with mood disorders (n=21) and patients with schizophrenia (n=13) scheduled to undergo electroconvulsive therapy. Serum was also obtained from healthy controls (n=40). Clinical symptoms were assessed by the Hamilton Rating Score for Depression and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Serum levels of MMPs and TIMPs were quantified by ELISA. The serum levels of MMP-2 in mood disorder patients, but not in schizophrenia patients, prior to the first electroconvulsive therapy session (baseline) was significantly lower than that of healthy controls. At baseline, levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-2, -1 were not different between patients with mood disorder and schizophrenia and healthy controls. After a course of electroconvulsive therapy, MMP-2 levels were significantly increased in mood disorder patients, but MMP-9 levels were significantly decreased in both mood disorder and schizophrenia patients. In mood disorder patients, there was a significant negative correlation between depressive symptoms and serum levels of MMP-2 and a positive correlation between depressive symptoms and MMP-9. In addition, alterations of serum levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly correlated each other and were associated with certain depressive symptoms. A change in inflammatory homeostasis, as indicated by MMP-2 and MMP-9, could be related to mood disorders, and these markers appear to be sensitive to electroconvulsive therapy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Andrade, Chittaranjan; Shah, Nilesh; Venkatesh, Basappa K
There is little literature on the depiction of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in movies. In India, Hindi cinema is an important source of public information and misinformation about ECT. We identified depictions of ECT in Hindi cinema through inquiries with e-communities, video libraries, and other sources. We also searched the PubMed database using search terms related to ECT and movies. Between 1967 and 2008, 13 Hindi movies contained referrals to or depictions of ECT. By and large, the depictions were inaccurate, distorted, and dramatized. Electroconvulsive therapy was administered to punish, to obliterate identity, to induce insanity, and for other rarely clinically valid indications. Electroconvulsive therapy was almost always administered by force. Premedication was rare. Genuine ECT devices were uncommonly used. Electroconvulsive therapy stimulation almost invariably appeared to cause pain. Multiple shocks were frequently delivered in the same session. The convulsions were usually bizarre. The treatment caused mental disturbance, amnesia, weakness, and even a zombielike state, thought not mortality; clinical improvement was rare. There was no pattern of increasing accuracy of depiction of ECT with recency of movie release. We examine the extent to which the identified inaccuracies are practically important and offer reasons for the inaccuracies. Although the inaccuracies are a cause for concern, we suggest that because Hindi cinema is generally hyperbolic, the public may be willing to distinguish real life from reel life when facing clinical decisions about ECT. Nevertheless, considering the potential for harm in the dissemination of misinformation, filmmakers should exhibit a greater sense of ethics when creating impressions that might adversely influence health.
Kittsteiner Manubens, Lucas; Lobos Urbina, Diego; Aceituno, David
Clozapine is considered to be the most effective antipsychotic drug for patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia, but up to a third of the patients do not respond to this treatment. Various strategies have been tried to augment the effect of clozapine in non-responders, one of these strategies being electroconvulsive therapy. However, its efficacy and safety are not yet clear. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified six systematic reviews including 55 studies, among them six randomized controlled trials addressing clozapine-resistant schizophrenia. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded electroconvulsive therapy probably augments response to clozapine in patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia, but it is not possible to determine if it leads to cognitive adverse effects because the certainty of the evidence is very low.
Datto, Catherine; Rai, Anil K; Ilivicky, Howard J; Caroff, Stanley N
Missed or abortive seizures during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may preclude completion of an effective course of treatment in some cases. Seizure augmentation, using proconvulsant agents, has been used to overcome resistance to the induction and continuation of seizure activity. In this review, we analyze published clinical data on the effects and safety of seizure augmentation techniques. Clinical studies and case reports were obtained through a MEDLINE literature search from 1966 to 2001, cross-referencing ECT and proconvulsant agents. Article references were also scanned for relevant studies. Data from clinical trials indicate that augmentation facilitates seizure induction when maximal electrical stimuli fail. Anesthetic modifications, including hyperventilation and substitution with etomidate, ketamine, or other agents, often are successful in overcoming seizure resistance and compare favorably with the use of caffeine. In a few studies, augmentation enabled the use of lower stimulus intensities and fewer treatments without loss of efficacy, even in patients not resistant to seizure induction. However, effects of proconvulsants must be reconciled with increasing evidence of the importance of stimulus dosing relative to seizure threshold and other parameters, now considered key to the efficacy of ECT. Further investigations of pharmacologic augmentation could facilitate the administration of ECT and could provide further insights concerning parameters of seizure efficacy and the mechanism of action underlying convulsive therapies.
Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Barclay, Christopher; Wijeratne, Chanaka
There has been much recent literature on the technical parameters of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with regard to improving efficacy and minimizing adverse effects, but relatively little on ECT service delivery. This paper will discuss the development and characteristics of an ECT service at a teaching hospital in metropolitan Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. A mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods, including a selective literature review and audit of ECT use were used. The results of the audit were compared with the 2007 revision of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists' clinical memorandum on ECT. We discuss issues, such as the optimal site for ECT delivery, ECT mental health nurse coordinator role, credentialing of psychiatrists, registrar supervision, and the development of an ECT committee. A significant finding of the audit was that the majority of patients were treated under the New South Wales Mental Health Act, and voluntary patients were more likely to have a diagnosis of a depressive disorder, whereas involuntary patients were more likely to have a non-mood disorder diagnosis. This study has shown that auditing of ECT practices and services by mental health nurses is essential for quality improvement processes. The audit highlighted areas of service delivery that should be subject to review and evaluation against professional standards. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Kołodziej-Kowalska, Emilia; Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta
An analysis of literature shows that there is still little evidence concerning the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) combined with antipsychotic therapy in a group of treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients. More precisely, its influence on cognitive functions is still equivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ECT combined with antipsychotic therapy on working memory, attention, and executive functions in a group of treatment-refractory schizophrenia patients. Twenty-seven patients completed the study: 14 men and 13 women, aged 21 to 55 years (mean age, 32.8 years), diagnosed with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Each patient underwent a course of ECT sessions and was treated with antipsychotic medications. Before the ECT and within 3 days after the last ECT session, the participants were assessed with the following neuropsychological tests: Trail Making Test (TMT) and Wisconsin Cart Sorting Test (WCST). There were no significant differences in the TMT and WCST results after combined ECT and antipsychotic therapy in treatment-refractory schizophrenia patients. According to the results of the neuropsychological tests, there was no decline in attention, executive functions, or working memory. The current study shows no significant difference in attention, working memory, or executive functions after treatment with a combination of electroconvulsive and antipsychotic therapy. This suggests that combined electroconvulsive therapy may not have a negative influence on the neuropsychological functioning of patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia.
Lévy-Rueff, M; Jurgens, A; Lôo, H; Olié, J-P; Amado, I
Electroconvulsive therapy, a standard treatment in mood disorders, is sometimes also indicated in psychotic disorders, especially in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. In this instance, maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (M-ECT) can also become a long-term treatment. This paper presents the effects of M-ECT in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia using a retrospective analysis. Previous works showed that electroconvulsive therapy is effective on catatonia, anxiety with somatisation, lack of compliance, opposition, delusions especially with hallucinations and persecution, anorexia, agitation, carelessness, aggressive behaviour and moral pain. It is ineffective on bewilderment, somatic complaints and negative symptoms. A retrospective analysis of a clinical cohort of patients treated with M-ECT was carried out to determine the specific indications of M-ECT, its effectiveness on clinical symptoms, quality of life, relapse rates and use of medication. Nineteen patients with DSM-IV diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia (n=5), schizophrenia with neurotic symptoms (n=3), disorganized schizophrenia (n=1), hebephrenia (n=3) and schizoaffective disorder (n=8), treated in the department of the University Hospital of Sainte-Anne in Paris, received M-ECT between 1991 and 2005. Seven patients are still under this treatment. Their mean age at the beginning of treatment was 47.5 years with a mean duration of the illness of 24 years. The indication of M-ECT was the increase of acute episodes, an increase of symptoms intensity, the inefficiency or intolerance to pharmacological treatments or an early relapse after ECT discontinuation. All patients had previously been successfully treated by ECT during an acute episode. Each patient received an average of 47 bilateral M-ECT under general anaesthesia at one to five weeks' intervals for a mean period of 43 months. All of them were also treated by antipsychotics; in addition, 30% received mood stabilizers and 10
Vera, Ignacio; Sanz-Fuentenebro, Javier; Urretavizcaya, Mikel; Verdura, Ernesto; Soria, Virginia; Martínez-Amorós, Erika; Bernardo, Miquel
The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Spain has not been systematically evaluated since 2000 to 2001. The aim of this study is to assess the current use of ECT in Spain. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering every psychiatric unit in Spain as of December 31, 2012. About 93.2% of the centers answered the questionnaire. About 54.9% of the psychiatric units applied ECT at a rate of 0.66 patients per 10,000 inhabitants. Wide variations existed among the different autonomous communities and provinces. Written informed consent was obtained in all the facilities. About 38.2% of ECT-treated patients were 65 years or older. About 55.7% were women. Depressive episodes were the main indication for ECT (80.2%). All the facilities applied modified ECT. No sine wave current devices are currently used in Spain. Bifrontotemporal ECT was elective in 85% of the hospitals, bifrontal in 13.3%, and unilateral in 1.8%. Stimulus titration methods were elective in 8.6% of the centers. The decision to end ECT relied on the psychiatrist's clinical impression in 89.4% of the centers and on rating scales in 10.6%. The ECT training was mandatory in 56.5% of the centers. The ECT practice has significantly improved in Spain in recent years. Overall, Spanish facilities seem to comply with established clinical guidelines; however, specific concerns were identified, meaning there is still further scope for improvement.
Gough, Jessica L; Coebergh, Jan; Chandra, Brunda; Nilforooshan, Ramin
Autoimmune encephalitis is a poorly understood condition that can present with a combination of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, either of which may predominate. There are many autoantibodies associated with a variety of clinical syndromes - anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is the commonest. Currently, the most widely used therapy is prompt plasmapheresis and steroid treatment (and tumour resection if indicated), followed by second line immunosuppression if this fails. Given the growing awareness of autoimmune encephalitis as an entity, it is increasingly important that we consider it as a potential diagnosis in order to provide timely, effective treatment. We discuss several previously published case reports and one new case. These reports examined the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on patients with autoimmune encephalitis, particularly those in whom psychiatric symptoms are especially debilitating and refractory to standard treatment. We also discuss factors predicting good outcome and possible mechanisms by which ECT may be effective. Numerous cases, such as those presented by Wingfield, Tsutsui, Florance, Sansing, Braakman and Matsumoto, demonstrate effective use of ECT in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients with severe psychiatric symptoms such as catatonia, psychosis, narcolepsy and stupor who had failed to respond to standard treatments alone. We also present a new case of a 71-year-old female who presented to a psychiatric unit initially with depression, which escalated to catatonia, delusions, nihilism and auditory hallucinations. After anti-NMDAR antibodies were isolated, she was treated by the neurology team with plasmapheresis and steroids, with a partial response. She received multiple sessions of ECT and her psychiatric symptoms completely resolved and she returned to her premorbid state. For this reason, we suggest that ECT should be considered, particularly in those patients who are non-responders to standard therapies. PMID
Solomon, Susan; Simiyon, Manjula; Vedachalam, Ahalya
This study was done to determine the effectiveness of a lecture and exposure to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) followed by interaction with patient, on medical students' knowledge about and attitude towards electroconvulsive therapy. A questionnaire was administered to second year medical students to determine their baseline knowledge about and attitude towards electroconvulsive therapy. Following this, they underwent two educational interventions, a lecture on ECT and exposure to the procedure and interaction with the patient and relative, and their knowledge and attitude were reassessed after each intervention using the same questionnaire. Eighty-one students completed all the three assessments. Students' knowledge about ECT at baseline was minimal (mean 3.58 out of 12). Their knowledge increased significantly after the lecture (mean 10.3), and there was further increase following exposure to the procedure and subsequent interaction with the patient and relative (mean 11.1). At baseline, students had an overall negative attitude towards ECT. There was significant improvement on all attitude items following the lecture. Exposure to the procedure resulted in further improvement in attitude regarding whether ECT is a cruel treatment and has to be used as a last resort. Exposure to ECT in lecture and clinical scenarios followed by interaction with the patient should be included in the undergraduate medical curriculum to improve students' knowledge and attitude about this safe, effective, and potentially lifesaving treatment modality.
Casamassima, Francesco; Lattanzi, Lorenzo; Perlis, Roy H; Fratta, Sara; Litta, Antonella; Longobardi, Antonio; Stange, Jonathan P; Tatulli, Alessandro; Cassano, Giovanni B
We report a case of a patient with Fahr disease affected by bipolar disorder type I with psychotic symptoms. The complex clinical picture, characterized by both neurological and psychiatric symptoms, proved to be partially or completely resistant to several pharmacological trials. On the contrary, a marked improvement of clinical picture occurred after a cycle of 10 sessions of electroconvulsive therapy, followed by a complete and sustained resolution of mood, cognitive, motor, and behavioral symptoms during the next 4 years.
Iraurgi, Ioseba; Gorbeña, Susana; Martínez-Cubillos, Miren-Itxaso; Escribano, Margarita; Gómez-de-Maintenant, Pablo
Evaluation of therapeutic results and of the efficacy and effectiveness of treatments is an area of interest both for clinicians and researchers. In general, randomized controlled trial designs have been used as the methodology of choice in which intergroup comparisons are made having a minimum of participants in each arm of treatment. However, these procedures are seldom used in daily clinical practice. Despite this fact, the evaluation of treatment results for a specific patient is important for the clinician in order to address if therapeutic goals have been accomplished both in terms of statistical significance and clinical meaningfulness. The methodology based on the reliable change index (Jacobson y Truax)1 provides an estimate of these two criteria. The goal of this article is to propose a procedure to apply the methodology with a single case study of a woman diagnosed with major depression and treated with electroconvulsive therapy. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Jelovac, Ana; OʼConnor, Stephanie; McCarron, Shane; McLoughlin, Declan M
Autobiographical memory in major depression is characterized by reduced specificity, which reflects the tendency to summarize categories of events rather than recall specific instances of events situated in a time and place. This widely studied cognitive marker for depression has not been extensively examined in patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We conducted a retrospective chart review of a naturalistic cohort of patients receiving a course of brief-pulse predominantly bitemporal ECT for a major depressive episode. Patients completed the recent life section of the Kopelman Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) at pre-ECT baseline, end of treatment course, and 3-month follow-up as part of routine clinical practice. Mood was assessed using the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. We identified 48 patients (mean age, 61.6; female, 62.5%) meeting inclusion criteria. A total of 77.1% of patients responded to the ECT course, 29.7% subsequently relapsed. There were no significant changes over time on either AMI total score or semantic and episodic subscales. However, patients were markedly impaired on episodic autobiographical memory compared with the normative sample at all 3 assessment points, whereas personal semantic memory recall was normal. Specificity of episodic autobiographical memory at baseline did not predict response to ECT or likelihood of relapse. We found reduced specificity of episodic autobiographical memory in depressed patients before ECT, which persisted at long-term follow-up despite significant improvement in mood. The finding of no detectable retrograde amnesia likely reflects lack of sensitivity of the recent life section of the AMI to detect ECT-induced changes.
Gedge, Laura; Beaudoin, Ashley; Lazowski, Lauren; du Toit, Regina; Jokic, Ruzica; Milev, Roumen
Objective: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are decreased in individuals with depression and increase following antidepressant treatment. The objective of this study is to compare pre- and post-treatment serum BDNF levels in patients with drug-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) who received either electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). It is hypothesized that non-pharmacological treatments also increase serum BDNF levels. Methods: This was a prospective, single-blind study comparing pre- and post-treatment serum BDNF levels of 29 patients with drug-resistant MDD who received ECT or rTMS treatment. Serum BDNF levels were measured 1 week prior to and 1 week after treatment using the sandwich ELISA technique. Depression severity was measured 1 week before and 1 week after treatment using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Two-sided normal distribution paired t-test analysis was used to compare pre- and post-treatment BDNF concentration and illness severity. Bivariate correlations using Pearson’s coefficient assessed the relationship between post-treatment BDNF levels and post-treatment depression severity. Results: There was no significant difference in serum BDNF levels before and after ECT, although concentrations tended to increase from a baseline mean of 9.95–12.29 ng/ml after treatment (p = 0.137). Treatment with rTMS did not significantly alter BDNF concentrations (p = 0.282). Depression severity significantly decreased following both ECT (p = 0.003) and rTMS (p < 0.001). Post-treatment BDNF concentration was not significantly correlated with post-treatment depression severity in patients who received either ECT (r = −0.133, p = 0.697) or rTMS (r = 0.374, p = 0.126). It is important to note that these results are based on the small number of patients included in this study. Conclusion: This study suggests that ECT and rTMS may not exert their
Sartorius, Alexander; Demirakca, Traute; Böhringer, Andreas; Clemm von Hohenberg, Christian; Aksay, Suna Su; Bumb, Jan Malte; Kranaster, Laura; Ende, Gabriele
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment of choice for severe and therapy resistant forms of major depressive episodes (MDE). Temporal brain volume alterations in MDE have been described for more than two decades. In our prospective study we aimed to investigate individual pre-post ECT treatment whole brain gray matter (GM) volume changes (quantified with voxel-based morphometry) in a sample of 18 patients with MDE. In addition, we studied the effect of ECT on voxel-based cortical thickness in cortical brain regions. The most prominent longitudinal GM increases (significant at a whole brain corrected level) occurred in temporal lobe regions. Within specific region of interest analyses we detected highly significant increases of GM in the hippocampus and the amygdala and to a lesser extent in the habenula (left p=0.003, right p=0.032). A voxel based cortical thickness analysis revealed an increase in cortical temporal regions (basically temporal pole and insula) further corroborating our cortical voxel-based morphometry results. Neither GM decreases or white matter increases nor correlations of GM changes with basic psychopathological parameters were detected. We corroborate earlier findings of hippocampal and amygdala GM volume increase following an acute ECT series in patients with MDE. Temporal GM volume increase was significant on a whole brain level and further corroborated by a cortical thickness analysis. Our data widely exclude white matter loss as an indirect cause of GM growth. Our data add further evidence to the hypothesis that ECT enables plasticity falsifying older ideas of ECT induced "brain damaging".
Informed consent has become the cornerstone of the expression of patient's autonomy for ethical and sound patient-physician relationships. However, some severe psychiatric diseases markedly hinder the ability of selected patients to ensure a proper consent. Confronted with mentally disabled individuals whose condition may lead to violence or inflicting it on others, society must carry out its duty of protecting those who are particularly vulnerable, while respecting and protecting these disabled individuals. The recent update in the indications and more detailed understanding of electroconvulsive therapy, and the technical ability of obtaining less invasive or reversible techniques of psychosurgery, has renewed interest in these impressive and efficient techniques. Specifically, the emergence of new and promising cerebral neurostimulation techniques for treating Parkinson's disease have led to considering their extension to severe psychiatric disorders. This method can mimic the effects of 'conventional' psychosurgery, but in a potentially reversible and adaptable way, thus avoiding many undesirable side-effects of lesional surgery. Ensuring an ethical decision-making process and the appropriateness of consent becomes of paramount importance. Consent can be relatively easy to secure in selected patients who are often fully aware of their torments (such as those suffering from severe refractory depression of obsessive-compulsive disorders) whose suffering may be such that they are ready to accept, or for that matter demand, such actions. However, the duty of physicians is to realize that pains should always be taken to do as much good (and as little harm) as possible, while respecting the freedom of decision of those who seek to help.
Sharma, Nitasha; Ghai, Sandhya; Grover, Sandeep
Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the commonly used treatment modalities for patients with severe mental disorders. However, acceptance of ECT by the patient and relatives often depends on how the health-care professionals themselves present the treatment modality to the patients and their relatives. There is a lack of information about the knowledge and attitude toward ECT among health professionals. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge about and attitude toward ECT among nursing students. Methodology: Knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among nursing students were assessed using ECT knowledge and attitude questionnaires. Results: The study included 183 nursing students. Majority (n = 62; 60.8%) of the participants obtained information about ECT from media (movies, television, print media, etc.). None of the students had full knowledge about ECT. Although a significant proportion of students had knowledge about the ECT procedure and consent procedure, majority of them had poor knowledge about the effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, and side effects of ECT. Negative attitudes were also highly prevalent, with more than two-thirds of the participants having negative attitudes toward ECT on more than half of the attitude items of the scale. Total knowledge score positively correlated with total attitude score, suggesting that higher knowledge was associated with more positive attitude. Conclusions: Although nursing students have knowledge about basic ECT procedure and consent, they lack knowledge about the effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, and side effects of ECT. Negative attitude toward ECT is also highly prevalent among nursing students. Accordingly, there is a need to improve the knowledge and address the negative attitude of nursing students, which may ultimately lead to better acceptance of the treatment. PMID:28936064
Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Kessing, Lars V; Ott, Caroline V; Macoveanu, Julian; Harmer, Catherine J; Jørgensen, Anders; Revsbech, Rasmus; Jensen, Hans M; Paulson, Olaf B; Siebner, Hartwig R; Jørgensen, Martin B
Negative neurocognitive bias is a core feature of major depressive disorder that is reversed by pharmacological and psychological treatments. This double-blind functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated for the first time whether electroconvulsive therapy modulates negative neurocognitive bias in major depressive disorder. Patients with major depressive disorder were randomised to one active ( n=15) or sham electroconvulsive therapy ( n=12). The following day they underwent whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T while viewing emotional faces and performed facial expression recognition and dot-probe tasks. A single electroconvulsive therapy session had no effect on amygdala response to emotional faces. Whole-brain analysis revealed no effects of electroconvulsive therapy versus sham therapy after family-wise error correction at the cluster level, using a cluster-forming threshold of Z>3.1 ( p<0.001) to secure family-wise error <5%. Groups showed no differences in behavioural measures, mood and medication. Exploratory cluster-corrected whole-brain analysis ( Z>2.3; p<0.01) revealed electroconvulsive therapy-induced changes in parahippocampal and superior frontal responses to fearful versus happy faces as well as in fear-specific functional connectivity between amygdala and occipito-temporal regions. Across all patients, greater fear-specific amygdala - occipital coupling correlated with lower fear vigilance. Despite no statistically significant shift in neural response to faces after a single electroconvulsive therapy session, the observed trend changes after a single electroconvulsive therapy session point to an early shift in emotional processing that may contribute to antidepressant effects of electroconvulsive therapy.
Bryson, Alexander; Gardner, Helen; Wilson, Ian; Rolfe, Tim; Archer, John
Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is sometimes prescribed for refractory psychiatric conditions. We describe five patients who received maintenance ECT and developed florid temporal epileptiform abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) despite no history of epilepsy and normal neuroimaging. All patients had received regular ECT for at least 8 months. Three patients had clinical events consistent with epileptic seizures, and video-EEG monitoring captured electrographic seizures in two patients. After cessation of ECT the EEGs normalized in all patients, and no further clinical seizures occurred. Maintenance ECT may predispose to epilepsy with a seizure focus in the temporal lobe. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.
Grover, Sandeep; Kattharaghatta Girigowda, Vijay; Aggarwal, Munish; Malhotra, Nidhi
Catatonia has been reported to occur in various brain pathologies and systemic conditions. We present a case of catatonia associated with hyponatremia treated with a course of electroconvulsive therapy. A 48-year-old woman presented with catatonia and, upon investigation, was found to have persistent/recurrent hyponatremia. Upon investigation also, she was found to have adrenal insufficiency. Her symptoms of catatonia did not respond to correction of hyponatremia, a course of lorazepam, after which she was treated with ECT, with which her catatonia improved.
Strain, Angela Katherine; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Bullard, Elizabeth; Gaynes, Bradley N
Catatonia is a rare syndrome that occurs in mood and psychotic disorders, and general medical conditions. Postpartum depression affects 10%-15% of women within 6 months after delivery. Postpartum psychosis affects 0.1%-0.5% of women within weeks after delivery, though it can occur within hours; it carries risk for suicide and infanticide. There is limited evidence available to guide treatment. We review a case of postpartum psychosis that presented with catatonia and was resistant to medications, but responded to electroconvulsive therapy.
Leiknes, Kari Ann; Jarosh-von Schweder, Lindy; Høie, Bjørg
To explore contemporary (from 1990) utilization and practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) worldwide. Systematic search (limited to studies published 1990 and after) was undertaken in the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, SveMed, and EBSCO/Cinahl. Primary data-based studies/surveys with reported ECT utilization and practice in psychiatric institutions internationally, nationally, and regionally; city were included. Two reviewers independently checked study titles and abstracts according to inclusion criteria, and extracted ECT utilization and practice data from those retrieved in full text. Seventy studies were included, seven from Australia and New Zealand, three Africa, 12 North and Latin America, 33 Europe, and 15 Asia. Worldwide ECT differences and trends were evident, average number ECTs administered per patient were eight; unmodified (without anesthesia) was used in Asia (over 90%), Africa, Latin America, Russia, Turkey, Spain. Worldwide preferred electrode placement was bilateral, except unilateral at some places (Europe and Australia/New Zealand). Although mainstream was brief-pulse wave, sine-wave devices were still used. Majority ECT treated were older women with depression in Western countries, versus younger men with schizophrenia in Asian countries. ECT under involuntary conditions (admissions), use of ambulatory-ECT, acute first line of treatment, as well as administered by other professions (geriatricians, nurses) were noted by some sites. General trends were only some institutions within the same country providing ECT, training inadequate, and guidelines not followed. Mandatory reporting and overall country ECT register data were sparse. Many patients are still treated with unmodified ECT today. Large global variation in ECT utilization, administration, and practice advocates a need for worldwide sharing of knowledge about ECT, reflection, and learning from each other's experiences. PMID:22741102
WANG, Wenzheng; PU, Chengcheng; JIANG, Jiangling; CAO, Xinyi; WANG, Jijun; ZHAO, Min; LI, Chunbo
Background The efficacy and safety of the combined treatment of refractory schizophrenia with antipsychotic medications and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remain uncertain. Aims Conduct systematic review and meta-analysis of available literature in English and Chinese about ECT in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. Methods English and Chinese databases were searched for studies published prior to May 20, 2015 regarding the efficacy and safety of the combined treatment of refractory schizophrenia with antipsychotic medications and ECT. Two researchers selected and evaluated studies independently using pre-defined criteria. Review Manager 5.3 software was used for data analysis. Results A total of 22 randomized control studies, 18 of which were conducted in mainland China, were included in the analysis. Meta-analysis of data from 18 of the 22 studies with a pooled sample of 1394 individuals found that compared to treatment with antipsychotic medications alone, combined treatment with antipsychotic medications and ECT had significantly higher rates of achieving study-specific criteria of ‘clinical improvement’ (RR=1.25, 95%CI=1.14-1.37). Based on the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria, the quality of evidence for this assessment of efficacy was ‘moderate’. However, the proportion of participants who experienced headache during the treatment was significantly higher in the combined treatment group (RR=9.10, 95%CI=3.97-20.86, based on a pooled sample of 517 from 8 studies) and the proportion who experienced memory impairment was also higher in the combined treatment group (RR=6.48, 95%CI=3.54-11.87, based on a pooled sample of 577 from 7 studies). The quality of evidence about these adverse events was rated as ‘very low’. Conclusions There are very few high quality randomized controlled clinical trials about the combination of antipsychotic medications and ECT in the treatment of refractory
Case, Brady G.; Bertollo, David N.; Laska, Eugene M.; Price, Lawrence H.; Siegel, Carole E.; Olfson, Mark; Marcus, Steven C.
Background Falling duration of psychiatric inpatient stays over the past two decades and recent recommendations to tighten federal regulation of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) devices have focused attention on trends in ECT use, but current national data have been unavailable. Methods We calculated the annual number of inpatient stays involving ECT and proportion of general hospitals conducting the procedure at least once in the calendar year using a national sample of discharges from 1993–2009. We estimated adjusted probabilities that inpatients with severe recurrent major depression (N=465,646) were treated in a hospital which conducts ECT and, if so, received the procedure. Results The annual number of stays involving ECT fell from 12.6 to 7.2 per 100,000 adult US residents, driven by dramatic declines among the elderly, while the percentage of hospitals conducting ECT decreased from 14.8% to 10.6%. The percentage of stays for severe recurrent major depression in hospitals which conducted ECT fell from 70.5% to 44.7%, while receipt of ECT where conducted declined from 12.9% to 10.5%. For depressed inpatients, the adjusted probability that the treating hospital conducts ECT fell 34%, while probability of receiving ECT was unchanged for patients treated in facilities which conducted the procedure. Adjusted declines were greatest for the elderly. Throughout the period inpatients from poorer neighborhoods or who were publicly- or un-insured were less likely receive care from hospitals conducting ECT. Conclusions ECT use for severely depressed inpatients has fallen markedly, driven exclusively by a decline in the probability that their hospital conducts ECT. PMID:23059049
Aftab, Awais; VanDercar, Ashley; Alkhachroum, Ayham; LaGrotta, Christine; Gao, Keming
The clinical presentation and risk factors of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in the context of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are poorly understood, and guidance regarding diagnosis and management remains scarce. In this article, we identify case reports of ECT-induced NCSE from literature, and discuss the presentation, diagnosis, and management of these cases in the context of what is known about NCSE from the neurology literature. A literature search on PubMed for case reports of NCSE after ECT. We identified 13 cases for this review. Diagnosis in all cases was based on clinical features and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings. Clinical presentation was altered mental status or unresponsiveness, with subtle motor phenomena in some cases. All cases had nonspecific risk factors that have been associated with prolonged seizures and convulsions, such as recent discontinuation/reduction of benzodiazepines or anticonvulsants, and concurrent use of antipsychotics and antidepressants. All patients were treated with either benzodiazepines or antiepileptic agents. Outcomes in these post-ECT NCSE cases were generally favorable. Although rare, post-ECT NCSE should be kept in mind by physicians when confusion or unresponsiveness develops and continues after ECT; multilead EEG is gold standard for diagnosis. An intravenous (IV) antiepileptic drug (AED) challenge can help clarify the diagnosis. Initial treatment is recommended with IV benzodiazepines, with a repeat dose if necessary. If seizures persist, IV AEDs are warranted. NCSE refractory to this treatment should be treated with a scheduled IV or oral AED. Serial multilead EEGs should be used to monitor resolution of symptoms. NCSE after ECT is a rare but recognizable clinical event. A high clinical suspicion and low threshold for EEG is necessary for prompt diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gressier, Florence; Rotenberg, Samuel; Cazas, Odile; Hardy, Patrick
Postpartum depression can have devastating consequences on the mother and child. Prompt treatment is challenging. Whereas electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be an effective treatment modality in severe depression and brings about rapid clinical improvement, little is known about ECT during the postpartum period. We systematically reviewed the literature on the use of ECT during the postpartum period using PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO databases until September 2014, using the search terms "electroconvulsive therapy" or "ECT" and "postpartum". Then, we described the successful treatment with ECT and the joint mother-baby hospitalization of a woman with severe depression. Eight case reports and 8 studies were identified. All of the studies reported that ECT is effective in the postpartum period. It is well tolerated, provides a fast response and allows for breastfeeding. In addition, our case report showed the benefits of the hospitalization of the mother-baby unit. Combined ECT and joint mother-baby hospitalization could be a valuable treatment by targeting both the mother-infant relationship and the maternal depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Slade, Eric P; Jahn, Danielle R; Regenold, William T; Case, Brady G
Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered the most efficacious treatment available for individuals with severe affective disorders, ECT's availability is limited and declining, suggesting that information about the population-level effects of ECT is needed. To examine whether inpatient treatment with ECT is associated with a reduction in 30-day psychiatric readmission risk in a large, multistate sample of inpatients with severe affective disorders. A quasi-experimental instrumental variables probit model of the association correlation of ECT administration with patient risk of 30-day readmission was estimated using observational, longitudinal data on hospital inpatient discharges from US general hospitals in 9 states. From a population-based sample of 490 252 psychiatric inpatients, a sample was drawn that consisted of 162 691 individuals with a principal diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizoaffective disorder. The key instrumental variable used in the analysis was ECT prevalence in the prior calendar year at the treating hospital. To examine whether ECT's association with readmissions was heterogeneous across population subgroups, analyses included interactions of ECT with age group, sex, race/ethnicity, and diagnosis group. The study was conducted from August 27, 2015, to March 7, 2017. Readmission within 30 days of being discharged. Overall, 2486 of the 162 691 inpatients (1.5%) underwent ECT during their index admission. Compared with other inpatients, those who received ECT were older (mean [SD], 56.8 [16.5] vs 45.9 [16.5] years; P < .001) and more likely to be female (65.0% vs 54.2%; P < .001) and white non-Hispanic (85.3% vs 62.1%; P < .001), have MDD diagnoses (63.8% vs 32.0%; P < .001) rather than bipolar disorder (29.0% vs 40.0%; P < .001) or schizoaffective disorder (7.1% vs 28.0%; P < .001), have a comorbid medical condition (31.3% vs 26.6%; P < .001), have private (39
Hermida, Adriana P; Janjua, A Umair; Tang, Yilang; Syre, Sharyn R; Job, Gregory; McDonald, William M
A major medical problem for patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the occurrence of postictal agitation (PIA). This phenomenon is associated with confusion and disorientation that can have severe clinical implications for the safety of the patient and health care professionals. Many different pharmacological strategies have been used to prevent PIA. We present data on 40 patients who suffered from PIA after a course of ECT and evaluate the prophylactic use of orally disintegrating olanzapine in the prevention of PIA in subsequent ECT treatments.
Ebrahimi, Hossein; Navidian, Ali; Keykha, Roghaieh
Self-esteem is an important potential indicator in etiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe mental illness. ECT is a popular treatment for these patients that can effect on their self-esteem and reinforce their problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of supportive nursing care in increasing self esteem of patients receiving ECT. This clinical trial was conducted in the Baharan psychiatric hospital of Zahedan. A total of 70 cases of patients who received ECT were randomly allocated to control (n=35) and intervention (n=35) groups. The data were collected by demographic characteristics questionnaire and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). Intervention group received the supportive nursing care. The control group received only routine treatment. Self esteem level was measured and compared before and after intervention for two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS using the χ(2), t-test and ANCOVA. RESULTS showed that both groups were homogeneous on the socio- demographic characteristics. The mean self esteem in the intervention group compared with the control group was significantly increased. While controlling the effects of individual and social variables, the result shows significant differences between two groups in the mean scores of self esteem after the intervention. The results suggest that supportive nursing care can have positive effect on self esteem of patients receiving ECT. It is recommended to use this method for increasing self esteem of these patients.
Ebrahimi, Hossein; Navidian, Ali; Keykha, Roghaieh
Introduction: Self-esteem is an important potential indicator in etiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe mental illness. ECT is a popular treatment for these patients that can effect on their self-esteem and reinforce their problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of supportive nursing care in increasing self esteem of patients receiving ECT. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted in the Baharan psychiatric hospital of Zahedan. A total of 70 cases of patients who received ECT were randomly allocated to control (n=35) and intervention (n=35) groups. The data were collected by demographic characteristics questionnaire and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). Intervention group received the supportive nursing care. The control group received only routine treatment. Self esteem level was measured and compared before and after intervention for two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS using the χ2, t-test and ANCOVA. Results: Results showed that both groups were homogeneous on the socio- demographic characteristics. The mean self esteem in the intervention group compared with the control group was significantly increased. While controlling the effects of individual and social variables, the result shows significant differences between two groups in the mean scores of self esteem after the intervention. Conclusion: The results suggest that supportive nursing care can have positive effect on self esteem of patients receiving ECT. It is recommended to use this method for increasing self esteem of these patients. PMID:25276758
Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Merkl, Angela; Wilbertz, Gregor; Quante, Arnim; Regen, Francesca; Bührsch, Nicole; van Hall, Franziska; Kischkel, Eva; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Anghelescu, Ion; Heuser, Isabella; Kathmann, Norbert; Bajbouj, Malek
Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective acute antidepressant intervention, sustained response rates are low. It has never been systematically assessed whether psychotherapy, continuation ECT, or antidepressant medication is the most efficacious intervention to maintain initial treatment response. In a prospective, randomized clinical trial, 90 inpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were treated with right unilateral ultra-brief acute ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy responders received 6 months guideline-based antidepressant medication (MED) and were randomly assigned to add-on therapy with cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBT-arm), add-on therapy with ultra-brief pulse continuation electroconvulsive therapy (ECT-arm), or no add-on therapy (MED-arm). After the 6 months of continuation treatment, patients were followed-up for another 6 months. The primary outcome parameter was the proportion of patients who remained well after 12 months. Of 90 MDD patients starting the acute phase, 70% responded and 47% remitted to acute ECT. After 6 months of continuation treatment, significant differences were observed in the three treatment arms with sustained response rates of 77% in the CBT-arm, 40% in the ECT-arm, and 44% in the MED-arm. After 12 months, these differences remained stable with sustained response rates of 65% in the CBT-arm, 28% in the ECT-arm, and 33% in the MED-arm. These results suggest that ultra-brief pulse ECT as a continuation treatment correlates with low sustained response rates. However, the main finding implicates cognitive-behavioral group therapy in combination with antidepressants might be an effective continuation treatment to sustain response after successful ECT in MDD patients. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rush, Gavin; O’Donovan, Aoife; Nagle, Laura; Conway, Catherine; McCrohan, AnnMaria; O’Farrelly, Cliona; Lucey, James V.; Malone, Kevin M.
Background Immune system dysfunction is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression, and is hypothesized to normalize with successful treatment. We aimed to investigate immune dysfunction in melancholic depression and its response to ECT. Methods 55 melancholic depressed patients and 26 controls participated. 33 patients (60%) were referred for ECT. Blood samples were taken at baseline, one hour after the first ECT session, and 48 hours after ECT series completion. Results At baseline, melancholic depressed patients had significantly higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, and lower levels of the regulatory cytokine TGF-β than controls. A significant surge in IL-6 levels was observed one hour after the first ECT session, but neither IL-6 nor TGF-β levels normalized after completion of ECT series. Seventy per cent (n=23) of ECT recipients showed clinical response and 42% (n=10) reached remission. Neither IL-6 nor TGF-β changes correlated with clinical improvement following ECT. No significant changes in IL-10, TNF-α and CRP levels were found in relation to melancholia or response to ECT. Limitations As a naturalistic study, some potential confounders could not be eliminated or controlled, including medication use. Conclusions Melancholic depressed patients demonstrated a peripheral increase in IL-6 and reduction in TGF-β, which did not normalize despite clinical response to ECT. These findings may be consistent with emerging hypotheses of the role of inflammation in mediating neurotropin expression. The implications of chronic inflammation in the melancholic depressed population for future medical health, particularly cardiovascular risk, are largely unknown and warrant further investigation. PMID:27414954
Convulsive therapy and its progeny, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), were originally used for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia, and there is little doubt that ECT remains an effective intervention for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, current practice tends to favor the use of ECT in severe or treatment refractory affective disorders, and its use in schizophrenia and other nonaffective (atypical) psychotic disorders has become controversial. Case reports have suggested a role for ECT in two specific atypical psychotic disorders: Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. In this article, we review the atypical psychotic disorders and report a series of five case examples that signify the role of ECT in atypical psychotic presentations, particularly when the symptoms resemble those found in Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. PMID:20428309
Walker, R; Swartz, C M
Pregnancy increases the risk of injury associated with mental illness. The varieties of malnutrition, substance abuse, and aggression that may accompany mental illness can injure the unborn child in more severe ways than the patient herself. Dangers associated with illness-related behavior can outweight the risks of pharmacotherapy, but no psychotropic drug is approved for use during pregnancy. Failure to produce a prompt or lasting remission of psychiatric symptoms also is a significant possibility with medication. The morbidity from continued illness and the incompletely described adverse effects of psychotropic drugs increases the attractiveness of ECT for severely depressed pregnant patients, especially with associated high-risk conditions. This paper discusses physiologic changes occurring during pregnancy and ECT and reviews contemporary monitors of maternal and fetal well-being. Guidelines are suggested for ECT during regular and high-risk pregnancies. The authors conclude that using additional precautions with high-risk pregnant patients permits ECT to be given with relative safety; medical and obstetric risk factors need not prevent its use.
Harti, A; Hmamouchi, B; Idali, H; Barrou, L
The anesthesia for sismotherapy is characterized by its briefness and repetitiveness, resulting in several imperatives: anesthesia of short duration, deep narcosis with muscular relaxation and ambulatory character. Thus anesthesic drugs should have a fast onset of action, in order to obtain a rapid and as alert as possible post anesthesia awakening. The objective of this study is to compare two anesthesic drugs: propofol versus thiopentone. We included in this study patients referred to our unit by the psychiatric service for sismotherapy, which was carried on under general anesthesia in the awakening room of the anesthesia department of Ibn Rochd University hospital. 7 of our patients received sismotherapy for schizophrenia, 2 for acute mania and 1 for suicidal depression. A total of 40 sessions of sismotherapy were analyzed, distributed in two groups: group I (n = 20): benefitted of a general anesthesia by thiopentone, the dose was 2 to 3 mg/kg; group II (n = 20): benefitted of general anesthesia by propofol, the dose was 1 to 1.5 mg/kg. Sismotherapy was carried out only once narcosis was considered as deep. To monitor our patients we used electrocardioscope and pulpe oxymeter. We evaluated the quality and especially the time of onset of anesthesia, its duration, the quality of narcosis, the degree of muscular relaxation, respiratory and cardiovascular parameters as well as side effect linked to anesthesia drugs and sismotherapy. Analysis of the results showed that the quality of anesthesia was excellent for both groups. The necessary dose for narcosis was 202 mg for thiopentone and 167 mg for propofol, time of onset of narcosis was 30 seconds for propofol and 45 seconds for thiopentone, anesthesia and the quality of muscular relaxation were considered deep for the two groups. Many authors showed that propofol is the most efficient agent in anesthesia for sismotherapy due to its brief delay of action and faster reversibility. As for thiopentone despite its
Stewart, Jonathan T
There is increasing evidence that a greater degree of postictal suppression (the abruptness and magnitude of the EEG voltage drop at the end of the seizure) may be associated with better clinical response to electroconvulsive therapy. Retrospective studies have shown better postictal suppression when propofol is used for induction rather than the more commonly used methohexital. We report two patients in whom poor postictal suppression was rectified by switching from methohexital to propofol. The clinical significance of this improvement in postictal suppression is unclear, and prospective studies will be needed to clarify any clinical benefits.
Hirshbein, Laura; Sarvananda, Sharmalie
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a psychiatric treatment that has been in use in the United States since the 1940s. During the whole of its existence, it has been extensively discussed and debated within American popular magazines. While initial reports of the treatment highlighted its benefits to patients, accounts by the 1970s and 1980s were increasingly polarized. This article analyzes the popular accounts over time, particularly the ways in which the debates over ECT have revolved around different interpretations of ECT's history and its power dynamics. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Logan, Christopher J; Stewart, Jonathan T
Delirium and agitation are commonly encountered after administration of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Management is generally fairly straightforward, although some patients may have a severe, prolonged, or refractory course. We recently cared for a 65-year-old man who consistently developed severe and very prolonged post-ECT delirium that did not respond to typical pharmacological agents; the duration of delirium was dramatically shortened by the addition of donepezil. Cholinesterase inhibitors may have a place in mitigating severe and prolonged post-ECT delirium.
Goldney, Robert; Adams, Rob
This paper records the introduction of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and psychosurgery to Australia at Parkside Mental Hospital (present day Glenside Hospital) in South Australia. A review of treatment provided at Glenside Hospital since its inception in 1870. The desperate plight of patients and the limited array of interventions leading up to the introduction of ECT and psychosurgery are noted. Their introduction and the early results from the treatments are described. Glenside Hospital, as Parkside Mental Hospital, pioneered the use of ECT and psychosurgery in Australia.
Background The treatment of depressive phases of bipolar disorder is challenging. The effects of the commonly used antidepressants in bipolar depression are questionable. Electroconvulsive therapy is generally considered to be the most effective treatment even if there are no randomized controlled trials of electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar depression. The safety of electroconvulsive therapy is well documented, but there are some controversies as to the cognitive side effects. The aim of this study is to compare the effects and side effects of electroconvulsive therapy to pharmacological treatment in treatment resistant bipolar depression. Cognitive changes and quality of life during the treatment will be assessed. Methods/Design A prospective, randomised controlled, multi-centre six- week acute treatment trial with seven clinical assessments. Follow up visit at 26 weeks or until remission (max 52 weeks). A neuropsychological test battery designed to be sensitive to changes in cognitive function will be used. Setting: Nine study centres across Norway, all acute psychiatric departments. Sample: n = 132 patients, aged 18 and over, who fulfil criteria for treatment resistant depression in bipolar disorder, Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale Score of at least 25 at baseline. Intervention: Intervention group: 3 sessions per week for up to 6 weeks, total up to 18 sessions. Control group: algorithm-based pharmacological treatment as usual. Discussion This study is the first randomized controlled trial that aims to investigate whether electroconvulsive therapy is better than pharmacological treatment as usual in treatment resistant bipolar depression. Possible long lasting cognitive side effects will be evaluated. The study is investigator initiated, without support from industry. Trial registration NCT00664976 PMID:20178636
Sanz-Fuentenebro, Francisco Javier
The process of normalization electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) requires, among other actions, disseminating the latest information on this technique. One of the most complex aspects is the electrical stimulus, whose knowledge should be spread and put into practice. In this paper we review the available information about frequency and number of ECT sessions, and efficacy of each electrode placement. We also present two approaches to determine the ECT charge: stimulus titration versus age-based method; and the limitations of the summary metrics of charge, being necessary to expand our knowledge of the parameters that configure the stimulus: duration, current amplitude frequency and pulse width. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Singh, Amit; Kar, Sujita Kumar
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a time tested treatment modality for the management of various psychiatric disorders. There have been a lot of modifications in the techniques of delivering ECT over decades. Despite lots of criticisms encountered, ECT has still been used commonly in clinical practice due to its safety and efficacy. Research evidences found multiple neuro-biological mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of ECT. ECT brings about various neuro-physiological as well as neuro-chemical changes in the macro- and micro-environment of the brain. Diverse changes involving expression of genes, functional connectivity, neurochemicals, permeability of blood-brain-barrier, alteration in immune system has been suggested to be responsible for the therapeutic effects of ECT. This article reviews different neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic efficacy of ECT. PMID:28783929
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been widely used, with some modification of its methods, for the treatment of refractory mental disorders. In Japan, brief-pulse ECT was approved in 2002 under conditions that well-trained psychiatrists should administer ECT and that modified ECT is mandatory. However, unmodified ECT is still often performed in Japan. We have to improve safety of ECT further. Major indications for ECT are depression and catatonia. Mechanisms of ECT are still unknown, but the neurogenesis hypothesis is promising. Furthermore, several brain stimulation techniques without seizure induction, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, have been introduced for the treatment of refractory mental disorders. Ethical criteria must be determined for further research and treatment with these techniques.
Abbott, Christopher C; Gallegos, Patrick; Rediske, Nathan; Lemke, Nicholas T; Quinn, Davin K
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for a depressive episode but the mechanism of action and neural correlates of response are poorly understood. Different theories have suggested that anticonvulsant properties or neurotrophic effects are related to the unique mechanism of action of ECT. This review assessed longitudinal imaging investigations (both structural and functional) associated with ECT response published from 2002 to August 2013. We identified 26 investigations that used a variety of different imaging modalities and data analysis methods. Despite these methodological differences, we summarized the major findings of each investigation and identified common patterns that exist across multiple investigations. The ECT response is associated with decreased frontal perfusion, metabolism, and functional connectivity and increased volume and neuronal chemical metabolites. The general collective of longitudinal neuroimaging investigations support both the anticonvulsant and the neurotrophic effects of ECT. We propose a conceptual framework that integrates these seemingly contradictory hypotheses.
Boere, E; Birkenhäger, T K; Groenland, T H N; van den Broek, W W
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is associated with at least transient episodes of hypertension and tachycardia. Beta-blocking agents may be indicated to prevent cardiovascular complications and may shorten seizure duration. This review evaluates studies that used beta-blocking agents during ECT to determine which agent has the most favourable outcomes on cardiovascular variables and seizure duration. A Medline database search was made using the combined keywords 'adrenergic beta-antagonists' and 'electroconvulsive therapy'. The search was restricted to double-blind randomized controlled trials and yielded 29 original studies. With the use of esmolol, significant attenuating effects were found on cardiovascular parameters in the first 5 min after stimulation; its shortening effects on seizure duration may be dose-related. With the use of labetalol, findings on cardiovascular effects were inconsistent during the first minutes after stimulation but were significant after 5 min and thereafter; seizure duration was scarcely studied. Landiolol attenuates heart rate but with inconsistent findings regarding arterial pressure (AP); seizure duration was mostly unaffected. Esmolol appears to be effective in reducing the cardiovascular response, although seizure duration may be affected with higher dosages. Landiolol can be considered a suitable alternative, but effects on AP need further investigation. Labetalol has been studied to a lesser extent and may have prolonged cardiovascular effects. The included studies varied in design, methodology, and the amount of exact data provided in the publications. Further study of beta-blocking agents in ECT is clearly necessary. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Prieto Martin, R M; Palomero Rodriguez, M A; de Miguel Fernandez, P; Yusta Martin, G; Alonso Borrego, B; Muriel Villoria, C
Electroconvulsive or electroshock therapy is an effective psychiatric treatment. The need for effective psychotherapy in the pregnant patient and the need to limit application of psychotropic drugs have encouraged the use of electroshock therapy in the past 50 years. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman at 30 weeks' gestation who was hospitalized with severe depression. When her condition worsened after initiation of medical treatment, electroshock therapy was considered. She received a total of 9 sessions (3 per week). During treatments the patient received general anesthesia with propofol and succinylcholine with insertion of a tracheal tube. Significant variations in the hemodynamic variables of mother and fetus were not observed; nor were there signs of fetal distress. The patient experienced clear improvement and 2 days after the last treatment spontaneous labor commenced. A healthy boy was born by vaginal delivery.
de Arriba-Arnau, Aida; Dalmau, Antonia; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Soria, Virginia; Bocos, Javier; Menchón, José Manuel; Urretavizcaya, Mikel
Hyperventilation in electroconvulsive therapy sessions has been associated with seizure threshold, seizure characteristics, and cognitive effects. There is no consensus on the optimal procedure of applying hyperventilation manoeuvres during electroconvulsive therapy. Prospective evaluation of the effects of systematic use of hyperventilation manoeuvres with facial mask and capnography (protocolized hyperventilation [pHV]), on ventilation parameters and on seizures. The study included a sample of 130 sessions (65 performed according to hyperventilation standard practice and 65 successive sessions, with pHV) of 35 patients over a period of 10 weeks. The pHV manoeuvres reduced exhaled CO2 and increased O2 saturation significantly (P<.001). The average CO2 reduction achieved was 6.52±4.75mmHg (95% CI -7.7 to -5.3). The CO2 values after pHV correlated significantly with seizure duration and O2 values, with other electroencephalographic quality indices. In pHV sessions, compared with sessions performed according to hyperventilation standard practice, the average lengthening of the motor and electroencephalographic seizure was 3.86±14.62 and 4.73±13.95s, respectively. No differences were identified in other ictal quality parameters. The proposed pHV manoeuvres significantly modify ventilation parameters. The hypocapnia and hyperoxia obtained by applying these manoeuvres lengthen the duration of seizures without worsening the quality of the electroencephalographic trace. The use of pHV is generalisable and might improve electroconvulsive therapy procedure without adding costs. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Background Considered as a moment of psychological vulnerability, adolescence is remarkably a risky period for the development of psychopathologies, when the choice of the correct therapeutic approach is crucial for achieving remission. One of the researched therapies in this case is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The present study reviews the recent and classical aspects regarding ECT use in adolescents. Methods Systematic review, performed in November 2012, conformed to the PRISMA statement. Results From the 212 retrieved articles, only 39 were included in the final sample. The reviewed studies bring indications of ECT use in adolescents, evaluate the efficiency of this therapy regarding remission, and explore the potential risks and complications of the procedure. Conclusions ECT use in adolescents is considered a highly efficient option for treating several psychiatric disorders, achieving high remission rates, and presenting few and relatively benign adverse effects. Risks can be mitigated by the correct use of the technique and are considered minimal when compared to the efficiency of ECT in treating psychopathologies. PMID:23718899
Benson-Martin, Janine J; Milligan, Peter D
The aim of this study was to describe the contemporary practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in South Africa. A 36-item questionnaire was sent to all hospitals that practiced ECT in a 12-month period between 2011 and 2012. Forty-two institutions had an ECT machine on site, but 13 institutions reported nonuse. Electroconvulsive therapy services were available in only 6 of the 9 provinces. Questionnaires were sent to the 29 active sites. Twenty-four units (82.8%) responded, and of these, 20 institutions (68.9%) responded to question on the number of patients treated with ECT. Pre-ECT procedures commonly involved informed consent, a physical examination, and basic blood investigations. Bilateral, unilateral, and bifrontal electrode placements were used, whereas dose titration methods and seizure monitoring were used by most respondents. The number of persons treated with ECT per 10,000 persons per year was 0.22, whereas the number of ECT procedures performed per 10,000 persons per year was 1.19. The most common indication for ECT was depression, with most patients being between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The characteristics and rate of ECT utilization in South Africa have been determined and generally emulated international guidelines and trends. However, accessibility to services and aspects such as training and accreditation could be improved.
Wo, Nolan King Hop; Guyitt, Brendan; Owen, Richard
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can raise feelings of fear and anxiety in our patients. No documented cases of phobia regarding ECT or its treatment were found in the literature. We present a patient who developed anxiety regarding ECT that was severe enough to be classified as a phobia. She was successfully treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for her phobia and was subsequently able to tolerate ECT. We conducted a literature review of ECT phobia, fear, and anxiety using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE. We outlined how CBT, in our specific case, was helpful in treating extreme and unrealistic fears concerning ECT. We could not find a case of phobia related to ECT in the literature; however, both qualitative and quantitative studies illustrate that ECT causes anxiety and fear. Although cases of ECT phobia are rare, feelings of fear and anxiety surrounding ECT are common. The experience of ECT is individualized for each patient, and CBT can be a successful treatment in those who have anxiety related to ECT.
Häßler, Frank; Reis, Olaf; Weirich, Steffen; Höppner, Jacqueline; Pohl, Birgit; Buchmann, Johannes
This article presents a case of a 14-year-old female twin with schizophrenia who developed severe catatonia following treatment with olanzapine. Under a combined treatment with amantadine, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and (currently) ziprasidone alone she improved markedly. Severity and course of catatonia including treatment response were evaluated with the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS). This case report emphasizes the benefit of ECT in the treatment of catatonic symptoms in an adolescent patient with schizophrenic illness.
Rattehalli, Ranganath D; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Rawat, Vikram; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Adams, Clive E
The second edition of The ECT Handbook of the Royal College of Psychiatrists gives importance to the pattern of electroencephalographic (EEG) seizure rather than to the duration for measuring seizure adequacy. We examined the potential effect of this change in definition by estimating the restimulation rates in electroconvulsive therapy. The new definition of EEG seizure was applied to 102 computerized EEG recordings obtained during electroconvulsive therapy sessions in an academic institute in India. The EEGs were read by 2 independent researchers blind to each other's ratings and blind to the motor seizure status. All 41 seizures considered "adequate" by the old definition also satisfied the new definition. Only 1 (2%) of the 58 "inadequate" seizures by the old definition was found to be adequate by the new definition. We had a very good interrater agreement on this reclassification (kappa = 0.86). In this sample, a seizure with polyspikes and a 3-Hz activity (new definition) tended to last longer than 25 seconds (old definition), satisfying both definitions. An estimated 2% of the patients with adequate seizures could have been restimulated during the study period.
Kayser, Sarah; Bewernick, Bettina H; Soehle, Martin; Switala, Christina; Gippert, Sabrina M; Dreimueller, Nadine; Schlaepfer, Thomas E
Anesthesia is required for both magnetic seizure therapy (MST) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), although it has anticonvulsant properties. In this case, bispectral index (BIS) monitoring, a specific electroencephalogram-derived monitoring, can be used to find the optimal seizure induction time during anesthesia to elicit adequate seizures. A measurement of seizure adequacy in electroencephalogram is the postictal suppression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of seizure induction time on the degree of postictal suppression by comparing BIS versus no-BIS monitoring in MST and ECT. Twenty patients with treatment-resistant depression were randomly assigned to either MST or ECT. Each patient underwent 3 treatments with the determination of seizure induction time by defined prestimulation BIS (BIS condition) and 3 treatments with determination of seizure induction time by controlled clinical trial protocol (no-BIS condition). Statistical analysis was calculated by repeated-measures analysis of variance. The degree of postictal suppression was more pronounced in both MST and ECT, with BIS monitoring. In this connection, no differences between MST and ECT were found. Seizure induction time was significantly later in the BIS condition (181.3 ± 6 seconds) compared with the no-BIS condition (114.3 ± 12 seconds) (P < 0.001). Adequacy of seizures, in the form of the degree of postictal suppression, was superior by determining the seizure induction time with BIS in both MST and ECT. Further research is needed to investigate the correlation between the degree of postictal suppression and treatment response.
McClintock, Shawn M.; Brandon, Anna R.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Jarrett, Robin B.
Objective Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, after acute phase treatment and initial remission, relapse rates are significant. Strategies to prolong remission include continuation phase ECT, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or their combinations. This systematic review synthesizes extant data regarding the combined use of psychotherapy with ECT for the treatment of patients with severe MDD and offers the hypothesis that augmenting ECT with depression-specific psychotherapy represents a promising strategy for future investigation. Methods The authors performed two independent searches in PsychInfo (1806 – 2009) and MEDLINE (1948 – 2009) using combinations of the following search terms: Electroconvulsive Therapy (including ECT, ECT therapy, electroshock therapy, EST, shock therapy) and Psychotherapy (including cognitive behavioral, interpersonal, group, psychodynamic, psychoanalytic, individual, eclectic, and supportive). We included in this review a total of six articles (English language) that mentioned ECT and psychotherapy in the abstract, and provided a case report, series, or clinical trial. We examined the articles for data related to ECT and psychotherapy treatment characteristics, cohort characteristics, and therapeutic outcome. Results Although research over the past seven decades documenting the combined use of ECT and psychotherapy is limited, the available evidence suggests that testing this combination has promise and may confer additional, positive functional outcomes. Conclusions Significant methodological variability in ECT and psychotherapy procedures, heterogeneous patient cohorts, and inconsistent outcome measures prevent strong conclusions; however, existing research supports the need for future investigations of combined ECT and psychotherapy in well-designed, controlled clinical studies. Depression-specific psychotherapy approaches may need special
Andrade, Chittaranjan; Shah, N.; Tharyan, P.; Reddy, M. S.; Thirunavukarasu, M.; Kallivayalil, R. A.; Nagpal, R.; Bohra, N. K.; Sharma, A.; Mohandas, E.
Background: In modern day psychiatric practice, it is assumed as a matter of fact that when electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is administered, it will be administered under anesthesia and with succinylcholine (or its equivalent) modification. Yet, as surveys indicate, there is considerable practice of unmodified ECT in developing countries and, to a small extent, in the developed world, as well. Materials and Methods: This document examines historical and recent literature on the geographical practice, physiology, efficacy, and adverse effects of unmodified ECT. Particular attention is paid to musculoskeletal risks. Results: Although almost all the research is of poor methodological quality, there is a good reason to accept that unmodified ECT is associated with a wide range of adverse consequences, important among which are musculoskeletal complications, pre-ECT anxiety, and post-ECT confusion. However, it appears from recent data that these risks are not as large as historically portrayed. Possibly explanations are suggested, with seizure modification using parenteral benzodiazepines as a special possibility. Conclusions: Under exceptional circumstances, if ECT is strongly indicated and seizure modification with succinylcholine is not feasible, unmodified ECT, especially benzodiazepine-modified ECT, may be a viable option. A detailed set of recommendations for such use of unmodified ECT is proposed along with necessary checks and balances. This document has been approved by the Indian Psychatric Society, the Indian Association of Biological Psychiatry, and the Indian Association of Private Psychiatry (which commissioned the preparation of the document). PMID:22988318
Sienaert, Pascal; Falconieri, Tamara; Obbels, Jasmien; van den Ameele, Hans; Bouckaert, Filip
The aims of this study were to review the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Belgium and to compare it with the practice of ECT a decade ago. A 30-item questionnaire on the practice of ECT was sent to all institutions providing ECT. Results were compared with the results of a survey performed in 2003. In 2013 to 2014, ECT was performed in 13.7% of all psychiatric services, equaling 1 ECT unit per 584,187 inhabitants. Fifteen of the 19 psychiatric services (78.94%) providing ECT replied to the questionnaire. Practice of ECT has improved significantly. This questionnaire study relies upon answers given by psychiatrists and did not audit actual practices. The past decade, Belgium has witnessed significant changes in the practice of ECT. The number of facilities providing ECT almost halved adding to the growing expertise of fewer but larger ECT facilities. A possible down side to specialization is a potential diminution of the availability of ECT, requiring adequate referral policies in hospitals without ECT facilities. Although the practice significantly improved, continuous education is needed.
Kayser, Sarah; Bewernick, Bettina H; Hurlemann, René; Soehle, Martin; Schlaepfer, Thomas E
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is highly effective for treatment-resistant depression (TRD); however, its use for less severe forms of depression is somewhat limited by a lack of control over current spreading to medial temporal lobe memory structures, resulting in various cognitive side effects. In contrast, magnetic seizure therapy (MST), which uses high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for local seizure induction, has been associated with reduced cognitive side effects. To assess whether different characteristics of seizures induced by both methods are responsible for the differences in neuropsychological side-effect profile, we studied seven TRD-patients undergoing both MST and ECT in an open-label, within subject, controlled crossover pilot study. Comparison parameters included seizure-related ictal characteristics, including motor activity, electromyogram (EMG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and postictal recovery and reorientation times.Our results showed no differences in motor activity or EMG and EEG characteristics, thus implicating similar electrophysiological processes in seizure induction with MST and ECT. In line with previous studies, we observed shorter postictal recovery and reorientation times following MST.The ictal characteristics of induced seizures were found similar with ECT and MST suggesting that the more focal seizure induction associated with MST may account for the more beneficial neuropsychological side effect profile of MST.
Electroconvulsive therapy changes the regional resting state function measured by regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in elderly major depressive disorder patients: An exploratory study.
Kong, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Shu-Xian; Sun, Yan; Wang, Ke-Yong; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Ji; Xia, Jin-Xiang; Zhang, Li; Tan, Bo-Jian; Xie, Xin-Hui
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective and rapid treatment for severe major depressive disorder (MDD) in elderly patients. The mechanism of ECT is unclear, and studies on ECT in elderly MDD patients by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging are rare. Thirteen elderly MDD patients were scanned before and after ECT using a 3.0T MRI scanner. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were processed to compare resting-state function before and after treatment. Depression and anxiety symptoms of all patients abated after ECT. Decreased ReHo values in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG) were observed after ECT, and the values of right SFG significantly correlated with an altered Hamilton depression rating scale score. Increased ALFF values in the left middle frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, orbital part, and decreased ALFF values in the left midcingulate area, left precentral gyrus, right SFG/middle frontal gyrus after ECT were also observed. These results support the hypothesis that ECT may affect the regional resting state brain function in geriatric MDD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kaido, Takanobu; Noda, Takamasa; Otsuki, Taisuke; Kaneko, Yuu; Takahashi, Akio; Nakai, Tetsuji; Nabatame, Maki; Tani, Mariko
Here, we report the case of a patient successfully treated by a series of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) who had implanted skull fixation devices made of titanium alloy. The patient was a 57-year-old man with bipolar I disorder. He was hospitalized for the treatment of manic symptoms of bipolar I disorder with pharmacotherapy and ECT. He sustained a fall and hit his head hard on the ground. Acute subdural hematoma developed, and emergent surgery to remove the hematoma was carried out. Cranioplasty was performed using fixation devices made of titanium alloy (Ti 6Al-4V). In order to control his manic symptoms, a series of ECT was readministered from 1 week after surgery. No adverse effects occurred. Devices must be investigated and chosen very carefully for permanent implantation, especially in patients during a course of ECT.
van Buel, E M; Patas, K; Peters, M; Bosker, F J; Eisel, U L M; Klein, H C
A low-grade inflammatory response is commonly seen in the peripheral blood of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, especially those with refractory and chronic disease courses. However, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), the most drastic intervention reserved for these patients, is closely associated with an enhanced haematogenous as well as neuroinflammatory immune response, as evidenced by both human and animal studies. A related line of experimental evidence further shows that inflammatory stimulation reinforces neurotrophin expression and may even mediate dramatic neurogenic and antidepressant-like effects following exposure to chronic stress. The current review therefore attempts a synthesis of our knowledge on the neurotrophic and immunological aspects of ECT and other electrically based treatments in psychiatry. Perhaps contrary to contemporary views, we conclude that targeted potentiation, rather than suppression, of inflammatory responses may be of therapeutic relevance to chronically depressed patients or a subgroup thereof. PMID:26218851
Singh, Priti; Gupta, Rajiv; Kundu, Savita
We report a rare case of paranoid schizophrenia presenting with continuous mutism for about three years. This 26-year-old woman with multiple Schneiderian first-rank symptoms [‘Schneiderian’ refers to those symptoms established by the German psychiatrist Kurt Schneider for the diagnosis of schizophrenia] did not have any catatonic features, and she would fluently communicate by gesturing or writing. Since there was serious impairment in biological functions not readily correctable by antipsychotics, she was started on electroconvulsive therapy. She responded well to 14 sessions of electroconvulsive therapy along with oral haloperidol. We also discuss the cultural implications of prolonged mutism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of mutism in noncatatonic paranoid schizophrenia that responded well to electroconvulsive therapy described in the literature. PMID:24062967
Loiseau, Annie; Harrisson, Marie-Claude; Beaudry, Vincent; Patry, Simon
Objectives Electroconvulsive therapy’s (ECT) safety and tolerability is well-established in the treatment of severe psychiatric disorders in adults, but has been less studied in youth. The aim of the present study was to describe the use of ECT in youth in Quebec City and obtain Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists’ (CAP) perceptions in the province of Quebec. Methods The authors reviewed charts of minors who received ECT treatment in the Quebec City metropolitan area between 1995 and 2014 (part 1). Data was also collected on CAP perceptions and experience of ECT use in youth by means of a survey (part 2). Results Part 1 included four girls and two boys, aged between 15 and 17. The main diagnoses were: mood disorders and schizoaffective disorder. Patients received between four and twelve ECT sessions. Five patients responded to treatment, whereas one did not. Treatment and side effects are presented. For part 2, 53 CAP answered the survey. Forty-eight (91%) thought ECT is a good treatment option after failure of other therapeutic modalities and 12 (23%) had prescribed it. All respondents wished to receive additional training regarding ECT use in youth. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the notion that ECT use in youth with a refractory and complex disease is a safe and effective treatment, although rarely used. The majority of psychiatrists treating children and adolescents in Quebec favor ECT when all available therapeutic modalities have failed, but wished they had more training regarding its use. PMID:28331498
Hagen, Eunice; Shprung, Dana; Minakova, Elena; Washington, James; Kumar, Udaya; Shin, Don; Sankar, Raman; Mazarati, Andrey
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by impairments in social and communication abilities, as well as by restricted and repetitive behaviors. Incidence of autism is higher than earlier estimates, and treatments have limited efficacy and are costly. Limited clinical and experimental evidence suggest that patients with autism may benefit from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We examined the therapeutic potential of ECT in BTBR T+ tf/j mice, which represent a validated model of autism. A series of 13 electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) delivered twice a day over 7 days reversed core autism-like behavioral abnormalities-impaired sociability, social novelty, and repetitive behavior-when the animals were tested 24 h after the last ECS. The effect lasted up to 2 weeks after ECT. Neither single ECS nor a series of 6 ECS modified animals' behavior. Chronic infusion into the lateral brain ventricle of a preferential oxytocin receptor blocker (2S)-2-Amino-N-[(1S,2S,4R)-7,7-dimethyl-1-[[[4-(2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]sulfonyl]methyl]bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]-4-(methylsulfonyl)butanamide hydrochloride abolished ECT-induced improvement of sociability and mitigated improvement of social novelty but did not affect ECT-induced reversal of repetitive behavior. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that ECT may, indeed, be useful in the treatment of autism, and that its therapeutic effects may be mediated, in part, by central oxytocin signaling.
Rapinesi, Chiara; Del Casale, Antonio; Serata, Daniele; Caccia, Federica; Di Pietro, Simone; Scatena, Paola; Carbonetti, Paolo; Fensore, Claudio; Angeletti, Gloria; Tatarelli, Roberto; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo
A 41-year-old man with comorbid binge-eating disorder, severe obesity, and bipolar disorder since the age of 20 years, resistant to drug and psychotherapy combinations, worsened progressively. Relentless weight gain forced him to immobility and dependence on others. He was hospitalized for a mixed-mood episode with anxiety, mystical delusions, and auditory hallucinations. To overcome treatment resistance, we suggested electroconvulsive therapy. After 1 electroconvulsive therapy cycle, psychological symptoms promptly improved. He received clozapine and lithium. After 2 years, he reached normal weight and fair psychopathological compensation.
Shukla, Lekhansh; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Gopinath, Srinath; Math, Suresh Bada
Catatonia is a common presentation to psychiatric services in developing countries. Medical causes of catatonia are common and are difficult to treat. A 20-year-old woman presented with an acute illness consisting of fever, delirium, perceptual abnormalities, and catatonic state. After trials with antiviral medications, benzodiazepines, and atypical antipsychotic medications, she was treated with 6 sessions of electroconvulsive therapy with complete recovery and no complications. Catatonia arising in the background of organic pathology can be treated on similar lines as in other psychiatric disorders. Electroconvulsive therapy can be a safe option that needs consideration in such cases after ruling out the contraindications.
Varma, S.L.; Trivedi, J K; Anand, Mohini; Gulam, Ram; Lal, Narottam
SUMMARY Sixty patients of endogenous depression and thirty normal controls were studied to find out the relationship of post dexamethasone plasma Cortisol levels (PDPC) and clinical improvement of endogenous depression inpatients treated with electroconvulsive therapy and imipramine. The PDPC levels in both the group of patients showed significant decrease with clinical improvement (Pre and post treatment PDPC values of ECT group was 20.7 ug/dl and 13.6 ug/dl while it was 17.9 ug/dl and 12.7 ug/dl respectively for the Imipramine group). A significant correlation was also found between PDPC and severity of illness (p< 0.001) in the both groups which indicates that PDPC levels is independent of treatment modality used. PMID:21927362
Cristancho, Mario A; Alici, Yesne; Augoustides, John G; O'Reardon, John P
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and effective treatment for severe mood disorders. Rarely there can be serious complications, such as postictal agitation, cardiovascular compromise, prolonged seizures, and status epilepticus, all of which are important for the clinician to recognize and treat. Postictal agitation can be severe, requiring emergent intervention and subsequent prophylactic measures to avoid premature ECT discontinuation. Cardiovascular responses to ECT include significant hemodynamic changes that may result in complications, even in patients without preexisting cardiovascular conditions. However, preexisting cardiovascular conditions per se are not contraindications to ECT in patients with disabling psychiatric disease. Recognizing and treating prolonged seizures is essential to prevent progression to status epilepticus. Failure to recognize and treat any of these events may result in increased mortality and morbidity. Understanding such complications and their management strategies avoids unnecessary treatment discontinuation due to manageable ECT complications.
Casas Reza, P; Gestal Vázquez, M; Outeiro Rosato, Á; López Álvarez, S; Diéguez García, P
Neuroleptics are a group of drugs widely used in the treatment of psychotic symptoms. Among their adverse effects is the ability to trigger a neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). The diagnosis of NMS is determined by exclusion, and its initial therapeutic management should be the withdrawal of neuroleptics, the administration of benzodiazepines, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). ECT is an effective treatment in these patients, and in those cases with a poor response to treatment with antipsychotic drugs. A review is presented on the treatment options and anaesthetic implications of ECT used to handle a patient diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia in the context of NMS. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Dos Santos-Ribeiro, Samara; Lins-Martins, Natália M; Frydman, Ilana; Conceição do Rosário, Maria; Ferrão, Ygor A; Shavitt, Roseli G; Yücel, Murat; Miguel, Euripedes C; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who sought treatment in seven different specialized centers (n=1001) were evaluated with a structured assessment battery. Thirteen OCD patients (1.3% of the sample) reported having been treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the past. They were older and exhibited higher global severity of OCD symptoms, but were less likely to display symmetry/ordering and contamination/washing symptoms. They also had greater suicidality and increased rates of psychosis. Finally, OCD patients exposed to ECT were more frequently treated with antipsychotics, although they did not differ in terms of responses to adequate trials with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Cai-Cai; Qian, Xiao-Yan; An, Jian-Xiong; Yu, Zeng-Lei; Wu, Jian-Ping; Wen, Hui; Cao, Zong-Xin; Wang, Yong; Fang, Qi-Wu; Williams, John P
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has dramatically reduced musculoskeletal complications when carried out with muscle relaxants under general anesthesia. However, seizure quality can be affected by the depth of anesthesia and choice of anesthetic agent. The purpose of this study was to describe a general anesthetic technique for ECT by using laryngeal mask, bispectral index (BIS), and muscle relaxant monitoring. Twenty-one patients, between ages 18 and 70 years (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III), who underwent a total of 89 sessions of ECT were examined in a retrospective study. Anesthesia was induced by use of propofol (1.0 mg/kg) followed by cisatracurium (0.2 mg/kg). The BIS, train-of-four, and end-tidal carbon dioxide were all monitored continuously. A laryngeal mask airway was used to maintain and protect the airway during the procedure. Electroconvulsive therapy stimuli were applied bilaterally when the train-of-four was assessed as being zero and BIS scores were 70. All patients then received 5 μg sufentanil and 2 mg midazolam, while titrated to maintain the BIS value at 40 to 50, before the muscle relaxation exhibited complete recovery. The mean duration of treatment process takes approximately 82.5 minutes. Mean (SD) seizure length was 58.8 (28.3) seconds, with 4.5% incidence of restimulation per treatment. Incidence of awareness was 0%. No patients exhibited delirium, nausea, vomiting, or myalgia in the postseizure phase. Bispectral index monitoring of the depth of anesthesia may have improved seizure quality, and awareness did not occur.
Kugler, Joseph L; Hauptman, Aaron J; Collier, Samuel J; Walton, Amy E; Murthy, Smitha; Funderburg, Linda G; Garcia, Keith S
Catatonia is a syndrome heterogeneous with regard to presentation and etiology. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the first-line treatment for catatonia. Literature review reveals only a few published case reports on the use of right unilateral (RUL) ECT in catatonia, 1 case report on ultrabrief RUL ECT, and an absence of evidence on the relative effectiveness and tolerability of RUL versus bilateral ECT in treating catatonia. In contrast, there are multiple reports in the literature of robustly dosed bilateral ECT, often administered on consecutive days. Reasons for choosing this intervention over the better-tolerated RUL treatment include assumptions about its relative speed and/or breadth of efficacy. Here we present a case series of 13 catatonic patients treated in an academic center over the course of the last 3 years. Our experience suggests that ultrabrief RUL ECT can rapidly and effectively treat catatonia from diverse etiologies.
Dukart, Juergen; Regen, Francesca; Kherif, Ferath; Colla, Michael; Bajbouj, Malek; Heuser, Isabella; Frackowiak, Richard S.; Draganski, Bogdan
There remains much scientific, clinical, and ethical controversy concerning the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for psychiatric disorders stemming from a lack of information and knowledge about how such treatment might work, given its nonspecific and spatially unfocused nature. The mode of action of ECT has even been ascribed to a “barbaric” form of placebo effect. Here we show differential, highly specific, spatially distributed effects of ECT on regional brain structure in two populations: patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder. Unipolar and bipolar disorders respond differentially to ECT and the associated local brain-volume changes, which occur in areas previously associated with these diseases, correlate with symptom severity and the therapeutic effect. Our unique evidence shows that electrophysical therapeutic effects, although applied generally, take on regional significance through interactions with brain pathophysiology. PMID:24379394
Haq, Aazaz U; Ghaziuddin, Neera
Frequent aggression toward others and repetitive self-injurious behaviors (SIB) can be features of catatonia in patients with autism. Similar to catatonia secondary to other etiologies, catatonia associated with autism responds well to treatment with benzodiazepines and/or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The authors report here on two adolescent patients with autism who presented with severe aggression, one of whom also engaged in repetitive SIB. With ongoing treatment with maintenance ECT, dramatic reduction in aggression and SIB were noted, allowing both patients a reasonable quality of life in their own homes. Attempts to taper off ECT coincided with return of aggression symptoms, although not SIB.
Ghaziuddin, N.; Kutcher, S. P.; Knapp, P.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be an effective treatment for adolescents with severe mood disorders and other Axis I psychiatric disorders when more conservative treatments have been unsuccessful. ECT may be considered when there is a lack of response to two or more trials of pharmacotherapy or when the severity of symptoms precludes waiting…
Warnell, Ronald L.; Duk, Anthony D.; Christison, George W.; Haviland, Mark G.
Objective: To compare the effects of learning about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) via live observation to learning via an instructional videotape. Method: During their psychiatry clerkship, 122 medical students were randomized using these two educational methods, and their ECT knowledge and attitudes were assessed during the first and last weeks…
Wachtel, Lee Elizabeth; Griffin, Margaret Merrie; Dhossche, Dirk Marcel; Reti, Irving Michael
A 14-year-old male with autism and mild mental retardation developed malignant catatonia characterized by classic symptoms of catatonia, bradycardia and hypothermia. Bilateral electroconvulsive therapy and lorazepam were required for resolution. The case expands the occurrence of catatonia in autism into its malignant variant.
Wachtel, Lee Elizabeth; Griffin, Margaret Merrie; Dhossche, Dirk Marcel; Reti, Irving Michael
A 14-year-old male with autism and mild mental retardation developed malignant catatonia characterized by classic symptoms of catatonia, bradycardia and hypothermia. Bilateral electroconvulsive therapy and lorazepam were required for resolution. The case expands the occurrence of catatonia in autism into its malignant variant.
Ghaziuddin, N.; Kutcher, S. P.; Knapp, P.
Warnell, Ronald L.; Duk, Anthony D.; Christison, George W.; Haviland, Mark G.
Objective: To compare the effects of learning about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) via live observation to learning via an instructional videotape. Method: During their psychiatry clerkship, 122 medical students were randomized using these two educational methods, and their ECT knowledge and attitudes were assessed during the first and last weeks…
Tor, Phern-Chern; Bautovich, Alison; Wang, Min-Jung; Martin, Donel; Harvey, Samuel B; Loo, Colleen
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective depression treatment, but it has potential cognitive side effects. Ultrabrief pulse (UBP) right unilateral (RUL) ECT is an increasingly used treatment option that can potentially combine efficacy with lesser cognitive side effects. However, current trials are underpowered or have conflicting results. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relative efficacy and cognitive effects of brief pulse (BP) and UBP RUL ECT. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, DARE, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched with the search terms ECT, electroconvulsive therapy, electroconvulsive shock, electroconvulsive shock therapy, electrical stimulation, electroconvulsive combined with brief, ultra*, pulse, and trial in English, all fields including title, abstract, subject heading, and full text up to June 20, 2013, for studies comparing BP and UBP RUL ECT in depressed patients that reported formalized mood ratings for depression. Six studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 689 patients. Efficacy, cognitive, response, and remission outcomes were extracted from each publication or obtained directly from authors. BP RUL ECT was significantly more efficacious in treating depression than UBP RUL ECT (standardized mean difference = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08–0.41; P = .004) but showed significantly more cognitive side effects in all cognitive domains examined (global cognition, anterograde learning and recall, retrograde memory) (P < .01). The mean number of treatment sessions given was 8.7 for BP ECT and 9.6 for UBP ECT (P < .001). UBP had a lower remission rate (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51–0.99; P = .045), with a number needed to treat of 12.1. BP compared with UBP RUL ECT was slightly more efficacious in treating depression and required fewer treatment sessions, but led to greater cognitive side effects. The decision of whether to use BP or UBP RUL ECT should be made on an
Acharya, Deepa; Harper, David G; Achtyes, Eric D; Seiner, Stephen J; Mahdasian, Jack A; Nykamp, Louis J; Adkison, Lesley; Van der Schuur White, Lori; McClintock, Shawn M; Ujkaj, Manjola; Davidoff, Donald A; Forester, Brent P
Agitation and aggression are among the most frequent and disruptive behavioral complications of dementia that contribute to increased cost of care, hospitalization, caregiver burden, and risk of premature institutionalization. This current study examined the safety and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as a treatment for behavioral disturbances in dementia. We hypothesized that ECT would result in reduced agitated and aggressive behaviors between baseline and discharge. Twenty-three participants admitted to McLean Hospital (Belmont, MA, USA) and Pine Rest Christian Mental Health Services (Grand Rapids, MI, USA), with a diagnosis of dementia who were referred for ECT to treat agitation and/or aggression, were enrolled in the study. We administered the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory-Short Form, Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version, Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, and the Clinical Global Impression Scale at baseline, during, and after the ECT course. Regression analyses revealed a significant decrease from baseline to discharge on the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (F(4,8) = 13.3; p = 0.006) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (F(4,31) = 14.6; p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant change in scores on the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. The Clinical Global Impression scores on average changed from a rating of "markedly agitated/aggressive" at baseline to "borderline agitated/aggressive" at discharge. Treatment with ECT was well tolerated by most participants; discontinuation of ECT occurred for two participants because of recurrence of agitation and for three participants because of adverse events. Electroconvulsive therapy may be a safe treatment option to reduce symptoms of agitation and aggression in patients with dementia whose behaviors are refractory to medication management. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto; Bagney, Alexandra; Torio, Iosune; Caballero, Montserrat; Ruiz, Pedro; Rivas, Francisco de Paula Jose; Jimenez-Arriero, Miguel Angel
Continuation/maintenance electroconvulsive therapy has been shown to be effective for prevention of relapse in affective and psychotic disorders. However, there is a limited nubber of studies that investigate clinical management, associated costs, and perceived quality variables. A series of 8 cases included during the first 18 months of the Continuation/Maintenance Electroconvulsive Therapy Program of the Psychiatry Department at 12 de Octubre University Hospital is presented. Clinical variables (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, length of hospitalization, number of Emergency Department visits, number of urgent admissions) before and after inclusion in the continuation/maintenance electroconvulsive therapy program were compared for each patient, as well as associated costs and perceived quality. After inclusion in the program, 50.0% of patients reported feeling « much better » and 37.5% « moderately better » in the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale. In addition, after inclusion in the continuation/maintenance electroconvulsive therapy program, patients were hospitalized for a total of 349 days, visited the Emergency Department on 3 occasions, and had 2 urgent admissions, compared to 690 days of hospitalization (P = .012), 26 Emergency Department visits (P = .011) and 22 urgent admissions (P = .010) during the same period before inclusion in the program. Associated direct costs per day of admission were reduced to 50.6% of the previous costs, and costs associated with Emergency Department visits were reduced to 11.5% of the previous costs. As regards perceived quality, 87.5% of patients assessed the care and treatment received as being « very satisfactory », and 12.5% as « satisfactory ». This continuation/maintenance electroconvulsive therapy program has shown to be clinically useful and to have a favourable economic impact, as well as high perceived quality. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights
Clinical efficacy of formula-based bifrontal versus right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the treatment of major depression among elderly patients: a pragmatic, randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled trial.
Bjølseth, Tor Magne; Engedal, Knut; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Dybedal, Gro Strømnes; Gaarden, Torfinn Lødøen; Tanum, Lars
No prior study has compared the efficacy of bifrontal (BF) vs right unilateral (RUL) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) by including the subgroup that is most likely to receive it: only elderly patients with major depression (MD). This single-site, randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled trial was conducted from 2009 to 2013. Seventy-three elderly patients with MD, unipolar and bipolar, were treated with a course of formula-based BF ECT or RUL ECT. The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) was used to measure efficacy. Safety was assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Both electrode placements resulted in highly significant downward trends in symptom severity (all p<0.001), with a non-significant difference between methods (p=0.703). At the end of the ECT course, response rates for the BF and RUL group were 63.9% and 67.6%, respectively. Short-term remission, defined as an HRSD17 score≤7, was achieved in 14 (38.9%) patients in the BF group and 19 (51.4%) patients in the RUL group. Global cognitive function, as measured by the MMSE, did not deteriorate in the two treatment groups. The small number of subjects may have led to reduced power to detect real differences. The MMSE is not sufficient to ascertain the negative effect of ECT on cognition. This study indicates that formula-based BF and RUL ECT are equally efficacious, and that remission rates of formula-based dosing are lower than those previously reported for titrated dosing, in a clinical sample of elderly patients with MD. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01559324. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Andrade, Chittaranjan; Bolwig, Tom G
Preclinical and clinical evidence show that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-induced intraictal surge in blood pressure may result in a small, transient breach in the blood-brain barrier, leading to mild cerebral edema and a possible leach of noxious substances from blood into brain tissues. These changes may impair neuronal functioning and contribute to the mechanisms underlying ECT-induced cognitive deficits. Some but not all clinical data on the subject suggest that blood pressure changes during ECT correlate with indices of cognitive impairment. In animal models, pharmacological manipulations of blood pressure during electroconvulsive shocks attenuate electroconvulsive shock-induced amnestic changes; however, the evidence suggests that antihypertensive mechanisms may not necessarily be involved. Clinical studies involving pre-ECT administration of antihypertensive medications do not provide convincing evidence of benefits. It is concluded that there is insufficient support, at present, for the hypothesis that the hypertensive surge during ECT and the resultant blood-brain barrier breach contribute meaningfully to ECT-induced cognitive deficits. Future research should address the subset of patients who experience pronounced hypertensive changes during ECT, and clinically relevant outcome measures, such as autobiographical memory impairment, should be examined.
Uchida, Takahito; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Koreki, Akihiro; Nakao, Shigetsugu; Owada, Ai; Koizumi, Teruki; Saito, Atsuyuki; Sato, Minako; Sawada, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Ryuta; Petrides, Georgios; Mimura, Masaru
The study aimed to identify the predictors for readmission after a successful electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) course. Medical charts of patients who received ECT for major depressive episodes were reviewed. Patients' demographic characteristics and treatment parameters, such as ECT charge, seizure duration, the number of ECT sessions and pharmacotherapy, were extracted. We compared differences between those who were readmitted after successful ECT within 6 and 12 months, versus those not readmitted. We also conducted a multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the predictors for readmission. Out of 51 patients who were discharged after ECT, 27 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Eight patients were readmitted within 6 months after discharge, and four more patients were readmitted during the next 6-month follow up. Comparing patients who were and were not readmitted, we found no significant differences between groups, including ECT parameters such as the number of ECT sessions, average charge and final charge. No predictors for readmission were found through multivariate analysis. Although patients who require higher ECT charge and more sessions seem to be prone to readmission, our dataset suggested that none of these types of ECT parameters were risk factors for readmission.
Hobo, Mizue; Uezato, Akihito; Nishiyama, Mitsunori; Suzuki, Mayumi; Kurata, Jiro; Makita, Koshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Nishikawa, Toru
Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a progressive and fatal cardiovascular disease if left untreated. In patients with IPAH with psychiatric illness or other complications, careful attention is required when administering medical therapies that may affect their hemodynamics. Patients suffering from IPAH who undergo anesthesia and surgery have a high mortality and morbidity rate. We describe the treatment of intractable psychiatric symptoms with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a patient with IPAH. A 23-year-old woman with IPAH and type I diabetes mellitus (DM) presented with malignant catatonia. Her heart function was classified as New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III. She required a rapid cure and ECT due to various psychiatric symptoms resistant to conventional medications. Pulmonary hypertensive (PH) crisis is the most concerning complication that can be induced by the sympathetic stimulation of ECT. To avoid PH crisis, we administered oxygen using a laryngeal mask and administered remifentanil for anesthesia. We also prepared standby nitric oxide for possible PH crisis, although it was ultimately not needed. With 14 ECT sessions, her malignant catatonia was ameliorated without physical complications. ECT is an acceptable option for the treatment of medication-refractory psychiatric disturbances in patients with IPAH, provided careful management is assured to prevent or address complications.
Nielsen, R M; Olsen, K S; Lauritsen, A Oe; Boesen, H C
Delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU) is conventionally treated pharmacologically but can progress into a protracted state refractory to medical treatment--a potentially life-threatening condition in itself. We treated 5 cases of severe protracted delirium in our ICU with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) after failure of conventional medical therapy. The delirious state of long standing agitation, anxiety, and discomfort was controlled in all patients. Electroconvulsive therapy was effective in controlling delirium in 4 patients. The last patient became calm, relieved of stress, and able to cooperate with the ventilator but remained in a state of posttraumatic amnesia after a head trauma. Although controversial, ECT is nevertheless recognized as an efficient and safe treatment for various psychiatric illnesses including delirium. Considering the significantly increased mortality and severe cognitive decline associated with delirium in the ICU, we find ECT to be a valuable treatment option for this vulnerable patient population. It can be considered when agitation cannot be controlled with medical treatment, when agitation and delirium make weaning impossible, or prolonged deep sedation the only alternative. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ziaaddini, Hassan; Roohbakhsh, Toktam; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Ghaffari-Nejad, Alireza
Background Persistent methamphetamine (METH) psychosis is a psychotic state beyond 1-month after abstinence, for which there is no effective treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in persistent METH psychosis patients hospitalized at Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kerman, Iran, from 6 September 2012 until 6 September 2013, who were not remitted after treatment with olanzapine. Methods This research was a pilot study on hospitalized patients. After 4 weeks of treatment with olanzapine, 10 out of 71 studied patients did not show complete remission of psychotic symptoms despite their response to the treatment. The mentioned 10 patients were divided into 2 groups by random digit numbers. 5 patients had continued olanzapine and other 5 received 6 sessions of bilateral ECT every other day in addition to olanzapine. Findings Remission rate of patients in the initial 4 weeks was 78.7%. Reduction in total brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) scale at the end of 1-week compared with the next week demonstrated improvement in the symptoms until the end of the study. There was no significant difference in BPRS scores between weeks 4 and 6 in the two groups. Conclusion This research demonstrated that few sessions of ECT in persistent METH psychosis will not lead to remission in all patients. PMID:26322206
Aside from the focus on satisfaction levels, psychological aspects of the experience of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have not traditionally been the focus of significant research. Given that clinical psychologists work closely with professionals involved in administering ECT, and have increasing involvement with decisions about ECT, there is a potential role for clinical psychologists in this area. To review the diverse sources of literature regarding how patients psychologically experience, and react to, ECT. A literature search identified relevant published papers related to the patient experience of ECT. Reviewed articles included clinician and service user led research, comprising qualitative and quantitative research approaches and policy documents. Patients have multiple and diverse reactions to ECT. These can be considered under the themes of consent, fear, powerlessness, memory and identity. The experience of ECT can significantly impact on patients and this can have a negative long-term influence. Clinical psychologists need to be actively involved in consent procedures, use clinical formulation to understand the perspective of patients, and empower patients to share their views of ECT with mental health professionals and service developers. Further research into how patients experience ECT, particularly using qualitative methods, is recommended.
Modell, Jerome H; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Morey, Timothy E
The American Society of Anesthesiologists has announced that perioperative normothermia is a "Quality Incentive in Anesthesiology." We examined whether we could meet this quality incentive in a simple population: patients undergoing anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We compared infrared-measured ear temperature before anesthesia to temperature upon delivery of patients to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) after 101 consecutive brief anesthetics to facilitate ECT. For 35 procedures, the patients had an infrared ear thermometer temperature of <36 degrees C before anesthesia was administered, and 18 had a temperature of <36 degrees C after anesthesia when transferred to the PACU. For 30 anesthetics, the patients' temperature decreased during anesthesia, for 64 anesthetics it increased during anesthesia, and for 7 it did not change. Overall examination of the data demonstrated no correlation between preprocedure and postprocedure temperature. We conclude that there was no consistent change in temperature during anesthesia between our study patients when anesthesia was administered to facilitate ECT. If patients' tympanic temperatures were below 36 degrees C upon admission to the PACU, it would be incorrect to conclude that intraprocedural temperature management measures were substandard. Also, current methods of measuring temperature may be inadequate to ascertain if patients are hypothermic after surgery. As the avoidance of hypothermia is a meritorious goal, anesthesia departments need to ensure that their temperature monitoring equipment is adequate to ensure accurate measurement of postanesthetic temperature if this variable is to be used as a quality incentive.
Obbels, Jasmien; Vanbrabant, Koen; Bouckaert, Filip; Verwijk, Esmée; Sienaert, Pascal
Cognition can be affected by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Good clinical practice includes neuropsychological assessment, although this is seldom a part of routine clinical practice. It looks like a substantial part of patients fail to complete cognitive assessments. This constitutes a problem in the generalizability of published clinical research on cognitive side effects. Most studies of ECT-related cognitive adverse effects do not discuss this important issue of so-called cognitive test nonparticipants. Recent findings suggest that cognitive test nonparticipants are more severely ill, and probably more vulnerable to cognitive side effects. To examine the feasibility of a neuropsychological test battery in daily clinical practice, in an adult population referred for ECT. We reviewed the clinical records of 84 patients referred for ECT. Demographic and clinical characteristics of those patients who were able to complete our routine cognitive testing at baseline are compared with those who could not complete the assessment. From 84 ECT patients, 60 (71%) completed a pre-ECT cognitive assessment, whereas 24 (29%) did not. Patients with a unipolar depression, with psychotic symptoms, who started their treatment with a bitemporal electrode placement were more likely to be test noncompleters than test completers. Patients with a unipolar depression, with psychotic features, who are treated with a bitemporal electrode placement, have a higher likelihood of not completing a pre-ECT cognitive assessment. These patients probably represent a subgroup more vulnerable to cognitive side effects.
Modak, Tamonud; Kumar, Saurabh; Pal, Arghya; Gupta, Rishab; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Khandelwal, Sudhir Kumar
A 22-year-old male diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder presented to us with a 3(rd) episode mania resistant to both olanzapine and haloperidol as well as electroconvulsive therapy. He, however, responded to chlorpromazine (CPZ) which was also effective as a mood stabilizer. The patient had a relapse of his illness when CPZ was stopped and responded again when it was started. The case demonstrates that CPZ may have a role in as both an anti-manic agent and for the maintenance for bipolar disorders. The possible underlying mechanism for this role is also discussed.
Loh, Nico; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Sheldrick, Abigail Jane; Grözinger, Michael
The aim of the study was to document the present situation of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Germany, compare its handling with regard to other industrialized countries and with regard to a survey 12 years ago. A questionnaire on the frequency and type of administration of ECT in 2008 was sent electronically to 423 psychiatric hospitals. As needed, up to five reminders were carried out by telephone. On this occasion, the question of whether ECT is administered, could be clarified for each hospital. A total of 43% (183/423) of hospitals declared to administer ECT; 63% (115/183) reported nearly 20,000 treatments. A total incidence of 30,000 treatments performed on 2800 individual patients was estimated. This means that 3.4 patients per 10(5) inhabitants, 0.4‰ of all depressed patients, and about 1% of depressed inpatients, are treated with ECT in Germany. The frequency of application has increased during the last 12 years by a factor of more than 2.5 in Germany. In Western industrialized countries, numbers vary by a factor of more than 10 amongst the countries with a slow trend of equalization. The mode of implementation and the areas of conflict in which the therapy stands seem to be similar.
Pourafkari, Nosratollah; Pourafkari, Leili; Nader, Nader D
The prevalence of depression in patients with cardiovascular disease is higher than general population and especially following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a significant number of patients report a wide spectrum of behavioral and mood changes attributable to clinical depression. Treatment of depression following ACS event is particularly challenging since most of the therapeutic modalities are associated with increasing the systemic sympathetic tone from neurogenic or pharmacologic sources. Increased activity of the adrenergic and catecholamine activity may further deter the myocardial oxygen supply and demand therefore treating depression should be carefully evaluated for its risk benefit ratio. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is recommended for patients with severe depression, in whom behavioral and pharmacologic treatments have failed. Patients who refuse to take medications or present with any psychological emergency such as harming self or others, are also candidates for ECT. ECT is also associated with sudden surges of catecholamines and may cause recurrent myocardial ischemia and fatal dysrhythmias in patients convalescing from an ACS event. Herein, we provide an overview and practical guidelines for management of patients presented for ECT following ACS.
Gormsen, Lise; Ribe, Anette Riisgaard; Raun, Peter; Rosenberg, Raben; Videbech, Poul; Vestergaard, Per; Bach, Flemming W; Jensen, Troels S
Pain and depression are often associated suggesting that both conditions share a common neurobiological mechanism, which modulate emotional function and processing of noxious information. Pain thresholds are hypothesized to be altered in depressed patients and normalized with the amelioration of depression. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine pain thresholds in patients during and after treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) of severe depression and in healthy controls. Seventeen depressed patients (Hamilton depression score > 18) and an age and gender matched control group of same size participated in the study. Pain detection and tolerance thresholds to pressure and pain tolerance thresholds to the Cold Pressor Test by exposure to ice-water was measured twice in depressed patients during and after ECT and twice in controls with a similar time interval. While ECT significantly improved Hamilton depression score (from mean 23.9 (SD:5) to mean 12.5 (SD:5.7)) there was no significant change in pain thresholds during and after ECT in the patient group. However, depressed patients had significantly lower pain tolerance in the Cold Pressor Test on both examinations and on pressure pain tolerance on the second examination day than their corresponding control subjects. The differential effect of ECT on depression score and pain processing indicate that mood and noxious processing are not medicated directly by the same systems but that a complex relationship between pain and depression exists.
Song, Guo-Min; Tian, Xu; Shuai, Ting; Yi, Li-Juan; Zeng, Zi; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Wang, Yan
Abstract Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and antidepressant are the effective treatment alternatives for patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD); however, the effects and safety of the ECT plus antidepressant relative to ECT alone remain controversial. We decide to assess the potential of ECT plus antidepressant compared with ECT alone by undertaking an indirect comparison meta-analysis. Databases from PubMed, ISI Web of Science, CENTRAL, Clinicaltrials.gov, EMBASE, CBM (China Biomediccal Literatures Database), and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched for relevant studies through November 21, 2014. Literature was screened, data were extracted and methodological quality of the eligible trial was assessed by 2 independent reviewers accordingly. Then, head-to-head and indirect comparison meta-analyses were carried out. A total of 17 studies which including 13 studies regarding ECT plus antidepressant versus antidepressant alone and 4 studies concerning ECT versus antidepressant alone containing a total of 1098 patients were incorporated into this meta-analysis. The head-to-head comparison suggested that response rate can be improved in the ECT plus antidepressant (RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.55–2.14) and ECT alone group (RR, 2.24, 95% CI, 1.51–3.33) compared with antidepressant alone, respectively; adverse complications including memory deterioration and somatization were not significantly increased except incidence of memory deterioration in ECT plus antidepressant in the 4th weeks after treatment (RR, 0.09, 95% CI, 0.02–0.49). Indirect comparison meta-analysis showed that no significant differences were detected in response rate and memory deterioration between ECT plus antidepressant and ECT alone. However, ECT plus antidepressant increased the incidence of memory deterioration relative to ECT alone. With present evidence, the regime of ECT plus antidepressant should not be preferentially recommended to treat the patients with TRD
Goswami, Utpal; Kumar, Unnati; Singh, Baljit
Background : ECT, though not favoured in the West for treating schizophrenia, is regularly practiced in India for this indication, particularly in poorly responding/treatment resistant cases.Therefore, its role in treatment-resistant schizophrenia is a subject of systematic investigation. Aim : To compare the effectiveness and safety of Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a group of treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients with a control group. Method : Eligible and consenting patients were randomly allocated to the ECT or Sham ECT groups. Both received antipsychotic drugs.Twenty-five patients completed the study (ECT, n= IS; Sham ECT, n= 10).The study was conducted in a double-blind manner. Clinical change was assessed weekly with BPRS, CGI and adverse event measures.ANOVA for repeated measures and other post-hoc comparisons were used for data analysis. Results: ECT treated patients improved significantly over successive weeks (p< 0.002) after 6 ECTs, whereas the group receiving sham-ECT did not In both the groups, however, CGI scores did not change significantly, suggesting a dissociated response pattern. ECT was associated with greater relief among carers and lower rehospitalization. Conclusion : ECT augmentation may well have a significant impact on the clinical course of patients with treatment resistance schizophrenia. It is unclear, but possible, that these changes may be reinforced and maintained by maintenance ECTs. Replication of the present investigation and further studies on maintenance ECT would be rewarding. PMID:21206809
Goswami, Utpal; Kumar, Unnati; Singh, Baljit
ECT, though not favoured in the West for treating schizophrenia, is regularly practiced in India for this indication, particularly in poorly responding/treatment resistant cases.Therefore, its role in treatment-resistant schizophrenia is a subject of systematic investigation. To compare the effectiveness and safety of Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a group of treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients with a control group. Eligible and consenting patients were randomly allocated to the ECT or Sham ECT groups. Both received antipsychotic drugs.Twenty-five patients completed the study (ECT, n= IS; Sham ECT, n= 10).The study was conducted in a double-blind manner. Clinical change was assessed weekly with BPRS, CGI and adverse event measures.ANOVA for repeated measures and other post-hoc comparisons were used for data analysis. ECT treated patients improved significantly over successive weeks (p< 0.002) after 6 ECTs, whereas the group receiving sham-ECT did not In both the groups, however, CGI scores did not change significantly, suggesting a dissociated response pattern. ECT was associated with greater relief among carers and lower rehospitalization. ECT augmentation may well have a significant impact on the clinical course of patients with treatment resistance schizophrenia. It is unclear, but possible, that these changes may be reinforced and maintained by maintenance ECTs. Replication of the present investigation and further studies on maintenance ECT would be rewarding.
Sánchez de Carmona Luna Y Parra, M; Páez Agraz, F; Nicolini Sánchez, H
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a useful option for the treatment of certain psychiatric illnesses. Its efficacy and few side effects make it an important therapeutic alternative in the management of the patient with major depression. This study describes the clinical experience with ECT at the Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical records of patients treated with ECT during the period of April 1990 to June 1994. A total of 55 patients were included in the analysis, the mean age was 42.4 +/- 17.2 years old. Diagnostic categories treated were major depression (43.6%), non-affective psychotic disorders (30.9%), mania (12.7%) and other diagnoses (12.7%). A positive response to ECT was found in 74.5% of patients. Subjects with major depression and mania responded significantly better than the rest of the patients (p < 0.01). Psychotic depression was not a predictor of better response. Only 18.1% of subjects had minor complications, all transitory. ECT is a highly effective therapeutic option in the treatment of psychiatric illness, especially in major depression and mania. The use of ECT in a tertiary psychiatric unit in Mexico reflects similar results as described in the international literature.
Garg, Rohit; Chavan, B S; Arun, Priti
In recent years, health-related quality of life (QOL) has been regarded as the most important dimension of outcome in schizophrenia. Recent research has shown that atypical antipsychotics improve QOL in patients with schizophrenia. Importance of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been demonstrated in restoring function and health related quality of life in depressed patients. However, there are no data on patients of schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was therefore, to assess the improvement in quality of life after ECT in treatment resistant schizophrenia. Thirty consecutive patients of treatment resistant schizophrenia were given ECT sessions twice a week and assessments were made with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of Schizophrenia (PANSS), WHO QOL Bref, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and Clinical Global Impressions. The group improved significantly on all the domains of quality of life scale except the domain named satisfaction with social relations. There was also significant change in the total score of PANSS after 6 ECT sessions (mean at baseline = 86.7, mean after 6 ECT = 65.5, P< 0.001) as well as on different subscales of PANSS. The score on the global assessment of functioning also changed significantly (mean 26.3 at baseline to 44.5 after 6 ECT sessions). The present findings showed that ECT in addition to improvement in symptomatology led to improvement in QOL in patients of treatment resistant schizophrenia.
Minelli, Alessandra; Congiu, Chiara; Ventriglia, Mariacarla; Bortolomasi, Marco; Bonvicini, Cristian; Abate, Maria; Sartori, Riccardo; Gainelli, Giulio; Gennarelli, Massimo
Several lines of evidence have shown the involvement of the glutamatergic system in the function of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). In particular, patients with treatment resistant depression (TRD) and chronic depression have lower levels of glutamate/glutamine than controls, and ECT can reverse this deficit. Genetic factors might contribute to modulating the mechanisms underlying ECT. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between three polymorphisms (rs1954787, rs4936554 and rs11218030) of the glutamate receptor ionotropic kainate 4 (GRIK4) gene and responsiveness to ECT treatment in a sample of one hundred individuals, TRD or depressive Bipolar Disorder patients resistant to pharmacological treatments. The results revealed that GRIK4 variants were significantly associated with the response to ECT. In particular, we found that patients carrying the G allele of the GRIK4 rs11218030 had a significantly poorer response to ECT (p=2.71×10(-4)), showing five times the risk of relapse after ECT compared to the AA homozygotes. Analogously, patients carrying the GG rs1954787 genotype and rs4936554A allele carriers presented a double risk of lack of response after ECT (p=0.013 and p=0.040, respectively). In conclusion, the current study provides new evidence, indicating that some GRIK4 variants modulate the response to ECT in patients with depression resistant to treatment, suggesting a role for kainate receptor modulation.
Qiu, Haitang; Li, Xirong; Zhao, Wenjing; Du, Lian; Huang, Peiyu; Fu, Yixiao; Qiu, Tian; Xie, Peng; Meng, Huaqing; Luo, Qinghua
Background This study aimed to study the brain structural and functional changes after 8 courses of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Material/Methods MRI scans were performed on 12 depressive patients before and after 8 courses of ECT and compared with those of 15 normal controls. Data were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using SPM8 software. Functional MRI (fMRI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) analyses were used to assess the functional changes after ECT. Results Grey matter volumes were smaller in the right cingulate gyrus of depressive patients before ECT compared with normal controls. After false discovery rate (FDR) correction, post-ECT grey matter volumes were increased in bilateral amygdala and hippocampus compared with pre-ECT. Resting-state ReHo maps showed significant differences in brain activity pre- and post-ECT. Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients treated with 8 courses of ECT showed higher ReHo values in the bilateral frontal lobe, bilateral parietal lobe, and right caudate nucleus. Decreased ReHo values were observed in the right medial temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, and left anterior cerebellar lobe. Conclusions Results suggested that there were both structural and functional differences between the brains of MDD patients and healthy controls. After ECT, both structural and functional changes occurred, but without complete recovery to normal. ECT may display effects through regulating other brain regions to compensate for the original defects. PMID:27888657
Aoki, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Ando, Shuntaro; Sasaki, Natsuki; Bernick, Peter J; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi
Despite its efficacy and safety, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is underutilized, in part due to stigma associated with the treatment. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that experiencing ECT has an impact on associated stigma, as measured by patient and family knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. Studies with cross-sectional and/or longitudinal designs were identified. Studies were further categorized into subcategories based on participant type (patients or patient family members) and outcome domain (knowledge or attitudes). Effect size (Cohen's d) was calculated for each study and then integrated into each subcategory (participant type by outcome domain) using a random effect model. Eight studies were identified as being eligible for analysis. Two studies were cross-sectional, five were longitudinal and one incorporated both designs. Analysis of the longitudinal studies indicated that experiencing ECT both increased knowledge of and improved attitudes toward ECT in patients; in family members of patients, analysis showed significant positive change in knowledge of ECT, but no significant change in attitudes toward ECT. Experience with ECT may have a positive impact on knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. However, the quality of evidence of included studies was low; further research is required in order to clarify the relationship and to identify information of use to individuals considering ECT as a treatment option. © The Author(s) 2016.
Nordanskog, Pia; Hultén, Martin; Landén, Mikael; Lundberg, Johan; von Knorring, Lars; Nordenskjöld, Axel
The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) varies across countries. The aim of this study was to describe and explore the use of ECT in Sweden in 2013. The Swedish mandatory patient register of the National Board of Health and Welfare includes information on diagnoses and treatments, including ECT. All 56 hospitals that provide ECT in Sweden also report to the nonmandatory national quality register for ECT, which contains information on patient and treatment characteristics. In this study, we combined data from both registers. In addition, all hospitals responded to a survey concerning equipment and organization of ECT. We identified 3972 unique patients who received ECT in Sweden in 2013. This translates into 41 ECT-treated individuals per 100,000 inhabitants. Of these patients, 85% opted to participate in the quality register. The median age was 55 years (range, 15-94 years), and 63% were women. The indication was depression in 78% of the treatment series. Of 4 711 hospitalized patients with severe depression, 38% received ECT. The median number of treatments per index series was 7. Unilateral treatment was used in 86% of the series. In Sweden, ECT is used at a relatively high rate as compared with other western countries, and the rate was unchanged from the last survey in 1975. However, there is room for improvement in the specificity of use and availability of ECT for disorders where ECT is considered a first-line treatment.
Theilmann, Wiebke; Löscher, Wolfgang; Socala, Katarzyna; Frieling, Helge; Bleich, Stefan; Brandt, Claudia
Electroconvulsive therapy is the most effective therapy for major depressive disorder (MDD). The remission rate is above 50% in previously pharmacoresistant patients but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) in rodents mimics antidepressant electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in humans and is widely used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of ECT. For the translational value of findings in animal models it is essential to establish models with the highest construct, face and predictive validity possible. The commonly used model for ECT in rodents does not meet the demand for high construct validity. For ECT, cortical surface electrodes are used to induce therapeutic seizures whereas ECS in rodents is exclusively performed by auricular or corneal electrodes. However, the stimulation site has a major impact on the type and spread of the induced seizure activity and its antidepressant effect. We propose a method in which ECS is performed by screw electrodes placed above the motor cortex of rats to closely simulate the clinical situation and thereby increase the construct validity of the model. Cortical ECS in rats induced reliably seizures comparable to human ECT. Cortical ECS was more effective than auricular ECS to reduce immobility in the forced swim test. Importantly, auricular stimulation had a negative influence on the general health condition of the rats with signs of fear during the stimulation sessions. These results suggest that auricular ECS in rats is not a suitable ECT model. Cortical ECS in rats promises to be a valid method to mimic ECT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin, Barry A; Delva, Nicholas John; Graf, Peter; Gosselin, Caroline; Enns, Murray W; Gilron, Ian; Jewell, Mark; Lawson, James Stuart; Milev, Roumen; Patry, Simon; Chan, Peter K Y
The aims of this study were to document electroconvulsive therapy use in Canada with respect to treatment facilities and caseloads based on a survey of practice (Canadian Electroconvulsive Therapy Survey/Enquete Canadienne Sur Les Electrochocs-CANECTS/ECANEC) and to consider these findings in the context of guideline recommendations. All 1273 registered hospitals in Canada were contacted, and 175 sites were identified as providing electroconvulsive therapy; these sites were invited to complete a comprehensive questionnaire. The survey period was calendar year 2006 or fiscal year 2006/2007. National usage rates were estimated from the responses. Sixty-one percent of the sites completed the questionnaire; a further 10% provided caseload data. Seventy were identified as general; 31, as university teaching; and 21, as provincial psychiatric/other single specialty (psychiatric) hospitals. Caseload volumes ranged from a mean of fewer than 2 to greater than 30 treatments per week. Estimated national usage during the 1-year survey period was 7340 to 8083 patients (2.32-2.56 per 10,000 population) and 66,791 to 67,424 treatments (2.11-2.13 per 1000 population). The diagnostic indications, admission status, and protocols for course end points are described. The usage rates are in keeping with earlier Canadian data and with those from other jurisdictions. The difficulty obtaining caseload data from individual hospitals is indicative of the need for standardized data collection to support both clinical research and quality assurance. The wide variation in protocols for number of treatments per course indicates a need for better informed clinical guidelines. The broad range of caseload volumes suggests the need to review the economies of scale in the field.
Sajedi, Payam I; Mitchell, Jason; Herskovits, Edward H; Raghavan, Prashant
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is generally contraindicated in patients with intracranial mass lesions or in the presence of increased intracranial pressure. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of incidental abnormalities on routine cross-sectional head imaging, including CT and MRI, that would preclude subsequent ECT. This retrospective study involved a review of the electronic medical records of 105 patients (totaling 108 imaging studies) between April 27, 2007, and March 20, 2015, referred for cranial CT or MRI with the primary indication of pre-ECT evaluation. The probability of occurrence of imaging findings that would preclude ECT was computed. A cost analysis was also performed on the practice of routine pre-ECT imaging. Of the 105 patients who presented with the primary indication of ECT clearance (totaling 108 scans), 1 scan (0.93%) revealed findings that precluded ECT. None of the studies demonstrated findings that indicated increased intracranial pressure. A cost analysis revealed that at least $18,662.70 and 521.97 relative value units must be expended to identify one patient with intracranial pathology precluding ECT. The findings of this study demonstrate an extremely low prevalence of findings that preclude ECT on routine cross-sectional head imaging. The costs incurred in identifying a potential contraindication are high. The authors suggest that the performance of pre-ECT neuroimaging be driven by the clinical examination. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Manne, Janaki R; Kasirye, Yusuf; Epperla, Narendranath; Garcia-Montilla, Romel J
Acute pulmonary edema complicating electroconvulsive therapy is an extremely uncommon event that has rarely been described in the literature. Different theories, including one suggesting a cardiogenic component, have been proposed to explain its genesis. The present report describes a classic presentation of this condition with review of its potential mechanisms and diagnostic approach. After successful completion of a session of electroconvulsive therapy, a 42-year-old woman with major depressive disorder developed acute systemic high blood pressure, shortness of breath, and hemoptysis. A chest radiograph demonstrated diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Initially cardiogenic pulmonary edema was presumed, but an extensive diagnostic work-up demonstrated normal systolic and diastolic left ventricular function, and with only supportive measures, a complete clinical and radiographic recovery was achieved within 48 hours. The present case does not support any cardiogenic mechanism in the genesis of this condition.
van den Berg, Karen S; Marijnissen, Radboud M; van Waarde, Jeroen A
The aim of the study was to describe the successful treatment of delirium with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The method of the study was a case report. A 75-year-old man, with a recently diagnosed carcinoma of the parotid gland, was admitted with a fluctuating psychiatric syndrome. Delirium was diagnosed, although an acute underlying somatic cause could not be readily established. Antipsychotics and benzodiazepines were not effective. After 7 sessions of ECT, all symptoms ceased. This enabled him to receive radiotherapy for his tumor and enjoy a good quality of life for the remaining 8 months of his life. Electroconvulsive therapy is not only a powerful treatment for catatonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and delirious mania but also for the most commonly occurring fluctuating psychiatric syndrome--delirium.
Riva-Posse, Patricio; Hermida, Adriana P; McDonald, William M
Geriatric depression is associated with increased mortality because of suicide and decreases in functional and physical health. Many elders' depression is resistant to psychotherapy and medication and can become chronic. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is increasingly used in the treatment of medication-resistant or life-threatening geriatric depression. Neuromodulation therapies (subconvulsive, focal, or subconvulsive and focal) are alternatives for the management of treatment-resistant depression in the elderly. Therapies that combine both strategies could be safer but may not be as effective as ECT. This review covers the evidence on the safety and efficacy of ECT and the neuromodulation therapies in geriatric depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eitan, Renana; Lerer, Bernard
Until recently, a review of nonpharmacological, somatic treatments of psychiatric disorders would have included only electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This situation is now changing very substantially Although ECT remains the only modality in widespread clinical use, several new techniques are under investigation. Their principal indication in the psychiatric context is the treatment of major depression, but other applications are also being studied. All the novel treatments involve brain stimulation, which is achieved by different technological methods. The treatment closest to the threshold of clinical acceptability is transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Although TMS is safe and relatively easy to administer, its efficacy has still to be definitively established. Other modalities, at various stages of research development, include magnetic seizure therapy (MST), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). We briefly review the development and technical aspects of these treatments, their potential role in the treatment of major depression, adverse effects, and putative mechanism of action. As the only one of these treatment modalities that is in widespread clinical use, more extended consideration is given to ECT. Although more than half a century has elapsed since ECT was first introduced, it remains the most effective treatment for major depression, with efficacy in patients refractory to antidepressant drugs and an acceptable safety profile. Although they hold considerable promise, the novel brain stimulation techniques reviewed here will be need to be further developed before they achieve clinical acceptability. PMID:16889109
Peterchev, Angel V; Krystal, Andrew D; Rosa, Moacyr A; Lisanby, Sarah H
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at conventional current amplitudes (800–900 mA) is highly effective but carries the risk of cognitive side effects. Lowering and individualizing the current amplitude may reduce side effects by virtue of a less intense and more focal electric field exposure in the brain, but this aspect of ECT dosing is largely unexplored. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) induces a weaker and more focal electric field than ECT; however, the pulse amplitude is not individualized and the minimum amplitude required to induce a seizure is unknown. We titrated the amplitude of long stimulus trains (500 pulses) as a means of determining the minimum current amplitude required to induce a seizure with ECT (bilateral, right unilateral, bifrontal, and frontomedial electrode placements) and MST (round coil on vertex) in nonhuman primates. Furthermore, we investigated a novel method of predicting this amplitude-titrated seizure threshold (ST) by a non-convulsive measurement of motor threshold (MT) using single pulses delivered through the ECT electrodes or MST coil. Average STs were substantially lower than conventional pulse amplitudes (112–174 mA for ECT and 37.4% of maximum device amplitude for MST). ST was more variable in ECT than in MST. MT explained 63% of the ST variance and is hence the strongest known predictor of ST. These results indicate that seizures can be induced with less intense electric fields than conventional ECT that may be safer; efficacy and side effects should be evaluated in clinical studies. MT measurement could be a faster and safer alternative to empirical ST titration for ECT and MST. PMID:25920013
Fleminger, J J; Bunce, L
Twenty-four patients receiving unilateral electroconvulsive therapy for depression were given the first treatment with electrodes on the left or right side of the head and the second treatment with electrodes on the opposite side. They were tested with the Word Associate Learning subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale when fully responsive after the first ECT and after the same time interval following the second ECT. Twelve were left-handed and 12 were right-handed writers. In both groups, better scores were usually obtained after right-sided treatment. Redistribution of patients into sinistral, mixed, and dextral groups showed that this difference between the effects of left and right-sided ECT was significant only in dextrals. Only two right-handed writers had scores indicating right-sided dominance for speech; both were 'shifted sinistrals'. Left hemisphere dominance was indicated in 67% of all non-dextrals. Eight of nine patients in whom testing was repeated after a second pair of treatments on alternate sides obtained scores favouring the same side in both pairs of testing. Findings indicate the need for closer inquiry into handedness than is often made before unilateral ECT is prescribed. Further development of unilateral ECT for establishing cerebral dominance in individuals is supported by the results. PMID:1151421
Raveendranathan, Dhanya; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Reddi, Senthil V
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an important treatment for catatonia. We aimed to study the response rate of catatonia treated with ECT and its clinical correlates in a large sample of inpatients. The ECT parameters of all patients (n = 63) admitted with catatonia between the months of January and December 2007 were examined. The number of ECTs administered, seizure threshold, failure to achieve adequate seizures and clinical signs pertaining to catatonia were analyzed. Response was considered as complete resolution of catatonic symptoms with Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) score becoming zero. ECT was mostly started after failed lorazepam treatment except in 6 patients where ECT was the first choice. Patients who responded in 4 ECT sessions were considered fast responders (mean session number for response is 4 sessions) and response with 5 or more ECTs was considered slow response. Fast responders had significantly lower duration of catatonia (19.67 ± 21.66 days, P = 0.02) and higher BFCRS score at presentation (17.25 ± 6.21, P = 0.03). Presence of waxy flexibility and gegenhalten (22.60% vs. 0%, P = 0.01) predicted faster response, whereas presence of echophenomena (3.2% vs. 24.0%) predicted slow response. The response rate to catatonia appears to be associated with the severity and duration of catatonia, and the presence of certain catatonic signs.
Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Del Casale, Antonio; Ferri, Vittoria Rachele; Di Pietro, Simone; Scatena, Paola; Serata, Daniele; Danese, Emanuela; Sani, Gabriele; Koukopoulos, Alexia E; Angeletti, Gloria; Girardi, Paolo
Postpartum psychosis, which rarely presents with Capgras syndrome (delusional misidentification), requires rapid symptom resolution. First-line drugs have important drawbacks, such as delayed onset of clinical response and secretion in breast milk. In this report, we report successful treatment of a treatment-resistant woman presenting with treatment-resistant Capgras syndrome, with onset during postpartum. A 36-year-old woman had presented with Capgras syndrome during postpartum. For more than five years, she believed her son and other family members were substituted by impostors. All adequately administrated treatments were unsuccessful. We suggested electroconvulsive therapy to overcome treatment resistance. After six electroconvulsive therapy sessions, delusions of doubles subsided and other symptoms improved. She was discharged two weeks later with a mood stabilizer and low-dose atypical antipychotic combination and is well at the one-and-a-half-year follow-up. Electroconvulsive therapy followed by a mood stabilizer-antipsychotic drug combination showed rapid, permanent, and effective control of long-standing Capgras syndrome in a young woman. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Zwanzger, Peter; Klahn, Anna Luisa; Arolt, Volker; Ruland, Tillmann; Zavorotnyy, Maxim; Sälzer, Johannes; Domschke, Katharina; Junghöfer, Markus
In major depressive disorder (MDD), electrophysiological and imaging studies provide evidence for a reduced neural activity in parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal regions. In the present study, neural correlates and temporal dynamics of visual affective perception have been investigated in patients with unipolar depression in a pre/post treatment design using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Nineteen in-patients and 19 balanced healthy controls passed MEG measurement while passively viewing pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures. After a 4-week treatment with electroconvulsive therapy or 4-week waiting period without intervention respectively, 16 of these patients and their 16 corresponding controls participated in a second MEG measurement. Before treatment neural source estimations of magnetic fields evoked by the emotional scenes revealed a general bilateral parietal hypoactivation in depressed patients compared to controls predominately at early and mid-latency time intervals. Successful ECT treatment, as reflected by a decline in clinical scores (Hamilton Depression Scale; HAMD) led to a normalization of this distinct parietal hypoactivation. Effective treatment was also accompanied by relatively increased neural activation at right temporo-parietal regions. The present study indicates dysfunctional parietal information processing and attention processes towards emotional stimuli in MDD patients which can be returned to normal by ECT treatment. Since convergent neural hypoactivations and treatment effects have recently been shown in MDD patients before and after pharmacological therapy, this electrophysiological correlate might serve as a biomarker for objective treatment evaluation and thereby potentially advance treatment options and support the prediction of individual treatment responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Voineskos, Daphne; Levinson, Andrea J; Sun, Yinming; Barr, Mera S; Farzan, Faranak; Rajji, Tarek K; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Blumberger, Daniel M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J
Dysfunctional cortical inhibition (CI) is postulated as a key neurophysiological mechanism in major depressive disorder. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the treatment of choice for resistant depression and ECT has been associated with enhanced CI. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CI and ECT response in resistant depression. Twenty-five patients with treatment resistant depression underwent an acute course of ECT. CI was indexed by the cortical silent period (CSP) and short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI), through TMS-EMG. CI and clinical response was measured prior to beginning an acute ECT course and within 48 hours of the last ECT treatment in the course. Clinical response to ECT was assessed by HDRS-17 before and after an acute course of ECT. We found that there was a significant difference in CSP at baseline between responder and non-responder groups (p = 0.044). Baseline CSP predicted therapeutic response to ECT with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 60%. There were no changes in CSP or SICI after administration of the ECT course. Our findings suggest that duration of pre-treatment CSP may be a useful predictor of therapeutic response to ECT in patients with TRD.
Gálvez, Verònica; Loo, Colleen K; Alonzo, Angelo; Cerrillo, Ester; Menchón, José Manuel; Crespo, José Manuel; Urretavizcaya, Mikel
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for depression. However, the use of concomitant medications during ECT is controversial, especially benzodiazepines, as some past evidence suggests these may reduce the efficacy of ECT. This study analysed the effect of benzodiazepines on treatment outcomes in a group of depressed patients treated with bitemporal (BT) ECT. 90 patients with major depression who received BT ECT were analysed. Clinical, demographic and ECT data were extracted from clinical records. Mood improvement was rated by trained psychiatrists using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) at baseline and after the final ECT treatment. The association between benzodiazepine dose and mood outcomes over the ECT course was examined with regression analyses, controlling for variables that may affect ECT efficacy. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis found only current episode duration (t=-4.77, p<0.001) was a significant predictor of change in HDRS. Benzodiazepine dose was not associated with a change in HDRS (p>0.05, R(2)=0.39). This was a retrospective study. The use of the half-age dosing method for ECT did not permit examination of the effects of benzodiazepines on seizure threshold. Benzodiazepines did not affect the efficacy of BT ECT with the dosing method used. However, these results may not generalise to other forms of ECT, ECT given with other methods of dose determination or to other populations less responsive to ECT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Payne, Nancy A.; Prudic, Joan
The concept of inducing convulsions, mainly through chemical means, to promote mental wellness has existed since the 16th century. In 1938, Italian scientists first applied electrically induced therapeutic seizures. Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is employed in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders, it is most frequently used today to treat severe depressive episodes and remains the most effective treatment available for those disorders. Despite this, ECT continues to be the most stigmatized treatment available in psychiatry, resulting in restrictions on and reduced accessibility to a helpful and potentially life-saving treatment. The psychiatric and psychosocial ramifications of this stigmatization may include the exacerbation of the increasingly serious, global health problem of major depressive disorders as well as serious consequences for individual patients who may not be offered, or may refuse, a potentially beneficial treatment. The goal of this first article in this two-part series is to provide an overview of ECT's historical development and discuss the current state of knowledge about ECT, including technical aspects of delivery, patient selection, its side-effect profile, and factors that may contribute to underuse of ECT. PMID:19820553
Voineskos, Daphne; Levinson, Andrea J.; Sun, Yinming; Barr, Mera S.; Farzan, Faranak; Rajji, Tarek K.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.; Blumberger, Daniel M.; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.
Dysfunctional cortical inhibition (CI) is postulated as a key neurophysiological mechanism in major depressive disorder. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the treatment of choice for resistant depression and ECT has been associated with enhanced CI. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CI and ECT response in resistant depression. Twenty-five patients with treatment resistant depression underwent an acute course of ECT. CI was indexed by the cortical silent period (CSP) and short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI), through TMS-EMG. CI and clinical response was measured prior to beginning an acute ECT course and within 48 hours of the last ECT treatment in the course. Clinical response to ECT was assessed by HDRS-17 before and after an acute course of ECT. We found that there was a significant difference in CSP at baseline between responder and non-responder groups (p = 0.044). Baseline CSP predicted therapeutic response to ECT with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 60%. There were no changes in CSP or SICI after administration of the ECT course. Our findings suggest that duration of pre-treatment CSP may be a useful predictor of therapeutic response to ECT in patients with TRD. PMID:27934881
Williams, N R; Bentzley, B S; Sahlem, G L; Pannu, J; Korte, J E; Revuelta, G; Short, E B; George, M S
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has demonstrated efficacy in treating core symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, widespread use of ECT in PD has been limited due to concern over cognitive burden. We investigated the use of a newer ECT technology known to have fewer cognitive side effects (right unilateral [RUL] ultra-brief pulse [UBP]) for the treatment of medically refractory psychiatric dysfunction in PD. This open-label pilot study included 6 patients who were assessed in the motoric, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric domains prior to and after RUL UBP ECT. Primary endpoints were changes in total score on the HAM-D-17 and GDS-30 rating scales. Patients were found to improve in motoric and psychiatric domains following RUL UBP ECT without cognitive side effects, both immediately following ECT and at 1-month follow-up. This study demonstrates that RUL UBP ECT is safe, feasible, and potentially efficacious in treating multiple domains of PD, including motor and mood, without clear cognitive side effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Antosik-Wójcińska, Anna; Chojnacka, Magdalena; Święcicki, Łukasz
We report a patient who experienced atypical symptoms in the course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). During ECT treatment patient experienced psychotic symptoms which should be differentiated with prolonged delirium and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. 46-year-old female was referred to hospital with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder with no psychotic features in the course of recurrent depression. Despite several changes of pharmacological treatment no improvement was achieved, therefore it was decided to initiate ECT. Physical and neurological examination revealed no deviations from the norm. The results of other tests (CT and EEG) were normal. 4 bilateral, bitemporal ECT procedures were performed. The course of each procedure was typical, the same doses of anesthetic medication and pulse dose was administered throughout all of the procedures. The duration of seizure was 32-40 s. Despite this mental symptoms observed during the course of the treatment differed from known to the authors from both their own experience and from literature. Delusions of reference, persecution, agitation, oneiric delusions and olfactory hallucinations which appeared after the 4th ECT session maintained for 14 days and resolved after treatment with olanzapine. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on delusions of reference and persecution, oneiric delusions and olfactory hallucinations associated with the course of ECT.
Sackeim, Harold A.; Prudic, Joan; Nobler, Mitchell S.; Fitzsimons, Linda; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Payne, Nancy; Berman, Robert M.; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Perera, Tarique; Devanand, D. P.
BACKGROUND While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depression is effective, cognitive effects limit its use. Reducing the width of the electrical pulse and using the right unilateral electrode placement may decrease adverse cognitive effects, while preserving efficacy. METHODS In a double-masked study, we randomly assigned 90 depressed patients to right unilateral ECT at 6 times seizure threshold or bilateral ECT at 2.5 times seizure threshold, using either a traditional brief pulse (1.5 ms) or an ultrabrief pulse (0.3 ms). Depressive symptoms and cognition were assessed before, during, and immediately, two, and six months after therapy. Patients who responded were followed for a one-year period. RESULTS The final remission rate for ultrabrief bilateral ECT was 35 percent, compared with 73 percent for ultrabrief unilateral ECT, 65 percent for standard pulse width bilateral ECT, and 59 percent for standard pulse width unilateral ECT (all P’s<0.05 after covariate adjustment). The ultrabrief right unilateral group had less severe cognitive side effects than the other 3 groups in virtually all primary outcome measures assessed in the acute postictal period, and during and immediately following therapy. Both the ultrabrief stimulus and right unilateral electrode placement produced less short- and long-term retrograde amnesia. Patients rated their memory deficits as less severe following ultrabrief right unilateral ECT compared to each of the other three conditions (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS The use of an ultrabrief stimulus markedly reduces adverse cognitive effects, and when coupled with markedly suprathreshold right unilateral ECT, also preserves efficacy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00487500.) PMID:19756236
Bica, B E R G; Moro, A L D; Hax, V; Nicol, N A; Campos, G S; Rivera, L M S; da Costa, A F C; Xavier, R M; Monticielo, O A
Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with systemic lupus erythematosus are very common. Treatment generally consists of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive therapy; however, some cases are unresponsive. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a recognized treatment modality in psychiatry and is an option for refractory cases of neuropsychiatric lupus. This report describes three cases of neuropsychiatric lupus that improved with ECT after failure of antipsychotics and immunosuppressive therapy. All cases met DSM-5 criteria for catatonia (case 1: agitation, stereotypies, and grimacing; case 2: stupor, mutism, and grimacing; case 3: agitation, mutism, and stereotypies); therefore, ECT was indicated. This case series shows that ECT can be a therapeutic option in patients with neuropsychiatric lupus, especially when associated with catatonia and unresponsive to conventional treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.
Zincir, Serkan; Öztürk, Pelin; Bilgen, Ali Emrah; İzci, Filiz; Yükselir, Cihad
Studies in recent years have indicated that neuroimmunological events and immune activation may have a place in the etiology of depression. It has been suggested from data that there is a causal relationship between activation of the immune system and excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the etiology of depression. Although the mechanism of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is unclear, there is evidence that it can reduce cytokines and immune system changes. In our study, we aimed to determine how levels of serum immunomodulators were affected by ECT in major depression patients. This study was conducted on 50 patients with treatment-resistant major depression. The data of the patients were compared with 30 healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics. A clinical response occurred in the patients and at the end of therapy, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-4, and interferon-gamma levels were measured. The disease severity was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 15. Significant differences were determined between the patients with major depression and control group with respect to basal serum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-4, and interferon-gamma levels. ECT treatment was shown to reduce these differences. ECT may cause significant changes in the activity of the immune system. The consideration of the relationship between the immune endocrine neurotransmitter systems could contribute to new theories regarding the mechanism of antidepressant treatment and biology of depression. PMID:27366071
van Schaik, Audrey Monica; Rhebergen, Didi; Henstra, Marieke Jantien; Kadouch, Daniel J; van Exel, Eric; Stek, Maximilianus Lourentius
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), albeit highly effective in treating depression, is frequently associated with cognitive impairment, either temporary or more persistent. Especially in older patients, who generally respond even better, serious cognitive impairment during the course of ECT may lead to premature termination of ECT. Treatment of this cognitive impairment is of utmost importance. In this case series report, we present the effect of rivastigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on cognitive impairment in three older, severely depressed patients during or after a course of ECT. An improvement of cognitive functioning, in particular a decline of confusional symptoms, was observed in two patients with structural brain alterations associated with aging. In the other patient, who suffered primarily from amnesia, no effect of rivastigmine was observed. These preliminary results emphasize the need for detailed profiling of cognitive impairment when developing a research design to study the potential benefits of rivastigmine in the prevention or treatment of cognitive impairment in severely depressed patients treated with ECT.
Cristancho, Mario A; Helmer, Amanda; Connolly, Ryan; Cristancho, Pilar; O'Reardon, John P
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an efficacious, well-tolerated, noninvasive brain stimulation treatment for major depressive disorder. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective maintenance treatment for depression but is not tolerated by some patients and declined by others. We evaluated the effectiveness of TMS as a substitution strategy for successful maintenance ECT. A consecutive clinical case series (n = 6) of maintenance ECT patients were transitioned to maintenance TMS because of adverse effects from ECT or because of specific patient request and preference. Patients were in either full remission or had clinical response to ECT at the time of transition. Primary outcome was the change in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score from initiation of TMS maintenance sessions to the last observation time point. Relapse of depressive symptoms was also documented. Mean age of patients was 64 years, and most were female (n = 5). The majority (5 of 6) were diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Reasons for transition from ECT to TMS were, in order of frequency, cognitive adverse effects, fear of general anesthesia, time burden, lack of remission with ECT, and stigma associated with ECT. The mean frequency of TMS sessions was 1 every 3.5 weeks. Based on BDI scores, all patients maintained or improved their clinical status achieved with ECT at 3 and 6 months of TMS treatment. At last observation (range, 7-23 months), 4 patients maintained or improved their clinical status (total BDI score remained constant or decreased by 1-8 points). Two patients had a relapse after 8 and 9 months. Stimulation was well tolerated with adverse effects limited to headache and scalp discomfort. In this case series, TMS was effective and safe when used as a substitution strategy for successful maintenance ECT.
Leaver, Amber M; Espinoza, Randall; Pirnia, Tara; Joshi, Shantanu H; Woods, Roger P; Narr, Katherine L
One of the most effective interventions for intractable major depressive episodes is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Because ECT is also relatively fast-acting, longitudinal study of its neurobiological effects offers critical insight into the mechanisms underlying depression and antidepressant response. Here we assessed modulation of intrinsic brain activity in corticolimbic networks associated with ECT and clinical response. We measured resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in patients with treatment-resistant depression (n=30), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired before and after completing a treatment series with right-unilateral ECT. Using independent component analysis, we assessed changes in RSFC with 1) symptom improvement and 2) ECT regardless of treatment outcome in patients, with reference to healthy controls (n=33, also scanned twice). After ECT, consistent changes in RSFC within targeted depression-relevant functional networks were observed in the dorsal anterior cingulate (ACC), mediodorsal thalamus (mdTh), hippocampus, and right anterior temporal, medial parietal, and posterior cingulate cortex in all patients. In a separate analysis, changes in depressive symptoms were associated with RSFC changes in the dorsal ACC, mdTh, putamen, medial prefrontal, and lateral parietal cortex. RSFC of these regions did not change in healthy controls. Neuroplasticity underlying clinical change was in part separable from changes associated with the effects of ECT observed in all patients. However, both ECT and clinical change were associated with RSFC modulation in dorsal ACC, mdTh and hippocampus, which may indicate that these regions underlie the mechanisms of clinical outcome in ECT and may be effective targets for future neurostimulation therapies.
Sahlem, Gregory L.; Short, E. Baron; Kerns, Suzanne; Snipes, Jon; DeVries, William; Fox, James B.; Burns, Carol; Schmidt, Matthew; Nahas, Ziad H.; George, Mark S.; Sackeim, Harold A.
Objective Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most rapid and effective antidepressant treatment but with concerns about cognitive adverse effects. A new form of ECT, focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST), was designed to increase the focality of stimulation and better match stimulus parameters with neurophysiology. We recently reported on the safety and feasibility of FEAST in a cohort (n = 17) of depressed patients. We now report on the safety, feasibility, preliminary efficacy, and cognitive effects of FEAST in a new cohort. Methods Open-label FEAST was administered to 20 depressed adults (6 men; 3 with bipolar disorder; age 49.1 ± 10.6 years). Clinical and cognitive assessments were obtained at baseline and end of course. Time to orientation recovery was assessed at each treatment. Nonresponders switched to conventional ECT. Results Participants tolerated the treatment well with no dropouts. Five patients (25%) transitioned from FEAST to conventional ECT due to inadequate response. After FEAST (mean, 9.3 ± 3.5 sessions; range, 4–14), there was a 58.1% ± 36.0% improvement in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores compared with that in the baseline (P < 0.0001); 13 (65%) of 20 patients met response criteria, and 11 (55%) of 20 met remission criteria. Patients achieved reorientation (4 of 5 items) in 4.4 ± 3.0 minutes (median, 4.5 minutes), timed from eyes opening. There was no deterioration in neuropsychological measures. Conclusions These findings provide further support for the safety and efficacy of FEAST. The remission and response rates were in the range found using conventional ECT, and the time to reorientation may be quicker. However, without a randomized comparison group, conclusions are tentative. PMID:27379790
Baghai, Thomas C; Marcuse, Alain; Brosch, Melanie; Schüle, Cornelius; Eser, Daniela; Nothdurfter, Caroline; Steng, Yvonne; Noack, Ines; Pietschmann, Katrin; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Rupprecht, Rainer
A major problem in the treatment of severe depression is the onset latency until clinical improvement. So far, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective somatic treatment of depression. This holds especially true for treatment-refractory disturbances. However, not all patients respond to conventional unilateral ECT. In certain cases, subsequent clinical response can be achieved using bilateral or high-dose unilateral ECT. Also, a concomitant pharmacotherapy can be utilized to augment therapeutic effectiveness. Surprisingly, data in this field are widely lacking and only few studies showed advantages of an ECT/tricyclic antidepressant combination. We retrospectively evaluated 5482 treatments in 455 patients to investigate possible therapeutic advantages in combination therapies versus ECT monotherapy. Main outcome criteria were clinical effectiveness and tolerability. Moreover, treatment modalities and ictal neurophysiological parameters that might influence treatment outcome were analysed. A total of 18.2% of our treatments were ECT monotherapy, 8.87% were done with one antidepressant. Seizure duration was unaffected by the most antidepressants. SSRI caused a lengthened seizure activity. Postictal suppression was lower in mirtazapine and higher in SSRI and SNRI treated patients. A significant enhancement of therapeutic effectiveness could be seen in the patient group receiving tricyclics, SSRI or mirtazapine. Serious adverse events were not recorded. Our study supports the hypothesis that mirtazapine can be used to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of ECT. Controlled studies are necessary to further investigate the possible advantages of ECT and pharmacotherapy combinations, especially the use of modern dually acting antidepressants which have proven their good effectiveness in treatment-resistant depression.
Leaver, Amber M.; Espinoza, Randall; Pirnia, Tara; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Woods, Roger P.; Narr, Katherine L.
Introduction One of the most effective interventions for intractable major depressive episodes is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Because ECT is also relatively fast-acting, longitudinal study of its neurobiological effects offers critical insight into the mechanisms underlying depression and antidepressant response. Here we assessed modulation of intrinsic brain activity in corticolimbic networks associated with ECT and clinical response. Methods We measured resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in patients with treatment-resistant depression (n=30), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired before and after completing a treatment series with right-unilateral ECT. Using independent component analysis, we assessed changes in RSFC with 1) symptom improvement and 2) ECT regardless of treatment outcome in patients, with reference to healthy controls (n=33, also scanned twice). Results After ECT, consistent changes in RSFC within targeted depression-relevant functional networks were observed in the dorsal anterior cingulate (ACC), mediodorsal thalamus (mdTh), hippocampus, and right anterior temporal, medial parietal, and posterior cingulate cortex in all patients. In a separate analysis, changes in depressive symptoms were associated with RSFC changes in the dorsal ACC, mdTh, putamen, medial prefrontal, and lateral parietal cortex. RSFC of these regions did not change in healthy controls. Conclusions Neuroplasticity underlying clinical change was in part separable from changes associated with the effects of ECT observed in all patients. However, both ECT and clinical change were associated with RSFC modulation in dorsal ACC, mdTh and hippocampus, which may indicate that these regions underlie the mechanisms of clinical outcome in ECT and may be effective targets for future neurostimulation therapies. PMID:26878070
Fernie, Gordon; Currie, James; Perrin, Jennifer S.; Stewart, Caroline A.; Anderson, Virginica; Bennett, Daniel M.; Hay, Steven; Reid, Ian C.
Background Ketamine has recently become an agent of interest as an acute treatment for severe depression and as the anaesthetic for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Subanaesthetic doses result in an acute reduction in depression severity while evidence is equivocal for this antidepressant effect with anaesthetic or adjuvant doses. Recent systematic reviews call for high-quality evidence from further randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Aims To establish if ketamine as the anaesthetic for ECT results in fewer ECT treatments, improvements in depression severity ratings and less memory impairment than the standard anaesthetic. Method Double-blind, parallel-design, RCT of intravenous ketamine (up to 2 mg/kg) with an active comparator, intravenous propofol (up to 2.5 mg/kg), as the anaesthetic for ECT in patients receiving ECT for major depression on an informal basis. (Trial registration: European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT): 2011-000396-14 and clinicalTrials.gov: NCT01306760.) Results No significant differences were found on any outcome measure during, at the end of or 1 month following the ECT course. Conclusions Ketamine as an anaesthetic does not enhance the efficacy of ECT. PMID:28254962
Zeng, Jinkun; Luo, Qinghua; Du, Lian; Liao, Wei; Li, Yongmei; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Dan; Fu, Yixiao; Qiu, Haitang; Li, Xirong; Qiu, Tian; Meng, Huaqing
Objective. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered one of the most effective and fast-acting treatment options for depressive episodes. Little is known, however, about ECT's enabling brain (neuro)plasticity effects, particular for plasticity of white matter pathway. Materials and Methods. We collected longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging in the first-episode, drug-naïve major depressive disorder (MDD) patients (n = 24) before and after a predefined time window ECT treatment. We constructed large-scale anatomical networks derived from white matter fiber tractography and evaluated the topological reorganization using graph theoretical analysis. We also assessed the relationship between topological reorganization with improvements in depressive symptoms. Results. Our investigation revealed three main findings: (1) the small-worldness was persistent after ECT series; (2) anatomical connections changes were found in limbic structure, temporal and frontal lobes, in which the connection changes between amygdala and parahippocampus correlate with depressive symptom reduction; (3) significant nodal strength changes were found in right paralimbic network. Conclusions. ECT elicits neuroplastic processes associated with improvements in depressive symptoms that act to specific local ventral frontolimbic circuits, but not small-world property. Overall, ECT induced topological reorganization in large-scale brain structural network, opening up new avenues to better understand the mode of ECT action in MDD.
Zeng, Jinkun; Luo, Qinghua; Du, Lian; Liao, Wei; Li, Yongmei; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Dan; Fu, Yixiao; Qiu, Haitang; Li, Xirong; Qiu, Tian; Meng, Huaqing
Objective. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered one of the most effective and fast-acting treatment options for depressive episodes. Little is known, however, about ECT's enabling brain (neuro)plasticity effects, particular for plasticity of white matter pathway. Materials and Methods. We collected longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging in the first-episode, drug-naïve major depressive disorder (MDD) patients (n = 24) before and after a predefined time window ECT treatment. We constructed large-scale anatomical networks derived from white matter fiber tractography and evaluated the topological reorganization using graph theoretical analysis. We also assessed the relationship between topological reorganization with improvements in depressive symptoms. Results. Our investigation revealed three main findings: (1) the small-worldness was persistent after ECT series; (2) anatomical connections changes were found in limbic structure, temporal and frontal lobes, in which the connection changes between amygdala and parahippocampus correlate with depressive symptom reduction; (3) significant nodal strength changes were found in right paralimbic network. Conclusions. ECT elicits neuroplastic processes associated with improvements in depressive symptoms that act to specific local ventral frontolimbic circuits, but not small-world property. Overall, ECT induced topological reorganization in large-scale brain structural network, opening up new avenues to better understand the mode of ECT action in MDD. PMID:26770836
Martínez-Amorós, Erika; Gálvez Ortiz, Verònica; Porter Moli, Montserrat; Llorens Capdevila, Marta; Cerrillo Albaigés, Ester; Garcia-Parés, Gemma; Cardoner Álvarez, Narcís; Urretavizcaya Sarachaga, Mikel
To determine the influence of propofol and thiopental as anesthetics in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), as regards, seizure duration, electrical charge, clinical efficacy, cardiovascular profile, and presence of adverse cognitive effects. A retrospective design including 127 patients who received bilateral ECT for the treatment of a major depressive episode. The mean seizure duration in the propofol group was significantly shorter than in the thiopental group (21.23±6.09 versus 28.24±6.6 7s, P<.001). The mean stimulus charge was 348.22 mC in the propofol group, and 238 mC in the thiopental group (P<.001). Propofol was associated with a lower increase in blood pressure. There were no differences between groups in treatment response or presence of adverse effects. The anesthetic agent used in ECT might determine differences in parameters such as seizure duration or electrical charge. However, this does not seem to be translated into differences in clinical efficacy or the pattern of adverse effects observed. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Fernie, Gordon; Currie, James; Perrin, Jennifer S; Stewart, Caroline A; Anderson, Virginica; Bennett, Daniel M; Hay, Steven; Reid, Ian C
BackgroundKetamine has recently become an agent of interest as an acute treatment for severe depression and as the anaesthetic for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Subanaesthetic doses result in an acute reduction in depression severity while evidence is equivocal for this antidepressant effect with anaesthetic or adjuvant doses. Recent systematic reviews call for high-quality evidence from further randomised controlled trials (RCTs).AimsTo establish if ketamine as the anaesthetic for ECT results in fewer ECT treatments, improvements in depression severity ratings and less memory impairment than the standard anaesthetic.MethodDouble-blind, parallel-design, RCT of intravenous ketamine (up to 2 mg/kg) with an active comparator, intravenous propofol (up to 2.5 mg/kg), as the anaesthetic for ECT in patients receiving ECT for major depression on an informal basis. (Trial registration: European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT): 2011-000396-14 and clinicalTrials.gov: NCT01306760)ResultsNo significant differences were found on any outcome measure during, at the end of or 1 month following the ECT course.ConclusionsKetamine as an anaesthetic does not enhance the efficacy of ECT. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Lee, Won Hee; Lisanby, Sarah H; Laine, Andrew F; Peterchev, Angel V
This study examines the characteristics of the electric field induced in the brain by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with individualized current amplitude. The electric field induced by bilateral (BL), bifrontal (BF), right unilateral (RUL), and frontomedial (FM) ECT electrode configurations was computed in anatomically realistic finite element models of four nonhuman primates (NHPs). We generated maps of the electric field strength relative to an empirical neural activation threshold, and determined the stimulation strength and focality at fixed current amplitude and at individualized current amplitudes corresponding to seizure threshold (ST) measured in the anesthetized NHPs. The results show less variation in brain volume stimulated above threshold with individualized current amplitudes (16-36%) compared to fixed current amplitude (30-62%). Further, the stimulated brain volume at amplitude-titrated ST is substantially lower than that for ECT with conventional fixed current amplitudes. Thus individualizing the ECT stimulus current could compensate for individual anatomical variability and result in more focal and uniform electric field exposure across different subjects compared to the standard clinical practice of using high, fixed current for all patients.
Järventausta, K; Sorri, A; Kampman, O; Björkqvist, M; Tuohimaa, K; Hämäläinen, M; Moilanen, E; Leinonen, E; Peltola, J; Lehtimäki, K
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to be elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD) but decreased by antidepressive medication. IL-6 levels are markedly elevated both after epileptic seizures and single electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) session, but long-term changes in IL-6 levels after ECT have not been studied. The correlation between immediate and long-term changes in proinflammatory cytokines and outcome after ECT was investigated. Thirty patients suffering from MDD participated in the study. IL-6, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) levels were examined at baseline and at 2 and 4 h after the first, fifth and the last ECT sessions. The response to ECT was measured with Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). ECT repeatedly caused an increase in IL-6 levels at the 4-h time point. However, the baseline IL-6 levels decreased among remitters, but not among non-remitters, towards the end of ECT. IL-1β levels were mostly below detectable level, and IL-1Ra levels did not change during and after ECT. ECT has distinct acute and long-term effects on IL-6 levels. Interestingly, the long-term effect of ECT on IL-6 seems to correlate with outcome, providing further evidence of the mechanism of action of ECT and supporting the inflammation theory in MDD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Phutane, Vivek Haridas; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Jayaram, Naveen; Kesavan, Muralidharan; Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Tyagi, Vidhi; Gangadhar, Bangalore N
Cognitive impairments are among the most important adverse effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Although much is known about them in patients with depression, there is very little information about these in persons with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the persistence of cognitive impairments in a subsample of patients (n = 49) with schizophrenia who had earlier participated in a clinical trial comparing the therapeutic and cognitive efficacy of bifrontal ECT (BFECT; n = 23) and bitemporal ECT (BTECT; n = 29) electrode placements. Total scores on Hindi Mental State Examination, processing speed, working memory, and verbal fluency were assessed in these patients at two points: first, at the end of their respective ECT course and at the follow-up (mean [standard deviation] = 98.7 [38.3] days). The course of cognitive impairments was assessed in all patients (n = 49) as a single group. Further, BFECT and BTECT patients were also compared with one another. ECT-induced acute cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia had normalized by the end of 3 months' follow-up post-ECT. All the tested parameters in the realm of Hindi Mental Status Examination, speed of processing, sequencing, spatial and working memory and verbal fluency showed recovery. Further, across all tests, BFECT and BTECT ultimately had similar scores at the follow-up though BFECT performed relatively better with regards to the acute effects. In fact, worst performing BTECT group caught up to recover to comparable levels of performance by the end of follow-up. In patients with schizophrenia, most of acute ECT-induced cognitive impairments recover by the end of 3 months' post-ECT. Further, different electrode placements do not seem to make any difference regarding ultimate recovery of cognitive deficits. Future prospective studies are needed that could address the limitations of this study.
Fleminger, J. J.; Horne, D. J. de L.; Nott, P. N.
Unilateral electroconvulsive therapy was given to 32 right-handed patients for relief of depression. Sixteen patients received electrode placement on the right side for the first treatment and on the left side for the second treatment. For the other 16 patients the order of sides was reversed. The word Associate Learning subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale was administered about 20 minutes after each treatment (Wechsler, 1945). Results supported the hypothesis that performance on this test would be better when the electrodes were applied over the right than when they were applied over the right than when they were applied over the left cerebral hemisphere. It is suggested that investigation along these lines could assist in establishing the cerebral dominance of individual patients. PMID:5431728
Nothdurfter, Caroline; Eser, Daniela; Schüle, Cornelius; Zwanzger, Peter; Marcuse, Alain; Noack, Ines; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Rupprecht, Rainer; Baghai, Thomas C
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is still considered to be the most efficacious treatment option in major depressive disorder and treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Unfortunately, in some cases patients do not respond sufficiently to conventional unilateral ECT, or even to bilateral or high dose ECT. In these cases, concomitant pharmacotherapy can be a useful augmentation strategy to improve clinical effectiveness. Interestingly, there is not much data about ECT and concomitant neuroleptic medication. We evaluated 5482 treatments in 455 patients in our retrospective study to see whether there might be differences between combination therapies (ECT and concomitant neuroleptic medication) and ECT monotherapy. We focused on clinical effectiveness and tolerability; furthermore we investigated treatment modalities and ictal neurophysiological parameters that might influence the treatment. A total of 18.2% of all treatments were done with no psychotropic medication, 2.8% with a neuroleptic monotherapy. Seizure duration according to EEG derivations turned out to be significantly longer in patients treated with neuroleptics of lower antipsychotic potency, whereas seizure duration in EMG was shorter in treatments done with atypical substances. Postictal suppression was highest in treatments done with atypical neuroleptics, whereas the same group was lowest regarding convulsion energy and convulsion concordance indices. The best therapeutic effectiveness was seen in treatments done with atypical substances. Adverse effects were not influenced significantly by concomitant neuroleptic medication. Our study suggests that there might be a clinical benefit by combining ECT treatment with neuroleptic medication; especially atypical substances seem to enhance improvement. The tolerability of ECT treatment was not influenced by concomitant neuroleptic medication.
Abhishekh, Hulegar A.; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Hegde, Anusha; Phutane, Vivek H.; Kumar, Channaveerachari N.; Muralidharan, Kesavan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.
Context: Mechanism of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is unclear. Anticonvulsant action of ECT has also been one among the hypothesized mechanisms. Anticonvulsant effect may manifest during ECT in at least two ways (a) increased seizure threshold (b) decrease in seizure duration. In depression, increased seizure threshold has been shown to be associated with better antidepressant response. However, relationship between seizure duration and antidepressant activity has been inconsistent. These issues are not investigated in conditions other than depression. Aims: We examined seizure duration over the course of ECT in schizophrenia patients. Settings and Design: Material for this analysis was obtained from a clinical trial examining the differential efficacy of bifrontal ECT (BFECT) versus bitemporal ECT (BTECT) in schizophrenia patients. As a part of study 122 schizophrenia patients who were prescribed ECT were randomized to receive either BFECT or BTECT. Subjects and Methods: Final analysis was conducted on data from 70 patients, as the rest of the data either had artifact or there was a significant change in medication status. Electroencephalogram seizure duration was noted in each session for these patients. Results: Seizure duration declined significantly from second ECT to 6th ECT (repeated measures analysis of variance F = 4.255; P = 0.006). When separate analysis was conducted for BTECT and BFECT patients the decline in seizure duration from 2nd to 6th ECT was significant only with BFECT (F = 3.94; P = 0.014) and not with BTECT (F = 0.966; P = 0.424). Conclusions: Better anticonvulsant effects with BFECT may explain the better therapeutic observed with BFECT in schizophrenia as well as mania in our earlier studies. PMID:24701009
Wade, Benjamin S C; Joshi, Shantanu H; Njau, Stephanie; Leaver, Amber M; Vasavada, Megha; Woods, Roger P; Gutman, Boris A; Thompson, Paul M; Espinoza, Randall; Narr, Katherine L
Patients with major depression show reductions in striatal and paleostriatal volumes. The functional integrity and connectivity of these regions are also shown to change with antidepressant response. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a robust and rapidly acting treatment for severe depression. However, whether morphological changes in the dorsal and ventral striatum/pallidum relate to or predict therapeutic response to ECT is unknown. Using structural MRI, we assessed cross-sectional effects of diagnosis and longitudinal effects of ECT for volume and surface-based shape metrics of the caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens in 53 depressed patients (mean age: 44.1 years, 13.8 SD; 52% female) and 33 healthy controls (mean age: 39.3 years, 12.4 SD; 57% female). Patients were assessed before ECT, after their second ECT, and after completing an ECT treatment index. Controls were evaluated at two time points. Support vector machines determined whether morphometric measures at baseline predicted ECT-related clinical response. Patients showed smaller baseline accumbens and pallidal volumes than controls (P<0.05). Increases in left putamen volume (P<0.03) occurred with ECT. Global increases in accumbens volume and local changes in pallidum and caudate volume occurred in patients defined as treatment responders. Morphometric changes were absent across time in controls. Baseline volume and shape metrics predicted overall response to ECT with up to 89% accuracy. Results support that ECT elicits structural plasticity in the dorsal and ventral striatum/pallidum. The morphometry of these structures, forming key components of limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuitry involved in mood and emotional regulation, may determine patients likely to benefit from treatment.
Fantini, Sergio; Fabbri, Francesco; Nadgir, Shalini; Henry, Michael E.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Franceschini, Maria-Angela
We report non-invasive, bilateral measurements of cerebral oxygenation performed with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on ten patients undergoing right unilateral electro-convulsive therapy (ECT). Right unilateral ECT consists of delivering an electrical current through the right brain hemisphere to induce a seizure, which is associated with significant changes in systemic and regional physiological parameters. In this work, we have examined the regional cerebral oxygenation (StO2) measured with NIRS on the right and left sides of the frontal brain region, and the systemic arterial oxygenation (SaO2) measured with pulse oximetry. On the ten patients examined, we have found that the decrease in the cerebral oxygenation on the side ipsilateral to the ECT electrical discharge (ΔStO2(ipsi)) is consistently stronger than the decrease on the contralateral side (ΔStO2(contra)). The average and standard deviation for the ipsilateral and contralateral oxygenation changes across the ten patients are ΔStO2(ipsi) = -22 +/- 10% and ΔStO2(contra) = -6 +/- 10%, respectively. By contrast, we observed two distinct behaviors in the arterial saturation; in five patients, SaO2 did not significantly change during the ECT procedure, and in three patients, SaO2 decreased by -16+/- 6%, an intermediate value with respect to the changes observed in StO2(ipsi) and StO2(contra) (we do not have the SaO2 recording in the remaining two patients for technical reasons). These results indicate that NIRS monitoring of the cerebral oxygenation during ECT has the potential of being a valuable addition to the standard monitoring of arterial saturation with pulse oximetry.
Coote, M; Wilkins, A; Werstiuk, E S; Steiner, M
OBJECTIVE: To investigate responses to the clonidine challenge test in depression, and after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) or desipramine treatment for depression, in order to determine the usefulness of noradrenergic responses to clonidine as a state or trait marker in depression. PATIENTS: Twenty-six patients with depression and 15 control subjects. SETTING: The psychiatric ward of St. Joseph's Hospital in Hamilton. INTERVENTIONS: In the patients with depression: clonidine challenge pre- and post-treatment with ECT or desipramine. In the controls: 2 clonidine challenge tests 4 to 8 weeks apart. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary measure was the growth hormone response to the clonidine challenge. Plasma norepinephrine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), cortisol, blood pressure, pulse and sedation levels were examined in subgroups of participants as secondary measures. RESULTS: The pre-treatment growth hormone response to clonidine was significantly more blunted in patients than in controls (p = 0.02). This response improved in both treatment groups after therapy and, although it remained decreased, there was no longer a significant difference in response between the patients and the controls. In the patients, a decreased growth hormone response to clonidine at baseline was correlated with response to treatment. Of the secondary measures, patient baseline norepinephrine levels were significantly elevated pre- and post-treatment, although there were no significant group-by-time challenge effects. MHPG levels were not significantly different pre- and post-treatment between patients and controls. Baseline blood pressure and pulse were elevated in the patients pre- and post-treatment. These differences were not statistically significant and did not change after treatment. Sedation levels were not significantly different among the groups at baseline. Clonidine-induced sedation occurred significantly earlier in the patients pretreatment and improved to the range of
Pirnia, T; Joshi, S H; Leaver, A M; Vasavada, M; Njau, S; Woods, R P; Espinoza, R; Narr, K L
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and rapidly acting treatment for severe depression. To understand the biological bases of therapeutic response, we examined variations in cortical thickness from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 29 patients scanned at three time points during an ECT treatment index series and in 29 controls at two time points. Changes in thickness across time and with symptom improvement were evaluated at high spatial resolution across the cortex and within discrete cortical regions of interest. Patients showed increased thickness over the course of ECT in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior and superior temporal, parahippocampal, entorhinal and fusiform cortex and in distributed prefrontal areas. No changes across time occurred in controls. In temporal and fusiform regions showing significant ECT effects, thickness differed between patients and controls at baseline and change in thickness related to therapeutic response in patients. In the ACC, these relationships occurred in treatment responders only, and thickness measured soon after treatment initiation predicted the overall ECT response. ECT leads to widespread neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic regions and changes relate to the extent of antidepressant response. Variations in ACC thickness, which discriminate treatment responders and predict response early in the course of ECT, may represent a biomarker of overall clinical outcome. Because post-mortem studies show focal reductions in glial density and neuronal size in patients with severe depression, ECT-related increases in thickness may be attributable to neuroplastic processes affecting the size and/or density of neurons and glia and their connections. PMID:27271858
Pirnia, T; Joshi, S H; Leaver, A M; Vasavada, M; Njau, S; Woods, R P; Espinoza, R; Narr, K L
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and rapidly acting treatment for severe depression. To understand the biological bases of therapeutic response, we examined variations in cortical thickness from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 29 patients scanned at three time points during an ECT treatment index series and in 29 controls at two time points. Changes in thickness across time and with symptom improvement were evaluated at high spatial resolution across the cortex and within discrete cortical regions of interest. Patients showed increased thickness over the course of ECT in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior and superior temporal, parahippocampal, entorhinal and fusiform cortex and in distributed prefrontal areas. No changes across time occurred in controls. In temporal and fusiform regions showing significant ECT effects, thickness differed between patients and controls at baseline and change in thickness related to therapeutic response in patients. In the ACC, these relationships occurred in treatment responders only, and thickness measured soon after treatment initiation predicted the overall ECT response. ECT leads to widespread neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic regions and changes relate to the extent of antidepressant response. Variations in ACC thickness, which discriminate treatment responders and predict response early in the course of ECT, may represent a biomarker of overall clinical outcome. Because post-mortem studies show focal reductions in glial density and neuronal size in patients with severe depression, ECT-related increases in thickness may be attributable to neuroplastic processes affecting the size and/or density of neurons and glia and their connections.
Lestra, C; d'Amato, T; Ghaemmaghami, C; Perret-Liaudet, A; Broyer, M; Renaud, B; Dalery, J; Chamba, G
Clinical and pharmacologic studies report a relative or absolute serotonergic deficiency in major depression; however, the variability of clinical characteristics of illness has led to controversial results. In the present work, we looked for a possible relationship between i) biochemical values that indirectly reflect aminergic neurons activity and clinical characteristics and ii) their evolution and the early clinical outcome under antidepressive therapies (ATs). Platelet serotonin content, platelet monoamine oxydase activity, and urinary biopterins were measured in 27 depressed patients before and during four different ATs (paroxetine, viloxazine, moclobemide, or electroconvulsive therapy). Depressive symptomatology and its evolution under ATs were quantified using three clinical rating scales. A severe symptomatology, high serotonin (5-HT) platelet content, and high or low urinary B could represent risk factors leading to a smaller or delayed response to an AT. Furthermore, the early improvement under ATs was negatively correlated to pretreatment 5-HT platelet content. Determination of 5-HT level could be useful in the choice of an AT.
Teman, Paul T; Perry, Candace Lynn; Ryan, Debra A; Rasmussen, Keith G
In recent years, attention has been focused on the role of electrode placement in determining efficacy and cognitive side effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). In particular, interest in bifrontal electrode placement has increased. Some evidence indicates differential therapeutic, cognitive, and neurophysiological aspects of bifrontal versus bitemporal ECT. Occasionally in ECT practice, electroencephalographic seizure activity is manifested in the absence of motor convulsive activity, a phenomenon termed nonconvulsive seizures. This probably indicates isolated prefrontal seizure activity in the absence of motor strip involvement. We reviewed our records and found that bifrontally treated patients had a significantly higher incidence of nonconvulsive seizures in ECT than did bitemporally treated patients. Seizure threshold was also higher among the bifrontal patients. We hypothesize that this provides further evidence of differential neurophysiology of seizures induced with these 2 electrode placements.
Shah, Ruchita; Grover, Sandeep; Krishna, Kodakandla; Singh, Dharminder
We present a case of psychotic depression with polymyositis presenting with the distinct phenomenon of nihilism by proxy, which was treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). A female patient with polymyositis was initially treated with pharmacotherapy. After initial response, there was deterioration in her mental state and hence, after careful consideration, neurological, and anaesthetic consultations, modified ECT was given with close monitoring. The mental state of the patient improved with a course of ECT, which proceeded without any complications. Her depressive symptoms including the delusion of nihilism by proxy responded to ECT. To the best of our knowledge, the use of ECT has not been reported in a case of polymyositis before, and this case shows that modified ECT can be given successfully in patients with polymyositis.
O'Neill-Kerr, Alex; Yassin, Anhar; Rogers, Stephen; Cornish, Janie
The aim of this study was to test the proposition that adoption of a dose titration protocol may be associated with better patient outcomes, at lower treatment dose, and with comparable cumulative dose to that in patients treated using an age-based stimulus dosing protocol. This was an analysis of data assembled from archived records and based on cohorts of patients treated respectively on an age-based stimulus dosing protocol and on a dose titration protocol in the National Health Service in England. We demonstrated a significantly better response in the patient cohort treated with dose titration than with age-based stimulus dosing. Peak doses were less and the total cumulative dose was less in the dose titration group than in the age-based stimulus dosing group. Our findings are consistent with superior outcomes in patients treated using a dose titration protocol when compared with age-based stimulus dosing in a similar cohort of patients.
Choi, Jimmy; Wang, Yuanjia; Feng, Tianshu; Prudic, Joan
Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the most effective treatment for severe depression, some patients report persistent memory problems following ECT that impact their quality of life and their willingness to consent to further ECT. While cognitive training has been shown to improve memory performance in various conditions, this approach has never been applied to help patients regain their memory after ECT. In a double-blind study, we tested the efficacy of a new cognitive training program called Memory Training for ECT (Mem-ECT), specifically designed to target anterograde and retrograde memory that can be compromised following ECT. Fifty-nine patients with treatment-resistant depression scheduled to undergo ultra-brief right unilateral ECT were randomly assigned to either: (a) Mem-ECT, (b) active control comprised of nonspecific mental stimulation, or (c) treatment as usual. Participants were evaluated within one week prior to the start of ECT and then again within 2 weeks following the last ECT session. All three groups improved in global function, quality of life, depression, and self-reported memory abilities without significant group differences. While there was a decline in verbal delayed recall and mental status, there was no decline in general retrograde memory or autobiographical memory in any of the groups, with no significant memory or clinical benefit for the Mem-ECT or active control conditions compared to treatment as usual. While we report negative findings, these results continue to promote the much needed discussion on developing effective strategies to minimize the adverse memory side effects of ECT, in hopes it will make ECT a better and more easily tolerated treatment for patients with severe depression who need this therapeutic option.
Erdil, Feray; Begeç, Zekine; Kayhan, Gülay Erdoğan; Yoloğlu, Saim; Ersoy, Mehmet Özcan; Durmuş, Mahmut
To evaluate the effect of sevoflurane or ketamine on the corrected QT (QTc) interval and the interval from the peak to the end of the T wave (Tp-e) during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with major depression. This prospective, randomized, double-blinded study included 24 patients that were randomly allocated to receive sevoflurane (group S) or ketamine (group K) for ECT session. Group S patients received 8 % sevoflurane for anesthesia induction, which was maintained at 2-4 % until delivery of the electrical stimulus. Group K patients received a bolus of ketamine (1 mg/kg). The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) and the electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded before (T1) and after induction of anesthesia (T2) and 0, 1, 3, and 10 min after the electrical stimuli ended (T3, T4, T5, and T6, respectively). In both groups, the QTc interval was significantly longer at T2, T4, T5, and T6 than at baseline. The QTc interval was longer at T4, T5, and T6 in group S compared to that in group K, the Tp-e interval was significantly longer at T4 in group K both baseline and group S. The HR in group S was increased at T4 compared with group K. MAP was significantly higher after induction of anesthesia in group K compared to those in group S at all time points. Although group S showed a prolonged QTc interval after ECT compared to group K, the Tp-e interval in both groups was not significantly affected clinically. Sevoflurane blunted MAP and peak HR.
Kaster, Tyler S; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Blumberger, Daniel M
To determine the clinical effectiveness and cognitive impact of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a large clinical sample of patients with schizophrenia and explore factors associated with treatment response and transient cognitive impairment. We examined the clinical records of 144 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were treated at an academic mental health hospital from October 2009 to August 2014. These patients received 171 acute courses of ECT; we attempted to determine their treatment response and transient cognitive impairment from ECT. We explored the impact of various factors including ECT indication, clinical characteristics, medication during ECT, and technical parameters on treatment response and transient cognitive impairment. Treatment with ECT resulted in a 76.7% response rate. Factors associated with a better response to ECT were absence of treatment with antiepileptic medication (17.9% vs 3.9%, P = .007), a previous good response to ECT (36.4% vs 15.4%, P = .017), and primary indication for ECT referral other than failed pharmacotherapy (89.7% vs 69.8%, P = .012). Factors not associated with treatment response included age, clozapine treatment, and benzodiazepine treatment (P > .05). Treatment with ECT caused transient cognitive impairment in 9% of treatment courses; no demographic or clinical factors were associated with cognitive impairment. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of ECT for schizophrenia treatment and several factors associated with treatment response. The rate of transient cognitive impairment is lower than expected based on the rate of cognitive impairment seen in ECT for depression. ECT appears to be an effective treatment option for schizophrenia that is tolerated by the majority of patients.
Aten, Jan Jaap; Oudega, Mardien; van Exel, Eric; Stek, Max L; van Waarde, Jeroen A
In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a dose titration method (DTM) was suggested to be more individualized and therefore more accurate than formula-based dosing methods. A repeated DTM (every sixth session and dose adjustment accordingly) was compared to an age-based method (ABM) regarding treatment characteristics, clinical outcome, and cognitive functioning after ECT. Thirty-nine unipolar depressed patients dosed using repeated DTM and 40 matched patients treated with ABM were compared. Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the index course, as well as the total number of ECT sessions. Both groups were similar regarding age, sex, psychotic features, mean baseline MADRS, and median baseline MMSE. At the end of the index course, the two methods showed equal outcome (mean end MADRS, 11.6 ± 8.3 in DTM and 9.5 ± 7.6 in ABM (P = 0.26); median end MMSE, 28 (25-29) and 28 (25-29.8), respectively (P = 0.81). However, the median number of all ECT sessions differed 16 (11-22) in DTM versus 12 (10-14.8) in ABM; P = 0.02]. Using regression analysis, dosing method and age were independently associated with the total number of ECT sessions, with less sessions needed in ABM (P = 0.02) and in older patients (P = 0.001). In this comparative cohort study, ABM and DTM showed equal outcome for depression and cognition. However, the median ECT course duration in repeated DTM appeared longer. Additionally, higher age was associated with shorter ECT courses regardless of the dosing method. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Erdil, Feray; Ozgul, Ulku; Çolak, Cemil; Cumurcu, Birgul; Durmus, Mahmut
We evaluated the effects of a subanesthetic dose of ketamine, which was administered as an adjunct to sevoflurane, on duration of seizure activity, hemodynamic profile, and recovery times during electroconvulsive therapy in patients with major depression. Patients were randomly allocated to a group receiving either sevoflurane-ketamine (group SK) or sevoflurane-saline (group SS). Sevoflurane was initiated in both groups at 8% for anesthesia induction until loss of consciousness was achieved, at which point it was discontinued. After loss of consciousness, ketamine was administered to the group SK in the form of a 0.5-mg/kg intravenous bolus. Patients in the group SS received saline in the same manner. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were recorded before anesthetic induction (T1); after anesthetic induction (T2); as well as 0, 1, 3, and 10 minutes after the seizure had ended (T3, T4, T5, and T6, respectively). Motor and electroencephalogram seizure durations were recorded. Motor and electroencephalogram seizure durations in the group SS were similar to those observed for the group SK. The heart rate increased significantly during T2 to T6 in both group SS and group SK compared with the baseline. The MAP increased in the group SS during the period between T3 and T6 as well as in the group SK during the same period compared with the baseline. The MAP increased more in the group SK, in comparison with the group SS, during T2 (P < 0.05). The addition of ketamine at subanesthetic doses, for the purposes of anesthetic induction with sevoflurane, yielded results similar to those in the control group in terms of both seizure duration and hemodynamic stability.
Dhossche, Dirk M; Reti, Irving M; Wachtel, Lee E
Current autism research is historically separated from catatonia and other childhood psychotic disorders, although catatonia and autism share several common symptoms (mutism, echolalia, stereotypic speech and repetitive behaviors, posturing, grimacing, rigidity, mannerisms, and purposeless agitation). Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) effectively treats catatonia and catatonia-related conditions of intractable compulsions, tics, and self-injury in people with autism. We assess the incidence of catatonic symptoms in autism, examine emerging ECT indications in people with autism and related developmental disorders, and encourage ethical debate and legal-administrative action to assure equal access to ECT for people with autism.
Keddy, Philip; Erdberg, Philip
We used before-and-after testing with the Rorschach Inkblot Test (Exner, 1997/2003) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (Butcher et al., 2001) to assist a psychotherapy client--a survivor of child abuse suffering from depression accompanied by hallucinations--in evaluating a course of electroconvulsive therapy that she underwent. The results of both tests indicated positive changes. During the collaborative discussion of the test results, especially the changes seen on the Rorschach, a deeper understanding of her skeptical response to evidence of improvement came to light and helped to refocus the ongoing psychotherapy work.
O'Reardon, John P.; Cristancho, Mario A.; Ryley, Barbara; Patel, Kajal R.; Haber, Howard L.
Although there is no specific age cut-off for ECT and no absolute contraindication to its use, very old age as well as the presence of cardiac conditions such as aortic stenosis are factors that may negatively impact the clinician's decision to administer ECT in the individual case. We report our follow-up of a 100 year old female with severe aortic stenosis who has now received ECT safely for a period of 5 years. No cardiac complications have emerged during this period. Her prior unipolar depressive episode with catatonic features remains in remission with a single prophylactic ECT session every 3 months. We have observed from our experience with this unique case that periodic multidisciplinary re-evaluation of the evolving risk-benefit profile of ECT is essential along with the inclusion of family members in this dialogue. Our patient course illustrates that neither advanced age nor severe aortic stenosis are absolute contraindications to ECT even over an extended period of time. Each case needs to be evaluated on its merits. To our knowledge, this case represents the oldest patient in the literature where ECT has been administered safely for such an extended period in the setting of severe aortic stenosis. PMID:21865959
Salvador Sánchez, Javier; David, Mónica Delia; Torrent Setó, Aurora; Martínez Alonso, Montserrat; Portella Moll, Maria J; Pifarré Paredero, Josep; Vieta Pascual, Eduard; Mur Laín, María
The influence of age and gender in the electrical charge delivered in a given population was analysed using an electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) clinical database. An observational, prospective, longitudinal study with descriptive analysis was performed using data from a database that included total bilateral frontotemporal ECT carried out with a Mecta spECTrum 5000Q(®) in our hospital over 6 years. From 2006 to 2012, a total of 4,337 ECT were performed on 187 patients. Linear regression using mixed effects analysis was weighted by the inverse of the number of ECT performed on each patient per year of treatment. The results indicate that age is related with changes in the required charge (P=.031), as such that the older the age a higher charge is needed. Gender is also associated with changes in charge (P=.014), with women requiring less charge than men, a mean of 87.3mC less. When the effects of age and gender are included in the same model, both are significant (P=.0080 and P=.0041). Thus, for the same age, women require 99.0mC less charge than men, and in both genders the charge increases by 2.3mC per year. From our study, it is concluded that the effect of age on the dosage of the electrical charge is even more significant when related to gender. It would be of interest to promote the systematic collection of data for a better understanding and application of the technique. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Plakiotis, Chris; Barson, Fay; Vengadasalam, Bharathi; Haines, Terry P; O’Connor, Daniel W
Background Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is commonly used to treat depression in older adults. Despite its efficacy in this regard, an associated increase in the risk of falls in this population is a downside of treatment. ECT research has focused on the incidence of falls, but its effect on balance and gait – intrinsic factors in instability and falls – has not been studied. Our aim was to examine changes in balance and gait among older adults before and after a single ECT session and explore the effect of patient-related and treatment factors on any changes found. Methods Participants were 21 older adults requiring ECT for depression in public psychiatric services. Patients with clinically overt mobility problems (impairing test participation or increasing the risk of falls) were excluded. Balance and gait testing 1 hour pre-ECT and 1, 2 and 3 hours post-ECT included: (1) steady standing test; (2) perturbation of standing balance by self-initiated movements; (3) perturbation of standing balance by an external perturbation; and (4) timed up and go test. Results No deterioration in test performance was found, using one-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Conclusion Balance and gait did not deteriorate immediately after ECT. Exclusion of participants with clinically overt mobility problems and falls being better attributable to factors unrelated to balance and gait (such as post-ECT confusion) may account for our findings. This research does not repudiate the occurrence of ECT-related falls but calls into question the utility of introducing routine balance and gait assessment among older ECT recipients without pre-existing mobility problems as a means of preventing them. PMID:23766650
Mitchell, Shanti; Hassan, Ehmer; Ghaziuddin, Neera
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective and a safe treatment for several severe psychiatric disorders across the age span. However, its use remains controversial and highly stigmatized especially among patients under 18 years. In this study, we examined current symptoms, attitudes, perception, and functioning of patients treated with ECT when they were less than 18 years old. Participants had received ECT before age 18, between 1989 and 2015, at a tertiary medical center. Institutional review board-approval was obtained, and study documents (cover letter, consent, self-ratings scales for depression, anxiety, global functioning, and suicidality) were mailed. Based on self-rated depression, 59.1% (13/22) participants indicated mild or no depression; 65% (13/20) reported mild or no anxiety; the majority, 84.3% (16/19) perceived ECT as having improved their overall illness; and 27.3% (6/22) among the respondents reported no clinical impairment on a global functioning scale, whereas 72.7% (16/22) reported significant or severe impairment. Despite reports of ongoing impaired global functioning among some participants, adequate academic performance (83.3%, 5/6) and mild or no suicidality (78.3%, 18/23) were endorsed by the majority reported. The majority of participants who had received ECT before age 18 years reported mild or absence of depression and anxiety on self-rated follow-up measures after treatment with ECT. Most notably, the majority reported absence of suicidality and adequate academic performance. A number of respondents, however, continued to endorse global impairment, which may be a reflection of their baseline severe illness, which had warranted treatment with ECT.
Pinkhasov, Aaron; Biglow, Michael; Chandra, Subhash; Pica, Tiffany
Due to the shortage of parenteral caffeine and sodium benzoate, patients were pretreated with caffeine citrate to increase therapeutic seizure duration during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). To date, no data are available on the use of caffeine citrate during ECT. This retrospective case series was done to demonstrate utilization of caffeine citrate as a substitute for caffeine and sodium benzoate in optimizing ECT. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients who received ECT and caffeine citrate. Physician notes were reviewed to determine the parameters of the ECT procedure, the seizure length, and the dose of caffeine citrate. Each chart was thoroughly studied to find the relationship between seizure duration and dose of caffeine citrate. Of the 12 ECT treatments utilizing caffeine citrate, 9 achieved at least 1 session lasting >30 seconds with an average seizure duration of 35 seconds. Increase in seizure duration ranged from -41% to 276% with an average increase of 48%. Only 3 treatment sessions utilizing caffeine citrate showed no increase in seizure duration. Doses ranged from 120 to 600 mg of both oral and parenteral caffeine citrate. Although increase in seizure duration was achieved for the majority of the ECT sessions, no dose-response correlation could be made. No significant adverse reactions were noted with the use of caffeine citrate during ECT. It was determined that, much like caffeine and sodium benzoate, caffeine citrate does increase the seizure duration. However, this response did vary due to many reasons including small sample size, concomitant medications, duration of illness, and number of ECTs they received in the past and how long ago they received the last ECT. Further research is required to elucidate the effect of these variables on seizure duration. © The Author(s) 2014.
Takekita, Yoshiteru; Suwa, Taro; Sunada, Naotaka; Kawashima, Hirotsugu; Fabbri, Chiara; Kato, Masaki; Tajika, Aran; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Furukawa, Toshi A; Serretti, Alessandro
In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), remifentanil is often used concurrently with anesthetics. The objective of this study was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review on how the addition of remifentanil to anesthetics affects seizure duration and circulatory dynamics in mECT. We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs that investigated seizure duration and circulatory dynamics in patients treated with ECT using anesthetics alone (non-remifentanil group) and with anesthetics plus remifentanil (remifentanil group). A total of 13 RCTs (380 patients and 1024 ECT sessions) were included. The remifentanil group showed a significantly prolonged seizure duration during ECT compared to the non-remifentanil group [motor: 9 studies, SMD = 1.25, 95 % CI (0.21, 2.29), p = 0.02; electroencephalogram: 8 studies, SMD = 0.98, 95 % CI (0.14, 1.82), p = 0.02]. The maximum systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly reduced in the remifentanil group compared to the non-remifentanil group [7 studies, SMD = -0.36, 95 % CI (-0.65, 0.07), p = 0.02]. Substantial heterogeneity was observed for meta-analyses for seizure durations, but a pre-planned subgroup analysis revealed that seizure duration was prolonged only when the use of the anesthetic dose was reduced in the remifentanil group. The results of our study suggest that addition of remifentanil to anesthesia in ECT may lead to prolonged seizure duration when it allows the use of reduced anesthetic doses. Further, the addition of remifentanil was associated with reduced maximum SBP.
Liu, Yi; Du, Lian; Li, Yongmei; Liu, Haixia; Zhao, Wenjing; Liu, Dan; Zeng, Jinkun; Li, Xingbao; Fu, Yixiao; Qiu, Haitang; Li, Xirong; Qiu, Tian; Hu, Hua; Meng, Huaqing; Luo, Qinghua
Abstract The mechanisms underlying the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depressive disorder (MDD) are not fully understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a new tool to study the effects of brain stimulation interventions, particularly ECT. The authors aim to investigate the mechanisms of ECT in MDD by rs-fMRI. They used rs-fMRI to measure functional changes in the brain of first-episode, treatment-naive MDD patients (n = 23) immediately before and then following 8 ECT sessions (brief-pulse square-wave apparatus, bitemporal). They also computed voxel-wise amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as a measure of regional brain activity and selected the left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) to evaluate functional connectivity between the sgACC and other brain regions. Increased regional brain activity measured by ALFF mainly in the left sgACC following ECT. Functional connectivity of the left sgACC increased in the ipsilateral parahippocampal gyrus, pregenual ACC, contralateral middle temporal pole, and orbitofrontal cortex. Importantly, reduction in depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with increased ALFF in the left sgACC and left hippocampus, and with distant functional connectivity between the left sgACC and contralateral middle temporal pole. That is, across subjects, as depression improved, regional brain activity in sgACC and its functional connectivity increased in the brain. Eight ECT sessions in MDD patients modulated activity in the sgACC and its networks. The antidepressant effects of ECT were negatively correlated with sgACC brain activity and connectivity. These findings suggest that sgACC-associated prefrontal-limbic structures are associated with the therapeutic effects of ECT in MDD. PMID:26559309
Hick, E M; Black, J L
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for some types of depression and psychotic disorders. Although ECT is considered effective and relatively safe, the treatment team must know how to deal with adverse effects. The American Psychiatric Association recognizes no absolute contraindication except brain tumor with increased intracranial pressure. However, patients who have other medical problems are at risk of complications. Optimizing the safety and efficacy of treatment is a goal when providing ECT. Muscle relaxants, barbiturate anesthesia, anticholinergic agents, and oxygenation are used to reduce the risk of complications. The use of ECT requires a knowledge of the effect of anesthetic agents on seizure activity. This article reviews ECT, anesthesia for ECT, and the effect of propofol and methohexital on seizure duration and seizure efficacy.
Sahlem, Gregory L; Short, E Baron; Kerns, Suzanne; Snipes, Jon; DeVries, William; Fox, James B; Burns, Carol; Schmidt, Matthew; Nahas, Ziad H; George, Mark S; Sackeim, Harold A
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most rapid and effective antidepressant treatment but with concerns about cognitive adverse effects. A new form of ECT, focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST), was designed to increase the focality of stimulation and better match stimulus parameters with neurophysiology. We recently reported on the safety and feasibility of FEAST in a cohort (n = 17) of depressed patients. We now report on the safety, feasibility, preliminary efficacy, and cognitive effects of FEAST in a new cohort. Open-label FEAST was administered to 20 depressed adults (6 men; 3 with bipolar disorder; age 49.1 ± 10.6 years). Clinical and cognitive assessments were obtained at baseline and end of course. Time to orientation recovery was assessed at each treatment. Nonresponders switched to conventional ECT. Participants tolerated the treatment well with no dropouts. Five patients (25%) transitioned from FEAST to conventional ECT due to inadequate response. After FEAST (mean, 9.3 ± 3.5 sessions; range, 4-14), there was a 58.1% ± 36.0% improvement in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores compared with that in the baseline (P < 0.0001); 13 (65%) of 20 patients met response criteria, and 11 (55%) of 20 met remission criteria. Patients achieved reorientation (4 of 5 items) in 4.4 ± 3.0 minutes (median, 4.5 minutes), timed from eyes opening. There was no deterioration in neuropsychological measures. These findings provide further support for the safety and efficacy of FEAST. The remission and response rates were in the range found using conventional ECT, and the time to reorientation may be quicker. However, without a randomized comparison group, conclusions are tentative.
Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) are conventionally applied with a fixed stimulus current amplitude, which may result in differences in the neural stimulation strength and focality across patients due to interindividual anatomical variability. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of head anatomical variability associated with age, sex, and individual differences on the induced electric field characteristics in ECT and MST. Six stimulation modalities were modeled including bilateral and right unilateral ECT, focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST), and MST with circular, cap, and double-cone coils. The electric field was computed using the finite element method in a parameterized spherical head model representing the variability in the general population. Head tissue layer thicknesses and conductivities were varied to examine the impact of interindividual anatomical differences on the stimulation strength, depth, and focality. Skull conductivity most strongly affects the ECT electric field, whereas the MST electric field is independent of tissue conductivity variation in this model but is markedly affected by differences in head diameter. Focal ECT electrode configurations such as FEAST is more sensitive to anatomical variability than that of less focal paradigms such as BL ECT. In MST, anatomical variability has stronger influence on the electric field of the cap and circular coils compared to the double-cone coil, possibly due to the more superficial field of the former. The variability of the ECT and MST electric field due to anatomical differences should be considered in the interpretation of existing studies and in efforts to improve dosing approaches for better control of stimulation strength and focality across patients, such as individualization of the current amplitude. The conventional approach to individualizing dosage by titrating the number of pulses cannot compensate for differences in
Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H; Peterchev, Angel V
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) are conventionally applied with a fixed stimulus current amplitude, which may result in differences in the neural stimulation strength and focality across patients due to interindividual anatomical variability. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of head anatomical variability associated with age, sex, and individual differences on the induced electric field characteristics in ECT and MST. Six stimulation modalities were modeled including bilateral and right unilateral ECT, focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST), and MST with circular, cap, and double-cone coils. The electric field was computed using the finite element method in a parameterized spherical head model representing the variability in the general population. Head tissue layer thicknesses and conductivities were varied to examine the impact of interindividual anatomical differences on the stimulation strength, depth, and focality. Skull conductivity most strongly affects the ECT electric field, whereas the MST electric field is independent of tissue conductivity variation in this model but is markedly affected by differences in head diameter. Focal ECT electrode configurations such as FEAST is more sensitive to anatomical variability than that of less focal paradigms such as BL ECT. In MST, anatomical variability has stronger influence on the electric field of the cap and circular coils compared to the double-cone coil, possibly due to the more superficial field of the former. The variability of the ECT and MST electric fields due to anatomical differences should be considered in the interpretation of existing studies and in efforts to improve dosing approaches for better control of stimulation strength and focality across patients, such as individualization of the current amplitude. The conventional approach to individualizing dosage by titrating the number of pulses cannot compensate for differences in
Bundy, Bogata D; Hewer, Walter; Andres, Franz-Josef; Gass, Peter; Sartorius, Alexander
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is performed under anesthesia and muscle relaxation. Only well-generalized seizures seem to have the high "adequacy" or "quality" that have been claimed to reflect positive predictive power for the outcome of an ECT course. The induction of well-generalized seizures can be potentially influenced by several variables. One major variable is concurrent medication including anesthetic drugs, since most anesthetic drugs are potent anticonvulsives. We hypothesized a negative influence of anesthetics and benzodiazepines but a positive effect of antidepressants and antipsychotics concurrently applied during ECT on seizure adequacy. We included inpatients (n = 41) with a DSM-IV-diagnosed major depressive episode treated with ECT (411 ECT sessions) during a period of 20 months (May 2005 to December 2006) in an open label and noncontrolled study. A repeated measurement regression analysis was performed with 8 seizure adequacy parameters as dependent variables. We indirectly quantified narcotic agent influence with bispectral index monitoring. In contrast to the impact of psychiatric comedication, this measure of "depth of narcosis" prior stimulation turned out to influence most seizure adequacy parameters in a highly significant manner. Thus, we concluded that the anticonvulsive properties of narcotic agents have much higher influence than concomitant psychotropic medication. Our data support the view that a significant influence of concurrent psychotropic drugs on seizure adequacy markers is missing, especially when directly compared with other confounders like stimulation energy, age, and depth of narcosis. The latter suggests to further prove the idea that lighter anesthesia is indeed an important tool to get patients faster into remission. 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Prohovnik, I.; Alderson, P.O.; Sackheim, H.A.; Decina, P.; Kahn, D.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is frequently used in the treatment of major depression and other psychiatric disorders; its mechanism of action is not established, but previous evidence suggests that it is associated with postictal metabolic suppression. The authors have used measurements of rCBF as an index of cortical metabolic activity to study the acute effects of ECT. Measurements of rCBF were made in 32 cortical regions in 10 patients (pts) following one minute breathing of Xe-133 (5mCi/L); the measurements were performed 30min before and 50min after ECT. Bilateral ECT was administered to six pts (five diagnosed as major depressives and one schizophrenic) and unilateral ECT to four (all diagnosed as unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). The total rCBF material consists of 52 measurements in these pts, made before and after 16 bilateral and 10 unilateral treatments. ECT was found to cause significant reduction of rCBF. Mean hemispheric flows (using the Initial Slope Index to measure grey-matter flow) were reduced by about 5% in both hemispheres following bilateral treatment. Unilateral treatment caused a 9% reduction of flow in the treated hemisphere, but only 2% contralaterally. Regional patterns of flow decreases also differed between the two treatment modes: bilateral frontal reductions were found after bilateral treatment, whereas unilateral ECT caused a widespread flow reduction in the treated hemisphere, and almost no effect contralaterally. These results suggest that rCBF studies are useful for assessing ECT, and indicate that the acute cerebral effects of ECT vary with the mode of treatment.
Flamarique, Itziar; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Garrido, Juan Miguel; de la Serna, Elena; Pons, Alexandre; Bernardo, Miguel; Baeza, Inmaculada
To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the combination of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and clozapine compared to ECT with other antipsychotics or benzodiazepines in a sample of adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Data regarding 28 adolescent subjects aged 13 to 18 with diagnoses of schizophrenia spectrum disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision and treated with ECT were retrospectively collected. Twelve subjects were also treated with clozapine and 16 with other antipsychotics or benzodiazepines during ECT course and follow-up. Electroconvulsive therapy parameters and adverse effects were assessed using a systematic protocol. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Clinical Global Impression scores before ECT and after acute ECT, and rate of rehospitalization during 1-year follow-up were used to assess effectiveness. Response was defined as a 20% decrease in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores. No differences were observed in the mean charge needed to induce seizure and electroencephalographic duration, but there was a slight difference in the current used. The nonclozapine group showed greater restlessness and agitation, although no differences were found in other adverse effects. The percentage of responders was similar: 66.7% in the clozapine group and 68.8% in the nonclozapine group. However, the rate of rehospitalization was lower in the patients treated with clozapine during 1-year follow-up (7.1%) compared to that of the nonclozapine group (58.3%) (P = 0.009). The main findings of this study were that combining ECT with clozapine, compared to ECT with other antipsychotics or benzodiazepines, was safe and that both treatments were equally effective. Charges needed to induce seizure were similar in both groups. Patients treated with clozapine during 1-year follow-up had a lower rate of rehospitalization.
Redlich, Ronny; Opel, Nils; Grotegerd, Dominik; Dohm, Katharina; Zaremba, Dario; Bürger, Christian; Münker, Sandra; Mühlmann, Lisa; Wahl, Patricia; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Alferink, Judith; Zwanzger, Peter; Zavorotnyy, Maxim; Kugel, Harald; Dannlowski, Udo
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe depression. However, biomarkers that accurately predict a response to ECT remain unidentified. To investigate whether certain factors identified by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are able to predict ECT response. In this nonrandomized prospective study, gray matter structure was assessed twice at approximately 6 weeks apart using 3-T MRI and voxel-based morphometry. Patients were recruited through the inpatient service of the Department of Psychiatry, University of Muenster, from March 11, 2010, to March 27, 2015. Two patient groups with acute major depressive disorder were included. One group received an ECT series in addition to antidepressants (n = 24); a comparison sample was treated solely with antidepressants (n = 23). Both groups were compared with a sample of healthy control participants (n = 21). Binary pattern classification was used to predict ECT response by structural MRI that was performed before treatment. In addition, univariate analysis was conducted to predict reduction of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score by pretreatment gray matter volumes and to investigate ECT-related structural changes. One participant in the ECT sample was excluded from the analysis, leaving 67 participants (27 men and 40 women; mean [SD] age, 43.7 [10.6] years). The binary pattern classification yielded a successful prediction of ECT response, with accuracy rates of 78.3% (18 of 23 patients in the ECT sample) and sensitivity rates of 100% (13 of 13 who responded to ECT). Furthermore, a support vector regression yielded a significant prediction of relative reduction in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score. The principal findings of the univariate model indicated a positive association between pretreatment subgenual cingulate volume and individual ECT response (Montreal Neurological Institute [MNI] coordinates x = 8, y = 21, z = -18
Xie, Jing; Chen, Jianjun; Wei, Qianping
Studies comparing the antidepressant effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have reported mixed results, as the choice of rTMS stimulus parameters is essential to its antidepressive effect. This meta-analysis aimed at assessing how rTMS stimulus parameters influence the efficacy of rTMS relative to ECT in treating major depression. A comprehensive literature search (including PubMed, CCTR, Web of Science, Embase, EAGLE, NTIS, CBM-disc, CNKI, Current Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials, International Clinical Trials Registry, and Internet Stroke Center) was conducted dating until December 2012. After exclusion of low-quality studies, the key search terms ('depressive', 'depression', 'transcranial magnetic stimulation', 'TMS', 'repetitive TMS', 'electroconvulsive therapy', and 'ECT') produced nine high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of rTMS versus ECT. These nine studies, composed of 395 patients, were meta-analyzed through assessment of odds of remission, response, and drop-out. Two rTMS subgroups displayed non-significant superiority to ECT: 20 Hz (odds ratio (OR) = 1·20; P > 0·05) and ≥ 1200 daily stimuli (OR = 1·06; P > 0·05). One rTMS subgroup displayed non-significant inferiority to ECT: four-week treatment period (OR = 0·65; P > 0·05). The other rTMS subgroups were significantly inferior to ECT. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was associated with a 30% relative reduction in the odds of drop-out, however non-significantly (95% confidence interval (CI), 0·36-1·39). The results indicate that the efficacy of rTMS is tied to its stimulus parameters. Varying stimulus parameters can result in varying antidepressive effects. Consequently, future research on rTMS or rTMS versus ECT should take the influence of rTMS stimulus parameters into consideration.
Kristensen, Diana; Hageman, Ida; Bauer, Jeanett; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Correll, Christoph U
Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) is frequent, but its pattern is unknown in treatment-refractory schizophrenia-spectrum patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We performed a retrospective chart review of ECT-treated inpatients hospitalized at 2 Danish University hospitals from 2003 to 2008, focusing on APP patterns in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n = 79, 13.2%). In addition to univariate analyses, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of APP. Of 79 antipsychotic-treated patients (aged 48.6 ± 14.2 years; illness duration, 18.3 ± 10.6 years) ultimately treated with ECT, 86.1% received 2 or more psychotropic medications, including mood stabilizers (19.0%), antidepressants (32.9%), and APP (72.2%; 2 antipsychotics = 41.8%, 3 = 21.5%, 4-5 = 7.6%). Most patients received first-generation antipsychotic (FGA) + second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) (48.1%), followed by SGA + SGA (24.1%), SGA monotherapy (22.8%), and FGA monotherapy (5.1%). Individual antipsychotics included olanzapine (44.3%), risperidone (26.6%), clozapine (26.6%), quetiapine (22.1%), ziprasidone (13.9%), aripiprazole (10.1%), and sertindole (3.8%). Antipsychotic polypharmacy was associated with a greater number of FGAs (0.8 ± 0.7 vs 0.1 ± 0.4, P < 0.0001) and SGAs (1.7 ± 0.8 vs 0.8 ± 0.4, P < 0.0001), zuclopenthixol use (31.6% vs 0%, P = 0.0019), olanzapine use (52.6% vs 22.7%, P = 0.017), less serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor use (3.5% vs 18.2%, P = 0.027), and a trend toward more good to excellent ECT response (86.0% vs 68.2%, P = 0.071). In the logistic regression analysis, APP was independently associated with a higher number of FGAs (P = 0.0002) and olanzapine use (P = 0.0098) (r = 0.314, P < 0.0001). Only 22.6% of this treatment-refractory population received clozapine, yet 72.4% received APP. Following the results from our study as well as the general level of evidence, patients with refractory
Ushakova, V M; Zubkov, E A; Morozova, A Y; Gorlova, A V; Pavlov, D A; Inozemtsev, A N; Chekhonin, V P
We studied the effect of electroconvulsive therapy on cognitive functions in rats with depression-like disorder caused by exposure to ultrasound of varying frequency (20-45 kHz). Object recognition and Morris water-maze tests revealed no negative effects of the therapy on memory. Moreover, positive effect of therapy was demonstrated that manifested in amelioration of memory disturbances in depression-like disorders in these behavioral tests. The results of this study do not support the idea about side effects of electroconvulsive therapy, in particular, development of transient amnesia, and are a prerequisite for a more thorough study of internal mechanisms of the effect of the therapy on cognitive sphere.
It is common to represent the history of American psychiatry by comparing it to a pendulum. In this metaphorical rendering, psychiatry has swung back and forth between extremes of emphasis on psyche (life events and inner conflict ruling etiological thinking, talk therapy dominating treatment) and soma (biochemical sources dominating etiological thinking, somatic treatments dominating treatment). This article argues that, while this metaphor is suited to capturing certain aspects of American psychiatric history, it distorts others by, for example, exaggerating the extent of dogmatism on either side and obscuring continuities in psychiatry's history. The article looks specifically at the reception by psychoanalysts to the introduction of electroconvulsive therapy. It shows that psychoanalytic views of ECT were diverse and more receptive to ECT than the pendulum metaphor might lead us to believe.
Redlich, R; Bürger, C; Dohm, K; Grotegerd, D; Opel, N; Zaremba, D; Meinert, S; Förster, K; Repple, J; Schnelle, R; Wagenknecht, C; Zavorotnyy, M; Heindel, W; Kugel, H; Gerbaulet, M; Alferink, J; Arolt, V; Zwanzger, P; Dannlowski, U
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe depression. However, little is known regarding brain functional processes mediating ECT effects. In a non-randomized prospective study, functional magnetic resonance imaging data during the automatic processing of subliminally presented emotional faces were obtained twice, about 6 weeks apart, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) before and after treatment with ECT (ECT, n = 24). Additionally, a control sample of MDD patients treated solely with pharmacotherapy (MED, n = 23) and a healthy control sample (HC, n = 22) were obtained. Before therapy, both patient groups equally showed elevated amygdala reactivity to sad faces compared with HC. After treatment, a decrease in amygdala activity to negative stimuli was discerned in both patient samples indicating a normalization of amygdala function, suggesting mechanisms potentially unspecific for ECT. Moreover, a decrease in amygdala activity to sad faces was associated with symptomatic improvements in the ECT sample (r spearman = -0.48, p = 0.044), and by tendency also for the MED sample (r spearman = -0.38, p = 0.098). However, we did not find any significant association between pre-treatment amygdala function to emotional stimuli and individual symptom improvement, neither for the ECT sample, nor for the MED sample. In sum, the present study provides first results regarding functional changes in emotion processing due to ECT treatment using a longitudinal design, thus validating and extending our knowledge gained from previous treatment studies. A limitation was that ECT patients received concurrent medication treatment.
Guloksuz, Sinan; Arts, Baer; Walter, Sharon; Drukker, Marjan; Rodriguez, Laura; Myint, Aye-Mu; Schwarz, Markus J; Ponds, Rudolf; van Os, Jim; Kenis, Gunter; Rutten, Bart P F
There is still limited knowledge about the mechanism of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the treatment of depression. Substantial evidence suggests a role for the immune-moderated tryptophan (TRP)-kynurenine (KYN) pathway in depression; i.e. a depression-associated disturbance in the balance between the TRP-KYN metabolites towards a neurotoxic process. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the impact of ECT treatment on the TRP-KYN pathway, in association with ECT-related alterations in depressive symptoms. Twenty-three patients with unipolar or bipolar depression, treated with bilateral ECT twice a week were recruited. Blood serum samples, and depression scores using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HDRS) as well as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were collected repeatedly during the period of ECT and until 6 weeks after the last ECT session. TRP and KYN metabolites were analyzed in serum using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Four patients could not complete the study; thereby yielding data of 19 patients. Analyses were performed using multilevel linear regression analysis. There was an increase in kynurenic acid (KYNA) (B=0.04, p=0.001), KYN/TRP ratio (B=0.14, p=0.001), KYNA/KYN ratio (B=0.07, p<0.0001), and KYNA/3-hydroxykynurenine ratio (B=0.01, p=0.008) over time during the study period. KYN (B=-0.02, p=0.003) and KYN/TRP (B=-0.19, p=0.003) were negatively associated with total HDRS over time. Baseline TRP metabolite concentrations did not predict time to ECT response. Our findings show that ECT influences the TRP-KYN pathway, with a shift in TRP-KYN metabolites balance towards molecules with neuroprotective properties correlating with antidepressant effects of ECT; thereby providing a first line of evidence that the mechanism of action of ECT is (co)mediated by the TRP-KYN pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kellner, Charles H.; Knapp, Rebecca G.; Petrides, Georgios; Rummans, Teresa A.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Rasmussen, Keith; Mueller, Martina; Bernstein, Hilary J.; O’Connor, Kevin; Smith, Glenn; Biggs, Melanie; Bailine, Samuel H.; Malur, Chitra; Yim, Eunsil; McClintock, Shawn; Sampson, Shirlene; Fink, Max
Background Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been shown to be extremely effective for the acute treatment of major depression, it has never been systematically assessed as a strategy for relapse prevention. Objective To evaluate the comparative efficacy of continuation ECT (C-ECT) and the combination of lithium carbonate plus nortriptyline hydrochloride (C-Pharm) in the prevention of depressive relapse. Design Multisite, randomized, parallel design, 6-month trial performed from 1997 to 2004. Setting Five academic medical centers and their outpatient psychiatry clinics. Patients Two hundred one patients with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV–diagnosed unipolar depression who had remitted with a course of bilateral ECT. Interventions Random assignment to 2 treatment groups receiving either C-ECT (10 treatments) or C-Pharm for 6 months. Main Outcome Measure Relapse of depression, compared between the C-ECT and C-Pharm groups. Results In the C-ECT group, 37.1% experienced disease relapse, 46.1% continued to have disease remission at the study end, and 16.8% dropped out of the study. In the C-Pharm group, 31.6% experienced disease relapse, 46.3% continued to have disease remission, and 22.1% dropped out of the study. Both Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses indicated no statistically significant differences in overall survival curves and time to relapse for the groups. Mean±SD time to relapse for the C-ECT group was 9.1±7.0 weeks compared with 6.7±4.6 weeks for the C-Pharm group (P=.13). Both groups had relapse proportions significantly lower than a historical placebo control from a similarly designed study. Conclusions Both C-ECT and C-Pharm were shown to be superior to a historical placebo control, but both had limited efficacy, with more than half of patients either experiencing disease relapse or dropping out of the study. Even more effective strategies for relapse prevention in mood disorders are urgently needed
Consoli, Angele; Cohen, Johan; Bodeau, Nicolas; Guinchat, Vincent; Wachtel, Lee; Cohen, David
Efficacious intervention for severe, treatment-refractory self-injurious behavior and aggression (SIB/AGG) in children and adolescents with intellectual disability and concomitant psychiatric disorders remains a complex and urgent issue. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on severe and treatment-resistant SIB/AGG in young people with intellectual disability and current psychiatric disorder. We reviewed the charts of all patients (N = 4) who received ECT in the context of SIB/AGG with resistance to behavioral interventions, milieu therapy and pharmacotherapy from 2007 to 2011. We scored the daily rate of SIB/AGG per patient for each hospital day. Inter rater reliability was good (intraclass correlations = 0.91). We used a mixed generalized linear model to assess whether the following explanatory variables (time, ECT) influenced the course of SIB/AGG over time, the dependant variable. The sample included two girls and two boys. The mean age at admission was 13.8 years old [range 12-14]. The patients had on average 19 ECT sessions [range 16-26] and one patient received maintenance ECT. There was no effect of time before and after ECT start. ECT was associated with a significant decrease in SIB/AGG scores (p < 0.001): mean aggression score post-ECT was half the pre-ECT value. ECT appears beneficial in severe, treatment-resistant SHBA in adolescents with intellectual disability.
de Oliveira, Marilia M; Wen, Paul; Ahfock, Tony
A realistic human head model consisting of six tissue layers was modelled to investigate the behavior of temperature profile and magnitude when applying electroconvulsive therapy stimulation and different biological properties. The thermo-electrical model was constructed with the use of bio-heat transfer equation and Laplace equation. Three different electrode montages were analyzed as well as the influence of blood perfusion, metabolic heat and electric and thermal conductivity in the scalp. Also, the effect of including the fat layer was investigated. The results showed that temperature increase is inversely proportional to electrical and thermal conductivity increase. Furthermore, the inclusion of blood perfusion slightly drops the peak temperature. Finally, the inclusion of fat is highly recommended in order to acquire more realistic results from the thermo-electrical models.
Aksay, Suna Su; Bumb, Jan Malte; Janke, Christoph; Biemann, Ronald; Borucki, Katrin; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Sartorius, Alexander; Kranaster, Laura
Cholesterol is reduced in depressed patients, however, these patients have a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment option for specific forms of depression. Like for other non-pharmacological therapies targeting depression such as psychotherapy or sleep deprivation, there is a lack of evidence about the effects on peripheral lipid parameters. Our objective was to study the impact of ECT as a non-pharmacological treatment on the peripheral lipid pattern in depressive patients. Peripheral lipid profile composition before and after a course of ECT was analysed in 27 non-fasting inpatients at a university psychiatric hospital with DSM-IV major depressive episode. For the impact of ECT treatment on each lipid parameter a multivariate repeated measurement regression analysis was performed and computed separately for every dependent variable. Total Cholesterol and the cholesterol subtypes HDL and LDL were increased after the treatment compared to baseline. Apolipoprotein A1 was also increased after ECT, whereas apolipoprotein B was not. Indices for the prediction of cardiovascular diseases were unchanged after successful treatment by ECT. The reduction of depressive psychopathology negatively correlated with increases of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1. Subjects received several antidepressants and other psychotropic medication before and during the ECT. In our preliminary pilot study ECT as a non-pharmacological, effective treatment of depression led to distinct effects on the peripheral lipid pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Surya, Sandarsh; McCall, W Vaughn; Iltis, Ana S; Rosenquist, Peter B; Hogan, Elizabeth
There are little data regarding the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in correctional settings in the United States. A survey was conducted to study the current practice of ECT in US prisons. We hypothesize that ECT is underutilized in the correctional setting. We also review the ethical aspects of using ECT for the treatment of mental illness in the prison population. A 12-question survey via a Survey Monkey link was emailed to chiefs of psychiatry, or the equivalent, of each state's department of corrections. We examined the frequency of Likert-type responses, tabulated individual comments for qualitative review, and grouped for comparison. Email contacts for chiefs of psychiatry, or the equivalent, for the department of corrections in 45 states (90%) were obtained and a survey link was sent. Thirty-one (68.9%) of 45 responded to the survey. Respondent estimates of the number of inmates with mental illness in 31 prison systems varied from less than 500 to more than 4500. Of these 31, 12 (38.7%) had more than 4500 inmates with mental illness. Four systems reported the use of ECT within the last 5 years. Of those, one reported use in the last 1 to 6 months, and 3 reported use in the last 2 to 5 years. Of these 4 prison systems, all felt that they had up to 10 patients who would benefit if ECT continued to be offered or became available in the future. None of these systems provided ECT within the prison. The inmates were referred to a local state psychiatric facility, a university hospital, or other institutions. The reasons for not using ECT as reported by the respondents are grouped under subheadings of stigma, ethical concerns, logistical concerns, and others. Considering the high prevalence of mental illness in prisons, one might expect a high prevalence of ECT responsive mental illness and, hence, provision of ECT to some prisoners with mental illness. However, our survey suggests that the use of ECT in prisons in the United States is low. Stigma
Pesiridou, Angeliki; Baquero, Giselle; Cristancho, Pilar; Wakil, Laura; Altinay, Murat; Kim, Deborah; O'Reardon, John P
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is recommended by the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on ECT as a safe and effective treatment of depression throughout pregnancy. We report here administration of ECT in the third trimester of pregnancy in a 33-year-old patient with severe bipolar depression. The patient had a good antidepressant response to ECT. She experienced, however, delayed onset premature uterine contractions at home after her sixth session of ECT (10 hours post-ECT administration). After receiving tocolytics, the patient's contractions did not progress to premature labor. In consultation with the obstetrics team, it was decided to terminate the ECT course earlier than planned. The patient is delivered of a healthy female newborn infant spontaneously at 37 weeks' gestational age. Four months after delivery, the baby's development is progressing normally. This case illustrates that premature contractions in association with ECT during the third trimester of pregnancy may be delayed in onset. Patients and treatment team need to be aware of this possibility, particularly when ECT is conducted on an outpatient basis.
Fazzino, Tera L.; Rabinowitz, Terry; Althoff, Robert R.; Helzer, John E.
Objective Recently there has been a gradual shift from inpatient-only electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) toward outpatient administration. Potential advantages include convenience and reduced cost. But providers do not have the same opportunity to monitor treatment response and side effects as they do with inpatients. This can obviate some of the potential advantages of outpatient ECT, such as tailoring treatment intervals to clinical response. Scheduling is typically algorithmic rather than empirically based. Daily monitoring through an automated telephone, interactive voice response (IVR), is a potential solution to this quandary. Methods To test feasibility of clinical monitoring via IVR, we recruited 26 patients (69% female, mean age 51 years) receiving outpatient ECT to make daily IVR reports of affective symptoms and subjective memory for 60 days. The IVR also administered a word recognition task daily to test objective memory. Every seventh day a longer IVR weekly interview included questions about suicidal ideation. Results Overall daily call compliance was high (mean=80%). Most participants (96%) did not consider the calls to be time-consuming. Longitudinal regression analysis using Generalized Estimating Equations revealed that participant objective memory functioning significantly improved during the study (p<.05). Out of 123 weekly IVR interviews, 41 reports (33%) in 14 patients endorsed suicidal ideation during the previous week. Conclusion IVR monitoring of outpatient ECT can provide more detailed clinical information than standard outpatient ECT assessment. IVR data offer providers a comprehensive, longitudinal picture of patient treatment response and side effects as a basis for treatment scheduling and ongoing clinical management. PMID:23774054
Manohar, Harshini; Subramanian, Karthick; Menon, Vikas; Kattimani, Shivanand
Context: There is a paucity of systematic data reflecting the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) from developing countries. Aim: We aimed to identify the number of ECT sessions required to yield response and gender diffeferences in the number of sessions across various diagnostic categories. Setting and Design: A record-based study from a teaching cum tertiary care hospital in South India. Subjects and Methods: Case records of patients who received modified ECT from January 2011 to January 2016 were reviewed. The sociodemographic details and ECT-related data were collected. Psychiatric diagnoses were ascertained as per the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Among 148 patients, 82 (55.4%) had mood disorder (bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder), 43 (29.1%) had schizophrenia, and 22 (14.9%) had other acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPDs). Patients with mood disorders, schizophrenia, and other ATPD received 7.3 (± 3.8), 9.7 (± 6.1), and 5.4 (± 2.0) ECT sessions, respectively, to achieve response. There was no gender difference in the number of sessions received. Conclusion: Our findings show that number of ECT sessions required to yield response may be disorder-specific. Gender does not influence the ECT dose requirement. Variations in ECT parameters across settings may limit the generalizability of results. PMID:28694625
Menezes de Oliveira, Marilia; Wen, Peng; Ahfock, Tony
This paper focuses on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and head models to investigate temperature profiles arising when anisotropic thermal and electrical conductivities are considered in the skull layer. The aim was to numerically investigate the threshold for which this therapy operates safely to the brain, from the thermal point of view. A six-layer spherical head model consisting of scalp, fat, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid, grey matter and white matter was developed. Later on, a realistic human head model was also implemented. These models were built up using the packages from COMSOL Inc. and Simpleware Ltd. In these models, three of the most common electrode montages used in ECT were applied. Anisotropic conductivities were derived using volume constraint and included in both spherical and realistic head models. The bio-heat transferring problem governed by Laplace equation was solved numerically. The results show that both the tensor eigenvalues of electrical conductivity and the electrode montage affect the maximum temperature, but thermal anisotropy does not have a significant influence. Temperature increases occur mainly in the scalp and fat, and no harm is caused to the brain by the current applied during ECT. The work assures the thermal safety of ECT and also provides a numerical method to investigate other non-invasive therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Müller, Helge H.O.; Reike, Mareen; Grosse-Holz, Simon; Röther, Mareike; Lücke, Caroline; Philipsen, Alexandra; Kornhuber, Johannes; Grömer, Teja W.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective in the treatment of treatment-resistant major depression. The fear of cognitive impairment after ECT often deters patients from choosing this treatment option. There is little reliable information regarding the effects of ECT on overall cognitive performance, while short-term memory deficits are well known but not easy to measure within clinical routines. In this pilot study, we examined ECT recipients’ pre- and post-treatment performances on a digital ascending number tapping test. We found that cognitive performance measures exhibited good reproducibility in individual patients and that ECT did not significantly alter cognitive performance up to 2 hours after this therapy was applied. Our results can help patients and physicians make decisions regarding the administration of ECT. Digital measurements are recommended, especially when screening for the most common side effects on cognitive performance and short-term memory. PMID:28748058
Grelotti, David J; Kanayama, Gen; Pope, Harrison G
Illicit methamphetamine abuse represents a major problem in many countries worldwide, including the United States. Prolonged regular smoking or injection of methamphetamine can cause a psychosis, typically characterized by paranoid delusions and auditory hallucinations and often associated with disturbances in mood. These symptoms may persist long after methamphetamine is discontinued and may prove refractory to antipsychotic medications. The authors describe a patient who developed a typical methamphetamine psychosis that persisted despite months of abstinence from methamphetamine and weeks of treatment with antipsychotic medication but that responded promptly to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on two separate occasions: on initial presentation and again a year later when the patient relapsed into methamphetamine abuse and developed psychosis again. The authors review the large international literature on methamphetamine psychosis, much of which is from Japan and has not previously been summarized in English. Persistent methamphetamine psychosis has been widely reported in Japan for more than 50 years but is rarely discussed in the American literature, possibly because some such cases are misdiagnosed in the United States as primary psychotic disorders. Given the growing public health problem of methamphetamine abuse in the United States, the distinction between persistent methamphetamine psychosis and a primary psychotic disorder has grown increasingly important. Thus, American clinicians should be alert to the possibility of methamphetamine psychosis and may wish to consider ECT in refractory cases.
Cano, M; Martínez-Zalacaín, I; Bernabéu-Sanz, Á; Contreras-Rodríguez, O; Hernández-Ribas, R; Via, E; de Arriba-Arnau, A; Gálvez, V; Urretavizcaya, M; Pujol, J; Menchón, J M; Cardoner, N; Soriano-Mas, C
Recent research suggests that neuroplastic and neuroinflammatory changes may account for the mode of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), although extant data do not allow for a clear disambiguation between these two hypotheses. Multimodal neuroimaging approaches (for example, combining structural and metabolic information) may help in clarifying this issue. Here we aimed to assess longitudinal changes in (i) regional gray matter (GM) volumes and (ii) hippocampal metabolite concentrations throughout an acute course of bitemporal ECT, as well as (iii) to determine the association between imaging changes and clinical improvement. We assessed 12 patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) at four time points (pre-treatment, after the first ECT session, after the ninth ECT session and 15 days after ECT course completion) and 10 healthy participants at two time points, 5 weeks apart. Patients with TRD showed bilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) and perigenual anterior cingulate cortex volume increases. Left MTL volume increase was associated with (i) a hippocampal N-acetylaspartate concentration decrease, (ii) a hippocampal Glutamate+Glutamine concentration increase and (iii) significant clinical improvement. The observed findings are, in part, compatible with both neuroplastic and neuroinflammatory changes induced by ECT. We postulate that such phenomena may be interrelated, therefore reconciling the neuroplasticity and neuroinflammatory hypotheses of ECT action.
Bansod, Aniket; Sonavane, Sushma S; Shah, Nilesh B; De Sousa, Avinash A; Andrade, Chittaranjan
There is little literature on the relative efficacy and cognitive safety of right unilateral (RUL), bifrontal (BF), and bitemporal (BT) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in schizophrenia. We present a randomized, nonblind, naturalist comparison of a fixed course of 8 moderately high-dose RUL (n = 24), threshold BF (n = 27), and threshold BT (n = 31) ECT in patients with schizophrenia. Assessments included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, and an autobiographical memory interview. A completer analysis was planned and conducted to capture the cognitive outcomes. The sample as a whole improved significantly on all efficacy outcomes and deteriorated significantly on all cognitive outcomes. The primary efficacy outcome, improvement in PANSS total scores, did not differ significantly across groups. The PANSS positive score (but no other subscale score) improved significantly less with RUL relative to BF and BT ECT. For autobiographical memory and for almost all Wechsler Memory Scale subtests, including memory quotient (the primary adverse effect outcome), BT ECT was associated with greater impairment than RUL or BF ECT. Importantly, all statistically significant differences between treatments were clinically small in magnitude. In patients with schizophrenia who receive a fixed course of 8 ECTs, threshold BT ECT is associated with greater cognitive impairment across a range of measures, and moderately high-dose RUL ECT is associated with poorer efficacy against positive symptoms. Threshold BF ECT exhibits the best efficacy-cum-neurocognitive safety profile. All differences between groups, however, are small and perhaps clinically insignificant.
Cano, M; Martínez-Zalacaín, I; Bernabéu-Sanz, Á; Contreras-Rodríguez, O; Hernández-Ribas, R; Via, E; de Arriba-Arnau, A; Gálvez, V; Urretavizcaya, M; Pujol, J; Menchón, J M; Cardoner, N; Soriano-Mas, C
Recent research suggests that neuroplastic and neuroinflammatory changes may account for the mode of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), although extant data do not allow for a clear disambiguation between these two hypotheses. Multimodal neuroimaging approaches (for example, combining structural and metabolic information) may help in clarifying this issue. Here we aimed to assess longitudinal changes in (i) regional gray matter (GM) volumes and (ii) hippocampal metabolite concentrations throughout an acute course of bitemporal ECT, as well as (iii) to determine the association between imaging changes and clinical improvement. We assessed 12 patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) at four time points (pre-treatment, after the first ECT session, after the ninth ECT session and 15 days after ECT course completion) and 10 healthy participants at two time points, 5 weeks apart. Patients with TRD showed bilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) and perigenual anterior cingulate cortex volume increases. Left MTL volume increase was associated with (i) a hippocampal N-acetylaspartate concentration decrease, (ii) a hippocampal Glutamate+Glutamine concentration increase and (iii) significant clinical improvement. The observed findings are, in part, compatible with both neuroplastic and neuroinflammatory changes induced by ECT. We postulate that such phenomena may be interrelated, therefore reconciling the neuroplasticity and neuroinflammatory hypotheses of ECT action. PMID:28170003
Chen, Guang-Dong; Ji, Feng; Li, Gong-Ying; Lyu, Bo-Xuan; Hu, Wei; Zhuo, Chuan-Jun
Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can alleviate the symptoms of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Functional network connectivity (FNC) is a newly developed method to investigate the brain's functional connectivity patterns. The first aim of this study was to investigate FNC alterations between TRD patients and healthy controls. The second aim was to explore the relationship between the ECT treatment response and pre-ECT treatment FNC alterations in individual TRD patients. Methods: This study included 82 TRD patients and 41 controls. Patients were screened at baseline and after 2 weeks of treatment with a combination of ECT and antidepressants. Group information guided-independent component analysis (GIG-ICA) was used to compute subject-specific functional networks (FNs). Grassmann manifold and step-wise forward component selection using support vector machines were adopted to perform the FNC measure and extract the functional networks' connectivity patterns (FCP). Pearson's correlation analysis was used to calculate the correlations between the FCP and ECT response. Results: A total of 82 TRD patients in the ECT group were successfully treated. On an average, 8.50 ± 2.00 ECT sessions were conducted. After ECT treatment, only 42 TRD patients had an improved response to ECT (the Hamilton scores reduction rate was more than 50%), response rate 51%. 8 FNs (anterior and posterior default mode network, bilateral frontoparietal network, audio network, visual network, dorsal attention network, and sensorimotor network) were obtained using GIG-ICA. We did not found that FCPs were significantly different between TRD patients and healthy controls. Moreover, the baseline FCP was unrelated to the ECT treatment response. Conclusions: The FNC was not significantly different between the TRD patients and healthy controls, and the baseline FCP was unrelated to the ECT treatment response. These findings will necessitate that we modify the experimental scheme to
Cano, Marta; Cardoner, Narcís; Urretavizcaya, Mikel; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Goldberg, Ximena; Via, Esther; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Camprodon, Joan; de Arriba-Arnau, Aida; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Pujol, Jesús; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Menchón, José M
Although current models of depression suggest that a sequential modulation of limbic and prefrontal connectivity is needed for illness recovery, neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have focused on assessing functional connectivity (FC) before and after an ECT course, without characterizing functional changes occurring at early treatment phases. To assess sequential changes in limbic and prefrontal FC during the course of ECT and their impact on clinical response. Longitudinal intralimbic and limbic-prefrontal networks connectivity study. We assessed 15 patients with treatment-resistant depression at four different time-points throughout the entire course of an ECT protocol and 10 healthy participants at two functional neuroimaging examinations. Furthermore, a path analysis to test direct and indirect predictive effects of limbic and prefrontal FC changes on clinical response measured with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was also performed. An early significant intralimbic FC decrease significantly predicted a later increase in limbic-prefrontal FC, which in turn significantly predicted clinical improvement at the end of an ECT course. Our data support that treatment response involves sequential changes in FC within regions of the intralimbic and limbic-prefrontal networks. This approach may help in identifying potential early biomarkers of treatment response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Much literature is available on the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the brain. Clinicians need to know how to organize this information when they explain hypotheses about the mechanism of action of ECT to patients and caregivers. One possibility is to classify the data under the headings of delivery components, therapeutic mediators, and therapeutic processes. Delivery components are elements of the ECT procedure that modulate the efficacy and efficiency of the treatment; examples are electrical dose, electrode placement, and number and frequency of treatments administered. Therapeutic mediators are physiologic or psychological changes that in themselves are not therapeutic but that lead to the suggested therapeutic changes; examples are the occurrence of the seizure and the occurrence of blood-brain barrier breach. Therapeutic processes are the actual biological changes that compensate for or correct the biological disturbances that underlie the psychiatric illness; examples are changes in the activity of certain neurotransmitter systems and increases or decreases in neuroplasticity in different parts of the brain. Organizing information in this manner can help explain both efficacy and adverse effects of ECT. Brief explanations are provided.
Zhong, Xiaomei; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Chunping; Wang, Zhijie; Jiang, Miaoling; Li, Qirong; Zhang, Minling; Huang, Xiong
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a growing clinical challenge. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective tool for TRD treatment. However, there remains a subset of patients who do not respond to this treatment with common anesthetic agent. Ketamine, a noteworthy anesthetic agent, has emerged as an augmentation to enhance the antidepressant efficacy of ECT. Trials of i.v. ketamine in TRD indicated dose-related mood enhancing efficacy. We aimed to explore anesthetic and subanesthetic concentrations of ketamine in ECT for TRD with respect to their impact on mood and neuropsychological effects. Ninety TRD patients (36 males, 54 females; average age, 30.6 years old) were randomly assigned to receive either ketamine (0.8mg/kg) (n=30), subanesthetic ketamine (0.5mg/kg) plus propofol (0.5mg/kg) (n=30) or propofol (0.8mg/kg) (n=30) as an anesthetic and underwent 8 ECT sessions. The primary outcome measures were the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), cognitive assessments and seizure parameters. The ketamine group had an earlier improvement in HDRS-17, longer seizure duration, lower electric quantity, a higher remission rate, and a lower degree of executive cognitive impairment compared to the ketamine+propofol and propofol groups. The ketamine+propofol group showed earlier improvement in the HDRS-17, a longer seizure duration and a different seizure energy index when compared to the propofol group. The postoperative dissociative side effect was not assessed. Both anesthetic and subanesthetic concentrations of ketamine have rapid mood enhancing actions in ECT for TRD, while anesthetic concentrations results in larger magnitudes of antidepression and cognitive protection. ECT with ketamine anesthesia might be an optimized therapy for patients with TRD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mir, Altaf Hussain; Shah, Nida Farooq; Din, Mehraj Ud; Langoo, Shabir Ahmad; Reshi, Fayaz Ahmad
Introduction: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a well-established psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients for therapeutic effects. ECT can produce severe disturbances in the cardiovascular system and a marked increase in cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure. These cardiovascular changes may be altered using various anesthetic drugs. Aim and Objectives: This study was undertaken to compare the effects of intravenous (IV) sodium thiopentone, propofol, and etomidate, used as IV anesthetic agents in modified ECT as regards, induction time and quality of anesthesia, alteration of hemodynamics, seizure duration, and recovery time. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients in the age group of 16–60 years of either sex, who had to undergo ECT therapy were divided randomly into three equal groups. Group A received propofol 1% - 1.5 mg/Kg, Group B received etomidate - 0.2 mg/Kg, and Group C received thiopentone 2.5% - 5 mg/Kg. All the patients were monitored for changes in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and oxygen saturation at basal, after induction and 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min, and 30 min following ECT. Quality of anesthesia, seizure duration, and recovery times were also recorded. Conclusion: We found that propofol had the advantage of smooth induction, stable hemodynamic parameters and rapid recovery as compared to etomidate and thiopentone. Thiopentone had the advantage over propofol of having longer seizure duration at the cost of a relatively prolonged recovery period. Etomidate had a definite advantage of longer seizure duration. PMID:28217049
Akinsola, Oluwatosin; Sundram, Frederick; Bangaru, Raju
: As the lack of on-site electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) facilities in many psychiatric hospitals in Ireland may impact negatively on ECT training, we conducted a national survey of trainees with the aims of establishing the current standard of ECT training and to assess trainees' confidence in their abilities in ECT administration. : A national postal survey of 415 trainees was conducted in September 2008 using a self-designed 15-item questionnaire for the purpose of the study, containing no identification data and incorporating relevant questionnaire items from similar published trainee survey. Reminders were distributed to the entire study sample 4 weeks afterward within a sampling time frame of 3 months. Trainee responses were coded and converted to anonymized data, which the lead author held. : The overall response rate was 61%. Ninety-one percent of trainees had worked in ECT centers, of which 36% had given ECT on an occasion without direct consultant supervision. Overall, 12% of trainees had never administered or observed ECT, which includes 2 trainees on the national senior registrar scheme, and 19% of trainees had nil or minimal confidence in their ability to administer ECT. : Our findings indicate deficiencies in training and supervision, which is reflected in the proportion of trainees reporting nil or minimal confidence in their ability to administer ECT. Greater collaboration between training scheme coordinators, clinical tutors, and the College of Psychiatry of Ireland is essential to ensure ongoing monitoring and implementation of standards.
Wilhelmy, Saskia; Rolfes, Vasilija; Grözinger, Michael; Chikere, Yvonne; Schöttle, Sabrina; Groß, Dominik
The aim of this article is to examine knowledge and attitudes on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) among the German population. A web-based population survey based on a standardized questionnaire was used to examine knowledge and attitudes towards ECT as a treatment of severe depression among the general public (sample of 1000; representative in terms of age, gender and federal states of the German population). ECT is not well known and negatively connoted among the German population. A higher level of awareness and knowledge about ECT correlates with higher agreement to treatment with it. The analysis of feedback from the open question underlines the complexity of ECT: on the one hand, negative attitudes, stereotypes, and associations, and on the other hand interest, willingness, and acceptance to deal with the method were shown. The results suggest an urgent need for more information about the basic facts, psychiatric applications, and effectiveness of ECT in order to increase the level of awareness and knowledge, and thus the method's acceptance. An increase in acceptance would expand the therapeutic spectrum for the mentally ill. Correspondingly, persons affected and their relatives as well as physicians and healthcare professionals should be involved in awareness-raising measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aki, Ozlem Erden; Ak, Sertac; Sonmez, Yunus Emre; Demir, Basaran
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe and effective for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Despite being a well-known treatment method among health care professionals, lay people generally have a negative opinion of ECT. The present study aimed to examine knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among medical students, psychology students, and the general public. Psychology students were included because they are among the important groups in mental health care in Turkey. A Likert-type questionnaire was administered to fifth-year medical students (n = 28), master of science and doctor of philosophy clinical psychology students (n = 35), and a sample of the general public (n = 26). The questionnaire included questions about the general principles of and indications for ECT, and sources of knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. The medical students were the most knowledgeable about ECT, as expected. The medical students also had a more positive attitude toward ECT than the other 2 groups. More psychology students had negative attitudes on some aspects than general public sample, despite being more knowledgeable. Medical school theoretical and practical training in ECT played an important role in increasing the level of knowledge of and decreasing the prevalence of negative attitudes toward ECT among the medical students; similar training for psychology students is required to achieve similar results.
Depping, M S; Wolf, R C; Nolte, H M; Palm, E; Hirjak, D; Thomann, P A
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most potent and rapidly acting of all antidepressant treatments in major depressive disorder (MDD). Nuclear and functional magnetic (fMRI) brain imaging studies of ECT have substantially contributed to the neurobiological understanding of this treatment modality. Neuroimaging methods may also validate potential mechanisms of antidepressant action. Models of neural dysfunction in MDD suggest impaired modulation of activity within a cortico-limbic circuitry, along with alterations in the functional organisation of multiple brain networks implicated in emotional processes. Nuclear imaging techniques have demonstrated consistent patterns of ECT-induced ictal changes in brain activity that appear to be linked to efficacy and side effects of ECT. Interictally, widespread alterations of brain function have been reported, however, results remain inconclusive. FMRI studies of ECT have demonstrated longer-lasting, interictal changes of neural activity in multiple cerebral regions that are in accordance with functional neuroanatomical models of mood disorders. Future research detailing ECT interactions with brain pathophysiology in MDD could potentially provide a clinically useful framework to better predict ECT treatment response and/or side effects, and may also facilitate the development of more focused brain stimulation techniques. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Katalinic, Natalie; Smith, Deirdre J.; Ingram, Anna; Dowling, Nathan; Martin, Donel; Addison, Kerryn; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Simpson, Brett; Schweitzer,, Isaac
Background: Some studies suggest better overall outcomes when right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy (RUL ECT) is given with an ultrabrief, rather than brief, pulse width. Methods: The aim of the study was to test if ultrabrief-pulse RUL ECT results in less cognitive side effects than brief- pulse RUL ECT, when given at doses which achieve comparable efficacy. One hundred and two participants were assigned to receive ultrabrief (at 8 times seizure threshold) or brief (at 5 times seizure threshold) pulse RUL ECT in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Blinded raters assessed mood and cognitive functioning over the ECT course. Results: Efficacy outcomes were not found to be significantly different. The ultrabrief group showed less cognitive impairment immediately after a single session of ECT, and over the treatment course (autobiographical memory, orientation). Conclusions: In summary, when ultrabrief RUL ECT was given at a higher dosage than brief RUL ECT (8 versus 5 times seizure threshold), efficacy was comparable while cognitive impairment was less. PMID:25522389
Loo, Colleen K; Katalinic, Natalie; Smith, Deirdre J; Ingram, Anna; Dowling, Nathan; Martin, Donel; Addison, Kerryn; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Simpson, Brett; Schweitzer, Isaac
Some studies suggest better overall outcomes when right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy (RUL ECT) is given with an ultrabrief, rather than brief, pulse width. The aim of the study was to test if ultrabrief-pulse RUL ECT results in less cognitive side effects than brief- pulse RUL ECT, when given at doses which achieve comparable efficacy. One hundred and two participants were assigned to receive ultrabrief (at 8 times seizure threshold) or brief (at 5 times seizure threshold) pulse RUL ECT in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Blinded raters assessed mood and cognitive functioning over the ECT course. Efficacy outcomes were not found to be significantly different. The ultrabrief group showed less cognitive impairment immediately after a single session of ECT, and over the treatment course (autobiographical memory, orientation). In summary, when ultrabrief RUL ECT was given at a higher dosage than brief RUL ECT (8 versus 5 times seizure threshold), efficacy was comparable while cognitive impairment was less. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Tørring, N; Sanghani, S N; Petrides, G; Kellner, C H; Østergaard, S D
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains underutilized because of fears of cognitive and medical risks, including the risk of death. In this study, we aimed to assess the mortality rate of ECT by means of a systematic review and pooled analysis. The study was conducted in adherence with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. The ECT-related mortality rate was calculated as the total number of ECT-related deaths reported in the included studies divided by the total number of ECT treatments. Fifteen studies with data from 32 countries reporting on a total of 766 180 ECT treatments met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen cases of ECT-related death were reported in the included studies yielding an ECT-related mortality rate of 2.1 per 100 000 treatments (95% CI: 1.2-3.4). In the nine studies that were published after 2001 (covering 414 747 treatments), there was only one reported ECT-related death. The ECT-related mortality rate was estimated at 2.1 per 100 000 treatments. In comparison, a recent analysis of the mortality of general anesthesia in relation to surgical procedures reported a mortality rate of 3.4 per 100 000. Our findings document that death caused by ECT is an extremely rare event. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo
We compared current density distributions in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) by numerical calculations. The model consisted of an air region and three types of tissues with different conductivities representing the brain, the skull, and the scalp. In the ECT model, electric currents were applied through electrodes with a voltage of 100 V. In the TMS model, a figure-eight coil (6 cm diameter per coil) was placed on the vertex of the head model. An alternating current with a peak intensity of 3.0 kA and a frequency of 4.2 kHz was applied to the coil. The maximum current densities inside the brain in ECT (bilateral electrode position) and TMS were 234 and 322 A/m2, respectively. The results indicate that magnetic stimulators can generate comparable current densities to ECT. While the skull significantly affected current distributions in ECT, TMS efficiently induced eddy currents in the brain. In addition, TMS is more beneficial than ECT because the localized current distribution reduces the risk of adverse side effects.
Njau, Stephanie; Joshi, Shantanu H; Leaver, Amber M; Vasavada, Megha; Van Fleet, Jessica; Espinoza, Randall; Narr, Katherine L
Though electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an established treatment for severe depression, the neurobiological factors accounting for the clinical effects of ECT are largely unknown. Myo-inositol, a neurometabolite linked with glial activity, is reported as reduced in fronto-limbic regions in patients with depression. Whether changes in myo-inositol relate to the antidepressant effects of ECT is unknown. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), we measured dorsomedial anterior cingulate cortex (dmACC) and left and right hippocampal myo-inositol in 50 ECT patients (mean age: 43.78, 14 SD) and 33 controls (mean age: 39.33, 12 SD) to determine cross sectional effects of diagnosis and longitudinal effects of ECT. Patients were scanned prior to treatment, after the second ECT and at completion of the ECT index series. Controls were scanned twice at intervals corresponding to patients' baseline and end of treatment scans. Myo-inositol increased over the course of ECT in the dmACC (p = 0.042). A significant hemisphere by clinical response effect was observed for the hippocampus (p = 0.003) where decreased myo-inositol related to symptom improvement in the left hippocampus. Cross-sectional differences between patients and controls at baseline were not detected. Changes in myo-inositol observed in the dmACC in association with ECT and in the hippocampus in association with ECT-related clinical response suggest the mechanisms of ECT could include gliogenesis or a reversal of gliosis that differentially affect dorsal and ventral limbic regions. Change in dmACC myo-inositol diverged from control values with ECT suggesting compensation, while hippocampal change suggested normalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roche, N C; Raynaud, L; Bompaire, F; Lucas, J-J; Auxéméry, Y
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is most frequently indicated for episodes of melancholic depression, but is also useful in the treatment of maniac syndrome and some schizophrenia subtypes. ECT is part of the treatment of movement disorders, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and even in the treatment of severe conversions. Although the therapeutic results are excellent when used appropriately, the mortality rate is estimated between 2 and 4 for 100,000 shocks. Despite this mortality rate, the benefit-risk ratio remains very positive and serious complications are extremely rare. ECT results in a biphasic cardiological effect: firstly a perstimulus parasympathetic hypertonia contemporary to the seizure's tonic phase, then a phase of contemporary sympathetic hypertonia during the epileptic clonic movement. We will focus on the perstimulus asystole as it is by far the most frequent. Very few cases and even less studies have been referenced in the literature; here, we present a clinical case followed by a discussion. The patient is in his fifties and has been treated for many years for a unipolar mood disorder with recurrent melancholic depressive episodes. With each new depressive episode, the clinical evolution is rapidly positive after a few sessions of ECT. Maintenance ECT was not retained due to the supra-annual periodicity of the melancholic depressive episodes and rapid recovery after electric treatment. Then, this patient developed another depressive decline in mood comparable to the previous one, despite adapted blood lithium levels associated with a new generation antidepressant treatment. According to his history, a hospitalisation was programmed to carry out a new course of ECT. Considering the short duration of the first seizures, the intensity of the stimulus was progressively increased. At 180 joules, the patient presented an immediate per-stimulus asystole of 20seconds which ceased spontaneously. The specialized cardiologic consultation following the
Gálvez, Verònica; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Smith, Deidre; Loo, Colleen K
An individualized approach to maximize electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) efficacy and minimize cognitive side effects is to treat patients relative to their seizure threshold (ST). However, although Right Unilateral-Ultrabrief (0.3 ms) (RUL-UB) ECT is increasingly used in clinical settings as an effective form of ECT with minimal cognitive effects, there is sparse data regarding predictors of ST. To analyze the relationship between ST and clinical and demographic factors in a sample of patients treated with RUL-UB ECT. Clinical, demographic and ECT data from 179 patients in ECT research studies were examined. Seizure threshold was titrated at the first ECT session. ECT was performed with a Thymatron(®) or Mecta(®) device, with thiopentone (2.5-5 mg/kg) or propofol (1-2 mg/kg) anaesthesia. Medications taken at the time of ST titration were documented. The association between ST and candidate predictor variables was examined with regression analysis. Multiple regression analyses showed that 34% of the variance in ST (P < 0.001) could be predicted. Older age (R(2) = 0.194, P < 0.001), propofol (vs thiopentone) (R(2) = 0.029, P ≤ 0.01) and higher anaesthetic dose (mg in propofol equivalents) (R(2) = 0.029, P < 0.05) were found to be predictors of higher initial ST. Treatment with lithium (R(2) = 0.043, P < 0.01) and study site (R(2) = 0.019, P < 0.05) significantly predicted lower initial ST. Empirical titration is recommended for accurate determination of ST in patients receiving RUL-UB ECT. Novel findings of this study are that propofol anaesthesia resulted in higher ST than thiopentone and concomitant treatment with lithium treatment lowered ST. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lanzenberger, R; Baldinger, P; Hahn, A; Ungersboeck, J; Mitterhauser, M; Winkler, D; Micskei, Z; Stein, P; Karanikas, G; Wadsak, W; Kasper, S; Frey, R
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a potent therapy in severe treatment-refractory depression. Although commonly applied in psychiatric clinical routine since decades, the exact neurobiological mechanism regarding its efficacy remains unclear. Results from preclinical and clinical studies emphasize a crucial involvement of the serotonin-1A receptor (5-HT(1A)) in the mode of action of antidepressant treatment. This includes associations between treatment response and changes in 5-HT(1A) function and density by antidepressants. Further, alterations of the 5-HT(1A) receptor are consistently reported in depression. To elucidate the effect of ECT on 5-HT(1A) receptor binding, 12 subjects with severe treatment-resistant major depression underwent three positron emission tomography (PET) measurements using the highly selective radioligand [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY100635, twice before (test-retest variability) and once after 10.08±2.35 ECT sessions. Ten patients (~83%) were responders to ECT. The voxel-wise comparison of the 5-HT(1A) receptor binding (BP(ND)) before and after ECT revealed a widespread reduction in cortical and subcortical regions (P<0.05 corrected), except for the occipital cortex and the cerebellum. Strongest reductions were found in regions consistently reported to be altered in major depression and involved in emotion regulation, such as the subgenual part of the anterior cingulate cortex (-27.5%), the orbitofrontal cortex (-30.1%), the amygdala (-31.8%), the hippocampus (-30.6%) and the insula (-28.9%). No significant change was found in the raphe nuclei. There was no significant difference in receptor binding in any region comparing the first two PET scans conducted before ECT. This PET study proposes a global involvement of the postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in the effect of ECT.
Lanzenberger, R; Baldinger, P; Hahn, A; Ungersboeck, J; Mitterhauser, M; Winkler, D; Micskei, Z; Stein, P; Karanikas, G; Wadsak, W; Kasper, S; Frey, R
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a potent therapy in severe treatment-refractory depression. Although commonly applied in psychiatric clinical routine since decades, the exact neurobiological mechanism regarding its efficacy remains unclear. Results from preclinical and clinical studies emphasize a crucial involvement of the serotonin-1A receptor (5-HT1A) in the mode of action of antidepressant treatment. This includes associations between treatment response and changes in 5-HT1A function and density by antidepressants. Further, alterations of the 5-HT1A receptor are consistently reported in depression. To elucidate the effect of ECT on 5-HT1A receptor binding, 12 subjects with severe treatment-resistant major depression underwent three positron emission tomography (PET) measurements using the highly selective radioligand [carbonyl-11C]WAY100635, twice before (test–retest variability) and once after 10.08±2.35 ECT sessions. Ten patients (∼83%) were responders to ECT. The voxel-wise comparison of the 5-HT1A receptor binding (BPND) before and after ECT revealed a widespread reduction in cortical and subcortical regions (P<0.05 corrected), except for the occipital cortex and the cerebellum. Strongest reductions were found in regions consistently reported to be altered in major depression and involved in emotion regulation, such as the subgenual part of the anterior cingulate cortex (−27.5%), the orbitofrontal cortex (−30.1%), the amygdala (−31.8%), the hippocampus (−30.6%) and the insula (−28.9%). No significant change was found in the raphe nuclei. There was no significant difference in receptor binding in any region comparing the first two PET scans conducted before ECT. This PET study proposes a global involvement of the postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor binding in the effect of ECT. PMID:22751491
Martin, Donel M; Wong, Ada; Kumar, Divya R; Loo, Colleen K
Assessment of post-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) disorientation at a single time point after ECT treatment may prove an effective and clinically useful method for monitoring the severity of disorientation and predicting ECT-induced retrograde amnesia. In this study, we aimed to validate a novel instrument (10-Item Orientation Questionnaire) developed to assess the level of disorientation after ECT. Twenty-four depressed inpatients who were prescribed an acute course of ECT were administered the 10-Item Orientation Questionnaire at 30 minutes after ECT and had time to reorientation assessed at 3 time points after ECT (10, 30, and 60 minutes) at ECT treatments 1 to 3. The association between average performance of the 10-Item Orientation Questionnaire across the acute ECT course and retrograde amnesia at post-ECT was examined using the Autobiographical Memory Interview-Short Form. Mean performance on the 10-Item Orientation Questionnaire across treatments 1 to 3 was moderately correlated with average time to reorientation (r = -0.52, P = 0.02, n = 20). Across the acute ECT course, poorer performance on the 10-Item Orientation Questionnaire was associated with greater retrograde amnesia at post-ECT (r = 0.53, P = 0.03, n = 16). The 10-Item Orientation Questionnaire when administered at 30 minutes after ECT is sensitive for detecting patients with slow recovery of orientation after ECT. Use of this instrument therefore has potential for improving routine patient monitoring in clinical practice and identifying patients at increased risk of retrograde memory adverse effects following treatment.
Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.
We present the first computational study comparing the electric field induced by various electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) paradigms. Four ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right unilateral, and focal electrically administered seizure therapy) and three MST coil configurations (circular, cap, and double cone) were modeled. The model incorporated a modality-specific neural activation threshold. ECT (0.3 ms pulse width) and MST induced maximum electric field in the brain of 2.1–2.5 V/cm and 1.1–2.2 V/cm, corresponding to 6.2–7.2 times and 1.2–2.3 times the neural activation threshold, respectively. The MST electric field is more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. The brain volume stimulated was much higher with ECT (up to 100%) than MST (up to 8.2%). MST with the double cone coil was the most focal and bilateral ECT was the least focal. Our results suggest a possible biophysical explanation of the reduced side effects of MST compared to ECT. Our results also indicate that the conventional ECT pulse amplitude (800–900 mA) is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. Reducing the ECT pulse amplitude should be explored as a potential means of diminishing side effects. PMID:21248385
Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.
We present the first computational study comparing the electric field induced by various electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) paradigms. Four ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right unilateral, and focal electrically administered seizure therapy) and three MST coil configurations (circular, cap, and double cone) were modeled. The model incorporated a modality-specific neural activation threshold. ECT (0.3 ms pulse width) and MST induced the maximum electric field of 2.1-2.5 V cm-1 and 1.1-2.2 V cm-1 in the brain, corresponding to 6.2-7.2 times and 1.2-2.3 times the neural activation threshold, respectively. The MST electric field is more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. The brain volume stimulated was much larger with ECT (up to 100%) than with MST (up to 8.2%). MST with the double-cone coil was the most focal, and bilateral ECT was the least focal. Our results suggest a possible biophysical explanation of the reduced side effects of MST compared to ECT. Our results also indicate that the conventional ECT pulse amplitude (800-900 mA) is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. Reducing the ECT pulse amplitude should be explored as a potential means of diminishing side effects.
Parikh, Devangi Ashutosh; Garg, Sanchita Nitin; Dalvi, Naina Parag; Surana, Priyanka Pradip; Sannakki, Deepa; Tendolkar, Bharati Anil
Context: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is associated with tachycardia and hypertension. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare two doses of dexmedetomidine, esmolol, and lignocaine with respect to hemodynamics, seizure duration, emergence agitation (EA), and recovery profile. Methodology: Thirty patients undergoing ECT were assigned to each of the following pretreatment regimes over the course of five ECT sessions in a randomized crossover design: Group D1 (dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg), Group D0.5 (dexmedetomidine0.5 μg/kg), Group E (esmolol 1 mg/kg), Group L (lignocaine 1 mg/kg), and Group C (saline as placebo) before induction. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), seizure duration, EA, and time to discharge were evaluated. Results: Groups D1, D0.5, and esmolol had significantly reduced response of HR, MAP compared to lignocaine and control groups at 1, 3, 5 min after ECT (P < 0.05). Motor seizure duration was comparable in all groups except Group L (P = 0.000). Peak HR was significantly decreased in all groups compared to control. Total propofol requirement was reduced in D1 (P = 0.000) and D0.5 (P = 0.001) when compared to control. Time to spontaneous breathing was comparable in all the groups (P > 0.05). Time to eye opening and time to discharge were comparable in all groups (P > 0.05) except Group D1 (P = 0.001). EA score was least in Group D1 (P = 0.000). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg, 0.5 μg/kg, and esmolol produced significant amelioration of cardiovascular response to ECT without affecting seizure duration, results being best with dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg. However, the latter has the shortcoming of delayed recovery. PMID:28074804
Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Quilès, C; Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Fakra, E; Azorin, J-M
The first objective of this article is to summarize the history of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in psychiatry in order to highlight the transition from clinical level of evidence based on phenomenological descriptions to controlled trial establishing causal relationship. The second objective is to apply the criteria of causation for ECT, to focus on the dose-effect relationship criteria, and thus to analyze the conditions of application of these criteria for ECT. A literature review exploring the use of electricity, ECT and electroencephalography (EEG) in psychiatry was conducted. The publications were identified from the Pubmed and GoogleScholar electronic databases. The scientific literature search of international articles was performed in July 2016. In 1784, a Royal commission established in France by King Louis XVI tested Mesmer's claims concerning animal magnetism. By doing that, the commission, including such prominent scientists as the chemist Anton Lavoisier and the scientist and researcher on electricity and therapeutics Benjamin Franklin, played a central role in establishing the criteria needed to assess the level of evidence of electrical therapeutics in psychiatry. Surprisingly, it is possible to identify the classical Bradford Hill criteria of causation in the report of the commission, except the dose-effect relationship criteria. Since then, it has been conducted blinded randomized controlled trials that confirmed the effectiveness of ECT against ECT placebos for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. At present, the dose-effect relationship criteria can be analyzed through an EEG quality assessment of ECT-induced seizures. EEG quality assessment includes several indices: TSLOW (time to onset of seizure activity ≤5Hz, seconds), peak mid-ictal amplitude (mm), regularity (intensity or morphology of the seizure (0-6)), stereotypy (global seizure patterning, 0-3) and post-ictal suppression (0-3). A manual rating sheet is needed to score theses
Challenges in comparing the acute cognitive outcomes of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) vs. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depression: A systematic review.
Kedzior, Karina Karolina; Schuchinsky, Maria; Gerkensmeier, Imke; Loo, Colleen
The present study aimed to systematically compare the cognitive outcomes of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in head-to-head studies with major depression (MDD) patients. A systematic literature search identified six studies with 219 MDD patients that were too heterogeneous to reliably detect meaningful differences in acute cognitive outcomes after ECT vs. HF-rTMS. Cognitive effects of brain stimulation vary depending on the timeframe and methods of assessment, stimulation parameters, and maintenance treatment. Thus, acute and longer-term differences in cognitive outcomes both need to be investigated at precisely defined timeframes and with similar instruments assessing comparable functions.
Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Ying-Qiang; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Chiu, Helen F K; Liu, Zheng-Rong; Cao, Xiao-Lan; Guo, Tong; Wang, Harry H X; Seiner, Stephen J; Xiang, Yu-Tao
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a common treatment in practice for schizophrenia in most developing countries. This is a meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of ECT alone versus antipsychotic (AP) monotherapy for schizophrenia using randomized, single-blind, controlled trial (RCT) data. Two assessors independently extracted data. Standardized and weighted mean difference (SMD/WMD), odds ratios (ORs) ± 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and number needed to harm (NNH) were calculated by Review Manager Version 5.3 and the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2 software. Five RCTs (n = 365; age, 34.1 ± 4.7 years; percentage of male, 52.8 ± 9.5; range on the Jaded scale, 2-3) were identified and analyzed. Electroconvulsive therapy alone was superior to AP monotherapy with chlorpromazine, haloperidol, paliperidone, clozapine, and risperidone, respectively, regarding symptomatic improvement at last-observation end point (SMD, -0.84; P = 0.02; I = 89%). Improvement with ECT separated from AP as early as weeks 1 to 2 (SMD, -1.26; P = 0.01; I = 89%). Meta-analysis of the end point memory quotient of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, Chinese version, revealed that the ECT alone group had poorer memory performance than the AP group (WMD, -9.34; P < 0.00001; I = 0%), but the difference lost its significance within 2 weeks after ECT (WMD, 0.09 to -6.54; P = 0.11-0.97; I = 0%). Compared with AP monotherapy, ECT was associated with more memory impairment (OR, 14.11; P = 0.004; NNH, 6) but with less akathisia (OR, 0.06; P = 0.0009; NNH, 6), tremor (OR, 0.08; P = 0.02; NNH, 7), and tachycardia (OR, 0.06; P = 0.006; NNH, 5). There were no significant differences in other adverse events and all-cause discontinuation. Electroconvulsive therapy alone could be an effective and safe treatment option for schizophrenia, with transient memory impairment and headache being the major side effects.
The emigration of Lothar Kalinowsky (1899-1992) might, at first glance, seem to be a history of coincidence and twists of fate, but it is shown to be a truly entangled and intertwined history and story. The international introduction of electroconvulsive therapy was not only closely involved with the political, scientific and economic conditions during World War II, but the story of Kalinowsky's relevance to it emerges from competing stories, told differently in Europe and the USA - and by Kalinowsky himself. Tracing these stories up to the end of the 1960s reveals Kalinowsky as an influential inheritor and patron of Berlin Biological Psychiatry, rather than telling the history of an émigré innovator of international neuropsychiatric research. © The Author(s) 2015.
With regard to the question of how electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) acts, a common answer is that the mechanism of action of the treatment is not well understood. However, this is not true. There is a great deal of information available about what ECT does in the brain, how it does it, and how these effects translate into clinical actions. The very complexity of the available data makes it necessary for the question about mechanisms to be properly defined with regard to physiologic effects, adverse effects, and efficacy in different conditions. This article presents a primer for the conceptualization of the mechanism of action of ECT with special attention to understanding why the question and answer are complex.
Jin, Xi-Long; Xu, Wei-Qin; Le, Ya-Juan; Dai, Xiong-Kai
This retrospective study recruited 150 patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) who received modified electroconvulsive therapy (MECT) and 150 cases treated with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), which aimed to compare the short- and long-term effectiveness, as well as economic outcomes, of MECT and rTMS with a large sample size in patients with recurrent MDD. The results showed that the response rate of patients in the rTMS group was lower than that in the MECT group (46.0% vs 58.7%, p < 0.05). Patients in the rTMS group had elevated rate of dizziness, but reduced rates of poor memory and headache, as well as lower costs compared with the MECT group (p < 0.05). Importantly, we found that the relapse-free survival of patients was similar between the rTMS and MECT groups in the long term. In conclusion, rTMS is an alternative method for MECT in the treatment of patients with recurrent MDD.
Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H; Peterchev, Angel V
Understanding the relationship between the stimulus parameters of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and the electric field characteristics could guide studies on improving risk/benefit ratio. We aimed to determine the effect of current amplitude and electrode size and spacing on the ECT electric field characteristics, compare ECT focality with magnetic seizure therapy (MST), and evaluate stimulus individualization by current amplitude adjustment. Electroconvulsive therapy and double-cone-coil MST electric field was simulated in a 5-shell spherical human head model. A range of ECT electrode diameters (2-5 cm), spacing (1-25 cm), and current amplitudes (0-900 mA) was explored. The head model parameters were varied to examine the stimulus current adjustment required to compensate for interindividual anatomical differences. By reducing the electrode size, spacing, and current, the ECT electric field can be more focal and superficial without increasing scalp current density. By appropriately adjusting the electrode configuration and current, the ECT electric field characteristics can be made to approximate those of MST within 15%. Most electric field characteristics in ECT are more sensitive to head anatomy variation than in MST, especially for close electrode spacing. Nevertheless, ECT current amplitude adjustment of less than 70% can compensate for interindividual anatomical variability. The strength and focality of ECT can be varied over a wide range by adjusting the electrode size, spacing, and current. If desirable, ECT can be made as focal as MST while using simpler stimulation equipment. Current amplitude individualization can compensate for interindividual anatomical variability.
Electroconvulsive Therapy , Assisting Physician = 2614 353) Individual Support Therapy - All Nursing Personnel = 2615 354) Individual Therapy - Contract...SECLUSION ROOM: Upon arrival at the patient’s area, manually restrain patient, and then transport into the seclusion room. 2614 ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY ... Therapy - Frappage with Postural Drainage 1409 (123) IPPB Treatment = 1415 (124) Maximist Treatment = 1427 125) Blow Bottles = 1418 126) Cough and
Dols, Annemiek; Bouckaert, Filip; Sienaert, Pascal; Rhebergen, Didi; Vansteelandt, Kristof; Ten Kate, Mara; de Winter, Francois-Laurent; Comijs, Hannie C; Emsell, Louise; Oudega, Mardien L; van Exel, Eric; Schouws, Sigfried; Obbels, Jasmien; Wattjes, Mike; Barkhof, Frederik; Eikelenboom, Piet; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Stek, Max L
The clinical profile of late-life depression (LLD) is frequently associated with cognitive impairment, aging-related brain changes, and somatic comorbidity. This two-site naturalistic longitudinal study aimed to explore differences in clinical and brain characteristics and response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in early- (EOD) versus late-onset (LOD) late-life depression (respectively onset <55 and ≥55 years). Between January 2011 and December 2013, 110 patients aged 55 years and older with ECT-treated unipolar depression were included in The Mood Disorders in Elderly treated with ECT study. Clinical profile and somatic health were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed before the first ECT and visually rated. Response rate was 78.2% and similar between the two sites but significantly higher in LOD compared with EOD (86.9 versus 67.3%). Clinical, somatic, and brain characteristics were not different between EOD and LOD. Response to ECT was associated with late age at onset and presence of psychotic symptoms and not with structural MRI characteristics. In EOD only, the odds for a higher response were associated with a shorter index episode. The clinical profile, somatic comorbidities, and brain characteristics in LLD were similar in EOD and LOD. Nevertheless, patients with LOD showed a superior response to ECT compared with patients with EOD. Our results indicate that ECT is very effective in LLD, even in vascular burdened patients. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Canbek, Ozge; Menges, Okan Oktay; Atagun, Murat Ilhan; Kutlar, Mehmet Tark; Kurt, Erhan
We present our 3 years' experience with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) practice in Bakirkoy Research and Training Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases (BAKIRKOY) ECT Center after modification of ECT regulations in Turkey. Also included in this article is a brief overview and discussion on ECT applications. Bakirkoy medical records in electronic database were examined retrospectively (between January 2008 and December 2010), focusing on several aspects of short-term use of ECT: patient's age, sex, and diagnosis; mean number of treatments per patient; duration of stay in hospital; percentage of ECT use in hospitalized patients; and frequency and types of adverse events. A total of 3490 patients hospitalized for acute conditions (2138 men and 1352 women) were treated with ECT in a period of 3 years, with a total of 27,660 ECT treatments performed. The total number of psychiatric patients hospitalized for acute conditions was 24,310 (14,132 men and 10,178 women) during the same period. The ratio of ECT use among acute care hospitalizations was 1:6.97 (14.36%). The mean ± SD age of patients treated with ECT was 35.02 ± 11.29. The mean ± SD number of ECT sessions was 7.89 ± 2.86. Affective disorders (46.99%) and psychotic disorders (52.12%) were among the leading diagnoses. No deaths occurred during ECT sessions, and no severe adverse events were observed. The percentage of patients treated with ECT in BAKIRKOY is similar to rates reported in most Asian countries, which is higher than those reported in Western psychiatric centers. Absence of any life-threatening adverse effect or death, and presence of relatively few adverse effects, may be considered as an indication of conformity to current guidelines.
Sengul, Melike Ceyhan Balci; Kenar, Ayse Nur Inci; Hanci, Ezgi; Sendur, İbrahim; Sengul, Cem; Herken, Hasan
Objective Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be given as the form of acute, continuation or maintenance ECT according to the process of administration. We report our 7 years’ observation with acute and maintenance ECT in a university hospital in Turkey. Methods The medical records of the hospitalized patients treated with acute or maintenance ECT between the years 2007 and 2013 was retrospectively analyzed. The sociodemographic characteristics, diagnosis, data of ECT and the co-administered psychotropic drugs were recorded. The frequency of ECT was calculated by identifying the total number of the hospitalized patients during the study period from the hospital records. Results A total number of 1,432 female and 1,141 male patients hospitalized in a period of 7 years, with a total number of 111 patients treated with ECT. The ratio of ECT was 4%, maintenance/acute ECT 11%. For acute ECT, affective disorders (65.3%) and psychotic disorders (21.6%) were among the leading diagnoses. Maintenance ECT, the diagnosis was; 6 affective disorders, 4 psychotic disorders and 1 obsessive compulsive disorder. There was a significant difference between the patients receiving acute and maintenance ECT in terms of age, duration of illness, and number of previous hospitalizations and ECTs. Conclusion The percentage of patients treated with acute ECT is lower in our institution than that in many other institutions from our country. Acute and maintenance ECT should be considered as an important treatment option particularly for patients with long disease duration, a high number of hospitalizations and a history of benefiting from previous ECTs. PMID:26792041
Sengul, Melike Ceyhan Balci; Kenar, Ayse Nur Inci; Hanci, Ezgi; Sendur, İbrahim; Sengul, Cem; Herken, Hasan
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be given as the form of acute, continuation or maintenance ECT according to the process of administration. We report our 7 years' observation with acute and maintenance ECT in a university hospital in Turkey. The medical records of the hospitalized patients treated with acute or maintenance ECT between the years 2007 and 2013 was retrospectively analyzed. The sociodemographic characteristics, diagnosis, data of ECT and the co-administered psychotropic drugs were recorded. The frequency of ECT was calculated by identifying the total number of the hospitalized patients during the study period from the hospital records. A total number of 1,432 female and 1,141 male patients hospitalized in a period of 7 years, with a total number of 111 patients treated with ECT. The ratio of ECT was 4%, maintenance/acute ECT 11%. For acute ECT, affective disorders (65.3%) and psychotic disorders (21.6%) were among the leading diagnoses. Maintenance ECT, the diagnosis was; 6 affective disorders, 4 psychotic disorders and 1 obsessive compulsive disorder. There was a significant difference between the patients receiving acute and maintenance ECT in terms of age, duration of illness, and number of previous hospitalizations and ECTs. The percentage of patients treated with acute ECT is lower in our institution than that in many other institutions from our country. Acute and maintenance ECT should be considered as an important treatment option particularly for patients with long disease duration, a high number of hospitalizations and a history of benefiting from previous ECTs.
Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Tang, Yi-Lang; Xiang, Ying-Qiang; Li, Xian-Bin; Cao, Xiao-Lan; Guo, Tong; Liu, Zheng-Rong; Chiu, Helen F K; Ungvari, Gabor S; de Leon, Jose
The aim of the study was to examine published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the efficacy and safety of adjunctive electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) when combined with antipsychotics (APs) versus AP therapy for schizophrenia and related disorders during the acute phase. Two evaluators independently selected studies, extracted data, and conducted quality assessment and data synthesis. Standardized and weighted mean differences (SMD/WMD), risk ratio (RR) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs), number needed to treat (NNT), and number needed to harm (NNH) were calculated. Twenty-two RCTs (n = 1365, age = 36.9 years, male = 53%), including double-blind (8 RCTs) and rater-masked (14 RCTs) designs, were identified and analyzed. Adjunctive ECT was superior to AP therapy regarding (1) symptomatic improvement at last-observation endpoint (standardized mean difference, -0.67; P < 0.00001; I = 79%); (2) study-defined response (RR = 1.81, I = 0%, P < 0.00001, NNT = 4) and remission (RR = 2.05, I = 0%, P = 0.0004, NNT = 13); and (3) positive, negative, and general psychopathology subscores (weighted mean difference, -4.01 to -1.79; P = 0.005-0.0001). Results were similar in all preplanned subgroup analyses including Chinese (11 RCTs) versus non-Chinese (7 RCTs) origin, those with a Jadad score 3 or higher (12 RCTs) versus lower than 3 (6 RCTs), and those with clozapine (5 RCTs) versus those with non-clozapine treatments (13 RCTs). Compared with AP therapy, adjunctive ECT AP was significantly associated with more headache (RR = 2.72, P = 0.04, NNH = 5) and memory impairment (RR = 14.24, P = 0.01, NNH = 7). Adjunctive ECT seems to be an effective and safe option for schizophrenia and related disorders during acute phases but was associated with transient memory impairment and headaches.
Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Needham, Esther Kjær; Pakkenberg, Bente
Stereological methods are designed to describe quantitative parameters without making assumptions about size, shape, orientation and distribution of cells or structures. These methods have been revolutionary for quantitative analysis of the mammalian brain, in which volumetric cell populations are too high to count manually, and stereology is now the technique of choice whenever estimates of three-dimensional quantities need to be extracted from measurements on two-dimensional sections. All stereological methods are in principle unbiased; however, they rely on proper knowledge about the structure of interest and the characteristics of the tissue. Stereology is based on Systematic Uniformly Random Sampling (SURS), with adjustment of sampling to the most efficient level in respect to precision, providing reliable, quantitative information about the whole structure of interest. Here we present the optical fractionator in conjunction with BrdU immunohistochemistry to estimate the production and survival of newly-formed neurons in the granule cell layer (including the sub-granular zone) of the rat hippocampus following electroconvulsive stimulation, which is among the most potent stimulators of neurogenesis. The optical fractionator technique is designed to provide estimates of the total number of cells from thick sections sampled from the full structure. Thick sections provide the opportunity to observe cells in their full 3-D extent and thus, allow for easy and robust cell classification based on morphological criteria. When correctly implemented, the sensitivity and efficiency of the optical fractionator provides accurate estimates with a fixed and predetermined precision.
Hoogerhoud, Alexander; Hazewinkel, Andreia W P; Reijntjens, Robert H A M; van Vliet, Irene M; van Noorden, Martijn S; Lammers, Gert Jan; van Dijk, J Gert; Giltay, Erik J
Background. Sleep disturbances are a key feature of major depression. Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) may improve polysomnography-assessed sleep characteristics, but its short-term effects on actigraphy-assessed and subjective sleep characteristics are unknown. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of ECT on subjective and objective sleep parameters in a proof-of-principle study. Methods. We assessed subjective and objective sleep parameters in 12 severely depressed patients up to 5 consecutive days during their ECT course, corresponding to a total of 43 nights (including 19 ECT sessions). The 12 patients were 83% female and on average 62 (standard deviation (SD) 14) years old and had an average MADRS score of 40 at baseline (SD 21). Results. Subjective and objective sleep parameters were not directly affected by ECT. The subjective sleep efficiency parameter was similar on the day after ECT and other days. ECT did not affect the number of errors in the Sustained Attention to Response Task. Patients subjectively underestimated their total sleep time by 1.4 hours (P < 0.001) compared to actigraphy-assessed sleep duration. Conclusion. ECT did not affect subjective and actigraphy-assessed sleep in the short term. Depressed patients profoundly underestimated their sleep duration.
Mouse repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) does not reverse social stress effects but does induce behavioral and hippocampal changes relevant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) side-effects in the treatment of depression.
van Buel, Erin M; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Fikse, Lianne; Bosker, Fokko J; Schoevers, Robert A; Klein, Hans C; Pryce, Christopher R; Eisel, Ulrich Lm
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental animals is electroconvulsive seizure (ECS). Rodent studies have provided valuable insights into potential mechanisms underlying the antidepressant and side effects of ECT. However, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of ECS in animal models with a depression-relevant manipulation such as chronic stress. In the present study, mice were first exposed to chronic social stress (CSS) or a control procedure for 15 days followed by ECS or a sham procedure for 10 days. Behavioral effects were investigated using an auditory fear conditioning (learning) and expression (memory) test and a treadmill-running fatigue test. Thereafter, immunohistochemistry was conducted on brain material using the microglial marker Iba-1 and the cholinergic fibre marker ChAT. CSS did not increase fear learning and memory in the present experimental design; in both the control and CSS mice ECS reduced fear learning and fear memory expression. CSS induced the expected fatigue-like effect in the treadmill-running test; ECS induced increased fatigue in CSS and control mice. In CSS and control mice ECS induced inflammation in hippocampus in terms of increased expression of Iba-1 in radiatum of CA1 and CA3. CSS and ECS both reduced acetylcholine function in hippocampus as indicated by decreased expression of ChAT in several hippocampal sub-regions. Therefore, CSS increased fatigue and reduced hippocampal ChAT activity and, rather than reversing these effects, a repeated ECS regimen resulted in impaired fear learning-memory, increased fatigue, increased hippocampal Iba-1 expression, and decreased hippocampal ChAT expression. As such, the current model does not provide insights into the
Zheng, Wei; Cao, Xiao-Lan; Ungvari, Gabor S; Xiang, Ying-Qiang; Guo, Tong; Liu, Zheng-Rong; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Forester, Brent P; Seiner, Stephen J; Xiang, Yu-Tao
This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examined the efficacy and safety of the combination of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and antipsychotic medication (except for clozapine) versus the same antipsychotic monotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). Two independent investigators extracted data for a random effects meta-analysis and pre-specified subgroup and meta-regression analyses. Weighted and standard mean difference (WMD/SMD), risk ratio (RR) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs), number needed to treat (NNT), and number needed to harm (NNH) were calculated. Eleven studies (n = 818, duration = 10.2±5.5 weeks) were identified for meta-analysis. Adjunctive ECT was superior to antipsychotic monotherapy regarding (1) symptomatic improvement at last-observation endpoint with an SMD of -0.67 (p<0.00001; I(2) = 62%), separating the two groups as early as weeks 1-2 with an SMD of -0.58 (p<0.00001; I(2) = 0%); (2) study-defined response (RR = 1.48, p<0.0001) with an NNT of 6 (CI = 4-9) and remission rate (RR = 2.18, p = 0.0002) with an NNT of 8 (CI = 6-16); (3) PANSS positive and general symptom sub-scores at endpoint with a WMD between -3.48 to -1.32 (P = 0.01 to 0.009). Subgroup analyses were conducted comparing double blind/rater-masked vs. open RCTs, those with and without randomization details, and high quality (Jadad≥adadup analyses were Jadad<3) studies. The ECT-antipsychotic combination caused more headache (p = 0.02) with an NNH of 6 (CI = 4-11) and memory impairment (p = 0.001) with an NNH of 3 (CI = 2-5). The use of ECT to augment antipsychotic treatment (clozapine excepted) can be an effective treatment option for TRS, with increased frequency of self-reported memory impairment and headache.
Vallejo-Torres, L; Castilla, I; González, N; Hunter, R; Serrano-Pérez, P; Perestelo-Pérez, L
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is widely applied to treat severe depression resistant to standard treatment. Results from previous studies comparing the cost-effectiveness of this technique with treatment alternatives such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are conflicting. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing ECT alone, rTMS alone and rTMS followed by ECT when rTMS fails under the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service. The analysis is based on a Markov model which simulates the costs and health outcomes of individuals treated under these alternatives over a 12-month period. Data to populate this model were extracted and synthesized from a series of randomized controlled trials and other studies that have compared these techniques on the patient group of interest. We measure effectiveness using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and characterize the uncertainty using probabilistic sensitivity analyses. ECT alone was found to be less costly and more effective than rTMS alone, while the strategy of providing rTMS followed by ECT when rTMS fails is the most expensive and effective option. The incremental cost per QALY gained of this latter strategy was found to be above the reference willingness-to-pay threshold used in these types of studies in Spain and other countries. The probability that ECT alone is the most cost-effective alternative was estimated to be around 70%. ECT is likely to be the most cost-effective option in the treatment of resistant severe depression for a willingness to pay of €30,000 per QALY.
Lee, Won Hee; Deng, Zhi-De; Kim, Tae-Seong; Laine, Andrew F.; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.
We present the first computational study investigating the electric field (E-field) strength generated by various electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) electrode configurations in specific brain regions of interest (ROIs) that have putative roles in the therapeutic action and/or adverse side effects of ECT. This study also characterizes the impact of the white matter (WM) conductivity anisotropy on the E-field distribution. A finite element head model incorporating tissue heterogeneity and WM anisotropic conductivity was constructed based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor MRI data. We computed the spatial E-field distributions generated by three standard ECT electrode placements including bilateral (BL), bifrontal (BF), and right unilateral (RUL) and an investigational electrode configuration for focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST). The key results are that (1) the median E-field strength over the whole brain is 3.9, 1.5, 2.3, and 2.6 V/cm for the BL, BF, RUL, and FEAST electrode configurations, respectively, which coupled with the broad spread of the BL E-field suggests a biophysical basis for observations of superior efficacy of BL ECT compared to BF and RUL ECT; (2) in the hippocampi, BL ECT produces a median E-field of 4.8 V/cm that is 1.5–2.8 times stronger than that for the other electrode configurations, consistent with the more pronounced amnestic effects of BL ECT; and (3) neglecting the WM conductivity anisotropy results in E-field strength error up to 18% overall and up to 39% in specific ROIs, motivating the inclusion of the WM conductivity anisotropy in accurate head models. This computational study demonstrates how the realistic finite element head model incorporating tissue conductivity anisotropy provides quantitative insight into the biophysics of ECT, which may shed light on the differential clinical outcomes seen with various forms of ECT, and may guide the development of novel stimulation
Mouse repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) does not reverse social stress effects but does induce behavioral and hippocampal changes relevant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) side-effects in the treatment of depression
Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Fikse, Lianne; Bosker, Fokko J.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Klein, Hans C.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental animals is electroconvulsive seizure (ECS). Rodent studies have provided valuable insights into potential mechanisms underlying the antidepressant and side effects of ECT. However, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of ECS in animal models with a depression-relevant manipulation such as chronic stress. In the present study, mice were first exposed to chronic social stress (CSS) or a control procedure for 15 days followed by ECS or a sham procedure for 10 days. Behavioral effects were investigated using an auditory fear conditioning (learning) and expression (memory) test and a treadmill-running fatigue test. Thereafter, immunohistochemistry was conducted on brain material using the microglial marker Iba-1 and the cholinergic fibre marker ChAT. CSS did not increase fear learning and memory in the present experimental design; in both the control and CSS mice ECS reduced fear learning and fear memory expression. CSS induced the expected fatigue-like effect in the treadmill-running test; ECS induced increased fatigue in CSS and control mice. In CSS and control mice ECS induced inflammation in hippocampus in terms of increased expression of Iba-1 in radiatum of CA1 and CA3. CSS and ECS both reduced acetylcholine function in hippocampus as indicated by decreased expression of ChAT in several hippocampal sub-regions. Therefore, CSS increased fatigue and reduced hippocampal ChAT activity and, rather than reversing these effects, a repeated ECS regimen resulted in impaired fear learning-memory, increased fatigue, increased hippocampal Iba-1 expression, and decreased hippocampal ChAT expression. As such, the current model does not provide insights into the
Lee, Won Hee; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Laine, Andrew F.; Peterchev, Angel V.
Background This study examines the strength and spatial distribution of the electric field induced in the brain by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST). Methods The electric field induced by standard (bilateral, right unilateral, and bifrontal) and experimental (focal electrically administered seizure therapy and frontomedial) ECT electrode configurations as well as a circular MST coil configuration was simulated in an anatomically realistic finite element model of the human head. Maps of the electric field strength relative to an estimated neural activation threshold were used to evaluate the stimulation strength and focality in specific brain regions of interest for these ECT and MST paradigms and various stimulus current amplitudes. Results The standard ECT configurations and current amplitude of 800–900 mA produced the strongest overall stimulation with median of 1.8–2.9 times neural activation threshold and more than 94% of the brain volume stimulated at suprathreshold level. All standard ECT electrode placements exposed the hippocampi to suprathreshold electric field, although there were differences across modalities with bilateral and right unilateral producing respectively the strongest and weakest hippocampal stimulation. MST stimulation is up to 9 times weaker compared to conventional ECT, resulting in direct activation of only 21% of the brain. Reducing the stimulus current amplitude can make ECT as focal as MST. Conclusions The relative differences in electric field strength may be a contributing factor for the cognitive sparing observed with right unilateral compared to bilateral ECT, and MST compared to right unilateral ECT. These simulations could help understand the mechanisms of seizure therapies and develop interventions with superior risk/benefit ratio. PMID:27318858
Nitturkar, Abhishek R.; Sinha, Preeti; Bagewadi, Virupakshappa I.; Thirthalli, Jagadisha
Background: Efficacy and adverse effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) depend on the extent to which the electrical stimulus exceeds patients' seizure thresholds (STs). Titration method of estimating ST is recommended. Age and co-prescribed anticonvulsants (ACs) are known to affect ST. Literature on ST in bilateral ECT (BLECT) is sparse. Objective: To explore the clinical and demographic determinants of ST in a clinically representative sample of patients prescribed with BLECT. Materials and Methods: ECT records of 640 patients who received BLECT in 2011 in an academic psychiatric setting were studied. Demographic, clinical, pharmacological, and ECT details were analyzed. As per the standard practice, during the 1st ECT session, ST was determined by titration method, starting with 30 milli-Coulombs (mC) and increasing by 30 mC and thence in steps of 60 mC. Increase in ST over up to 6th session of ECT was noted. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to find age cut-off with high specificity for ST ≥120 mC. The associations of ST and increase in ST with the age cut-off and other clinical factors were assessed using Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age was 30.98 years (+11.23 years) and mean ST at 1st ECT session was 130.36 mC (+51.96 mC). There was significantly high positive correlation (r = 0.37, P < 0.001) between age and ST. Cut-off age of 45 years had high specificity: Only 4.6% of those older than 45 years had ST <120 mC. Higher proportion of patients on AC had ST ≥120 mC. These associations were seen even after controlling for potential confounds of each other using logistic regression analysis. The results were similar for increase in ST over the course of ECT. Sex, diagnosis, use of antipsychotics, antidepressants, lithium, and benzodiazepines (BZPs) had no effect on ST or its increase. Conclusions: For BLECT using brief-pulse stimulus, ST depends on age and use of AC. For patients above the age of 45
Cristancho, Mario A.; Helmer, Amanda; Connolly, Ryan; Cristancho, Pilar; O’Reardon, John P.
Background TMS is an efficacious, well–tolerated, non-invasive brain stimulation treatment for major depressive disorder. ECT is an effective maintenance treatment for depression but is not tolerated by some patients and declined by others. Objective We evaluated the effectiveness of TMS as a substitution strategy for successful maintenance ECT. Methods A consecutive clinical case series (n=6) of maintenance ECT patients were transitioned to maintenance TMS due to side effects from ECT or because of specific patient request and preference. Patients were in either full remission or had clinical response to ECT at the time of transition. Primary outcome was the change in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score from initiation of TMS maintenance sessions to the last observation time point. Relapse of depressive symptoms was also documented. Results Mean age of patient was 64 years and most were female (n=5). The majority (5 out of 6) were diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). Reasons for transition from ECT to TMS were in order of frequency: cognitive side effects, fear of general anesthesia, time burden, lack of remission with ECT, and stigma associated with ECT. The mean frequency of TMS sessions was 1 every 3.5 weeks . Based on BDI scores, all patients maintained or improved their clinical status achieved with ECT at 3 and 6 months of TMS treatment. At last observation (Range: 7 to 23 months) 4 patients maintained or improved their clinical status (total BDI score remained constant or decreased by 1–8 points). Two patients relapsed after 8 and 9 months. Stimulation was well tolerated with side effects limited to headache and scalp discomfort. Discussion In this case series TMS was effective and safe when used as a substitution strategy for successful maintenance ECT. PMID:23519219
Petrides, Georgios; Malur, Chitra; Braga, Raphael J; Bailine, Samuel H; Schooler, Nina R; Malhotra, Anil K; Kane, John M; Sanghani, Sohag; Goldberg, Terry E; John, Majnu; Mendelowitz, Alan
Up to 70% of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia do not respond to clozapine. Pharmacological augmentation to clozapine has been studied with unimpressive results. The authors examined the use of ECT as an augmentation to clozapine for treatment-refractory schizophrenia. In a randomized single-blind 8-week study, patients with clozapine-resistant schizophrenia were assigned to treatment as usual (clozapine group) or a course of bilateral ECT plus clozapine (ECT plus clozapine group). Nonresponders from the clozapine group received an 8-week open trial of ECT (crossover phase). ECT was performed three times per week for the first 4 weeks and twice weekly for the last 4 weeks. Clozapine dosages remained constant. Response was defined as ≥40% reduction in symptoms based on the psychotic symptom subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, a Clinical Global Impressions (CGI)-severity rating <3, and a CGI-improvement rating ≤2. The intent-to-treat sample included 39 participants (ECT plus clozapine group, N=20; clozapine group, N=19). All 19 patients from the clozapine group received ECT in the crossover phase. Fifty percent of the ECT plus clozapine patients met the response criterion. None of the patients in the clozapine group met the criterion. In the crossover phase, response was 47%. There were no discernible differences between groups on global cognition. Two patients required the postponement of an ECT session because of mild confusion. The augmentation of clozapine with ECT is a safe and effective treatment option. Further research is required to determine the persistence of the improvement and the potential need for maintenance treatments.
Flamarique, Itziar; Baeza, Inmaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Pons, Alexandre; Bernardo, Miguel; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina
To compare a sample of adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) treated with either ECT or antipsychotics (AP) alone at long-term follow-up. Patients diagnosed with SSD (n = 21) treated with ECT due to resistance to AP or catatonia under the age of 18 years (ECT group), were compared to a randomly selected group of patients with SSD treated only with AP (non-ECT group) (n = 21) and matched for age, gender, diagnosis and duration of illness. Baseline data were gathered retrospectively from medical records. Subjects were assessed at follow-up (mean of follow-up period = 5.5 years; range 2-9 years) using several clinical scales such as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Improvement in PANSS positive, negative, general, total and CGI and GAF scores between baseline and follow-up assessment did not differ significantly between groups. At follow-up, no differences were observed for the PANSS negative, CGI and GAF scores between groups, but patients in the ECT group still had higher PANSS total, positive and general scores. ECT treatment followed by AP medication in treatment-resistant SSD or catatonia is at least as effective in the long term as AP alone in non-resistant patients.
Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.
Objectives Understanding the relationship between the stimulus parameters of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and the electric field characteristics could guide studies on improving risk/benefit ratio. We aim to determine the effect of current amplitude and electrode size and spacing on the ECT electric field characteristics, compare ECT focality with magnetic seizure therapy (MST), and evaluate stimulus individualization by current amplitude adjustment. Methods ECT and double-cone-coil MST electric field was simulated in a 5-shell spherical human head model. A range of ECT electrode diameters (2–5 cm), spacing (1–25 cm), and current amplitudes (0–900 mA) were explored. The head model parameters were varied to examine the stimulus current adjustment required to compensate for interindividual anatomical differences. Results By reducing the electrode size, spacing, and current, the ECT electric field can be more focal and superficial without increasing scalp current density. By appropriately adjusting the electrode configuration and current, the ECT electric field characteristics can be made to approximate those of MST within 15%. Most electric field characteristics in ECT are more sensitive to head anatomy variation than in MST, especially for close electrode spacing. Nevertheless, ECT current amplitude adjustment of less than 70% can compensate for interindividual anatomical variability. Conclusions The strength and focality of ECT can be varied over a wide range by adjusting the electrode size, spacing, and current. If desirable, ECT can be made as focal as MST while using simpler stimulation equipment. Current amplitude individualization can compensate for interindividual anatomical variability. PMID:24263276
Sinha, Preeti; ShyamSundar, A.; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Gangadhar, B. N.; Candade, Vittal S.
In 1993, a device to administer brief-pulse electroconvulsive therapy was indigenously developed through collaboration between the National Institution for Quality and Reliability and the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. The additional feature of computerized recording of the electroencephalograph and electrocardiograph for both online and offline use had substantial clinical and research implications. Over the past two decades, this device has been used extensively in different academic and nonacademic settings. A considerable body of research with clinical and heuristic interest has also emanated using this device. In this paper, we present the development of this device and follow it up with a review of research conducted at NIMHANS that validate the features and potentials of this device. PMID:26985102
The Normalization of Brain 18F-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose Positron Emission Tomography Hypometabolism following Electroconvulsive Therapy in a 55-year-old Woman with Treatment-resistant Late Onset Depression: A Case Report
Bak, Jeongjae; Lee, Sang Mi; Kwon, Young-Joon; Shim, Se-Hoon; Kim, Joong Il
Major depressive disorder, especially in later life, has heterogeneous clinical characteristics and treatment responses. Symptomatically, psychomotor retardation, lack of energy, and apathy tends to be more common in people with late-onset depression (LOD). Despite recent advances in psychopharmacologic treatments, 20% to 30% of patients with mood disorders experience inadequate responses to medication, often resulting in a trial of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, the therapeutic mechanism of ECT is still unclear. By using 18F-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT), we can obtain the status of brain metabolism in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders and changes during psychiatric treatment course. The object of this case report is evaluating the effect of ECT on brain metabolism in treatment-refractory LOD by PET/CT and understanding the mode of action of ECT. In this case report, we presented a 55-year-old female patient who suffered psychotic depression that was resistant to pharmacological treatment. Several antidepressants and atypical anti-psychotics were applied but there was no improvement in her symptoms. The patient presented not only depressed mood and behaviors but also deficit in cognitive functions. We found decreased diffuse cerebral metabolism in her brain 18F-FDG PET/CT image. ECT resulted in amelioration of the patients’ symptoms and another brain PET imaging 7 weeks after the last ECT course showed that her brain metabolism was normalized. PMID:28138119
Acute and maintenance electroconvulsive therapy for treatment of severe major depression during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy with infant follow-up to 18 months: case report and review of the literature.
O'Reardon, John P; Cristancho, Mario A; von Andreae, Christoph V; Cristancho, Pilar; Weiss, David
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be a safe and effective treatment in the management of severe mood disorders during pregnancy. Nevertheless, for the clinician in practice, decision making regarding ECT administration in this special population is challenging. This is due both to the risks of untreated or inadequately treated mental illness for the mother and the fetus as well as the risks of complications from ECT itself during pregnancy. Special measures and modifications of ECT procedures are required to minimize the risk of complications in pregnant patients undergoing ECT. Here we report the successful and safe administration of acute and continuation ECT in a 39-year-old pregnant patient with severe major depression. A total of 18 bilateral-bifrontal treatments were administered in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy with presession and postsession fetal monitoring. Following an elective cesarean delivery at 37 weeks of a healthy female infant, a total of 13 additional ECT treatments were administered as maintenance treatment in the first 6 months postpartum during which time the patient was successfully transitioned to antidepressant medication. Development of the child has been assessed as fully normal in all follow-up visits with the pediatrician out to 18 months.
Effects of the concurrent use of a reduced dose of propofol with divided supplemental remifentanil and moderate hyperventilation on duration and morphology of electroconvulsive therapy-induced electroencephalographic seizure activity: A randomized controlled trial.
Nishikawa, Kohki; Yamakage, Michiaki
The clinical adequacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) depends on not only seizure duration but also seizure amplitude and postictal suppression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of combination of a reduced dose of propofol and moderate hyperventilation on seizure duration and electrical stimulus requirement for adequate ictal amplitude and postictal suppression. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Operating room at a municipal hospital. Sixty ASA physical status I or II patients scheduled to receive a total of >300 ECT treatments. Patients were randomly assigned to have the three interventions: the use of a standard dose (1mg/kg) of propofol and normoventilation (ETCO2 of 40-45mmHg) (group P/N), the use of a reduced dose (0.5mg/kg) of propofol with divided remifentanil injections and normoventilation (group RP/N), and the use of a reduced dose of propofol with divided remifentanil injections and moderate hyperventilation (ETCO2 of 30-35mmHg) (group RP/H). Patients in groups RP/N and RP/H received remifentanil 1μg/kg followed by propofol 0.5mg/kg for unconsciousness and thereafter remifentanil 1μg/kg immediately before the electrical stimulus. Patients in group RP/H had significantly longer durations of electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures in the early phase of the ECT course (P<0.05) and lower intensities of electrical stimulus in the late phase of the ECT course (P<0.05) than those in groups P/N and RP/N. A reduced dose of propofol combined with divided supplemental remifentanil under moderate hyperventilation during ECT may contribute to reduced electrical dosage due to the ability of its augmentation of seizure amplitude and postictal suppression in the late phase of the ECT course. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oltedal, Leif; Bartsch, Hauke; Sørhaug, Ole Johan Evjenth; Kessler, Ute; Abbott, Christopher; Dols, Annemieke; Stek, Max L; Ersland, Lars; Emsell, Louise; van Eijndhoven, Philip; Argyelan, Miklos; Tendolkar, Indira; Nordanskog, Pia; Hamilton, Paul; Jorgensen, Martin Balslev; Sommer, Iris E; Heringa, Sophie M; Draganski, Bogdan; Redlich, Ronny; Dannlowski, Udo; Kugel, Harald; Bouckaert, Filip; Sienaert, Pascal; Anand, Amit; Espinoza, Randall; Narr, Katherine L; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Oedegaard, Ketil J
Major depression, currently the world's primary cause of disability, leads to profound personal suffering and increased risk of suicide. Unfortunately, the success of antidepressant treatment varies amongst individuals and can take weeks to months in those who respond. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), generally prescribed for the most severely depressed and when standard treatments fail, produces a more rapid response and remains the most effective intervention for severe depression. Exploring the neurobiological effects of ECT is thus an ideal approach to better understand the mechanisms of successful therapeutic response. Though several recent neuroimaging studies show structural and functional changes associated with ECT, not all brain changes associate with clinical outcome. Larger studies that can address individual differences in clinical and treatment parameters may better target biological factors relating to or predictive of ECT-related therapeutic response. We have thus formed the Global ECT-MRI Research Collaboration (GEMRIC) that aims to combine longitudinal neuroimaging as well as clinical, behavioral and other physiological data across multiple independent sites. Here, we summarize the ECT sample characteristics from currently participating sites, and the common data-repository and standardized image analysis pipeline developed for this initiative. This includes data harmonization across sites and MRI platforms, and a method for obtaining unbiased estimates of structural change based on longitudinal measurements with serial MRI scans. The optimized analysis pipeline, together with the large and heterogeneous combined GEMRIC dataset, will provide new opportunities to elucidate the mechanisms of ECT response and the factors mediating and predictive of clinical outcomes, which may ultimately lead to more effective personalized treatment approaches.
Wysokiński, Adam; Dzienniak, Małgorzata; Kłoszewska, Iwona
Little is known how electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) affects cognitive functions in subjects with schizophrenia. Assessment of cognitive functions in subjects with schizophrenia treated with ECT was performed using CNS Vital Signs computerized battery of tests. Thirteen patients treated with ECT plus antipsychotics were assessed before and after 12 to 15 bilateral ECT sessions. We did not find any important changes between pre-ECT and post-ECT cognitive performance. We also found that CNS Vital Signs is a useful computerized battery test for assessing cognitive functions of subjects treated with ECT.
Study of modified electroconvulsive therapy combined with risperidone oral solution in the treatment of agitation in the acute stage of epilepsy and expression level changes of insulin-like growth factor-1.
Li, Jiansheng; Li, Chengyan
The aim of this paper was to explore the efficacy of modified electroconvulsive therapy (MECT) combined with risperidone oral solution in the treatment of agitation in the acute stage of epilepsy, and the effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA and protein expression. Forty-six cases with seizures and agitation in the acute stage were included from February 2012 to February 2014. This study was approved by the ethics committee in our hospital. Patients were divided randomly into the experimental (23 cases) and control (23 cases) groups. The patients in the experimental group were treated with MECT combined with risperidone oral solution. The patients in the control group were treated with risperidone oral solution. The Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) score and Treatment-Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) score were compared before and after treatment. The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) protein and mRNA expression level were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and qRT-PCR, respectively. There were no significant differences on positive and negative symptom scores or total score in the two groups before treatment (P>0.05). After treatment, the positive symptom score, negative symptom score, and total score all decreased in both groups, and the decrease was more obvious in the experimental group (P<0.05). After treatment, TESS scores of the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05). In the experimental group, the total efficiency was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). Before treatment, there were no significant differences in the expression levels of IGF-1 protein or mRNA in the two groups (P>0.05), while after treatment the expression levels of IGF-1 protein and mRNA decreased in both groups. However, the decrease was more obvious in the experimental group. The differences were all significant for scores (P<0.05). The combined application of MECT and
Lally, John; Tully, John; Robertson, Dene; Stubbs, Brendon; Gaughran, Fiona; MacCabe, James H
The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the proportion of patients with Treatment Resistant Schizophrenia (TRS) that respond to ECT augmentation of clozapine (C+ECT). We searched major electronic databases from 1980 to July 2015. We conducted a random effects meta-analysis reporting the proportion of responders to C+ECT in RCTs and open-label trials. Five clinical trials met our eligibility criteria, allowing us to pool data from 71 people with TRS who underwent C+ ECT across 4 open label trials (n=32) and 1 RCT (n=39). The overall pooled proportion of response to C+ECT was 54%, (95% CI: 21.8-83.6%) with some heterogeneity evident (I(2)=69%). With data from retrospective chart reviews, case series and case reports, 192 people treated with C+ECT were included. All studies together demonstrated an overall response to C+ECT of 66% (95% CI: 57.5-74.3%) (83 out of 126 patients responded to C+ECT). The mean number of ECT treatments used to augment clozapine was 11.3. 32% of cases (20 out of 62 patients) with follow up data (range of follow up: 3-468weeks) relapsed following cessation of ECT. Adverse events were reported in 14% of identified cases (24 out of 166 patients). There is a paucity of controlled studies in the literature, with only one single blinded randomised controlled study located, and the predominance of open label trials used in the meta-analysis is a limitation. The data suggests that ECT may be an effective and safe clozapine augmentation strategy in TRS. A higher number of ECT treatments may be required than is standard for other clinical indications. Further research is needed before ECT can be included in standard TRS treatment algorithms.
Pusalkar, Madhavi; Ghosh, Shreya; Jaggar, Minal; Husain, Basma Fatima Anwar; Galande, Sanjeev; Vaidya, Vidita A
Electroconvulsive seizure treatment is a fast-acting antidepressant therapy that evokes rapid transcriptional, neurogenic, and behavioral changes. Epigenetic mechanisms contribute to altered gene regulation, which underlies the neurogenic and behavioral effects of electroconvulsive seizure. We hypothesized that electroconvulsive seizure may modulate the expression of epigenetic machinery, thus establishing potential alterations in the epigenetic landscape. We examined the influence of acute and chronic electroconvulsive seizure on the gene expression of histone modifiers, namely histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and histone (lysine) demethylases as well as DNA modifying enzymes, including DNA methyltransferases, DNA demethylases, and methyl-CpG-binding proteins in the hippocampi of adult male Wistar rats using quantitative real time-PCR analysis. Further, we examined the influence of acute and chronic electroconvulsive seizure on global and residue-specific histone acetylation and methylation levels within the hippocampus, a brain region implicated in the cellular and behavioral effects of electroconvulsive seizure. Acute and chronic electroconvulsive seizure induced a primarily unique, and in certain cases bidirectional, regulation of histone and DNA modifiers, and methyl-CpG-binding proteins, with an overlapping pattern of gene regulation restricted to Sirt4, Mll3, Jmjd3, Gadd45b, Tet2, and Tet3. Global histone acetylation and methylation levels were predominantly unchanged, with the exception of a significant decline in H3K9 acetylation in the hippocampus following chronic electroconvulsive seizure. Electroconvulsive seizure treatment evokes the transcriptional regulation of several histone and DNA modifiers, and methyl-CpG-binding proteins within the hippocampus, with a predominantly distinct pattern of regulation induced by acute and chronic electroconvulsive seizure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford
Rasmussen, Keith G; Perry, Candace Lynn; Sutor, Bruce; Moore, Katherine M
The authors describe the electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatment of seven patients who had intracranial masses or mass effect and one patient who was status post mass resection. None suffered any neurological deterioration during ECT. They provide recommendations for clinical practice with such patients.
Yao, Zhao-Hui; Kang, Xiang; Yang, Liu; Niu, Yi; Lu, Ye; Nie, Li
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was widely used to treat the refractory depression. But ECT led to the cognitive deficits plaguing the depression patients. The underlying mechanisms of the cognitive deficits remain elusive. Repeated electroconvulsive shock (rECS) was used to simulate ECT and explore the mechanisms of ECT during the animal studies. Previous studies showed rECS could lead to neurogenesis and cognitive impairment. But it was well known that neurogenesis could improve the cognition. So these suggested that the mechanism of the cognitive deficit after rECS was very complex. In present study, we explored the probable mechanisms of the cognitive deficit after rECS from neurogenesis aspect. We found the cognitive deficit was reversible and neurogenesis could bring a long-term beneficial effect on cognition. Astrogliosis and NR1 down-regulation probably participated in the reversible cognitive deficits after rECS. Phenylbutyric acid (PBA), generally as an agent to investigate the roles of histone acetylation, could prevent the reversible cognitive dysfunction, but PBA could diminish the long-term effect of enhanced cognition by rECS. These suggested that ECT could possibly bring the long-term beneficial cognitive effect by regulating neurogenesis.
Polyakova, M.; Schroeter, M. L.; Elzinga, B. M.; Holiga, S.; Schoenknecht, P.; de Kloet, E. R.; Molendijk, M. L.
Emerging data suggest that Electro-Convulsive Treatment (ECT) may reduce depressive symptoms by increasing the expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). Yet, conflicting findings have been reported. For this reason we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the preclinical and clinical literature on the association between ECT treatment (ECS in animals) and changes in BDNF concentrations and their effect on behavior. In addition, regional brain expression of BDNF in mouse and human brains were compared using Allen Brain Atlas. ECS, over sham, increased BDNF mRNA and protein in animal brain (effect size [Hedge’s g]: 0.38―0.54; 258 effect-size estimates, N = 4,284) but not in serum (g = 0.06, 95% CI = -0.05―0.17). In humans, plasma but not serum BDNF increased following ECT (g = 0.72 vs. g = 0.14; 23 effect sizes, n = 281). The gradient of the BDNF increment in animal brains corresponded to the gradient of the BDNF gene expression according to the Allen brain atlas. Effect-size estimates were larger following more ECT sessions in animals (r = 0.37, P < .0001) and in humans (r = 0.55; P = 0.05). There were some indications that the increase in BDNF expression was associated with behavioral changes in rodents, but not in humans. We conclude that ECS in rodents and ECT in humans increase BDNF concentrations but this is not consistently associated with changes in behavior. PMID:26529101
Anand, Susan Ainlay; Anand, Vinod K.
Reports on the experiences of patients with laryngeal cancer who used art therapy. Drawing on 14 years of experience and 109 laryngeal cancer patients, describes treatment results and the case material substantiating the distinct role of art therapy. Provides an overview of the special medical and therapeutic needs of this group. (RJM)
Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wyska, Elżbieta; Wlaź, Piotr
Sildenafil, a potent and selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5, is used clinically to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is often taken by patients suffering from depression and receiving antidepressant drug treatment. However, its influence on the efficacy of antidepressant treatment was not sufficiently studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of sildenafil on the anti-immobility action of several antidepressant drugs (i.e., sertraline, fluvoxamine, citalopram, maprotiline, trazodone, and agomelatine) as well as on antidepressant-like effect of electroconvulsive stimulations in the forced swim test in mice. The obtained results showed that acute sildenafil treatment enhanced the antidepressant-like activity of all of the studied drugs. The observed effects were not due to the increase in locomotor activity. The interactions between sildenafil and sertraline, maprotiline, and trazodone were pharmacodynamic in nature, as sildenafil did not affect concentrations of these drugs neither in serum nor in brain tissue. Increased concentrations of fluvoxamine, citalopram, and agomelatine in brain tissue evoked by sildenafil co-administration suggest that pharmacokinetic interactions between sildenafil and these drugs are very likely. Sildenafil injected acutely did not alter the antidepressant-like efficacy of electroconvulsive stimulations in mice, as assessed in the forced swim test. Interestingly, repeated (14 days) administration of sildenafil decreased the anti-immobility action of the electroconvulsive stimulations. In conclusion, the present study shows that sildenafil may alter the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment. Further studies are warranted to better characterize the influence of sildenafil on the activity of antidepressant drugs and electroconvulsive therapy.
Comparison of the neuropsychological mechanisms of 2,6-diisopropylphenol and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist against electroconvulsive therapy-induced learning and memory impairment in depressed rats
LIU, GANG; LIU, CHAO; NING-ZHANG, XUE
The present study aimed to examine the neurophysiological mechanisms of the 2,6-diisopropylphenol and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist against learning and memory impairment, induced by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). A total of 48 adult depressed rats without olfactory bulbs were randomly divided into six experimental groups: i) saline; ii) 10 mg/kg MK-801; iii) 10 mg/kg MK-801 and a course of ECT; iv) 200 mg/kg 2,6-diisopropylphenol; v) 200 mg/kg 2,6-diisopropylphenol and a course of ECT; and vi) saline and a course of ECT. The learning and memory abilities of the rats were assessed using a Morris water maze 1 day after a course of ECT. The hippocampus was removed 1 day after assessment using the Morris water maze assessment. The content of glutamate in the hippocampus was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. The expression levels of p-AT8Ser202 and GSK-3β1H8 in the hippocampus were determined using immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that the 2,6-diisopropylphenol NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 and ECT induced learning and memory impairment in the depressed rats. The glutamate content was significantly upregulated by ECT, reduced by 2,6-diisopropylphenol, and was unaffected by the NMDA receptor antagonist in the hippocampus of the depressed rats. Tau protein hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus was upregulated by ECT, but was reduced by 2,6-diisopropylphenol and the MK-801 NMDA receptor antagonist. It was also demonstrated that 2,6-diisopropylphenol prevented learning and memory impairment and reduced the hyperphosphorylation of the Tau protein, which was induced by eECT. GSK-3β was found to be the key protein involved in this signaling pathway. The ECT reduced the learning and memory impairment, caused by hyperphosphorylation of the Tau protein, in the depressed rats by upregulating the glutamate content. PMID:25998151
Many transgender men and women seek hormone therapy as part of the transition process. Exogenous testosterone is used in transgender men to induce virilization and suppress feminizing characteristics. In transgender women, exogenous estrogen is used to help feminize patients, and anti-androgens are used as adjuncts to help suppress masculinizing features. Guidelines exist to help providers choose appropriate candidates for hormone therapy, and act as a framework for choosing treatment regimens and managing surveillance in these patients. Cross-sex hormone therapy has been shown to have positive physical and psychological effects on the transitioning individual and is considered a mainstay treatment for many patients. Bone and cardiovascular health are important considerations in transgender patients on long-term hormones, and care should be taken to monitor certain metabolic indices while patients are on cross-sex hormone therapy. PMID:28078219
Kellar, K J
It is likely that both noradrenalin and serotonin neurotransmission are important in the pathophysiology of depression and to its treatment. In particular, certain receptors for these neurotransmitters are altered by repeated treatment with both antidepressant drugs and electroconvulsive shock. This paper reviews the effects of electroconvulsive shock on alpha-1-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and serotonin-2 receptors in rat brain, and compares these effects to those produced by anti-depressant drugs. The similarities and differences in the effects of antidepressant drugs and electroconvulsive shock in rat brain may provide clues for the development of more effective treatments for depression and could single out targets for future investigation of the pathophysiology of depression in patients when safe methods are developed.
Barker, Sandra B; Pandurangi, Anand K; Best, Al M
To determine whether animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is associated with reductions in fear, anxiety, and depression in psychiatric patients before electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Before their scheduled ECT treatment, 35 patients were assigned on alternate days to the treatment condition, consisting of a 15-minute AAT session, and the standard (comparison) condition, consisting of 15 minutes with magazines. Visual analogue scales were used to measure anxiety, fear, and depression before and after treatment and standard conditions. The effect of AAT on fear was significant in both the mixed-model, repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) (p = 0.0006) and the secondary analysis (p = 0.0050), which covaried out all of the demographic conditions (gender, race, marital status, pet ownership, age), condition order, and the pretest rating. The effect of AAT on anxiety approached significance in the ANCOVA (p = 0.0982), but in the secondary analysis, the effect was not significant (p = 0.6498). The AAT effect on depression was not significant in ANCOVA (p = 0.7665) or in the secondary analysis (p = 0.9394). A least squares mean analysis showed that AAT reduced fear by 37% and anxiety by 18%. There was no demonstrated effect of AAT on depression. Animal-assisted therapy may have a useful role in psychiatric and medical therapies in which the therapeutic procedure is inherently fear-inducing or has a negative societal perception.
The majority of cancer patients becomes malnourished during the course of their disease. Malnutrition deteriorates the efficiency of all kinds of oncologic interventions. As a consequence of it, treatment-related toxicity increases, hospital stay is lengthened, chances of cure and survival as well as the quality of life of the patients worsen. Nutritional status therefore influences all aspects of outcome of oncology care. In spite of this the use of nutritional therapy varies across health care providers but its application is far from being sufficient during active oncology interventions as well as rehabilitation and supportive care. It threatens not only the outcome and quality of life of cancer patients but also the success of oncologic treatments which often demand high input of human and financial resources. Meanwhile application of nutritional therapy is legally regulated in Hungary and a very recent update of the European guideline on cancer patient nutrition published in 2017 is available. Moreover, cost effectiveness of nutritional therapy has been proven in a number of studies. In this review we present the basics of nutritional therapy including nutritional screening and evaluation, nutritional plan, the role of nutrition support teams, oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition, the use of different drugs and special nutrients and the follow-up of the patients.
Lee, Justine A; Cohn, Leah A
Young puppies and kittens have unique physiologic needs in regards to fluid therapy, which must address hydration, vascular fluid volume, electrolyte disturbances, or hypoglycemia. Pediatric patients have a higher fluid requirement compared with adults and can rapidly progress from mild dehydration to hypovolemia. Simultaneously, their small size makes overhydration a real possibility. Patient size complicates fluid administration because catheters used in larger pets may be difficult to place. Routes of fluid administration used in the neonate or pediatric patient include oral, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intraosseous, and intravenous. Clinicians should be aware of the pros and cons of each route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fond, Guillaume; Bennabi, Djamila; Haffen, Emmanuel; Brunel, Lore; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Loundou, Anderson; Lançon, Christophe; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Auquier, Pascal; Boyer, Laurent
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability/acceptability of 6 anesthetic agents in ECT for depressive disorders. We systematically reviewed 14 double-blind randomized controlled trials (610 participants). Efficacy was measured by the mean scores on validated depression scales at 6 ECT (or the nearest score if not available), number of responders at the end of treatment and seizure duration. The acceptability was measured by the proportion of patients who dropped out of the allocated treatment, and the tolerability by the number of serious adverse events and post-treatment cognition assessment. After excluding the trials responsible for heterogeneity, depression scores of patients who were administered methohexital were found to be significantly more improved than those who received propofol (p = 0.001). On the contrary, those who were administered propofol had lower depression scores than those with thiopental at the end of treatment (p = 0.002). Compared to propofol, methohexital was found to be significantly associated with higher seizure duration (p = 0.018). No difference was found for the acceptability profile (all p > 0.05). In summary, ketamine and methohexital may be preferred to propofol or thiopental in regard of effectiveness in depression scores and increased seizure duration. Further studies are warranted to compare ketamine and methohexital. PMID:26806849
The idea that "shock" therapies were introduced by "Nazi-Psychiatry" very early and used radically in a cruel way darkens the image of these therapies until today. A case analysis of patient files of psychiatric hospitals in Berlin is used to recapitulate the introduction of insulin coma, metrazol and electroconvulsive therapy during the National Socialism era. Contrary to the false assumption that these "shock" therapies would have been introduced and preferred by psychiatrists involved with the Nazi regime and "euthanasia", in the case of Berlin these therapies were delayed by them and seldom used.
Weber, Tillmann; Baier, Vera; Lentz, Katharina; Herrmann, Elke; Krumm, Bertram; Sartorius, Alexander; Kronenberg, Golo; Bartsch, Dusan
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a uniquely effective treatment for major depressive disorder. An increase in hippocampal neurogenesis is implicated in the recovery from depression. We used an inducible genetic mouse model in which only GFAP-expressing stem-like cells (type-1 cells) and their progeny are selectively labeled with the reporter protein β-galactosidase to track the process of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus over 3 months following electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), the mouse equivalent of ECT. All ECS protocols tested induced a transient increase in type-1 cell divisions. While this led to an expansion of the type-1 cell pool after high-frequency ECS sessions for 5 consecutive days (5-ECS), asymmetric divisions drove neurogenesis by giving rise to Doublecortin (DCX)-expressing neuroblasts that matured into NeuN+ neurons. Significantly, the increase in newly generated DCX+ and NeuN+ cells after 5-ECS could be traced back to proliferating type-1 cells. Low-frequency continuation ECS (c-ECS) consisting of five single ECS sessions administered every 2 weeks resulted in a similar increase in newborn neurons as the high-frequency 5-ECS protocol. Moreover, the combination of 5-ECS and c-ECS led to a further significant increase in newborn neurons, suggesting a cellular mechanism responsible for the propitious effects of high-frequency ECT followed by continuation ECT in severely depressed patients. The ability of high- and low-frequency ECS to induce normally quiescent type-1 cells to proliferate and generate new neurons sets it apart from other antidepressant treatments and may underlie the superior clinical efficacy of ECT.
Alexander, Brian M; Ligon, Keith L; Wen, Patrick Y
Radiation therapy has been the foundation of therapy following maximal surgical resection in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma for decades and the primary therapy for unresected tumors. Using the standard approach with radiation and temozolomide, however, outcomes are poor, and glioblastoma remains an incurable disease with the majority of recurrences and progression within the radiation treatment field. As such, there is much interest in elucidating the mechanisms of resistance to radiation therapy and in developing novel approaches to overcoming this treatment resistance.
Adida, Marc; Azorin, Jean-Michel
Adjunctive use of methylphenidate, a central stimulant, has been considered as a potential therapeutic choice for patients with refractory unipolar, geriatric, or bipolar depression, and depression secondary to medical illness. We present a case of bipolar depression in which the patient responded significantly to augmentation with methylphenidate, without any side effects, after failure of adjunctive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy. Mr U, a 56-year-old man with bipolar I disorder, had melancholic symptoms during his sixth episode of bipolar depression. After failure of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy, he was treated with fluoxetine 80 mg/day, duloxetine 360 mg/day, mirtazapine 60 mg/day, and sodium valproate 1,000 mg/day, with no improvement. We added methylphenidate at a dose of 10 mg/day for one week, which resulted in mild clinical improvement, and then methylphenidate extended-release 20 mg/day for one week, with significant clinical improvement. He tolerated his medications well. His clinical recovery was stable over one year. The patient's antidepressants and methylphenidate were gradually tapered and finally discontinued after one year with no withdrawal syndrome. To date, he remains well on sodium valproate as monotherapy and is being followed up at our bipolar department. This case suggests that methylphenidate augmentation might be a therapeutic option when treating highly treatment-resistant patients with bipolar depression, even if they had not responded to adjunctive neuromodulation. In these clinical situations, physicians might be interested in prescribing methylphenidate because of its efficacy and safety.
Olesen, Mikkel V; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, Bente
The neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression are not fully understood. Only a few previous studies have used validated stereological methods to test how stress and animal paradigms of depression affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and whether antidepressant therapy can counteract possible changes in an animal model. Thus, in this study we applied methods that are state of the art in regard to stereological cell counting methods. Using a validated rat model of depression in combination with a clinically relevant schedule of electroconvulsive stimulation, we estimated the total number of newly formed neurons in the hippocampal subgranular zone. Also estimated were the total number of neurons and the volume of the granule cell layer in adult rats subjected to chronic restraint stress and electroconvulsive stimulation either alone or in combination. We found that chronic restraint stress induces depression-like behavior, without significantly changing neurogenesis, the total number of neurons or the volume of the hippocampus. Further, electroconvulsive stimulation prevents stress-induced depression-like behavior and increases neurogenesis. The total number of neurons and the granule cell layer volume was not affected by electroconvulsive stimulation.
Adida, Marc; Azorin, Jean-Michel
Adjunctive use of methylphenidate, a central stimulant, has been considered as a potential therapeutic choice for patients with refractory unipolar, geriatric, or bipolar depression, and depression secondary to medical illness. We present a case of bipolar depression in which the patient responded significantly to augmentation with methylphenidate, without any side effects, after failure of adjunctive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy. Mr U, a 56-year-old man with bipolar I disorder, had melancholic symptoms during his sixth episode of bipolar depression. After failure of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy, he was treated with fluoxetine 80 mg/day, duloxetine 360 mg/day, mirtazapine 60 mg/day, and sodium valproate 1,000 mg/day, with no improvement. We added methylphenidate at a dose of 10 mg/day for one week, which resulted in mild clinical improvement, and then methylphenidate extended-release 20 mg/day for one week, with significant clinical improvement. He tolerated his medications well. His clinical recovery was stable over one year. The patient’s antidepressants and methylphenidate were gradually tapered and finally discontinued after one year with no withdrawal syndrome. To date, he remains well on sodium valproate as monotherapy and is being followed up at our bipolar department. This case suggests that methylphenidate augmentation might be a therapeutic option when treating highly treatment-resistant patients with bipolar depression, even if they had not responded to adjunctive neuromodulation. In these clinical situations, physicians might be interested in prescribing methylphenidate because of its efficacy and safety. PMID:24729710
Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Kołodziej-Kowalska, Emilia; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta
The effectiveness and predictors of response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) combined with antipsychotics (AP) in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients with the dominance of negative symptoms (TRS-NS) have not been studied systematically so far. 29 patients aged 21-55 years diagnosed with TRS-NS underwent ECT combined with antipsychotics (ECT+AP). Prior to the ECT, the symptom profile and severity were evaluated using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Demographic and medical data was collected; ECT parameters and pharmacotherapy results were evaluated. After the combined ECT+AP therapy a significant decrease in symptom severity was found. A response to treatment was achieved by 60% of patients. The greatest reductions were obtained in general and positive PANSS subscale (median change: 11 and 7 pts.) and the smallest, but still significant, ones in negative symptoms subscale (median: 3.5 pts.). Patients who responded to ECT+AP demonstrated a significantly shorter duration of the current episode in comparison with patients who did not experience at least a 25% reduction in symptom severity (median: 4 vs. 8 months). A combination of ECT and antipsychotic therapy can provide a useful treatment option for patients with TRS-NS. The only significant predictor of response to treatment was a shorter duration of the current episode.
The present contribution describes the experience taken from music therapy of psychotic patients. The emotional and cognitive music perception and its possible influence on self perception and strengthening of ego are discussed. Since exercise instructions were limited the observed improvement of communication seems rather due to intra- and interpersonal effects of active improvisation than to a training process. With regard to schizophrenic patients possible effects of music therapy are discussed in the light of self-object-differentiation.
Schwartz, Ann V
Diabetes is characterized by increased fracture risk and by reduced bone strength for a given density. Contributing factors may include lower bone turnover and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts. There are concerns that the pharmacological therapies for osteoporosis, particularly anti-resorptive therapies that suppress bone turnover, may not be as effective in the setting of diabetes. This review considers clinical trials and observational studies that have assessed the efficacy of anti-resorptive and anabolic therapies in diabetic patients. Post hoc analyses of randomized trials indicate that raloxifene has similar efficacy for prevention of vertebral fractures in diabetic compared with non-diabetic patients. Evidence from randomized clinical trials is lacking for anti-fracture efficacy of other osteoporosis therapies in diabetes. However, observational studies suggest that bisphosphonates are effective in preventing fractures in diabetic patients. The great majority of diabetic patients in studies to date have been type 2, and efficacy of osteoporosis therapies in type 1 diabetic patients remains to be addressed. Further evaluation of the efficacy of osteoporosis therapies in the setting of diabetes is needed to provide optimal fracture prevention for this population.
ten Berg, J.M.; van Werkum, J.W.; Heestermans, A.A.C.M.; Jaarsma, W.; Hautvast, R.M.A.; den Heijer, P.; de Boer, M.J.
Background Anticoagulation after coronary stenting is essential to prevent stent thrombosis. Drug-eluting stents, which are the preferred therapy, may be associated with a higher tendency for stent thrombosis. Methods Patients who underwent coronary stent placement and presented with late stent thrombosis are described. Results Eight patients with stent thrombosis are presented. Early discontinuation of the antithrombotic medication is associated with the occurrence of these complications. Conclusion Long-term antithrombotic therapy seems essential to prevent stent thrombosis, especially for patients treated with drug-eluting stents. PMID:25696663
Kobayashi, Katsunori; Imoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Fumi; Kawasaki, Mayu; Ueno, Miyuki; Segi-Nishida, Eri; Suzuki, Hidenori
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an established effective treatment for medication-resistant depression with the rapid onset of action. However, its cellular mechanism of action has not been revealed. We have previously shown that chronic antidepressant drug treatments enhance dopamine D1-like receptor-dependent synaptic potentiation at the hippocampal mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 excitatory synapse. In this study we show that ECT-like treatments in mice also have marked effects on the dopaminergic synaptic modulation. Repeated electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS), an animal model of ECT, strongly enhanced the dopamine-induced synaptic potentiation at the MF synapse in hippocampal slices. Significant enhancement was detectable after the second ECS, and further repetition of ECS up to 11 times monotonously increased the magnitude of enhancement. After repeated ECS, the dopamine-induced synaptic potentiation remained enhanced for more than 4 wk. These synaptic effects of ECS were accompanied by increased expression of the dopamine D1 receptor gene. Our results demonstrate that robust neuronal activation by ECS induces rapid and long-lasting enhancement of dopamine-induced synaptic potentiation at the MF synapse, likely via increased expression of the D1 receptor, at least in part. This rapid enhancement of dopamine-induced potentiation at the excitatory synapse may be relevant to the fast-acting antidepressant effect of ECT. We show that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-like stimulation greatly enhances synaptic potentiation induced by dopamine at the excitatory synapse formed by the hippocampal mossy fiber in mice. The effect of ECT-like stimulation on the dopaminergic modulation was rapidly induced, maintained for more than 4 wk after repeated treatments, and most likely mediated by increased expression of the dopamine D1 receptor. These effects may be relevant to fast-acting strong antidepressant action of ECT. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
van Leer, Eva; Connor, Nadine P.
Purpose Patient perspectives of behavioral voice therapy, including perspectives of treatment adherence, have not been formally documented. Because treatment adherence is to a large extent determined by patient beliefs, assessment of patient perspectives is integral to the study of adherence. Methods Fifteen patients who had undergone at least 2 sessions of direct voice therapy for a variety of voice disorders/complaints were interviewed about their perspectives on voice therapy, with a particular focus on adherence. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for content according to qualitative methods. Results Three common content themes emerged from the transcripts: Voice Therapy is Hard, Make it Happen, and The Match Matters. Findings are compared to reports of patient experiences in other behavioral interventions such as diet and exercise, and related to existing theoretical models of behavior change and the therapeutic process. Conclusion This study yields information toward the development of scales to measure adherence-related constructs and strategies to improve treatment adherence in voice therapy. PMID:19775866
Tee, L H; Chee, N W C
A customised vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) programme is an important treatment modality in patients with vestibular dysfunction resulting in motion-provoked vertigo, oscillopsia (gaze instability), disequilibrium and gait disturbances. We discuss in this paper the patient selection criteria for VRT, rehabilitation strategies for unilateral and bilateral vestibular deficits, and some of the compelling evidence to support the use of VRT in treating such patients.
Inhibiting estrogen production is a common means of preventing breast cancer recurrence. The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are becoming the preferred treatment over tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer. Like all adjuvant therapies, AIs have adverse events (AEs) associated with their use, many of which resemble symptoms common to menopause. Because of the greater efficacy of AIs in preventing breast cancer recurrence over tamoxifen, these AEs may be considered tolerable by many patients and often can be effectively managed and/or prevented. Educating patients about anticipated AEs may help them understand, accept, and cope with these AEs. This article reviews the AEs associated with different adjuvant AI treatments and highlights some strategies to manage them effectively. It also highlights the importance of patient education regarding AI therapy and involvement in treatment decisions, which may lead to better long-term adherence and ultimately to better outcomes.
Amorim, Edilberto; McDade, Eric M
Psychiatric symptoms and catatonia are key components of the clinical presentation of paraneoplastic encephalitis; additionally symptoms can be long-lasting and often difficult to treat. We report a 73-year-old patient with rapidly progressive catatonia not responsive to immunotherapy, tumor resection, electroconvulsive therapy, or benzodiazepines who had significant improvement after zolpidem administration. This report suggests that zolpidem is an option in the treatment of patients with refractory catatonia and paraneoplastic encephalitis.
Li, Xin; Wang, Qiang
Acupuncture is one of the most important parts of Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been used for more than 3000 years as prevention and treatment for various diseases in China as well as in adjacent regions, and is widely accepted in western countries in recent years. More and more clinical trials revealed that acupuncture shows positive effect in stroke, not only as a complementary and alternative medicine for poststroke rehabilitation but also as a preventive strategy which could induce cerebral ischemic tolerance, especially when combined with modern electrotherapy. Acupuncture has some unique characteristics, which include acupoint specificity and parameter-dependent effect. It also involves complicated mechanism to exert the beneficial effect on stroke. Series of clinical trials have shown that acupuncture primarily regulates the release of neurochemicals, hemorheology, cerebral microcirculation, metabolism, neuronal activity, and the function of specific brain region. Animal studies showed that the effects of acupuncture therapy on stroke were possibly via inhibition of postischemic inflammatory reaction, stimulation of neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and influence on neural plasticity. Mechanisms for its preconditioning effect include activity enhancement of antioxidant, regulation of the endocannabinoid system, and inhibition of apoptosis. Although being controversial, acupuncture is a promising preventive and treatment strategy for stroke, but further high-quality clinical trials would be needed to provide more confirmative evidence. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaastrup Müller, Heidi; Orlowski, Dariusz; Reidies Bjarkam, Carsten; Wegener, Gregers; Elfving, Betina
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the treatment of choice for patients with severe or drug-resistant depressive disorders, yet the mechanism behind its efficacy remains poorly characterized. In the present study, we used electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT, to identify proteins possibly involved in the preventive effect of ECS on stress-induced neuronal atrophy in the hippocampus. Rats were stressed daily using the 21-day 6h daily restraint stress paradigm and subjected to sham seizures, a single ECS on the last day of the restraint period or daily repeated seizures for 10 consecutive days during the end of the restraint period. Consistent with previous findings, dendritic atrophy was observed in the CA3c hippocampal region of chronically stressed rats. In addition, we confirmed our recent findings of increased spine density in the CA1 region following chronic restraint stress. The morphological alterations in the CA3c area were prevented by treatment with ECS. On the molecular level, we showed that the synaptic proteins Homer1 and Spinophilin are targeted by ECS. Repeated ECS blocked stress-induced up-regulation of Spinophilin protein levels and further increased the stress-induced up-regulation of Homer1. Given the roles of Spinophilin in the regulation of AMPA receptors and Homer1 in the regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), our data imply the existence of a mechanism where ECS regulate cell excitability by modulating AMPA receptor function and mGluR related calcium homeostasis. These molecular changes could potentially contribute to the mechanism induced by ECS which prevents the stress-induced morphological changes in the CA3c region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Freund, Karen M; Moskowitz, Mark A; Lin, Ting H; McKinlay, John B
We studied factors affecting the management of depression in older patients, especially the use of early antidepressant therapy. We recruited 128 primary care physicians to view one version of a 5-minute videotape of an elderly patient with somatic symptoms that were suggestive of depression, and to complete an interview that assessed decision making. Using an experimental factorial design, 16 versions of the videotape were produced, holding constant the clinical features of the case, while varying the patient's age, race, sex, and socioeconomic status. Dependent variables were the physicians' probability assessment of depression and the recommendation of antidepressant medication after the first visit. Depression was considered a possible diagnosis by 121 physicians (95%) and the most likely diagnosis by 69 (54%). Sixteen physicians (13%) recommended antidepressant therapy after the first visit, and they were less likely than other physicians to order initial laboratory tests to assess the possibility of other conditions. Recommendations for antidepressant therapy was not associated with patient age, sex, race, or socioeconomic status, or with physician sex, race, or experience. Family physicians were more likely than internists to recommend an antidepressant (19% [12/64] vs. 6% [4/64], P = 0.04). Based on a 5-minute vignette, physicians were likely to recognize depression, independent of patient characteristics. Those recommending early antidepressant therapy were more likely to be in family medicine and less likely to investigate other diagnoses initially.
McNeal, R L
Aquatic therapy is justifiably a rapidly expanding, beneficial form of patient treatment. The goals established at the initial and subsequent evaluations usually are met as quickly and as sensibly as possible. Understanding the theory of water techniques is essential in implementing an aquatic therapy program. The success of the program, however, will always depend on the pleasure and benefits achieved by the patients. Remember, rheumatic patients most likely will need to modify their previous daily functioning. Patients need to be aware of the long-term ramifications of the disease process and understand how treatment and care may be altered during various stages of exacerbation and remission. Patient education is critical in ensuring individual responsibility for the changes that must be made when not supervised by a professional. Aquatic therapy is a step in molding a positive lifestyle change for the patient. The patient can be encouraged to be fitness oriented and, at the same time, exercise in a manner that is safe, effective, and biomechanically and physiologically sound. The environment, hopefully, also will be conductive to family and social interaction that ultimately encourages the compliance of long-term exercise programs.
There is an increasing number of antidepressants as well as not-phramacological therapies for treatment of major depressive disorders. Despite of this fact, there are still some treatment-resistant patients, who do not respond neither on antidepressants nor on antipsychotics (Wender 1988). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (Peschina et al. 2001), electroconvulsive therapy (Konig et al. 1991) and vagus nerve stimulation are some effective treatment options for those patients. For seasonal depressions light therapy has been proven to be effective. Actually Methylphenidate is in use for hyperkinetic and narcoleptic patients (Steinhausen 1995), but seems also to be effective for major depressive disorders as an add-on therapy (Sachdev et al. 2000). Steinhausen (1995) report a response rate among hy