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Sample records for electrode assembly process

  1. HSPES membrane electrode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved fuel cell electrode, as well as fuel cells and membrane electrode assemblies that include such an electrode, in which the electrode includes a backing layer having a sintered layer thereon, and a non-sintered free-catalyst layer. The invention also features a method of forming the electrode by sintering a backing material with a catalyst material and then applying a free-catalyst layer.

  2. Process for producing elements from a fused bath using a metal strap and ceramic electrode body nonconsumable electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, S.C.

    1984-07-03

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly is described suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a ceramic electrode body and a metal subassembly of a metal conductor rod and at least one metal strap affixed to an end of the rod with opposing portions extending radially outwardly from the rod axis and having the ends of the strap attached to the electrode body. 7 figs.

  3. Simplified process for leaching precious metals from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail

    2009-12-22

    The membrane electrode assemblies of fuel cells are recycled to recover the catalyst precious metals from the assemblies. The assemblies are cryogenically embrittled and pulverized to form a powder. The pulverized assemblies are then mixed with a surfactant to form a paste which is contacted with an acid solution to leach precious metals from the pulverized membranes.

  4. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface

    DOEpatents

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-08-06

    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  5. Efficient process for previous metal recovery from cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail; Heinz, Robert

    2010-05-04

    A method is provided for recovering a catalytic element from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly. The method includes grinding the membrane electrode assembly into a powder, extracting the catalytic element by forming a slurry comprising the powder and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve the catalytic element into a soluble salt, and separating the slurry into a depleted powder and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt. The depleted powder is washed to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted powder and the catalytic element is purified from the salt.

  6. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ

    2012-02-28

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  7. Process for Ignition of Gaseous Electrical Discharge Between Electrodes of a Hollow Cathode Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor); Verhey, Timothy R. R. (Inventor); Soulas, George C. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The design and manufacturing processes for Hollow Cathode Assemblies (HCA's) that operate over a broad range of emission currents up to 30 Amperes, at low potentials, with lifetimes in excess of 17,500 hours. The processes include contamination control procedures which cover hollow cathode component cleaning procedures, gas feed system designs and specifications, and hollow cathode activation and operating procedures to thereby produce cathode assemblies that have demonstrated stable and repeatable operating conditions, for both the discharge current and voltage. The HCA of this invention provides lifetimes of greater than 10,000 hours, and expected lifetimes of greater than 17,500 hours, whereas the present state-of-the-art is less than 500 hours at emission currents in excess of 1 Ampere. Stable operation is provided over a large range of operating emission currents, up to a 6:1 ratio, and this HCA can emit electron currents of up to 30 Amperes in magnitude to an external anode that simulates the current drawn to a space plasma, at voltages of less than 20 Volts.

  8. Membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, Surya (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Atti, Anthony (Inventor); Olah, George (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst ink for a fuel cell including a catalytic material and poly(vinylidene fluoride). The ink may be applied to a substrate to form an electrode, or bonded with other electrode layers to form a membrane electrode assembly (MEA).

  9. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  10. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2012-07-24

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  11. Nanofiber membrane-electrode-assembly and method of fabricating same

    SciTech Connect

    Pintauro, Peter N.; Ballengee, Jason; Brodt, Matthew

    2016-02-02

    In one aspect of the present invention, a fuel cell membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) has an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a membrane disposed between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode. At least one of the anode electrode, the cathode electrode and the membrane is formed of electrospun nanofibers.

  12. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  13. Membrane-electrode assemblies for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Swathirajan, Sundararajan; Mikhail, Youssef M.

    1993-01-01

    A combination, unitary, membrane and electrode assembly with a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, and first and second electrodes at least partially embedded in opposed surfaces of the membrane. The electrodes each comprise a respective group of finely divided carbon particles, very finely divided catalytic particles supported on internal and external surfaces of the carbon particles and a proton conductive material intermingled with the catalytic and carbon particles. A first group of finely divided carbon particles forming the first electrode has greater water attraction and retention properties, and is more hydrophilic than a second group of carbon particles forming the second electrode. In a preferred method, the membrane electrode assembly of the invention is prepared by forming a slurry of proton conductive material and at least one group of the carbon and catalyst particles. The slurry is applied to the opposed surfaces of the membrane and heated while being pressed to the membrane for a time and at a temperature and compressive load sufficient to embed at least a portion of the particles into the membrane.

  14. Methods of making membrane electrode assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Lee, Kwan -Soo; Rockward, Tommy Q. T.

    2015-07-28

    Method of making a membrane electrode assembly comprising: providing a membrane comprising a perfluorinated sulfonic acid; providing a first transfer substrate; applying to a surface of the first transfer substrate a first ink, said first ink comprising an ionomer and a catalyst; applying to the first ink a suitable non-aqueous swelling agent; forming an assembly comprising: the membrane; and the first transfer substrate, wherein the surface of the first transfer substrate comprising the first ink and the non-aqueous swelling agent is disposed upon one surface of the membrane; and heating the assembly at a temperature of 150.degree. C. or less and at a pressure of from about 250 kPa to about 3000 kPa or less for a time suitable to allow substantially complete transfer of the first ink and the second ink to the membrane; and cooling the assembly to room temperature and removing the first transfer substrate and the second transfer substrate.

  15. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  16. Metal stub and ceramic body electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rolf, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    An electrically conductive ceramic electrode body having an opening therein is threadably engaged with a metal stub having at least a slot therein to provide space for expansion of the stub without damage to the electrode body.

  17. Readout electrode assembly for measuring biological impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Moody, D. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises of a pair of readout ring electrodes which are used in conjunction with apparatus for measuring the electrical impedance between different points in the body of a living animal to determine the amount of blood flow therebetween. The readout electrodes have independently adjustable diameters to permit attachment around different parts of the body between which it is desired to measure electric impedance. The axial spacing between the electrodes is adjusted by a pair of rods which have a first pair of ends fixedly attached to one electrode and a second pair of ends slidably attached to the other electrode. Indicia are provided on the outer surface of the ring electrodes and on the surface of the rods to permit measurement of the circumference and spacing between the ring electrodes.

  18. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  19. High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    DeCastro, Emory S.; Tsou, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhenyu

    2013-09-20

    Fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) depends on creating inks or pastes of catalyst and binder, and applying this suspension to either the membrane (catalyst coated membrane) or gas diffusion media (gas diffusion electrode) and respectively laminating either gas diffusion media or gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) to the membrane. One barrier to cost effective fabrication for either of these approaches is the development of stable and consistent suspensions. This program investigated the fundamental forces that destabilize the suspensions and developed innovative approaches to create new, highly stable formulations. These more concentrated formulations needed fewer application passes, could be coated over longer and wider substrates, and resulted in significantly lower coating defects. In March of 2012 BASF Fuel Cell released a new high temperature product based on these advances, whereby our customers received higher performing, more uniform MEAs resulting in higher stack build yields. Furthermore, these new materials resulted in an “instant” increase in capacity due to higher product yields and material throughput. Although not part of the original scope of this program, these new formulations have also led us to materials that demonstrate equivalent performance with 30% less precious metal in the anode. This program has achieved two key milestones in DOE’s Manufacturing R&D program: demonstration of processes for direct coating of electrodes and continuous in-line measurement for component fabrication.

  20. Carbon Nanotube Assemblies for Transparent Conducting Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Matthew P; Gerhardt, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to introduce readers to the fundamental and practical aspects of nanotube assemblies made into transparent conducting networks and discuss some practical aspects of their characterization. Transparent conducting coatings (TCC) are an essential part of electro-optical devices, from photovoltaics and light emitting devices to electromagnetic shielding and electrochromic widows. The market for organic materials (including nanomaterials and polymers) based TCCs is expected to show a growth rate of 56.9% to reach nearly 20.3billionin2015,whilethemarketfortraditionalinorganictransparentelectronicswillexperiencegrowthwithratesof6.7103 billion in 2015. Emerging flexible electronic applications have brought additional requirements of flexibility and low cost for TCC. However, the price of indium (the major component in indium tin oxide TCC) continues to increase. On the other hand, the price of nanomaterials has continued to decrease due to development of high volume, quality production processes. Additional benefits come from the low cost, nonvacuum deposition of nanomaterials based TCC, compared to traditional coatings requiring energy intensive vacuum deposition. Among the materials actively researched as alternative TCC are nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanotubes with high aspect ratio as well as their composites. The figure of merit (FOM) can be used to compare TCCs made from dissimilar materials and with different transmittance and conductivity values. In the first part of this manuscript, we will discuss the seven FOM parameters that have been proposed, including one specifically intended for flexible applications. The approach for how to measure TCE electrical properties, including frequency dependence, will also be discussed. We will relate the macroscale electrical characteristics of TCCs to the nanoscale parameters of conducting networks. The fundamental aspects of nanomaterial assemblies in conducting networks will also be addressed

  1. Self-assembly of 4-ferrocene thiophenol capped electroactive gold nanoparticles onto gold electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; Li, Jinghong

    2003-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles capped by 4-ferrocene thiophenol with an average core size of 2.5 nm and surface plasmon absorbance at 522 nm were place-exchanged with 1,8-octanedithiol, and then self-assembled onto the gold electrode via tail SH group. The self-assembly was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammograms examined the coverage fraction of the self-assembled monolayers of the electroactive gold nanoparticles and the formal potential of the indicated SAMs. Further experiments exhibited that the electrode process was controlled by surface confined faradic reactions.

  2. Method of making a unitized electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Niksa, Marilyn J.; Pohto, Gerald R.; Lakatos, Leslie K.; Wheeler, Douglas J.; Solomon, Frank; Niksa, Andrew J.; Schue, Thomas J.; Genodman, Yury; Turk, Thomas R.; Hagel, Daniel P.

    1988-01-01

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  3. Method of making a unitized electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Niksa, M.J.; Pohto, G.R.; Lakatos, L.K.; Wheeler, D.J.; Solomon, F.; Niksa, A.J.; Schue, T.J.; Genodman, Y.; Turk, T.R.; Hagel, D.P.

    1988-12-06

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom. 6 figs.

  4. Metal spring stub and ceramic body electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rolf, Richard L.; Sharp, Maurice L.

    1984-01-01

    An electrode assembly comprising an electrically conductive ceramic electrode body having an opening therein and a metal stub retained in the opening with at least a surface of the stub in intimate contact with a surface of the body and the stub adapted with a spring to flex and prevent damage to the body from expansion of the stub when subjected to a temperature differential.

  5. Metal spring stub and ceramic body electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rolf, R.L.; Sharp, M.L.

    1984-06-26

    An electrode assembly is disclosed comprising an electrically conductive ceramic electrode body having an opening therein and a metal stub retained in the opening with at least a surface of the stub in intimate contact with a surface of the body and the stub adapted with a spring to flex and prevent damage to the body from expansion of the stub when subjected to a temperature differential. 1 fig.

  6. Fabrication of electrodes with ultralow platinum loading by RF plasma processing of self-assembled arrays of Au@Pt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Ipshita; Kumaran, V.; Santhanam, Venugopal

    2016-07-01

    Conductive, carbon-free, electrocatalytically active, nanostructured electrodes with ultra-low platinum loading were fabricated using self-assembly of octadecanethiol-coated Au@Pt nanoparticles followed by RF plasma treatment. Bilayer arrays of Au@Pt nanoparticles with platinum loadings of 0.50, 1.04, 1.44, and 1.75 μg cm-2 (corresponding to 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 atomic layer coverage of platinum on nominally 5 nm gold core) were subjected to RF argon plasma treatment for various durations and their electrical conductivity, morphological evolution, and electrocatalytic activity characterized. Samples with monolayer and above platinum coverages exhibit maximum electrochemically active surface areas values of ˜100 m2/gpt and specific activities that are ˜4× to 6× of a reference platinum nanoparticle bilayer array. The underlying gold core influences the structural evolution of the samples upon RF plasma treatment and leads to the formation of highly active Pt(110) facets on the surface at an optimal plasma treatment duration, which also corresponds to the onset of a sharp decline in lateral sheet resistance. The sample having a two atom thick platinum coating has the highest total mass activity of 48 ± 3 m2/g(pt+au), corresponding to 44% Pt atom utilization, while also exhibiting enhanced CO tolerance as well as high methanol oxidation reaction and oxygen reduction reaction activity.

  7. Improving performance, stability, and processability of OFETs with printed Ag electrodes by means of a novel, multipurpose self-assembled monolayer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, Milan; Jesper, Malte; Schinke, Janusz; Hillebrandt, Sabina; Reiser, Patrick; Rödlmeier, Tobias; Angelova, Iva; Hamburger, Manuel; Lemmer, Ulrich; Hernandez-Sosa, Gerardo; Lovrincic, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel SAM-forming molecule bisjulolidyldisulfide that reduces the WF of metal surfaces by 1.2 eV and can lower the barrier for electron injection to organic semiconductors. Applied to Au and Ag surfaces, including inkjet-printed Ag on PET, we characterized bisjulolidyldisulfide monolayers by means of photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and sessile drop technique, as well as their influence on the performance of n-type OFETs. Next a strong reduction of the contact resistance by two orders of magnitude, we found that this SAM treatment extends the shelf lifetime of ambient-stored OFET devices. Also, it improves the wettability and thereby facilitates solution processing of a subsequent layer with respect to the untreated surface. The full electrical functionality of bisjulolidyldisulfide SAMs was found to become manifest with only one minute of immersion in ethanol solution. PES measurements suggests that the surface coverage is thorough on Au, but only fractional on Ag, especially on printed Ag. However, the quality of SAM-treated bottom contacts in n-type OFETs is very similar for all three investigated metal surfaces (Au and Ag evaporated and printed Ag). This is especially important for printed Ag-electrodes, as their surface was found to be significantly worse for device performance in comparison to their evaporated Ag counterpart. Using this surface treatment we realized integrated unipolar n-type ring oscillators with inkjet printed Ag electrodes.

  8. Electrode porosity and effective electrocatalyst activity in electrode-membrane-assemblies (MEAs) of PEMFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, A.; Wendt, H.

    1996-12-31

    New production technologies of membrane-electrode-assemblies for PEWCs which ensure almost complete catalyst utilization by {open_quotes}wetting{close_quotes} the internal catalyst surface with the ionomeric electrolyte, allow for a reduction of Pt-loadings from prior 4 mg cm{sup -2} to now less than 0.5 mg cm{sup -2}. Such electrodes are not thicker than from 5 to 10 {mu}m. Little has been published hitherto about the detailed micromorphology of such electrodes and the role of electrode porosity on electrode performance. It is well known, that the porosity of thicker fuel cell electrodes, e.g. of PAFC or AFC electrodes is decisive for their performance. Therefore the issue of this investigation is to measure and to modify the porosity of electrodes prepared by typical MEA production procedures and to investigate the influence of this porosity on the effective catalyst activity for cathodic reduction of oxygen from air in membrane cells. It may be anticipated that any mass transfer hindrance of gaseous reactants into porous electrodes would manifest itself rather in the conversion of dilute gases than in the conversion of pure gases (e.g. neat oxygen). Therefore in this investigation the performance of membrane cell cathodes with non pressurized air had been compared to that with neat oxygen at cathodes which had a relatively low Pt-loading of 0.15 mg cm{sup -2}.

  9. Selective anodic desorption for assembly of different thiol monolayers on the individual electrodes of an array.

    PubMed

    Collman, James P; Hosseini, Ali; Eberspacher, Todd A; Chidsey, Christopher E D

    2009-06-02

    The close proximity of two individually addressable electrodes in an interdigitated array provides a unique platform for electrochemical study of multicatalytic processes. Here, we report a "plug-and-play" approach to control the underlying self-assembled monolayer and the electroactive species on each individually addressable electrode of an interdigitated array. The method presented here uses selective anodic desorption of a monolayer from one of the individually addressable electrodes and rapid formation of a different self-assembled monolayer on the freshly cleaned electrode. We illustrate this strategy by introducing variations in the length of the linker to the electroactive species in the self-assembled monolayer, which determines the rate of electron transfer. In order to separate the assembly of the monolayer from the choice of the electroactive species, we use CuI-catalyzed triazole formation ("click" chemistry) to covalently attach an acetylene-terminated electroactive species to an azide-terminated thiol monolayer selectively on each electrode. The resulting variations in the electron-transfer rate to surface-attached ferrocene and in the rate of catalytic oxidation of ascorbate by the ferrocenium/ferrocene couple demonstrate an application of this approach.

  10. Method of making membrane-electrode assemblies for electrochemical cells and assemblies made thereby

    DOEpatents

    Swathirajan, Sundararajan; Mikhail, Youssef M.

    1994-01-01

    A method of making a combination, unitary, membrane and electrode assembly having a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, and first and second electrodes at least partially embedded in opposed surfaces of the membrane. The electrodes each comprise a respective group of finely divided carbon particles, very finely divided catalytic particles supported on internal and external surfaces of the carbon particles and a proton conductive material intermingled with the catalytic and carbon particles. A first group of finely divided carbon particles forming the first electrode has greater water attraction and retention properties, and is more hydrophilic than a second group of carbon particles forming the second electrode. In a preferred method, the membrane electrode assembly of the invention is prepared by forming a slurry of proton conductive material and at least one group of the carbon and catalyst particles. The slurry is applied to the opposed surfaces of the membrane and heated while being pressed to the membrane for a time and at a temperature and compressive load sufficient to embed at least a portion of the particles into the membrane.

  11. Method of making membrane-electrode assemblies for electrochemical cells and assemblies made thereby

    DOEpatents

    Swathirajan, S.; Mikhail, Y.M.

    1994-05-31

    A method is described for making a combination, unitary, membrane and electrode assembly having a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, and first and second electrodes at least partially embedded in opposed surfaces of the membrane. The electrodes each comprise a respective group of finely divided carbon particles, very finely divided catalytic particles supported on internal and external surfaces of the carbon particles and a proton conductive material intermingled with the catalytic and carbon particles. A first group of finely divided carbon particles forming the first electrode has greater water attraction and retention properties, and is more hydrophilic than a second group of carbon particles forming the second electrode. In a preferred method, the membrane electrode assembly of the invention is prepared by forming a slurry of proton conductive material and at least one group of the carbon and catalyst particles. The slurry is applied to the opposed surfaces of the membrane and heated while being pressed to the membrane for a time and at a temperature and compressive load sufficient to embed at least a portion of the particles into the membrane. 10 figs.

  12. Powder processing of hybrid titanium neural electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jose Luis, Jr.

    A preliminary investigation into the powder production of a novel hybrid titanium neural electrode for EEG is presented. The rheological behavior of titanium powder suspensions using sodium alginate as a dispersant are examined for optimal slip casting conditions. Electrodes were slip cast and sintered at 950°C for 1 hr, 1000°C for 1, 3, and 6 hrs, and 1050°C for 1 hr. Residual porosities from sintering are characterized using Archimedes' technique and image analysis. The pore network is gel impregnated by submerging the electrodes in electrically conductive gel and placing them in a chamber under vacuum. Gel evaporation of the impregnated electrodes is examined. Electrodes are characterized in the dry and gelled states using impedance spectrometry and compared to a standard silver- silver chloride electrode. Power spectral densities for the sensors in the dry and gelled state are also compared. Residual porosities for the sintered specimens were between 50.59% and 44.81%. Gel evaporation tests show most of the impregnated gel evaporating within 20 min of exposure to atmospheric conditions with prolonged evaporation times for electrodes with higher impregnated gel mass. Impedance measurements of the produced electrodes indicate the low impedance of the hybrid electrodes are due to the increased contact area of the porous electrode. Power spectral densities of the titanium electrode behave similar to a standard silver-silver chloride electrode. Tests suggest the powder processed hybrid titanium electrode's performance is better than current dry contact electrodes and comparable to standard gelled silver-silver chloride electrodes.

  13. Electrostatic Assembly of Nanomaterials for Hybrid Electrodes and Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Paula

    2015-03-01

    Electrostatic assembly methods have been used to generate a range of new materials systems of interest for electrochemical energy and storage applications. Over the past several years, it has been demonstrated that carbon nanotubes, metals, metal oxides, polymeric nanomaterials, and biotemplated materials systems can be incorporated into ultrathin films to generate supercapacitors and battery electrodes that illustrate significant energy density and power. The unique ability to control the incorporation of such a broad range of materials at the nanometer length scale allows tailoring of the final properties of these unique composite systems, as well as the capability of creating complex micron-scale to nanoporous morphologies based on the scale of the nanomaterial that is absorbed within the structure, or the conditions of self-assembly. Recently we have expanded these capabilities to achieve new electrodes that are templated atop electrospun polmer fiber scaffolds, in which the polymer can be selectively removed to achieve highly porous materials. Spray-layer-by-layer and filtration methods of functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanofibers enable the generation of electrode systems with unusually high surface. Incorporation of psuedocapacitive nanoparticles can enhance capacitive properties, and other catalytic or metallic nanoparticles can be implemented to enhance electrochemical or catalytic function.

  14. Self-Assembled, Redox-Active Graphene Electrodes for High-Performance Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianyuan; Kavian, Reza; Kim, Inkyu; Lee, Seung Woo

    2014-12-18

    Graphene-based materials have been utilized as a promising approach in designing high-performance electrodes for energy storage devices. In line with this approach, functionalized graphene electrodes have been self-assembled from the dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) in water at a low temperature of 80 °C using tetrahydroxyl-1,4-benzoquinone (THQ) as both the reducing and redox-active functionalization agent. We correlated the electrochemical performance of the electrode with surface oxygen chemistry, confirming the role of THQ for the reduction and redox-active functionalization process. The assembled graphene electrodes have a 3D hierarchical porous structure, which can facilitate electronic and ionic transport to support fast charge storage reactions. Utilizing the surface redox reactions introduced by THQ, the functionalized graphene electrodes exhibit high gravimetric capacities of ∼165 mA h/g in Li cells and ∼120 mA h/g in Na cells with high redox potentials over ∼3 V versus Li or Na, proposing promising positive electrodes for both Li and Na ion batteries.

  15. Workload analyse of assembling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  16. Assemblies of protective anion exchange membrane on air electrode for its efficient operation in aqueous alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, Bruno; Chikh, Linda; Vancaeyzeele, Cédric; Alfonsi, Séverine; Fichet, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous alkaline metal-air batteries represent promising energy storage devices when supplied with atmospheric air. However, under this condition, the air electrode shows a very short life time (i.e. 50 h of operation in 5 M LiOH at -10 mA cm-2), mainly due to the precipitation of carbonates inside the electrode porosity. The air electrode can then be protected by an anion exchange membrane on the electrolyte side. In this paper, we demonstrate that the efficiency of this protective membrane depends on the assembly method on the electrode. When a modified poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) network is synthesized directly on the electrode, the polymer seeps inside the electrode porosity, and a suitable interface inducing negligible additional polarization in comparison with classical pressure-assembled membranes is obtained. This protected electrode shows improved stability of up to 160 h of operation in 5 M LiOH. This performance is improved to 350 h by adjusting the conductivity and the ionic exchange capacity. Finally, the interest of interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) architecture compared to a single network is confirmed. Indeed, an electrode protected with a PECH/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) IPN is stable for 650 h in 5 M LiOH. In addition, degradation process becomes reversible since the assembly can be regenerated, which is not possible for the bare electrode.

  17. Pervaporation process and assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wynn, Nicholas P.; Huang, Yu; Aldajani, Tiem; Fulton, Donald A.

    2010-07-20

    The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

  18. Metal Electrodeposition on an Integrated, Screen-Printed Electrode Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chyan, Yieu; Chyan, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    In this lab experiment, screen-printed electrode strips are used to illustrate the essential concepts of electrochemistry, giving students an opportunity to explore metal electrodeposition processes. In the past, metal electrodeposition experiments were seldom included in general chemistry labs because of the difficulty of maintaining separate…

  19. Displaced electrode process for welding

    DOEpatents

    Heichel, L.J.

    1975-08-26

    A method is described for the butt-welding of a relatively heavy mass to a relatively small mass such as a thin-wall tube. In butt-welding heat is normally applied at the joint between the two pieces which are butt-welded together. The application of heat at the joint results in overheating the tube which causes thinning of the tube walls and porosity in the tube material. This is eliminated by displacing the welding electrode away from the seam toward the heavier mass so that heat is applied to the heavy mass and not at the butt seam. Examples of the parameters used in welding fuel rods are given. The cladding and end plugs were made of Zircalloy. The electrode used was of 2 percent thoriated tungsten. (auth)

  20. Nonconsumable electrode assembly and use thereof for the electrolytic production of metals and silicon

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Stephen C.; Ray, Siba P.

    1984-01-01

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a metal conductor attached to a ceramic electrode body by a metal bond on a portion of the body having a level of free metal or metal alloy sufficient to effect a metal bond.

  1. Diffusion welded nonconsumable electrode assembly and use thereof for electrolytic production of metals and silicon

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Stephen C.; Vasudevan, Asuri K.

    1984-01-01

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a metal conductor diffusion welded to a portion of a ceramic electrode body having a level of free metal or metal alloy sufficient to effect a metal bond.

  2. Effect of assembly error of bipolar plate on the contact pressure distribution and stress failure of membrane electrode assembly in proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong'an; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    In practice, the assembly error of the bipolar plate (BPP) in a PEM fuel cell stack is unavoidable based on the current assembly process. However its effect on the performance of the PEM fuel cell stack is not reported yet. In this study, a methodology based on FEA model, "least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM)" simulation and statistical analysis is developed to investigate the effect of the assembly error of the BPP on the pressure distribution and stress failure of membrane electrode assembly (MEA). At first, a parameterized FEA model of a metallic BPP/MEA assembly is established. Then, the LS-SVM simulation process is conducted based on the FEA model, and datasets for the pressure distribution and Von Mises stress of MEA are obtained, respectively for each assembly error. At last, the effect of the assembly error is obtained by applying the statistical analysis to the LS-SVM results. A regression equation between the stress failure and the assembly error is also built, and the allowed maximum assembly error is calculated based on the equation. The methodology in this study is beneficial to understand the mechanism of the assembly error and can be applied to guide the assembly process for the PEM fuel cell stack.

  3. Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced electrode configurations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of refinery wastewater (RW) treatment using air-cathode, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was examined relative to previous tests based on completely anaerobic microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). MFCs were configured with separator electrode assembly (SEA) or spaced electrode (SPA) configurations to measure power production and relative impacts of oxygen crossover on organics removal. The SEA configuration produced a higher maximum power density (280±6 mW/m(2); 16.3±0.4 W/m(3)) than the SPA arrangement (255±2 mW/m(2)) due to lower internal resistance. Power production in both configurations was lower than that obtained with the domestic wastewater (positive control) due to less favorable (more positive) anode potentials, indicating poorer biodegradability of the RW. MFCs with RW achieved up to 84% total COD removal, 73% soluble COD removal and 92% HBOD removal. These removals were higher than those previously obtained in mini-MEC tests, as oxygen crossover from the cathode enhanced degradation in MFCs compared to MECs.

  4. A multi-electrode continuous flow microbial fuel cell with separator electrode assembly design.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires the development of compact reactors with multiple electrodes. A scalable single chamber MFC (130 mL), with multiple graphite fiber brush anodes and a single air-cathode cathode chamber (27 m2/m3), was designed with a separator electrode assembly (SEA) to minimize electrode spacing. The maximum voltage produced in fed-batch operation was 0.65 V (1,000 Ω) with a textile separator, compared to only 0.18 V with a glass fiber separator due to short-circuiting by anode bristles through this separator with the cathode. The maximum power density was 975 mW/m2, with an overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of >90% and a maximum coulombic efficiency (CE) of 53% (50 Ω resistor). When the reactor was switched to continuous flow operation at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h, the cell voltage was 0.21 ± 0.04 V, with a very high CE = 85%. Voltage was reduced to 0.13 ± 0.03 V at a longer HRT = 16 h due to a lower average COD concentration, and the CE (80%) decreased slightly with increased oxygen intrusion into the reactor per amount of COD removed. Total internal resistance was 33 Ω, with a solution resistance of 2 Ω. These results show that the SEA type MFC can produce stable power and a high CE, making it useful for future continuous flow treatment using actual wastewaters.

  5. Friction welded nonconsumable electrode assembly and use thereof for electrolytic production of metals and silicon

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Stephen C.; Ray, Siba P.; Rapp, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a metal conductor and a ceramic electrode body connected by a friction weld between a portion of the body having a level of free metal or metal alloy sufficient to effect such a friction weld and a portion of the metal conductor.

  6. Calculation of Electrochemical Reorganization Energies for Redox Molecules at Self-Assembled Monolayer Modified Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Soumya; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2015-01-02

    Electrochemical electron transfer reactions play an important role in energy conversion processes with many technological applications. Electrodes modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are useful because the double layer effects are reduced. An important quantity for calculating the electron transfer rate constant is the reorganization energy, which is associated with changes in solute geometry and solvent configuration. In this Letter, an approach for calculating the electrochemical solvent reorganization energy for a redox molecule attached to or near a SAM modified electrode is presented. This integral equations formalism polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM) approach accounts for the detailed electronic structure of the molecule, as well as the contributions from the electrode, SAM, and electronic and inertial solvent responses. The calculated total reorganization energies are in good agreement with experimental data for a series of metal complex in aqueous solution. This approach will be useful for calculating electron transfer rate constants for molecular electrocatalysts. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  7. Influence of self-assembling redox mediators on charge transfer at hydrophobic electrodes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy J; Wang, Chenxuan; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2015-10-06

    We report an investigation of the influence of reversible self-assembly of amphiphilic redox-mediators on interfacial charge transfer at chemically functionalized electrodes. Specifically, we employed (11-ferrocenylundecyl)-trimethylammonium bromide (FTMA) as a model self-assembling redox mediator and alkanethiol-modified gold films as hydrophobic electrodes. By performing cyclic voltammetry (CV, 10 mV/s) in aqueous solutions containing FTMA above its critical micellar concentration (CMC), we measured anodic (Ia) and cathodic (Ic) peak current densities of 18 ± 3 and 1.1 ± 0.1 μA/cm(2), respectively, revealing substantial current rectification (Ia/Ic= 17) at the hydrophobic electrodes. In contrast, hydroxymethyl ferrocene (a non-self-assembling redox mediator) at hydrophobic electrodes and FTMA at bare gold electrodes, yielded relatively low levels of rectification (Ia/Ic= 1.7 and 2.3, respectively). Scan-rate-dependent measurements revealed Ia of FTMA to arise largely from the diffusion of FTMA from bulk solution to the hydrophobic electrode whereas Ic was dominated by adsorbed FTMA, leading to the proposal that current rectification observed with FTMA is mediated by interfacial assemblies of reduced FTMA that block access of oxidized FTMA to the hydrophobic electrode. Support for this proposal was obtained by using atomic force microscopy and quartz crystal microbalance measurements to confirm the existence of interfacial assemblies of reduced FTMA (1.56 ± 0.2 molecules/nm(2)). Additional characterization of a mixed surfactant system containing FTMA and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) revealed that interfacial assemblies of DTAB also block access of oxidized FTMA to hydrophobic electrodes; this system exhibited Ia/Ic > 80. These results and others reported in this paper suggest that current rectification occurs in this system because oxidized FTMA does not mix with interfacial assemblies of reduced FTMA or DTAB formed at hydrophobic electrodes. More

  8. Fuel Cell Electrodes for Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cell Assemblies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report describes the design and evaluation of a hydrogen-air fuel cell module for use in a portable hydrid fuel cell -battery system. The fuel ... cell module consists of a stack of 20 single assemblies. Each assembly contains 2 electrically independent cells with a common electrolyte compartment

  9. METHOD TO PREVENT SULFUR ACCUMULATION INSIDE MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Steeper, T.; Herman, D.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.

    2009-06-22

    HyS is conceptually the simplest of the thermochemical cycles and involves only sulfur chemistry. In the HyS Cycle hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced at the cathode of the electrochemical cell (or electrolyzer). Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is oxidized at the anode to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and protons (H{sup +}) as illustrated below. A separate high temperature reaction decomposes the sulfuric acid to water and sulfur dioxide which are recycled to the electrolyzers, and oxygen which is separated out as a secondary product. The electrolyzer includes a membrane that will allow hydrogen ions to pass through but block the flow of hydrogen gas. The membrane is also intended to prevent other chemical species from migrating between electrodes and undergoing undesired reactions that could poison the cathode or reduce overall process efficiency. In conventional water electrolysis, water is oxidized at the anode to produce protons and oxygen. The standard cell potential for conventional water electrolysis is 1.23 volts at 25 C. However, commercial electrolyzers typically require higher voltages ranging from 1.8 V to 2.6 V [Kirk-Othmer, 1991]. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide instead of water in the HyS electrolyzer occurs at a much lower potential. For example, the standard cell potential for sulfur dioxide oxidation at 25 C in 50 wt % sulfuric acid is 0.29 V [Westinghouse, 1980]. Since power consumption by the electrolyzers is equal to voltage times current, and current is proportional to hydrogen production, a large reduction in voltage results in a large reduction in electrical power cost per unit of hydrogen generated.

  10. Flexible and transparent metallic grid electrodes prepared by evaporative assembly.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hoon; Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jung Kyu; Lee, Jung Heon; Park, Jong Hyeok; Lee, Tae-Woo; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2014-08-13

    We propose a novel approach to fabricating flexible transparent metallic grid electrodes via evaporative deposition involving flow-coating. A transparent flexible metal grid electrode was fabricated through four essential steps including: (i) polymer line pattern formation on the thermally evaporated metal layer onto a plastic substrate; (ii) rotation of the stage by 90° and the formation of the second polymer line pattern; (iii) etching of the unprotected metal region; and (iv) removal of the residual polymer from the metal grid pattern. Both the metal grid width and the spacing were systematically controlled by varying the concentration of the polymer solution and the moving distance between intermittent stop times of the polymer blade. The optimized Au grid electrodes exhibited an optical transmittance of 92% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 97 Ω/sq. The resulting metallic grid electrodes were successfully applied to various organic electronic devices, such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and organic solar cells (OSCs).

  11. Fabrication Method for Laboratory-Scale High-Performance Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Sassin, Megan B; Garsany, Yannick; Gould, Benjamin D; Swider-Lyons, Karen E

    2017-01-03

    Custom catalyst-coated membranes (CCMs) and membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) are necessary for the evaluation of advanced electrocatalysts, gas diffusion media (GDM), ionomers, polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), and electrode structures designed for use in next-generation fuel cells, electrolyzers, or flow batteries. This Feature provides a reliable and reproducible fabrication protocol for laboratory scale (10 cm(2)) fuel cells based on ultrasonic spray deposition of a standard Pt/carbon electrocatalyst directly onto a perfluorosulfonic acid PEM.

  12. Direct tri-constituent co-assembly of highly ordered mesoporous carbon counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tao; Sun, Weiwei; Sun, Xiaohua; Huang, Niu; Liu, Yumin; Bu, Chenghao; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2013-01-07

    Controlling over ordered porosity by self-assembly is challenging in the area of materials science. Materials with highly ordered aperture are favorable candidates in catalysis and energy conversion device. Here we describe a facile process to synthesize highly ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by direct tri-constituent co-assembly method, which uses resols as the carbon precursor, tri-block copolymer F127 as the soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the inorganic precursor. The obtained products are characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen sorption-desorption measurement and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicate that the OMC possesses high surface areas of 1209 m(2) g(-1), homogeneous pore size of 4.6 nm and a large pore volume of 1.65 cm(3) g(-1). The advantages of high electrochemical active surface area and favorable accessible porosity of OMC benefit the catalysis of I(3)(-) to I(-). As a result, the OMC counter electrode displays a remarkable property when it was applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For comparison, carbon black (CB) counter electrode and Pt counter electrode have also been prepared. When these different counter electrodes were applied for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the power-conversion efficiency (η) of the DSSCs with CB counter electrode are measured to be 5.10%, whereas the corresponding values is 6.39% for the DSSC with OMC counter electrode, which is comparable to 6.84% of the cell with Pt counter electrode under the same experimental conditions.

  13. Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail; Heinz, Robert

    2012-06-26

    A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

  14. Inkjet printed electrode arrays for potential modulation of DNA self-assembled monolayers on gold.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunchao; Li, Paul C H; Parameswaran, M Ash; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2008-11-15

    In this paper, we report a novel and cost-effective fabrication technique to produce electrode arrays that can be used for monitoring and electrical manipulation of the molecular orientation of DNA self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold. The electrode arrays were prepared from gold coated glass sides or compact discs (CD-Rs) by using standard office inkjet printers without any hardware or software modifications. In this method, electrode arrays of varied shape and size (from submillimeter to centimeter) can be rapidly fabricated and are suitable for standard electrochemical measurements. We were able to use a dual-channel potentiostat to control the electrodes individually and a fluorescence (FL) scanner to image the electrode array simultaneously. With such an integrated modulation setup, the structural switching behavior (from "lying" to "standing" position) and the enhanced hybridization reactivity of thiolate DNA SAMs on gold under potential control have been successfully demonstrated.

  15. Swelling agent adopted decal transfer method for membrane electrode assembly fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Doo Hee; Lee, So Young; Shin, Dong Won; Hwang, Doo Sung; Lee, Young Moo

    2014-07-01

    The decal transfer method is regarded as an effective membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fabrication method for industrial processes due to the improved adhesion between the catalyst layers and the hydrocarbon membrane. In this study, three swelling agents (ethanol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol) are introduced to the conventional decal methods in order to improve both the transfer ratio of electrodes on the membrane surface and the electrochemical properties. These swelling agents affect the surface energy differences between the swollen catalyst layer and the membrane substrate. Swelling agents also change the structure of the catalyst layer during the preparation (hot pressing) of the MEA. Changing the catalyst layer structure by introducing swelling agents diminishes the charge transfer resistance and internal resistances of MEAs. These improved electrochemical properties lead to the remarkably enhanced single cell performance of a SPAES MEA of 1380 mA cm-2 at 0.6 V, compared to a SPAES MEA fabricated by the conventional decal method (500 mA cm-2).

  16. Facile Fabrication and Photolectrochemical Properties of Porphyrin-Fullerene Assemblies by Self-Assembly and Surface Sol-Gel Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Matsuoka, Ken‑ichi; Arakawa, Taichi; Kakutani, Keitaro; Miyazaki, Akinobu; Yamada, Sunao

    2006-04-01

    Ultrathin photoelectric conversion films consisting of a porphyrin-fullerene photoredox pair were fabricated by the combined use of room-temperature covalent-bonding and surface sol-gel processes. First, cysteamine was self-assembled on an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode. The cysteamine-modified electrode was then immersed in C60 solution, giving immobilization of C60 via bond formation between the amino group of cysteamine and C60. Next, the C60-modified electrode was dipped in 2-ethanolamine solution to implant the hydroxy group to the immobilized C60 via the bond formation between C60 and the amino group; thus, the hydroxy group was exposed as the outermost layer. Then, Ti(OBu)4 and tetracarboxyporphyrin (TCPP) were alternately assembled on the C60 layer by the surface sol-gel process, to give an assembly of TCPP, titanium oxide species [Ti(O)], and C60 on the ITO electrode. The double layering of TCPP-Ti(O) was possible. The spectral characterization of the films was carried out. In the presence of sacrificial reagents, anodic photocurrents were generated from these modified electrodes. The incorporation of the C60 layer resulted in the substantial enhancement of the photocurrents as compared with that of the TCPP layer alone, suggesting effective electron-transfer reactions between TCPP and C60 that contribute to the photocurrent increase. The photocurrents increased by the double layering of the TCPP and Ti(O) layers.

  17. Stamped microbattery electrodes based on self-assembled M13 viruses

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki Tae; Wartena, Ryan; Yoo, Pil J.; Liau, Forrest W.; Lee, Yun Jung; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Hammond, Paula T.; Belcher, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication and spatial positioning of electrodes are becoming central issues in battery technology because of emerging needs for small scale power sources, including those embedded in flexible substrates and textiles. More generally, novel electrode positioning methods could enable the use of nanostructured electrodes and multidimensional architectures in new battery designs having improved electrochemical performance. Here, we demonstrate the synergistic use of biological and nonbiological assembly methods for fabricating and positioning small battery components that may enable high performance microbatteries with complex architectures. A self-assembled layer of virus-templated cobalt oxide nanowires serving as the active anode material in the battery anode was formed on top of microscale islands of polyelectrolyte multilayers serving as the battery electrolyte, and this assembly was stamped onto platinum microband current collectors. The resulting electrode arrays exhibit full electrochemical functionality. This versatile approach for fabricating and positioning electrodes may provide greater flexibility for implementing advanced battery designs such as those with interdigitated microelectrodes or 3D architectures. PMID:18753629

  18. Membrane-electrode assemblies with high specific power based on functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabrodskii, A. G.; Glebova, N. V.; Nechitailov, A. A.; Terukova, E. E.; Terukov, E. I.; Tomasov, A. A.; Zelenina, N. K.

    2010-12-01

    It is demonstrated that the efficiency of catalysis and platinum usage in electrochemical energy converters can be improved by employing chemically functionalized multiwalled carbon tubes. On this basis, membrane-electrode assemblies for air-hydrogen fuel cells with specific powers up to 581 mW/cm2 have been obtained.

  19. Aerospace electrode line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L.

    1980-04-01

    A facility which produces electrodes for spacecraft power supplies is described. The electrode assembly procedures are discussed. A number of design features in the production process are reported including a batch operation mode and an independent equipment module design approach for transfering the electrode materials from process tank to process tank.

  20. Automated analysis for lifecycle assembly processes

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, T.L.; Brown, R.G.; Peters, R.R.

    1998-05-01

    Many manufacturing companies today expend more effort on upgrade and disposal projects than on clean-slate design, and this trend is expected to become more prevalent in coming years. However, commercial CAD tools are better suited to initial product design than to the product`s full life cycle. Computer-aided analysis, optimization, and visualization of life cycle assembly processes based on the product CAD data can help ensure accuracy and reduce effort expended in planning these processes for existing products, as well as provide design-for-lifecycle analysis for new designs. To be effective, computer aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that apply to their companies and products as well as to the life cycles of their products. Designing products for easy assembly and disassembly during its entire life cycle for purposes including service, field repair, upgrade, and disposal is a process that involves many disciplines. In addition, finding the best solution often involves considering the design as a whole and by considering its intended life cycle. Different goals and constraints (compared to initial assembly) require one to re-visit the significant fundamental assumptions and methods that underlie current assembly planning techniques. Previous work in this area has been limited to either academic studies of issues in assembly planning or applied studies of life cycle assembly processes, which give no attention to automatic planning. It is believed that merging these two areas will result in a much greater ability to design for; optimize, and analyze life cycle assembly processes.

  1. Orthogonal enzymatic reactions for the assembly of proteins at electrode addresses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohua; Shi, Xiao-Wen; Liu, Yi; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2009-01-06

    The ability to interface proteins to device surfaces is important for a range of applications. Here, we enlist the unique capabilities of enzymes and biologically derived polymers to assemble target proteins to electrode addresses. First, the stimuli-responsive aminopolysaccharide chitosan is directed to assemble at the electrode address in response to electrode-imposed signals. The electrodeposited chitosan film serves as the biodevice interface for subsequent protein assembly. Next, tyrosinase is used to catalyze grafting of a protein or peptide tether to the chitosan film. Finally, microbial transglutaminase (mTG) catalyzes the assembly of target proteins to the tether. mTG covalently links proteins through their glutamine (Gln) and lysine (Lys) residues. Since Gln and Lys residues of globular proteins are often inaccessible to mTG, we engineered our target proteins to have fusion tags with added Gln or Lys residues. This assembly method employs the electrical signal to confer spatial selectivity (during chitosan electrodeposition) and employs the enzymes to confer chemical selectivity (i.e., amino acid residue selectivity). Further, this method is mild, since no reactive reagents or protection steps are required, and all steps are performed in aqueous solution. These results demonstrate the potential for employing biological materials and mechanisms to biofabricate the biodevice interface.

  2. Ammonia gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets self-assembled on Au electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yafei; Zhou, Zhihua; Liu, Yanhua; Shen, Su; Peng, Changsi

    2014-01-01

    We present a useful ammonia gas sensor based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by self-assembly technique to create conductive networks between parallel Au electrodes. Negative graphene oxide (GO) sheets with large sizes (>10 μm) can be easily electrostatically attracted onto positive Au electrodes modified with cysteamine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. The assembled GO sheets on Au electrodes can be directly reduced into rGO sheets by hydrazine or pyrrole vapor and consequently provide the sensing devices based on self-assembled rGO sheets. Preliminary results, which have been presented on the detection of ammonia (NH3) gas using this facile and scalable fabrication method for practical devices, suggest that pyrrole-vapor-reduced rGO exhibits much better (more than 2.7 times with the concentration of NH3 at 50 ppm) response to NH3 than that of rGO reduced from hydrazine vapor. Furthermore, this novel gas sensor based on rGO reduced from pyrrole shows excellent responsive repeatability to NH3. Overall, the facile electrostatic self-assembly technique in aqueous solution facilitates device fabrication, the resultant self-assembled rGO-based sensing devices, with miniature, low-cost portable characteristics and outstanding sensing performances, which can ensure potential application in gas sensing fields.

  3. Ammonia gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets self-assembled on Au electrodes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present a useful ammonia gas sensor based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by self-assembly technique to create conductive networks between parallel Au electrodes. Negative graphene oxide (GO) sheets with large sizes (>10 μm) can be easily electrostatically attracted onto positive Au electrodes modified with cysteamine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. The assembled GO sheets on Au electrodes can be directly reduced into rGO sheets by hydrazine or pyrrole vapor and consequently provide the sensing devices based on self-assembled rGO sheets. Preliminary results, which have been presented on the detection of ammonia (NH3) gas using this facile and scalable fabrication method for practical devices, suggest that pyrrole-vapor-reduced rGO exhibits much better (more than 2.7 times with the concentration of NH3 at 50 ppm) response to NH3 than that of rGO reduced from hydrazine vapor. Furthermore, this novel gas sensor based on rGO reduced from pyrrole shows excellent responsive repeatability to NH3. Overall, the facile electrostatic self-assembly technique in aqueous solution facilitates device fabrication, the resultant self-assembled rGO-based sensing devices, with miniature, low-cost portable characteristics and outstanding sensing performances, which can ensure potential application in gas sensing fields. PMID:24917701

  4. Ammonia gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets self-assembled on Au electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yafei; Zhou, Zhihua; Liu, Yanhua; Shen, Su; Peng, Changsi

    2014-05-01

    We present a useful ammonia gas sensor based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by self-assembly technique to create conductive networks between parallel Au electrodes. Negative graphene oxide (GO) sheets with large sizes (>10 μm) can be easily electrostatically attracted onto positive Au electrodes modified with cysteamine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. The assembled GO sheets on Au electrodes can be directly reduced into rGO sheets by hydrazine or pyrrole vapor and consequently provide the sensing devices based on self-assembled rGO sheets. Preliminary results, which have been presented on the detection of ammonia (NH3) gas using this facile and scalable fabrication method for practical devices, suggest that pyrrole-vapor-reduced rGO exhibits much better (more than 2.7 times with the concentration of NH3 at 50 ppm) response to NH3 than that of rGO reduced from hydrazine vapor. Furthermore, this novel gas sensor based on rGO reduced from pyrrole shows excellent responsive repeatability to NH3. Overall, the facile electrostatic self-assembly technique in aqueous solution facilitates device fabrication, the resultant self-assembled rGO-based sensing devices, with miniature, low-cost portable characteristics and outstanding sensing performances, which can ensure potential application in gas sensing fields.

  5. Raman spectroscopy for in-situ monitoring of electrode processes

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R; Cook, G M; Yao, N P

    1982-04-01

    The theoretical and experimental applications of Raman spectroscopic techniques to the study of battery electrode processes are described. In particular, the potential of Raman spectroscopy as an in-situ analytical tool for the characterization of the structure and composition of electrode surface layers at electrode-electrolyte interfaces during electrolysis is examined. It is anticipated that this understanding of the battery electrode processes will be helpful in designing battery active material with improved performance. The applications of Raman spectroscopy to the in-situ study of electrode processes has been demonstrated in a few selected areas, including: (1) the anodic corrosion of lead in sulfuric acid and (2) the anodization and sulfation of tetrabasicleadsulfate in sulfuric acid. Preliminary results on the anodization of iron and on the electrochemical behavior of nickel positive-electrode active material in potassium hydroxide electrolytes are presented in the Appendix.

  6. Nano-Engineered Electrochemical Sensors for Monitoring of Toxic Metals in Groundwater: Development of Novel Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Electrodes Using Self Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-15

    in Groundwater Development Of Novel Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Electrodes Using Self Assembled Monolayers On Mesoporous Supports...Sensors for Monitoring of Toxic Metals in Groundwater Development Of Novel Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Electrodes Using Self Assembled... Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Electrodes Using Self Assembled onolayers On Mesoporous Supports SI-1267 95440Zemanian, Thomas S., and Lin

  7. Positive electrode processing for Hughes NiH2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleser, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The basic procedures were developed for the manufacture of nickel cadmium batteries. An electrochemical impregnation in an aqueous ethanol solution is used in this process. Several additional controls were instituted for production of flight electrodes, including a Hughes controlled MCD, a solution reserved exclusively for the impregnation of Hughes positive electrodes a system of complete traceability for individual electrodes, an electrical characterization test to provide information on weight and capacity at the plaque level, and a stress test to provide data on capacity, weight, and physical parameters at the electrode level.

  8. Local and Regional Processes in Community Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, Juan C; Kolasa, Jurek

    2013-01-01

    Controversy on whether local (deterministic) or regional (stochastic) factors control the structure of communities persists after decades of research. The main reason for why it has not been resolved may lie in the nature of evidence which largely comes from realized natural communities. In such communities assembly history leaves a mark that may support either set of factors. To avoid the confounding effects of assembly history we controlled for these effects experimentally. We created a null community by mixing 17 rock pool communities. We then divided the null community into replicates and distributed among treatments representing a gradient of factors from local to regional. We hypothesized that if deterministic factors dominate the assembly of communities, community structures should show a corresponding gradient from being very similar and convergent to dissimilar and divergent. In contrast, if local processes are predominantly stochastic in nature, such a gradient of community configurations should emerge even in the homogeneous setting. Our results appear to partially support both hypotheses and thus suggest that both deterministic and stochastic processes contribute to the assembly of communities. Furthermore, we found that to satisfactorily explain patterns observed in natural communities environmental heterogeneity and regional processes must also be considered. In conclusion, although deterministic mechanisms seem to be important in the assembly of communities, in natural systems their signal may be diluted and masked whenever other factors exert meaningful influence. Such factors increase the number of possible paths to the point that the number of paths equals the number of communities in a metacommunity. PMID:23355879

  9. Fabrication of high aspect ratio nanogrid transparent electrodes via capillary assembly of Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Juhoon; Park, Chang-Goo; Lee, Su-Han; Cho, Changsoon; Choi, Dae-Geun; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-06-07

    In this report, we describe the fabrication of periodic Ag nanogrid electrodes by capillary assembly of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) along patterned nanogrid templates. By assembling the AgNPs into these high-aspect-ratio nanogrid patterns, we can obtain high-aspect-ratio nanogratings, which can overcome the inherent trade-off between the optical transmittance and the sheet resistance of transparent electrodes. The junction resistance between the AgNPs is effectively reduced by photochemical welding and post-annealing. The fabricated high-aspect-ratio nanogrid structure with a line width of 150 nm and a height of 450 nm has a sheet resistance of 15.2 Ω sq(-1) and an optical transmittance of 85.4%.

  10. Assembly of photo-bioelectrochemical cells using photosystem I-functionalized electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efrati, Ariel; Lu, Chun-Hua; Michaeli, Dorit; Nechushtai, Rachel; Alsaoub, Sabine; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Willner, Itamar

    2016-02-01

    The design of photo-bioelectrochemical cells based on native photosynthetic reaction centres is attracting substantial recent interest as a means for the conversion of solar light energy into electrical power. In the natural photosynthetic apparatus, the photosynthetic reaction centres are coupled to biocatalytic transformations leading to CO2 fixation and O2 evolution. Although significant progress in the integration of native photosystems with electrodes for light-to-electrical energy conversion has been achieved, the conjugation of the photosystems to enzymes to yield photo-bioelectrocatalytic solar cells remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate the assembly of integrated photosystem I/glucose oxidase or glucose dehydrogenase photo-bioelectrochemical electrodes. We highlight the photonic wiring of the biocatalysts by means of photosystem I using glucose as fuel. Our results provide a general approach to assemble photo-bioelectrochemical solar cells with wide implications for solar energy conversion, bioelectrocatalysis and sensing.

  11. A general mathematical model for analyzing the performance of fuel-cell membrane-electrode assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huayang; Kee, Robert J.

    We have developed a general mathematical model to represent the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) of fuel-cell systems. The model is used to analyze the effects of various polarization resistances on cell performance. The model accommodates arbitrary gas mixtures on the anode and cathode sides of the MEA. Moreover, it accommodates a variety of porous electrode and electrolyte structures. Concentration overpotentials are based on a dusty-gas representation of transport through porous electrodes. The activation overpotentials are represented using the Butler-Volmer equation. Although the model is general, the emphasis in this paper is on solid-oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) systems for the direct electrochemical oxidation (DECO) of hydrocarbons.

  12. Fabrication of high aspect ratio nanogrid transparent electrodes via capillary assembly of Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Juhoon; Park, Chang-Goo; Lee, Su-Han; Cho, Changsoon; Choi, Dae-Geun; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-05-01

    In this report, we describe the fabrication of periodic Ag nanogrid electrodes by capillary assembly of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) along patterned nanogrid templates. By assembling the AgNPs into these high-aspect-ratio nanogrid patterns, we can obtain high-aspect-ratio nanogratings, which can overcome the inherent trade-off between the optical transmittance and the sheet resistance of transparent electrodes. The junction resistance between the AgNPs is effectively reduced by photochemical welding and post-annealing. The fabricated high-aspect-ratio nanogrid structure with a line width of 150 nm and a height of 450 nm has a sheet resistance of 15.2 Ω sq-1 and an optical transmittance of 85.4%.In this report, we describe the fabrication of periodic Ag nanogrid electrodes by capillary assembly of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) along patterned nanogrid templates. By assembling the AgNPs into these high-aspect-ratio nanogrid patterns, we can obtain high-aspect-ratio nanogratings, which can overcome the inherent trade-off between the optical transmittance and the sheet resistance of transparent electrodes. The junction resistance between the AgNPs is effectively reduced by photochemical welding and post-annealing. The fabricated high-aspect-ratio nanogrid structure with a line width of 150 nm and a height of 450 nm has a sheet resistance of 15.2 Ω sq-1 and an optical transmittance of 85.4%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01896c

  13. Electrophoretic self-assembly of expanded mesocarbon microbeads with attached nickel nanoparticles as a high-rate electrode for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Fu, Yan-Hao

    2014-04-21

    Expanded mesocarbon microbeads (EMCMBs) with graphene oxide (GO) sheets were prepared by expanding graphitized mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) using a simple solution-based oxidative process. EMCMB-supported nickel nanoparticles with an average size of 4.6 nm were fabricated by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method in the presence of nickel nitrate additive. Nickel ions were self-assembled on the fluffy GO sheets resulting in a more positively charged EMCMB particle for facilitating EPD and dispersion. After heat treatment at 300 °C, GO could be converted to graphene which could provide a conductive network for facilitating the transport of electrons. Well-dispersed nickel nanoparticles on graphene sheets could act as a redox center to allow storage of extra charge and a nanospacer to prevent the graphene sheets from restacking. The specific capacitance of EMCMB-supported nickel electrode could reach 491 F g(-1), which is much higher than that of EMCMB electrode (43 F g(-1)) and bare nickel electrode (146 F g(-1)) at a discharge current of 5 A g(-1). More importantly, the EMCMB-supported nickel electrode is capable of delivering a high specific capacitance of 440 F g(-1) at a discharge current of 50 A g(-1), and could pave the way towards high-rate supercapacitors.

  14. Electric power generation by a submersible microbial fuel cell equipped with a membrane electrode assembly.

    PubMed

    Min, Booki; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Thygesen, Anders; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-08-01

    Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were incorporated into the cathode chamber of a submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC). A close contact of the electrodes could produce high power output from SMFC in which anode and cathode electrodes were connected in parallel. In polarization test, the maximum power density was 631 mW/m(2) at current density of 1772 mA/m(2) at 82 Ω. With 180-Ω external resistance, one set of the electrodes on the same side could generate more power density of 832±4 mW/m(2) with current generation of 1923±4 mA/m(2). The anode, inclusive a biofilm behaved ohmic, whereas a Tafel type behavior was observed for the oxygen reduction. The various impedance contributions from electrodes, electrolyte and membrane were analyzed and identified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Air flow rate to the cathode chamber affected microbial voltage generation, and higher power generation was obtained at relatively low air flow less than 2 mL/min.

  15. Preparation of a self-humidifying membrane electrode assembly for fuel cell and its performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Mao, Zongqiang; Xu, Jingming; Xie, Xiaofeng; Yang, Lizhai

    2003-10-01

    A novel nano-porous material SiO2-gel was prepared. After being purified by H2O2, then protonized by H2SO4 and desiccated in vacuum, the SiO2-gel, mixed with Nafion solution, was coated between an electrode and a solid electrolyte, which made a new type of self-humidifying membrane electrode assembly. The SiO2 powder was characterized by FTIR, BET and XRD. The surface of the electrodes was characterized by SEM and EDS. The performances of the self-humidifying membrane electrodes were analyzed by polarization discharge and AC impedance under the operation modes of external humidification and self-humidification respectively. Experimental-results indicated that the SiO2 powder held super-hydrophilicity, and the layer of SiO2 and Nafion polymer between electrode and solid electrolyte expanded three-dimension electrochemistry reac-tion area, maintained stability of catalyst layer and enhanced back-diffusion of water from cathode to anode, so the PEM Fuel cell can generate electricity at self-humidification mode. The power density of single PEM fuel cell reached 1.5 W/cm2 under 0.2 Mpa, 70°C and dry hydrogen and oxygen.

  16. Assembling carbon quantum dots to a layered carbon for high-density supercapacitor electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guanxiong; Wu, Shuilin; Hui, Liwei; Zhao, Yuan; Ye, Jianglin; Tan, Ziqi; Zeng, Wencong; Tao, Zhuchen; Yang, Lihua; Zhu, Yanwu

    2016-01-01

    It is found that carbon quantum dots (CQDs) self-assemble to a layer structure at ice crystals-water interface with freeze- drying. Such layers interconnect with each other, forming a free-standing CQD assembly, which has an interlayer distance of about 0.366 nm, due to the existence of curved carbon rings other than hexagons in the assembly. CQDs are fabricated by rupturing C60 by KOH activation with a production yield of ~15 wt.%. The CQDs obtained have an average height of 1.14 nm and an average lateral size of 7.48 nm, and are highly soluble in water. By packaging annealed CQD assembly to high density (1.23 g cm−3) electrodes in supercapacitors, a high volumetric capacitance of 157.4 F cm−3 and a high areal capacitance of 0.66 F cm−2 (normalized to the loading area of electrodes) are demonstrated in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte with a good rate capability. PMID:26754463

  17. Performance and microbial ecology of air-cathode microbial fuel cells with layered electrode assemblies.

    PubMed

    Butler, Caitlyn S; Nerenberg, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be built with layered electrode assemblies, where the anode, proton exchange membrane (PEM), and cathode are pressed into a single unit. We studied the performance and microbial community structure of MFCs with layered assemblies, addressing the effect of materials and oxygen crossover on the community structure. Four MFCs with layered assemblies were constructed using Nafion or Ultrex PEMs and a plain carbon cloth electrode or a cathode with an oxygen-resistant polytetrafluoroethylene diffusion layer. The MFC with Nafion PEM and cathode diffusion layer achieved the highest power density, 381 mW/m(2) (20 W/m(3)). The rates of oxygen diffusion from cathode to anode were three times higher in the MFCs with plain cathodes compared to those with diffusion-layer cathodes. Microsensor studies revealed little accumulation of oxygen within the anode cloth. However, the abundance of bacteria known to use oxygen as an electron acceptor, but not known to have exoelectrogenic activity, was greater in MFCs with plain cathodes. The MFCs with diffusion-layer cathodes had high abundance of exoelectrogenic bacteria within the genus Geobacter. This work suggests that cathode materials can significantly influence oxygen crossover and the relative abundance of exoelectrogenic bacteria on the anode, while PEM materials have little influence on anode community structure. Our results show that oxygen crossover can significantly decrease the performance of air-cathode MFCs with layered assemblies, and therefore limiting crossover may be of particular importance for these types of MFCs.

  18. Domestic wastewater treatment using multi-electrode continuous flow MFCs with a separator electrode assembly design.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of domestic wastewater using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require reactors with multiple electrodes, but this presents unique challenges under continuous flow conditions due to large changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration within the reactor. Domestic wastewater treatment was examined using a single-chamber MFC (130 mL) with multiple graphite fiber brush anodes wired together and a single air cathode (cathode specific area of 27 m(2)/m(3)). In fed-batch operation, where the COD concentration was spatially uniform in the reactor but changed over time, the maximum current density was 148 ± 8 mA/m(2) (1,000 Ω), the maximum power density was 120 mW/m(2), and the overall COD removal was >90 %. However, in continuous flow operation (8 h hydraulic retention time, HRT), there was a 57 % change in the COD concentration across the reactor (influent versus effluent) and the current density was only 20 ± 13 mA/m(2). Two approaches were used to increase performance under continuous flow conditions. First, the anodes were separately wired to the cathode, which increased the current density to 55 ± 15 mA/m(2). Second, two MFCs were hydraulically connected in series (each with half the original HRT) to avoid large changes in COD among the anodes in the same reactor. The second approach improved current density to 73 ± 13 mA/m(2). These results show that current generation from wastewaters in MFCs with multiple anodes, under continuous flow conditions, can be improved using multiple reactors in series, as this minimizes changes in COD in each reactor.

  19. Gold Electrodes Modified with Self-Assembled Monolayers for Measuring L-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Takashi; Perera, D. M. Neluni T.; Nagasaka, Shinobu

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate electrochemistry laboratory experiment in which the students measure the L-ascorbic acid content of a real sample. Gold electrodes modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thioctic acid and cysteamine are prepared to study the effects of surface modification on the electrode reaction of L-ascorbic…

  20. Histone chaperone-mediated nucleosome assembly process.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Liu, Zi-Ning; Chow, Sih-Yao; Lu, Yi-Han; Li, Hsin

    2015-01-01

    A huge amount of information is stored in genomic DNA and this stored information resides inside the nucleus with the aid of chromosomal condensation factors. It has been reported that the repeat nucleosome core particle (NCP) consists of 147-bp of DNA and two copies of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Regulation of chromosomal structure is important to many processes inside the cell. In vivo, a group of histone chaperones facilitate and regulate nucleosome assembly. How NCPs are constructed with the aid of histone chaperones remains unclear. In this study, the histone chaperone-mediated nucleosome assembly process was investigated using single-molecule tethered particle motion (TPM) experiments. It was found that Asf1 is able to exert more influence than Nap1 and poly glutamate acid (PGA) on the nucleosome formation process, which highlights Asf1's specific role in tetrasome formation. Thermodynamic parameters supported a model whereby energetically favored nucleosomal complexes compete with non-nucleosomal complexes. In addition, our kinetic findings propose the model that histone chaperones mediate nucleosome assembly along a path that leads to enthalpy-favored products with free histones as reaction substrates.

  1. Ice-templated Self-assembly of VOPO4-Graphene Nanocomposites for Vertically Porous 3D Supercapacitor Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung Woo; Ha, Jeong Sook; Lee, Sang-Soo; Son, Jeong Gon

    2015-09-01

    A simple ice-templated self-assembly process is used to prepare a three-dimensional (3D) and vertically porous nanocomposite of layered vanadium phosphates (VOPO4) and graphene nanosheets with high surface area and high electrical conductivity. The resulting 3D VOPO4-graphene nanocomposite has a much higher capacitance of 527.9 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, compared with ~247 F g-1 of simple 3D VOPO4, with solid cycling stability. The enhanced pseudocapacitive behavior mainly originates from vertically porous structures from directionally grown ice crystals and simultaneously inducing radial segregation and forming inter-stacked structures of VOPO4-graphene nanosheets. This VOPO4-graphene nanocomposite electrode exhibits high surface area, vertically porous structure to the separator, structural stability from interstacked structure and high electrical conductivity, which would provide the short diffusion paths of electrolyte ions and fast transportation of charges within the conductive frameworks. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is fabricated by using vertically porous VOPO4-graphene as the positive electrode and vertically porous 3D graphene as the negative electrode; it exhibits a wide cell voltage of 1.6 V and a largely enhanced energy density of 108 Wh kg-1.

  2. Ice-templated Self-assembly of VOPO4–Graphene Nanocomposites for Vertically Porous 3D Supercapacitor Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung Woo; Ha, Jeong Sook; Lee, Sang-Soo; Son, Jeong Gon

    2015-01-01

    A simple ice-templated self-assembly process is used to prepare a three-dimensional (3D) and vertically porous nanocomposite of layered vanadium phosphates (VOPO4) and graphene nanosheets with high surface area and high electrical conductivity. The resulting 3D VOPO4–graphene nanocomposite has a much higher capacitance of 527.9 F g−1 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1, compared with ~247 F g−1 of simple 3D VOPO4, with solid cycling stability. The enhanced pseudocapacitive behavior mainly originates from vertically porous structures from directionally grown ice crystals and simultaneously inducing radial segregation and forming inter-stacked structures of VOPO4–graphene nanosheets. This VOPO4–graphene nanocomposite electrode exhibits high surface area, vertically porous structure to the separator, structural stability from interstacked structure and high electrical conductivity, which would provide the short diffusion paths of electrolyte ions and fast transportation of charges within the conductive frameworks. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is fabricated by using vertically porous VOPO4–graphene as the positive electrode and vertically porous 3D graphene as the negative electrode; it exhibits a wide cell voltage of 1.6 V and a largely enhanced energy density of 108 Wh kg−1. PMID:26333591

  3. Processing of carbon composite paper as electrode for fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, R. B.; Maheshwari, Priyanka H.; Dhami, T. L.; Sharma, R. K.; Sharma, C. P.

    The porous carbon electrode in a fuel cell not only acts as an electrolyte and a catalyst support, but also allows the diffusion of hydrogen fuel through its fine porosity and serves as a current-carrying conductor. A suitable carbon paper electrode is developed and possesses the characteristics of high porosity, permeability and strength along with low electrical resistivity so that it can be effectively used in proton-exchange membrane and phosphoric acid fuel cells. The electrode is prepared through a combination of two important techniques, viz., paper-making technology by first forming a porous chopped carbon fibre preform, and composite technology using a thermosetting resin matrix. The study reveals an interdependence of one parameter on another and how judicious choice of the processing conditions are necessary to achieve the desired characteristics. The current-voltage performance of the electrode in a unit fuel cell matches that of a commercially-available material.

  4. Processing of driver fuel assemblies at FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, A.D.; Hicks, D.F.; Arneson, S.O.

    1982-07-01

    The ability to disassemble an irradiated Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Driver Fuel Assembly (DFA) is important both to the continued operation of the FFTF and the future of the Breeder Reactor Program. At the FFTF, DFA's with up to three (3)* kilowatts of decay heat will be placed in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell for disassembly and nondestructive examination. This process includes sodium removal, duct measurement, duct cutting and pulling, fuel pin removal, and component disposition to other laboratories for destructive examination.

  5. Fabrication of Micro-Needle Electrodes for Bio-Signal Recording by a Magnetization-Induced Self-Assembly Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Keyun; Ren, Lei; Chen, Zhipeng; Pan, Chengfeng; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Lelun

    2016-01-01

    Micro-needle electrodes (MEs) have attracted more and more attention for monitoring physiological electrical signals, including electrode-skin interface impedance (EII), electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiography (ECG) recording. A magnetization-induced self-assembling method (MSM) was developed to fabricate a microneedle array (MA). A MA coated with Ti/Au film was assembled as a ME. The fracture and insertion properties of ME were tested by experiments. The bio-signal recording performance of the ME was measured and compared with a typical commercial wet electrode (Ag/AgCl electrode). The results show that the MA self-assembled from the magnetic droplet array under the sum of gravitational surface tension and magnetic potential energies. The ME had good toughness and could easily pierce rabbit skin without being broken or buckling. When the compression force applied on the ME was larger than 2 N, ME could stably record EII, which was a lower value than that measured by Ag/AgCl electrodes. EMG signals collected by ME varied along with the contraction of biceps brachii muscle. ME could record static ECG signals with a larger amplitude and dynamic ECG signals with more distinguishable features in comparison with a Ag/AgCl electrode, therefore, ME is an alternative electrode for bio-signal monitoring in some specific situations. PMID:27657072

  6. Self-assembly of virus-structured high surface area nanomaterials and their application as battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Royston, Elizabeth; Ghosh, Ayan; Kofinas, Peter; Harris, Michael T; Culver, James N

    2008-02-05

    High area nickel and cobalt surfaces were assembled using modified Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) templates. Rod-shaped TMV templates (300 x 18 nm) engineered to encode unique cysteine residues were self-assembled onto gold patterned surfaces in a vertically oriented fashion, producing a >10-fold increase in surface area. Electroless deposition of ionic metals onto surface-assembled virus templates produced uniform metal coatings up to 40 nm in thickness. Within a nickel-zinc battery system, the incorporation of virus-assembled electrode surfaces more than doubled the total electrode capacity. When combined, these findings demonstrate that surface-assembled virus templates provide a robust platform for the fabrication of oriented high surface area materials.

  7. Redox Equilibria of Cytochrome C3 Immobilised on Self-Assembled Monolayers Coated Silver Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Paolo, R. E.; Rivas, L.; Murgida, D.; Hildebrandt, P.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochromes c3 are soluble electron transfer proteins in the periplasm of sulphate-reducing bacteria. They act as electron-proton couplers between hydrogenase and the electron transfer chain of sulphate respiration. In this work, cytochrome c3 (Cyt-c3) obtained from both Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas, is electrostatically adsorbed on Ag electrodes coated with self-assembled monolayers of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. The redox equilibria of the adsorbed tetraheme protein are studied by surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS). The quantitative analysis of the SERR spectra, which were measured as a function of the electrode potential, allows determining the redox potentials for the individual hemes of Cyt-c3. The values obtained of the redox potentials are compared with the data provided by NMR experiments and by molecular dynamics simulation studies of the electrostatically bound protein on a coated electrode. It is found that immobilisation causes substantial shifts of the redox potential, which would have an impact on the intramolecular electron flow.

  8. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.

  9. Model-driven optimization of multicomponent self-assembly processes.

    PubMed

    Korevaar, Peter A; Grenier, Christophe; Markvoort, Albert J; Schenning, Albertus P H J; de Greef, Tom F A; Meijer, E W

    2013-10-22

    Here, we report an engineering approach toward multicomponent self-assembly processes by developing a methodology to circumvent spurious, metastable assemblies. The formation of metastable aggregates often hampers self-assembly of molecular building blocks into the desired nanostructures. Strategies are explored to master the pathway complexity and avoid off-pathway aggregates by optimizing the rate of assembly along the correct pathway. We study as a model system the coassembly of two monomers, the R- and S-chiral enantiomers of a π-conjugated oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) derivative. Coassembly kinetics are analyzed by developing a kinetic model, which reveals the initial assembly of metastable structures buffering free monomers and thereby slows the formation of thermodynamically stable assemblies. These metastable assemblies exert greater influence on the thermodynamically favored self-assembly pathway if the ratio between both monomers approaches 1:1, in agreement with experimental results. Moreover, competition by metastable assemblies is highly temperature dependent and hampers the assembly of equilibrium nanostructures most effectively at intermediate temperatures. We demonstrate that the rate of the assembly process may be optimized by tuning the cooling rate. Finally, it is shown by simulation that increasing the driving force for assembly stepwise by changing the solvent composition may circumvent metastable pathways and thereby force the assembly process directly into the correct pathway.

  10. On-Surface Cross Coupling Methods for the Construction of Modified Electrode Assemblies with Tailored Morphologies.

    PubMed

    Gietter, Amber A S; Pupillo, Rachel C; Yap, Glenn P A; Beebe, Thomas P; Rosenthal, Joel; Watson, Donald A

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the molecular topology of electrode-catalyst interfaces is a critical factor in engineering devices with specific electron transport kinetics and catalytic efficiencies. As such, the development of rational methods for the modular construction of tailorable electrode surfaces with robust molecular wires (MWs) exhibiting well-defined molecular topologies, conductivities and morphologies is critical to the evolution and implementation of electrochemical arrays for sensing and catalysis. In response to this need, we have established modular on-surface Sonogashira and Glaser cross-coupling processes to synthetically install arrays of ferrocene-capped MWs onto electrochemically functionalized surfaces. These methods are of comparable convenience and efficiency to more commonly employed Huisgen methods. Furthermore, unlike the Huisgen reaction, this new surface functionalization chemistry generates modified electrodes that do not contain unwanted ancillary metal binding sites, while allowing the bridge between the ferrocenyl moiety and electrode surface to be synthetically tailored. Electrochemical and surface analytical characterization of these platforms demonstrate that the linker topology and connectivity influences the ferrocene redox potential and the kinetics of charge transport at the interface.

  11. Electrode assemblies composed of redox cascades from microbial respiratory electron transfer chains

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Andrew J.; Marritt, Sophie; Bradley, Justin; Shi, Liang; McMillan, Duncan G.; Jeuken, Lars J.; Richardson, David; Butt, Julea N.

    2013-10-01

    Respiratory and photosynthetic electron transfer chains are dependent on vectorial electron transfer through a series of redox proteins. Examples include electron transfer from NapC to NapAB nitrate reductase in Paracoccus denitrificans and from CymA to Fcc3 (flavocytochrome c3) fumarate reductase in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. In the present article, we demonstrate that graphite electrodes can serve as surfaces for the stepwise adsorption of NapC and NapAB, and the stepwise adsorption of CymA and Fcc3. Aspects of the catalytic properties of these assemblies are different from those of NapAB and Fcc3 adsorbed in isolation. We propose that this is due to the formation of NapC-NapAB and of CymA-Fcc3 complexes that are capable of supporting vectorial electron transfer.

  12. Experimental insight into the process of parasite community assembly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Community assembly is a fundamental process that has long been a central focus in ecology. Extending community assembly theory to communities of co-infecting parasites, we used a gastrointestinal nematode removal experiment in free-ranging African buffalo to examine community assembly patterns an...

  13. Construction, assembling and application of a trehalase-GOD enzyme electrode system.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, M L; Arduini, F; Laganà, A; Moscone, D; Siliprandi, V

    2009-01-01

    Trehalose is a disaccharide important in foods, serving as a glucose source in many and also as an additive in the food preparation. Because of its peculiar physico-chemical properties it plays an important role as preservative in drying and deep-freezing treatments. A new biosensor for trehalose determination has been realized by means of a flow system, based on a reactor in which the trehalase enzyme catalyses its hydrolysis into two alpha,d-glucose molecules, and a GOD (glucose oxidase) amperometric biosensor is employed for the glucose determination. The optimum operative conditions have been laid out and a particular attention has been paid to the immobilization procedure of the two enzymes. The electrode used is of the SPE (screen-printed electrode) type and has been activated with the Prussian Blue (PB) and then assembled using GOD immobilized with Nafion. The reactor has been prepared with the trehalase enzyme chemically immobilized on an Immunodyne ABC membrane. As demonstration of its utility, the biosensor has been tested on a real sample of Boletus edulis mushroom.

  14. Electrocatalytic oxidation of dihydronicotineamide adenine dinucleotide on gold electrode modified with catechol-terminated alkanethiol self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Koji; Ohkubo, Kimihiko; Taira, Hiroaki; Takagi, Makoto; Imato, Toshihiko

    2008-06-30

    Synthesis of a mercaptoundecaneamide derivative having a terminus of catechol is described. FT-IR spectroscopic characterization showed that the new molecular entry simply undergoes molecular self-assembly on Au substrate surfaces promoting intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form well-packed monolayers. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements on the monolayer-modified Au electrode revealed that the surface adlayer possesses specific electrochemical activity due to the reversible catechol/o-quinone redox reaction having characteristics of a surface process and also pH-dependence in its formal potential (59 mV per pH). Detailed analysis of CVs gave fundamental electrochemical parameters including the electroactive surface coverage (0.20-0.24 nmol cm(-2)), the transfer coefficients (0.24 in oxidation and 0.81 in reduction), and also the electron transfer rate constant (1.10-2.76 s(-1)). These data were almost consistent to those seen in literature. We have also found that the catechol monolayer modified electrode exhibits an electrocatalytic function in NADH oxidation. That is, the faradaic current appeared reinforcingly at around the same potential where catechol function is oxidized in the monolayer and increased with an increase in the NADH concentration from 1 to 5 mM, and then reached to a plateau indicating a catalyzed reaction pathway. Detailed analyses revealed that the present system could be characterized by its weak stability of the intermediate compound formed and prompt reaction rate compared with the previously reported chemically modified electrode (CME) systems. We think this type of achievement should be important for the basics of biosensors that rely on dehydrogenase enzymes.

  15. Graphite nanoplatelet assemblies for transparent and catalytic electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aderhold, Patrick

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a class of photovoltaic devices that have the potential to provide high conversion efficiency at low production cost. Research to improve performance in the individual components is active, but attention must be paid to methods that improve scalability and production cost as well. Graphite nanoplatelets (GNP), thin stacks of graphene sheets with nanometer-scale thickness and micron-scale lateral dimensions, provide a unique opportunity for creating DSSC electrodes with simple manufacturing techniques and low-energy processing. For the counterelectrode, a composite paper, made by cofiltration and pressing of GNP and polypropylene (PP), yields a highly electrical conductive surface that is mechanically robust and chemically stable in electrolyte. Decoration of this surface with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) by a rapid microwave heating process produces a catalytic surface that rivals the current "thermalized" platinum standard counterelectrode. The GNP/PP/PtNP system, however, requires lower processing temperature and requires a fraction of the Pt loading. For the transparent electrode, thin sheets of GNP can be deposited on glass surfaces to create highly transparent coatings for use in photoanode construction. Substrate interactions and post treatments are examined and techniques for optimization are outlined. Overall GNP is shown to be a versatile and effective starting material for DSSC electrode construction and demonstrates its potential as a building-block in next-generation photovoltaic devices.

  16. Teaching pH Measurements with a Student-Assembled Combination Quinhydrone Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholz, Fritz; Steinhardt, Tim; Kahlert, Heike; Porksen, Jens R.; Behnert, Jurgen

    2005-01-01

    A simple combination pH electrode consisting of a solid-state quinhydrone sensor and a solid-state quinhydrone reference electrode is described. Both electrodes are essentially rubber stoppers that are inserted into a special doublewalled holder.

  17. Process for fabricating ribbed electrode substrates and other articles

    DOEpatents

    Goller, Glen J.; Breault, Richard D.; Smith, J. Harold

    1984-01-01

    A process for fabricating a resin bonded carbon fiber article, and in particular electrochemical cell electrode substrates and the like requiring different mean pore sizes in different areas, involves simultaneously heating and compacting different mixtures of carbon fibers and resin in different areas of an article forming mold, wherein the carbon fibers in each of the different mixtures have different, known bulk densities. The different bulk densities of the carbon fibers in the mixtures are chosen to yield the desired mean pore sizes and other properties in the article after heating and compacting the mixtures. Preferably, the different bulk densities are obtained using different carbon fiber lengths in the molding mixtures. The process is well suited to forming ribbed electrode substrates with preselected optimum mean pore sizes, porosities, and densities in the ribs, the webs connecting the ribs, and in the edge seals.

  18. Low-Temperature Solution Processable Electrodes for Piezoelectric Sensors Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuukkanen, Sampo; Julin, Tuomas; Rantanen, Ville; Zakrzewski, Mari; Moilanen, Pasi; Lupo, Donald

    2013-05-01

    Piezoelectric thin-film sensors are suitable for a wide range of applications from physiological measurements to industrial monitoring systems. The use of flexible materials in combination with high-throughput printing technologies enables cost-effective manufacturing of custom-designed, highly integratable piezoelectric sensors. This type of sensor can, for instance, improve industrial process control or enable the embedding of ubiquitous sensors in our living environment to improve quality of life. Here, we discuss the benefits, challenges and potential applications of piezoelectric thin-film sensors. The piezoelectric sensor elements are fabricated by printing electrodes on both sides of unmetallized poly(vinylidene fluoride) film. We show that materials which are solution processable in low temperatures, biocompatible and environmental friendly are suitable for use as electrode materials in piezoelectric sensors.

  19. Mass transport and electrode accessibility through periodic self-assembled nanoporous silica thin films.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ta-Chen; Hillhouse, Hugh W

    2007-05-08

    Ordered nanoporous silica films have attracted great interest for their potential use to template nanowires for photovoltaics and thermoelectrics. However, it is crucial to develop films such that an electrode under the nanoporous film is accessible to solution species via facile mass transport through well-defined pores. Here, we quantitatively measure the electrode accessibility and the effective species diffusivity for nearly all the known nanoporous silica film structures formed by evaporation-induced self-assembly upon dip-coating or spin-coating. Grazing-angle of incidence small-angle X-ray scattering was used to verify the nanoscale structure of the films and to ensure that all films were highly ordered and oriented. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was then used to assess the transport properties. A model has been developed that separates the electrode/film kinetics and the film transport properties from the film/solution interface and bulk solution effects. Accounting for this, the accessible area of the nanoporous film coated FTO electrode (1-theta) is obtained from the high-frequency data, while the effective diffusivity of the ferrocene dimethanol (D(FDM)) redox couple is obtained from intermediate frequencies. It was found that the degree of order and orientation in the film, in addition to the symmetry/topology, is a dominant factor that determines these two key parameters. The EIS data show that the (211) oriented double gyroid, (110) oriented distorted body center cubic, and (211) distorted primitive cubic silica films have significant accessibility (larger than 26% of geometric area). However, the double-gyroid films showed the highest diffusivity by over an order of magnitude. Both the (10) oriented 2D hexagonal and (111) oriented rhombohedral films were found to be highly blocking with only small accessibility due to microporosity. The impedance data were also collected to study the stability of the nanoporous silica films in aqueous

  20. On the processing and properties of binary compound insertion electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarakonsri, Thapanee

    This dissertation explores the processing/structure/property relationship for binary compounds used as negative electrode material. A solution route method for synthesis of binary compound electrodes, InSb, Cu2Sb, and Cu6Sn5 will be introduced. The material characterization using XRD and TEM techniques suggests the formation of an amorphous phase in the reaction products. The amorphous phase was decomposed under an annealing process and under direct exposure to the electron beam. The precipitation of different phases in the form of small particles was observed. The electrochemical analysis of InSb from the solution route will be compared with ball milled and single crystal InSb electrodes. The structure simulation of the ternary phase Li3xIn1-xSb, which exists in the Li-In-Sb phase diagram at 400°C proposed by W. Sitte and W. Weppner [1], was used to confirm the occurrence of ternary compounds after an initial lithium insertion into the InSb zinc-blende structure. The charge-discharge voltage profile of Li/InSb under OCV conditions shows chemical potential changing with time in the two-phase region, indicating a series of ternary phase formation according to the phase diagram. This is an experimental result confirming the existence of ternary phases, which is consistent with the simulation models. The electrochemical analysis of Cu2Sb and Cu6Sn 5 solution route electrodes will be discussed. The Cu extrusion from Cu2Sb and Cu6Sn5 structures was reported to occur during the lithiation process [2, 3]. The post mortem analysis of a Cu2Sb electrode then was conducted to examine the Cu extrusion. The electrochemical behavior of InSb from solution route and Cu 6Sn5 from both solution route and ball milling exhibits a local minimum voltage in the first discharge. It was suggested that the occurrence of a local voltage minimum was due to the slow nucleation of a stable phase [4]. The growth analysis of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami [5] combined with Butler-Volmer [6] electrode

  1. Process development for dry etching polydimethylsiloxane for neural electrodes.

    PubMed

    Anenden, Melissa P; Svehla, Martin; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2011-01-01

    In order to create high density electrode arrays, a reactive ion (dry) etching process was developed using sulphur hexafluoride (SF(6)) and oxygen (O(2)) plasma to pattern micro-structures in medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The surface topography and etch performance were analyzed by employing surface profilometry, scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and atomic force miscroscopy (AFM). The maximum etch rate was approximately 0.22 μm/min. The chemical modification of the PDMS structure in SF(6) and O(2) plasma was investigated through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Micro-scale openings in PDMS were achieved using a dry etching method to allow charge injection at the electrode-tissue interface.

  2. Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junbo; Becerril, Héctor A.; Bao, Zhenan; Liu, Zunfeng; Chen, Yongsheng; Peumans, Peter

    2008-06-01

    We demonstrate that solution-processed graphene thin films can serve as transparent conductive anodes for organic photovoltaic cells. The graphene electrodes were deposited on quartz substrates by spin coating of an aqueous dispersion of functionalized graphene, followed by a reduction process to reduce the sheet resistance. Small molecular weight organic solar cells can be directly deposited on such graphene anodes. The short-circuit current and fill factor of these devices on graphene are lower than those of control device on indium tin oxide due to the higher sheet resistance of the graphene films. We anticipate that further optimization of the reduction conditions will improve the performance of these graphene anodes.

  3. An Optimizing Algorithm for Automating Lifecycle Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Calton, T.L.

    1998-12-09

    Designing products for ~ assembly and disassembly during its entire Iifecycle for purposes including service, field repair, upgrade, and disposal is a process that involves many disciplines. In additiou finding the best solution often involves considering the design as a whole and by considering its intended Iifecycle. DifFerent goals and cortstmints (compared to initial assembly) require us to re-visit the significant fi,mdamental assumptions and methods that underlie current assembly planning techniques. Previous work in this area has been limited to either academic studies of assembly planning or applied studies of lifecycle assembly processes, which give no attention to automatic planning. It is believed that merging these two areas will result in a much greater ability to design for, analyze, and optimize the disassembly and assembly processes.

  4. Fabrication Process of Fine Electrodes Using Shadow Mask Evaporation and Tip-Induced Local Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Tomonori; Abe, Takumi; Ishibashi, Masayoshi; Kato, Midori; Heike, Seiji; Shimomura, Takeshi; Okai, Makoto; Hashizume, Tomihiro; Ito, Kohzo

    2002-07-01

    We report on a simple process for fabricating fine electrodes by using shadow mask evaporation and tip-induced local oxidation. A set of electrodes for four-term resistance measurement has been fabricated. The gap width between the fine electrode was 150 nm and the roughness of the electrode surface was less than 0.5 nm. We were able to use the electrodes to measure the conductivity of a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT).

  5. Graphene-Supported Platinum Catalyst-Based Membrane Electrode Assembly for PEM Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devrim, Yilser; Albostan, Ayhan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is the preparation and characterization of a graphene-supported platinum (Pt) catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) applications. The graphene-supported Pt catalysts were prepared by chemical reduction of graphene and chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) in ethylene glycol. X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy have been used to analyze structure and surface morphology of the graphene-supported catalyst. The TGA results showed that the Pt loading of the graphene-supported catalyst was 31%. The proof of the Pt particles on the support surfaces was also verified by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis. The commercial carbon-supported catalyst and prepared Pt/graphene catalysts were used as both anode and cathode electrodes for PEMFC at ambient pressure and 70°C. The maximum power density was obtained for the Pt/graphene-based membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with H2/O2 reactant gases as 0.925 W cm2. The maximum current density of the Pt/graphene-based MEA can reach 1.267 and 0.43 A/cm2 at 0.6 V with H2/O2 and H2/air, respectively. The MEA prepared by the Pt/graphene catalyst shows good stability in long-term PEMFC durability tests. The PEMFC cell voltage was maintained at 0.6 V without apparent voltage drop when operated at 0.43 A/cm2 constant current density and 70°C for 400 h. As a result, PEMFC performance was found to be superlative for the graphene-supported Pt catalyst compared with the Pt/C commercial catalyst. The results indicate the graphene-supported Pt catalyst could be utilized as the electrocatalyst for PEMFC applications.

  6. Electricity producing property and bacterial community structure in microbial fuel cell equipped with membrane electrode assembly.

    PubMed

    Rubaba, Owen; Araki, Yoko; Yamamoto, Shuji; Suzuki, Kei; Sakamoto, Hisatoshi; Matsuda, Atsunori; Futamata, Hiroyuki

    2013-07-01

    It is important for practical use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to not only develop electrodes and proton exchange membranes but also to understand the bacterial community structure related to electricity generation. Four lactate fed MFCs equipped with different membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were constructed with paddy field soil as inoculum. The MEAs significantly affected the electricity-generating properties of the MFCs. MEA-I was made with Nafion 117 solution and the other MEAs were made with different configurations of three kinds of polymers. MFC-I equipped with MEA-I exhibited the highest performance with a stable current density of 55 ± 3 mA m⁻². MFC-III equipped with MEA-III with the highest platinum concentration, exhibited the lowest performance with a stable current density of 1.7 ± 0.1 mA m⁻². SEM observation revealed that there were cracks on MEA-III. These results demonstrated that it is significantly important to prevent oxygen-intrusion for improved MFC performance. By comparing the data of DGGE and phylogenetic analyzes, it was suggested that the dominant bacterial communities of MFC-I were constructed with lactate-fermenters and Fe(III)-reducers, which consisted of bacteria affiliated with the genera of Enterobacter, Dechlorosoma, Pelobacter, Desulfovibrio, Propioniferax, Pelosinus, and Firmicutes. A bacterium sharing 100% similarity to one of the DGGE bands was isolated from MFC-I. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate shared 98% similarity to gram-positive Propioniferax sp. P7 and it was confirmed that the isolate produced electricity in an MFC. These results suggested that these bacteria are valuable for constructing the electron transfer network in MFC.

  7. Self-assembly of supramolecular triarylamine nanowires in mesoporous silica and biocompatible electrodes thereof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licsandru, Erol-Dan; Schneider, Susanne; Tingry, Sophie; Ellis, Thomas; Moulin, Emilie; Maaloum, Mounir; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Barboiu, Mihail; Giuseppone, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Biocompatible silica-based mesoporous materials, which present high surface areas combined with uniform distribution of nanopores, can be organized in functional nanopatterns for a number of applications. However, silica is by essence an electrically insulating material which precludes applications for electro-chemical devices. The formation of hybrid electroactive silica nanostructures is thus expected to be of great interest for the design of biocompatible conducting materials such as bioelectrodes. Here we show that we can grow supramolecular stacks of triarylamine molecules in the confined space of oriented mesopores of a silica nanolayer covering a gold electrode. This addressable bottom-up construction is triggered from solution simply by light irradiation. The resulting self-assembled nanowires act as highly conducting electronic pathways crossing the silica layer. They allow very efficient charge transfer from the redox species in solution to the gold surface. We demonstrate the potential of these hybrid constitutional materials by implementing them as biocathodes and by measuring laccase activity that reduces dioxygen to produce water.Biocompatible silica-based mesoporous materials, which present high surface areas combined with uniform distribution of nanopores, can be organized in functional nanopatterns for a number of applications. However, silica is by essence an electrically insulating material which precludes applications for electro-chemical devices. The formation of hybrid electroactive silica nanostructures is thus expected to be of great interest for the design of biocompatible conducting materials such as bioelectrodes. Here we show that we can grow supramolecular stacks of triarylamine molecules in the confined space of oriented mesopores of a silica nanolayer covering a gold electrode. This addressable bottom-up construction is triggered from solution simply by light irradiation. The resulting self-assembled nanowires act as highly conducting

  8. Ultrathin Nanotube/Nanowire Electrodes by Spin-Spray Layer-by-Layer Assembly: A Concept for Transparent Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Gittleson, Forrest S; Hwang, Daniel; Ryu, Won-Hee; Hashmi, Sara M; Hwang, Jonathan; Goh, Tenghooi; Taylor, André D

    2015-10-27

    Fully integrated transparent devices require versatile architectures for energy storage, yet typical battery electrodes are thick (20-100 μm) and composed of optically absorbent materials. Reducing the length scale of active materials, assembling them with a controllable method and minimizing electrode thickness should bring transparent batteries closer to reality. In this work, the rapid and controllable spin-spray layer-by-layer (SSLbL) method is used to generate high quality networks of 1D nanomaterials: single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanowires for anode and cathode electrodes, respectively. These ultrathin films, deposited with ∼2 nm/bilayer precision are transparent when deposited on a transparent substrate (>87% transmittance) and electrochemically active in Li-ion cells. SSLbL-assembled ultrathin SWNT anodes and V2O5 cathodes exhibit reversible lithiation capacities of 23 and 7 μAh/cm(2), respectively at a current density of 5 μA/cm(2). When these electrodes are combined in a full cell, they retain ∼5 μAh/cm(2) capacity over 100 cycles, equivalent to the prelithiation capacity of the limiting V2O5 cathode. The SSLbL technique employed here to generate functional thin films is uniquely suited to the generation of transparent electrodes and offers a compelling path to realize the potential of fully integrated transparent devices.

  9. Assembly process issues and reliability in microsystem packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Leland

    2003-12-01

    Microsystem packages and package assembly processes have an enormous influence on the ability to successfully bring a microsystem product to market. Package and assembly processes can introduce both performance and reliability issues which can introduce significant delays in the product engineering cycle. Typically, thousands of devices must be made and tested to fully quantify the reliability of a microsystem product. While most microsystem products use package and package assembly technology adapted from the integrated circuit industry, the unique aspects of these devices requires unique package designs and unique implementation of the unit assembly processes. This paper discusses many of these unit processes, their adaptation to microsystem applications and the reliability issues that can be traced back to these processes. Solutions to these package assembly issues will also be presented.

  10. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:27427960

  11. AC electrokinetic drug delivery in dentistry using an interdigitated electrode assembly powered by inductive coupling.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Wu, Jie Jayne; Mirzajani, Hadi; Cheng, Cheng; Yuan, Quan; Kevorkyan, Stepan; Gaydarova, Radostina; Tomlekova, Desislava

    2016-10-01

    AC electrokinetics (ACEK) has been shown to deliver certain drugs into human teeth more effectively than diffusion. However, using electrical wires to power intraoral ACEK devices poses risks to patients. The study demonstrates a novel interdigitated electrode arrays (IDE) assembly powered by inductive coupling to induce ACEK effects at appropriate frequencies to motivate drugs wirelessly. A signal generator produces the modulating signal, which multiplies with the carrier signal to produce the amplitude modulated (AM) signal. The AM signal goes through the inductive link to appear on the secondary coil, then rectified and filtered to dispose of its carrier signal, and the positive half of the modulating signal appears on the load. After characterizing the device, the device is validated under light microscopy by motivating carboxylate-modified microspheres, tetracycline, acetaminophen, benzocaine, lidocaine and carbamide peroxide particles with induced ACEK effects. The assembly is finally tested in a common dental bleaching application. After applying 35 % carbamide peroxide to human teeth topically or with the IDE at 1200 Hz, 5 Vpp for 20 min, spectrophotometric analysis showed that compared to diffusion, the IDE enhanced whitening in specular optic and specular optic excluded modes by 215 % and 194 % respectively. Carbamide peroxide absorbance by the ACEK group was two times greater than diffusion as measured by colorimetric oxidation-reduction and UV-Vis spectroscopy at 550 nm. The device motivates drugs of variable molecular weight and structure wirelessly. Wireless transport of drugs to intraoral targets under ACEK effects may potentially improve the efficacy and safety of drug delivery in dentistry.

  12. Influence of ionomer content on the structure and performance of PEFC membrane electrode assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Jian; Xu, Fan; WoodIII, David L; More, Karren Leslie; Zawodzinski, Thomas; Smith, Wayne H

    2010-01-01

    Nafion ionomer content of the cathode catalyst-layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), made by the decal hot pressing method, has been investigated for its effect on performance and structure of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Varying Nafion content was shown to have an effect on performance within the entire range of polarization curves (i.e. kinetic, ohmic, and mass-transport regions) as well as on the structure. AFM analysis shows the effect of Nafion on the dispersion of carbon aggregates. Further analysis using TEM demonstrates the effect of Nafion on both the dispersion of carbon aggregates and the distribution and thickness of the Nafion ionomer films surrounding the catalyst/carbon aggregates. The MEA structure change correlates well with the MEA performance on both kinetics and mass-transport region. The determining factors on the performance of MEA are the interfacial zone (between the ionomer and catalyst particle), the dispersion of catalyst/carbon aggregates and the distribution/thickness of Nafion films. An optimized Nafion content in the range of 27 6 wt.% for the cathode was determined for an E-TEK 20% Pt3Cr/C catalyst at a loading of 0.20mg Pt/cm2.

  13. Automated catalyst processing for cloud electrode fabrication for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Goller, Glen J.; Breault, Richard D.

    1980-01-01

    A process for making dry carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene floc material, particularly useful in the manufacture of fuel cell electrodes, comprises of the steps of floccing a co-suspension of carbon particles and polytetrafluoroethylene particles, filtering excess liquids from the co-suspension, molding pellet shapes from the remaining wet floc solids without using significant pressure during the molding, drying the wet floc pellet shapes within the mold at temperatures no greater than about 150.degree. F., and removing the dry pellets from the mold.

  14. Physical processes involved in strip electrode welding using the method of slatted splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Bushma, V. O.

    2010-12-15

    Physical processes that take place in a strip electrode during welding using the slatted splicing technique are considered. Flowing of the welding current in the electrode is shown to be the key process which determines electrode heating and melting. Technological receipts are proposed that allow obtaining high-quality welds by the method of slatted splicing.

  15. Carbon Nanotube Sheet as Top Contact Electrode for Nanowires: Highly Versatile and Simple Process.

    PubMed

    Ternon, Céline; Dupas, Florence; Stein, Sergio; Aguirre, Carla; Dhalluin, Florian; Baron, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    In the past years, lots of research works were dedicated to nanowires and their integration into functional devices. However, despite the great potential of such materials, no device based on nanowires has been transferred in all-day-life. In fact, the vertical device integration is slowed down by the difficulty to contact easily the top electrode. With this work, we present a simple, elegant and versatile process for creating a top electrode contact on nanowires: a carbon nanotube sheet is suspended at the top of the nanowire field. The proof of concept is made through the realization of photovoltaic devices composed of an assembly of vertical PN-junctions based on silicon nanowires. For an illumination density of 100 mW . cm-2, our devices exhibit short circuit current density as high as 15 mA . cm-2. Due to the numerous advantages of the carbon nanotube sheets as top electrode, such as transparency, porosity, good mechanical performance and no need to embed nanowires, such simple and elegant technology should definitely find developments in every field of nanotechnology.

  16. Blown Bubble Assembly of Graphene Oxide Patches for Transparent Electrodes in Carbon-Silicon Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiting; Yang, Yanbing; Li, Yitan; Wang, Chunhui; Xu, Wenjing; Shi, Enzheng; Zou, Mingchu; Yang, Liusi; Yang, Xiangdong; Li, Yan; Cao, Anyuan

    2015-12-30

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets have a strong tendency to aggregate, and their interfaces can impose limitations on the electrical conductivity, which would hinder practical applications. Here, we present a blown bubble film method to assemble GO sheets with a uniform distribution over a large area and further interconnect individual GO sheets by transforming the bubble film into graphitized carbon. A conventional polymer was used to facilitate the bubble blowing process and disperse GO sheets in the bubble. Then, the bubble film was annealed on a Cu substrate, resulting in a highly transparent reduced GO (RGO)-carbon hybrid structure consisting of RGO patches well adhered to the carbon film. We fabricated RGO-carbon/Si solar cells with power conversion efficiencies up to 6.42%, and the assembled RGO patches hybridized with carbon film can form an effective junction with Si, indicating potential applications in thin film electronic devices and photovoltaics.

  17. Electrochemical determination of nitrite and iodate based on Pt nanoparticles self-assembled on a chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Zhou, Yuan; Xian, Hongying; Wang, Lun; Huo, Jianqiang

    2011-01-01

    A promising electrochemical sensor was fabricated by the self-assembling of Pt nanoparticles (nano-Pts) on a chitosan (CS) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). A field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical techniques were used for characterization of these composites. It has been found that nano-Pts are inserted into the CS layer uniformly, and have a larger surface area compared to the chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrocatalytic experiments for the oxidation of nitrite and the reduction of iodate have shown that nano-Pts/CS/GCE can decrease the over-potential and increase the faradic current, which can be used for the sensitive determination of nitrite and iodate. Moreover, the prepared modified electrode exhibits good reproducibility and stability, and it is possible that this novel electrochemical sensor can be applied in the sensing and/or biosensing field.

  18. Integrated fast assembly of free-standing lithium titanate/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber hybrid network film as flexible paper-electrode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shaomei; Feng, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Xue, Xin; Liu, Hongjiang; Miao, Miao; Fang, Jianhui; Shi, Liyi

    2015-05-27

    A free-standing lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12)/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber hybrid network film is successfully assembled by using a pressure-controlled aqueous extrusion process, which is highly efficient and easily to scale up from the perspective of disposable and recyclable device production. This hybrid network film used as a lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode has a dual-layer structure consisting of Li4Ti5O12/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber composites (hereinafter referred to as LTO/CNT/CNF), and carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber composites (hereinafter referred to as CNT/CNF). In the heterogeneous fibrous network of the hybrid film, CNF serves simultaneously as building skeleton and a biosourced binder, which substitutes traditional toxic solvents and synthetic polymer binders. Of importance here is that the CNT/CNF layer is used as a lightweight current collector to replace traditional heavy metal foils, which therefore reduces the total mass of the electrode while keeping the same areal loading of active materials. The free-standing network film with high flexibility is easy to handle, and has extremely good conductivity, up to 15.0 S cm(-1). The flexible paper-electrode for LIBs shows very good high rate cycling performance, and the specific charge/discharge capacity values are up to 142 mAh g(-1) even at a current rate of 10 C. On the basis of the mild condition and fast assembly process, a CNF template fulfills multiple functions in the fabrication of paper-electrode for LIBs, which would offer an ever increasing potential for high energy density, low cost, and environmentally friendly flexible electronics.

  19. Self-Assembled Monolayers of n-Alkanethiols Suppress Hydrogen Evolution and Increase the Efficiency of Rechargeable Iron Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Manohar, AK; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-01-09

    Iron-based rechargeable batteries, because of their low cost, eco-friendliness, and durability, are extremely attractive for large-scale energy storage. A principal challenge in the deployment of these batteries is their relatively low electrical efficiency. The low efficiency is due to parasitic hydrogen evolution that occurs on the iron electrode during charging and idle stand. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that linear alkanethiols are very effective in suppressing hydrogen evolution on alkaline iron battery electrodes. The alkanethiols form self-assembled monolayers on the iron electrodes. The degree of suppression of hydrogen evolution by the alkanethiols was found to be greater than 90%, and the effectiveness of the alkanethiol increased with the chain length. Through steady-state potentiostatic polarization studies and impedance measurements on high-purity iron disk electrodes, we show that the self-assembly of alkanethiols suppressed the parasitic reaction by reducing the interfacial area available for the electrochemical reaction. We have modeled the effect of chain length of the alkanethiol on the surface coverage, charge-transfer resistance, and double-layer capacitance of the interface using a simple model that also yields a value for the interchain interaction energy. We have verified the improvement in charging efficiency resulting from the use of the alkanethiols in practical rechargeable iron battery electrodes. The results of battery tests indicate that alkanethiols yield among the highest faradaic efficiencies reported for the rechargeable iron electrodes, enabling the prospect of a large-scale energy storage solution based on low-cost iron-based rechargeable batteries.

  20. Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Clere, T.M.

    1983-08-30

    A 3-dimensional electrode is disclosed having substantially coplanar and substantially flat portions and ribbon-like curved portions, said curved portions being symmetrical and alternating in rows above and below said substantially coplanar, substantially flat portions, respectively, and a geometric configuration presenting in one sectional aspect the appearance of a series of ribbon-like oblate spheroids interrupted by said flat portions and in another sectional aspect, 90/sup 0/ from said one aspect, the appearance of a square wave pattern.

  1. Electrochemical reduction of CO2 to ethylene glycol on imidazolium ion-terminated self-assembly monolayer-modified Au electrodes in an aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Jun; Ono, Akihiko; Sugano, Yoshitsune; Huang, Chingchun; Nishizawa, Hideyuki; Mikoshiba, Satoshi

    2015-10-21

    Imidazolium ion-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-modified electrodes achieve CO2 conversion while suppressing hydrogen evolution. Immobile imidazolium ion on gold (Au) electrodes reduce CO2 at low overpotential. The distance between electrode and imidazolium ion separated by alkane thiol affects CO2 reduction activity. CO2 reduction current depends on the tunnel current rate. Although the product of CO2 reduction at the bare Au electrode is CO, SAM-modified electrodes produce ethylene glycol in aqueous electrolyte solution without CO evolution. The faradaic efficiency reached a maximum of 87%. CO2 reduction at SAM-modified electrodes is unaffected by reduction activity of Au electrode. This phenomenon shows that the reaction field of CO2 reduction is not the electrode surface but the imidazolium ion monolayer.

  2. Physical degradation of membrane electrode assemblies undergoing freeze/thaw cycling: Diffusion media effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soowhan; Ahn, Byung Ki; Mench, M. M.

    In this work, the effects of properties of diffusion media (DM) (stiffness, thickness and micro-porous layer (MPL)) on the physical damage of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) subjected to freeze/thaw cycling were studied. Pressure uniformity of the diffusion media onto the catalyst layer (CL) was determined to be a key parameter to mitigate freeze-induced physical damage. Stiffer diffusion media, enabling more uniform compression under the channels and lands, can mitigate surface cracks, but flexible cloth diffusion media experienced severe catalyst layer surface damage. The thickness of the diffusion media and existence of a micro-porous layer were not observed to be major factors to mitigate freeze-damage when the catalyst layer is in contact with liquid. Interfacial delamination between diffusion media and catalyst layers, but not between the catalyst layer and membrane, was observed. This permanent deformation of the stiff diffusion media in the channel locations as well as fractures of carbon fibers increased electrical resistance, and may increase water flooding, resulting in reduced longevity and operational losses. Although use of a freeze-tolerable MEA design (negligible virgin cracked catalyst layers with thinner reinforced membrane) [S. Kim, M.M. Mench, J. Power Sources, in press] with stiff diffusion media can reduce the freeze-damage in the worst case scenario test condition of direct liquid contact, extensive irreversible damage (diffusion media/catalyst layer interfacial delamination) was not completely prevented. In addition to proper material selection, liquid water contact with the catalyst layer should be removed prior to shutdown to a frozen state to permit long-term cycling damage and facilitate frozen start.

  3. Layer-by-Layer assembled hybrid multilayer thin film electrodes based on transparent cellulose nanofibers paper for flexible supercapacitors applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Gao, Kezheng; Shao, Ziqiang; Peng, Xiaoqing; Wu, Xue; Wang, Feijun

    2014-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) paper with low thermal expansion and electrolyte absorption properties is considered to be a good potential substrate for supercapacitors. Unlike traditional substrates, such as glass or plastic, CNFs paper saves surfaces pretreatment when Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly method is used. In this study, negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene: poly(styrene sulfonate)) (PEDOT:PSS) nanoparticles are deposited onto CNFs paper with positively charged polyaniline (PANI) nanowires as agents to prepare multilayer thin film electrodes, respectively. Due to the different nanostructures of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and PEDOT:PSS, the microstructures of the electrodes are distinguishing. Our work demonstrate that CNFs paper/PANI/RGO electrode provides a more effective pathway for ion transport facilitation compared with CNFs paper/PANI/PEDOT:PSS electrode. The supercapacitor fabricated by CNFs/[PANI-RGO]8 (S-PG-8) exhibits an excellent areal capacitance of 5.86 mF cm-2 at a current density of 0.0043 mA cm-2, and at the same current density the areal capacitance of the supercapacitor fabricated by CNFs/[PANI-PEDOT:PSS]8 (S-PP-8) is 4.22 mF cm-2. S-PG-8 also exhibits good cyclic stability. This study provides a novel method using CNFs as substrate to prepare hybrid electrodes with diverse microstructures that are promising for future flexible supercapacitors.

  4. Assembly of Self-Cleaning Electrode Surface for the Development of Refreshable Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Chen, Yaoyao; Feng, Chang; Wang, Wei; Bo, Bing; Ren, Ruixin; Li, Genxi

    2017-04-04

    Passivation of electrode surface and tedious reconstruction of biosensing architectures have long plagued researchers for the development of electrochemical biosensors. Here, we report a novel self-cleaning electrode by modifying the commonly used working electrode with superhydrophobic and conductive nanocomposite. Owing to the superhydrophobicity and the chemical stability, the electrode avoids passivation result from both adsorption of molecules and oxidation in air. The high conductivity and the high effective area also allow the achievement of enhanced electrochemical signals. On the basis of comprehensive studies on this novel electrode, we have applied it in the fabrication of refreshable electrochemical biosensors for both electro-active and electro-inactive targets. For both cases, detection of the targets can be well performed, and the self-cleaning electrode can be refreshed by simply washing and applied for successive measurements in a long period.

  5. Multiscale simulation process and application to additives in porous composite battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Christian; Prill, Torben; Schladitz, Katja

    2015-03-01

    Structure-resolving simulation of porous materials in electrochemical cells such as fuel cells and lithium ion batteries allows for correlating electrical performance with material morphology. In lithium ion batteries characteristic length scales of active material particles and additives range several orders of magnitude. Hence, providing a computational mesh resolving all length scales is not reasonably feasible and requires alternative approaches. In the work presented here a virtual process to simulate lithium ion batteries by bridging the scales is introduced. Representative lithium ion battery electrode coatings comprised of μm-scale graphite particles as active material and a nm-scale carbon/polymeric binder mixture as an additive are imaged with synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR-CT) and sequential focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), respectively. Applying novel image processing methodologies for the FIB/SEM images, data sets are binarized to provide a computational grid for calculating the effective mass transport properties of the electrolyte phase in the nanoporous additive. Afterwards, the homogenized additive is virtually added to the micropores of the binarized SR-CT data set representing the active particle structure, and the resulting electrode structure is assembled to a virtual half-cell for electrochemical microheterogeneous simulation. Preliminary battery performance simulations indicate non-negligible impact of the consideration of the additive.

  6. Improved thermal oxidation stability of solution-processable silver nanowire transparent electrode by reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yumi; Jeong, Youngjun; Lee, Youngu

    2012-12-01

    Solution-processable silver nanowire-reduced graphene oxide (AgNW-rGO) hybrid transparent electrode was prepared in order to replace conventional ITO transparent electrode. AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode exhibited high optical transmittance and low sheet resistance, which is comparable to ITO transparent electrode. In addition, it was found that AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode exhibited highly enhanced thermal oxidation and chemical stabilities due to excellent gas-barrier property of rGO passivation layer onto AgNW film. Furthermore, the organic solar cells with AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode showed good photovoltaic behavior as much as solar cells with AgNW transparent electrode. It is expected that AgNW-rGO hybrid transparent electrode can be used as a key component in various optoelectronic application such as display panels, touch screen panels, and solar cells.

  7. Aqueous processing of composite lithium ion electrode material

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jianlin; Armstrong, Beth L; Daniel, Claus; Wood, III, David L

    2015-02-17

    A method of making a battery electrode includes the steps of dispersing an active electrode material and a conductive additive in water with at least one dispersant to create a mixed dispersion; treating a surface of a current collector to raise the surface energy of the surface to at least the surface tension of the mixed dispersion; depositing the dispersed active electrode material and conductive additive on a current collector; and heating the coated surface to remove water from the coating.

  8. Assembly of a Robust and Economical MnO[subscript2]-Based Reference Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse´, Robert C.; Gerken, James B.

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of base-stable reference electrodes that are suitable for use by students in a teaching laboratory or undergraduate research context. To remedy this, we have developed a technique to produce reference electrodes suitable for alkaline environments. By utilizing components of a commercially available alkaline-type battery, an…

  9. Coupling Spatiotemporal Community Assembly Processes to Changes in Microbial Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Emily B.; Crump, Alex R.; Resch, Charles T.; Fansler, Sarah; Arntzen, Evan; Kennedy, David W.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Stegen, James C.

    2016-12-16

    Community assembly processes govern shifts in species abundances in response to environmental change, yet our understanding of assembly remains largely decoupled from ecosystem function. Here, we test hypotheses regarding assembly and function across space and time using hyporheic microbial communities as a model system. We pair sampling of two habitat types through hydrologic fluctuation with null modeling and multivariate statistics. We demonstrate that dual selective pressures assimilate to generate compositional changes at distinct timescales among habitat types, resulting in contrasting associations of Betaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaeota with selection and with seasonal changes in aerobic metabolism. Our results culminate in a conceptual model in which selection from contrasting environments regulates taxon abundance and ecosystem function through time, with increases in function when oscillating selection opposes stable selective pressures. Our model is applicable within both macrobial and microbial ecology and presents an avenue for assimilating community assembly processes into predictions of ecosystem function.

  10. A sequence of calculation of the modes of dimensional combined processing by an electrode brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryazantsev, A. Yu; Kirillov, O. N.; Smolentsev, V. P.; Totay, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    In the article the way of calculation of the modes of dimensional processing by an electrode brush is considered. The choice of a liquid working environment is presented. A calculation of tension in electrodes and forces of the technological current realized during processing is given. A choice of a clip of wire bunches in a processing zone, feeding an electrode brush to a non-rigid work piece. The recommended technological indicators of the process of the finishing combined treatment by an electrode brush are presented.

  11. Automated solar cell assembly team process research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Hogan, S. J.; Darkazalli, G.; Breen, W. F.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Patterson, J. S.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes work done under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, Phase 3A, which addresses problems that are generic to the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Spire's objective during Phase 3A was to use its light soldering technology and experience to design and fabricate solar cell tabbing and interconnecting equipment to develop new, high-yield, high-throughput, fully automated processes for tabbing and interconnecting thin cells. Areas that were addressed include processing rates, process control, yield, throughput, material utilization efficiency, and increased use of automation. Spire teamed with Solec International, a PV module manufacturer, and the University of Massachusetts at Lowell's Center for Productivity Enhancement (CPE), automation specialists, who are lower-tier subcontractors. A number of other PV manufacturers, including Siemens Solar, Mobil Solar, Solar Web, and Texas instruments, agreed to evaluate the processes developed under this program.

  12. Novel solvent-free direct coating process for battery electrodes and their electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dong-Won; Cañas, Natalia A.; Wagner, Norbert; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2016-02-01

    We report a novel solvent-free direct coating process for fabricating a well-structured electrode. The manufacturing process was rapid and facile, involving only dry-spraying of the solvent-free electrode component mixture and a subsequent isothermal hot-pressing. The electrochemical and physicochemical properties of the dry-sprayed electrode with hot-pressing were evaluated in order to understand the correlation between a preparation parameter, morphological characteristic of the electrode, and cell performance. The hot-pressing time had an effect on the binder distribution, which in turn resulted in different electrode morphologies and performance. The dry-sprayed LTO electrode prepared at a hot-pressing time of 60 min had excellent electrical conductivity and Li+ storage capacity, owing to its electron transport structure, which was more suitable than the prepared electrodes at other hot-pressing conditions.

  13. Design and Development of Membrane Electrode Assembly for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasat, Harshal Anil

    This work aimed to characterize and optimize the variables that influence the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) preparation using design of experiment (DOE) approach. In the process of GDL preparation, the quantity of carbon support and Teflon were found to have significant influence on the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). Characterization methods like surface roughness, wetting characteristics, microstructure surface morphology, pore size distribution, thermal conductivity of GDLs were examined using laser interferometer, Goniometer, SEM, porosimetry and thermal conductivity analyzer respectively. The GDLs were evaluated in single cell PEMFC under various operating conditions of temperature and relative humidity (RH) using air as oxidant. Electrodes were prepared with different PUREBLACKRTM and poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content in the diffusion layer and maintaining catalytic layer with a Pt-loading (0.4 mg cm-2). In the study, a 73.16 wt.% level of PB and 34 wt.% level of PTFE was the optimal compositions for GDL at 70°C for 70% RH under air atmosphere. For most electrochemical processes the oxygen reduction is very vita reaction. Pt loading in the electrocatalyst contributes towards the total cost of electrochemical devices. Reducing the Pt loading in electrocatalysts with high efficiency is important for the development of fuel cell technologies. To this end, this thesis work reports the approach to lower down the Pt loading in electrocatalyst based on N-doped carbon nanotubes derived from Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIF-67) for oxygen reduction. This electrocatalyst perform with higher electrocatalytic activity and stability for oxygen reduction in fuel cell testing. The electrochemical properties are mainly due to the synergistic effect from N-doped carbon nanotubes derived from ZIF and Pt loading. The strategy with low Pt loading forecasts in emerging highly active and less expensive electrocatalysts in electrochemical energy devices. This

  14. Development of Polybenzimidazole-Based High-Temperature Membrane and Electrode Assemblies for Stationary and Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, John A.

    2008-09-03

    The program began on August 1, 2003 and ended on July 31, 2007. The goal of the project was to optimize a high-temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane to meet the performance, durability, and cost targets required for stationary fuel cell applications. These targets were identified in the Fuel Cell section (3.4) of DOE’s Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan. A membrane that operates at high temperatures is important to the fuel cell industry because it is insensitive to carbon monoxide (a poison to low-temperature fuel cells), and does not require complex water management strategies. Together, these two benefits greatly simplify the fuel cell system. As a result, the high-temperature fuel cell system realizes a cost benefit as the number of components is reduced by nearly 30%. There is also an inherent reliability benefit as components such as humidifiers and pumps for water management are unnecessary. Furthermore, combined heat and power (CHP) systems may be the best solution for a commercial, grid-connected, stationary product that must offer a cost benefit to the end user. For a low-temperature system, the quality of the heat supplied is insufficient to meet consumer needs and comfort requirements, so peak heaters or supplemental boilers are required. The higher operating temperature of PBI technology allows the fuel cell to meet the heat and comfort demand without the additional equipment. Plug Power, working with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) Polymer Science Laboratory, made significant advances in optimizing the PBI membrane material for operation at temperatures greater than 160oC with a lifetime of 40,000 hours. Supporting hardware such as flow field plates and a novel sealing concept were explored to yield the lower-cost stack assembly and corresponding manufacturing process. Additional work was conducted on acid loss, flow field design and cathode electrode

  15. Processes For Cleaning a Cathode Tube and Assemblies In A Hollow Cathode Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor); Verhey, Timothy R. R. (Inventor); Soulas, George C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a process for cleaning a cathode tube and other subassemblies in a hollow cathode assembly. In the disclosed process, hand covering elastomer gloves are used for handling all cathode assembly parts. The cathode tube and other subassemblies are cleaned with a lint-free cloth damped with acetone, then wiped with alcohol, immersed in ethyl alcohol or acetone, and ultrasonic agitation is applied, heating to 60 C. for ethyl alcohol or 56 C. for acetone. The cathode tube and other subassemblies are dried by blowing with nitrogen gas.

  16. Performance of membrane electrode assemblies based on proton exchange membranes prepared by pre-irradiation induced grafting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingye; Matsuura, Akio; Kakigi, Tomoyuki; Miura, Takaharu; Oshima, Akihiro; Washio, Masakazu

    Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared by pre-irradiation induced grafting of styrene (S) or styrene/divinylbenzene (S/DVB) into the radiation-crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene (RX-PTFE) films and then sulfonated. The thicknesses of the obtained PEMs were lower than 20 μm and the ion exchange capacity (IEC) values were around 2 meq g -1. The surfaces of the PEMs and carbon electrodes were coated with Nafion ® dispersion, and then membrane electrode assembles (MEAs) were prepared by hot-pressing them together. A MEA based on a Nafion ® 112 membrane was also prepared under same procedure for comparison. The performances of the MEAs in a single cell were tested under different cell temperatures and humidifications. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) were measured with ac frequencies which ranged from 100 kHz to 1 Hz at a dc density of 0.5 A cm -2. The obtained impedance curves in Nyquist representation were semicircular.

  17. In Situ Electrochemical Synthesis and Deposition of Discotic Hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene Molecules on Electrodes: Self-Assembled Structure, Redox Properties, and Application for Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Qin, Leiqiang; Zhang, Yunan; Wu, Xiaoyan; Nian, Li; Xie, Zengqi; Liu, Linlin; Ma, Yuguang

    2015-07-01

    Discotic hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) molecules are synthesized by electrochemical cyclodehydrogenation reaction and in situ self-assembled to π-electronic, discrete nanofibular objects with an average diameter about 70 nm, which are deposited directly onto the electrode. The nanofibers consist of columnar arrays of the π-stacked HBC molecules and the intercolumnar distance is determined to be 1.19 nm by X-ray diffraction, which corresponds well to the distance of 1.1 nm observed by high-resolution transmitting electron microscopy. The diameter of the molecular columns matches the size of the discotic HBC molecule indicating face-to-face π-stacking of HBC units in the column. The HBC nanofibers on electrode are redox active, and the nanosized columnar structures provide a huge surface area, which is a great benefit for the charging/discharging process, delivering excellent capacitance of 155 F g(-1) . The described electrochemical deposition method shows great advantage for self-assembling the family of insoluble and structurally designable graphene-like nano materials, which constitutes an important step toward molecular electronics.

  18. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications through the Fundamental Understanding of Membrane and MEA Degradation Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Randal L.

    2013-10-31

    The Project focused on mitigation of degradation processes on membrane electrode assemblies. The approach was to develop a model to improve understanding of the mechanisms, and to use it to focus mitigation strategies. The detailed effects of various accelerated stress tests (ASTs) were evaluated to determine the best subset to use in model development. A combination of ASTs developed by the Fuel Cell Commercialization Conference of Japan and the Fuel Cell Tech Team were selected for use. The ASTs were compared by measuring effects on performance, running in-situ diagnostics, and performing microscopic analyses of the membrane electrode assemblies after the stress tests were complete. Nissan ran FCCJ AST protocols and performed in situ and ex-situ electrochemical testing. DuPont ran FCTT and USFCC AST protocols, performed scanning and transmission electron microscopy and ran in-situ electrochemical tests. Other ex-situ testing was performed by IIT, along with much of the data analysis and model development. These tests were then modified to generate time-dependent data of the degradation mechanisms. Three different catalyst types and four membrane variants were then used to generate data for a theoretically-based degradation model. An important part of the approach was to use commercially available materials in the electrodes and membranes made in scalable semiworks processes rather than lab-based materials. This constraint ensured all materials would be practicable for full-scale testing. The initial model for the electrode layer was tested for internal consistency and agreement with the data. A Java-based computer application was developed to analyze the time-dependent AST data using polarization curves with four different cathode gas feeds and generate model parameters. Data showed very good reproducibility and good consistency as cathode catalyst loadings were varied. At the point of termination of the project, a basic electrode model was in hand with several

  19. Modeling the Capacitive Deionization Process in Dual-Porosity Electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-04-28

    In many areas of the world, there is a need to increase water availability. Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical water treatment process that can be a viable alternative for treating water and for saving energy. A model is presented to simulate the CDI process in heterogeneous porous media comprising two different pore sizes. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A two steps volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations in the limit of thin electrical double layers. A one-equationmore » model based on the principle of local equilibrium is derived. The constraints determining the range of application of the one-equation model are presented. The effective transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems. The source terms that appear in the average equations are calculated using theoretical derivations. The global diffusivity is calculated by solving the closure problem.« less

  20. Modeling the Capacitive Deionization Process in Dual-Porosity Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-04-28

    In many areas of the world, there is a need to increase water availability. Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical water treatment process that can be a viable alternative for treating water and for saving energy. A model is presented to simulate the CDI process in heterogeneous porous media comprising two different pore sizes. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A two steps volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations in the limit of thin electrical double layers. A one-equation model based on the principle of local equilibrium is derived. The constraints determining the range of application of the one-equation model are presented. The effective transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems. The source terms that appear in the average equations are calculated using theoretical derivations. The global diffusivity is calculated by solving the closure problem.

  1. Self-assembled plasmonic electrodes for high-performance organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, Wade A.; Hoon Lee, Si; Johnson, Timothy W.; Holmes, Russell J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2011-09-01

    We investigate thin Ag films incorporating plasmonic nanohole arrays as transparent conducting electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells. Plasmonic electrodes are fabricated using nanosphere lithography to create hexagonal nanohole arrays over centimeter-sized areas. Devices constructed using a nanopatterned Ag anode show power conversion efficiencies that exceed those of devices constructed on conventional indium-tin-oxide, independent of light polarization. In comparison to cells constructed on unpatterned Ag, the power conversion efficiency is noted to double with patterning.

  2. Processes for fabricating and load testing NASA scatterometer antenna assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, James R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the processes used to fabricate and load test the NASA Scatterometer Antenna Assemblies. The fabrication processes include layup, curing and machining of antenna components, and the bonding and assembly of the components into the final antenna configuration. The design of each antenna consists of an aluminum waveguide bonded to a sandwich structure of Nomex honeycomb core with graphite/epoxy skins. A titanium end fitting with fiberglass/epoxy transitions is bonded into one end of each antenna. Several antenna components are fabricated using a process where aluminum foil is co-cured to a composite surface. The antenna assemblies are radiographically inspected, thermally cycled, and load tested prior to shipment.

  3. Facile self-assembly of Fe3O4 nanoparticles@WS2 nanosheets: A promising candidate for supercapacitor electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yu; Wu, Xiao; Sha, Dawei; Chen, Ming; Zou, Han; Ren, Jie; Wang, Jingjing; Yan, Xuehua

    2016-10-01

    Graphene-like dichalcogenides with huge surface area and nanostructured transition metal oxides with extraordinarily high theoretical capacities could be composited as promising electrode candidates for supercapacitors. In this work, monolayer and few-layers WS2 nanosheets were exfoliated by combination of ball-milling and sonication. A facile strategy for the hierarchical self-assembly of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs) on WS2 nanosheets was developed to synthesize Fe3O4NPs@WS2 nanocomposites via hydrothermal method. Fe3O4NPs are uniformly dispersed on the WS2 nanosheets without aggregation. The particle size of Fe3O4NPs is about 3 nm. The nanocomposite shows strong enhancements of electrochemical behaviors. This self-assembly synthesis strategy may have great prospects for other 0D/2D nanocomposites in supercapacitors and other energy devices. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Optimizing membrane electrode assembly of direct methanol fuel cells for portable power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fuqiang

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) for portable power applications require high power density, high-energy conversion efficiency and compactness. These requirements translate to fundamental properties of high methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction kinetics, as well as low methanol and water crossover. In this thesis a novel membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for direct methanol fuel cells has been developed, aiming to improve these fundamental properties. Firstly, methanol oxidation kinetics has been enhanced and methanol crossover has been minimized by proper control of ionomer crystallinity and its swelling in the anode catalyst layer through heat-treatment. Heat-treatment has a major impact on anode characteristics. The short-cured anode has low ionomer crystallinity, and thus swells easily when in contact with methanol solution to create a much denser anode structure, giving rise to higher methanol transport resistance than the long-cured anode. Variations in interfacial properties in the anode catalyst layer (CL) during cell conditioning were also characterized, and enhanced kinetics of methanol oxidation and severe limiting current phenomenon were found to be caused by a combination of interfacial property variations and swelling of ionomer over time. Secondly, much effort has been expended to develop a cathode CL suitable for operation under low air stoichiometry. The effects of fabrication procedure, ionomer content, and porosity distribution on the microstructure and cathode performance under low air stoichiometry are investigated using electrochemical and surface morphology characterizations to reveal the correlation between microstructure and electrochemical behavior. At the same time, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of DMFC cathodes have been developed to theoretically interpret the experimental results, to investigate two-phase transport, and to elucidate mechanism of cathode mixed potential due to methanol crossover. Thirdly, a MEA with low

  5. Rapid loss of glacial ice reveals stream community assembly processes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lee E; Milner, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    Glacial retreat creates new habitat which is colonized and developed by plants and animals during the process of primary succession. While there has been much debate about the relative role of deterministic and stochastic processes during terrestrial succession, evidence from freshwater ecosystems remains minimal and a general consensus is lacking. Using a unique 27 years record of community assembly following glacial recession in southeast Alaska, we demonstrate significant change in the trait composition of stream invertebrate communities as catchment glacial cover decreased from ∼70% to zero. Functional diversity increased significantly as glacier cover decreased and taxonomic richness increased. Null modelling approaches led to a key finding that niche filtering processes were dominant when glacial cover was extensive, reflecting water temperature and dispersal constraints. Thereafter the community shifted towards co-occurrence of stochastic and deterministic assembly processes. A further novel discovery was that intrinsic functional redundancy developed throughout the study, particularly because new colonizers possessed similar traits to taxa already present. Rapid glacial retreat is occurring in Arctic and alpine environments worldwide and the assembly processes observed in this study provide new fundamental insights into how glacially influenced stream ecosystems will respond. The findings support tolerance as a key primary successional mechanism in this system, and have broader value for developing our understanding of how biological communities in river ecosystems assemble or restructure in response to environmental change.

  6. Monitoring techniques for high accuracy interference fit assembly processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuti, A.; Vedugo, F. Rodriguez; Paone, N.; Ungaro, C.

    2016-06-01

    In the automotive industry, there are many assembly processes that require a high geometric accuracy, in the micrometer range; generally open-loop controllers cannot meet these requirements. This results in an increased defect rate and high production costs. This paper presents an experimental study of interference fit process, aimed to evaluate the aspects which have the most impact on the uncertainty in the final positioning. The press-fitting process considered, consists in a press machine operating with a piezoelectric actuator to press a plug into a sleeve. Plug and sleeve are designed and machined to obtain a known interference fit. Differential displacement and velocity measurements of the plug with respect to the sleeve are measured by a fiber optic differential laser Doppler vibrometer. Different driving signals of the piezo actuator allow to have an insight into the differences between a linear and a pulsating press action. The paper highlights how the press-fit assembly process is characterized by two main phases: the first is an elastic deformation of the plug and sleeve, which produces a reversible displacement, the second is a sliding of the plug with respect to the sleeve, which results in an irreversible displacement and finally realizes the assembly. The simultaneous measurements of the displacement and the force have permitted to define characteristic features in the signal useful to identify the start of the irreversible movement. These indicators could be used to develop a control logic in a press assembly process.

  7. Simple and rapid mercury ion selective electrode based on 1-undecanethiol assembled Au substrate and its recognition mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Qing; Liang, Hai-Qing; Cao, Zhong; Xiao, Qing; Xiao, Zhong-Liang; Song, Liu-Bin; Chen, Dan; Wang, Fu-Liang

    2017-03-01

    A simple and rapid mercury ion selective electrode based on 1-undecanethiol (1-UDT) assembled Au substrate (Au/1-UDT) has been well constructed. 1-UDT was for the purpose of generating self-assembled monolayer on gold surface to recognize Hg(2+) in aqueous solution, which had a working concentration range of 1.0×10(-8)-1.0×10(-4)molL(-1), with a Nernst response slope of 28.83±0.4mV/-pC, a detection limit of 4.5×10(-9)molL(-1), and a good selectivity over the other tested cations. Also, the Au/1-UDT possessed good reproducibility, stability, and short response time. The recovery obtained for the determination of mercury ion in practical tremella samples was in the range of 99.8-103.4%. Combined electrochemical analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with quantum chemical computation, the probable recognition mechanism of the electrode for selective recognition of Hg(2+) has been investigated. The covalent bond formed between mercury and sulfur is stronger than the one between gold and sulfur and thus prevents the adsorption of 1-UDT molecules on the gold surface. The quantum chemical computation with density functional theory further demonstrates that the strong interaction between the mercury atom and the sulfur atom on the gold surface leads to the gold sulfur bond ruptured and the gold mercury metallophilic interaction.

  8. Simulation Of Assembly Processes With Technical Of Virtual Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García García, Manuel; Arenas Reina, José Manuel; Lite, Alberto Sánchez; Sebastián Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2009-11-01

    Virtual reality techniques use at industrial processes provides a real approach to product life cycle. For components manual assembly, the use of virtual surroundings facilitates a simultaneous engineering in which variables such as human factors and productivity take a real act. On the other hand, in the actual phase of industrial competition it is required a rapid adjustment to client needs and to market situation. In this work it is analyzed the assembly of the front components of a vehicle using virtual reality tools and following up a product-process design methodology which includes every life service stage. This study is based on workstations design, taking into account productive and human factors from the ergonomic point of view implementing a postural study of every assembly operation, leaving the rest of stages for a later study. Design is optimized applying this methodology together with the use of virtual reality tools. It is also achieved a 15% reduction on time assembly and of 90% reduction in muscle—skeletal diseases at every assembly operation.

  9. Electrode assembly for use in a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.

    1989-01-01

    A gas reaction fuel cell may be provided with a solid polymer electrolyte membrane. Porous gas diffusion electrodes are formed of carbon particles supporting a catalyst which is effective to enhance the gas reactions. The carbon particles define interstitial spaces exposing the catalyst on a large surface area of the carbon particles. A proton conducting material, such as a perfluorocarbon copolymer or ruthenium dioxide contacts the surface areas of the carbon particles adjacent the interstitial spaces. The proton conducting material enables protons produced by the gas reactions adjacent the supported catalyst to have a conductive path with the electrolyte membrane. The carbon particles provide a conductive path for electrons. A suitable electrode may be formed by dispersing a solution containing a proton conducting material over the surface of the electrode in a manner effective to coat carbon surfaces adjacent the interstitial spaces without impeding gas flow into the interstitial spaces.

  10. Coating graphene paper with 2D-assembly of electrocatalytic nanoparticles: a modular approach toward high-performance flexible electrodes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fei; Song, Jibin; Gao, Hongcai; Zan, Xiaoli; Xu, Rong; Duan, Hongwei

    2012-01-24

    The development of flexible electrodes is of considerable current interest because of the increasing demand for modern electronics, portable medical products, and compact energy devices. We report a modular approach to fabricating high-performance flexible electrodes by structurally integrating 2D-assemblies of nanoparticles with freestanding graphene paper. We have shown that the 2D array of gold nanoparticles at oil-water interfaces can be transferred on freestanding graphene oxide paper, leading to a monolayer of densely packed gold nanoparticles of uniform sizes loaded on graphene oxide paper. One major finding is that the postassembly electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide paper restores the ordered structure and electron-transport properties of graphene, and gives rise to robust and biocompatible freestanding electrodes with outstanding electrocatalytic activities, which have been manifested by the sensitive and selective detection of two model analytes: glucose and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) secreted by live cells. The modular nature of this approach coupled with recent progress in nanocrystal synthesis and surface engineering opens new possibilities to systematically study the dependence of catalytic performance on the structural parameters and chemical compositions of the nanocrystals.

  11. Biomolecular decision-making process for self assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    2005-01-01

    The brain is often identified with decision-making processes in the biological world. In fact, single cells, single macromolecules (proteins) and populations of molecules also make simple decisions. These decision processes are essential to survival and to the biological self-assembly and self-repair processes that we seek to emulate. How do these tiny systems make effective decisions? How do they make decisions in concert with a cooperative network of other molecules or cells? How can we emulate the decision-making behaviors of small-scale biological systems to program and self-assemble microsystems? This LDRD supported research to answer these questions. Our work included modeling and simulation of protein populations to help us understand, mimic, and categorize molecular decision-making mechanisms that nonequilibrium systems can exhibit. This work is an early step towards mimicking such nanoscale and microscale biomolecular decision-making processes in inorganic systems.

  12. Silicon surface-electrode ion traps for quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doret, S. Charles; Slusher, Richart

    2010-03-01

    The Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is designing, building, and testing scalable surface-electrode ion traps for quantum information applications, fabricated using silicon VLSI technology. A wide range of trap architectures have been developed, including a linear trap capable of holding long chains of equally spaced ions, a 90-degree X-junction, and an integrated micromirror with collection efficiency approaching 20%. Fabrication features that can be integrated with the surface electrodes include multilayer interconnects, optics for enhanced light collection, flexible optical access through beveled slots extending through the substrate, and recessed wire bonds for clear laser access across the trap surface. Traps are designed at GTRI using in-house codes that calculate trap fields, compute the full motion of ions confined in the trap, including micromotion, and optimize electrode shapes and transport waveforms using genetic algorithms. We will present designs and initial test results for several of these traps, as well as plans for their use in future experiments.

  13. Effect of process parameters on temperature distribution in twin-electrode TIG coupling arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guangjun; Xiong, Jun; Gao, Hongming; Wu, Lin

    2012-10-01

    The twin-electrode TIG coupling arc is a new type of welding heat source, which is generated in a single welding torch that has two tungsten electrodes insulated from each other. This paper aims at determining the distribution of temperature for the coupling arc using the Fowler-Milne method under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The influences of welding current, arc length, and distance between both electrode tips on temperature distribution of the coupling arc were analyzed. Based on the results, a better understanding of the twin-electrode TIG welding process was obtained.

  14. Underpotential deposition of thallium, lead, and cadmium at silver electrodes modified with self-assembled monolayers of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Joseph W F; Tiani, Domenic J; Pemberton, Jeanne E

    2007-04-10

    Investigation of the underpotential deposition (UPD) of three metals-Tl, Pb, and Cd-on Ag surfaces modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (3MPT) is reported. On the basis of the observation of negative potential shifts for their UPD processes, Tl and Pb undergo UPD directly on the underlying Ag surface by insertion between the Ag-S bond. This process is proposed to occur by penetration of the 3MPT monolayer by hydrated metal ions through spaces in six-membered siloxane rings that form at the terminus of the 3MPT layer after hydrolysis and condensation. In contrast, Cd does not undergo similarly facile UPD at 3MPT-modified Ag electrodes due to a hydrated ion size too large to fit through these openings. The voltammetric evidence that suggests that the hydrated metal cation size, as described by the Stokes diameter, is the primary determinant of Ag electrode accessibility for UPD through the cross-linked 3MPT layer is further supported by molecular mechanics energy minimization computations of six-membered siloxane rings on each of the three low-index faces of Ag. Finally, the 3MPT monolayer is shown to be exceptionally stable to repeated UPD/stripping cycles of Tl and Pb in contrast to SAMs of similar thickness formed from normal alkanethiols.

  15. Printed light-trapping nanorelief Cu electrodes for full-solution-processed flexible organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kan; Zhang, Yaokang; Zhen, Hongyu; Niu, Liyong; Fang, Xu; Liu, Zhike; Yan, Feng; Shen, Weidong; Li, Haifeng; Zheng, Zijian

    2016-07-01

    Light-trapping nanorelief metal electrodes have been proven to be an effective approach to improve the absorption performance of flexible organic solar cells (FOSCs). These nanorelief electrodes have been made by conventional vacuum deposition techniques, which are difficult to integrate with roll-to-roll fabrication processes. To address this challenge, this paper reports, for the first time, the fabrication of highly conductive nanorelief Cu electrodes on the flexible substrates through solution printing and polymer-assisted metal deposition at room temperature in the air. FOSCs made with these printed nanorelief Cu electrodes possess not only much improved power conversion efficiency, by 13.5%, but also significant enhancement in flexibility when compared with those made with flat Cu electrodes. Because of the low material and fabrication cost, these printed nanorelief Cu electrodes show great promise in roll-to-roll fabrication of FOSCs in the future.

  16. Variations in the structure and electrochemical characteristics of membrane electrode assemblies during the endurance testing of hydrogen-air fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakov, V. B.; Aliev, A. D.; Bogdanovskaya, V. A.; Ivanitskii, B. A.; Kazanskii, L. P.; Kapustin, A. V.; Korchagin, O. V.; Landgraf, I. K.; Tarasevich, M. P.; Chalykh, A. E.

    2015-05-01

    Variations in the characteristics of a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) are studied during the endurance testing of a hydrogen-air fuel cell (FC) based on a Nafion 212 proton conducting membrane and platinum catalysts. It is shown that the voltage drop observed during MEA testing was mainly due to physicochemical transformations of the cathode catalyst, i.e., the oxidation of platinum and its subsequent recrystallization with nanoparticle coarsening. It is established that the rate of degradation increases along with temperature and loading, and with periodic FC depressurization. It is concluded that the enhancing effects of additional factors of degradation, e.g., platinum ion transport to the proton-conducting membrane and corrosion of the carbon carrier, were responsible for these processes.

  17. Simultaneous Detection of Cadmium, Copper, and Lead using A Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with Carbamoylphosphonic Acid Self-Assembled Monolayer on Mesoporous Silica (SAMMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana ); Lin, Yuehe ); Fryxell, Glen E. ); Busche, Brad J. )

    2004-01-30

    A new sensor was developed for simultaneous detection of cadmium (Cd2+), copper (Cu2+), and lead (Pb2+), based on the voltammetric response at a carbon paste electrode modified with carbamoylphosphonic acid (acetamide phosphonic acid) self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica (Ac-Phos SAMMS). The adsorptive stripping voltammetry technique involves preconcentration of the metal ions onto Ac-Phos SAMMS under an open circuit, then electrolysis of the preconcentrated species, followed by a square wave potential sweep towards positive values. Factors affecting the preconcentration process were investigated. The voltammetric responses increased linearly with the preconcentration time from 1 to 30 minutes or with metal ion concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 ppb. The responses also evolved in the same fashion as adsorption isotherm in the pH range of 2-6. The metal detection limits were 10 ppb after 2 minutes preconcentration and improved to 0.5 ppb after 20 minutes preconcentration.

  18. Underfill process development for lead free flip chip assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaware, Raghunandan

    Underfills are used to enhance the long-term reliability of the flip-chip solder joints. More specifically, the function of the underfill is to couple the chip to the substrate, wherein the shear stresses experienced by the solder joints are converted to bending stresses. The underfill flows under the die due to the influence of strong capillary forces. The flow of the underfill under the chip depends on various factors such as the viscosity of the underfill, contact angle, surface tension, temperature, underfill gap, substrate design, bump pattern, bump density, and size of the chip. The flow of underfill is also influenced by the cleanliness of the substrate, the cleanliness of the underside of the chip, and the flux residues. The interaction between the underfill and the substrate affects not only gap filling, but also the filleting of the underfill. Similarly, the underfill-flux interaction directly affects the quality of underfilling and the reliability of the flip chip assembly. In the case of lead free flip chip assembly, the major concerns vis-a-vis process development for a large chip with a small bump pitch (less than 190 mum) include lower throughput, voiding under the chip, and critical reliability performance. The principal objective of this research endeavor was to investigate the fundamental issues that relate to the process and reliability aspects of underfilling of lead free flip chip assemblies. In order to develop a robust underfilling process, the effect of different process parameters and their interaction with the material properties were studied. In order to improve the compatibility between the underfill and the flux, a new epoxy flux that was compatible with the lead free assembly process was developed. The performance of the epoxy was also compared with the performance of various rosin based fluxes. This study also helped in identifying the critical parameters that can affect the assembly yields. This research endeavor successfully

  19. Effect of Different Electrode Materials on the Electropolymerization Process of Aniline in Nitric Acid Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaozong; Yi, Yun; Yang, Weifang; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    The electropolymerization process of aniline on different electrode surfaces such as Pt, Au, RuTi and polyaniline film in nitric acid solution containing 1 M aniline was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Proposed electrical equivalent circuits were used to give a further analysis. Results show that the electrode materials accelerate the aniline electropolymerization remarkably as a catalyst, especially the electrochemical oxidation process of monomer aniline to its cation radical, which is the key step to incur the electropolymerization reaction of aniline on the electrode surface. The polymerization of aniline on RuTi electrode has the lowest reaction resistance for its adsorption sites, and the catalytic effects of these different electrodes decrease in the order: RuTi > polyaniline film > Pt > Au. The results also show that several states of polyaniline films are formed during the potential linear scan process in nitric acid solution and the corresponding oxidation and reduction reaction are reversible.

  20. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1992-01-01

    A rotor assembly for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water, includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and including a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses.

  1. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1992-12-22

    A rotor assembly is described for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water. It includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and includes a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses. 34 figs.

  2. Deterministic processes vary during community assembly for ecologically dissimilar taxa

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jeff R.; Karunaratne, Senani; Campbell, Colin D.; Yao, Huaiying; Robinson, Lucinda; Singh, Brajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    The continuum hypothesis states that both deterministic and stochastic processes contribute to the assembly of ecological communities. However, the contextual dependency of these processes remains an open question that imposes strong limitations on predictions of community responses to environmental change. Here we measure community and habitat turnover across multiple vertical soil horizons at 183 sites across Scotland for bacteria and fungi, both dominant and functionally vital components of all soils but which differ substantially in their growth habit and dispersal capability. We find that habitat turnover is the primary driver of bacterial community turnover in general, although its importance decreases with increasing isolation and disturbance. Fungal communities, however, exhibit a highly stochastic assembly process, both neutral and non-neutral in nature, largely independent of disturbance. These findings suggest that increased focus on dispersal limitation and biotic interactions are necessary to manage and conserve the key ecosystem services provided by these assemblages. PMID:26436640

  3. Coupling Spatiotemporal Community Assembly Processes to Changes in Microbial Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Emily B.; Crump, Alex R.; Resch, Charles T.; Fansler, Sarah; Arntzen, Evan; Kennedy, David W.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Stegen, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Community assembly processes generate shifts in species abundances that influence ecosystem cycling of carbon and nutrients, yet our understanding of assembly remains largely separate from ecosystem-level functioning. Here, we investigate relationships between assembly and changes in microbial metabolism across space and time in hyporheic microbial communities. We pair sampling of two habitat types (i.e., attached and planktonic) through seasonal and sub-hourly hydrologic fluctuation with null modeling and temporally explicit multivariate statistics. We demonstrate that multiple selective pressures—imposed by sediment and porewater physicochemistry—integrate to generate changes in microbial community composition at distinct timescales among habitat types. These changes in composition are reflective of contrasting associations of Betaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaeota with ecological selection and with seasonal changes in microbial metabolism. We present a conceptual model based on our results in which metabolism increases when oscillating selective pressures oppose temporally stable selective pressures. Our conceptual model is pertinent to both macrobial and microbial systems experiencing multiple selective pressures and presents an avenue for assimilating community assembly processes into predictions of ecosystem-level functioning. PMID:28123379

  4. Methods for and products of processing nanostructure nitride, carbonitride and oxycarbonitride electrode power materials by utilizing sol gel technology for supercapacitor applications

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yuhong; Wei, Oiang; Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    2001-01-01

    Metal nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder with high surface area (up to 150 m.sup.2 /g) is prepared by using sol-gel process. The metal organic precursor, alkoxides or amides, is synthesized firstly. The metal organic precursor is modified by using unhydrolyzable organic ligands or templates. A wet gel is formed then by hydrolysis and condensation process. The solvent in the wet gel is then be removed supercritically to form porous amorphous hydroxide. This porous hydroxide materials is sintered to 725.degree. C. under the ammonia flow and porous nitride powder is formed. The other way to obtain high surface area nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder is to pyrolyze polymerized templated metal amides aerogel in an inert atmosphere. The electrochemical capacitors are prepared by using sol-gel prepared nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder. Two methods are used to assemble the capacitors. Electrode is formed either by pressing the mixture of nitride powder and binder to a foil, or by depositing electrode coating onto metal current collector. The binder or coating is converted into a continuous network of electrode material after thermal treatment to provide enhanced energy and power density. Liquid electrolyte is soaked into porous electrode. The electrochemical capacitor assembly further has a porous separator layer between two electrodes/electrolyte and forming a unit cell.

  5. A simple process based on NH2- and CH3-terminated monolayers for low contact resistance and adherent Au electrode in bottom-contact OTFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdur, Rahim; Lim, Jeongeun; Jeong, Kyunghoon; Rahman, Mohammad Arifur; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Jaegab

    2016-03-01

    An efficient process for the low contact resistance and adherent source/drain Au electrode in bottom-contact organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) was developed. This was achieved by using two different surface-functional groups of self-assembled monolayers, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS), and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), combined with atmospheric-pressure (AP) plasma treatment. Prior to the deposition of Au electrode, the aminoterminated monolayer self-assembles on SiO2 dielectrics, enhancing the adhesion of Au electrode as a result of the acid-base interaction of Au with the amino-terminal groups. AP plasma treatment of the patterned Au electrode on the APS-coated surface activates the entire surface to form an OTS monolayer, allowing the formation of a high quality pentacene layer on both the electrode and active region by evaporation. In addition, negligible damage by AP plasma was observed for the device performance. The fabricated OTFTs based on the two monolayers by AP plasma treatment showed the mobility of 0.23 cm2/Vs, contact resistance of 29 kΩ-cm, threshold voltage of -1.63 V, and on/off ratio of 9.8 × 105, demonstrating the application of the simple process for robust and high-performance OTFTs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Self-assembling electron-transport chains at electrodes modified with clay and related microporous solids

    SciTech Connect

    Rong, D.

    1992-01-01

    Clay-modified electrodes (CME) were made by binding Al[sub 13]O[sub 4](OH)[sub 28][sup 3+]-pillared montmorillonite to SnO[sub 2] surfaces via a 2-4 monolayer thick coating of polymerized silane. The cationic polymer provides binding sites for anions, while the relatively remote clay surface strongly absorbs cations. When the CME is exchanged with Fe(CN)[sub 6][sup 4[minus

  7. Performance of polymer nano composite membrane electrode assembly using Alginate as a dopant in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulijani, S.

    2016-11-01

    Polymer membrane and composite polymer for membrane electrode assembly (MEAs) are synthesized and studied for usage in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). In this study, we prepared 3 type of MEAs, polystyrene (PS), sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) and composite polymer SPS-alginat membrane via catalyst hot pressed method. The performance and properties of prepared MEAs were evaluated and analyzed by impedance spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result showed that, water up take of MEA composite polymer SPS-alginate was obtained higher than that in SPS and PS. The proton conductivity of MEA-SPS-alginate was also higher than that PS and PSS. SEM characterization revealed that the intimate contact between the carbon catalyst layers (CL) and the membranes, and the uniformly porous structure correlate positively with the MEAs prepared by hot pressed method, exhibiting high performances for DMFC.

  8. Performance of polymer nano composite membrane electrode assembly using Alginate as a dopant in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulijani, S.

    2017-01-01

    Polymer membrane and composite polymer for membrane electrode assembly (MEAs) are synthesized and studied for usage in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). In this study, we prepared 3 type of MEAs, polystyrene (PS), sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) and composite polymer SPS-alginat membrane via catalyst hot pressed method. The performance and properties of prepared MEAs were evaluated and analyzed by impedance spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result showed that, water up take of MEA composite polymer SPS-alginate was obtained higher than that in SPS and PS. The proton conductivity of MEA-SPS-alginate was also higher than that PS and PSS. SEM characterization revealed that the intimate contact between the carbon catalyst layers (CL) and the membranes, and the uniformly porous structure correlate positively with the MEAs prepared by hot pressed method, exhibiting high performances for DMFC.

  9. Processing, Assembly and Localization of a Bacillus anthracis Spore Protein

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    anthracis (but not, for example, Bacillus megaterium ), a series of fine hair-like projections, also called a nap, extends from the exosporium (Aronson...3373–3378. Vary, P. S. (1994). Prime time for Bacillus megaterium . Microbiology 140, 1001–1013. Welkos, S. L., Cote, C. K., Rea, K. M. & Gibbs, P. H...Processing, assembly and localization of a Bacillus anthracis spore protein K. L. Moody,13 A. Driks,2 G. L. Rother,1 C. K. Cote,1 E. E. Brueggemann,3

  10. Support Assembly for Composite Laminate Materials During Roll Press Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catella, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    A composite laminate material is supported during the roll press processing thereof by an assembly having: first and second perforated films disposed adjacent to first and second opposing surfaces of a mixture of uncured resin and fibers defining the composite laminate material, a gas permeable encasement surrounding the mixture and the first and second films, a gas impervious envelope sealed about the gas permeable encasement, and first and second rigid plates clamped about the gas impervious envelope.

  11. Electrochemical Interfaces and Electrode Processes: Electrochemical Oxidation of Small Organisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    Reduction on Poly(4- Vinylpyridine)-Modified Ordinary Pyrolytic Graphite Electrodes with Adsorbed Cobalt Tetrasulfonated Phthalocyanine in Acid ...cobalt tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CoTsPc) does not adsorb strongly on the (Li)NiO oxide or other oxides such as tin-doped indium oxide (ITO). The...interpretation of the STM and AFM results. The Co- and Fe- tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (TsPc) adsorbed on an HOPG surface were studied by cyclic

  12. Functional behavior of bio-electrochemical treatment system with increasing azo dye concentrations: Synergistic interactions of biocatalyst and electrode assembly.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Velvizhi, G; Naresh Kumar, A; Venkata Mohan, S

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of dye bearing wastewater through biological machinery is particularly challenging due to its recalcitrant and inhibitory nature. In this study, functional behavior and treatment efficiency of bio-electrochemical treatment (BET) system was evaluated with increasing azo dye concentrations (100, 200, 300 and 500mg dye/l). Maximum dye removal was observed at 300mg dye/l (75%) followed by 200mg dye/l (65%), 100mg dye/l (62%) and 500mg dye/l (58%). Concurrent increment in dye load resulted in enhanced azo reductase and dehydrogenase activities respectively (300mg dye/l: 39.6U; 4.96μg/ml). Derivatives of cyclic voltammograms also supported the involvement of various membrane bound redox shuttlers, viz., cytochrome-c, cytochrome-bc1 and flavoproteins during the electron transfer. Bacterial respiration during BET operation utilized various electron acceptors such as electrodes and dye intermediates with simultaneous bioelectricity generation. This study illustrates the synergistic interaction of biocatalyst with electrode assembly for efficient treatment of azo dye wastewater.

  13. Direct electrochemistry and intramolecular electron transfer of ascorbate oxidase confined on L-cysteine self-assembled gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bhushan; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Fujikawa, Shigenori; Okajima, Takeyoshi; Mao, Lanqun; Ohsaka, Takeo

    2014-02-01

    A direct electrochemistry and intramolecular electron transfer of multicopper oxidases are of a great importance for the fabrication of these enzyme-based bioelectrochemical-devices. Ascorbate oxidase from Acremonium sp. (ASOM) has been successfully immobilized via a chemisorptive interaction on the l-cysteine self-assembled monolayer modified gold electrode (cys-SAM/AuE). Thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption of ASOM on the cys-SAM/AuE were studied using cyclic voltammetry. A well-defined redox wave centered at 166±3mV (vs. Ag│AgCl│KCl(sat.)) was observed in 5.0mM phosphate buffer solution (pH7.0) at the fabricated ASOM electrode, abbreviated as ASOM/cys-SAM/AuE, confirming a direct electrochemistry, i.e., a direct electron transfer (DET) between ASOM and cys-SAM/AuE. The direct electrochemistry of ASOM was further confirmed by taking into account the chemical oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by O2 via an intramolecular electron transfer in the ASOM as well as the electrocatalytic oxidation of AA at the ASOM/cys-SAM/AuE. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the adsorption of ASOM on the cys-SAM/AuE have been elaborated along with its direct electron transfer at the modified electrodes on the basis of its intramolecular electron transfer and electrocatalytic activity towards ascorbic acid oxidation and O2 reduction. ASOM saturated surface area was obtained as 2.41×10(-11)molcm(-2) with the apparent adsorption coefficient of 1.63×10(6)Lmol(-1). The ASOM confined on the cys-SAM/AuE possesses its essential enzymatic function.

  14. Amperometric acetylcholine biosensor based on self-assembly of gold nanoparticles and acetylcholinesterase on the sol-gel/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/choline oxidase composite-modified platinum electrode.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shihua; Ou, Zhongmin; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Baoyan

    2012-03-15

    A novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE)/choline oxidase (ChOx) bienzyme amperometric acetylcholine biosensor based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been successfully developed by self-assembly process in combination of sol-gel technique. A thiolated aqueous silica sol containing MWCNTs and ChOx was first dropped on the surface of a cleaned Pt electrode, and then AuNPs were assembled with the thiolated sol-gel network. Finally, the alternate deposition of poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and AChE was repeated to assemble different layers of PDDA-AChE on the electrode for optimizing AChE loading. Among the resulting biosensors, the biosensor based on two layers of PDDA-AChE multilayer films showed the best performance. It exhibited a wide linear range, high sensitivity and fast amperometric response, which were 0.005-0.4mM, 3.395 μA/mM, and within 15s, respectively. The biosensor showed long-term stability and acceptable reproducibility. More importantly, this study could provide a simple and effective multienzyme immobilization platform for meeting the demand of the effective immobilization enzyme on the electrode surface.

  15. Hybrid transparent electrodes of silver nanowires and carbon nanotubes: a low-temperature solution process.

    PubMed

    Tokuno, Takehiro; Nogi, Masaya; Jiu, Jinting; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2012-05-31

    Hybrid transparent electrodes with silver nanowires (AgNWs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were fabricated on plastic films by a low-temperature solution process. The hybrid transparent electrodes exhibited a sheet resistance of 29.2 Ω/sq with a transparency of 80% when 6 wt.% of SWCNTs was mixed with AgNWs. This sheet resistance was less than one-fourth that of the AgNW transparent electrodes that were prepared using the same method. This reduction in sheet resistance is because the SWCNTs formed bridges between the AgNWs, thus, resulting in high conductivity of the hybrid transparent electrodes. The hybrid electrodes formed on plastic films exhibited high conductivity as well as excellent stability in sheet resistance when tested using a repeated bending test.PACS: 62.23.Hj; 61.48.De; 81.15.-z.

  16. Building a Low-Cost, Six-Electrode Instrument to Measure Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Monolayers of Gold Nanoparticles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Ralph W.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new low-cost, six-electrode instrument for measuring the electrical properties of the self-assembled monolayers of gold particles is being described. The system can also be used to measure conductive liquids, except for those that contain aqua region.

  17. IMPACT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF A FERRICYNIDE PROBE AT TEMPLATE-MODIFIED SELF ASSEMBLED MONOLAYERS ON GOLD ELECTRODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of pyrene on the electrochemical response of the ferricyanide probe using Self Assembled Monolayer (SAM)-modified gold electrodes was investigated using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV). These results suggest the feasibility of using SAMs, par...

  18. A membrane-less enzymatic fuel cell with layer-by-layer assembly of redox polymer and enzyme over graphite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rengaraj, Saravanan; Mani, Vigneshwaran; Kavanagh, Paul; Rusling, James; Leech, Dónal

    2011-11-21

    Layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of alternate osmium redox polymers and glucose oxidase, at anode, and laccase, at cathode, using graphite electrodes form a membrane-less glucose/O(2) enzymatic fuel cell providing a power density of 103 μW cm(-2) at pH 5.5.

  19. Species assembly in model ecosystems, II: Results of the assembly process.

    PubMed

    Capitán, José A; Cuesta, José A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2011-01-21

    In the companion paper of this set (Capitán and Cuesta, 2010) we have developed a full analytical treatment of the model of species assembly introduced in Capitán et al. (2009). This model is based on the construction of an assembly graph containing all viable configurations of the community, and the definition of a Markov chain whose transitions are the transformations of communities by new species invasions. In the present paper we provide an exhaustive numerical analysis of the model, describing the average time to the recurrent state, the statistics of avalanches, and the dependence of the results on the amount of available resource. Our results are based on the fact that the Markov chain provides an asymptotic probability distribution for the recurrent states, which can be used to obtain averages of observables as well as the time variation of these magnitudes during succession, in an exact manner. Since the absorption times into the recurrent set are found to be comparable to the size of the system, the end state is quickly reached (in units of the invasion time). Thus, the final ecosystem can be regarded as a fluctuating complex system where species are continually replaced by newcomers without ever leaving the set of recurrent patterns. The assembly graph is dominated by pathways in which most invasions are accepted, triggering small extinction avalanches. Through the assembly process, communities become less resilient (e.g., have a higher return time to equilibrium) but become more robust in terms of resistance against new invasions.

  20. Characterization of charge transfer processes inself-assembled monolayers by high-pressure electrochemical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Cruanes, M.T.; Drickamer, H.G.; Faulkner, L.R.

    1995-10-01

    Here we report the first high-pressure investigation of redox processes in surface-confined monolayers. We have explored the electrochemical behavior of ferrocene-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold electrodes immersed in aqueous solutions containing 1M NaClO{sub 4}. Electron-transfer reaction for ferrocene in the monolayer is restricted with the application of pressure, whereas the same reaction for ferrocene in solution is not. The dependence of the cyclic voltammetric peak redox potentials on pressure reveals that the oxidation of the ferrocene within the monolayer becomes thermodynamically and kinetically more difficult at high pressures. At pressures above 1-2 kbar, positive volumes of reaction are associated with the oxidation process, indicating that the oxidation step involves an increase in volume. Different monolayer samples, exhibiting different voltammetric responses, appear to impose different volume constraints on the charge transfer reaction and, therefore, present different pressure responses within a general common trend. These results point out the importance of structural and environmental effects, via steric constraints, on electron transfer processes in surface-confined monolayer assemblies. 36 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Engineered Three-Dimensional Electrodes by HVOF Process for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghasibeig, Maniya; Moreau, Christian; Dolatabadi, Ali; Wuthrich, Rolf

    2016-12-01

    High velocity oxy-fuel process was used to prepare nickel electrode coatings for hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis. To further increase the active surface area of the electrodes, pyramidal fin arrays with two different sizes were deposited on the top surface of the electrodes using mesh screen masks. The surface microstructure, topology and roughness of the coatings were studied using scanning electron microscope, optical microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Steady-state polarization curves were used to evaluate the electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes. The performance of the electrodes coated using mesh outperformed the electrode deposited without using mesh. In addition, the electrode that was coated using the coarse mesh was characterized with the highest activity with the exchange current density and overpotential values of 9.3 × 10-3 A/cm2 and -306 mV, respectively. Formation of different roughness levels due to the combination of normal and off-normal impact of the coating particles on the surface of the fins was identified as the main factor for the increased activity of this electrode toward the hydrogen evolution reaction.

  2. Fabrication process for combustion chamber/nozzle assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An integral, lightweight combustion chamber/nozzle assembly for a rocket engine has a refractory metal shell defining a chamber of generally frusto-conical contour. The shell communicates at its smaller end with a rocket body, and terminates at its larger end in a generally contact contour, which is open at its terminus and which serves as a nozzle for the rocket engine. The entire inner surface of the refractory metal shell has a thermal and oxidation barrier layer applied thereto. An ablative silica phenolic insert is bonded to the exposed surface of the thermal and oxidation barrier layer. The ablative phenolic insert provides a chosen inner contour for the combustion chamber and has a taper toward the open terminus of the nozzle. A process for fabricating the integral, lightweight combustion chamber/nozzle assembly is simple and efficient, and results in economy in respect of both resources and time.

  3. Combustion Chamber/Nozzle Assembly and Fabrication Process Therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An integral lightweight combustion chamber/nozzle assembly for a rocket engine has a refractory metal shell defining a chamber of generally frusto-conical contour. The shell communicates at its larger end with a rocket body, and terminates at its smaller end in a tube of generally cylindrical contour, which is open at its terminus and which serves as a nozzle for the rocket engine. The entire inner surface of the refractory metal shell has a thermal and oxidation barrier layer applied thereto. An ablative silica phenolic insert is bonded to the exposed surface of the thermal and oxidation barrier layer. The ablative phenolic insert provides a chosen inner contour for the combustion chamber and has a taper toward the open terminus of the nozzle. A process for fabricating the integral, lightweight combustion chamber/nozzle assembly is simple and efficient, and results in economy in respect of both resources and time.

  4. Detection and manipulation of sychronization processes during depth electrode implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiek, Michael; Zimmermann, Egon; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Sturm, Volker; Tass, Peter

    2002-03-01

    Population of phase oscillators can effectively be desynchronized with composite stimulation techniques using stochastic phase resetting principles [1]. This approach is used to design the first model-based demand controlled deep brain stimulation techniques for the therapy of neurological diseases like Parkinson's disease. We report on first tests of these novel techniques performed in patients during electrode implantation. [1] P.A. Tass: Europhys.Lett. 53(2001) 15-21; 55(2001) 171-177; Biol. Cybern. 85(2001) 343-354

  5. Nano composite membrane-electrode assembly formation for fuel cell-modeling aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaivars, G.; Linkov, V.

    2007-12-01

    Long term stability is an essential requirement for fuel cell applications in automobile and stationary energy systems. In these systems the agglomeration of the catalyst nanoparticles is a well-known phenomenon which cannot be easily overcome or compensated for by re-designing the system. A direct result of this occurrence is the irreversible decrease of the electrochemical performance. Irregularities in electric field distribution are one root cause for migration and subsequent agglomeration of the catalyst nanoparticle. In this work, the impact of the electrode mechanical deformation on electric field distribution was studied using a computer modeling approach. Model of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell with interdigitated flow field from Comsol Chemical Engineering/Electrochemical Engineering Module library was used for simulations. It was established that by minimizing the backing layer deformation it is possible to achieve some improvement in current distribution.

  6. Flame-based processing as a practical approach for manufacturing hydrogen evolution electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Justin; Renner, Julie; Yu, Haoran; Capuano, Chris; Kwak, Tony; Wang, Yang; Carter, C. Barry; Ayers, Kathy; Mustain, William E.; Maric, Radenka

    2014-12-01

    Catalyst structure and morphology are inevitably dictated by the synthesis route, which in-turn dictates catalyst activity, stability and utilization in the electrode. Reactive spray deposition technology (RSDT) is a promising synthesis route for electrode manufacturing because of the potential to achieve high-throughput processing under a diverse range of process configurations. This work investigates several unique approaches to Pt catalyst deposition using jet-flame synthesis for water electrolysis electrodes. Direct application of the catalyst film onto Nafion 117 and carbon paper is explored along with approaches to dispersing the Pt onto carbon or TinO2n-1. Operational challenges relating to the harsh conditions of H2 evolution and electrode adhesion are addressed by adding binder and catalyst support to the electrode structure. The RSDT technology produces an electrode, coated directly onto Nafion 117®, with a 20-fold reduction in Pt loading while maintaining high in-cell performance (2.1 V at 2 A cm-2) compared to an industry-level baseline. Durability testing at 1.8 A cm-2, 400 psi differential pressure and a temperature of 50 °C yields a consistent potential of ∼2.2 V for over 1100 h without failure. The same electrode applied directly to carbon paper resulted in a voltage of ∼2.1 V for ∼600 h without failure.

  7. Evaluation of the potential of various aquatic eco-systems in harnessing bioelectricity through benthic fuel cell: effect of electrode assembly and water characteristics.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Srikanth, S; Veer Raghuvulu, S; Mohanakrishna, G; Kiran Kumar, A; Sarma, P N

    2009-04-01

    Six different types of ecological water bodies were evaluated to assess their potential to generate bioelectricity using benthic type fuel cell assemblies. Experiments were designed with various combinations of electrode assemblies, surface area of anode and anodic materials. Among the 32 experiments conducted, nine combinations evidenced stable electron-discharge/current. Nature, flow conditions and characteristics of water bodies showed significant influence on the power generation apart from electrode assemblies, surface area of anode and anodic material. Stagnant water bodies showed comparatively higher power output than the running water bodies. Placement of cathode on algal mat (as bio-cathode) documented several folds increment in power output. Electron-discharge started at 1000 Omega resistance in polluted water bodies (Nacaharam cheruvu, Hussain Sagar lake Musi river), whereas, in relatively less polluted water bodies (Uppal pond/stream, Godavari river) electron-discharge was observed at low resistances (500/750 Omega).

  8. On-Surface Cross Coupling Methods for the Construction of Modified Electrode Assemblies with Tailored Morphologies †

    PubMed Central

    Gietter, Amber A. S.; Pupillo, Rachel C.; Yap, Glenn P. A.; Beebe, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the molecular topology of electrode–catalyst interfaces is a critical factor in engineering devices with specific electron transport kinetics and catalytic efficiencies. As such, the development of rational methods for the modular construction of tailorable electrode surfaces with robust molecular wires (MWs) exhibiting well-defined molecular topologies, conductivities and morphologies is critical to the evolution and implementation of electrochemical arrays for sensing and catalysis. In response to this need, we have established modular on-surface Sonogashira and Glaser cross-coupling processes to synthetically install arrays of ferrocene-capped MWs onto electrochemically functionalized surfaces. These methods are of comparable convenience and efficiency to more commonly employed Huisgen methods. Furthermore, unlike the Huisgen reaction, this new surface functionalization chemistry generates modified electrodes that do not contain unwanted ancillary metal binding sites, while allowing the bridge between the ferrocenyl moiety and electrode surface to be synthetically tailored. Electrochemical and surface analytical characterization of these platforms demonstrate that the linker topology and connectivity influences the ferrocene redox potential and the kinetics of charge transport at the interface. PMID:25520772

  9. Free surface BCP self-assembly process characterization with CDSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Shimon; Weinberg, Yakov; Adan, Ofer; Klinov, Michael; Argoud, Maxime; Claveau, Guillaume; Tiron, Raluca

    2016-03-01

    A simple and common practice to evaluate Block copolymers (BCP) self-assembly performances, is on a free surface wafer. With no guiding pattern the BCP designed to form line space pattern for example, spontaneously rearranges to form a random fingerprint type of a pattern. The nature of the rearrangement is dictated by the physical properties of the BCP moieties, wafer surface treatment and the self-assembly process parameters. Traditional CDSEM metrology algorithms are designed to measure pattern with predefined structure, like linespace or oval via holes. Measurement of pattern with expected geometry can reduce measurement uncertainty. Fingerprint type of structure explored in this dissertation, poses a challenge for CD-SEM measurement uncertainty and offers an opportunity to explore 2D metrology capabilities. To measure this fingerprints we developed a new metrology approach that combines image segmentation and edge detection to measure 2D pattern with arbitrary rearrangement. The segmentation approach enabled to quantify the quality of the BCP material and process, detecting 2D attributes such as: CD and CDU at one axis, and number of intersections, length and number of PS fragments, etched PMMA spaces and donut shapes numbers on the second axis. In this paper we propose a 2D metrology to measure arbitrary BCP pattern on a free surface wafer. We demonstrate experimental results demonstrating precision data, and characterization of PS-b-PMMA BCP, intrinsic period L0 = 38nm (Arkema), processed at different bake time and temperatures.

  10. Self-assembled dummy patterns for lithography process margin enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, James; Nam, Byoung-Sub; Jeong, Joo-Hong; Nam, Byung-Ho; Yim, Dong Gyu

    2007-03-01

    Over the last couple of years, Design For Manufacturability (DFM) has progressed from concept to practice. What we thought then is actually applied to the design step to meet the high demand placed upon very high tech devices we make today. One of the DFM procedures that benefit the lithography process margin is generation of dummy patterns. Dummy pattern generated at design step enables stable yet high lithography process margin for many of the high technology device. But actual generation of the dummy pattern is very complex and risky for many of the layer used for memory devices. Dummy generation for simple pattern layers such as Poly or Isolation layer is not so difficult since pattern composed for these layers are usually 1 dimensional or very simple 2 dimensional patterns. But for interconnection layers that compose of complex 2 dimensional patterns, dummy pattern generation is very risky and requires lots of time and effort to safely place the dummy patterns. In this study, we propose simple self assembled dummy (SAD) generation algorithm to place dummy pattern for the complex 2 dimensional interconnection layers. This algorithm automatically self assembles dummy pattern based on the original design layout, therefore insuring the safety and simplicity of the generated dummy to the original design. Also we will evaluate SAD on interconnection layer using commercial Model Based Verification (MBV) tool to verify its applicability for both litho process margin and DFM perspective.

  11. Investigation of Ruthenium Dissolution in Advanced Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Direct Methanol Based Fuel Cell Stacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Firdosy, S.; Koel, B. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    Dissolution of ruthenium was observed in the 80-cell stack. Duration testing was performed in single cell MEAs to determine the pathway of cell degradation. EDAX analysis on each of the single cell MEAs has shown that the Johnson Matthey commercial catalyst is stable in DMFC operation for 250 hours, no ruthenium dissolution was observed. Changes in the hydrophobicity of the cathode backing papers was minimum. Electrode polarization analysis revealed that the MEA performance loss is attributed to changes in the cathode catalyst layer. Ruthenium migration does not seem to occur during cell operation but can occur when methanol is absent from the anode compartment, the cathode compartment has access to air, and the cells in the stack are electrically connected to a load (Shunt Currents). The open-to-air cathode stack design allowed for: a) The MEAs to have continual access to oxygen; and b) The stack to sustain shunt currents. Ruthenium dissolution in a DMFC stack can be prevented by: a) Developing an internally manifolded stacks that seal reactant compartments when not in operation; b) Bringing the cell voltages to zero quickly when not in operation; and c) Limiting the total number of cells to 25 in an effort to limit shunt currents.

  12. Fully solution processed PEDOT:PSS and silver nanowire semitransparent electrodes for thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaagensmith, Bjorn

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), such as semitransparent organic solar cells (OSC) for power generating windows, is a promising method for implementing renewable energy under the looming threat of depleting fossil fuels. OSC require a solution processed transparent electrode to be cost effective; but typically employ a non-solution processed indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrode. PEDOT:PSS and silver nanowire transparent electrodes have emerged as a promising alternative to ITO and are solution processed compatible. However, PEDOT:PSS requires a strong acid treatment, which is incompatible with high throughput solution processed fabrication techniques. Silver nanowires suffer from a short lifetime when subject to electrical stress. The goals of this work were to fabricate a PEDOT:PSS electrodes without using strong acids, a silver nanowire electrode with a lifetime that can exceed 6000 hours of constant electrical stress, and use these two electrodes to fabricate a semitransparent OSC. Exploring optimal solvent blend additives in conjunction with solvent bend post treatments for PEDOT:PSS electrodes could provide an acid free method that results in comparable sheet resistance and transmittance of ITO electrodes. Silver nanowires fail under electrical stress due to sulfur corrosion and Joule heating (which melts and breaks apart electrical contact). A silver oxide layer coating the nanowires could hinder sulfur corrosion and help redistribute heat. Moreover, nanowires with thicker diameters could also exhibit higher heat tolerance and take longer to corrode. Four layer PEDOT:PSS electrodes with optimal solvent blend additives and post treatments were fabricated by spin coating. Silver nanowire electrodes of varying nanowire diameter with and without UV-ozone treatment were fabricated by spray coating and subject to electrical stress of 20 mA/cm2 constant current density. PEDOT:PSS electrodes exhibited a sheet resistance of 80 O/□ and average

  13. Lead-acid bipolar battery assembled with primary chemically formed positive pasted electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, H.; Shamsipur, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Mousavi, M. F.

    Primary chemically formed lead dioxide (PbO 2) was used as positive electrode in preparation of lead-acid bipolar batteries. Chemical oxidation was carried out by both mixing and dipping methods using an optimized amount of ammonium persulfate as a suitable oxidizing agent. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the weight ratio of β-PbO 2 to α-PbO 2 is more for mixing method before electrochemical forming. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate charge transfer resistance of the lead dioxide obtained by mixing and dipping methods before and after electrochemical forming. Four types of bipolar lead-acid batteries were produced with: (1) lead substrate and conventional electroforming; (2) carbon doped polyethylene substrate with conventional electroforming; (3) carbon doped polyethylene substrate with chemical forming after curing and drying steps in oxidant bath, followed by electrochemical forming, and (4) carbon doped polyethylene substrate with primary chemical oxidation in mixing step, followed by conventional electroforming. The capacity and cycle-life tests of the prepared bipolar batteries were performed by a home-made battery tester and using the pulsed current method. The prepared batteries showed low weight, high capacity, high energy density and high power density. The first capacities of bipolar batteries of type 1-4 were found to be 152, 150, 180 and 198 mAh g -1, respectively. The experimental results showed that the prepared 6 V bipolar batteries of type 1-4 have power density (per cell unit) of 59.7, 57.4, 78.46 and 83.30 mW g -1 (W kg -1), respectively.

  14. Dry-Processed, Binder-Free Holey Graphene Electrodes for Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Areal Loadings.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Evan D; Han, Xiaogang; Lacey, Steven D; Kim, Jae-Woo; Connell, John W; Hu, Liangbing; Lin, Yi

    2016-11-02

    For commercial applications, the need for smaller footprint energy storage devices requires more energy to be stored per unit area. Carbon nanomaterials, especially graphene, have been studied as supercapacitor electrodes and can achieve high gravimetric capacities affording high gravimetric energy densities. However, most nanocarbon-based electrodes exhibit a significant decrease in their areal capacitances when scaled to the high mass loadings typically used in commercially available cells (∼10 mg/cm(2)). One of the reasons for this behavior is that the additional surface area in thick electrodes is not readily accessible by electrolyte ions due to the large tortuosity. Furthermore, the fabrication of such electrodes often involves complicated processes that limit the potential for mass production. Here, holey graphene electrodes for supercapacitors that are scalable in both production and areal capacitance are presented. The lateral surface porosity on the graphene sheets was created using a facile single-step air oxidation method, and the resultant holey graphene was compacted under ambient conditions into mechanically robust monolithic shapes that can be directly used as binder-free electrodes. In comparison, pristine graphene discs under similar binder-free compression molding conditions were extremely brittle and thus not deemed useful for electrode applications. The coin cell supercapacitors, based on these holey graphene electrodes exhibited small variations in gravimetric capacitance over a wide range of areal mass loadings (∼1-30 mg/cm(2)) at current densities as high as 30 mA/cm(2), resulting in the near-linear increase of the areal capacitance (F/cm(2)) with the mass loading. The prospects of the presented method for facile binder-free ultrathick graphene electrode fabrication are discussed.

  15. Optimization of hollow cathode discharge electrode for damage free remote plasma removal process for semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Tae S.; Han, Qing; Yang, Dongqing; Park, Soonam; Lubomirsky, Dima; Venkataraman, Shankar

    2016-05-01

    Cone-shaped hollow cathode electrode configuration for a damage free remote plasma removal process has been optimized for given pressures based on Paschen characteristic curves, voltage-current characteristics and time-resolved discharge observations as well as oxide film removal performances. Remote plasmas have been generated in two types of cone-shaped electrodes with mixtures of He, NF3, and NH3 for pressure range of 1-30 Torr. Paschen characteristic curves and voltage-current (V-I) characteristics define an operating pressure for low breakdown voltage and the hollow cathode effect to minimize the particles. Sinusoidal voltage waveform and asymmetry electrode configuration alternate the glow discharge and hollow cathode discharge modes in a cycle. The current and infrared emission intensity from the glow discharge increases together for both cone-shaped electrodes with increasing pressure, whereas the hollow cathode discharge plasma emits strong infrared only when pD condition is satisfied. For the wide cone electrode configuration, high voltage operation at higher pressure results in particle contamination on the processed wafer by high energy ion bombardment. Operating at optimum pressure for a given electrode configuration shows faster oxide etch rate with better uniformity over a whole 300 mm wafer.

  16. Process and assembly plans for low cost commercial fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, Stephen; Starkey, Val

    1991-01-01

    Cost and weight reduction for a composite structure is a result of selecting design concepts that can be built using efficient low cost manufacturing and assembly processes. Since design and manufacturing are inherently cost dependent, concurrent engineering in the form of a Design-Build Team (DBT) is essential for low cost designs. Detailed cost analysis from DBT designs and hardware verification must be performed to identify the cost drivers and relationships between design and manufacturing processes. Results from the global evaluation are used to quantitatively rank design, identify cost centers for higher ranking design concepts, define and prioritize a list of technical/economic issues and barriers, and identify parameters that control concept response. These results are then used for final design optimization.

  17. Room-temperature solution-processed and metal oxide-free nano-composite for the flexible transparent bottom electrode of perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haifei; Sun, Jingsong; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Shunmian; Choy, Wallace C H

    2016-03-21

    The exploration of low-temperature and solution-processed charge transporting and collecting layers can promote the development of low-cost and large-scale perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) through an all solution process. Here, we propose a room-temperature solution-processed and metal oxide-free nano-composite composed of a silver nano-network and graphene oxide (GO) flawless film for the transparent bottom electrode of a PVSC. Our experimental results show that the amount of GO flakes play a critical role in forming the flawless anti-corrosive barrier in the silver nano-network through a self-assembly approach under ambient atmosphere, which can effectively prevent the penetration of liquid or gaseous halides and their corrosion against the silver nano-network underneath. Importantly, we simultaneously achieve good work function alignment and surface wetting properties for a practical bottom electrode by controlling the degree of reduction of GO flakes. Finally, flexible PVSC adopting the room-temperature and solution-processed nano-composite as the flexible transparent bottom electrode has been demonstrated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. As a consequence, the demonstration of our room-temperature solution-processed and metal oxide-free flexible transparent bottom electrode will contribute to the emerging large-area flexible PVSC technologies.

  18. Conception and optimization of a membrane electrode assembly microbial fuel cell (MEA-MFC) for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, O; Uzabiaga, A; Shen, Y J; Tan, Z; Cheng, Y P; Liu, W; Ng, H Y

    2011-01-01

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for microbial fuel cells (MEA-MFC) was developed for continuous electricity production while treating domestic wastewater concurrently. It was optimized via three upgraded versions (noted α, β and γ) in terms of design (current collectors, hydrophilic separator nature) and operating conditions (hydraulic retention time, external resistance, aeration rate, recirculation). An overall rise of power by over 100% from version α to γ shows the importance of factors such as the choice of proper construction materials and prevention of short-circuits. A power of 2.5 mW was generated with a hydraulic retention time of 2.3 h when a Selemion proton exchange membrane was used as a hydrophilic separator in the MEA and 2.8 mW were attained with a reverse osmosis membrane. The MFC also showed a competitive value of internal resistance (≈40-50 Ω) as compared to the literature, especially considering its large volume (3 L). However, the operation of our system in a complete loop where the anolyte was allowed to trickle over the cathode (version γ) resulted in system failure.

  19. Development of membrane electrode assembly for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell by catalyst coating membrane method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Huagen; Su, Huaneng; Pollet, Bruno G.; Pasupathi, Sivakumar

    2015-08-01

    Membrane electrode assembly (MEA), which contains cathode and anode catalytic layer, gas diffusion layers (GDL) and electrolyte membrane, is the key unit of a PEMFC. An attempt to develop MEA for ABPBI membrane based high temperature (HT) PEMFC is conducted in this work by catalyst coating membrane (CCM) method. The structure and performance of the MEA are examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and I-V curve. Effects of the CCM preparation method, Pt loading and binder type are investigated for the optimization of the single cell performance. Under 160 °C and atmospheric pressure, the peak power density of the MEA, with Pt loading of 0.5 mg cm-2 and 0.3 mg cm-2 for the cathode and the anode, can reach 277 mW cm-2, while a current density of 620 A cm-2 is delivered at the working voltage of 0.4 V. The MEA prepared by CCM method shows good stability operating in a short term durability test: the cell voltage maintained at ∼0.45 V without obvious drop when operated at a constant current density of 300 mA cm-2 and 160 °C under ambient pressure for 140 h.

  20. Square Wave Voltammetry of TNT at Gold Electrodes Modified with Self-Assembled Monolayers Containing Aromatic Structures

    PubMed Central

    Trammell, Scott A.; Zabetakis, Dan; Moore, Martin; Verbarg, Jasenka; Stenger, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Square wave voltammetry for the reduction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was measured in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 8) at gold electrodes modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) containing either an alkane thiol or aromatic ring thiol structures. At 15 Hz, the electrochemical sensitivity (µA/ppm) was similar for all SAMs tested. However, at 60 Hz, the SAMs containing aromatic structures had a greater sensitivity than the alkane thiol SAM. In fact, the alkane thiol SAM had a decrease in sensitivity at the higher frequency. When comparing the electrochemical response between simulations and experimental data, a general trend was observed in which most of the SAMs had similar heterogeneous rate constants within experimental error for the reduction of TNT. This most likely describes a rate limiting step for the reduction of TNT. However, in the case of the alkane SAM at higher frequency, the decrease in sensitivity suggests that the rate limiting step in this case may be electron tunneling through the SAM. Our results show that SAMs containing aromatic rings increased the sensitivity for the reduction of TNT when higher frequencies were employed and at the same time suppressed the electrochemical reduction of dissolved oxygen. PMID:25549081

  1. Generation of Transparent Oxygen Evolution Electrode Consisting of Regularly Ordered Nanoparticles from Self-Assembly Cobalt Phthalocyanine as a Template.

    PubMed

    Ziani, Ahmed; Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Stegenburga, Liga; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-11-30

    The decoration of (photo)electrodes for efficient photoresponse requires the use of electrocatalysts with good dispersion and high transparency for efficient light absorption by the photoelectrode. As a result of the ease of thermal evaporation and particulate self-assembly growth, the phthalocyanine molecular species can be uniformly deposited layer-by-layer on the surface of substrates. This structure can be used as a template to achieve a tunable amount of catalysts, high dispersion of the nanoparticles, and transparency of the catalysts. In this study, we present a systematic study of the structural and optical properties, surface morphologies, and electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance of cobalt oxide prepared from a phthalocyanine metal precursor. Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) films with different thicknesses were deposited by thermal evaporation on different substrates. The films were annealed at 400 °C in air to form a material with the cobalt oxide phase. The final Co oxide catalysts exhibit high transparency after thermal treatment. Their OER measurements demonstrate well expected mass activity for OER. Thermally evaporated and treated transition metal oxide nanoparticles are attractive for the functionalization of (photo)anodes for water oxidation.

  2. Sensitive detection of clozapine using a gold electrode modified with 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid self-assembled monolayer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Qu, Song; Zhang, Song; Liu, Baohong; Kong, Jilie

    2007-04-30

    Clozapine, an effective antipsychotic drug, was found generating a pair of redox peaks at about 0.33-0.4V (versus SCE) at 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (i.e. MHA) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modified gold electrode (i.e. MHA/Au) in 0.05molL(-1) Tris-HCl (pH 8.1) buffer solution. Sensitive and quantitative measurement of clozapine based on anodic peak was established under optimum conditions. The anodic peak current was linear to clozapine concentration in the range from 1x10(-6) to 5x10(-5)molL(-1) with the detection limit of 7x10(-9)molL(-1). This method was successfully applied to the detection of clozapine in drug tablets and proved to be reliable compared with ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV). The MHA SAM was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle goniometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical probe.

  3. Influence of the solution pH in the 6-mercaptopurine self-assembled monolayer (6MP-SAM) on a Au(111) single-crystal electrode.

    PubMed

    Madueño, Rafael; García-Raya, Daniel; Viudez, Alfonso J; Sevilla, José M; Pineda, Teresa; Blázquez, Manuel

    2007-10-23

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) have been prepared on a Au(111) single-crystal electrode by immersion of the metal surface in a 100 microM 6MP and 0.01 M HClO4 solution. The 6MP-SAM Au(111) single-crystal electrodes were transferred to the cell and allowed to equilibrate with the different aqueous working solutions before the electrochemical experiments. The influence of the solution pH was studied by cyclic voltammetry, double layer capacitance curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of the 6MP-SAM in acetic acid at pH 4 presents important differences in comparison to that obtained in 0.1 M KOH solutions. Cyclic voltammograms for the reductive desorption process in acid medium are broad and show some features that can be explained by a phase transition between a chemisorbed and a physisorbed state of the 6MP molecules. The low solubility of these molecules in acid medium could explain this phenomenon and the readsorption of the complete monolayer when the potential is scanned in the positive direction. The variation of the double-layer capacitance values in the potential range of monolayer stability with the pH suggests that the acid-base chemistry of the 6MP molecules is playing a role. This fact has been studied by following the variations of the electron-transfer rate constant of the highly charged redox probes as are Fe(CN)(6)-3/-4 and Ru(NH3)(6)+3/+2 as a function of solution pH. The apparent surface pKa value for the 6MP-SAM (pKa approximately 8) is explained by the total conversion of the different 6MP tautomers that exist in solution to the thiol species in the adsorbed state.

  4. Self-assembly processes in the prebiotic environment.

    PubMed

    Deamer, David; Singaram, Sara; Rajamani, Sudha; Kompanichenko, Vladimir; Guggenheim, Stephen

    2006-10-29

    An important question guiding research on the origin of life concerns the environmental conditions where molecular systems with the properties of life first appeared on the early Earth. An appropriate site would require liquid water, a source of organic compounds, a source of energy to drive polymerization reactions and a process by which the compounds were sufficiently concentrated to undergo physical and chemical interactions. One such site is a geothermal setting, in which organic compounds interact with mineral surfaces to promote self-assembly and polymerization reactions. Here, we report an initial study of two geothermal sites where mixtures of representative organic solutes (amino acids, nucleobases, a fatty acid and glycerol) and phosphate were mixed with high-temperature water in clay-lined pools. Most of the added organics and phosphate were removed from solution with half-times measured in minutes to a few hours. Analysis of the clay, primarily smectite and kaolin, showed that the organics were adsorbed to the mineral surfaces at the acidic pH of the pools, but could subsequently be released in basic solutions. These results help to constrain the range of possible environments for the origin of life. A site conducive to self-assembly of organic solutes would be an aqueous environment relatively low in ionic solutes, at an intermediate temperature range and neutral pH ranges, in which cyclic concentration of the solutes can occur by transient dry intervals.

  5. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    DOE PAGES

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; ...

    2015-05-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recentlymore » developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth.« less

  6. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan E.

    2015-05-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recently developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth.

  7. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    PubMed Central

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recently developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth. PMID:25983725

  8. Amperometric detection of catechol using tyrosinase modified electrodes enhanced by the layer-by-layer assembly of gold nanocubes and polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Karim, Md Nurul; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Hye Jin

    2014-11-15

    A novel amperometric biosensor for catechol was developed using the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of positively charged hexadecyltrimethylammonium stabilized gold nanocubes (AuNCs), negatively charged poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) and tyrosinase on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). A carboxylic acid terminated alkanethiol assembled on electrochemically deposited Au nanoparticles on a SPCE was used as a platform for LbL assembly. Each SPCE sensor surface was terminated with tyrosinase and the electrocatalytic response due to the tyrosinase reaction with catechol was measured using cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The effect of introducing AuNCs into the LbL assembly to further enhance the catechol detection performance was then investigated by comparing the SWV results to those from biosensors created using both the tyrosinase modified LbL assembly in the absence of NCs and the covalent attachment of tyrosinase. A wide dynamic range from 10nM to 80 µM of catechol with an excellent sensitivity of 13.72 A/M and a detection limit of 0.4 nM were both achieved alongside a good selectivity and reproducibility for the AuNC-modified electrodes. As a demonstration, the optimized biosensor design was applied to determine catechol concentrations in tea samples.

  9. Full-solution processed flexible organic solar cells using low-cost printable copper electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Kan; Zhen, Hongyu; Niu, Liyong; Fang, Xu; Zhang, Yaokang; Guo, Ruisheng; Yu, You; Yan, Feng; Li, Haifeng; Zheng, Zijian

    2014-11-12

    Full-solution-processed flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) are fabricated using low-cost and high-quality printable Cu electrodes, which achieve a power conversion efficiency as high as 2.77% and show remarkable stability upon 1000 bending cycles. This device performance is thought to be the best among all full-solution-processed OSCs reported in the literature using the same active materials. This printed Cu electrode is promising for application in roll-to-roll fabrication of flexible OSCs.

  10. High-performance membrane-electrode assembly with an optimal polytetrafluoroethylene content for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Gisu; Kim, MinJoong; Han, Junyoung; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Shul, Yong-Gun; Cho, EunAe

    2016-08-01

    Although high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) have a high carbon monoxide tolerance and allow for efficient water management, their practical applications are limited due to their lower performance than conventional low-temperature PEMFCs. Herein, we present a high-performance membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) with an optimal polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content for HT-PEMFCs. Low or excess PTFE content in the electrode leads to an inefficient electrolyte distribution or severe catalyst agglomeration, respectively, which hinder the formation of triple phase boundaries in the electrodes and result in low performance. MEAs with PTFE content of 20 wt% have an optimal pore structure for the efficient formation of electrolyte/catalyst interfaces and gas channels, which leads to high cell performance of approximately 0.5 A cm-2 at 0.6 V.

  11. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  12. Unraveling the complexity of mitochondrial complex I assembly: A dynamic process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Nijtmans, Leo

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian complex I is composed of 44 different subunits and its assembly requires at least 13 specific assembly factors. Proper function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme is of crucial importance for cell survival due to its major participation in energy production and cell signaling. Complex I assembly depends on the coordination of several crucial processes that need to be tightly interconnected and orchestrated by a number of assembly factors. The understanding of complex I assembly evolved from simple sequential concept to the more sophisticated modular assembly model describing a convoluted process. According to this model, the different modules assemble independently and associate afterwards with each other to form the final enzyme. In this review, we aim to unravel the complexity of complex I assembly and provide the latest insights in this fundamental and fascinating process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  13. Physico-chemical study of the degradation of membrane-electrode assemblies in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira-Aparicio, P.; Gallardo-López, B.; Chaparro, A. M.; Daza, L.

    A proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack integrated by 8-elements has been evaluated in an accelerated stress test. The application of techniques such as TEM analyses of ultramicrotome-sliced sections of some samples and XRD, XPS and TGA of spent electrodes reveal the effects of several degradation processes contributing to reduce the cells performance. The reduction of the Pt surface area at the cathode is favored by the oxidation of carbon black agglomerates in the catalytic layer, the agglomeration of Pt particles and by the partial dissolution of Pt, which migrates towards the anode and precipitates within the membrane. In the light of the TEM, EDAX and XPS results, two combined effects are probably responsible of the increase of the internal resistance of the stack cells: (i) a lower proton conductivity of the membranes due to the high affinity of the sulfonic acid groups for ions originated from Pt crystallites and other peripherical elements such as the silicone elastomeric gaskets and (ii) the increment of electrically isolated islands in the cathode gas diffusion electrodes resulting from carbon corrosion and the degradation of the perfluorinated polymers. Water accumulation and inhomogeneous gas distribution throughout the stack cells originate different degradation rates in them.

  14. Microfabricated surface-electrode ion traps for scalable quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelin, Signe; Britton, Joe; Chiaverini, John; Reichle, Rainer; Bollinger, John; Leibfried, Didi; Wesenberg, Janus; Blakestad, Brad; Epstein, Ryan; Amini, Jason; Brown, Kenton; Home, Jonathan; Hume, David; Shiga, Nobu; Itano, Wayne; Jost, John; Knill, Emmanuel; Langer, Chris; Ozeri, Roee; Wineland, David

    2007-03-01

    We confine individual atomic ions in an rf Paul trap with a novel geometry where the electrodes are located in a single plane and the ions confined above this plane [1,2,3]. This device is realized with simple fabrication procedures, making it a potential candidate for a scalable ion trap for quantum information processing using large numbers of ions. We confine laser-cooled ions 40 micrometers above planar electrodes. These electrodes are fabricated from gold on a fused quartz substrate. The heating rate of the ions is low enough to make the trap useful for quantum information processing. [1] J. Chiaverini et al., Quantum Inf. Comput. 5, 419 (2005). [2] S. Seidelin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006). [3] J. Britton et al., quant-ph/0605170.

  15. Non-aqueous Electrode Processing and Construction of Lithium-ion Coin Cells.

    PubMed

    Stein, Malcolm; Chen, Chien-Fan; Robles, Daniel J; Rhodes, Christopher; Mukherjee, Partha P

    2016-02-01

    Research into new and improved materials to be utilized in lithium-ion batteries (LIB) necessitates an experimental counterpart to any computational analysis. Testing of lithium-ion batteries in an academic setting has taken on several forms, but at the most basic level lies the coin cell construction. In traditional LIB electrode preparation, a multi-phase slurry composed of active material, binder, and conductive additive is cast out onto a substrate. An electrode disc can then be punched from the dried sheet and used in the construction of a coin cell for electrochemical evaluation. Utilization of the potential of the active material in a battery is critically dependent on the microstructure of the electrode, as an appropriate distribution of the primary components are crucial to ensuring optimal electrical conductivity, porosity, and tortuosity, such that electrochemical and transport interaction is optimized. Processing steps ranging from the combination of dry powder, wet mixing, and drying can all critically affect multi-phase interactions that influence the microstructure formation. Electrochemical probing necessitates the construction of electrodes and coin cells with the utmost care and precision. This paper aims at providing a step-by-step guide of non-aqueous electrode processing and coin cell construction for lithium-ion batteries within an academic setting and with emphasis on deciphering the influence of drying and calendaring.

  16. Fully solution-processed transparent electrodes based on silver nanowire composites for perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Areum; Lee, Hongseuk; Kwon, Hyeok-Chan; Jung, Hyun Suk; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

    2016-03-01

    We report all-solution-processed transparent conductive electrodes based on Ag nanowire (AgNW)-embedded metal oxide composite films for application in organometal halide perovskite solar cells. To address the thermal instability of Ag nanowires, we used combustive sol-gel derived thin films to construct ZnO/ITO/AgNW/ITO composite structures. The resulting composite configuration effectively prevented the AgNWs from undergoing undesirable side-reactions with halogen ions present in the perovskite precursor solutions that significantly deteriorate the optoelectrical properties of Ag nanowires in transparent conductive films. AgNW-based composite electrodes had a transmittance of ~80% at 550 nm and sheet resistance of 18 Ω sq-1. Perovskite solar cells fabricated using a fully solution-processed transparent conductive electrode, Au/spiro-OMeTAD/CH3NH3PbI3 + m-Al2O3/ZnO/ITO/AgNW/ITO, exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 8.44% (comparable to that of the FTO/glass-based counterpart at 10.81%) and were stable for 30 days in ambient air. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using AgNWs as a transparent bottom electrode in perovskite solar cells produced by a fully printable process.We report all-solution-processed transparent conductive electrodes based on Ag nanowire (AgNW)-embedded metal oxide composite films for application in organometal halide perovskite solar cells. To address the thermal instability of Ag nanowires, we used combustive sol-gel derived thin films to construct ZnO/ITO/AgNW/ITO composite structures. The resulting composite configuration effectively prevented the AgNWs from undergoing undesirable side-reactions with halogen ions present in the perovskite precursor solutions that significantly deteriorate the optoelectrical properties of Ag nanowires in transparent conductive films. AgNW-based composite electrodes had a transmittance of ~80% at 550 nm and sheet resistance of 18 Ω sq-1. Perovskite solar cells fabricated using a fully solution-processed

  17. High-performance electrode materials of hierarchical mesoporous nickel oxide ultrathin nanosheets derived from self-assembled scroll-like α-nickel hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Mingming; Hu, Zhonghua; Xu, Zijie; Liu, Yafei; Liu, Peipei; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A two-step approach is proposed to prepare high-performance NiO electrode material. First, the scroll-like α-Ni(OH)2 is prepared by hydrothermal reaction via a self-assembly growth process using guanidine hydrochloride as precipitant. Second, the precursor Ni(OH)2 is converted to NiO by calcination. The resultants of hierarchical mesoporous NiO ultrathin nanosheets are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and N2 adsorption and desorption. The electrochemical properties of the samples are evaluated though cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 6.0 M KOH electrolytic solution. The results show that the typical hierarchical mesoporous NiO ultrathin nanosheets exhibits a very large specific capacitance of 1060 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, an outstanding cyclic stability with a capacitance retention of 91% after 5000 cycles of charge-discharge and a low resistance.

  18. New architecture for modulization of membraneless and single-chambered microbial fuel cell using a bipolar plate-electrode assembly (BEA).

    PubMed

    An, Junyeong; Kim, Bongkyu; Jang, Jae Kyung; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Chang, In Seop

    2014-09-15

    A new architecture for a membraneless and single-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) which has a unique bipolar plate-electrode assembly (BEA) design was demonstrated. The maximum power of MFC units connected in series (denoted as a stacked MFC) was up to 22.8±0.13 mW/m(2) for 0.946±0.003 V working voltage, which is 2.5 times higher than the averaged maximum power density of the non-stacked MFC units. The power density in the stacked MFC using BEA was comparable to the stacked MFC using electric wire. These results demonstrate that BEAs having air-exposed cathodes can potentially be used in the stacking of membraneless single-chambered MFCs. In addition, we confirmed that the current in the stacked mode flowed faster than the non-stacked mode due to voltage increase by series connection, and the poorest of the stacked units quickly faced current depletion at higher external resistance than the non-stacked mode, leading to voltage reversal. These results imply that stacked MFC units require a relatively large current capacity in order to prevent high voltage reversal at high current region. To increase total current capacity and prevent voltage reversal of stacked MFC units, we suggested series/parallel-integrated MFC module system for scaling-up. This new concept could likely allow the application of MFC technology to be extended to various wastewater treatment processes or plants.

  19. Stochastic processes dominate during boreal bryophyte community assembly.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Nicole J; Bergeron, Yves

    2013-09-01

    Why are plant species found in certain locations and not in others? The study of community assembly rules has attempted to answer this question, and many studies articulate the historic dichotomy of deterministic (predictable niches) vs. stochastic (random or semi-random processes). The study of successional sequences to determine whether they converge, as would be expected by deterministic theory, or diverge, as stochastic theory would suggest, has been one method used to investigate this question. In this article we ask the question: Do similar boreal bryophyte communities develop in the similar habitat created by convergent succession after fires of different severities? Or do the stochastic processes generated by fires of different severity lead to different communities? Specifically we predict that deterministic structure will be more important for large forest-floor species than stochastic processes, and that the inverse will be true for small bryophyte species. We used multivariate regression trees and model selection to determine the relative weight of structure (forest structure, substrates, soil structure) and processes (fire severity) for two groups of bryophyte species sampled in 12 sites (seven high-severity and five low-severity fires). Contrary to our first hypothesis, processes were as important for large forest-floor bryophytes as for small pocket species. Fire severity, its interaction with the quality of available habitat, and its impact on the creation of biological legacies played dominant roles in determining community structure. In this study, sites with nearly identical forest structure, generated via convergent succession after high- and low-severity fire, were compared to see whether these sites supported similar bryophyte communities. While similar to some degree, both the large forest-floor species and the pocket species differed after high-severity fire compared to low-severity fire. This result suggests that the "how," or process of

  20. HTS and PCT Reliability of Chips and Flex Substrates Assembled Using a Thermosonic Flip-Chip Bonding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Cheng-Li; Kang, Min-Yi

    2012-09-01

    This study assesses the high-temperature storage (HTS) test and the pressure-cooker test (PCT) reliability of an assembly of chips and flexible substrates. After the chips were bonded onto the flexible substrates, specimens were utilized to assess the HTS test and PCT reliability. After the PCT and HTS tests, the die-shear test was applied to examine changes in die-shear forces. The microstructure of the test specimens was analyzed to evaluate reliability and to identify possible failure mechanisms. When the duration of the HTS test was increased, the percentage of gold bumps that peeled off from the surface of the copper pads on the chip side increased, and a crack was present at the bonding interface between the gold bumps and chip bond pads. This crack was due to thermal stress generated during the HTS test, and degraded the die-shear force of the assembly of chips and flexible substrates. After the PCT, the crack was present at the interface between deposited layers of copper electrodes after the specimens were subjected to the PCT for various durations. Moisture penetrated into the deposited layers of the copper electrodes, deposited layers lost their adhesion, and the crack progressed from the corner into the central bond area as the test duration increased. To improve the PCT reliability of assemblies of chips and flexible substrates using the thermosonic flip-chip bonding process, one must prevent moisture from penetrating into deposited layers of copper electrodes and prevent crack formation at the interface between nickel and copper layers. Underfill would be an effective approach to prevent moisture from penetrating into deposited layers during the PCT, thereby improving the reliability of the samples during the PCT.

  1. Measurements of lithium-ion concentration equilibration processes inside graphite electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindermann, Frank M.; Osswald, Patrick J.; Klink, Stefan; Ehlert, Günter; Schuster, Jörg; Noel, Andreas; Erhard, Simon V.; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Jossen, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Methods for estimating inner states in a lithium-ion cell require steady state conditions or accurate models of the dynamic processes. Besides often used inner states such as state-of-charge, state-of-health or state-of-function, relaxation processes strongly influence the mentioned states. Inhomogeneous utilization of electrodes and consequent limitations in the operating conditions have recently been brought to attention. Relaxation measurements after an inhomogeneous current distribution through the thickness of an electrode have not been addressed so far. By using a previously developed laboratory cell, we are able to show an inhomogeneous retrieval of lithium-ions from a graphite electrode through the layer with spatial resolution. After this inhomogeneity caused by a constant current operation, equilibration processes are recorded and can be assigned to two different effects. One effect is an equilibration inside the particles (intra-particle) from surface to bulk and vice versa. The other effect is an assimilation between the particles (inter-particle) to reach a homogeneous state-of-charge in each particle throughout the electrode layer. While intra-particle relaxation is observed to be finished within 4 h, inter-particle relaxation through the layer takes more than 40 h. The overall time for both equilibration processes shows to be in the order of 48 h.

  2. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Poa, D.S.; Pierce, R.D.; Mulcahey, T.P.; Johnson, G.K.

    1991-12-31

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl{sub 2}-CaF{sub 2} with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  3. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Poa, Davis S.; Pierce, R. Dean; Mulcahey, Thomas P.; Johnson, Gerald K.

    1993-01-01

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  4. Excitation processes at the electrolyte-electrode interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeković, Lj. D.; Urošević, V. V.; Panić, B. M.

    1980-12-01

    This work is concerned with the investigation of galvanoluminescence at the interface metal-oxide-electrolyte during DC anodization of very pure aluminum foils in boric acid-borax solution at constant current. The rate of anodic film formation, the quantitative relations between anode voltage and luminescence intensity as well as the shape of optical emission spectra at different voltages are obtained for annealed and unannealed Al samples. It is found that the previous thermal treatment has great influence on anodization and luminescence processes.

  5. Durability of Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) in PEM Fuel Cells Operated on Pure Hydrogen and Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanic, Vesna; Braun, James; Hoberecht, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy sources that have the potential to replace alkaline fuel cells for space programs. Broad power ranges, high peak-to-nominal power capabilities, low maintenance costs, and the promise of increased life are the major advantages of PEM technology in comparison to alkaline technology. The probability of PEM fuel cells replacing alkaline fuel cells for space applications will increase if the promise of increased life is verified by achieving a minimum of 10,000 hours of operating life. Durability plays an important role in the process of evaluation and selection of MEAs for Teledyne s Phase I contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center entitled Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel cell (PEMFC) Power Plant Technology Development for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). For this contract, MEAs that are typically used for H2/air operation were selected as potential candidates for H2/O2 PEM fuel cells because their catalysts have properties suitable for O2 operation. They were purchased from several well-established MEA manufacturers who are world leaders in the manufacturing of diverse products and have committed extensive resources in an attempt to develop and fully commercialize MEA technology. A total of twelve MEAs used in H2/air operation were initially identified from these manufacturers. Based on the manufacturers specifications, nine of these were selected for evaluation. Since 10,000 hours is almost equivalent to 14 months, it was not possible to perform continuous testing with each MEA selected during Phase I of the contract. Because of the lack of time, a screening test on each MEA was performed for 400 hours under accelerated test conditions. The major criterion for an MEA pass or fail of the screening test was the gas crossover rate. If the gas crossover rate was higher than the membrane intrinsic permeability after 400 hours of testing, it was considered that the MEA had failed the test. Three types of

  6. Evaluation of solution-processable carbon-based electrodes for all-carbon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ramuz, Marc P; Vosgueritchian, Michael; Wei, Peng; Wang, Chenggong; Gao, Yongli; Wu, Yingpeng; Chen, Yongsheng; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-11-27

    Carbon allotropes possess unique and interesting physical, chemical, and electronic properties that make them attractive for next-generation electronic devices and solar cells. In this report, we describe our efforts into the fabrication of the first reported all-carbon solar cell in which all components (the anode, active layer, and cathode) are carbon based. First, we evaluate the active layer, on standard electrodes, which is composed of a bilayer of polymer sorted semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes and C(60). This carbon-based active layer with a standard indium tin oxide anode and metallic cathode has a maximum power conversion efficiency of 0.46% under AM1.5 Sun illumination. Next, we describe our efforts in replacing the electrodes with carbon-based electrodes, to demonstrate the first all-carbon solar cell, and discuss the remaining challenges associated with this process.

  7. New biosensing platforms based on the layer-by-layer self-assembling of polyelectrolytes on Nafion/carbon nanotubes-coated glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Gustavo A; Miscoria, Silvia A; Desbrieres, Jacques; Barrera, Gustavo D

    2007-01-15

    We are proposing for the first time the use of a Nafion/multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersion deposited on glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) as a new platform for developing enzymatic biosensors based on the self-assembling of a chitosan derivative and different oxidases. The electrodes are obtained by deposition of a layer of Nafion/multi-wall carbon nanotubes dispersion on glassy carbon electrodes, followed by the adsorption of a chitosan derivative as polycation and glucose oxidase, l-aminoacid oxidase or polyphenol oxidase, as polyanions and biorecognition elements. The optimum configuration for glucose biosensors has allowed a highly sensitive (sensitivity=(0.28+/-0.02)muAmM(-1), r=0.997), fast (4s in reaching the maximum response), and highly selective (0% interference of ascorbic acid and uric acid at maximum physiological levels) glucose quantification at 0.700V with detection and quantification limits of 0.035 and 0.107mM, respectively. The repetitivity for 10 measurements was 5.5%, while the reproducibility was 8.4% for eight electrodes. The potentiality of the new platform was clearly demonstrated by using the carbon nanotubes/Nafion layer as a platform for the self-assembling of l-aminoacid oxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Therefore, the platform we are proposing here, that combines the advantages of nanostructured materials with those of the layer-by-layer self-assembling of polyelectrolytes, opens the doors to new and exciting possibilities for the development of enzymatic and affinity biosensors using different transdution modes.

  8. Fully solution-processed transparent electrodes based on silver nanowire composites for perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Areum; Lee, Hongseuk; Kwon, Hyeok-Chan; Jung, Hyun Suk; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

    2016-03-28

    We report all-solution-processed transparent conductive electrodes based on Ag nanowire (AgNW)-embedded metal oxide composite films for application in organometal halide perovskite solar cells. To address the thermal instability of Ag nanowires, we used combustive sol-gel derived thin films to construct ZnO/ITO/AgNW/ITO composite structures. The resulting composite configuration effectively prevented the AgNWs from undergoing undesirable side-reactions with halogen ions present in the perovskite precursor solutions that significantly deteriorate the optoelectrical properties of Ag nanowires in transparent conductive films. AgNW-based composite electrodes had a transmittance of ∼80% at 550 nm and sheet resistance of 18 Ω sq(-1). Perovskite solar cells fabricated using a fully solution-processed transparent conductive electrode, Au/spiro-OMeTAD/CH3NH3PbI3 + m-Al2O3/ZnO/ITO/AgNW/ITO, exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 8.44% (comparable to that of the FTO/glass-based counterpart at 10.81%) and were stable for 30 days in ambient air. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using AgNWs as a transparent bottom electrode in perovskite solar cells produced by a fully printable process.

  9. Oceanographic structure drives the assembly processes of microbial eukaryotic communities.

    PubMed

    Monier, Adam; Comte, Jérôme; Babin, Marcel; Forest, Alexandre; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Lovejoy, Connie

    2015-03-17

    Arctic Ocean microbial eukaryote phytoplankton form subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM), where much of the annual summer production occurs. This SCM is particularly persistent in the Western Arctic Ocean, which is strongly salinity stratified. The recent loss of multiyear sea ice and increased particulate-rich river discharge in the Arctic Ocean results in a greater volume of fresher water that may displace nutrient-rich saltier waters to deeper depths and decrease light penetration in areas affected by river discharge. Here, we surveyed microbial eukaryotic assemblages in the surface waters, and within and below the SCM. In most samples, we detected the pronounced SCM that usually occurs at the interface of the upper mixed layer and Pacific Summer Water (PSW). Poorly developed SCM was seen under two conditions, one above PSW and associated with a downwelling eddy, and the second in a region influenced by the Mackenzie River plume. Four phylogenetically distinct communities were identified: surface, pronounced SCM, weak SCM and a deeper community just below the SCM. Distance-decay relationships and phylogenetic structure suggested distinct ecological processes operating within these communities. In the pronounced SCM, picophytoplanktons were prevalent and community assembly was attributed to water mass history. In contrast, environmental filtering impacted the composition of the weak SCM communities, where heterotrophic Picozoa were more numerous. These results imply that displacement of Pacific waters to greater depth and increased terrigenous input may act as a control on SCM development and result in lower net summer primary production with a more heterotroph dominated eukaryotic microbial community.

  10. [Degradation of aniline by a dual-electrode electrochemical oxidation process].

    PubMed

    Cen, Shi-Hong; Song, Xiao-Yan; Chu, Yan-Yang

    2011-08-01

    The efficiency and the mechanism of aniline degradation by an electrochemical oxidation process using a Ti/SnO2-Sb2O5 electrode as the anode and a graphite electrode as the cathode, were studied in two aqueous electrolytes with/without Fe2+. The results showed that the reasonable anodic potential was about 2.0 V +/- 0.1 V for Ti/SnO2-Sb2O5 electrode to oxidize organic compounds, while the optimum cathodic potential was -0.65 V for graphite electrode to reduce O2 generating H2O2. The oxidation degradation of aniline could not take place only by the single action of H2O2. Anodic oxidation was accounted for the degradation of aniline in the absence of Fe2+, while in the presence of Fe2+ both electro-Fenton oxidation and anodic oxidation (dual-electrode electrochemical oxidation) could degradate aniline effectively, and in this case the former was the main mechanism. Under the conditions of -0.65 V cathodic potential, pH 3.0 and 0.5 mmol x L(-1) Fe2+, the removal rate of COD was 77.5% after 10 h treatment and a current efficiency of 97.8% for COD removal could be obtained. This work indicates that the dual-electrode electrochemical oxidation is feasible for the degradation of organic compounds with a high current efficiency by using Ti/SnO2-Sb2O5 as anode as well as the reasonable anodic and cathodic potentials.

  11. Laser Processed Silver Nanowire Network Transparent Electrodes for Novel Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spechler, Joshua Allen

    Silver nanowire network transparent conducting layers are poised to make headway into a space previously dominated by transparent conducting oxides due to the promise of a flexible, scaleable, lab-atmosphere processable alternative. However, there are many challenges standing in the way between research scale use and consumer technology scale adaptation of this technology. In this thesis we will explore many, and overcome a few of these challenges. We will address the poor conductivity at the narrow nanowire-nanowire junction points in the network by developing a laser based process to weld nanowires together on a microscopic scale. We address the need for a comparative metric for transparent conductors in general, by taking a device level rather than a component level view of these layers. We also address the mechanical, physical, and thermal limitations to the silver nanowire networks by making composites from materials including a colorless polyimide and titania sol-gel. Additionally, we verify our findings by integrating these processes into devices. Studying a hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunction photovoltaic device we show the benefits of a laser processed electrode. Green phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes fabricated on a solution phase processed silver nanowire based electrode show favorable device metrics compared to a conductive oxide electrode based control. The work in this thesis is intended to push the adoption of silver nanowire networks to further allow new device architectures, and thereby new device applications.

  12. Layer by layer assembly of ultrathin V2O5 anchored MWCNTs and graphene on textile fabrics for fabrication of high energy density flexible supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakir, Imran; Ali, Zahid; Bae, Jihyun; Park, Jongjin; Kang, Dae Joon

    2014-03-01

    Among transition metal oxides, vanadium oxides have received relatively modest attention for supercapacitor applications. Yet, this material is abundant, relatively inexpensive and offer several oxidation states which can provide a broad range of redox reactions suitable for supercapacitor operation. Electrochemical supercapacitors based on nanostructured vanadium oxide (V2O5) suffer from relatively low energy densities as they have low surface area and poor electrical conductivities. To overcome these problems, we developed a layer by layer assembly (LBL) technique in which a graphene layer was alternatively inserted between MWCNT films coated with ultrathin (3 nm) V2O5. The insertion of a conductive spacer of graphene between the MWCNT films coated with V2O5 not only prevents agglomeration between the MWCNT films but also substantially enhances the specific capacitance by 67%, to as high as ~2590 F g-1. Furthermore, the LBL assembled multilayer supercapacitor electrodes exhibited an excellent cycling performance of >97%, capacitance retention over 5000 cycles and a high energy density of 96 W h kg-1 at a power density of 800 W kg-1. Our approach clearly offers an exciting opportunity for enhancing the device performance of metal oxide-based electrochemical supercapacitors suitable for next-generation flexible energy storage devices by employing a facile LBL assembly technique.Among transition metal oxides, vanadium oxides have received relatively modest attention for supercapacitor applications. Yet, this material is abundant, relatively inexpensive and offer several oxidation states which can provide a broad range of redox reactions suitable for supercapacitor operation. Electrochemical supercapacitors based on nanostructured vanadium oxide (V2O5) suffer from relatively low energy densities as they have low surface area and poor electrical conductivities. To overcome these problems, we developed a layer by layer assembly (LBL) technique in which a graphene layer

  13. Self-assembled sulfur/reduced graphene oxide nanoribbon paper as a free-standing electrode for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Xuzhen; Dong, Yanfeng; Tang, Yongchao; Wang, Luxiang; Jia, Dianzeng; Zhao, Zongbin; Qiu, Jieshan

    2016-10-25

    Flexible, interconnected sulfur/reduced graphene oxide nanoribbon paper (S/RGONRP) is synthesized through S(2-) reduction and evaporation induced self-assembly processes. The in situ formed sulfur atoms chemically bonded with the surface of reduced graphene oxide nanoribbons and were physically trapped by the compact assembly, which make the hybrid a suitable cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries.

  14. Electron transfer from Proteus vulgaris to a covalently assembled, single walled carbon nanotube electrode functionalised with osmium bipyridine complex: application to a whole cell biosensor.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Frankie J; Garrett, David J; Leech, Donal; Downard, Alison J; Baronian, Keith H R

    2011-01-15

    We report the fabrication and use of electrodes constructed from single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) chemically assembled on a carbon surface and functionalised with an osmium(II) bipyridine complex (Osbpy). The ability of the electrodes to transduce biologically generated currents from Proteus vulgaris has been established. Our investigations show that there are two contributions to the current: one from electroactive species secreted into solution and another from cell redox sites. The modified electrode can be used to monitor cell metabolism, thereby acting as a whole cell biosensor. The biosensor was used in a 1-h assay to investigate the toxicity of ethanol, sodium azide and the antibiotic ampicillin and gave quantitative data that were closely correlated with standard cell plate viability assays. The results provide proof of principle that the whole cell biosensor could be used for high throughput screening of antimicrobial activity. One of the modified electrodes was used for approximately 1000 measurements over four months demonstrating the robustness of the system.

  15. Layer-by-layer self-assembled mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films for platinum free dye-sensitized-solar-cell counter electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei

    2011-05-13

    A thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS), which is an alternative cathodic catalyst for Pt in dye-sensitized solar cells, was prepared using the layer-by-layer self-assembly method (LbL). The film is highly adhesive to the substrate and has a controllable thickness. Therefore, the PEDOT-PSS film prepared using LbL is expected have high performance and durability as a counter electrode. Moreover, when carbon black was added to the PEDOT-PSS solution, highly mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films were obtained. These films showed high cathodic activity. In this study, we investigated the change in morphology in the obtained film with increasing carbon black content, and the influence of the porosity and thickness on the performance of the cells. In this study, a Pt-free counter electrode with performance similar to that of Pt-based counter electrodes was successfully fabricated. The achieved efficiency of 4.71% was only a factor of 8% lower than that of the cell using conventional thermally deposited Pt on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass counter electrodes.

  16. Dimensionless numbers and correlating equations for the analysis of the membrane-gas diffusion electrode assembly in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenge, E. L.

    The Quraishi-Fahidy method [Can. J. Chem. Eng. 59 (1981) 563] was employed to derive characteristic dimensionless numbers for the membrane-electrolyte, cathode catalyst layer and gas diffuser, respectively, based on the model presented by Bernardi and Verbrugge for polymer electrolyte fuel cells [AIChE J. 37 (1991) 1151]. Monomial correlations among dimensionless numbers were developed and tested against experimental and mathematical modeling results. Dimensionless numbers comparing the bulk and surface-convective ionic conductivities, the electric and viscous forces and the current density and the fixed surface charges, were employed to describe the membrane ohmic drop and its non-linear dependence on current density due to membrane dehydration. The analysis of the catalyst layer yielded electrode kinetic equivalents of the second Damköhler number and Thiele modulus, influencing the penetration depth of the oxygen reduction front based on the pseudohomogeneous film model. The correlating equations for the catalyst layer could describe in a general analytical form, all the possible electrode polarization scenarios such as electrode kinetic control coupled or not with ionic and/or oxygen mass transport limitation. For the gas diffusion-backing layer correlations are presented in terms of the Nusselt number for mass transfer in electrochemical systems. The dimensionless number-based correlating equations for the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) could provide a practical approach to quantify single-cell polarization results obtained under a variety of experimental conditions and to implement them in models of the fuel cell stack.

  17. A Framework for Geometric Reasoning About Human Figures and Factors in Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, Terri L.

    1999-07-20

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be perfectly valid operations, but in reality some operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. For example, the use of a ratchet may be reasoned feasible for an assembly operation; however, when a hand is placed on the tool the operation is no longer feasible, perhaps because of inaccessibility, insufficient strength or human interference with assembly components. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications, however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem, HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning which allows engineers to quickly verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. This paper presents a framework for integrating geometry-based assembly planning algorithms with commercially available human figure modeling software packages. Experimental results to selected applications along with lessons learned are presented.

  18. Membrane electrode assembly with enhanced platinum utilization for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell prepared by catalyst coating membrane method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Huagen; Su, Huaneng; Pollet, Bruno G.; Linkov, Vladimir; Pasupathi, Sivakumar

    2014-11-01

    In this work, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) prepared by catalyst coating membrane (CCM) method are investigated for reduced platinum (Pt) loading and improved Pt utilization of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) based on phosphoric acid (PA)-doped poly(2,5-benzimidazole) (AB-PBI) membrane. The results show that CCM method exhibits significantly higher cell performance and Pt-specific power density than that of MEAs prepared with conventional gas diffusion electrode (GDE) under a low Pt loading level. In-suit cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) show that the MEAs prepared by the CCM method have a higher electrochemical surface area (ECSA), low cell ohmic resistance and low charge transfer resistance as compared to those prepared with GDEs at the same Pt loading.

  19. Determination of low levels of cadmium ions by the under potential deposition on a self-assembled monolayer on gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Noyhouzer, Tomer; Mandler, Daniel

    2011-01-17

    The electrochemical determination of low levels of Cd using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modified Au electrode is reported. Determination was based on the stripping of Cd, which was deposited by under potential deposition (UPD). A series of short alkanethiol SAMs bearing different end groups, i.e., sulfonate, carboxylate and ammonium, were examined. Lowest level of detection (ca. 50 ngL(-1)) was achieved with a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) monolayer using subtractive anodic square wave voltammetry (SASV). Additional surface methods, namely, reductive desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, were applied to determine the interfacial structure of the electrodeposited Cd on the modified electrodes. We conclude that the deposited Cd forms a monoatomic layer, which bridges between the gold surface and the alkanethiol monolayer associating with both the gold and the sulfur atoms.

  20. Effective dose in the manufacturing process of rutile covered welding electrodes.

    PubMed

    Herranz, M; Rozas, S; Pérez, C; Idoeta, R; Núñez-Lagos, R; Legarda, F

    2013-03-01

    Shielded metal arc welding using covered electrodes is the most common welding process. Sometimes the covering contains naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). In Spain the most used electrodes are those covered with rutile mixed with other materials. Rutile contains some detectable natural radionuclides, so it can be considered a NORM. This paper mainly focuses on the use of MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) as a predictive tool to obtain doses in a factory which produces this type of electrode and assess the radiological impact in a specific facility after estimating the internal dose.To do this, in the facility, areas of highest radiation and positions of workers were identified, radioactive content of rutile and rutile covered electrodes was measured, and, considering a worst possible scenario, external dose at working points has been calculated using MCNP. This procedure has been validated comparing the results obtained with those from a pressurised ionisation chamber and TLD dosimeters. The internal dose has been calculated using DCAL (dose and risk calculation). The doses range between 8.8 and 394 μSv yr(-1), always lower than the effective dose limit for the public, 1 mSv yr(-1). The highest dose corresponds to the mixing area.

  1. Development of environmentally conscious cleaning process for leadless chip carrier assemblies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1995-04-01

    A cross-functional team of process, product, quality, material, and design lab engineers was assembled to develop an environmentally friendly cleaning process for leadless chip carrier assemblies (LCCAs). Using flush and filter testing, Auger surface analysis, GC-Mass spectrophotometry, production yield results, and electrical testing results over an extended testing period, the team developed an aqueous cleaning process for LCCAs. The aqueous process replaced the Freon vapor degreasing/ultrasonic rinse process.

  2. Modular space station, phase B extension. Information management advanced development. Volume 4: Data processing assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The computation and logical functions which are performed by the data processing assembly of the modular space station are defined. The subjects discussed are: (1) requirements analysis, (2) baseline data processing assembly configuration, (3) information flow study, (4) throughput simulation, (5) redundancy study, (6) memory studies, and (7) design requirements specification.

  3. International Space Station's Integrated Equipment Assembly processed at KSC's Space Station Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Module 1 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) is moved past a Pressurized Mating Adapter in Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) toward the workstand where it will be processed for flight on STS-97, scheduled for launch in April 1999. The IEA is one of four integral units designed to generate, distribute, and store power for the International Space Station. It will carry solar arrays, power storage batteries, power control units, and a thermal control system. The 16-foot-long, 16,850-pound unit is now undergoing preflight preparations in the SSPF.

  4. International Space Station's Integrated Equipment Assembly processed at KSC's Space Station Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Module 1 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) is moved through Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) toward the workstand where it will be processed for flight on STS-97, scheduled for launch in April 1999. The IEA is one of four integral units designed to generate, distribute, and store power for the International Space Station. It will carry solar arrays, power storage batteries, power control units, and a thermal control system. The 16-foot-long, 16,850-pound unit is now undergoing preflight preparations in the SSPF.

  5. International Space Station's Integrated Equipment Assembly processed at KSC's Space Station Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) observe the Photovoltaic Module 1 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) as it moves past them on its way to its workstand, where it will be processed for flight on STS-97, scheduled for launch in April 1999. The IEA is one of four integral units designed to generate, distribute, and store power for the International Space Station. It will carry solar arrays, power storage batteries, power control units, and a thermal control system. The 16-foot-long, 16,850-pound unit is now undergoing preflight preparations in the SSPF.

  6. International Space Station's Integrated Equipment Assembly processed at KSC's Space Station Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Module 1 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) is moved past Node 1, seen at left, of the International Space Station (ISS) in Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). The IEA will be processed at the SSPF for flight on STS-97, scheduled for launch in April 1999. The IEA is one of four integral units designed to generate, distribute, and store power for the ISS. It will carry solar arrays, power storage batteries, power control units, and a thermal control system. The 16-foot-long, 16,850-pound unit is now undergoing preflight preparations in the SSPF.

  7. International Space Station's Integrated Equipment Assembly processed at KSC's Space Station Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Module 1 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) is lifted from its container in Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) before it is moved into its workstand, where it will be processed for flight on STS-97, scheduled for launch in April 1999. The IEA is one of four integral units designed to generate, distribute, and store power for the International Space Station. It will carry solar arrays, power storage batteries, power control units, and a thermal control system. The 16-foot-long, 16,850-pound unit is now undergoing preflight preparations in the SSPF.

  8. International Space Station's Integrated Equipment Assembly processed at KSC's Space Station Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Module 1 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) is lowered into its workstand at Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), where it will be processed for flight on STS-97, scheduled for launch in April 1999. The IEA is one of four integral units designed to generate, distribute, and store power for the International Space Station. It will carry solar arrays, power storage batteries, power control units, and a thermal control system. The 16-foot-long, 16,850-pound unit is now undergoing preflight preparations in the SSPF.

  9. Anodic oxidation with doped diamond electrodes: a new advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Alexander; Stadelmann, Manuela; Blaschke, Manfred

    2003-10-31

    Boron-doped diamond anodes allow to directly produce OH* radicals from water electrolysis with very high current efficiencies. This has been explained by the very high overvoltage for oxygen production and many other anodic electrode processes on diamond anodes. Additionally, the boron-doped diamond electrodes exhibit a high mechanical and chemical stability. Anodic oxidation with diamond anodes is a new advanced oxidation process (AOP) with many advantages compared to other known chemical and photochemical AOPs. The present work reports on the use of diamond anodes for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from several industrial wastewaters and from two synthetic wastewaters with malic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) acid. Current efficiencies for the COD removal between 85 and 100% have been found. The formation and subsequent removal of by-products of the COD oxidation has been investigated for the first time. Economical considerations of this new AOP are included.

  10. Microfabricated surface-electrode ion traps for scalable quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelin, S.; Britton, J.; Chiaverini, J.; Reichle, R.; Bollinger, J. J.; Leibfried, D.; Wesenberg, J. H.; Blakestad, R. B.; Epstein, R. J.; Amini, J. M.; Brown, K. R.; Home, J. P.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Knill, E.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Shiga, N.; Wineland, D. J.

    2007-06-01

    We confine individual atomic ions in rf Paul traps with a novel geometry where the electrodes are located in a single plane and the ions are confined above this plane ootnotetextJ. Chiaverini et al., Quantum Inf. Comput. 5, 419 (2005).^, ootnotetextS. Seidelin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).^, ootnotetextJ. Britton et al., quant-ph/0605170.. These devices are realized with simple fabrication procedures, making them potentially scalable for quantum information processing using large numbers of ions. For traps fabricated from gold on fused quartz, the ions are 40 micrometers above the planar electrodes and their heating rate is low enough to make the traps useful for quantum information processing.

  11. Position dependent analysis of membrane electrode assembly degradation of a direct methanol fuel cell via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter; Zamel, Nada; Gerteisen, Dietmar

    2013-11-01

    The performance of a direct methanol fuel cell MEA degraded during an operational period of more than 3000 h in a stack is locally examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Therefore, after disassembling the MEA is cut into small pieces and analyzed in a 1 cm2 test cell. Using a reference electrode, we were capable of measuring the anode and cathode spectra separately. The spectra of the segments at different positions do not follow a specified trend from methanol inlet to outlet of the stack flow field. The anode spectra were analyzed with an equivalent circuit simulation. The conductance of the charge transfer was found to increase with current density up to a point where a raising limitation process of the complex methanol oxidation dominates, which is not a bottleneck at low current density. Further, an increase of the double layer capacitance with current density was observed. The diffusion resistance was calculated as an effective diffusion coefficient in the order of 10-10 m2 s-1; implying that the diffusion limitation is not the bulk diffusion in the backing layer. Finally, the degree of poisoning of the catalysts by carbon monoxide was measured as a pseudo inductive arc and decreases with increasing current.

  12. Protein Viability on Au Nanoparticles during an Electrospray and Electrostatic-Force-Directed Assembly Process

    DOE PAGES

    Mao, Shun; Lu, Ganhua; Yu, Kehan; ...

    2010-01-01

    We study the protein viability on Au nanoparticles during an electrospray and electrostatic-force-directed assembly process, through which Au nanoparticle-antibody conjugates are assembled onto the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to fabricate carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) biosensors. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and field-effect transistor (FET) measurements have been used to investigate the antibody activity after the nanoparticle assembly. Upon the introduction of matching antigens, the colored reaction from the ELISA and the change in the electrical characteristic of the CNTFET device confirm that the antibody activity is preserved during the assembly process.

  13. Microfluidic electrochemical device and process for chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis at the electrode-liquid interface in-situ

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li; Zhu, Zihua; Marshall, Matthew J.

    2016-03-01

    A microfluidic electrochemical device and process are detailed that provide chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis under vacuum at the surface of the electrode-sample or electrode-liquid interface in-situ. The electrochemical device allows investigation of various surface layers including diffuse layers at selected depths populated with, e.g., adsorbed molecules in which chemical transformation in electrolyte solutions occurs.

  14. Room-temperature solution-processed and metal oxide-free nano-composite for the flexible transparent bottom electrode of perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haifei; Sun, Jingsong; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Shunmian; Choy, Wallace C. H.

    2016-03-01

    The exploration of low-temperature and solution-processed charge transporting and collecting layers can promote the development of low-cost and large-scale perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) through an all solution process. Here, we propose a room-temperature solution-processed and metal oxide-free nano-composite composed of a silver nano-network and graphene oxide (GO) flawless film for the transparent bottom electrode of a PVSC. Our experimental results show that the amount of GO flakes play a critical role in forming the flawless anti-corrosive barrier in the silver nano-network through a self-assembly approach under ambient atmosphere, which can effectively prevent the penetration of liquid or gaseous halides and their corrosion against the silver nano-network underneath. Importantly, we simultaneously achieve good work function alignment and surface wetting properties for a practical bottom electrode by controlling the degree of reduction of GO flakes. Finally, flexible PVSC adopting the room-temperature and solution-processed nano-composite as the flexible transparent bottom electrode has been demonstrated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. As a consequence, the demonstration of our room-temperature solution-processed and metal oxide-free flexible transparent bottom electrode will contribute to the emerging large-area flexible PVSC technologies.The exploration of low-temperature and solution-processed charge transporting and collecting layers can promote the development of low-cost and large-scale perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) through an all solution process. Here, we propose a room-temperature solution-processed and metal oxide-free nano-composite composed of a silver nano-network and graphene oxide (GO) flawless film for the transparent bottom electrode of a PVSC. Our experimental results show that the amount of GO flakes play a critical role in forming the flawless anti-corrosive barrier in the silver nano-network through a self-assembly

  15. Self-induced "electroclick" immobilization of a copper complex onto self-assembled monolayers on a gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Gomila, Antoine; Le Poul, Nicolas; Cosquer, Nathalie; Kerbaol, Jean-Michel; Noël, Jean-Marc; Reddy, Madhusudana T; Jabin, Ivan; Reinaud, Olivia; Conan, Francoise; Le Mest, Yves

    2010-12-28

    We report the self-induced "electroclick" immobilization of the [Cu(II)(6-ethynyl-TMPA)(H(2)O)](2+) complex, by its simple electro-reduction, onto a mixed azidoundodecane-/decane-thiol modified gold electrode. The redox response of the grafted [Cu(II/I)(TMPA)] at the modified electrode is fully reversible indicating no Cu coordination change and a fast electron transfer.

  16. Self-assembled bilayers on indium-tin oxide (SAB-ITO) electrodes: a design for chromophore-catalyst photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Glasson, Christopher R K; Song, Wenjing; Ashford, Dennis L; Vannucci, Aaron; Chen, Zuofeng; Concepcion, Javier J; Holland, Patrick L; Meyer, Thomas J

    2012-08-20

    A novel approach for creating assemblies on metal oxide surfaces via the addition of a catalyst overlayer on a chomophore monolayer derivatized surface is described. It is based on the sequential self-assembly of a chromophore, [Ru(bpy)(4,4'-(PO(3)H(2)bpy)(2))](2+), and oxidation catalyst, [Ru(bpy)(P(2)Mebim(2)py)OH(2)](2+), pair, resulting in a spatially separated chromophore-catalyst assembly.

  17. Phase evolution of magnetron sputtered nanostructured ATO on grid during lithiation-delithiation processes as model electrodes for Li-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Pan; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Yulong; Wang, Ying; Li, Zhicheng

    2014-03-21

    Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO) nanostructured thin films were deposited on holey carbon grids by magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Li/electrolyte/ATO cells were assembled by using the deposited ATO grids as test electrodes. The phase component of the ATO electrodes deposited on grids before and after induction at different charge-discharge stages was characterized by using a transmission electron microscope. The results of the investigation show that the nanostructured ATO thin films undergo a reversible lithiation-delithiation process: the decomposition of SnO2 and the occurrence of metallic Sn followed by the formation of an Li-Sn alloy during the discharge process, and then the reversible de-alloying reaction of the Li-Sn alloy and Sn reaction with Li2O, and even partial formation of SnO2 during charge process. The work also shows that the method deposited the active materials directly on the holey carbon grids is a simple and effective way for the investigation of the phase evolution of the electrodes in electrochemical cells.

  18. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled Graphene Multilayers as Pt-Free Alternative Counter Electrodes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Rani, Adila; Chung, Kyungwha; Kwon, Jeong; Kim, Sung June; Jang, Yoon Hee; Jang, Yu Jin; Quan, Li Na; Yoon, Minji; Park, Jong Hyeok; Kim, Dong Ha

    2016-05-11

    Low cost, charged, and large scale graphene multilayers fabricated from nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide N-rGO(+), nitrogen and sulfur codoped reduced graphene oxide NS-rGO(+), and undoped reduced graphene oxide rGO(-) were applied as alternative counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The neat rGO-based counter electrodes were developed via two types of layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly (SA) methods: spin coating and spray coating methods. In the spin coating method, two sets of multilayer films were fabricated on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using GO(-) combined with N-GO(+) followed by annealing and denoted as [rGO(-)/N-rGO(+)]n or with NS-GO(+) and denoted as [rGO(-)/NS-rGO(+)]n for counter electrodes in DSSCs. The DSSCs employing new types of counter electrodes exhibited ∼7.0% and ∼6.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) based on ten bilayers of [rGO(-)/N-rGO(+)]10 and [rGO(-)/NS-rGO(+)]10, respectively. The DSSCs equipped with a blend of one bilayer of [rGO(-):N-rGO(+)] and [rGO(-):NS-rGO(+)] on PDDA-coated FTO substrates were prepared from a spray coating and showed ∼6.4% and ∼5.6% PCE, respectively. Thus, it was demonstrated that a combination of undoped, nitrogen-doped, and nitrogen and sulfur codoped reduced graphene oxides can be considered as potentially powerful Pt-free electrocatalysts and alternative electrodes in conventional photovoltaic devices.

  19. On the Automatic Generation of Plans for Life Cycle Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing products for easy assembly and disassembly during their entire life cycles for purposes including product assembly, product upgrade, product servicing and repair, and product disposal is a process that involves many disciplines. In addition, finding the best solution often involves considering the design as a whole and by considering its intended life cycle. Different goals and manufacturing plan selection criteria, as compared to initial assembly, require re-visiting significant fundamental assumptions and methods that underlie current assembly planning techniques. Previous work in this area has been limited to either academic studies of issues in assembly planning or to applied studies of life cycle assembly processes that give no attention to automatic planning. It is believed that merging these two areas will result in a much greater ability to design for, optimize, and analyze the cycle assembly processes. The study of assembly planning is at the very heart of manufacturing research facilities and academic engineering institutions; and, in recent years a number of significant advances in the field of assembly planning have been made. These advances have ranged from the development of automated assembly planning systems, such as Sandia's Automated Assembly Analysis System Archimedes 3.0{copyright}, to the startling revolution in microprocessors and computer-controlled production tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), flexible manufacturing systems (EMS), and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). These results have kindled considerable interest in the study of algorithms for life cycle related assembly processes and have blossomed into a field of intense interest. The intent of this manuscript is to bring together the fundamental results in this area, so that the unifying principles and underlying concepts of algorithm design may more easily be implemented in practice.

  20. High-performance semitransparent perovskite solar cells with solution-processed silver nanowires as top electrodes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Azimi, Hamed; Hou, Yi; Przybilla, Thomas; Hu, Mengyao; Bronnbauer, Carina; Langner, Stefan; Spiecker, Erdmann; Forberich, Karen; Brabec, Christoph J

    2015-02-07

    In this work, we report efficient semitransparent perovskite solar cells using solution-processed silver nanowires (AgNWs) as top electrodes. A thin layer of zinc oxide nanoparticles is introduced beneath the AgNWs, which fulfills two essential functionalities: it ensures ohmic contact between the PC60BM and the AgNWs and it serves as a physical foundation that enables the solution-deposition of AgNWs without causing damage to the underlying perovskite. The as-fabricated semitransparent perovskite cells show a high fill factor of 66.8%, Voc = 0.964 V, Jsc = 13.18 mA cm(-2), yielding an overall efficiency of 8.49% which corresponds to 80% of the reference devices with reflective opaque electrodes.

  1. All-solution processed semi-transparent perovskite solar cells with silver nanowires electrode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kaiyu; Li, Fushan; Zhang, Jianhua; Veeramalai, Chandrasekar Perumal; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-03-04

    In this work, we report an all-solution route to produce semi-transparent high efficiency perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Instead of an energy-consuming vacuum process with metal deposition, the top electrode is simply deposited by spray-coating silver nanowires (AgNWs) under room temperature using fabrication conditions and solvents that do not damage or dissolve the underlying PSC. The as-fabricated semi-transparent perovskite solar cell shows a photovoltaic output with dual side illuminations due to the transparency of the AgNWs. With a back cover electrode, the open circuit voltage increases significantly from 1.01 to 1.16 V, yielding high power conversion efficiency from 7.98 to 10.64%.

  2. A microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelin, Signe; Chiaverini, John; Reichle, Rainer; Bollinger, John; Leibfried, Didi; Britton, Joe; Wesenberg, Janus; Blakestad, Brad; Epstein, Ryan; Hume, David; Jost, John; Langer, Chris; Ozeri, Roee; Shiga, Nobu; Wineland, David

    2006-05-01

    We demonstrate confinement of individual atomic ions in a radio-frequency Paul trap with a novel geometry where the electrodes are located in a single plane and the ions confined above this plane. This device is realized with a relatively simple fabrication procedure and has important implications for quantum state manipulation and quantum information processing using large numbers of ions. We confine laser-cooled Mg-24 ions approximately 40 micrometer above planar gold electrodes. We measure the ions' motional frequencies and compare them to simulations. From measurements of the escape time of ions from the trap, we also determine a heating rate of approximately five motional quanta per millisecond for a trap frequency of 5.3 MHz.

  3. All-solution processed semi-transparent perovskite solar cells with silver nanowires electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kaiyu; Li, Fushan; Zhang, Jianhua; Perumal Veeramalai, Chandrasekar; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we report an all-solution route to produce semi-transparent high efficiency perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Instead of an energy-consuming vacuum process with metal deposition, the top electrode is simply deposited by spray-coating silver nanowires (AgNWs) under room temperature using fabrication conditions and solvents that do not damage or dissolve the underlying PSC. The as-fabricated semi-transparent perovskite solar cell shows a photovoltaic output with dual side illuminations due to the transparency of the AgNWs. With a back cover electrode, the open circuit voltage increases significantly from 1.01 to 1.16 V, yielding high power conversion efficiency from 7.98 to 10.64%.

  4. Methods and systems for in-situ electroplating of electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Zappi, Guillermo Daniel; Zarnoch, Kenneth Paul; Huntley, Christian Andrew; Swalla, Dana Ray

    2015-06-02

    The present techniques provide electrochemical devices having enhanced electrodes with surfaces that facilitate operation, such as by formation of a porous nickel layer on an operative surface, particularly of the cathode. The porous metal layer increases the surface area of the electrode, which may result in increasing the efficiency of the electrochemical devices. The formation of the porous metal layer is performed in situ, that is, after the assembly of the electrodes into an electrochemical device. The in situ process offers a number of advantages, including the ability to protect the porous metal layer on the electrode surface from damage during assembly of the electrochemical device. The enhanced electrode and the method for its processing may be used in any number of electrochemical devices, and is particularly well suited for electrodes in an electrolyzer useful for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen.

  5. Review of machine learning and signal processing techniques for automated electrode selection in high-density microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Van Dijck, Gert; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2014-08-01

    Recently developed CMOS-based microprobes contain hundreds of electrodes on a single shaft with interelectrode distances as small as 30 µm. So far, neuroscientists manually select a subset of those electrodes depending on their appraisal of the "usefulness" of the recorded signals, which makes the process subjective but more importantly too time consuming to be useable in practice. The ever-increasing number of recording electrodes on microelectrode probes calls for an automated selection of electrodes containing "good quality signals" or "signals of interest." This article reviews the different criteria for electrode selection as well as the basic signal processing steps to prepare the data to compute those criteria. We discuss three of them. The first two select the electrodes based on "signal quality." The first criterion computes the penalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); the second criterion models the neuroscientist's appraisal of signal quality. Last, our most recent work allows the selection of electrodes that capture particular anatomical cell types. The discussed algorithms perform what is called in the literature "electronic depth control" in contrast to the mechanical repositioning of the electrode shafts in search of "good quality signals" or "signals of interest."

  6. Flexible solar-cell from zinc oxide nanocrystalline sheets self-assembled by an in-situ electrodeposition process.

    PubMed

    Xiang, J H; Zhu, P X; Masuda, Y; Okuya, M; Kaneko, S; Koumoto, K

    2006-06-01

    Zinc oxide nanocrystalline sheets were self-assembled on a flexible polymer substrate to act as the electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells by an in situ-construction electrodeposition process. It was discovered that the nanosheet-based solar cell exhibited better performance than a nanoparticle-based solar cell or a well-oriented nanowire-based solar cell. The nanosheet microstructure has advantages which include the depression of loss during photoelectron transport, the increase of dye compound adsorption, and the enhance of incident light capture. As a result, the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells can be obviously improved. This success provides a feasible bottom-up approach for integrating a solar cell together with nanodevices and microcircuits on a flexible substrate which can work with self-supplied solar energy.

  7. Self-Assembled Bilayers on Indium–Tin Oxide (SAB-ITO) Electrodes. A Design for Chromophore–Catalyst Photoanodes

    SciTech Connect

    Glasson, Christopher R. K.; Song, Wenjing; Ashford, Dennis L.; Vannucci, Aaron K.; Chen, Zuofeng; Concepcion, Javier J.; Holland, Patrick L.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2012-08-02

    A novel approach for creating assemblies on metal oxide surfaces via the addition of a catalyst overlayer on a chomophore monolayer derivatized surface is described. It is based on the sequential self-assembly of a chromophore, [Ru(bpy)(4,4'-(PO3H2bpy)2)]2+, and oxidation catalyst, [Ru(bpy)(P2Mebim2py)OH2]2+, pair, resulting in a spatially separated chromophore–catalyst assembly.

  8. Cooperativity of the assembly process in a low concentration chromonic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Benjamin R; Nieser, Kenneth J; Collings, Peter J

    2014-11-20

    IR-806 is a near-infrared cyanine dye that undergoes a two-step assembly process in aqueous solutions. The final assemblies orientationally order into a liquid crystal at a very low concentration (∼0.6 wt % at room temperature). While the first step of the assembly process is continuous as the dye concentration or temperature is varied (isodesmic), the second step is more abrupt (cooperative). Because the absorption spectrum of IR-806 changes dramatically during the assembly process, careful equilibrium and kinetic absorption experiments are utilized to examine the details of the cooperative second step. These experiments involve changes in both concentration and temperature, allowing a close thermodynamic analysis of the assembly process. Both equilibrium and kinetic investigations reveal that the assembly process is highly cooperative and can be described by multiple models (for example, nucleation and growth) in the highly cooperative limit. The enthalpy associated with the growth process and the activation energy of the rate-limiting step during disassembly are determined. These findings have significant implications for the structure of the assemblies that form the liquid crystal phase in IR-806.

  9. Nickel-cadmium batteries: effect of electrode phase composition on acid leaching process.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Margarido, F

    2012-01-01

    At the end of their life, Ni-Cd batteries cause a number of environmental problems because of the heavy metals they contain. Because of this, recycling of Ni-Cd batteries has been carried out by dedicated companies using, normally, pyrometallurgical technologies. As an alternative, hydrometallurgical processes have been developed based on leaching operations using several types of leachants. The effect of factors like temperature, acid concentration, reaction time, stirring speed and grinding of material on the leaching yields of metals contained in anodic and cathodic materials (nickel, cadmium and cobalt) using sulphuric acid, is herein explained based on the structural composition of the electrode materials. The nickel, cobalt and cadmium hydroxide phases, even with a small reaction time (less than 15 minutes) and low temperature (50 degrees C) and acid concentration (1.1 M H2SO4), were efficiently leached. However, leaching of the nickel metallic phase was more difficult, requiring higher values of temperature, acid concentration and reaction time (e.g. 85 degrees C, 1.1 M H2SO4 and 5 h, respectively) in order to obtain a good leaching efficiency for anodic and cathodic materials (70% and 93% respectively). The stirring speed was not significant, whereas the grinding of electrode materials seems to promote the compaction of particles, which appears to be critical in the leaching of Ni degrees. These results allowed the identification and understanding of the relationship between the structural composition of electrode materials and the most important factors that affect the H2SO4 leaching of spent Ni-Cd battery electrodes, in order to obtain better metal-recovery efficiency.

  10. Contrasting assembly processes in a bacterial metacommunity along a desiccation gradient

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Angel; Makhalanyane, Thulani P.; Cowan, Don A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes in driving community assembly is a major goal in microbial ecology. Here, we have investigated the influence of these processes on bacterial community assembly in the lateral sediments of a salt pan along a desiccation gradient over a three-year period. We show that the role of deterministic processes increases in communities distant from the water line (shaped by drought), probably as a result of the interplay between abiotic and biotic factors. By contrast, the influence of stochastic processes on bacterial community assembly was higher in the sediments closest to the water line, more likely due to lower levels of abiotic stress. Our results demonstrate that both deterministic and stochastic processes influence bacterial community assembly in salt pan sediments, and that their relative influence varies along a desiccation gradient. PMID:25520714

  11. Elucidating dominant pathways of the nano-particle self-assembly process.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangze; Li, Bin; Qiao, Qin; Zhu, Lizhe; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-09-14

    Self-assembly processes play a key role in the fabrication of functional nano-structures with widespread application in drug delivery and micro-reactors. In addition to the thermodynamics, the kinetics of the self-assembled nano-structures also play an important role in determining the formed structures. However, as the self-assembly process is often highly heterogeneous, systematic elucidation of the dominant kinetic pathways of self-assembly is challenging. Here, based on mass flow, we developed a new method for the construction of kinetic network models and applied it to identify the dominant kinetic pathways for the self-assembly of star-like block copolymers. We found that the dominant pathways are controlled by two competing kinetic parameters: the encounter time Te, characterizing the frequency of collision and the transition time Tt for the aggregate morphology change from rod to sphere. Interestingly, two distinct self-assembly mechanisms, diffusion of an individual copolymer into the aggregate core and membrane closure, both appear at different stages (with different values of Tt) of a single self-assembly process. In particular, the diffusion mechanism dominates the middle-sized semi-vesicle formation stage (with large Tt), while the membrane closure mechanism dominates the large-sized vesicle formation stage (with small Tt). Through the rational design of the hydrophibicity of the copolymer, we successfully tuned the transition time Tt and altered the dominant self-assembly pathways.

  12. An effective nanostructured assembly for ion-selective electrodes. An ionophore covalently linked to carbon nanotubes for Pb2+ determination.

    PubMed

    Parra, Enrique J; Blondeau, Pascal; Crespo, Gastón A; Rius, F Xavier

    2011-02-28

    We report on the synthesis of a new hybrid material, i.e. benzo-18-crown-6 covalently linked to multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and its use in solid-state ion-selective electrodes both as a receptor and an ion-to-electron transducer. This new concept leads to potentiometric sensors with extremely high selectivity.

  13. Chiral recognition and selection during the self-assembly process of protein-mimic macroanions

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Panchao; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Lv, Hongjin; Li, Tao; Haso, Fadi; Hu, Lang; Zhang, Baofang; Basca, John; Wei, Yongge; Gao, Yanqing; Hou, Yu; Li, Yang-Guang; Hill, Craig L.; Wang, En-Bo; Liu, Tianbo

    2015-03-01

    The research on chiral recognition and chiral selection is not only fundamental in resolving the puzzle of homochirality, but also instructive in chiral separation and stereoselective catalysis. Here we report the chiral recognition and chiral selection during the self-assembly process of two enantiomeric wheel-shaped macroanions, [Fe28(μ3-O)8(Tart)16(HCOO)24]20- (Tart=D- or L-tartaric acid tetra-anion). The enantiomers are observed to remain self-sorted and self-assemble into their individual assemblies in their racemic mixture solution. The addition of chiral co-anions can selectively suppress the self-assembly process of the enantiomeric macroanions, which is further used to separate the two enantiomers from their mixtures on the basis of the size difference between the monomers and the assemblies. We believe that delicate long-range electrostatic interactions could be responsible for such high-level chiral recognition and selection.

  14. Laser-processed three dimensional graphitic electrodes for diamond radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Caylar, Benoı-carett; Pomorski, Michal; Bergonzo, Philippe

    2013-07-22

    We have used an original approach for diamond detectors where three dimensional buried graphitic electrodes are processed in the bulk of a diamond substrate via laser-induced graphitization. Prototype made of polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond was fabricated using a nanosecond UV laser. Its charge collection efficiency was evaluated using α-particles emitted by a 241-Americium source. An improved charge collection efficiency was measured proving that laser micro-machining of diamond is a valid option for the future fabrication of three dimensional diamond detectors.

  15. The definition of the process of electrochemical impregnation of nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, P.

    1983-01-01

    Electrochemical impregnation was studied during a series of experiments designed to define the optimal conditions for the fabrication of dimensionally stable cell anodes of Ni-H2 and Ni-Cd systems. The influence of various parameters, such as current and duration of electrolysis, temperature and acidity of the chemical bath, the concentrations of Ni and Co as well as the use of ethanol was determined. Results show that the electrochemical impregnation process as defined is industrially feasible and it is suggested that Ni-H2 and Ni-Cd type electrodes be produced in sufficient quantity to further evaluate their performance characteristics.

  16. Laser-processed three dimensional graphitic electrodes for diamond radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylar, Benoît; Pomorski, Michal; Bergonzo, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    We have used an original approach for diamond detectors where three dimensional buried graphitic electrodes are processed in the bulk of a diamond substrate via laser-induced graphitization. Prototype made of polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond was fabricated using a nanosecond UV laser. Its charge collection efficiency was evaluated using α-particles emitted by a 241-Americium source. An improved charge collection efficiency was measured proving that laser micro-machining of diamond is a valid option for the future fabrication of three dimensional diamond detectors.

  17. Microfabricated Surface-Electrode Ion Trap for Scalable Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelin, S.; Chiaverini, J.; Reichle, R.; Bollinger, J. J.; Leibfried, D.; Britton, J.; Wesenberg, J. H.; Blakestad, R. B.; Epstein, R. J.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Shiga, N.; Wineland, D. J.

    2006-06-01

    Individual laser-cooled Mg+24 ions are confined in a linear Paul trap with a novel geometry where gold electrodes are located in a single plane and the ions are trapped 40μm above this plane. The relatively simple trap design and fabrication procedure are important for large-scale quantum information processing (QIP) using ions. Measured ion motional frequencies are compared to simulations. Measurements of ion recooling after cooling is temporarily suspended yield a heating rate of approximately 5 motional quanta per millisecond for a trap frequency of 2.83 MHz, sufficiently low to be useful for QIP.

  18. Identification and Mitigation of Generated Solid By-Products during Advanced Electrode Materials Processing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Candace S J; Dysart, Arthur D; Beltz, Jay H; Pol, Vilas G

    2016-03-01

    A scalable, solid-state elevated-temperature process was developed to produce high-capacity carbonaceous electrode materials for energy storage devices via decomposition of a starch-based precursor in an inert atmosphere. In a separate study, it is shown that the fabricated carbonaceous architectures are useful as an excellent electrode material for lithium-ion, sodium-ion, and lithium-sulfur batteries. This article focuses on the study and analysis of the formed nanometer-sized by-products during the lab-scale synthesis of the carbon material. The material production process was studied in operando (that is, during the entire duration of heat treatment). The unknown downstream particles in the process exhaust were collected and characterized via aerosol and liquid suspensions, and they were quantified using direct-reading instruments for number and mass concentrations. The airborne emissions were collected using the Tsai diffusion sampler (TDS) for characterization and further analysis. Released by-product aerosols collected in a deionized (DI) water trap were analyzed, and the aerosols emitted from the post-water-suspension were collected and characterized. After long-term sampling, individual particles in the nanometer size range were observed in the exhaust aerosol with layer-structured aggregates formed on the sampling substrate. Upon the characterization of the released aerosol by-products, methods were identified to mitigate possible human and environmental exposures upon industrial implementation.

  19. Optimal thermionic energy conversion with established electrodes for high-temperature topping and process heating

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.F.

    1980-07-01

    Advantages of thermionic energy conversion (TEC) have been counted and are recounted with emphasis on high-temperature service in coal-combustion products. Efficient, economical, nonpolluting utilization of coal here and now is a critically important national goal. And TEC can augment this capability not only by the often proposed topping of steam power plants but also by higher-temperature topping and process heating. For these applications, applied-research-and-technology (ART) work reveals that optimal TEC with approx. 1000-to approx. 1100 K collectors is possible using well-established tungsten electrodes. Such TEC with 1800 K emitters could approach 26.6% efficiency at 27.4 W/cm/sup 2/ with approx. 1000 K collectors and 21.7% at 22.6 W/cm/sup 2/ with approx. 1100 K collectors. These performances require 1.5- and 1.7-eV collector work functions (not the 1-eV ultimate) with nearly negligible interelectrode losses. Such collectors correspond to tungsten electrode systems in approx. 0.9-to approx. 6-torr cesium pressures with 1600-to-1900 K emitters. Because higher heat-rejection temperatures for TEC allow greater collector work functions, interelectrode-loss reduction becomes an increasingly important target for applications aimed at elevated temperatures. Studies of intragap modifications and new electrodes that will allow better electron emission and collection with lower cesium pressures are among the TEC-ART approaches to reduced interelectrode losses. These solutions will provide very effective TEC to serve directly in coal-combustion products for high-temperature topping and process heating. In turn this will help to use coal-and to use it well.

  20. A 16-bit parallel processing in a molecular assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Anirban; Acharya, Somobrata

    2008-01-01

    A machine assembly consisting of 17 identical molecules of 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1–4-benzoquinone (DRQ) executes 16 instructions at a time. A single DRQ is positioned at the center of a circular ring formed by 16 other DRQs, controlling their operation in parallel through hydrogen-bond channels. Each molecule is a logic machine and generates four instructions by rotating its alkyl groups. A single instruction executed by a scanning tunneling microscope tip on the central molecule can change decisions of 16 machines simultaneously, in four billion (416) ways. This parallel communication represents a significant conceptual advance relative to today's fastest processors, which execute only one instruction at a time. PMID:18332437

  1. A nonmonotonic dependence of standard rate constant on reorganization energy for heterogeneous electron transfer processes on electrode surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weilin; Li, Songtao; Zhou, Xiaochun; Xing, Wei; Huang, Mingyou; Lu, Tianhong; Liu, Changpeng

    2006-05-01

    In the present work a nonmonotonic dependence of standard rate constant (k0) on reorganization energy (λ) was discovered qualitatively from electron transfer (Marcus-Hush-Levich) theory for heterogeneous electron transfer processes on electrode surface. It was found that the nonmonotonic dependence of k0 on λ is another result, besides the disappearance of the famous Marcus inverted region, coming from the continuum of electronic states in electrode: with the increase of λ, the states for both Process I and Process II ET processes all vary from nonadiabatic to adiabatic state continuously, and the λ dependence of k0 for Process I is monotonic thoroughly, while for Process II on electrode surface the λ dependence of k0 could show a nonmonotonicity.

  2. Self-Assembling Process for Fabricating Tailored Thin Films

    ScienceCinema

    Sandia

    2016-07-12

    A simple, economical nanotechnology coating process that enables the development of nanoparticle thin films with architectures and properties unattainable by any other processing method. 2007 R&D 100 winner (SAND2007-1878P)

  3. Self-Assembling Process for Fabricating Tailored Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-31

    A simple, economical nanotechnology coating process that enables the development of nanoparticle thin films with architectures and properties unattainable by any other processing method. 2007 R&D 100 winner (SAND2007-1878P)

  4. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based composite electrodes with improved properties prepared by a slurry spray deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ran; Sun, Yi; Zou, Bang-Kun; Deng, Miao-Miao; Xie, Jing-Ying; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2017-02-01

    A slurry spray deposition (SSD) process is utilized to prepare a LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based composite electrode supported on an aluminum foil. The spray deposition process is performed at room temperature through the atomization and deposition of the composite electrode slurry. A comparative LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based composite electrode is also prepared by the traditional blade coating method. The surface morphology and elements mapping of the electrodes are measured by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The adhesion between the composite electrode layers and the aluminum foil is also tested. A parallel evaluation on the mechanical and electrochemical performances of the two kinds of electrodes is conducted. The SSD electrode exhibits improved adhesion, cycling stability and rate capability. Therefore, the SSD process is an effective way to fabricate advanced electrodes for high performance lithium ion cells.

  5. Molecular catalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction by iron porphyrin catalysts tethered into Nafion layers: An electrochemical study in solution and a membrane-electrode-assembly study in fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qinggang; Mugadza, Tawanda; Kang, Xiongwu; Zhu, Xiaobing; Chen, Shaowei; Kerr, John; Nyokong, Tebello

    2012-10-01

    This study was motivated by the need for improved understanding of the kinetics and transport phenomena in a homogeneous catalyst system for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Direct interaction between the sulfonic groups of Nafion and an Fe(III) meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine chloride (Fe(III)TMPyP) compound was observed using FTIR and in situ UV-Vis spectroelectrochemical characterizations. A positive shift of the half wave potential value (E1/2) for ORR on the iron porphyrin catalyst (Fe(III)TMPyP) was observed upon addition of a specific quantity of Nafion ionomer on a glassy carbon working electrode, indicating not only a faster charge transfer rate but also the role of protonation in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) process. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was made as a sandwich of a Pt-coated anode, a Nafion® 212 membrane, and a Fe(III)TMPyP + Nafion ionomer-coated cathode. This three-dimensional catalysis system has been demonstrated to be working in a H2/O2 proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell test.

  6. Optimization of an integrated electrodisinfection/electrocoagulation process with Al bipolar electrodes for urban wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Cotillas, Salvador; Llanos, Javier; Cañizares, Pablo; Mateo, Sara; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2013-04-01

    In this work, a novel integrated electrochemical process for urban wastewater regeneration is described. The electrochemical cell consists in a Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) or a Dimensionally Stable Anode (DSA) as anode, a Stainless Steel (SS) as cathode and a perforated aluminum plate, which behaves as bipolar electrode, between anode and cathode. Thus, in this cell, it is possible to carry out, at the same time, two different electrochemical processes: electrodisinfection (ED) and electrocoagulation (EC). The treatment of urban wastewater with different anodes and different operating conditions is studied. First of all, in order to check the process performance, experiments with synthetic wastewaters were carried out, showing that it is possible to achieve a 100% of turbidity removal by the electrodissolution of the bipolar electrode. Next, the effect of the current density and the anode material are studied during the ED-EC process of actual effluents. Results show that it is possible to remove Escherichia coli and turbidity simultaneously of an actual effluent from a WasteWater Treatment Facility (WWTF). The use of BDD anodes allows to remove the E. coli completely at an applied electric charge of 0.0077 A h dm(-3) when working with a current density of 6.65 A m(-2). On the other hand, with DSA anodes, the current density necessary to achieve the total removal of E. coli is higher (11.12 A m(-2)) than that required with BDD anodes. Finally, the influence of cell flow path and flow rate have been studied. Results show that the performance of the process strongly depends on the characteristics of the initial effluent (E. coli concentration and Cl(-)/NH(4)(+) initial ratio) and that a cell configuration cathode (inlet)-anode (outlet) and a higher flow rate enhance the removal of the turbidity from the treated effluent.

  7. Electrochemical behavior of thiamine on a self-assembled gold electrode and its square-wave voltammetric determination in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qijin; Yang, Nianjun; Ye, Yongkang

    2002-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of thiamine on a self-assembled electrode of L-cysteine (Cys/SAM/Au) has been investigated and Cys/SAM/Au can be used to detect thiamine using square-wave voltammetry (SWV). At pH 11.40 Britton-Robinson buffer, thiamine exhibits a well-defined anodic peak on Cys/SAM/Au. Under the optimized conditions, the anodic peak current of SWV was linear with the content of thiamine in the range of 1.1 x 10(-8) - 2.2 x 10(-6) mol/L; the detection limit was 5.5 x 10(-9) mol/L. The method was successfully applied to the determination of thiamine in pharmaceutical preparations.

  8. Designing a Highly Active Metal-Free Oxygen Reduction Catalyst in Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Alkaline Fuel Cells: Effects of Pore Size and Doping-Site Position.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seonggyu; Choun, Myounghoon; Ye, Youngjin; Lee, Jaeyoung; Mun, Yeongdong; Kang, Eunae; Hwang, Jongkook; Lee, Young-Ho; Shin, Chae-Ho; Moon, Seung-Hyeon; Kim, Soo-Kil; Lee, Eunsung; Lee, Jinwoo

    2015-08-03

    To promote the oxygen reduction reaction of metal-free catalysts, the introduction of porous structure is considered as a desirable approach because the structure can enhance mass transport and host many catalytic active sites. However, most of the previous studies reported only half-cell characterization; therefore, studies on membrane electrode assembly (MEA) are still insufficient. Furthermore, the effect of doping-site position in the structure has not been investigated. Here, we report the synthesis of highly active metal-free catalysts in MEAs by controlling pore size and doping-site position. Both influence the accessibility of reactants to doping sites, which affects utilization of doping sites and mass-transport properties. Finally, an N,P-codoped ordered mesoporous carbon with a large pore size and precisely controlled doping-site position showed a remarkable on-set potential and produced 70% of the maximum power density obtained using Pt/C.

  9. Formation and dissolution processes of the 6-thioguanine (6TG) self-assembled monolayer. A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Madueño, Rafael; Pineda, Teresa; Sevilla, José Manuel; Blázquez, Manuel

    2005-02-03

    This is a report on the kinetics of the destruction and formation processes of the 6-thioguanine self-assembled monolayer (6TG SAM) on a mercury electrode from acid solutions by chronoamperometry. The destruction of the 6TG SAM that has been previously formed under open circuit potential conditions is carried out by stepping the potential from an initial value where the chemisorbed layer is stable up to potentials where the molecules are no longer chemisorbed. The destruction of the SAM has been described by a model that involves three types of contributions: (i) a Langmuir-type adsorption process, (ii) a 2D nucleation mechanism followed by a growth controlled by surface diffusion, and (iii) a 2D nucleation mechanism followed by a growth at a constant rate. The nonlinear fit of the experimental transients by using this procedure allows the quantitative determination of the individual contributions to the overall process. The kinetics of the formation process is studied under electrochemical conditions. The chronoamperometric experiment allows us to monitor the early stages of 6TG SAM formation. The implications of the physisorbed state at low potentials in the type of monolayer formation and destruction processes as well as the influence of temperature are also discussed.

  10. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOEpatents

    Chern, T.S.H.; Keller, D.G.; MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-05-12

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be over coated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance. 1 fig.

  11. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOEpatents

    Chern, Terry Song-Hsing; Keller, David Gerard; MacFadden, Kenneth Orville

    1998-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be overcoated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance.

  12. Fundamental Studies of Surface Processes and Trace Analysis Using Solid Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    electrodes. Underpotential deposition (UPD) studies were undertaken at polycystalline silver electrodes. Using the electrochemical quartz crystal... Underpotential deposition (UPD) studies were undertaken at polycrystalline silver electrodes. Using the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, it...headings. PHYSICAL ELECTROC I] CAL STUDIES. Tracking Anion Expulsion During Underpotential Deposition of Lead at Silver Using the Quartz Mlerobalance

  13. Independent active and thermodynamic processes govern the nucleolus assembly in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Falahati, Hanieh; Wieschaus, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Membraneless organelles play a central role in the organization of protoplasm by concentrating macromolecules, which allows efficient cellular processes. Recent studies have shown that, in vitro, certain components in such organelles can assemble through phase separation. Inside the cell, however, such organelles are multicomponent, with numerous intermolecular interactions that can potentially affect the demixing properties of individual components. In addition, the organelles themselves are inherently active, and it is not clear how the active, energy-consuming processes that occur constantly within such organelles affect the phase separation behavior of the constituent macromolecules. Here, we examine the phase separation model for the formation of membraneless organelles in vivo by assessing the two features that collectively distinguish it from active assembly, namely temperature dependence and reversibility. We use a microfluidic device that allows accurate and rapid manipulation of temperature and examine the quantitative dynamics by which six different nucleolar proteins assemble into the nucleoli of Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Our results indicate that, although phase separation is the main mode of recruitment for four of the studied proteins, the assembly of the other two is irreversible and enhanced at higher temperatures, behaviors indicative of active recruitment to the nucleolus. These two subsets of components differ in their requirements for ribosomal DNA; the two actively assembling components fail to assemble in the absence of ribosomal DNA, whereas the thermodynamically driven components assemble but lose temporal and spatial precision. PMID:28115706

  14. Low temperature processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells employing silver nanowires as top electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Fushan; Yang, Kaiyu; Veeramalai, Chandrasekar Perumal; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we reported a low temperature processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell employing silver nanowires as the top electrode and ZnO nanoparticles as the electron transport layer. The CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite was grown as the light absorber via two-step spin-coating technique. The as-fabricated perovskite solar cell exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 9.21% with short circuit current density of 19.75 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage of 1.02, and fill factor value of 0.457. The solar cell's performance showed negligible difference between the forward and reverse bias scan. This work paves a way for realizing low cost solution processable solar cells.

  15. Image processing algorithm for automated monitoring of metal transfer in double-electrode GMAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen Zhou; Zhang, Yu Ming

    2007-07-01

    Controlled metal transfer in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) implies controllable weld quality. To understand, analyse and control the metal transfer process, the droplet should be monitored and tracked. To process the metal transfer images in double-electrode GMAW (DE-GMAW), a novel modification of GMAW, a brightness-based algorithm is proposed to locate the droplet and compute the droplet size automatically. Although this algorithm can locate the droplet with adequate accuracy, its accuracy in droplet size computation needs improvements. To this end, the correlation among adjacent images due to the droplet development is taken advantage of to improve the algorithm. Experimental results verified that the improved algorithm can automatically locate the droplets and compute the droplet size with an adequate accuracy.

  16. Performance and durability of carbon black-supported Pd catalyst covered with silica layers in membrane-electrode assemblies of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Keitaro; Ito, Mizuki; Sato, Yasushi; Takenaka, Sakae; Kishida, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    Pd metal particles supported on a high surface area carbon black (Pd/CB) were covered with silica layers to improve the durability under severe cathode condition of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The performance and the durability of the silica-coated Pd/CB (SiO2/Pd/CB) were investigated by rotating disk electrode (RDE) in aqueous HClO4 and single cell test of the membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs). SiO2/Pd/CB showed excellent durability exceeding Pt/CB during potential cycle in single cell test as well as in RDE measurement while Pd/CB significantly degraded. Furthermore, the MEA using SiO2/Pd/CB as the cathode catalyst showed higher performance than that using Pd/CB even in the initial state. The catalytic activity of SiO2/Pd/CB was higher than that of Pd/CB, and the drop of the cell performances due to the inhibition of electron conduction, proton conduction, and oxygen diffusion by the silica layer was not significant. It has been shown that the silica-coating is a very practical technique that can stabilize metal species originally unstable in the cathode condition of PEMFCs without a decrease in the cell performance.

  17. Enhanced power production of a membrane electrode assembly microbial fuel cell (MFC) using a cost effective poly [2,5-benzimidazole] (ABPBI) impregnated non-woven fabric filter.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soojung; Kim, Jung Rae; Cha, Jaehwan; Kim, Yejin; Premier, Giuliano C; Kim, Changwon

    2013-01-01

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) microbial fuel cell (MFC) with a non-woven paper fabric filter (NWF) was investigated as an alternative to a proton exchange membrane (PEM) separator. The MFC with a NWF generated a cell voltage of 545 mV and a maximum power density of 1027 mW/m(3), which was comparable to that obtained from MFCs with a PEM (551 mV, 609 mW/m(3)). The MFC with a NWF showed stable cell performance (550 mV) over 300 days, whereas, the MFC with PEM performance decreased significantly from 551 mV to 415 mV due to biofilm formation and chemical precipitation on the membrane surface. Poly [2,5-benzimidazole] (ABPBI) was evaluated with respect to its capacity to increased proton conductivity and contact between separator and electrodes. The overall performance of the MFC with ABPBI was improved by enhancing the ion conductivity and steric contact, producing 766 mW/m(3) at optimum loading of 50 mg ABPBI/cm(2).

  18. Nano-assemblies consisting of Pd/Pt nanodendrites and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-coated reduced graphene oxide on glassy carbon electrode for hydrogen peroxide sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Di; Ma, Min; Wang, Weizhen; Chen, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensors were fabricated on the basis of glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with palladium (Pd) core-platinum (Pt) nanodendrites (Pt-NDs) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO). A facile wet-chemical method was developed for preparing Pd core-Pt nanodendrites. In this approach, the growth of Pt NDs was directed by Pd nanocrystal which could be regarded as seed. The PDDA-coated rGO could form uniform film on the surface of GC electrode, which provided a support for Pd core- Pt NDs adsorption by self-assembly. The morphologies of the nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (spectrum). Electrocatalytic ability of the nanocomposites was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric methods. The sensor fabricated by Pd core-Pt NDs/PDDA-rGO/GCE exhibited high sensitivity (672.753 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)), low detection limit (0.027 μM), wider linear range (0.005-0.5mM) and rapid response time (within 5s). Besides, it also exhibited superior reproducibility, excellent anti-interference performance and long-term stability. The present work could afford a viable method and efficient platform for fabricating all kinds of amperometric sensors and biosensors.

  19. Memory devices based on self-assembled materials and processes (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-09-01

    Device fabrication based on top-down approach will reach its limit due to difficulties in patterning and processes below 10 nm node. The bottom-up approach using self-assembled materials and processes can be a viable candidate for further device scaling, but the fabrication processes are mostly not compatible with current device fabrication. In this presentation, device fabrication strategy for next-generation data-storage devices will be discussed in detail based on self-assembled materials and processes. The emphasis is placed on compatibility with current device fabrication strategies. Ordered array of various materials and systems based on bottom-up nanotechnology can be utilized as the charge storage layer for memory devices and the templates for nanoscale device fabrication. Novel device applications, for example, printed/flexible/transparent electronic devices, will be explored based on the self-assembly processes.

  20. Predators temper the relative importance of stochastic processes in the assembly of prey metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Chase, Jonathan M; Biro, Elizabeth G; Ryberg, Wade A; Smith, Kevin G

    2009-11-01

    Communities assemble through a combination of stochastic processes, which can make environmentally similar communities divergent (high beta-diversity), and deterministic processes, which can make environmentally similar communities convergent (low beta-diversity). Top predators can influence both stochasticity (e.g. colonization and extinction events) and determinism (e.g. size of the realized species pool), in community assembly, and thus their net effect is unknown. We investigated how predatory fish influenced the scaling of prey diversity in ponds at local and regional spatial scales. While fish reduced both local and regional richness, their effects were markedly more intense at the regional scale. Underlying this result was that the presence of fish made localities within metacommunities more similar in their community composition (lower beta-diversity), suggesting that fish enhance the deterministic, relative to the stochastic, components of community assembly. Thus, the presence of predators can alter fundamental mechanisms of community assembly and the scaling of diversity within metacommunities.

  1. Cognitive Process Modeling of Spatial Ability: The Assembling Objects Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Jennifer L.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial ability tasks appear on many intelligence and aptitude tests. Although the construct validity of spatial ability tests has often been studied through traditional correlational methods, such as factor analysis, less is known about the cognitive processes involved in solving test items. This study examines the cognitive processes involved in…

  2. Focused ion beam processing to fabricate ohmic contact electrodes on a bismuth nanowire for Hall measurements.

    PubMed

    Murata, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2013-09-26

    Ohmic contact electrodes for four-wire resistance and Hall measurements were fabricated on an individual single-crystal bismuth nanowire encapsulated in a cylindrical quartz template. Focused ion beam processing was utilized to expose the side surfaces of the bismuth nanowire in the template, and carbon and tungsten electrodes were deposited on the bismuth nanowire in situ to achieve electrical contacts. The temperature dependence of the four-wire resistance was successfully measured for the bismuth nanowire, and a difference between the resistivities of the two-wire and four-wire methods was observed. It was concluded that the two-wire method was unsuitable for estimation of the resistivity due to the influence of contact resistance, even if the magnitude of the bismuth nanowire resistance was greater than the kilo-ohm order. Furthermore, Hall measurement of a 4-μm-diameter bismuth microwire was also performed as a trial, and the evaluated temperature dependence of the carrier mobility was in agreement with that for bulk bismuth, which indicates that the carrier mobility was successfully measured using this technique. PACS: 81.07.Gf.

  3. Nanoparticulate Dye-Semiconductor Hybrid Materials Formed by Electrochemical Self-Assembly as Electrodes in Photoelectrochemical Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonomura, Kazuteru; Loewenstein, Thomas; Michaelis, Esther; Kunze, Peter; Schiek, Manuela; Reemts, Jens; Yoshie Iwaya, Mirian; Wark, Michael; Rathousky, Jiri; Al-Shamery, Katharina; Kittel, Achim; Parisi, Jürgen; Wöhrle, Dieter; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Schlettwein, Derck

    2009-08-01

    Dye-sensitized zinc oxide thin films were prepared, characterized and optimized for applications as photoelectrochemically active electrodes. Conditions were established under which crystalline thin films of ZnO with a porous texture were formed by electrochemically induced crystallization controlled by structure-directing agents (SDA). Dye molecules were adsorbed either directly as SDA during this preparation step or, preferably, following desorption of a SDA. The external quantum efficiency (IPCE) could thereby be increased significantly. Particular emphasis was laid on dye molecules that absorb in the red part of the visible spectrum. Model experiments under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions with dye molecules adsorbed on defined crystal planes of single crystals aimed at a deeper understanding of the coupling of the chromophore electronic π-system within molecular aggregates and to the semiconductor surface. Detailed photoelectrochemical kinetic measurements were used to characterize and optimize the electrochemically prepared dye-sensitized ZnO films. Parallel electrical characterization in vacuum served to distinguish between contributions of charge transport within the ZnO semiconductor matrix and the ions of the electrolyte in the pore system of the electrode.

  4. Alignment and assembly process for primary mirror subsystem of a spaceborne telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Shenq-Tsong; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Chang, Chen-Peng; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chin, Chi-Chieh; Pan, Hsu-Pin; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a multispectral spaceborne Cassegrain telescope was developed. The telescope was equipped with a primary mirror with a 450-mm clear aperture composed of Zerodur and lightweighted at a ratio of approximately 50% to meet both thermal and mass requirements. Reducing the astigmatism was critical for this mirror. The astigmatism is caused by gravity effects, the bonding process, and deformation from mounting the main structure of the telescope (main plate). This article presents the primary mirror alignment, mechanical ground-supported equipment (MGSE), assembly process, and optical performance test used to assemble the primary mirror. A mechanical compensated shim is used as the interface between the bipod flexure and main plate. The shim was used to compensate for manufacturer errors found in components and differences between local coplanarity errors to prevent stress while the bipod flexure was screwed to the main plate. After primary mirror assembly, an optical performance test method called a bench test with an algorithm was used to analyze the astigmatism caused by the gravity effect and deformation from the mounting or supporter. The tolerance conditions for the primary mirror assembly require the astigmatism caused by gravity and mounting force deformation to be less than P-V 0.02 λ at 632.8 nm. The results demonstrated that the designed MGSE used in the alignment and assembly processes met the critical requirements for the primary mirror assembly of the telescope.

  5. On-Electrode Synthesis of Shape-Controlled Hierarchical Flower-Like Gold Nanostructures for Efficient Interfacial DNA Assembly and Sensitive Electrochemical Sensing of MicroRNA.

    PubMed

    Su, Shao; Wu, Yan; Zhu, Dan; Chao, Jie; Liu, Xingfen; Wan, Ying; Su, Yan; Zuo, Xiaolei; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Lianhui

    2016-07-01

    The performance for biomolecular detection is closely associated with the interfacial structure of a biosensor, which profoundly affects both thermodynamics and kinetics of the assembly, binding and signal transduction of biomolecules. Herein, it is reported on a one-step and template-free on-electrode synthesis method for making shape-controlled gold nanostructures on indium tin oxide substrates, which provide an electrochemical sensing platform for ultrasensitive detection of nucleic acids. Thus-prepared hierarchical flower-like gold nanostructures (HFGNs) possess large surface area that can readily accommodate the assembly of DNA probes for subsequent hybridization detection. It is found that the sensitivity for electrochemical DNA sensing is critically dependent on the morphology of HFGNs. By using this new strategy, a highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor is developed for label-free detection of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21), a biomarker for lung cancers. Importantly, it is demonstrated that this biosensor can be employed to measure the miRNA-21 expression level from human lung cancer cell (A549) lysates and worked well in 100% serum, suggesting its potential for applications in clinical diagnosis and a wide range of bioanalysis.

  6. Assembly and electrochemical properties of novel alkaline rechargeable Ni/Bi battery using Ni(OH)2 and (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 microspheres as electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jinfeng; Wang, Jinqing; Li, Zhangpeng; Niu, Lengyuan; Hong, Wei; Yang, Shengrong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Ni(OH)2 and (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 microspheres are synthesized by solvothermal method. Then, a novel alkaline rechargeable Ni/Bi battery is assembled for the first time using the synthesized Ni(OH)2 and (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 as the positive electrode and negative electrode materials, respectively. As a result, the assembled Ni/Bi battery delivers a high specific capacity of 113 mAh g-1 at a discharge rate of 0.2C based on the total mass of the electrode materials, as well as a high energy density of 92 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 27.3 W kg-1.

  7. A numerical study of void nucleation and growth in a flip chip assembly process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangil; Zhou, Hao Min; Baldwin, Daniel F.

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we develop mathematical models and numerical simulations of void nucleation and growth induced by the chemical reaction in the flip chip package assembly process using a no-flow underfill. During the thermal assembly process, the underfill chemically reacts to the oxidation of solders I/O on the chip, achieving interconnection between chip and substrate. The chemical reaction causes a large number of voids in the thermal reflow process. The voids have been considered as a critical defect, reducing the life of the thermal reliability. This study investigates the mechanism of void nucleation and growth based on classical bubble nucleation theory and bubble dynamics, respectively. This knowledge can provide a theoretical foundation to achieve a void-free assembly process and high reliability performance.

  8. Mitotic noncoding RNA processing promotes kinetochore and spindle assembly in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Grenfell, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription at the centromere of chromosomes plays an important role in kinetochore assembly in many eukaryotes, and noncoding RNAs contribute to activation of the mitotic kinase Aurora B. However, little is known about how mitotic RNA processing contributes to spindle assembly. We found that inhibition of transcription initiation or RNA splicing, but not translation, leads to spindle defects in Xenopus egg extracts. Spliceosome inhibition resulted in the accumulation of high molecular weight centromeric transcripts, concomitant with decreased recruitment of the centromere and kinetochore proteins CENP-A, CENP-C, and NDC80 to mitotic chromosomes. In addition, blocking transcript synthesis or processing during mitosis caused accumulation of MCAK, a microtubule depolymerase, on the spindle, indicating misregulation of Aurora B. These findings suggest that co-transcriptional recruitment of the RNA processing machinery to nascent mitotic transcripts is an important step in kinetochore and spindle assembly and challenge the idea that RNA processing is globally repressed during mitosis. PMID:27402954

  9. Modeling the competition between aggregation and self-assembly during virus-like particle processing.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yong; Chuan, Yap Pang; He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2010-10-15

    Understanding and controlling aggregation is an essential aspect in the development of pharmaceutical proteins to improve product yield, potency and quality consistency. Even a minute quantity of aggregates may be reactogenic and can render the final product unusable. Self-assembly processing of virus-like particles (VLPs) is an efficient method to quicken the delivery of safe and efficacious vaccines to the market at low cost. VLP production, as with the manufacture of many biotherapeutics, is susceptible to aggregation, which may be minimized through the use of accurate and practical mathematical models. However, existing models for virus assembly are idealized, and do not predict the non-native aggregation behavior of self-assembling viral subunits in a tractable nor useful way. Here we present a mechanistic mathematical model describing VLP self-assembly that accounts for partitioning of reactive subunits between the correct and aggregation pathways. Our results show that unproductive aggregation causes up to 38% product loss by competing favorably with the productive nucleation of self-assembling subunits, therefore limiting the availability of nuclei for subsequent capsid growth. The protein subunit aggregation reaction exhibits an apparent second-order concentration dependence, suggesting a dimerization-controlled agglomeration pathway. Despite the plethora of possible assembly intermediates and aggregation pathways, protein aggregation behavior may be predicted by a relatively simple yet realistic model. More importantly, we have shown that our bioengineering model is amenable to different reactor formats, thus opening the way to rational scale-up strategies for products that comprise biomolecular assemblies.

  10. MATERIAL PROCESSING FOR SELF-ASSEMBLING MACHINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    K. LACKNER; D. BUTT; C. WENDT

    1999-06-01

    We are developing an important aspect of a new technology based on self-reproducing machine systems. Such systems could overcome resource limitations and control the deleterious side effects of human activities on the environment. Machine systems capable of building themselves promise an increase in industrial productivity as dramatic as that of the industrial revolution. To operate successfully, such systems must procure necessary raw materials from their surroundings. Therefore, next to automation, most critical for this new technology is the ability to extract important chemicals from readily available soils. In contrast to conventional metallurgical practice, these extraction processes cannot make substantial use of rare elements. We have designed a thermodynamically viable process and experimentally demonstrated most steps that differ from common practice. To this end we had to develop a small, disposable vacuum furnace system. Our work points to a viable extraction process.

  11. Three-dimensional cell to tissue assembly process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Lewis, Marian L. (Inventor); Cross, John H. (Inventor); Huls, Mary H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates a 3-dimensional cell to tissue and maintenance process, more particularly to methods of culturing cells in a culture environment, either in space or in a gravity field, with minimum fluid shear stress, freedom for 3-dimensional spatial orientation of the suspended particles and localization of particles with differing or similar sedimentation properties in a similar spatial region.

  12. Excitonic lasing in solution-processed subwavelength nanosphere assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Liu, Xiaoze; Menon, Vinod; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2016-02-03

    Lasing in solution-processed nanomaterials has gained significant interest because of the potential for low-cost integrated photonic devices. Still, a key challenge is to utilize a comprehensive knowledge of the system’s spectral and temporal dynamics to design low-threshold lasing devices. Here, we demonstrate intrinsic lasing (without external cavity) at low-threshold in an ultrathin film of coupled, highly crystalline nanospheres with overall thickness on the order of ~λ/4. The cavity-free geometry consists of ~35 nm zinc oxide nanospheres that collectively localize the in-plane emissive light fields while minimizing scattering losses, resulting in excitonic lasing with fluence thresholds at least an order of magnitude lower than previous UV-blue random and quantum-dot lasers (<75 μJ/cm2). Fluence-dependent effects, as quantified by subpicosecond transient spectroscopy, highlight the role of phonon-mediated processes in excitonic lasing. Subpicosecond evolution of distinct lasing modes, together with three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations, indicate a random lasing process, which is in violation of the commonly cited criteria of strong scattering from individual nanostructures and an optically thick sample. Subsequently, an electron–hole plasma mechanism is observed with increased fluence. Furthermore, these results suggest that coupled nanostructures with high crystallinity, fabricated by low-cost solution-processing methods, can function as viable building blocks for high-performance optoelectronics devices.

  13. Excitonic lasing in solution-processed subwavelength nanosphere assemblies

    DOE PAGES

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Liu, Xiaoze; Menon, Vinod; ...

    2016-02-03

    Lasing in solution-processed nanomaterials has gained significant interest because of the potential for low-cost integrated photonic devices. Still, a key challenge is to utilize a comprehensive knowledge of the system’s spectral and temporal dynamics to design low-threshold lasing devices. Here, we demonstrate intrinsic lasing (without external cavity) at low-threshold in an ultrathin film of coupled, highly crystalline nanospheres with overall thickness on the order of ~λ/4. The cavity-free geometry consists of ~35 nm zinc oxide nanospheres that collectively localize the in-plane emissive light fields while minimizing scattering losses, resulting in excitonic lasing with fluence thresholds at least an order ofmore » magnitude lower than previous UV-blue random and quantum-dot lasers (<75 μJ/cm2). Fluence-dependent effects, as quantified by subpicosecond transient spectroscopy, highlight the role of phonon-mediated processes in excitonic lasing. Subpicosecond evolution of distinct lasing modes, together with three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations, indicate a random lasing process, which is in violation of the commonly cited criteria of strong scattering from individual nanostructures and an optically thick sample. Subsequently, an electron–hole plasma mechanism is observed with increased fluence. Furthermore, these results suggest that coupled nanostructures with high crystallinity, fabricated by low-cost solution-processing methods, can function as viable building blocks for high-performance optoelectronics devices.« less

  14. Stochastic and Deterministic Assembly Processes in Subsurface Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Konopka, Allan; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2012-03-29

    A major goal of microbial community ecology is to understand the forces that structure community composition. Deterministic selection by specific environmental factors is sometimes important, but in other cases stochastic or ecologically neutral processes dominate. Lacking is a unified conceptual framework aiming to understand why deterministic processes dominate in some contexts but not others. Here we work towards such a framework. By testing predictions derived from general ecological theory we aim to uncover factors that govern the relative influences of deterministic and stochastic processes. We couple spatiotemporal data on subsurface microbial communities and environmental parameters with metrics and null models of within and between community phylogenetic composition. Testing for phylogenetic signal in organismal niches showed that more closely related taxa have more similar habitat associations. Community phylogenetic analyses further showed that ecologically similar taxa coexist to a greater degree than expected by chance. Environmental filtering thus deterministically governs subsurface microbial community composition. More importantly, the influence of deterministic environmental filtering relative to stochastic factors was maximized at both ends of an environmental variation gradient. A stronger role of stochastic factors was, however, supported through analyses of phylogenetic temporal turnover. While phylogenetic turnover was on average faster than expected, most pairwise comparisons were not themselves significantly non-random. The relative influence of deterministic environmental filtering over community dynamics was elevated, however, in the most temporally and spatially variable environments. Our results point to general rules governing the relative influences of stochastic and deterministic processes across micro- and macro-organisms.

  15. DBSproc: An open source process for DBS electrode localization and tractographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lauro, Peter M; Vanegas-Arroyave, Nora; Huang, Ling; Taylor, Paul A; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Lungu, Codrin; Saad, Ziad S; Horovitz, Silvina G

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective surgical treatment for movement disorders. Although stimulation sites for movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease are established, the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS remain controversial. Recent research suggests that specific white-matter tract and circuit activation mediates symptom relief. To investigate these questions, we have developed a patient-specific open-source software pipeline called 'DBSproc' for (1) localizing DBS electrodes and contacts from postoperative CT images, (2) processing structural and diffusion MRI data, (3) registering all images to a common space, (4) estimating DBS activation volume from patient-specific voltage and impedance, and (5) understanding the DBS contact-brain connectivity through probabilistic tractography. In this paper, we explain our methodology and provide validation with anatomical and tractographic data. This method can be used to help investigate mechanisms of action of DBS, inform surgical and clinical assessments, and define new therapeutic targets.

  16. Solution-processed parallel tandem polymer solar cells using silver nanowires as intermediate electrode.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Kubis, Peter; Li, Ning; Przybilla, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard; Stubhan, Tobias; Ameri, Tayebeh; Butz, Benjamin; Spiecker, Erdmann; Forberich, Karen; Brabec, Christoph J

    2014-12-23

    Tandem architecture is the most relevant concept to overcome the efficiency limit of single-junction photovoltaic solar cells. Series-connected tandem polymer solar cells (PSCs) have advanced rapidly during the past decade. In contrast, the development of parallel-connected tandem cells is lagging far behind due to the big challenge in establishing an efficient interlayer with high transparency and high in-plane conductivity. Here, we report all-solution fabrication of parallel tandem PSCs using silver nanowires as intermediate charge collecting electrode. Through a rational interface design, a robust interlayer is established, enabling the efficient extraction and transport of electrons from subcells. The resulting parallel tandem cells exhibit high fill factors of ∼60% and enhanced current densities which are identical to the sum of the current densities of the subcells. These results suggest that solution-processed parallel tandem configuration provides an alternative avenue toward high performance photovoltaic devices.

  17. Evaluation of the graphite electrode arc melter for processing heterogeneous waste

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) conducted a series of 4 demonstration melting tests in a 3-phase AC graphite electrode arc furnace at its Albany Research Center (ALRC) thermal treatment facility in Albany, Oregon (now part of the U.S. Department of Energy, DOE). The scope of these tests provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a single melting technology regarding its applicability to the treatment of several different heterogeneous mixed wastes. The current system can continuously process combustible-bearing wastes at feedrates to 682 kg/h (1,500 lb/h), continuously tap slag or glass, and intermittently tap metal products, and includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer and air pollution control system (APCS). The 4 demonstration melting tests were conducted in cooperation with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC).

  18. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, Gerald W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

  19. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode arc furnace

    DOEpatents

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, G.W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spend aluminum pot liner is crushed, iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine, and CO.

  20. Photovoltaic conversion using Zn chlorophyll derivative assembled in hydrophobic domain onto nanocrystalline TiO2 electrode.

    PubMed

    Amao, Yutaka; Yamada, Yuriko

    2007-02-15

    Photovoltaic conversion using zinc chlorin-e6 (ZnChl-e6), which is zinc chlorophyll-a derivative, and fatty acid (myristic acid or cholic acid) co-adsorbed nanocrystalline TiO2 layer onto ITO glass (OTE) electrode is developed. The maximum peaks of photocurrent action spectrum of the ZnChl-e6 adsorbed TiO2 layer onto OTE (ZnChl-e6/TiO2) are 400, 660 and 800 nm, respectively. Especially the IPCE value at 800 nm (7.5%) is larger than that of 660 nm (6.9%). This result indicates that ZnChl-e6 molecules is aggregated or formed dimer on a nanocrystalline TiO2 layer onto OTE and the absorption band is shifted to near IR region. The photocurrent action spectrum of ZnChl-e6 and cholic acid adsorbed TiO2 layer onto OTE (ZnChl-e6-Cho/TiO2 is similar to that of the UV-vis absorption spectrum in methanol solution, and IPCE values at 400 and 660 nm (8.1%) increase and the IPCE value at 800 nm (4.1%) decreases, indicating that the aggregation of ZnChl-e6 molecules on the TiO2 is suppressed by cholic acid. By using ZnChl-e6-Cho/TiO2, the short-circuit photocurrent density and open-circuit photovoltage also increase compared with that of ZnChl-e6 adsorbed nanocrystalline TiO2 electrode.

  1. Chemical and entropic control on the molecular self-assembly process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packwood, Daniel M.; Han, Patrick; Hitosugi, Taro

    2017-02-01

    Molecular self-assembly refers to the spontaneous assembly of molecules into larger structures. In order to exploit molecular self-assembly for the bottom-up synthesis of nanomaterials, the effects of chemical control (strength of the directionality in the intermolecular interaction) and entropic control (temperature) on the self-assembly process should be clarified. Here we present a theoretical methodology that unambiguously distinguishes the effects of chemical and entropic control on the self-assembly of molecules adsorbed to metal surfaces. While chemical control simply increases the formation probability of ordered structures, entropic control induces a variety of effects. These effects range from fine structure modulation of ordered structures, through to degrading large, amorphous structures into short, chain-shaped structures. Counterintuitively, the latter effect shows that entropic control can improve molecular ordering. By identifying appropriate levels of chemical and entropic control, our methodology can, therefore, identify strategies for optimizing the yield of desired nanostructures from the molecular self-assembly process.

  2. Chemical and entropic control on the molecular self-assembly process

    PubMed Central

    Packwood, Daniel M.; Han, Patrick; Hitosugi, Taro

    2017-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly refers to the spontaneous assembly of molecules into larger structures. In order to exploit molecular self-assembly for the bottom-up synthesis of nanomaterials, the effects of chemical control (strength of the directionality in the intermolecular interaction) and entropic control (temperature) on the self-assembly process should be clarified. Here we present a theoretical methodology that unambiguously distinguishes the effects of chemical and entropic control on the self-assembly of molecules adsorbed to metal surfaces. While chemical control simply increases the formation probability of ordered structures, entropic control induces a variety of effects. These effects range from fine structure modulation of ordered structures, through to degrading large, amorphous structures into short, chain-shaped structures. Counterintuitively, the latter effect shows that entropic control can improve molecular ordering. By identifying appropriate levels of chemical and entropic control, our methodology can, therefore, identify strategies for optimizing the yield of desired nanostructures from the molecular self-assembly process. PMID:28195175

  3. Modeling and in situ characterization of lithiation-induced stress in electrodes during the coupled mechano-electro-chemical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Haimei; Zhang, Qian; Song, Haibin; Shi, Baoqin; Kang, Yilan

    2017-02-01

    Stress is one of the key factors leading to capacity fading and triggering safety issues in lithium-ion batteries. In this paper, the stress in layered electrodes during the electrochemical process is investigated. Considering the electrochemically induced changes in the elastic modulus of the electrode material, a stress model is established to obtain a modified Stoney stress equation. In addition, in situ bending deformation of the Si composite electrode during lithiation and delithiation is measured to be determined as a function of Li concentration. Combined with the established stress model, the lithiation-induced stress in the Si composite electrode material is quantitatively characterized. It is shown that the maximum compressive stress is 8.53 MPa. Furthermore, the differences between the established stress model and the classical Stoney stress equation are compared and discussed. Lithiation results in softening of the Si composite electrode material, which affects the stress during lithiation. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that softening of the Si composite electrode material significantly decreases and alleviates the stress.

  4. Viral capsid assembly as a model for protein aggregation diseases: Active processes catalyzed by cellular assembly machines comprising novel drug targets.

    PubMed

    Marreiros, Rita; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Bader, Verian; Selvarajah, Suganya; Dey, Debendranath; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Korth, Carsten

    2015-09-02

    Viruses can be conceptualized as self-replicating multiprotein assemblies, containing coding nucleic acids. Viruses have evolved to exploit host cellular components including enzymes to ensure their replicative life cycle. New findings indicate that also viral capsid proteins recruit host factors to accelerate their assembly. These assembly machines are RNA-containing multiprotein complexes whose composition is governed by allosteric sites. In the event of viral infection, the assembly machines are recruited to support the virus over the host and are modified to achieve that goal. Stress granules and processing bodies may represent collections of such assembly machines, readily visible by microscopy but biochemically labile and difficult to isolate by fractionation. We hypothesize that the assembly of protein multimers such as encountered in neurodegenerative or other protein conformational diseases, is also catalyzed by assembly machines. In the case of viral infection, the assembly machines have been modified by the virus to meet the virus' need for rapid capsid assembly rather than host homeostasis. In the case of the neurodegenerative diseases, it is the monomers and/or low n oligomers of the so-called aggregated proteins that are substrates of assembly machines. Examples for substrates are amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and tau in Alzheimer's disease, α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease, prions in the prion diseases, Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) in subsets of chronic mental illnesses, and others. A likely continuum between virus capsid assembly and cell-to-cell transmissibility of aggregated proteins is remarkable. Protein aggregation diseases may represent dysfunction and dysregulation of these assembly machines analogous to the aberrations induced by viral infection in which cellular homeostasis is pathologically reprogrammed. In this view, as for viral infection, reset of assembly machines to normal homeostasis should be the goal of protein aggregation

  5. A Framework for Automating Cost Estimates in Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, T.L.; Peters, R.R.

    1998-12-09

    When a product concept emerges, the manufacturing engineer is asked to sketch out a production strategy and estimate its cost. The engineer is given an initial product design, along with a schedule of expected production volumes. The engineer then determines the best approach to manufacturing the product, comparing a variey of alternative production strategies. The engineer must consider capital cost, operating cost, lead-time, and other issues in an attempt to maximize pro$ts. After making these basic choices and sketching the design of overall production, the engineer produces estimates of the required capital, operating costs, and production capacity. 177is process may iterate as the product design is refined in order to improve its pe~ormance or manufacturability. The focus of this paper is on the development of computer tools to aid manufacturing engineers in their decision-making processes. This computer sof~are tool provides aj?amework in which accurate cost estimates can be seamlessly derivedfiom design requirements at the start of any engineering project. Z+e result is faster cycle times through first-pass success; lower ll~e cycie cost due to requirements-driven design and accurate cost estimates derived early in the process.

  6. Assembly, processing, and infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag mutants.

    PubMed

    Wang, C T; Barklis, E

    1993-07-01

    We studied the effects of gag mutations on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly, processing, and infectivity by using a replication-defective HIV expression system. HIV mutants were screened for infectivity by transduction of a selectable marker and were examined for assembly by monitoring particle release from transfected cells. Gag protein processing and reverse transcriptase activities of mutant particles were also assayed. Surprisingly, most Gag protein mutants were assembled and processed. The two exceptions to this rule were a myristylation-minus mutant, and one gag matrix domain mutant which expressed proteins that were trapped intracellularly. Interestingly, a mutant with a 56-amino-acid deletion within the HIV gag capsid domain still could assemble and process virus particles, exhibited a wild-type retrovirus particle density, and had wild-type reverse transcriptase activity. Indeed, although most HIV-1 gag mutants were noninfectious or poorly infectious, they produced apparently normal particles which possessed significant reverse transcriptase activities. These results strongly support the notion that the HIV-1 Gag proteins are functionally involved in post-assembly, postprocessing stages of virus infectivity.

  7. On the single sweep processing of auditory brainstem responses: click vs. chirp stimulations and active vs. passive electrodes.

    PubMed

    Corona-Strauss, Farah I; Delb, Wolfgang; Bloching, Marc; Strauss, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    We have recently shown that click evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) single sweeps can efficiently be processed by a hybrid novelty detection system. This approach allowed for the objective detection of hearing thresholds in a fraction of time of conventional schemes, making it appropriate for the efficient implementation of newborn hearing screening procedures. It is the objective of this study to evaluate whether this approach might further be improved by different stimulation paradigms and electrode settings. In particular, we evaluate chirp stimulations which compensate the basilar-membrane dispersion and active electrodes which are less sensitive to movements. This is the first study which is directed to a single sweep processing of chirp evoked ABRs. By concentrating on transparent features and a minimum number of adjustable parameters, we present an objective comparison of click vs.chirp stimulations and active vs. passive electrodes in the ultrafast ABR detection. We show that chirp evoked brainstem responses and active electrodes might improve the single sweeps analysis of ABRs.Consequently, we conclude that a single sweep processing of ABRs for the objective determination of hearing thresholds can further be improved by the use of optimized chirp stimulations and active electrodes.

  8. VPS Process for Copper Components in Thrust Chamber Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra; Holmes, Richard; Hickman, Robert; McKechnie, Tim; Thom, George

    2005-01-01

    For several years, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been working with Plasma Processes, Inc., (PPI) to fabricate thrust chamber liners with GRCop-84. Using the vacuum plasma spray (VPS) process, chamber liners of a variety of shapes and sizes have been created. Each has been formed as a functional gradient material (FGM) that creates a unique protective layer of NiCrAlY on the GRCop-84 liner s hot wall surface. Hot-fire testing was successfully conducted on a subscale unit to demonstrate the liner's durability and performance. Similar VPS technology has also been applied to create functional gradient coatings (FGC) on copper injector faceplates. Protective layers of NiCrAlY and zirconia were applied to both coaxial and impinging faceplate designs. Hot-fire testing is planned for these coated injectors in April 2005. The resulting material systems for both copper alloy components allows them to operate at higher temperatures with improved durability and operating margins.

  9. Nanothorn electrodes for ionic polymer-metal composite artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmre, Viljar; Pugal, David; Kim, Kwang J.; Leang, Kam K.; Asaka, Kinji; Aabloo, Alvo

    2014-08-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have recently received tremendous interest as soft biomimetic actuators and sensors in various bioengineering and human affinity applications, such as artificial muscles and actuators, aquatic propulsors, robotic end-effectors, and active catheters. Main challenges in developing biomimetic actuators are the attainment of high strain and actuation force at low operating voltage. Here we first report a nanostructured electrode surface design for IPMC comprising platinum nanothorn assemblies with multiple sharp tips. The newly developed actuator with the nanostructured electrodes shows a new way to achieve highly enhanced electromechanical performance over existing flat-surfaced electrodes. We demonstrate that the formation and growth of the nanothorn assemblies at the electrode interface lead to a dramatic improvement (3- to 5-fold increase) in both actuation range and blocking force at low driving voltage (1-3 V). These advances are related to the highly capacitive properties of nanothorn assemblies, increasing significantly the charge transport during the actuation process.

  10. Multicomponent Assembly Processes for the Synthesis of Diverse Yohimbine and Corynanthe Alkaloid Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Brett A.; Wang, Zhiqian; Kaneda, Kyosuke; Fang, Zhenglai; Martin, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    A strategy involving a Mannich-type multicomponent assembly process followed by a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition has been developed for the rapid and efficient construction of parent heterocyclic scaffolds bearing indole and isoxazolidine rings. These key intermediates were then readily elaborated using well-established protocols for refunctionalization and cross-coupling to access a diverse 180-member library of novel pentacyclic and tetracyclic compounds related to the Yohimbine and Corynanthe alkaloids. Several other new multicomponent assembly processes were developed to access dihydro-β-carboline-fused benzodiazepines, pyrimidinediones, and rutaecarpine derivatives. PMID:23697376

  11. Machine platform and software environment for rapid optics assembly process development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Sebastian; Müller, Tobias; Haag, Sebastian; Zontar, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The assembly of optical components for laser systems is proprietary knowledge and typically done by well-trained personnel in clean room environment as it has major impact on the overall laser performance. Rising numbers of laser systems drives laser production to industrial-level automation solutions allowing for high volumes by simultaneously ensuring stable quality, lots of variants and low cost. Therefore, an easy programmable, expandable and reconfigurable machine with intuitive and flexible software environment for process configuration is required. With Fraunhofer IPT's expertise on optical assembly processes, the next step towards industrializing the production of optical systems is made.

  12. Quantifying Community Assembly Processes and Identifying Features that Impose Them

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Chen, Xingyuan; Kennedy, David W.; Murray, Christopher J.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Konopka, Allan

    2013-06-06

    Across a set of ecological communities connected to each other through organismal dispersal (a ‘meta-community’), turnover in composition is governed by (ecological) Drift, Selection, and Dispersal Limitation. Quantitative estimates of these processes remain elusive, but would represent a common currency needed to unify community ecology. Using a novel analytical framework we quantitatively estimate the relative influences of Drift, Selection, and Dispersal Limitation on subsurface, sediment-associated microbial meta-communities. The communities we study are distributed across two geologic formations encompassing ~12,500m3 of uranium-contaminated sediments within the Hanford Site in eastern Washington State. We find that Drift consistently governs ~25% of spatial turnover in community composition; Selection dominates (governing ~60% of turnover) across spatially-structured habitats associated with fine-grained, low permeability sediments; and Dispersal Limitation is most influential (governing ~40% of turnover) across spatially-unstructured habitats associated with coarse-grained, highly-permeable sediments. Quantitative influences of Selection and Dispersal Limitation may therefore be predictable from knowledge of environmental structure. To develop a system-level conceptual model we extend our analytical framework to compare process estimates across formations, characterize measured and unmeasured environmental variables that impose Selection, and identify abiotic features that limit dispersal. Insights gained here suggest that community ecology can benefit from a shift in perspective; the quantitative approach developed here goes beyond the ‘niche vs. neutral’ dichotomy by moving towards a style of natural history in which estimates of Selection, Dispersal Limitation and Drift can be described, mapped and compared across ecological systems.

  13. High-performance Bi-stage process in reduction of graphene oxide for transparent conductive electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alahbakhshi, Masoud; Fallahi, Afsoon; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Fathollahi, Mohammad-Reza; Taromi, Faramarz Afshar; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2017-02-01

    A novel and innovative approach to develop reduction of graphene oxide (GO) solution for fabrication of highly and truly transparent conductive electrode (TCE) has been presented. Thanks to outstanding mechanical and electronic properties of graphene which offer practical applications in synthesizing composites as well as fabricating various optoelectronic devices, in this study, conductive reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) thin films were prepared through sequential chemical and thermal reduction process of homogeneously dispersed GO solutions. The conductivity and transparency of r-GO thin film is regulated using hydroiodic acid (HI) as reducing agent following by vacuum thermal annealing. The prepared r-GO is characterized by XRD, AFM, UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy. the AFM topographic images reveal surface roughness almost ∼11 nm which became less than 2 nm for the 4 mg/mL solution. Moreover, XRD analysis and Raman spectra substantiate the interlayer spacing between rGO layers has been reduced dramatically and also electronic conjugation has been ameliorated after using HI chemical agent and 700 °C thermal annealing sequentially. Subsequently providing r-GO transparent electrode with decent and satisfactory transparency, acceptable conductivity and suitable work function, it has been exploited as the anode in organic light emitting diode (OLED). The maximum luminance efficiency and maximum power efficiency reached 4.2 cd/A and 0.83 lm/W, respectively. We believe that by optimizing the hole density, sheet resistance, transparency and surface morphology of the r-GO anodes, the device efficiencies can be remarkably increased further.

  14. Processing of famous faces and medial temporal lobe event-related potentials: a depth electrode study.

    PubMed

    Dietl, T; Trautner, P; Staedtgen, M; Vannucci, M; Vannuchi, M; Mecklinger, A; Grunwald, T; Clusmann, H; Elger, C E; Kurthen, M

    2005-04-01

    The present study aims at analyzing the modulation of two types of event-related potentials originating from the human medial temporal lobe, the rhinal AMTL-N400 and the hippocampal P600 by the processing of famous faces. Therefore, we used a face recognition paradigm in which subjects had to discriminate the faces of famous persons from the faces of non-famous persons. Eleven patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing intrahippocampal depth electrode recording for presurgical evaluation participated in this study. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a sequence of famous and non-famous faces was presented to the patients. The presentation of each face was repeated. The faces evoked N400-like potentials (anterior medial temporal lobe N400, AMTL-N400) in the rhinal cortex and P600-like potentials in the hippocampus. ERPs elicited by famous faces were contrasted with ERPs elicited by non-famous faces. The first presentation of famous faces elicited an enhanced AMTL-N400 and an enhanced hippocampal P600 in comparison to the second presentations of the famous faces or the (first and second presentation of the) non-famous faces. This findings are discussed in terms of associative semantic memory processes and the retrieval of person-specific information from long-term memory stores triggered by the processing of famous faces.

  15. One-Dimensional Assembly of Conductive and Capacitive Metal Oxide Electrodes for High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Harilal, Midhun; Vidyadharan, Baiju; Misnon, Izan Izwan; Anilkumar, Gopinathan M; Lowe, Adrian; Ismail, Jamil; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Jose, Rajan

    2017-03-29

    A one-dimensional morphology comprising nanograins of two metal oxides, one with higher electrical conductivity (CuO) and the other with higher charge storability (Co3O4), is developed by electrospinning technique. The CuO-Co3O4 nanocomposite nanowires thus formed show high specific capacitance, high rate capability, and high cycling stability compared to their single-component nanowire counterparts when used as a supercapacitor electrode. Practical symmetric (SSCs) and asymmetric (ASCs) supercapacitors are fabricated using commercial activated carbon, CuO, Co3O4, and CuO-Co3O4 composite nanowires, and their properties are compared. A high energy density of ∼44 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 14 kW kg(-1) is achieved in CuO-Co3O4 ASCs employing aqueous alkaline electrolytes, enabling them to store high energy at a faster rate. The current methodology of hybrid nanowires of various functional materials could be applied to extend the performance limit of diverse electrical and electrochemical devices.

  16. High-Performance Flexible Transparent Electrode with an Embedded Metal Mesh Fabricated by Cost-Effective Solution Process.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arshad; Lee, Sangeon; Jang, Taehee; Xiong, Ze; Zhang, Cuiping; Tang, Jinyao; Guo, L Jay; Li, Wen-Di

    2016-06-01

    A new structure of flexible transparent electrodes is reported, featuring a metal mesh fully embedded and mechanically anchored in a flexible substrate, and a cost-effective solution-based fabrication strategy for this new transparent electrode. The embedded nature of the metal-mesh electrodes provides a series of advantages, including surface smoothness that is crucial for device fabrication, mechanical stability under high bending stress, strong adhesion to the substrate with excellent flexibility, and favorable resistance against moisture, oxygen, and chemicals. The novel fabrication process replaces vacuum-based metal deposition with an electrodeposition process and is potentially suitable for high-throughput, large-volume, and low-cost production. In particular, this strategy enables fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio (thickness to linewidth) metal mesh, substantially improving conductivity without considerably sacrificing transparency. Various prototype flexible transparent electrodes are demonstrated with transmittance higher than 90% and sheet resistance below 1 ohm sq(-1) , as well as extremely high figures of merit up to 1.5 × 10(4) , which are among the highest reported values in recent studies. Finally using our embedded metal-mesh electrode, a flexible transparent thin-film heater is demonstrated with a low power density requirement, rapid response time, and a low operating voltage.

  17. Nanoparticle-electrode collision processes: the underpotential deposition of thallium on silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi-Ge; Rees, Neil V; Compton, Richard G

    2011-08-01

    The electrochemistry of collisions between metal nanoparticles (NPs) and electrode surfaces has been of recent interest with the development of anodic particle coulometry as a characterisation method. For the first time the underpotential deposition of metal ions from solution onto metal nanoparticles during collisions between the NPs and an inert electrode is reported.

  18. Improved DET communication between cellobiose dehydrogenase and a gold electrode modified with a rigid self-assembled monolayer and green metal nanoparticles: The role of an ordered nanostructuration.

    PubMed

    Bollella, P; Mazzei, F; Favero, G; Fusco, G; Ludwig, R; Gorton, L; Antiochia, R

    2017-02-15

    Efficient direct electron transfer (DET) between cellobiose dehydrogenase from Corynascus thermophilus (CtCDH) and a novel gold electrode platform, obtained by covalent linking of green AuNPs and AgNPs modified with a dithiol self-assembled monolayer, consisting of biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol (BPDT), was presented. The green AuNPs and AgNPs were synthesized using quercetin as reducing agent at room temperature. TEM experiments showed that the AuNPs and AgNPs were circular in shape with an average diameter of 5 and 8nm, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry of CtCDH immobilized onto the AuNPs/BPDT/AuE and the AgNPs/BPDT/AuE electrode platforms were carried out and compared with naked AuE, BPDT/AuE, AuNPs/AuE, and AgNPs/AuE. A pair of well-defined redox waves in neutral pH solution due to efficient DET of CtCDH was present with both MNPs/BPDT/AuE platforms. No DET communication was found with platforms without MNPs linked to BPDT. The apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (kS) of CtCDH were calculated to be 21.5±0.8s(-1) and 10.3±0.7s(-1), for the AuNPs/BPDT/AuE and the AgNPs/BPDT/AuE platforms, respectively. The modified electrodes were successively used to develop an eco-friendly biosensor for lactose detection. The CtCDH/AuNPs/BPDT/AuE based biosensor showed the best analytical performances with an excellent stability, a detection limit of 3µM, a linear range between 5 and 400µM and a sensitivity of 27.5±2.5µAcm(-2)mM(-1). Such performances were favorably compared with other lactose biosensors reported in literature. The biosensor was successively tested to quantify lactose content in real milk and cream samples. No significant interference present in the sample matrices was observed.

  19. Phosphate adsorption ability of biochar/Mg-Al assembled nanocomposites prepared by aluminum-electrode based electro-assisted modification method with MgCl₂ as electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Jeong, Tae-Un; Hwang, Min-Jin; Kim, Kipal; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the textural properties and phosphate adsorption capability of modified-biochar containing Mg-Al assembled nanocomposites prepared by an effective electro-assisted modification method with MgCl2 as an electrolyte have been determined. Structure and chemical analyses of the modified-biochar showed that nano-sized stonelike or flowerlike Mg-Al assembled composites, MgO, spinel MgAl2O4, AlOOH, and Al2O3, were densely grown and uniformly dispersed on the biochar surface. The adsorption isotherm and kinetics data suggested that the biochar/Mg-Al assembled nanocomposites have an energetically heterogeneous surface and that phosphate adsorption could be controlled by multiple processes. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was as high as 887 mg g(-1), as fitted by the Langmuir-Freundlich model, and is the highest value ever reported. It was concluded that this novel electro-assisted modification is a very attractive method and the biochar/Mg-Al assembled nanocomposites provide an excellent adsorbent that can effectively remove phosphate from aqueous solutions.

  20. Electrode properties and the dehydrogenation process of amorphous Mg-Ni-La alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lin-Jun; Wang, Yan-Xin; Wu, Dong-Chang; Tang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Yao; Liu, Ji-Xian; Huang, Zhen; Jiao, Ji-Qing; Liu, Jing-Quan

    2014-03-01

    Amorphous Mg-Ni-La hydrogen-storage alloys were prepared by melt-spinning. The phase structures of the ribbons before and after charge/discharge cycling were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis, respectively. The effects of different contents of La are discussed on the basis of discharge-capacity, the morphology, limiting current density and electrochemical impedance spectra of the Mg-Ni-La electrodes. The Mg65Ni27La8 alloy exhibits the best reaction kinetics performance, the lowest contact resistance and a maximum discharge capacity of 582 mAh g-1 at room temperature. The non-isothermal dehydrogenation process of Mg65Ni27La8 alloy was analyzed in detail by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). The experimental results showed a maximum 4.0 wt.% of released hydrogen at a heating rate of 5 °C min-1. The non-isothermal dehydrogenation process of the alloy can be divided in two steps, corresponding to the dehydrogenation of amorphous phase (1.45 wt.% H) and Mg2NiH4 (2.55 wt.% H), respectively. It indicated that the amorphous structure was a key factor to achieve high discharge capacity and good cycling stability.

  1. Rapid atmospheric pressure plasma jet processed reduced graphene oxide counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsiao-Wei; Liang, Sheng-Ping; Wu, Ting-Jui; Chang, Haoming; Kao, Peng-Kai; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Chou, Pi-Tai; Cheng, I-Chun

    2014-09-10

    In this work, we present the use of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as the counter electrode materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). rGO was first deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate by screen-printing, followed by post-treatment to remove excessive organic additives. We investigated the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) treatment on the DSSC performance. A power conversion efficiency of 5.19% was reached when DSSCs with an rGO counter electrode were treated by APPJs in the ambient air for a few seconds. For comparison, it requires a conventional calcination process at 400 °C for 15 min to obtain comparable efficiency. Scanning electron micrographs show that the APPJ treatment modifies the rGO structure, which may reduce its conductivity in part but simultaneously greatly enhances its catalytic activity. Combined with the rapid removal of organic additives by the highly reactive APPJ, DSSCs with APPJ-treated rGO counter electrode show comparable efficiencies to furnace-calcined rGO counter electrodes with greatly reduced process time. This ultrashort process time renders an estimated energy consumption per unit area of 1.1 kJ/cm(2), which is only one-third of that consumed in a conventional furnace calcination process. This new methodology thus saves energy, cost, and time, which is greatly beneficial to future mass production.

  2. Ionic polymer metal composites with nanoporous carbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmre, Viljar; Brandell, Daniel; Mäeorg, Uno; Torop, Janno; Volobujeva, Olga; Punning, Andres; Johanson, Urmas; Aabloo, Alvo

    2010-04-01

    Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMCs) are soft electroactive polymer materials that bend in response to the voltage stimulus (1 - 4 V). They can be used as actuators or sensors. In this paper, we introduce two new highly-porous carbon materials for assembling high specific area electrodes for IPMC actuators and compare their electromechanical performance with recently reported IPMCs based on RuO2 electrodes. We synthesize ionic liquid (Emi-Tf) actuators with either Carbide-Derived Carbon (CDC) (derived from TiC) or coconut shell based activated carbon electrodes. The carbon electrodes are applied onto ionic liquid-swollen Nafion membranes using the direct assembly process. Our results show that actuators assembled with CDC electrodes have the greatest peak-to-peak strain output, reaching up to 20.4 mɛ (equivalent to >2%) at a 2 V actuation signal, exceeding that of the RuO2 electrodes by more than 100%. The electrodes synthesized from TiC-derived carbon also revealed significantly higher maximum strain rate. The differences between the materials are discussed in terms of molecular interactions and mechanisms upon actuation in the different electrodes.

  3. Robust nanogap electrodes by self-terminating electroless gold plating.

    PubMed

    Serdio V, Victor M; Azuma, Yasuo; Takeshita, Shuhei; Muraki, Taro; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka

    2012-11-21

    Robust nanogap electrodes for nanodevices with a separation of 3.0 ± 1.7 nm were simultaneously mass-produced at a yield of 90% by a combination of electron beam lithography (EBL) and electroless gold plating (EGP). Nanogap electrodes demonstrated their robustness as they maintained their structure unchanged up to temperatures of 170 °C, during the isotropic oxygen plasma ashing removal of the amorphous carbon overlayer resulting from scanning electron microscopy observations, therefore maintaining their surface reactivity for EGP and formation of a self-assembled monolayer. A gold layer grows over the electrode surface during EGP, narrowing the separation between the electrodes; growth stops around 3 nm due to a self-termination phenomenon. This is the main factor in the high yield and reproducibility of the EGP process because it prevents contact between the electrodes. A 90% yield is achieved by also controlling the etching and physisorption of gold clusters, which is accomplished by reduction of triiodide ions and heat treatment of the EGP solution, respectively. A mixed self-assembled monolayer of octanethiol and decanedithiol can be formed at the surface of the nanogap electrodes after the oxygen plasma treatment, and decanethiol-protected Au nanoparticles were chemisorbed between the self-terminated nanogap electrodes via decanedithiol. Chemically assembled single-electron transistors based on the nanogap electrodes exhibit ideal, stable, and reproducible Coulomb diamonds.

  4. Solution-processed Ag-nanowire/ZnO-nanoparticle composite transparent electrode for flexible organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bin; Pan, Saihu; Wang, Taohong; Tian, Zhenghao; Chen, Guo; Xu, Tao

    2016-12-16

    This paper demonstrates a hybrid transparent electrode composed of a solution-processed silver-nanowire (AgNW) film coated by zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) acting as a modified buffer layer. The effect of the ZnO-NPs' coating ratio on the performances of indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic solar cells (OSCs) has been systematically investigated. The optimized ITO-free OSCs achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.85%, while flexible OSCs using the AgNW/ZnO-NP composite transparent electrode grown on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate showed a PCE of 2.2%.

  5. Solution-processed Ag-nanowire/ZnO-nanoparticle composite transparent electrode for flexible organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Bin; Pan, Saihu; Wang, Taohong; Tian, Zhenghao; Chen, Guo; Xu, Tao

    2016-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a hybrid transparent electrode composed of a solution-processed silver-nanowire (AgNW) film coated by zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) acting as a modified buffer layer. The effect of the ZnO-NPs’ coating ratio on the performances of indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic solar cells (OSCs) has been systematically investigated. The optimized ITO-free OSCs achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.85%, while flexible OSCs using the AgNW/ZnO-NP composite transparent electrode grown on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate showed a PCE of 2.2%.

  6. APPLICATIONS OF MULTICOMPONENT ASSEMBLY PROCESSES TO THE FACILE SYNTHESES OF DIVERSELY FUNCTIONALIZED NITROGEN HETEROCYCLES.

    PubMed

    Donald, James R; Granger, Brett A; Hardy, Simon; Sahn, James J; Martin, Stephen F

    2012-01-01

    Several multicomponent assembly processes have been developed for the synthesis of intermediates that may be elaborated by a variety of cyclizations to generate a diverse array of highly functionalized heterocycles from readily-available starting materials. The overall approach enables the efficient preparation of libraries of small molecules derived from fused, privileged scaffolds.

  7. Study of interdigitated electrode arrays using experiments and finite element models for the evaluation of sterilization processes.

    PubMed

    Oberländer, Jan; Jildeh, Zaid B; Kirchner, Patrick; Wendeler, Luisa; Bromm, Alexander; Iken, Heiko; Wagner, Patrick; Keusgen, Michael; Schöning, Michael J

    2015-10-14

    In this work, a sensor to evaluate sterilization processes with hydrogen peroxide vapor has been characterized. Experimental, analytical and numerical methods were applied to evaluate and study the sensor behavior. The sensor set-up is based on planar interdigitated electrodes. The interdigitated electrode structure consists of 614 electrode fingers spanning over a total sensing area of 20 mm². Sensor measurements were conducted with and without microbiological spores as well as after an industrial sterilization protocol. The measurements were verified using an analytical expression based on a first-order elliptical integral. A model based on the finite element method with periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions was developed and utilized to validate the experimental findings.

  8. Switching and memory characteristics of thin films of an ambipolar organic compound: effects of device processing and electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myung-Won; Pearson, Christopher; Moon, Tae Jung; Fisher, Alison L.; Petty, Michael C.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the effects of device processing conditions, and of changing the electrode materials, on the switching and negative differential resistance (NDR) behaviour of metal/organic thin film/metal structures. The organic material was an ambipolar molecule containing both electron transporting (oxadiazole) and hole transporting (carbazole) chemical groups. Switching and NDR effects are observed for device architectures with both electrodes consisting of aluminium; optimized switching behaviour is achieved for structures incorporating gold nanoparticles. If one of the Al electrodes is replaced by a higher work function metal or coated with an electron-blocking layer, switching and NDR are no longer observed. The results are consistent with a model based on the creation and destruction of Al filaments within the thin organic layer.

  9. Multilayer Transparent Top Electrode for Solution Processed Perovskite/Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 Four Terminal Tandem Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang Michael; Chen, Qi; Hsieh, Yao-Tsung; Song, Tze-Bin; Marco, Nicholas De; Zhou, Huanping; Yang, Yang

    2015-07-28

    Halide perovskites (PVSK) have attracted much attention in recent years due to their high potential as a next generation solar cell material. To further improve perovskites progress toward a state-of-the-art technology, it is desirable to create a tandem structure in which perovskite may be stacked with a current prevailing solar cell such as silicon (Si) or Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS). The transparent top electrode is one of the key components as well as challenges to realize such tandem structure. Herein, we develop a multilayer transparent top electrode for perovskite photovoltaic devices delivering an 11.5% efficiency in top illumination mode. The transparent electrode is based on a dielectric/metal/dielectric structure, featuring an ultrathin gold seeded silver layer. A four terminal tandem solar cell employing solution processed CIGS and perovskite cells is also demonstrated with over 15% efficiency.

  10. Study of Interdigitated Electrode Arrays Using Experiments and Finite Element Models for the Evaluation of Sterilization Processes

    PubMed Central

    Oberländer, Jan; Jildeh, Zaid B.; Kirchner, Patrick; Wendeler, Luisa; Bromm, Alexander; Iken, Heiko; Wagner, Patrick; Keusgen, Michael; Schöning, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a sensor to evaluate sterilization processes with hydrogen peroxide vapor has been characterized. Experimental, analytical and numerical methods were applied to evaluate and study the sensor behavior. The sensor set-up is based on planar interdigitated electrodes. The interdigitated electrode structure consists of 614 electrode fingers spanning over a total sensing area of 20 mm2. Sensor measurements were conducted with and without microbiological spores as well as after an industrial sterilization protocol. The measurements were verified using an analytical expression based on a first-order elliptical integral. A model based on the finite element method with periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions was developed and utilized to validate the experimental findings. PMID:26473883

  11. Process characterization and control of hand-soldered printed wiring assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Cheray, D.L.; Mandl, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    A designed experiment was conducted to characterize the hand soldering process parameters for manufacturing printed wiring assemblies (PWAs). Component tinning was identified as the most important parameter in hand soldering. After tinning, the soldering iron tip temperature of 700{degrees}F and the choice of operators influence solder joint quality more than any other parameters. Cleaning and flux/flux core have little impact on the quality of the solder joint. The need for component cleaning prior to assembly must be evaluated for each component.

  12. Fabrication and evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide electrodes for p- and n-channel bottom-contact organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Hector A; Stoltenberg, Randall M; Tang, Ming Lee; Roberts, Mark E; Liu, Zunfeng; Chen, Yongsheng; Kim, Do Hwan; Lee, Bang-Lin; Lee, Sangyoon; Bao, Zhenan

    2010-11-23

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an electrically conductive carbon-based nanomaterial that has recently attracted attention as a potential electrode for organic electronics. Here we evaluate several solution-based methods for fabricating RGO bottom-contact (BC) electrodes for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), demonstrate functional p- and n-channel devices with such electrodes, and compare their electrical performance with analogous devices containing gold electrodes. We show that the morphology of organic semiconductor films deposited on RGO electrodes is similar to that observed in the channel region of the devices and that devices fabricated with RGO electrodes have lower contact resistances compared to those fabricated with gold contacts. Although the conductivity of RGO is poor compared to that of gold, RGO is still an enticing electrode material for organic electronic devices possibly owing to the retention of desirable morphological features, lower contact resistance, lower cost, and solution processability.

  13. Analyzing Structural Changes of Fe-N-C Cathode Catalysts in PEM Fuel Cell by Mößbauer Spectroscopy of Complete Membrane Electrode Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Kramm, Ulrike I; Lefèvre, Michel; Bogdanoff, Peter; Schmeißer, Dieter; Dodelet, Jean-Pol

    2014-11-06

    The applicability of analyzing by Mößbauer spectroscopy the structural changes of Fe-N-C catalysts that have been tested at the cathode of membrane electrode assemblies in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is demonstrated. The Mößbauer characterization of powders of the same catalysts was recently described in our previous publication. A possible change of the iron species upon testing in fuel cell was investigated here by Mößbauer spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray cross-sectional imaging, and neutron activation analysis. Our results show that the absorption probability of γ rays by the iron nuclei in Fe-N-C is strongly affected by the presence of Nafion and water content. A detailed investigation of the effect of an oxidizing treatment (1.2 V) of the non-noble cathode in PEM fuel cell indicates that the observed activity decay is mainly attributable to carbon oxidation causing a leaching of active iron sites hosted in the carbon matrix.

  14. Performance of practical-sized membrane-electrode assemblies using titanium nitride-supported platinum catalysts mixed with acetylene black as the cathode catalyst layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, Haruhiko; Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    The performance of practical-sized membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) using titanium nitride-supported platinum (Pt/TiN) as the cathode catalysts was evaluated with the use of a practical single cell designed for microscale combined heat and power (CHP) applications. The performance can be controlled by adding acetylene black (AB), with the behavior being dominated by the percolation law. The electrical resistance of the MEAs drastically decreased for AB contents greater than 37 vol%. The Pt utilization percentage was close to 100% for Pt/TiN with percolated AB networks. It was also found that the percolated AB networks supplied effective gas transport pathways, which were not flooded by generated water, thus enhancing the oxygen mass transport. The practical-sized MEA using Pt/TiN + 47 vol% AB showed 1.5 times greater mass activity and a comparable performance under a practical operating condition for micro-CHP applications, compared with the MEA using a commercial graphitized carbon black-supported platinum catalyst.

  15. Photovoltaic performances of Cu2-xTe sensitizer based on undoped and indium(3+)-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes and assembled counter electrodes.

    PubMed

    Srathongluan, Pornpimol; Kuhamaneechot, Rattanakorn; Sukthao, Prapatsawan; Vailikhit, Veeramol; Choopun, Supab; Tubtimtae, Auttasit

    2016-02-01

    Novel binary Cu2-xTe nanoparticles based on undoped and indium-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes were synthesized using a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique as a sensitizer for liquid-junction solar cells. A larger diameter of TiO2 promoted a narrower energy band gap after indium doping, attributing to yield a broader absorption range of nanoparticle sensitizer due to the increasing amount of Cu2-xTe NPs on TiO2 surface. The atomic percentages showed the stoichiometric formation of Cu2Te incorporated in a Cu2-xTe structure. The best photovoltaic performance with the lower SILAR cycle, i.e., n=13 was performed after indium doping in both of carbon and Cu2S CEs and revealed that the efficiency of 0.73% under the radiant 100mW/cm(2) (AM 1.5G). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the electrical properties via effect of material doping and counter electrodes with a lower charge-transfer resistance (Rct) and it was also found that the electron lifetime was improved after the sample doped with indium and assembled with carbon CE.

  16. Label-free impedimetric sensor for a ribonucleic acid oligomer specific to hepatitis C virus at a self-assembled monolayer-covered electrode.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yoon-suk; Chang, Byoung-Yong; Kim, Byeang Hyean; Jeon, Sangmin; Park, Su-Moon

    2010-10-01

    A ribonucleic acid (RNA) sensor based on hybridization of its peptide nucleic acid (PNA) molecule with a target RNA oligomer of the internal ribosome entry site sequence specific to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the electrochemical impedance detection is described. This RNA is one of the most conservative molecules of the whole HCV RNA genome. The ammonium ion terminated PNA molecule was immobilized via its host-guest interactions with the diaza crown ring of 3-thiophene-acetamide-diaza-18-crown-6 synthesized by a simple two-step method, which forms a well-defined self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold. Hybridization events of the probe PNA with the target RNA were monitored by measuring charge-transfer resistances for the Fe(CN)(6)(3-/4-) redox probe using Fourier transform electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The ratio of the resistances of the SAM-covered electrode measured before and after hybridization increased linearly with log[RNA] in the rat liver lysate with a detection limit of about 23 pM.

  17. The influence of membrane electrode assembly water content on the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell as investigated by 1H NMR microscopy.

    PubMed

    Feindel, Kirk W; Bergens, Steven H; Wasylishen, Roderick E

    2007-04-21

    The relation between the performance of a self-humidifying H(2)/O(2) polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell and the amount and distribution of water as observed using (1)H NMR microscopy was investigated. The integrated (1)H NMR image signal intensity (proportional to water content) from the region of the polymer electrolyte membrane between the catalyst layers was found to correlate well with the power output of the fuel cell. Several examples are provided which demonstrate the sensitivity of the (1)H NMR image intensity to the operating conditions of the fuel cell. Changes in the O(2)(g) flow rate cause predictable trends in both the power density and the image intensity. Higher power densities, achieved by decreasing the resistance of the external circuit, were found to increase the water in the PEM. An observed plateau of both the power density and the integrated (1)H NMR image signal intensity from the membrane electrode assembly and subsequent decline of the power density is postulated to result from the accumulation of H(2)O(l) in the gas diffusion layer and cathode flow field. The potential of using (1)H NMR microscopy to obtain the absolute water content of the polymer electrolyte membrane is discussed and several recommendations for future research are provided.

  18. Effect of relative humidity cycles accompanied by intermittent start/stop switches on performance degradation of membrane electrode assembly components in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yanling; Zhong, Hexiang; Wang, Meiri; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-06-01

    The performance degradation of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is studied by designing relative humidity (RH) cycles accompanied by intermittent start/stop switches. Cathode catalyst activity, permeability and resistance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) as well as cell performance are monitored during the test procedure. The interfaces of MEA, the catalyst particle distribution near the cathode inlet are characterized by SEM and TEM, respectively. The results demonstrate both the overall H2 permeability and crossover current of PEM are doubled compared with its initial properties. Signs of PEM degradation, including periodical thinning, cracks and pinholes formation, are observed after 300 RH cycles and 40 times of start/stop switches. The average Pt particle size increases by more than 75%, and the cathode electrochemical surface area decreases by 48% after the test procedure. Meanwhile, the cathode catalyst layer becomes looser due to the dissolution of some smaller Pt particles and catalyst agglomeration in the RH cycles and the high potential during the intermittent start/stop switches. The membrane resistance demonstrates downshift variation during the RH cycles. PEMFC performance, however, decays due to the chemical and electrochemical attack as well as the mechanical stresses.

  19. Highly Sensitive Aluminium(III) Ion Sensor Based on a Self-assembled Monolayer on a Gold Nanoparticles Modified Screen-printed Carbon Electrode.

    PubMed

    See, Wong Pooi; Heng, Lee Yook; Nathan, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    A new approach for the development of a highly sensitive aluminium(III) ion sensor via the preconcentration of aluminium(III) ion with a self-assembled monolayer on a gold nanoparticles modified screen-printed carbon electrode and current mediation by potassium ferricyanide redox behavior during aluminium(III) ion binding has been attempted. A monolayer of mercaptosuccinic acid served as an effective complexation ligand for the preconcentration of trace aluminium; this led to an enhancement of aluminium(III) ion capture and thus improved the sensitivity of the sensor with a detection limit of down to the ppb level. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the sensor exhibited a wide linear dynamic range from 0.041 to 12.4 μM. The lower detection limit of the developed sensor was 0.037 μM (8.90 ppb) using a 10 min preconcentration time. The sensor showed excellent selectivity towards aluminium(III) ion over other interference ions.

  20. Application of CdS quantum dots modified carbon paste electrode for monitoring the process of acetaminophen preparation.

    PubMed

    Pasandideh-Nadamani, M; Omrani, A; Sadeghi-Maleki, M R; Samadi-Maybodi, A

    2016-06-01

    In this research article, a novel, selective, and sensitive modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) using CdS quantum dots (QDs) is presented. The highly stable CdS QDs were successfully synthesized in an in situ process using Na2S2O3 as a precursor and thioglycolic acid as a catalyst and capping agent. The synthesis of CdS QDs was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The synthesized CdS QDs were used for preparation of a modified carbon paste electrode (CdS/CPE). The electrochemical behavior of the electrode toward p-aminophenol (PAP) and acetaminophen (Ac) was studied, and the results demonstrated that the CdS/CPE exhibited good electrocatalytic performance toward PAP and Ac oxidation. The oxidation peak potential of each analyte in the mixture was well separated. As a result, a selective and reliable method was developed for the determination of PAP and Ac simultaneously without any chemical separations. Application of the fabricated electrode for monitoring the process of Ac preparation from PAP was investigated. The obtained results show that CdS/CPE has satisfactory analytical performance; it could be a kind of attractive and promising nanomaterial-based sensor for process monitoring via the electrochemical approach.

  1. Nanoparticle-electrode collision processes: The electroplating of bulk cadmium on impacting silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi-Ge; Rees, Neil V.; Compton, Richard G.

    2011-08-01

    We report, for the first time, the bulk deposition (electroplating) of a metal onto nanoparticles during collisions with an inert electrode surface. Experiments show that for silver nanoparticles, multiple layers of Cd atoms can be electroplated onto the AgNPs from aqueous Cd 2+ during collisions with a glassy carbon electrode held at a suitably reducing potential, and an average of 19 atomic layers of cadmium are found to be deposited in the few milliseconds that the NP is in contact with the electrode. For comparison, results are also presented for the underpotential deposition of Cd onto AgNPs under similar conditions.

  2. Process-directed self-assembly of block copolymers: a computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marcus; Sun, De-Wen

    2015-05-20

    The free-energy landscape of self-assembling block copolymer systems is characterized by a multitude of metastable minima and concomitant protracted relaxation times of the morphology. Tailoring rapid changes (quench) of thermodynamic conditions, one can reproducibly trap the ensuing kinetics of self-assembly in a specific metastable state. To this end, it is necessary to (1) control the generation of well-defined, highly unstable states and (2) design the unstable state such that the ensuing spontaneous kinetics of structure formation reaches the desired metastable morphology. This process-directed self-assembly provides an alternative to fine-tuning molecular architecture by synthesis or blending, for instance, in order to fabricate complex network structures. Comparing our simulation results to recently developed free-energy techniques, we highlight the importance of non-equilibrium molecular conformations in the starting state and motivate the significance of the local conservation of density.

  3. Assessment of Bacterial Community Assembly Patterns and Processes in Pig Manure Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Priyanka; Choi, Hong L.; Sudiarto, Sartika I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community assembly patterns and processes are poorly understood in pig manure slurry. We collected pig manure slurry samples during the winter and summer seasons from eight commercial pig farms in South Korea. The V3 region of 16S rRNA genes was PCR amplified and sequenced using paired-end Illumina technology for in-depth characterization of bacterial community. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Tenericutes were the predominant bacterial phyla present in slurry samples. Bacterial taxonomic community composition was not influenced by the season; however, phylogenetic community composition was affected by seasonal variations. The community composition and diversity patterns were strongly influenced by pH. The bacterial diversity indices showed a unimodal relationship with pH. Phylogenetic signals were detected over only short phylogenetic distances, revealing that closely related bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) tend to co-occur in the same environment; hence, they are ecologically similar. Across all samples, a niche-based process, through strong environmental filtering imposed by pH, primarily governed bacterial community assembly; however, in samples close to the neutral pH range, the role of environmental filtering was decreased due to neutral community assembly. In summary, pH emerged as the major physico-chemical variable in pig manure slurry that regulates the relative importance of niche-based and neutral processes in shaping the community assembly of bacteria. PMID:26422375

  4. Pyrococcus horikoshii TET2 Peptidase Assembling Process and Associated Functional Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Appolaire, Alexandre; Rosenbaum, Eva; Durá, M. Asunción; Colombo, Matteo; Marty, Vincent; Savoye, Marjolaine Noirclerc; Godfroy, Anne; Schoehn, Guy; Girard, Eric; Gabel, Frank; Franzetti, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahedral (TET) aminopeptidases are large polypeptide destruction machines present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, the rules governing their assembly into hollow 12-subunit tetrahedrons are addressed by using TET2 from Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhTET2) as a model. Point mutations allowed the capture of a stable, catalytically active precursor. Small angle x-ray scattering revealed that it is a dimer whose architecture in solution is identical to that determined by x-ray crystallography within the fully assembled TET particle. Small angle x-ray scattering also showed that the reconstituted PhTET2 dodecameric particle displayed the same quaternary structure and thermal stability as the wild-type complex. The PhTET2 assembly intermediates were characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation, native gel electrophoresis, and electron microscopy. They revealed that PhTET2 assembling is a highly ordered process in which hexamers represent the main intermediate. Peptide degradation assays demonstrated that oligomerization triggers the activity of the TET enzyme toward large polypeptidic substrates. Fractionation experiments in Pyrococcus and Halobacterium cells revealed that, in vivo, the dimeric precursor co-exists together with assembled TET complexes. Taken together, our observations explain the biological significance of TET oligomerization and suggest the existence of a functional regulation of the dimer-dodecamer equilibrium in vivo. PMID:23696647

  5. All-Nonvacuum-Processed CIGS Solar Cells Using Scalable Ag NWs/AZO-Based Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingqing; Choy, Kwang-Leong

    2016-07-06

    With record cell efficiency of 21.7%, CIGS solar cells have demonstrated to be a very promising photovoltaic (PV) technology. However, their market penetration has been limited due to the inherent high cost of the cells. In this work, to lower the cost of CIGS solar cells, all nonvacuum-processed CIGS solar cells were designed and developed. CIGS absorber was prepared by the annealing of electrodeposited metallic layers in a chalcogen atmosphere. Nonvacuum-deposited Ag nanowires (NWs)/AZO transparent electrodes (TEs) with good transmittance (92.0% at 550 nm) and high conductivity (sheet resistance of 20 Ω/□) were used to replace the vacuum-sputtered window layer. Additional thermal treatment after device preparation was conducted at 220 °C for a few of minutes to improve both the value and the uniformity of the efficiency of CIGS pixel cell on 5 × 5 cm substrate. The best performance of the all-nonvacuum-fabricated CIGS solar cells showed an efficiency of 14.05% with Jsc of 34.82 mA/cm(2), Voc of 0.58 V, and FF of 69.60%, respectively, which is comparable with the efficiency of 14.45% of a reference cell using a sputtered window layer.

  6. Experimental progress with novel surface electrode ion trap structures for quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Craig; Blain, Matthew; Benito, Francisco; Chou, Chin-Wen; Descour, Mike; Ellis, Rob; Haltli, Ray; Heller, Edwin; Kemme, Shanalyn; Sterk, Jon; Tabakov, Boyan; Tigges, Chris; Maunz, Peter; Stick, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Segmented surface electrode ion traps are one of the most mature platforms among candidates for scalable quantum information processing. In this poster, an overview of current results from four specific projects will be presented. Two projects involve increased light collection from trapped ion for state detection and/or remote entangling of distant ions. The first involves cavity integration into a linear surface trap, and the second, involves integration of diffractive optical elements into a linear surface trap for increased light collection. Another project involves a trap with a ring geometry which could be used to trap long chains of equally spaced ions. Finally, we report on initial testing of a trap structure with vastly improved in-plane optical access. In this structure in-plane beams can be focused to less than 8 microns while keeping a distance of at least 5 beam radii to the trap structure. Along with these projects other relevant progress from Sandia National Laboratory's ion trap group will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. DC source assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  8. Silicon-based wire electrode array for neural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Weihua; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Shanshan; Fang, Xiaolei; Chen, Sanyuan; Gui, Qiang; Tang, Rongyu; Chen, Yuanfang; Hong, Bo; Gao, Xiaorong; Chen, Hongda

    2014-09-01

    Objectives. Metal-wire electrode arrays are widely used to record and stimulate neurons. Commonly, these devices are fabricated from a long insulated metal wire by cutting it into the proper length and using the cross-section as the electrode site. The assembly of a micro-wire electrode array with regular spacing is difficult. With the help of micro-machine technology, a silicon-based wire electrode array (SWEA) is proposed to simplify the assembling process and provide a wire-type electrode with tapered tips. Approach. Silicon wires with regular spacing coated with metal are generated from a silicon wafer through micro-fabrication and are ordered into a 3D array. A silicon wafer is cut into a comb-like structure with hexagonal teeth on both sides by anisotropic etching. To establish an array of silicon-based linear needles through isotropic wet etching, the diameters of these hexagonal teeth are reduced; their sharp edges are smoothed out and their tips are sharpened. The needle array is coated with a layer of parylene after metallization. The tips of the needles are then exposed to form an array of linear neural electrodes. With these linear electrode arrays, an array of area electrodes can be fabricated. Main results. A 6  ×  6 array of wire-type electrodes based on silicon is developed using this method. The time required to manually assemble the 3D array decreases significantly with the introduction of micro-fabricated 2D array. Meanwhile, the tip intervals in the 2D array are accurate and are controlled at no more than 1%. The SWEA is effective both in vitro and in vivo. Significance. Using this method, the SWEA can be batch-prepared in advance along with its parameters, such as spacing, length, and diameter. Thus, neural scientists can assemble proper electrode arrays in a short time.

  9. Electron transfer processes occurring on platinum neural stimulating electrodes: a tutorial on the i(V e) profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumsa, Doe W.; Bhadra, Narendra; Hudak, Eric M.; Kelley, Shawn C.; Untereker, Darrel F.; Mortimer, J. Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this tutorial is to encourage members of the neuroprosthesis community to incorporate electron transfer processes into their thinking and provide them with the tools to do so when they design and work with neurostimulating devices. The focus of this article is on platinum because it is the most used electrode metal for devices in commercial use. The i(V e) profile or cyclic voltammogram contains information about electron transfer processes that can occur when the electrode-electrolyte interface, V e, is at a specific potential, and assumed to be near steady-state conditions. For the engineer/designer this means that if the potential is not in the range of a specific electron transfer process, that process cannot occur. An i(V e) profile, recorded at sweep rates greater than 0.1 mVs-1, approximates steady-state conditions. Rapid transient potential excursions, like that seen with neural stimulation pulses, may be too fast for the reaction to occur, however, this means that if the potential is in the range of a specific electron transfer process it may occur and should be considered. The approach described here can be used to describe the thermodynamic electron transfer processes on other candidate electrode metals, e.g. stainless steel, iridium, carbon-based, etc.

  10. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabardo, Christine M.; Adams-McGavin, Robert C.; Fung, Barnabas C.; Mahoney, Eric J.; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal.

  11. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling.

    PubMed

    Gabardo, Christine M; Adams-McGavin, Robert C; Fung, Barnabas C; Mahoney, Eric J; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla

    2017-02-13

    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal.

  12. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling

    PubMed Central

    Gabardo, Christine M.; Adams-McGavin, Robert C.; Fung, Barnabas C.; Mahoney, Eric J.; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal. PMID:28211898

  13. Hierarchical charge distribution controls self-assembly process of silk in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Cencen; Liu, Lijie; Kaplan, David L.; Zhu, Hesun; Lu, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Silk materials with different nanostructures have been developed without the understanding of the inherent transformation mechanism. Here we attempt to reveal the conversion road of the various nanostructures and determine the critical regulating factors. The regulating conversion processes influenced by a hierarchical charge distribution were investigated, showing different transformations between molecules, nanoparticles and nanofibers. Various repulsion and compressive forces existed among silk fibroin molecules and aggregates due to the exterior and interior distribution of charge, which further controlled their aggregating and deaggregating behaviors and finally formed nanofibers with different sizes. Synergistic action derived from molecular mobility and concentrations could also tune the assembly process and final nanostructures. It is suggested that the complicated silk fibroin assembly processes comply a same rule based on charge distribution, offering a promising way to develop silk-based materials with designed nanostructures.

  14. Influence of binder properties on kinetic and transport processes in polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sambandam, Satheesh; Ramani, Vijay

    2010-06-21

    The objectives of this study are to estimate the contributions of kinetic, ohmic and mass transport overpotentials to the overall voltage loss in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) electrodes and to relate these overpotentials to electrode binder properties such as ionic conductivity, ion exchange capacity (IEC) and O(2) permeability. The model electrode binders studied were perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers (PFSA; of IECs 1.35 meq g(-1) and 0.95 meq g(-1)), sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK; of IECs 1.35, 1.75 and 2.1 meq g(-1)) and sulfonated poly sulfone (SPSU; of IEC 1.5 meq g(-1)). The O(2) permeability of these binders varied from 0.15 x 10(-12) mol cm(-1) s(-1) for SPSU to 6 x 10(-12) mol cm(-1) s(-1) for PFSA IEC 0.95 meq g(-1) at 80 degrees C and 75%RH. The electrodes prepared were characterized by cyclic voltammetry to estimate electrochemically active surface area (ECA) of platinum. Steady state polarization (V-I) experiments were performed with hydrogen as fuel and oxidants including O(2), 21% O(2)/N(2) (air), 21% O(2)/He (Helox) and 4% O(2)/N(2). The V-I data obtained was analyzed to determine the relative contributions of the different sources of polarization in the electrode. Electrodes prepared with PFSA binders had similar ECAs of 28 m(2) g(-1)-Pt, while those prepared using hydrocarbon binders had an ECA of 10 to 14 m(2) g(-1)-Pt at 80 degrees C and 75%RH. The same trend was seen in mass activity. At optimized binder loadings, a semi-quantitative relationship was obtained relating binder O(2) permeability to the mass transport losses within the electrode. Furthermore, a novel semi-quantitative method of plotting helox-air voltage gain against O(2)-air gain was employed to probe the O(2) transport limitations in the electrodes. Based on this analysis, it is suggested that the SPEEK and SPSU bound electrodes suffered from binder phase diffusion limitations in addition to gas phase diffusion limitation, while the PFSA bound

  15. Bridging Oriented Copper Nanowire-Graphene Composites for Solution-Processable, Annealing-Free, and Air-Stable Flexible Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wang; Yin, Zhenxing; Chun, Alvin; Yoo, Jeeyoung; Kim, Youn Sang; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2016-01-27

    One-dimensional flexible metallic nanowires (NWs) are of considerable interest for next-generation wearable devices. The unavoidable challenge for a wearable electrode is the assurance of high conductivity, flexibility, and durability with economically feasible materials and simple manufacturing processes. Here, we use a straightforward solvothermal method to prepare a flexible conductive material that contains reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets bridging oriented copper NWs. The GO-assistance route can successfully meet the criteria listed above and help the composite films maintain high conductivity and durable flexibility without any extra treatment, such as annealing or acid processes. The composite film exhibits a high electrical performance (0.808 Ω·sq(-1)) without considerable change over 30 days under ambient conditions. Moreover, the Cu NW-RGO composites can be deposited on polyester cloth as a lightweight wearable electrode with high durability and simple processability and are very promising for a wide variety of electronic devices.

  16. Process sensitivities in exemplary chemo-epitaxy directed self-assembly integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincon Delgadillo, Paulina A.; Gronheid, Roel; Lin, Guanyang; Cao, Yi; Romo, Ainhoa; Somervell, Mark; Nafus, Kathleen; Nealey, Paul F.

    2013-03-01

    Directed Self Assembly (DSA) using block copolymers (BCP) has received considerable attention over the past few years as a potential complementary lithographic technique. While many are focused on adapting DSA integrations to high volume manufacturing, the key to the technology's success lies in its ability to generate low defect patterns. The best way to drive the technology toward a zero defect solution is to understand the fundamentals of the block copolymer assembly, the interactions of the block copolymer with the underlying chemical pattern, and the evaluation of process parameters to obtain a high degree of order of the BCP morphologies. To this end, recent research has investigated numerous material, structural, and process sensitivities of an exemplary chemo-epitaxy line/space integration. Using the DSA flow implemented at imec, substrate properties, such as the geometry and chemistry, were studied and provided the first results regarding the dimensions of the nano-patterns and the energetic conditions necessary to obtain good alignment of the BCP. Additional parameters that have been explored include BCP film thickness and the bake conditions used to execute various steps of the flow. With this work, the key parameters that drive the assembly process have been identified. This will allow the definition of an optimized process window and materials for defect minimization.

  17. Modular design of domain assembly in porous coordination polymer crystals via reactivity-directed crystallization process.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Tomohiro; Horike, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Isoda, Seiji; Foo, Maw Lin; Kubota, Yoshiki; Takata, Masaki; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2012-08-15

    The mesoscale design of domain assembly is crucial for controlling the bulk properties of solids. Herein, we propose a modular design of domain assembly in porous coordination polymer crystals via exquisite control of the kinetics of the crystal formation process. Employing precursors of comparable chemical reactivity affords the preparation of homogeneous solid-solution type crystals. Employing precursors of distinct chemical reactivity affords the preparation of heterogeneous phase separated crystals. We have utilized this reactivity-directed crystallization process for the facile synthesis of mesoscale architecture which are either solid-solution or phase-separated type crystals. This approach can be also adapted to ternary phase-separated type crystals from one-pot reaction. Phase-separated type frameworks possess unique gas adsorption properties that are not observed in single-phasic compounds. The results shed light on the importance of crystal formation kinetics for control of mesoscale domains in order to create porous solids with unique cooperative functionality.

  18. Discontinuous and Continuous Processing of Low-Solvent Battery Slurries for Lithium Nickel Cobalt Manganese Oxide Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreger, Henning; Bockholt, Henrike; Haselrieder, Wolfgang; Kwade, Arno

    2015-11-01

    Different discontinuously and continuously working dispersing devices were investigated to determine their influence on the structural and electrochemical properties of electrodes made from commercial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode active material. A laboratory-scale dispersing device was compared with a discontinuously working laboratory kneader and a continuously working extruder, both using 50% less solvent than the dissolver process. Rheological, mechanical, structural, conductive, imaging, and electrochemical analyses (C-rate test, long-term cycling) were carried out. The dispersing method and time were found to have a considerable impact on the structure and electrochemical performance. The continuous extrusion process resulted in good performance with more than 20% higher specific capacity at elevated C-rates compared with the discontinuous process. This can be attributed to better deagglomeration of the carbon black in the slurries, also resulting in 60% higher electrode conductivity. On top of these positive results, the changes in the drying step due to the reduced solvent use led to a 50% decrease in the time required for the constant-drying-rate period. The continuously working extrusion process was found to be most suitable for large-scale, cost-efficient, environmentally friendly production of slurries for lithium-ion battery electrodes.

  19. Fabrication of 2D ordered films of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV): processing morphology correlations for convective assembly.

    PubMed

    Wargacki, Stephen P; Pate, Brian; Vaia, Richard A

    2008-05-20

    Biological colloids, and in particular viruses, have demonstrated substantial potential as scaffolds for nanoparticle arrays. However, the large-area, low-cost, and rapid assembly of viruses, such as by traditional colloidal processing techniques, is not well-established. Systematic exploration of processing space (virus concentration, assembly speed, and substrate surface energy) for the convective assembly method enables the fabrication of films of rod-shaped viruses (tobacco mosaic virus, TMV) with a high degree of long-range order. Monolayer assemblies several centimeters in length are comprised of TMV aligned parallel to the direction of assembly. Increasing TMV concentration and reducing assembly speed resulted in well-ordered viral layering ( N = 2 to N = 12); however, the top virus layer exhibits varying degrees of in-plane disorder.

  20. High-performance all-solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor arrays with layer-by-layer assembled MWNT/MnOx nanocomposite electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geumbee; Kim, Daeil; Yun, Junyeong; Ko, Yongmin; Cho, Jinhan; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we report on the fabrication of high performance planar-type flexible micro-supercapacitor (MSC) arrays using Au electrodes coated with a functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) film and a layer of MWNT-COOH/MnOx nanoparticle (NP) composite on top. The MWNT thin film was formed via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of MWNTs functionalized with amine groups and MWNTs with carboxylic acid groups in water. The hydrothermally synthesized composite of MWNT-COOH/MnOx NPs was coated on top of the MWNT film (LbL-MWNT). The addition of MWNT-COOH/MnOx NP composite as a top layer enhanced the performance of the MSCs dramatically, resulting in a volumetric capacitance of 50 F cm-3 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a coulombic efficiency of ~100%. By contrast, a volumetric capacitance of 3.6 F cm-3 was obtained when using only the LbL-MWNT film. After repetitive operation up to ~104 times, the capacitance remained at ~88.3% of the original value. With a deliberate circuit design consisting of serially connected MSC arrays, various light-emitting diodes operating at different bias voltages could be lit. The MSC circuit fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film showed stable electrochemical properties upon 1000 cycles of bending deformation.In this study, we report on the fabrication of high performance planar-type flexible micro-supercapacitor (MSC) arrays using Au electrodes coated with a functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) film and a layer of MWNT-COOH/MnOx nanoparticle (NP) composite on top. The MWNT thin film was formed via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of MWNTs functionalized with amine groups and MWNTs with carboxylic acid groups in water. The hydrothermally synthesized composite of MWNT-COOH/MnOx NPs was coated on top of the MWNT film (LbL-MWNT). The addition of MWNT-COOH/MnOx NP composite as a top layer enhanced the performance of the MSCs dramatically, resulting in a volumetric capacitance of 50 F cm-3 at a scan rate of 10

  1. High-rate nanoscale offset printing process using directed assembly and transfer of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hanchul; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Lee, Jin Young; Jeong, Hobin; Busnaina, Ahmed

    2015-03-11

    High-rate nanoscale offset printing using a newly developed reusable template enables the assembly of nanomaterials into nanostructures followed by their transfer onto a flexible substrate in a few minutes. The developed template can potentially be reused more than 100 times in the offset printing process without any additional functionalization. This approach provides a new way for the printing of flexible devices with nanoscale patterns.

  2. Layer-by-Layer Assembled 2D Montmorillonite Dielectrics for Solution-Processed Electronics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Liu, Xiaolong; Geier, Michael L; McMorrow, Julian J; Jariwala, Deep; Beck, Megan E; Huang, Wei; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2016-01-06

    Layer-by-layer assembled 2D montmorillonite nanosheets are shown to be high-performance, solution-processed dielectrics. These scalable and spatially uniform sub-10 nm thick dielectrics yield high areal capacitances of ≈600 nF cm(-2) and low leakage currents down to 6 × 10(-9) A cm(-2) that enable low voltage operation of p-type semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube and n-type indium gallium zinc oxide field-effect transistors.

  3. Pressure Processing of Nanocube Assemblies Toward Harvesting of a Metastable PbS Phase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tie; Li, Ruipeng; Quan, Zewei; Loc, Welley Siu; Bassett, William A; Xu, Hongwu; Cao, Y Charles; Fang, Jiye; Wang, Zhongwu

    2015-08-19

    This materials-by-design approach combines nanocrystal assembly with pressure processing to drive the attachment and coalescence of PbS nanocubes along directed crystallographic dimensions to form a large 3D porous architecture. This quenchable and strained mesostructure holds the storage of large internal stress, which stabilizes the high-pressure PbS phase in atmospheric conditions. Nanocube fusion enhances the structural stability; the large surface area maintains the size-dependent properties.

  4. The Use of Carbon Aerogel Electrodes for Deionizing Water and Treating Aqueous Process Wastes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    aerogel electrodes, deionization of water, heavy metal removal from water, SERDP 16. PRICE CODE N/A 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY 19...1.2 V in an undivided cell. Removal of I ppm heavy metal contamination from a 500 ml of 0.1 M KNO3 with complete recycle at 50 ml/min 90’d 9-O3- :d-Ot9...electrodes were used to remove Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb from 500 ml of 0.1 M KNO 3 with electrosorption capacities ranging from 5x10Ř to 9x10-4 gram of heavy

  5. Environmental changes affect the assembly of soil bacterial community primarily by mediating stochastic processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ximei; Johnston, Eric R; Liu, Wei; Li, Linghao; Han, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Both 'species fitness difference'-based deterministic processes, such as competitive exclusion and environmental filtering, and 'species fitness difference'-independent stochastic processes, such as birth/death and dispersal/colonization, can influence the assembly of soil microbial communities. However, how both types of processes are mediated by anthropogenic environmental changes has rarely been explored. Here we report a novel and general pattern that almost all anthropogenic environmental changes that took place in a grassland ecosystem affected soil bacterial community assembly primarily through promoting or restraining stochastic processes. We performed four experiments mimicking 16 types of environmental changes and separated the compositional variation of soil bacterial communities caused by each environmental change into deterministic and stochastic components, with a recently developed method. Briefly, because the difference between control and treatment communities is primarily caused by deterministic processes, the deterministic change was quantified as (mean compositional variation between treatment and control) - (mean compositional variation within control). The difference among replicate treatment communities is primarily caused by stochastic processes, so the stochastic change was estimated as (mean compositional variation within treatment) - (mean compositional variation within control). The absolute of the stochastic change was greater than that of the deterministic change across almost all environmental changes, which was robust for both taxonomic and functional-based criterion. Although the deterministic change may become more important as environmental changes last longer, our findings showed that changes usually occurred through mediating stochastic processes over 5 years, challenging the traditional determinism-dominated view.

  6. Photoelectrochemical electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The surface of a moderate band gap semiconductor such as p-type molybdenum sulfide is modified to contain an adherent film of charge mediating ionene polymer containing an electroactive unit such as bipyridimium. Electron transport between the electrode and the mediator film is favorable and photocorrosion and recombination processes are suppressed. Incorporation of particles of catalyst such as platinum within the film provides a reduction in overvoltage. The polymer film is readily deposited on the electrode surface and can be rendered stable by ionic or addition crosslinking. Catalyst can be predispersed in the polymer film or a salt can be impregnated into the film and reduced therein.

  7. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  8. Physical process in OLED architectures with transparent carbon nanotube sheets as electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovalle Robles, Raquel

    There has been a great deal of activity in the development of organic light emitting diodes (OLED's) and polymeric light emitting diodes (PLED's). Research in OLEDs and PLEDs have been having a significant development over the last few years towards commercialization, extended life time, stability, efficiency and new fabrication processes suitable for mass production are some of the topics. The potential for commercialization is high due to their low operating voltage (typically between 2.5 to 5 volts), their high brightness and their ease to process. They are light weight and can be flexible. Furthermore, these devices can be easily color tune to produce red, green and blue colors. Research in this type of electroluminescence devices has advanced rapidly and device prototypes now meet realistic specifications for applications. By proper device engineering these devices can achieve high electroluminescence efficiencies and lifetimes. In this research project we present several methods and procedures that we developed and use to produce OLEDs and PLEDs. We have incorporated quantum dots into OLEDs as emissive dopants that contribute to the control of the spectral distribution of emitted light allowing the production of white OLEDs using both a multilayer structure with emission from multiple layers and a bilayer structure with emission from only the quantum dots. We have also produced PLED devices with a new family of novel PPV polymers achieving high bright efficient devices. OLED structures with transparent carbon nanotube sheets, obtained by dry drawing from a CVD-grown forest have been produced. The devices shown to be very bright and the MCNT sheets are efficient hole-injecting anodes for OLEDs Also, for flexible display applications, there is a need for high strength, flexible materials which can be deposited as transparent films and can act as hole injectors for organic films. By using a hybrid ITO/MWCNT anode onto flexible substrates an enhancement of the

  9. In-situ guidance of individual neuronal processes by wet femtosecond-laser processing of self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Okano, Kazunori; Demura, Takanori; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Masuhara, Hiroshi; Tanii, Takashi; Nakamura, Shun

    2011-10-01

    In-situ guidance of neuronal processes (neurites) is demonstrated by applying wet femtosecond-laser processing to an organosilane self-assembled monolayer (SAM) template. By scanning focused laser beam between cell adhesion sites, on which primary neurons adhered and extended their neurites, we succeeded in guiding the neurites along the laser-scanning line. This guidance was accomplished by multiphoton laser ablation of cytophobic SAM layer and subsequent adsorption of cell adhesion molecule, laminin, onto the ablated region. This technique allows us to arbitrarily design neuronal networks in vitro.

  10. Distinct Elements in the Proteasomal β5 Subunit Propeptide Required for Autocatalytic Processing and Proteasome Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Li, Yanjie; Arendt, Cassandra S.; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic 20S proteasome assembly remains poorly understood. The subunits stack into four heteroheptameric rings; three inner-ring subunits (β1, β2, and β5) bear the protease catalytic residues and are synthesized with N-terminal propeptides. These propeptides are removed autocatalytically late in assembly. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, β5 (Doa3/Pre2) has a 75-residue propeptide, β5pro, that is essential for proteasome assembly and can work in trans. We show that deletion of the poorly conserved N-terminal half of the β5 propeptide nonetheless causes substantial defects in proteasome maturation. Sequences closer to the cleavage site have critical but redundant roles in both assembly and self-cleavage. A conserved histidine two residues upstream of the autocleavage site strongly promotes processing. Surprisingly, although β5pro is functionally linked to the Ump1 assembly factor, trans-expressed β5pro associates only weakly with Ump1-containing precursors. Several genes were identified as dosage suppressors of trans-expressed β5pro mutants; the strongest encoded the β7 proteasome subunit. Previous data suggested that β7 and β5pro have overlapping roles in bringing together two half-proteasomes, but the timing of β7 addition relative to half-mer joining was unclear. Here we report conditions where dimerization lags behind β7 incorporation into the half-mer. Our results suggest that β7 insertion precedes half-mer dimerization, and the β7 tail and β5 propeptide have unequal roles in half-mer joining. PMID:26627836

  11. Distinct Elements in the Proteasomal β5 Subunit Propeptide Required for Autocatalytic Processing and Proteasome Assembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Li, Yanjie; Arendt, Cassandra S; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-01-22

    Eukaryotic 20S proteasome assembly remains poorly understood. The subunits stack into four heteroheptameric rings; three inner-ring subunits (β1, β2, and β5) bear the protease catalytic residues and are synthesized with N-terminal propeptides. These propeptides are removed autocatalytically late in assembly. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, β5 (Doa3/Pre2) has a 75-residue propeptide, β5pro, that is essential for proteasome assembly and can work in trans. We show that deletion of the poorly conserved N-terminal half of the β5 propeptide nonetheless causes substantial defects in proteasome maturation. Sequences closer to the cleavage site have critical but redundant roles in both assembly and self-cleavage. A conserved histidine two residues upstream of the autocleavage site strongly promotes processing. Surprisingly, although β5pro is functionally linked to the Ump1 assembly factor, trans-expressed β5pro associates only weakly with Ump1-containing precursors. Several genes were identified as dosage suppressors of trans-expressed β5pro mutants; the strongest encoded the β7 proteasome subunit. Previous data suggested that β7 and β5pro have overlapping roles in bringing together two half-proteasomes, but the timing of β7 addition relative to half-mer joining was unclear. Here we report conditions where dimerization lags behind β7 incorporation into the half-mer. Our results suggest that β7 insertion precedes half-mer dimerization, and the β7 tail and β5 propeptide have unequal roles in half-mer joining.

  12. A Solution Processed Flexible Nanocomposite Electrode with Efficient Light Extraction for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu; Liang, Jiajie; Chou, Shu-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Niu, Xiaofan; Zhibinyu; Pei, Qibing

    2014-03-01

    Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on multiple layers of vapor evaporated small molecules, indium tin oxide transparent electrode, and glass substrate have been extensively investigated and are being commercialized. The light extraction from the exciton radiative decay is limited to less than 30% due to plasmonic quenching on the metallic cathode and the waveguide in the multi-layer sandwich structure. Here we report a flexible nanocomposite electrode comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires stacked and embedded in the surface of a polymer substrate. Nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate are dispersed within the substrate to enhance light extraction efficiency. Green polymer OLED (PLEDs) fabricated on the nanocomposite electrode exhibit a maximum current efficiency of 118 cd/A at 10,000 cd/m2 with the calculated external quantum efficiency being 38.9%. The efficiencies of white PLEDs are 46.7 cd/A and 30.5%, respectively. The devices can be bent to 3 mm radius repeatedly without significant loss of electroluminescent performance. The nanocomposite electrode could pave the way to high-efficiency flexible OLEDs with simplified device structure and low fabrication cost.

  13. Fundamental Studies of Surfaces Processes and Trace Analysis Using Solid Electrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-10

    into studies of heterogeneous electrode kinetics, underpotential deposition and electrocatalysis. The electroanalytical work areas involved trace...ism of the catalysis of formic acid electrooxidation by underpotentially deposited species, b) modelling the interaction of mass transport and light...method. P. UPD Studies in Acetonitrile. (5). The underpotential deposition of lead and silver on gold was studied in acetonitrile as a solvent. The

  14. A Solution Processed Flexible Nanocomposite Electrode with Efficient Light Extraction for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Liang, Jiajie; Chou, Shu-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Niu, Xiaofan; ZhibinYu; Pei, Qibing

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on multiple layers of vapor evaporated small molecules, indium tin oxide transparent electrode, and glass substrate have been extensively investigated and are being commercialized. The light extraction from the exciton radiative decay is limited to less than 30% due to plasmonic quenching on the metallic cathode and the waveguide in the multi-layer sandwich structure. Here we report a flexible nanocomposite electrode comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires stacked and embedded in the surface of a polymer substrate. Nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate are dispersed within the substrate to enhance light extraction efficiency. Green polymer OLED (PLEDs) fabricated on the nanocomposite electrode exhibit a maximum current efficiency of 118 cd/A at 10,000 cd/m2 with the calculated external quantum efficiency being 38.9%. The efficiencies of white PLEDs are 46.7 cd/A and 30.5%, respectively. The devices can be bent to 3 mm radius repeatedly without significant loss of electroluminescent performance. The nanocomposite electrode could pave the way to high-efficiency flexible OLEDs with simplified device structure and low fabrication cost. PMID:24632742

  15. Process for making RF shielded cable connector assemblies and the products formed thereby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, A.; Clatterbuck, C. H. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A process for making RF shielded cable connector assemblies and the resulting structures is described. The process basically consists of potting wires of a shielded cable between the cable shield and a connector housing to fill in, support, regidize, and insulate the individual wires contained in the cable. The formed potting is coated with an electrically conductive material so as to form an entirely encompassing adhering conductive path between the cable shield and the metallic connector housing. A protective jacket is thereby formed over the conductive coating between the cable shield and the connector housing.

  16. Hardware Architecture and Cutting-Edge Assembly Process of a Tiny Curved Compound Eye

    PubMed Central

    Viollet, Stéphane; Godiot, Stéphanie; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Breugnon, Patrick; Menouni, Mohsine; Juston, Raphaël; Expert, Fabien; Colonnier, Fabien; L'Eplattenier, Géraud; Brückner, Andreas; Kraze, Felix; Mallot, Hanspeter; Franceschini, Nicolas; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Ruffier, Franck; Floreano, Dario

    2014-01-01

    The demand for bendable sensors increases constantly in the challenging field of soft and micro-scale robotics. We present here, in more detail, the flexible, functional, insect-inspired curved artificial compound eye (CurvACE) that was previously introduced in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS, 2013). This cylindrically-bent sensor with a large panoramic field-of-view of 180° × 60° composed of 630 artificial ommatidia weighs only 1.75 g, is extremely compact and power-lean (0.9 W), while it achieves unique visual motion sensing performance (1950 frames per second) in a five-decade range of illuminance. In particular, this paper details the innovative Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) sensing layout, the accurate assembly fabrication process, the innovative, new fast read-out interface, as well as the auto-adaptive dynamic response of the CurvACE sensor. Starting from photodetectors and microoptics on wafer substrates and flexible printed circuit board, the complete assembly of CurvACE was performed in a planar configuration, ensuring high alignment accuracy and compatibility with state-of-the art assembling processes. The characteristics of the photodetector of one artificial ommatidium have been assessed in terms of their dynamic response to light steps. We also characterized the local auto-adaptability of CurvACE photodetectors in response to large illuminance changes: this feature will certainly be of great interest for future applications in real indoor and outdoor environments. PMID:25407908

  17. Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Jesse R; Uriarte, María; Boukili, Vanessa K; Chazdon, Robin L

    2014-04-15

    Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession.

  18. Hardware architecture and cutting-edge assembly process of a tiny curved compound eye.

    PubMed

    Viollet, Stéphane; Godiot, Stéphanie; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Breugnon, Patrick; Menouni, Mohsine; Juston, Raphaël; Expert, Fabien; Colonnier, Fabien; L'Eplattenier, Géraud; Brückner, Andreas; Kraze, Felix; Mallot, Hanspeter; Franceschini, Nicolas; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Ruffier, Franck; Floreano, Dario

    2014-11-17

    The demand for bendable sensors increases constantly in the challenging field of soft and micro-scale robotics. We present here, in more detail, the flexible, functional, insect-inspired curved artificial compound eye (CurvACE) that was previously introduced in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS, 2013). This cylindrically-bent sensor with a large panoramic field-of-view of 180° × 60° composed of 630 artificial ommatidia weighs only 1.75 g, is extremely compact and power-lean (0.9 W), while it achieves unique visual motion sensing performance (1950 frames per second) in a five-decade range of illuminance. In particular, this paper details the innovative Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) sensing layout, the accurate assembly fabrication process, the innovative, new fast read-out interface, as well as the auto-adaptive dynamic response of the CurvACE sensor. Starting from photodetectors and microoptics on wafer substrates and flexible printed circuit board, the complete assembly of CurvACE was performed in a planar configuration, ensuring high alignment accuracy and compatibility with state-of-the art assembling processes. The characteristics of the photodetector of one artificial ommatidium have been assessed in terms of their dynamic response to light steps. We also characterized the local auto-adaptability of CurvACE photodetectors in response to large illuminance changes: this feature will certainly be of great interest for future applications in real indoor and outdoor environments.

  19. Assembly and Integration Process of the First High Density Detector Array for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Yaqiong; Choi, Steve; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Crowley, Kevin T.; Salatino, Maria; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) consists of multichroicTransition Edge Sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. The first AdvACT detector array, sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz, is fabricated on a 150 mm diameter wafer and read out with a completely different scheme compared to ACTPol. Approximately 2000 TES bolometers are packed into the wafer leading to both a much denser detector density and readout circuitry. The demonstration of the assembly and integration of the AdvACT arrays is important for the next generation CMB experiments, which will continue to increase the pixel number and density. We present the detailed assembly process of the first AdvACT detector array.

  20. Assembly and integration process of the first high density detector array for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaqiong; Choi, Steve; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Crowley, Kevin T.; Salatino, Maria; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Nati, Federico; Ward, Jonathan; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Henderson, Shawn; Koopman, Brian J.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Niemack, Michael D.; McMahon, Jeff; Duff, Shannon M.; Schillaci, Alessandro; Hubmayr, Johannes; Hilton, Gene C.; Beall, James A.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) consists of multichroic Transition Edge Sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. The first AdvACT detector array, sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz, is fabricated on a 150 mm diameter wafer and read out with a completely different scheme compared to ACTPol. Approximately 2000 TES bolometers are packed into the wafer leading to both a much denser detector density and readout circuitry. The demonstration of the assembly and integration of the AdvACT arrays is important for the next generation CMB experiments, which will continue to increase the pixel number and density. We present the detailed assembly process of the first AdvACT detector array.

  1. EXTENSION ADMINISTRATION AND STATE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS--A CASE STUDY OF THE 71ST MISSOURI GENERAL ASSEMBLY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KYD, STIRLING

    TO GAIN UNDERSTANDING OF MISSOURI'S LEGISLATIVE PROCESS AND AID ADMINISTRATORS OF THE EXTENSION DIVISION, THE AUTHOR INVESTIGATED THE 71ST GENERAL ASSEMBLY. HE READ PUBLICATIONS, INTERVIEWED LOBBYISTS, AND CONDUCTED OPEN ENDED DEPTH INTERVIEWS WITH LEGISLATORS SELECTED TO COMPRISE THE LEADERSHIP OF THE ASSEMBLY. HIS DISSERTATION PRESENTS THE…

  2. Fuel cell electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Strmcnik, Dusan; Cuesta, Angel; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad

    2015-06-23

    A process includes patterning a surface of a platinum group metal-based electrode by contacting the electrode with an adsorbate to form a patterned platinum group metal-based electrode including platinum group metal sites blocked with adsorbate molecules and platinum group metal sites which are not blocked.

  3. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  4. Molybdenum-oxide based unique polyprotic nanoacids showing different deprotonations and related assembly processes in solution.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Melissa L; Liu, Tianbo; Gouzerh, Pierre; Todea, Ana Maria; Müller, Achim

    2009-07-14

    We report the self-assembly processes in solution of three Keplerate-type molybdenum-oxide based clusters {Mo72V30}, {Mo72Cr30} and {Mo72Fe30} (all with diameters of approximately 2.5 nm). These clusters behave as unique weak polyprotic acids owing to the external water ligands attached to the non-Mo metal centers. Whereas the Cr and Fe clusters have 30 water ligands attached at the 30 M3+ centers pointing outside, {Mo72V30} has 20 water ligands coordinated to vanadium atoms, of which only 10 are pointing outside. The self-assembly processes of the Keplerates leading to supramolecular blackberry-type structures are influenced by the effective charge densities on the cluster surfaces, which can be tuned by the pH values and solvent properties. As expected, {Mo72Cr30} and {Mo72Fe30} behave similarly in aqueous solution due to their analogous structures and in both cases the self-assembly follows the partial deprotonation of the external water ligands attached to the non-Mo metal centers. However, the M-OH2 functionalities differ not only in acidity but also lability, i.e. in different residence times of the H2O ligands. In contrast to {Mo72Cr30} and {Mo72Fe30}, the {Mo72V30} clusters carry a rather large number of negative charges so that their solution properties are different. They exist as discrete macroions in dilute aqueous solution, and form only in mixed water/organic solvent (like acetone) blackberry-type structures whose size increases with acetone content. The comparison of the properties of the clusters allows more general information about the interesting self-assembly phenomenon to be unveiled.

  5. Vacuum-free processed bulk heterojunction solar cells with E-GaIn cathode as an alternative to Al electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongul, Fatih; Aydın Yuksel, Sureyya; Bozar, Sinem; Cakmak, Gulbeden; Yuksel Guney, Hasan; Ayuk Mbi Egbe, Daniel; Gunes, Serap

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the photovoltaic characteristics of bulk heterojunction solar cells employing an eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn) alloy as a top metal contact which was coated by a simple and inexpensive brush-painting was investigated. The overall solar cell fabrication procedure was vacuum-free. As references, regular organic bulk heterojunction solar cells employing thermally evaporated Aluminum as a top metal contact were also fabricated. Inserting the ZnO layer between the active layer and the cathode electrodes (Al and EGaIn) improved the photovoltaic performance of the herein investigated devices. The power conversion efficiencies with and without EGaIn top electrodes were rather comparable. Hence, we have shown that the EGaIn, which is liquid at room temperature, can be used as a cathode. It allows an easy and rapid device fabrication that can be implemented through a vacuum free process.

  6. Room-Temperature-Processable Wire-Templated Nano-Electrodes for Flexible and Transparent All-Wire Electronics.

    PubMed

    Min, Sung-Yong; Lee, Yeongjun; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Cheolmin; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2017-03-17

    Sophisticate preparation of arbitrarily-long conducting nanowire electrodes on large area is a significant requirement for development of transparent nano-electronics. We report position-customizable and room-temperature-processable metallic nanowire (NW) electrodes array using aligned NW templates and a demonstration of transparent all-NW-based electronic applications by simple direct-printing. Well-controlled electroless-plating chemistry on a polymer NW template provided a highly-conducting Au NW array with a very low resistivity of 7.5 μΩ cm (only 3.4 times higher than that of bulk Au), high optical transmittance (> 90%), and mechanical bending stability. This method enables fabrication of all-NW-based electronic devices on various non-planar surfaces and flexible plastic substrates. Our approach facilitates realization of advanced future electronics.

  7. Transparent indium tin oxide electrodes on muscovite mica for high-temperature processed flexible opto-electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Ke, Shanming; Chen, Chang; Fu, Nian-Qing; Zhou, Hua; Ye, Mao; Lin, Peng; Yuan, Wen-Xiang; Zeng, Xierong; Chen, Lang; Huang, Haitao

    2016-10-11

    Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) electrodes were deposited on transparent and flexible muscovite mica. The use of mica substrate makes a high-temperature annealing process (up to 500 °C) possible. ITO/mica retains its low electric resistivity even after continuous bending of 1000 times on account of the unique layered structure of mica. When used as a transparent flexible heater, ITO/mica shows an extremely fast ramping (< 15 s) up to a high temperature of over 438 °C. When used as a transparent electrode, ITO/mica permits a high temperature annealing (450 °C) approach to fabricate flexible perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with high efficiency.

  8. Electrically conductive connection for an electrode

    DOEpatents

    Hornack, Thomas R.; Chilko, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    An electrically conductive connection for an electrode assembly of an electrolyte cell in which aluminum is produced by electrolysis in a molten salt is described. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode flask and a conductor rod. The flask has a collar above an area of minimum flask diameter. The electrically conductive connection comprises the electrode flask, the conductor rod and a structure bearing against the collar and the conductor rod for pulling the conductor rod into compressive and electrical contact with the flask.

  9. The structural transformation of the Pt( 1 1 0 ) electrode during the Cu underpotential deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, O.; Ikemiya, N.; Ito, M.

    2002-08-01

    The underpotential deposition (UPD) of copper on the Pt(1 1 0) electrode in 0.5 M H 2SO 4 was studied by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy and IRAS. It was revealed that UPD copper produces the (1×1) structure as long as the sample potential is kept below 670 mV (vs. standard hydrogen electrode, SHE). After potential cycles over 60 min at the range of 220-1070 mV (vs. SHE), the surface is irreversibly transformed into the (1× n) reconstructed structure. The UPD copper traces the substrate (1× n). The irregular band shift of the SO 4 stretching mode observed by IRAS is also discussed.

  10. Photophysical and photochemical processes in 3D self-assembled gels as confined microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Díaz Díaz, David

    2015-07-14

    Numerous challenging transformations take place in nature with high efficiency within confined and compartmented environments. This has inspired scientists to develop spatially micro- and nanoreactors by 'bottom-up' approaches in order to improve different processes in comparison to solution, in terms of kinetics, selectivity or processability. In this respect, investigation of photophysical and photochemical processes in soft gel materials has recently emerged as a new and promising research field oriented towards expanding their applications in important areas such as photovoltaics, photocatalysis and phototherapy. Herein, we summarize the few examples dealing with intragel photo-induced physical and chemical processes involving embedded reactants that do not participate in the assembly of the gel network.

  11. All track directed self-assembly of block copolymers: process flow and origin of defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincon Delgadillo, Paulina A.; Gronheid, Roel; Thode, Christopher J.; Wu, Hengpeng; Cao, Yi; Somervell, Mark; Nafus, Kathleen; Nealey, Paul F.

    2012-03-01

    Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) of block copolymers is considered to be a potential lithographic solution to achieve higher feature densities than can be obtained by current lithographic techniques. However, it is still not well-established how amenable DSA of block copolymers is to an industrial fabrication environment in terms of defectivity and processing conditions. Beyond production-related challenges, precise manipulation of the geometrical and chemical properties over the substrate is essential to achieve high pattern fidelity upon the self-assembly process. Using our chemo-epitaxy DSA approach offers control over the surface properties of the slightly preferential brush material as well as those of the guiding structures. This allows for a detailed assessment of the critical material parameters for defect reduction. The precise control of environment afforded by industrial equipment allows for the selective analysis of material and process related boundary conditions and assessment of their effect on defect generation. In this study, the previously reported implementation of our feature multiplication process was used to investigate the origin of defects in terms of the geometry of the initial pre-patterns. Additionally, programmed defects were used to investigate the ability of the BCP to heal defects in the resist patterns and will aid to assess the capture capability of the inspection tool. Finally, the set-up of the infrastructure that will allow the study the generation of defects due to the interaction of the BCP with the boundary conditions has been accomplished at imec.

  12. A CFD M&S PROCESS FOR FAST REACTOR FUEL ASSEMBLIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt D. Hamman; Ray A. Berry

    2008-09-01

    A CFD modeling and simulation process for large-scale problems using an arbitrary fast reactor fuel assembly design was evaluated. Three dimensional flow distributions of sodium for several fast reactor fuel assembly pin spacing configurations were simulated on high performance computers using commercial CFD software. This research focused on 19-pin fuel assembly “benchmark” geometry, similar in design to the Advanced Burner Test Reactor, where each pin is separated by helical wire-wrap spacers. Several two-equation turbulence models including the k-e and SST (Menter) k-? were evaluated. Considerable effort was taken to resolve the momentum boundary layer, so as to eliminate the need for wall functions and reduce computational uncertainty. High performance computers were required to generate the hybrid meshes needed to predict secondary flows created by the wire-wrap spacers; computational meshes ranging from 65 to 85 million elements were common. A general validation methodology was followed, including mesh refinement and comparison of numerical results with empirical correlations. Predictions for velocity, temperature, and pressure distribution are shown. The uncertainty of numerical models, importance of high fidelity experimental data, and the challenges associated with simulating and validating large production-type problems are presented.

  13. Neutron Detector Signal Processing to Calculate the Effective Neutron Multiplication Factor of Subcritical Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-06-01

    This report describes different methodologies to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by processing the neutron detector signals using MATLAB scripts. The subcritical assembly can be driven either by a spontaneous fission neutron source (e.g. californium) or by a neutron source generated from the interactions of accelerated particles with target materials. In the latter case, when the particle accelerator operates in a pulsed mode, the signals are typically stored into two files. One file contains the time when neutron reactions occur and the other contains the times when the neutron pulses start. In both files, the time is given by an integer representing the number of time bins since the start of the counting. These signal files are used to construct the neutron count distribution from a single neutron pulse. The built-in functions of MATLAB are used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor through the application of the prompt decay fitting or the area method to the neutron count distribution. If the subcritical assembly is driven by a spontaneous fission neutron source, then the effective multiplication factor can be evaluated either using the prompt neutron decay constant obtained from Rossi or Feynman distributions or the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method.

  14. Mechanical design and design processes for the Telescope Optical Assembly of the Optical Communications Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Lossberg, Bryan R.

    1994-08-01

    A mechanical design has been developed for the Telescope Optical Assembly (TOA) of the Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD). The TOA is the portion of the OCD instrument that integrates all the optical elements of the system with the exception of the Laser Transmitter Assembly (LXA) which is fiber coupled to the TOA. The TOA structure is composed primarily of aluminum components with some use of steel and invar. The assembly is contained within a 16 cm MUL 20 cm X 33 cm envelope and has an estimated mass of 5.5 kg. The mechanical design was developed using Computervision's CADDS 5 computer aided design software. Code V optical design data was used as a primary input and was efficiently and accurately transferred form the optical designer to the mechanical designer through the use of IGES files. In addition to enabling rapid transfer of the initial optical design as well as subsequent optical design refinements, the IGES transfer process was also used to expedite preliminary thermal and dynamic analyses.

  15. Ion-selective electrodes in potentiometric titrations; a new method for processing and evaluating titration data.

    PubMed

    Granholm, Kim; Sokalski, Tomasz; Lewenstam, Andrzej; Ivaska, Ari

    2015-08-12

    A new method to convert the potential of an ion-selective electrode to concentration or activity in potentiometric titration is proposed. The advantage of this method is that the electrode standard potential and the slope of the calibration curve do not have to be known. Instead two activities on the titration curve have to be estimated e.g. the starting activity before the titration begins and the activity at the end of the titration in the presence of large excess of titrant. This new method is beneficial when the analyte is in a complexed matrix or in a harsh environment which affects the properties of the electrode and the traditional calibration procedure with standard solutions cannot be used. The new method was implemented both in a method of linearization based on the Grans's plot and in determination of the stability constant of a complex and the concentration of the complexing ligand in the sample. The new method gave accurate results when using titrations data from experiments with samples of known composition and with real industrial harsh black liquor sample. A complexometric titration model was also developed.

  16. A novel preparation of core-shell electrode materials via evaporation-induced self-assembly of nanoparticles for advanced Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiqiang; Ellis, Sarah; Xu, Wangwang; Dye, Dara; Zhao, Jianqing; Wang, Ying

    2015-10-18

    We report, for the first time, a simple and novel synthesis of a Li-rich layered-spinel core-shell heterostructure (L@S core-shell) via evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of Ni-doped Li4Mn5O12 nanoparticles (Li4Mn4.5Ni0.5O12) onto the surface of layered Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 (LMNCO) without using any surfactant during the coating process. The resultant L@S core-shell as a cathode in lithium ion batteries demonstrates significantly improved specific capacity, cycling performance and rate capability compared to pristine LMNCO.

  17. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Young, Neil P.; Snaith, Henry J.; Grant, Patrick S.

    2016-05-01

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that usually require nano-structured materials and fine-scale processing approaches, and current manufacturing technology that operates at large scale. We demonstrate a new, scalable capability to produce discrete, multi-layered electrodes with a different material and/or morphology in each layer, and where each layer plays a different, critical role in enhancing the dynamics of charge/discharge. This layered structure allows efficient utilisation of each material and enables conservative use of hard-to-obtain materials. The layered electrode shows amongst the highest combinations of energy and power densities for solid-state supercapacitors. Our functional design and spray manufacturing approach to heterogeneous electrodes provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices.

  18. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Young, Neil P.; Snaith, Henry J.; Grant, Patrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that usually require nano-structured materials and fine-scale processing approaches, and current manufacturing technology that operates at large scale. We demonstrate a new, scalable capability to produce discrete, multi-layered electrodes with a different material and/or morphology in each layer, and where each layer plays a different, critical role in enhancing the dynamics of charge/discharge. This layered structure allows efficient utilisation of each material and enables conservative use of hard-to-obtain materials. The layered electrode shows amongst the highest combinations of energy and power densities for solid-state supercapacitors. Our functional design and spray manufacturing approach to heterogeneous electrodes provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices. PMID:27161379

  19. Optimal thermionic energy conversion with established electrodes for high-temperature topping and process heating. [coal combustion product environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Applied research-and-technology (ART) work reveals that optimal thermionic energy conversion (TEC) with approximately 1000 K to approximately 1100 K collectors is possible using well established tungsten electrodes. Such TEC with 1800 K emitters could approach 26.6% efficiency at 27.4 W/sq cm with approximately 1000 K collectors and 21.7% at 22.6 W/sq cm with approximately 1100 K collectors. These performances require 1.5 and 1.7 eV collector work functions (not the 1 eV ultimate) with nearly negligible interelectrode losses. Such collectors correspond to tungsten electrode systems in approximately 0.9 to approximately 6 torr cesium pressures with 1600 K to 1900 K emitters. Because higher heat-rejection temperatures for TEC allow greater collector work functions, interelectrode loss reduction becomes an increasingly important target for applications aimed at elevated temperatures. Studies of intragap modifications and new electrodes that will allow better electron emission and collection with lower cesium pressures are among the TEC-ART approaches to reduced interelectrode losses. These solutions will provide very effective TEC to serve directly in coal-combustion products for high-temperature topping and process heating. In turn this will help to use coal and to use it well.

  20. Pattern scaling with directed self assembly through lithography and etch process integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathsack, Benjamen; Somervell, Mark; Hooge, Josh; Muramatsu, Makoto; Tanouchi, Keiji; Kitano, Takahiro; Nishimura, Eiichi; Yatsuda, Koichi; Nagahara, Seiji; Hiroyuki, Iwaki; Akai, Keiji; Hayakawa, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) has the potential to extend scaling for both line/space and hole patterns. DSA has shown the capability for pitch reduction (multiplication), hole shrinks, CD self-healing as well as a pathway towards line edge roughness (LER) and pattern collapse improvement [1-4]. The current challenges for industry adoption are materials maturity, practical process integration, hardware capability, defect reduction and design integration. Tokyo Electron (TEL) has created close collaborations with customers, consortia and material suppliers to address these challenges with the long term goal of robust manufacturability. This paper provides a wide range of DSA demonstrations to accommodate different device applications. In collaboration with IMEC, directed line/space patterns at 12.5 and 14 nm HP are demonstrated with PS-b-PMMA (poly(styrene-b-methylmethacrylate)) using both chemo and grapho-epitaxy process flows. Pre-pattern exposure latitudes of >25% (max) have been demonstrated with 4X directed self-assembly on 300 mm wafers for both the lift off and etch guide chemo-epitaxy process flows. Within TEL's Technology Development Center (TDC), directed selfassembly processes have been applied to holes for both CD shrink and variation reduction. Using a PS-b-PMMA hole shrink process, negative tone developed pre-pattern holes are reduced to below 30 nm with critical dimension uniformity (CDU) of 0.9 nm (3s) and contact edge roughness (CER) of 0.8 nm. To generate higher resolution beyond a PS-b-PMMA system, a high chi material is used to demonstrate 9 nm HP line/ space post-etch patterns. In this paper, TEL presents process solutions for both line/space and hole DSA process integrations.

  1. Ground Test of the Urine Processing Assembly for Accelerations and Transfer Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Almond, Deborah F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the ground test of the urine processing assembly for accelerations and transfer functions. Details are given on the test setup, test data, data analysis, analytical results, and microgravity assessment. The conclusions of the tests include the following: (1) the single input/multiple output method is useful if the data is acquired by tri-axial accelerometers and inputs can be considered uncorrelated; (2) tying coherence with the matrix yields higher confidence in results; (3) the WRS#2 rack ORUs need to be isolated; (4) and future work includes a plan for characterizing performance of isolation materials.

  2. Bacteriophage assembly.

    PubMed

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A; Rossmann, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage assembly have been elucidated by a variety of methods. Differences and similarities of assembly processes in several different groups of bacteriophages are discussed in this review. The general principles of phage assembly are applicable to many macromolecular complexes.

  3. Challenges in Liquid-Phase Exfoliation, Processing, and Assembly of Pristine Graphene.

    PubMed

    Parviz, Dorsa; Irin, Fahmida; Shah, Smit A; Das, Sriya; Sweeney, Charles B; Green, Micah J

    2016-10-01

    Recent developments in the exfoliation, dispersion, and processing of pristine graphene (i.e., non-oxidized graphene) are described. General metrics are outlined that can be used to assess the quality and processability of various "graphene" products, as well as metrics that determine the potential for industrial scale-up. The pristine graphene production process is categorized from a chemical engineering point of view with three key steps: i) pretreatment, ii) exfoliation, and iii) separation. How pristine graphene colloidal stability is distinct from the exfoliation step and is dependent upon graphene interactions with solvents and dispersants are extensively reviewed. Finally, the challenges and opportunities of using pristine graphene as nanofillers in polymer composites, as well as as building blocks for macrostructure assemblies are summarized in the context of large-scale production.

  4. Investigate the Effect of Thawing Process on the Self-Assembly of Silk Protein for Tissue Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Hien Anh; Huynh, Khon Chan; Vo, Toi Van

    2017-01-01

    Biological self-assembly is a process in which building blocks autonomously organize to form stable supermolecules of higher order and complexity through domination of weak, noncovalent interactions. For silk protein, the effect of high incubating temperature on the induction of secondary structure and self-assembly was well investigated. However, the effect of freezing and thawing on silk solution has not been studied. The present work aimed to investigate a new all-aqueous process to form 3D porous silk fibroin matrices using a freezing-assisted self-assembly method. This study proposes an experimental investigation and optimization of environmental parameters for the self-assembly process such as freezing temperature, thawing process, and concentration of silk solution. The optical images demonstrated the possibility and potential of −80ST48 treatment to initialize the self-assembly of silk fibroin as well as controllably fabricate a porous scaffold. Moreover, the micrograph images illustrate the assembly of silk protein chain in 7 days under the treatment of −80ST48 process. The surface morphology characterization proved that this method could control the pore size of porous scaffolds by control of the concentration of silk solution. The animal test showed the support of silk scaffold for cell adhesion and proliferation, as well as the cell migration process in the 3D implantable scaffold. PMID:28367442

  5. Electrode for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Nelson, P.A.; Miller, W.E.

    1980-05-09

    An electrode structure for a secondary electrochemical cell includes an outer enclosure defining a compartment containing electrochemical active material. The enclosure includes a rigid electrically conductive metal sheet with perforated openings over major side surfaces. The enclosure can be assembled as first and second trays each with a rigid sheet of perforated electrically conductive metal at major side surfaces and normally extending flanges at parametric margins. The trays can be pressed together with moldable active material between the two to form an expandable electrode. A plurality of positive and negative electrodes thus formed are arranged in an alternating array with porous frangible interelectrode separators within the housing of the secondary electrochemical cell.

  6. Electrode for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Nelson, Paul A.; Miller, William E.

    1981-01-01

    An electrode structure for a secondary electrochemical cell includes an outer enclosure defining a compartment containing electrochemical active material. The enclosure includes a rigid electrically conductive metal sheet with perforated openings over major side surfaces. The enclosure can be assembled as first and second trays each with a rigid sheet of perforated electrically conductive metal at major side surfaces and normally extending flanges at parametric margins. The trays can be pressed together with moldable active material between the two to form an expandable electrode. A plurality of positive and negative electrodes thus formed are arranged in an alternating array with porous frangible interelectrode separators within the housing of the secondary electrochemical cell.

  7. An assembled poly-4-vinyl pyridine and cellulose triacetate membrane and Bi2S3 electrode for photoelectrochemical diffusion of metallic ions.

    PubMed

    Amara, Mourad; Arous, Omar; Smail, Fatima; Kerdjoudj, Hacène; Trari, Mohamed; Bouguelia, Aissa

    2009-09-30

    The transport phenomena across ion exchange membrane may be enhanced by applying various strengths inside or outside the system. The electrical current, generated by n-type semiconductor, is used to catalyse the separation of metal ions. The cation exchange membrane located between the two compartments allows both the separation and concentration of M(n+) (Ag(+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Ni(2+)). The flows of M(n+) from the aqueous solution to-and inside the membrane are monitored by the determination of the fluxes and the potentials. In this study, the four cations are investigated alone or in quaternary systems. From photoelectrochemical measurement, the gap of Bi(2)S(3) is found to be indirect at 1.65 eV. The shape of photocurrent potential curve and the negative flat band potential (-1.02 V(SCE)) give evidence of n-type character. The conduction band (-1.25 V(SCE)) yields thermodynamically M(2+) photoreduction and catalyzes the diffusion process. The photoelectrode Bi(2)S(3) makes the flux twofold greater than that observed in the dark. In all cases, the potential of the electrode M(2+)/M in the feed compartment increases until a maximal value, reached at approximately 100 min above which it undergoes a diminution. The membrane is more selective to Cu(2+) and this selectivity decreases in the quaternary system.

  8. Flash photoelectrochemical studies of transient electrode processes important in solar energy conversion. Progress report, May 1, 1980-April 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Perone, S. P.

    1980-12-01

    The program objectives related to pulsed laser irradiation of semiconductor/liquid junction photoelectrochemical cells were: (1) detect and characterize transient photoproducts due to electrode and/or solution photoelectrolysis at the interface; (2) obtain time-resolved photoelectrolysis data indicative of charge transfer rates; (3) obtain photoelectrochemical measurements related to electron-hole recombination rates subsequent to pulsed laser irradiation; (4) utilize complementary spectroscopic methods for characterizing transient photoprocesses at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface; (5) characterize the dynamics of super-sensitizer interactions with sensitizing dyes adsorbed at the interface; and (6) direct observation of surface state photoelectrolysis processes. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  9. Nanoscale assembly processes revealed in the nacroprismatic transition zone of Pinna nobilis mollusc shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovden, Robert; Wolf, Stephan E.; Holtz, Megan E.; Marin, Frédéric; Muller, David A.; Estroff, Lara A.

    2015-12-01

    Intricate biomineralization processes in molluscs engineer hierarchical structures with meso-, nano- and atomic architectures that give the final composite material exceptional mechanical strength and optical iridescence on the macroscale. This multiscale biological assembly inspires new synthetic routes to complex materials. Our investigation of the prism-nacre interface reveals nanoscale details governing the onset of nacre formation using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. A wedge-polishing technique provides unprecedented, large-area specimens required to span the entire interface. Within this region, we find a transition from nanofibrillar aggregation to irregular early-nacre layers, to well-ordered mature nacre suggesting the assembly process is driven by aggregation of nanoparticles (~50-80 nm) within an organic matrix that arrange in fibre-like polycrystalline configurations. The particle number increases successively and, when critical packing is reached, they merge into early-nacre platelets. These results give new insights into nacre formation and particle-accretion mechanisms that may be common to many calcareous biominerals.

  10. Nanoscale assembly processes revealed in the nacroprismatic transition zone of Pinna nobilis mollusc shells.

    PubMed

    Hovden, Robert; Wolf, Stephan E; Holtz, Megan E; Marin, Frédéric; Muller, David A; Estroff, Lara A

    2015-12-03

    Intricate biomineralization processes in molluscs engineer hierarchical structures with meso-, nano- and atomic architectures that give the final composite material exceptional mechanical strength and optical iridescence on the macroscale. This multiscale biological assembly inspires new synthetic routes to complex materials. Our investigation of the prism-nacre interface reveals nanoscale details governing the onset of nacre formation using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. A wedge-polishing technique provides unprecedented, large-area specimens required to span the entire interface. Within this region, we find a transition from nanofibrillar aggregation to irregular early-nacre layers, to well-ordered mature nacre suggesting the assembly process is driven by aggregation of nanoparticles (∼50-80 nm) within an organic matrix that arrange in fibre-like polycrystalline configurations. The particle number increases successively and, when critical packing is reached, they merge into early-nacre platelets. These results give new insights into nacre formation and particle-accretion mechanisms that may be common to many calcareous biominerals.

  11. Nanoscale assembly processes revealed in the nacroprismatic transition zone of Pinna nobilis mollusc shells

    PubMed Central

    Hovden, Robert; Wolf, Stephan E.; Holtz, Megan E.; Marin, Frédéric; Muller, David A.; Estroff, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Intricate biomineralization processes in molluscs engineer hierarchical structures with meso-, nano- and atomic architectures that give the final composite material exceptional mechanical strength and optical iridescence on the macroscale. This multiscale biological assembly inspires new synthetic routes to complex materials. Our investigation of the prism–nacre interface reveals nanoscale details governing the onset of nacre formation using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. A wedge-polishing technique provides unprecedented, large-area specimens required to span the entire interface. Within this region, we find a transition from nanofibrillar aggregation to irregular early-nacre layers, to well-ordered mature nacre suggesting the assembly process is driven by aggregation of nanoparticles (∼50–80 nm) within an organic matrix that arrange in fibre-like polycrystalline configurations. The particle number increases successively and, when critical packing is reached, they merge into early-nacre platelets. These results give new insights into nacre formation and particle-accretion mechanisms that may be common to many calcareous biominerals. PMID:26631940

  12. Process for testing a xenon gas feed system of a hollow cathode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor); Verhey, Timothy R. R. (Inventor); Soulas, George C. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The design and manufacturing processes for Hollow Cathode Assemblies (HCA's) that operate over a broad range of emission currents up to 30 Amperes, at low potentials, with lifetimes in excess of 17,500 hours. The processes include contamination control procedures which cover hollow cathode component cleaning procedures, gas feed system designs and specifications, and hollow cathode activation and operating procedures to thereby produce cathode assemblies that have demonstrated stable and repeatable operating conditions, for both the discharge current and voltage. The HCA of this invention provides lifetimes of greater than 10,000 hours, and expected lifetimes of greater than 17,500 hours, whereas the present state-of-the-art is less than 500 hours at emission currents in excess of 1 Ampere. Stable operation is provided over a large range of operating emission currents, up to a 6:1 ratio, and this HCA can emit electron currents of up to 30 Amperes in magnitude to an external anode that simulates the current drawn to a space plasma, at voltages of less than 20 Volts.

  13. Improving the lithographic process window using directed self-assembly-aware printing assist features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latypov, Azat; Coskun, Tamer H.

    2015-07-01

    Variation in the shape of directed self-assembly (DSA) prepatterns caused by lithographical process variability is one of the significant contributors to the placement error in DSA patterning. DSA-aware printing assist features (PrAFs) can be used to reduce the sensitivity of DSA prepatterns to lithographical process variability, with the printed sidelobes resulting from these PrAFs being "sealed" during the DSA step of the process. For instance, in a graphoepitaxy DSA process, where confinement wells are formed by deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography, the process window of the DUV lithography process may be improved by using PrAFs, as long as the confinement wells resulting from these PrAFs are sized and shaped so that they do not etch transfer into the substrate due to etch-resistant outcomes of the DSA process. A method to optimize the placement of these DSA-aware PrAFs is presented, along with a method utilizing a regular array of etch-resistant confinement wells with localized modifications of their size or shape to form etch-transferrable features. Both methods are tested and verified in simulations of DUV lithography and DSA.

  14. Bilateral Bi-Cephalic Tdcs with Two Active Electrodes of the Same Polarity Modulates Bilateral Cognitive Processes Differentially

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Stefan; Bloechle, Johannes; Willmes, Klaus; Karim, Ahmed A.; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Moeller, Korbinian

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an innovative method to explore the causal structure-function relationship of brain areas. We investigated the specificity of bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS with two active electrodes of the same polarity (e.g., cathodal on both hemispheres) applied to intraparietal cortices bilaterally using a combined between- and within-task approach. Regarding between-task specificity, we observed that bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS affected a numerical (mental addition) but not a control task (colour word Stroop), indicating a specific influence of tDCS on numerical but not on domain general cognitive processes associated with the bilateral IPS. In particular, the numerical effect of distractor distance was more pronounced under cathodal than under anodal stimulation. Moreover, with respect to within-task specificity we only found the numerical distractor distance effect in mental addition to be modulated by direct current stimulation, whereas the effect of target identity was not affected. This implies a differential influence of bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS on the recruitment of different processing components within the same task (number magnitude processing vs. recognition of familiarity). In sum, this first successful application of bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS with two active electrodes of the same polarity in numerical cognition research corroborates the specific proposition of the Triple Code Model that number magnitude information is represented bilaterally in the intraparietal cortices. PMID:23951202

  15. Plasma processes in the preparation of lithium-ion battery electrodes and separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava-Avendaño, J.; Veilleux, J.

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are the energy storage devices that dominate the portable electronic market. They are now also considered and used for electric vehicles and are foreseen to enable the smart grid. Preparing batteries with high energy and power densities, elevated cycleability and improved safety could be achieved by controlling the microstructure of the electrode materials and the interaction they have with the electrolyte over the working potential window. Selecting appropriate precursors, reducing the preparation steps and selecting more efficient synthesis methods could also significantly reduce the costs of LIB components. Implementing plasma technologies can represent a high capital investment, but the versatility of the technologies allows the preparation of powdered nanoparticles with different morphologies, as well as with carbon and metal oxide coatings. Plasma technologies can also enable the preparation of binder-free thin films and coatings for LIB electrodes, and the treatment of polymeric membranes to be used as separators. This review paper aims at highlighting the different thermal and non-thermal plasma technologies recently used to synthesize coated and non-coated active materials for LIB cathodes and anodes, and to modify the surface of separators.

  16. Ignition system monitoring assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brushwood, John Samuel

    2003-11-04

    An ignition system monitoring assembly for use in a combustion engine is disclosed. The assembly includes an igniter having at least one positioning guide with at least one transmittal member being maintained in a preferred orientation by one of the positioning guides. The transmittal member is in optical communication with a corresponding target region, and optical information about the target region is conveyed to the reception member via the transmittal member. The device allows real-time observation of optical characteristics of the target region. The target region may be the spark gap between the igniter electrodes, or other predetermined locations in optical communication with the transmittal member. The reception member may send an output signal to a processing member which, in turn, may produce a response to the output signal.

  17. Low-damage atomic layer modification of self-assembled monolayer using neutral beam process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Yasushi; Samukawa, Seiji; Ishida, Takao

    2006-09-01

    Damage-free surface nitridation of terphenyl methanethiol self-assembled monolayers (TP1-SAMs) was investigated using a novel low-energy N2 neutral beam (NB) irradiation technique. When a conventional inductively coupled plasma process was used, x-ray photoelectron spectra confirmed that the TP1-SAM was quickly broken because ions or ultraviolet (UV) photons enhance the surface decomposition and molecular desorption. Conversely, with the N2 NB radiation process, which is free of ions and UV photons, there was little difference in the atomic ratios of x-ray photoelectron spectra before and after NB irradiation. These results suggest that low-damage surface modification is possible through the authors' NB technique.

  18. Aerosol-Jet-Printing silicone layers and electrodes for stacked dielectric elastomer actuators in one processing device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitelshöfer, Sebastian; Göttler, Michael; Schmidt, Philip; Treffer, Philipp; Landgraf, Maximilian; Franke, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution we present recent findings of our efforts to qualify the so called Aerosol-Jet-Printing process as an additive manufacturing approach for stacked dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA). With the presented system we are able to print the two essential structural elements dielectric layer and electrode in one machine. The system is capable of generating RTV-2 silicone layers made of Wacker Elastosil P 7670. Therefore, two aerosol streams of both precursor components A and B are generated in parallel and mixed in one printing nozzle that is attached to a 4-axis kinematic. At maximum speed the printing of one circular Elastosil layer with a calculated thickness of 10 μm and a diameter of 1 cm takes 12 seconds while the process keeps stable for 4.5 hours allowing a quite high overall material output and the generation of numerous silicone layers. By adding a second printing nozzle and the infrastructure to generate a third aerosol, the system is also capable of printing inks with conductive particles in parallel to the silicone. We have printed a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) ink prepared in our lab to generate electrodes on VHB 4905, Elastosil foils and finally on Aerosol-Jet-Printed Elastosil layers. With rGO ink printed on Elastosil foil, layers with a 4-point measured sheet resistance as low as 4 kΩ can be realized leaving room for improving the electrode printing time, which at the moment is not as good as the quite good time-frame for printing the silicone layers. Up to now we have used the system to print a fully functional two-layer stacked DEA to demonstrate the principle of continuously 3D printing actuators.

  19. Novel surface treatment materials for aligning block-co-polymer in directed self-assembly processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Someya, Yasunobu; Wakayama, Hiroyuki; Endo, Takafumi; Sakamoto, Rikimaru

    2014-03-01

    Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) process is one of the attractive processes for creating the very fine pitch pattern. Especially, the contact hole shrink processes with block-co-polymer (BCP) or polymer blend materials were attractive processes for creating very small size hole patterns with better CD uniformity compare to general photo-lithography patterning. In general contact hole shrink process, the pattern of Spin-on Carbon Hardmask (SOC) or the photo Resist pattern created by Negative-Tone Development (NTD) process were selected for guide patterns. Since the alignment property of BCP was affected by the surface of these guide materials, it is important to control the surface condition of guide in order to obtain good shrunk contact hole patterns. In this study, we will report the surface treatment materials to control the surface condition of guide patterns such as SOC or NTD resist to achieve the better contact hole shrink performance. These materials were attached to guide pattern surface and controlled the surface energy.

  20. Assembly and Immunological Processing of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Composed of Antigens and Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    While biomaterials provide a platform to control the delivery of vaccines, the recently discovered intrinsic inflammatory characteristics of many polymeric carriers can also complicate rational design because the carrier itself can alter the response to other vaccine components. To address this challenge, we recently developed immune-polyelectrolyte multilayer (iPEMs) capsules electrostatically assembled entirely from peptide antigen and molecular adjuvants. Here, we use iPEMs built from SIINFEKL model antigen and polyIC, a stimulatory toll-like receptor agonist, to investigate the impact of pH on iPEM assembly, the processing and interactions of each iPEM component with primary immune cells, and the role of these interactions during antigen-specific T cell responses in coculture and mice. We discovered that iPEM assembly is pH dependent with respect to both the antigen and adjuvant component. Controlling the pH also allows tuning of the relative loading of SIINFEKL and polyIC in iPEM capsules. During in vitro studies with primary dendritic cells (DCs), iPEM capsules ensure that greater than 95% of cells containing at least one signal (i.e., antigen, adjuvant) also contained the other signal. This codelivery leads to DC maturation and SIINFEKL presentation via the MHC-I antigen presentation pathway, resulting in antigen-specific T cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. In mice, iPEM capsules potently expand antigen-specific T cells compared with equivalent admixed formulations. Of note, these enhancements become more pronounced with successive booster injections, suggesting that iPEMs functionally improve memory recall response. Together our results reveal some of the features that can be tuned to modulate the properties of iPEM capsules, and how these modular vaccine structures can be used to enhance interactions with immune cells in vitro and in mice. PMID:27380137

  1. Assembly and disassembly of the Golgi complex: two processes arranged in a cis-trans direction

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the disassembly and assembly of two morphologically and functionally distinct parts of the Golgi complex, the cis/middle and trans cisterna/trans network compartments. For this purpose we have followed the redistribution of three cis/middle- (GMPc-1, GMPc-2, MG 160) and two trans- (GMPt-1 and GMPt-2) Golgi membrane proteins during and after treatment of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells with brefeldin A (BFA). BFA induced complete disassembly of the cis/middle- and trans- Golgi complex and translocation of GMPc and GMPt to the ER. Cells treated for short times (3 min) with BFA showed extensive disorganization of both cis/middle- and trans-Golgi complexes. However, complete disorganization of the trans part required much longer incubations with the drug. Upon removal of BFA the Golgi complex was reassembled by a process consisting of three steps: (a) exist of cis/middle proteins from the ER and their accumulation into vesicular structures scattered throughout the cytoplasm; (b) gradual relocation and accumulation of the trans proteins in the vesicles containing the cis/middle proteins; and (c) assembly of the cisternae, and reconstruction of the Golgi complex within an area located in the vicinity of the centrosome from which the ER was excluded. Reconstruction of the cis/middle-Golgi complex occurred under temperature conditions inhibitory of the reorganization of the trans- Golgi complex, and was dependent on microtubules. Reconstruction of the trans-Golgi complex, disrupted with nocodazole after selective fusion of the cis/middle-Golgi complex with the ER, occurred after the release of cis/middle-Golgi proteins from the ER and the assembly of the cis/middle cisternae. PMID:1730750

  2. Electrode-selective deposition/etching processes using an SiF4/H2/Ar plasma chemistry excited by sawtooth tailored voltage waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. K.; Johnson, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the electrode-selective deposition and etching of hydrogenated silicon thin films using a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process excited by sawtooth-shaped tailored voltage waveforms (TVWs). The slope asymmetry of such waveforms leads to a different rate of sheath expansion and contraction at each electrode, and therefore different electron power absorption near each electrode. This effect was employed with an SiF4/H2/Ar plasma chemistry, as the surface processes that result from this gas mixture depend strongly on the local balance between multiple precursors. For a specific gas flow ratio, a deposition rate of 0.82 Å s-1 on one electrode and an etching rate of 1.2 Å s-1 on the other were achieved. Moreover, this deposition/etching balance is controlled by the H2 flow rate, which limits the deposition rate at low flows. When the H2 injection is sufficiently high, the processes are then limited by the dissociation of SiF4, and the relative rate of the surface processes on the two electrodes are reversed, i.e. a higher net deposition rate is observed on the electrode where the fast sheath contraction occurs due to the electronegative character of the plasma.

  3. Challenging Students' Intuitions—the Influence of a Tangible Model of Virus Assembly on Students' Conceptual Reasoning About the Process of Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Caroline; Tibell, Lena A. E.

    2015-10-01

    A well-ordered biological complex can be formed by the random motion of its components, i.e. self-assemble. This is a concept that incorporates issues that may contradict students' everyday experiences and intuitions. In previous studies, we have shown that a tangible model of virus self-assembly, used in a group exercise, helps students to grasp the process of self-assembly and in particular the facet "random molecular collision". The present study investigates how and why the model and the group exercise facilitate students' learning of this particular facet. The data analysed consist of audio recordings of six group exercises ( n = 35 university students) and individual semi-structured interviews ( n = 5 university students). The analysis is based on constructivist perspectives of learning, a combination of conceptual change theory and learning with external representations. Qualitative analysis indicates that perceived counterintuitive aspects of the process created a cognitive conflict within learners. The tangible model used in the group exercises facilitated a conceptual change in their understanding of the process. In particular, the tangible model appeared to provide cues and possible explanations and functioned as an "eye-opener" and a "thinking tool". Lastly, the results show signs of emotions also being important elements for successful accommodation.

  4. Low-Noise Implantable Electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    New implantable electrocardiogram electrode much less sensitive than previous designs to spurious biological potentials. Designed in novel "pocket" configuration, new electrode is intended as sensor for radiotelemetry of biological parameters in experiments on unrestrained subjects. Electrode is esentially squashed cylinder that admits body fluid into interior. Cylinder and electrical lead are made of stainless steel. Spot welding and crimping are used for assembly, rather than soldering.

  5. Computational simulation of thermal hydraulic processes in the model LMFBR fuel assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayaskhalanov, M. V.; Merinov, I. G.; Korsun, A. S.; Vlasov, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify a developed software module on the experimental fuel assembly with partial blockage of the flow section. The developed software module for simulation of thermal hydraulic processes in liquid metal coolant is based on theory of anisotropic porous media with specially developed integral turbulence model for coefficients determination. The finite element method is used for numerical solution. Experimental data for hexahedral assembly with electrically heated smooth cylindrical rods cooled by liquid sodium are considered. The results of calculation obtained with developed software module for a case of corner blockade are presented. The calculated distribution of coolant velocities showed the presence of the vortex flow behind the blockade. Features vortex region are in a good quantitative and qualitative agreement with experimental data. This demonstrates the efficiency of the hydrodynamic unit for developed software module. But obtained radial coolant temperature profiles differ significantly from the experimental in the vortex flow region. The possible reasons for this discrepancy were analyzed.

  6. Low-Cost, High-Throughput Sequencing of DNA Assemblies Using a Highly Multiplexed Nextera Process.

    PubMed

    Shapland, Elaine B; Holmes, Victor; Reeves, Christopher D; Sorokin, Elena; Durot, Maxime; Platt, Darren; Allen, Christopher; Dean, Jed; Serber, Zach; Newman, Jack; Chandran, Sunil

    2015-07-17

    In recent years, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has greatly reduced the cost of sequencing whole genomes, whereas the cost of sequence verification of plasmids via Sanger sequencing has remained high. Consequently, industrial-scale strain engineers either limit the number of designs or take short cuts in quality control. Here, we show that over 4000 plasmids can be completely sequenced in one Illumina MiSeq run for less than $3 each (15× coverage), which is a 20-fold reduction over using Sanger sequencing (2× coverage). We reduced the volume of the Nextera tagmentation reaction by 100-fold and developed an automated workflow to prepare thousands of samples for sequencing. We also developed software to track the samples and associated sequence data and to rapidly identify correctly assembled constructs having the fewest defects. As DNA synthesis and assembly become a centralized commodity, this NGS quality control (QC) process will be essential to groups operating high-throughput pipelines for DNA construction.

  7. Adenoviral protein V promotes a process of viral assembly through nucleophosmin 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ugai, Hideyo; Dobbins, George C.; Wang, Minghui; Le, Long P.; Matthews, David A.; Curiel, David T.

    2012-10-25

    Adenoviral infection induces nucleoplasmic redistribution of a nucleolar nucleophosmin 1/NPM1/B23.1. NPM1 is preferentially localized in the nucleoli of normal cells, whereas it is also present at the nuclear matrix in cancer cells. However, the biological roles of NPM1 during infection are unknown. Here, by analyzing a pV-deletion mutant, Ad5-dV/TSB, we demonstrate that pV promotes the NPM1 translocation from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm in normal cells, and the NPM1 translocation is correlated with adenoviral replication. Lack of pV causes a dramatic reduction of adenoviral replication in normal cells, but not cancer cells, and Ad5-dV/TSB was defective in viral assembly in normal cells. NPM1 knockdown inhibits adenoviral replication, suggesting an involvement of NPM1 in adenoviral biology. Further, we show that NPM1 interacts with empty adenovirus particles which are an intermediate during virion maturation by immunoelectron microscopy. Collectively, these data implicate that pV participates in a process of viral assembly through NPM1.

  8. Effects of self-assembly process of latex spheres on the final topology of macroporous silica.

    PubMed

    Barros Filho, Djalma A; Hisano, Cíntia; Bertholdo, Roberto; Schiavetto, Matheus G; Santilli, Celso; Ribeiro, Sidney J L; Messaddeq, Younés

    2005-11-15

    This paper surveys the topology of macroporous silica prepared using latex templates covering the submicrometric range (0.1-0.7 mum). The behavior of latex spheres in aqueous dispersion has been analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement indicating the most appropriate conditions to form well-defined cubic arrays. The optical behavior of latex spheres has been analyzed by transmittance and reflectance measurements in order to determine their diameter and filling factor when they were assembled in bidimensional arrays. Macroscopic templates have been obtained by a centrifugation process and their crystalline ordering has been confirmed by porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. These self-assembled structures have been used to produce macroporous silica, whose final topology depends on the pore size distribution of the original template. It has been seen that latex spheres are ordered in a predominant fcc arrangement with slipping of tetragonal pores due to the action of attractive electrostatic interactions. The main effect is to change the spherical shape of voids in macroporous silica into a hexagonal configuration with possible applications to fabricate photonic devices with novel optical properties.

  9. Cooperative, Multicentered CH/ Interaction-Controlled Supramolecular Self-Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qing; Han, Chengbo; Horton, Scott R; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A; Sumpter, Bobby G; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, J.; Maksymovych, Petro; Pan, Minghu

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular self-assembly on well-defined surfaces provides access to a multitude of nanoscale architectures, including clusters of distinct symmetry and size. The driving forces underlying supramolecular structures generally involve both graphoepitaxy and weak directional nonconvalent interactions. Here we show that functionalizing a benzene molecule with an ethyne group introduces attractive interactions in a 2D geometry, which would otherwise be dominated by intermolecular repulsion. Furthermore, the attractive interactions enable supramolecular self-assembly, wherein a subtle balance between very weak CH/{pi} bonding and molecule-surface interactions produces a well-defined 'magic' dimension and chirality of supramolecular clusters. The nature of the process is corroborated by extensive scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) measurements and ab initio calculations, which emphasize the cooperative, multicenter characters of the CH/{pi} interaction. This work points out new possibilities for chemical functionalization of {pi}-conjugated hydrocarbon molecules that may allow for the rational design of supramolecular clusters with a desired shape and size.

  10. Traffic model for commercial payloads in the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA). [market research in commercial space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietzel, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    One hundred individuals representing universities, technical institutes, government agencies, and industrial facilities were surveyed to determine potential commercial use of a self-contained, automated assembly for the space processing of materials during frequent shuttle flights for the 1981 to 1987 period. The approach used and the results of the study are summarized. A time time-phased projection (traffic model) of commercial usage of the materials experiment assembly is provided.

  11. Environmental filtering and neutral processes shape octocoral community assembly in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Quattrini, Andrea M; Gómez, Carlos E; Cordes, Erik E

    2017-01-01

    The ecological and evolutionary processes that interact to shape community structure are poorly studied in the largest environment on earth, the deep sea. Phylogenetic data and morphological traits of octocorals were coupled with environmental factors to test hypotheses of community assembly in the deep (250-2500 m) Gulf of Mexico. We found lineage turnover at a depth of 800-1200 m, with isidids and chrysogorgiids at deeper depths and a diversity of species from across the phylogeny occupying shallower depths. Traits, including axis type, polyp shape, and polyp retraction, differed among species occupying the shallowest (250-800 m) and deepest (1200-2500 m) depths. Results also indicated that octocoral species sort along an environmental gradient of depth. Closely related octocoral species sorted into different depth strata on the upper to middle slope, likely due to barriers imposed by water masses followed by adaptive divergence. Within any given depth zone down to 2000 m, the phylogenetic relatedness of co-existing octocorals was random, indicating that stochastic processes, such as recruitment, also shape community structure. At depths >2000 m, octocorals were more closely related than expected by chance due to the diversification of chrysogorgiids and isidids, which retain conserved traits that impart survival at deeper and/or colder depths. Polyp density, size, and inter-polyp distance were significantly correlated with depth, particularly in plexaurids and isidids, highlighting trait lability across depth and supporting that environmental gradients influence octocoral morphology. Our community phylogenetics approach indicates that both environmental filtering and neutral processes shape community assembly in the deep sea.

  12. Switchable electrode interfaces controlled by physical, chemical and biological signals.

    PubMed

    Bocharova, Vera; Katz, Evgeny

    2012-02-01

    Electrode interfaces functionalized with various signal-responsive materials have been designed to allow switchable properties of the modified electrodes. External signals of different nature (electrical potential, magnetic field, light, chemical/biochemical inputs) were applied to reversibly activate-deactivate the electrode interfaces upon demand. Multifunctional properties of the modified interfaces have allowed their responses to complex combinations of external signals. Further increase of their complexity has been achieved by integrating the signal-responsive interfaces with unconventional biomolecular computing systems logically processing multiple biochemical signals. This approach has resulted in electrochemical systems controlled by complex variations of biomarkers corresponding to different physiological conditions, thus allowing biological control over electronic systems. The switchable electrodes have been integrated with various "smart" biosensing and signal-processing systems and have been used to assemble biofuel cells producing power on demand.

  13. Control of edge effects of oxidant electrode

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Peter; Chi, Chen H.

    1981-09-08

    Described is an electrode assembly comprising; a. a porous electrode having a first and second exterior face with a cavity formed in the interior between said exterior faces thereby having first and second interior faces positioned opposite the first and second exterior faces; b. a counter electrode positioned facing each of the first and second exterior faces of the porous electrode; c. means for passing an oxidant through said porous electrode; and d. screening means for blocking the interior face of the porous electrode a greater amount than the blocking of the respective exterior face of the porous electrode, thereby maintaining a differential of oxidant electrode surface between the interior face and the exterior face. The electrode assembly is useful in a metal, halogen, halogen hydrate electrical energy storage device.

  14. Molecular Processes Underlying the Structure and Assembly of Thin Films and Nanoparticles at Complex interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Geraldine

    2016-06-03

    differences in how water behaves at hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer (SAMS)/water interfaces relative to the organic liquid/water interfaces. Several monolayer films have been examined in these studies using a combination of vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS), contact angle measurements and AFM. At the hydrocarbon monolayer/water interface we find that water has a weak bonding interaction with the monolayer film that results in an orientation of water at the terminus of these hydrocarbon chains. The water-film interaction is still present for fluorinated films but it is found to be considerably weaker. Hydration and Surfactant Adsorption at Salt/Water Interfaces This set of studies has examined the molecular characteristics of the CaF2/water interface using VSFS. Our first studies detailed the structure and orientation of water molecules adsorbed at this mineral surfaces including studies of the surface in the presence of aqueous solutions of salts. These studies have been followed by a series of static and time-resolved studies of the adsorption of carboxylic acid containing organics at this surface, specifically carboxylic acid surfactants and acetic acid. In the latter we have developed a new method for time resolved studies that involve sequential wavelength tuning and automated control of spatial beam overlap at the target can probe amplitude changes of sum-frequency resonances in widely spaced infrared regions. This offers great advantages for the study of the synchronism of molecular processes at interfaces. This approach is particularly suitable to investigate the synchronization of interfacial processes such as surfactant adsorption at charged mineral surfaces. Macromolecular Assembly at Liquid/Liquid Interfaces Macromolecular assembly at the interface between water and a hydrophobic surface underlies some of the most important biological and environmental processes on the planet. Our work has examined polymer adsorption and assembly of

  15. Fabrication of Nanohole Array via Nanodot Array Using Simple Self-Assembly Process of Diblock Copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Tsuyoshi; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2007-06-01

    We present a simple self-assembly process for fabricating a nanohole array via a nanodot array on a glass substrate by dripping ethanol onto the nanodot array. It is found that well-aligned arrays of nanoholes as well as nanodots are formed on the whole surface of the glass. A dot is transformed into a hole, and the alignment of the nanodots strongly reflects that of the nanoholes. We find that the change in the depth of holes agrees well with the change in the surface energy with the ethanol concentration in the aqueous solution. We believe that the interfacial energy between the nanodots and the dripped ethanol causes the transformation from nanodots into nanoholes. The nanohole arrays are directly applicable to molds for nanopatterned media used in high-density near-field optical data storage. The bit data can be stored and read out using probes with small apertures.

  16. Multicomponent, Mannich-type assembly process for generating novel, biologically-active 2-arylpiperidines and derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Simon; Martin, Stephen F.

    2014-01-01

    A multicomponent, Mannich-type assembly process commencing with commercially available bromobenzaldehydes was sequenced with [3+2] dipolar cycloaddition reactions involving nitrones and azomethine ylides to generate collections of fused, bicyclic scaffolds based on the 2-arylpiperidine subunit. Use of the 4-pentenoyl group, which served both as an activator in the Mannich-type reaction and a readily-cleaved amine protecting group, allowed sub-libraries to be prepared through piperidine N-functionalization and cross-coupling of the aryl bromide. A number of these derivatives displayed biological activities that had not previously been associated with this substructure. Methods were also developed that allowed rapid conversion of these scaffolds to novel, polycyclic dihydroquinazolin-2-ones, 2-imino-1,3-benzothiazinanes, dihydroisoquinolin-3-ones and bridged tetrahydroquinolines. PMID:25267860

  17. Multiplex templating process in one-dimensional nanoscale: controllable synthesis, macroscopic assemblies, and applications.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Liu, Jian-Wei; Qian, Hai-Sheng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2013-07-16

    Since their detection 20 years ago, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have captured the interest of scientists, because one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (nanowires, nanotubes, and nanoribbons) have fascinating physical properties and many potential technological applications. These are materials with structural features limited to the range of 1-100 nm in one dimension, and unlimited in the others. When their size goes down to certain characteristic lengths, such as the Bohr radius, the wavelength of incandescent light, and the phonon mean-free path, quantum mechanical effects can occur. This results in novel optical, magnetic, and electronic characteristics. These physical properties, along with unique transport features in the longitudinal direction and large surface-to-volume ratio, make 1D nanostructures attract extensive attention in both fundamental research and engineering applications. From a synthetic point of view, it is highly desirable to develop a simple route for fabricating 1D nanostructures in large scale at low cost. On the other hand, in order to transfer the intrinsic features of individual 1D nanostructures into macroscopic scale and realize practical applications, we need to explore highly efficient and scalable assembly methods to integrate 1D nanostructures into functional macroscopic architectures. In 2006, our group developed a simple hydrothermal method for synthesizing ultrathin Te nanowires (TeNWs) using conventional chemicals. As we found through systematic study over the past several years, we can use the ultrathin TeNWs as a versatile templating material to fabricate a series of high-quality 1D nanostructures by taking the unique advantages of TeNWs, such as large-scale synthesis, high processability, and high reactivity. The obtained 1D products inherit the dimensional (high aspect ratio) and mechanical (high flexibility) features of the original TeNW templates, thus allowing us to construct macroscopic architectures by using them as

  18. Self-assembly and photoluminescence evolution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic quantum dots in sol–gel processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ping; Matras-Postolek, Katarzyna; Song, Xueling; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Yumeng; Ding, Kun; Nie, Shijie

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) wavelength were assembled into various morphologies including chain, hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures through sol–gel processes. The PL properties during assembly as investigated. - Highlights: • Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized from several ligands. • The evolution of PL in self-assembly via sol–gel processes was investigated. • CdTe QDs were assembled into a chain by controlling hydrolysis and condensation reactions. • Hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures were created via CdSe/ZnS QDs in sol–gel processes. - Abstract: Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) wavelength were synthesized from several ligands to investigate the PL evolution in QD self-assembly via sol–gel processes. After ligand exchange, CdTe QDs were assembled into a chain by controlling the hydrolysis and condensation reaction of 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. The chain was then coated with a SiO{sub 2} shell from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures were created from CdSe/ZnS QDs via various sol–gel processes. CdTe QDs revealed red-shifted and narrowed PL spectrum after assembly compared with their initial one. In contrast, the red-shift of PL spectra of CdSe/ZnS QDs is small. By optimizing experimental conditions, SiO{sub 2} spheres with multiple CdSe/ZnS QDs were fabricated using TEOS and MPS. The QDs in these SiO{sub 2} spheres retained their initial PL properties. This result is useful for application because of their high stability and high PL efficiency of 33%.

  19. Phylogenetic and morphological relationships between nonvolant small mammals reveal assembly processes at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Luza, André Luís; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Hartz, Sandra Maria

    2015-02-01

    The relative roles of historical processes, environmental filtering, and ecological interactions in the organization of species assemblages vary depending on the spatial scale. We evaluated the phylogenetic and morphological relationships between species and individuals (i.e., inter- and intraspecific variability) of Neotropical nonvolant small mammals coexisting in grassland-forest ecotones, in landscapes and in regions, that is, three different scales. We used a phylogenetic tree to infer evolutionary relationships, and morphological traits as indicators of performance and niche similarities between species and individuals. Subsequently, we applied phylogenetic and morphologic indexes of diversity and distance between species to evaluate small mammal assemblage structures on the three scales. The results indicated a repulsion pattern near forest edges, showing that phylogenetically similar species coexisted less often than expected by chance. The strategies for niche differentiation might explain the phylogenetic repulsion observed at the edge. Phylogenetic and morphological clustering in the grassland and at the forest interior indicated the coexistence of closely related and ecologically similar species and individuals. Coexistence patterns were similar whether species-trait values or individual values were used. At the landscape and regional scales, assemblages showed a predominant pattern of phylogenetic and morphological clustering. Environmental filters influenced the coexistence patterns at three scales, showing the importance of phylogenetically conserved ecological tolerances in enabling taxa co-occurrence. Evidence of phylogenetic repulsion in one region indicated that other processes beyond environmental filtering are important for community assembly at broad scales. Finally, ecological interactions and environmental filtering seemed important at the local scale, while environmental filtering and historical colonization seemed important for community

  20. Phylogenetic and morphological relationships between nonvolant small mammals reveal assembly processes at different spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Luza, André Luís; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Hartz, Sandra Maria

    2015-01-01

    The relative roles of historical processes, environmental filtering, and ecological interactions in the organization of species assemblages vary depending on the spatial scale. We evaluated the phylogenetic and morphological relationships between species and individuals (i.e., inter- and intraspecific variability) of Neotropical nonvolant small mammals coexisting in grassland-forest ecotones, in landscapes and in regions, that is, three different scales. We used a phylogenetic tree to infer evolutionary relationships, and morphological traits as indicators of performance and niche similarities between species and individuals. Subsequently, we applied phylogenetic and morphologic indexes of diversity and distance between species to evaluate small mammal assemblage structures on the three scales. The results indicated a repulsion pattern near forest edges, showing that phylogenetically similar species coexisted less often than expected by chance. The strategies for niche differentiation might explain the phylogenetic repulsion observed at the edge. Phylogenetic and morphological clustering in the grassland and at the forest interior indicated the coexistence of closely related and ecologically similar species and individuals. Coexistence patterns were similar whether species-trait values or individual values were used. At the landscape and regional scales, assemblages showed a predominant pattern of phylogenetic and morphological clustering. Environmental filters influenced the coexistence patterns at three scales, showing the importance of phylogenetically conserved ecological tolerances in enabling taxa co-occurrence. Evidence of phylogenetic repulsion in one region indicated that other processes beyond environmental filtering are important for community assembly at broad scales. Finally, ecological interactions and environmental filtering seemed important at the local scale, while environmental filtering and historical colonization seemed important for community

  1. Pseudocapacitive performance of a solution-processed β-Co(OH)2 electrode monitored through its surface morphology and area.

    PubMed

    Gaikar, P S; Navale, S T; Gaikwad, S L; Al-Osta, Ahmed; Jadhav, V V; Arjunwadkar, P R; Naushad, Mu; Mane, Rajaram S

    2017-03-07

    In the present study, beta-cobalt hydroxide (β-Co(OH)2) electrodes of various nanostructures and surface areas, viz. nano-rhombuses (NRs), nano-plates (NPs), and nano-grass (NGs), have been synthesized directly onto a stainless-steel (SS) substrate using a simple, economical and binder-free chemical solution-process, utilizing three cobalt precursor salts, i.e. cobalt acetate, cobalt chloride, and cobalt nitrate, respectively. Structural elucidation proves the crystallite size, type and phase-purity of β-Co(OH)2, whereas the surface morphology analysis supports the evolution of the above mentioned nanostructures of various surface areas. The electrochemical pseudocapacitor performance investigation demonstrates a specific capacitance (Sc) of 367 F g(-1) at 1 mA cm(-2) for the NP-type morphology, which is higher than that that displayed by the other morphologies. This change in Sc value is attributed to different charge transfer resistance values, which have been obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy spectra. Finally, we attempt to correlate the relationship between the surface morphology, i.e. surface area, and the charge transfer resistance with the obtained specific capacitance value of the respective electrode.

  2. Fabrication of Oxidation-Resistant Metal Wire Network-Based Transparent Electrodes by a Spray-Roll Coating Process.

    PubMed

    Kiruthika, S; Gupta, Ritu; Anand, Aman; Kumar, Ankush; Kulkarni, G U

    2015-12-16

    Roll and spray coating methods have been employed for the fabrication of highly oxidation resistant transparent and conducting electrodes (TCEs) by a simple solution process using crackle lithography technique. We have spray-coated a crackle paint-based precursor to produce highly interconnected crackle network on PET roll mounted on a roll coater with web speed of 0.6 m/min. Ag TCE with a transmittance of 78% and sheet resistance of ∼20 Ω/□ was derived by spraying Ag precursor ink over the crackle template followed by lift-off and annealing under ambient conditions. The Ag wire mesh was stable toward bending and sonication tests but prone to oxidation in air. When electrolessly coated with Pd, its robustness toward harsh oxidation conditions was enhanced. A low-cost transparent electrode has also been realized by using only small amounts of Ag as seed layer and growing Cu wire mesh by electroless method. Thus, made Ag/Cu meshes are found to be highly stable for more than a year even under ambient atmosphere.

  3. Complementary X-ray and neutron radiography study of the initial lithiation process in lithium-ion batteries containing silicon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fu; Markötter, Henning; Manke, Ingo; Hilger, André; Alrwashdeh, Saad S.; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Banhart, John

    2017-03-01

    Complementary in operando X-ray radiography and neutron radiography measurements were conducted to investigate and visualize the initial lithiation in silicon-electrode lithium-ion batteries. By means of X-ray radiography, a significant volume expansion of Si particles and the Si electrode during the first discharge was observed. In addition, many Si particles were found that never undergo electrochemical reactions. These findings were confirmed by neutron radiography, which, for the first time, showed the process of Li alloying with the Si electrode during initial lithiation. These results demonstrate that complementary X-ray and neutron radiography is a powerful tool to investigate the lithiation mechanisms inside Si-electrode based lithium-ion batteries.

  4. The interaction of consecutive process steps in the manufacturing of lithium-ion battery electrodes with regard to structural and electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockholt, Henrike; Indrikova, Maira; Netz, Andreas; Golks, Frederik; Kwade, Arno

    2016-09-01

    The individual steps in the electrode manufacturing process, e.g., conductive additives addition, mixing, and calendering, strongly affect the electrochemical and mechanical properties of the electrodes. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode electrodes with conductive additive variations are fabricated using a reference and an intensive mixing process, and are subsequently calendered to different porosities. It is found that graphite reduces the pore size of NCM electrodes, in contrast to the carbon black that establishes additional nanoscale pores. Electrodes manufactured with reference mixing result in a porous carbon black network with good overall electric pathways, whereas those manufactured with intensive processing result in a dense carbon black network, leading to good short-range contacts, but a lack of long-range contacts. In this case, the addition of graphite as a conductive additive is identified to establish important additional long-range contacts. Due to the structural differences achieved by the compared processing routes, the calendering process can have a positive or negative impact on battery performance.

  5. Effect of processing methods on drug release profiles of anti-restenotic self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoebner, Susan E.; Mani, Gopinath

    2012-04-01

    The use of anti-restenotic self-assembled monolayers (ARSAMs) has been previously demonstrated for delivering drugs from stents without polymeric carriers. ARSAMs have been prepared by coating an anti-restenotic drug (paclitaxel - PAT) on -COOH terminated phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) coated Co-Cr alloy specimens. This study investigates the effect of different processing methods on the percentage of drug release from ARSAMs. The different methods that were used in this study to process ARSAMs include room temperature (RT) treatment, heat treatment (HT), cold treatment (CT) and quenching. The changes in polymorphism, chemical structure, morphology, and distribution of PAT on SAMs coated specimens were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. DSC showed dihydrate, dehydrated dihydrate, semi-crystalline, and mixed (amorphous and dihydrate) forms of PAT for RT, HT, CT, and quenched specimens, respectively. FTIR showed that the chemical structure of PAT was unaltered in all the specimens processed by various methods employed in this study. SEM showed a mixture of spherical, ovoid, and bean-shaped morphologies of PAT on RT, HT, and CT while particle-like and needle-shaped morphologies of PAT were observed on quenched specimens. AFM showed PAT was uniformly distributed on RT, HT and CT specimens while particle-like PAT was well distributed and needle-shaped PAT was sparsely distributed on quenched specimens. CT specimens showed greater density of PAT crystals when compared to other methods. Thus, this study demonstrated that processing methods have significant influence on the polymorphism, morphology, and distribution of PAT on SAMs coated Co-Cr alloy specimens. The in vitro drug elution studies for up to 56 days showed sustained release for all the different groups of specimens. CT showed lesser

  6. Ergonomic risk assessment with DesignCheck to evaluate assembly work in different phases of the vehicle development process.

    PubMed

    Winter, Gabriele; Schaub, Karlheinz G; Großmann, Kay; Laun, Gerhard; Landau, Kurt; Bruder, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Occupational hazards exist, if the design of the work situation is not in accordance with ergonomic design principles. At assembly lines ergonomics is applied to the design of work equipment and tasks and to work organisation. The ignoring of ergonomic principles in planning and design of assembly work leads to unfavourable working posture, action force and material handling. Disorders of the musculoskeletal system are of a common occurrence throughout Europe. Musculoskeletal disorders are a challenge against the background of disabled workers. The changes in a worker's capability have to be regarded in the conception of redesigned and new assembly lines. In this way ergonomics becomes progressively more important in planning and design of vehicles: The objective of ergonomic design in different stages of the vehicles development process is to achieve an optimal adaptation of the assembly work to workers. Hence the ergonomic screening tool "Design Check" (DC) was developed to identify ergonomic deficits in workplace layouts. The screening-tool is based on the current ergonomic state of the art in the design of physical work and relevant EU legal requirements. It was tested within a federal German research project at selected work stations at the assembly lines at Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG / Stuttgart. Meanwhile the application of the screening-tool DC is transferred in other parts of the Porsche AG, Stuttgart. It is also realized as an ergonomic standard method to perform assembly work in different phases of the vehicle development process.

  7. Observation of degradation processes of Al electrodes in organic electroluminescence devices by electroluminescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, L. M.; Han, E. M.; Niidome, Y.; Fujihira, M.; Kanno, T.; Yoshida, S.; Maeda, A.; Ikushima, A. J.

    1994-11-01

    Degradation of top electrodes is one of the most important factors to determine the lifetimes of organic electroluminescence (EL) devices. An organic EL device (indium thin oxide (ITO/N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (TPD)/tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline)aluminum (Al q(sub 3))/Al) was prepared and a morphological change of the Al top electrode was observed during and/or after applying voltage by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The change in the electrode surface, i.e., the increase in surface roughness was observed during the current flow. The degradation process started from faint dark core parts and propagated into disks with different rates depending on the magnitude of applied voltage. Degraded sites of the Al electrode, which were analyzed as aluminum oxide by Auger electron spectroscopy, protruded into the air on the organic layers. In SEM images of a life-end electrode, discontinuities due to crevasse formation in the organic layers sandwiched by the ITO base and the metal top electrodes were observed in many places. These results confirm that one of the most crucial factors of the degradation process was deformation of metal and organic layers due to heat, gas evolution, and oxidation caused by applied voltage.

  8. Infrared sensor by inkjet printing cytochrome c on suspending aluminum electrodes of post CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shuo-Feng; Yen, Po-Hsien; Su, Guo-Dung John

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome c protein thin film possesses a high temperature coefficient of resistance. In this paper, we systematically investigated the characteristics of cytochrome c, whose absorption coefficient is 65% at wavelengths of 8 12 μm. We found that the changes in resistance resulted from surface roughness. We also discovered that, while cytochrome c improves the temperature coefficient of resistance, a pure protein solution does not conduct well. It needs a buffer solution, acting as an electrolyte, to increase electrical conductance. However, the buffer solution decreases the temperature coefficient. Therefore, optimization of the ratio of cytochrome c protein to buffer solution is required. We determined the best mixing ratio of the protein solution for a sensing material. We then designed a chip for an infrared microbolometer with a MEMS structure of suspended aluminum electrodes. The protein solution was deposited on the sensing pixel using an inkjet printer. The temperature coefficient of resistance, thermal conductance, time constant and responsivity were 25.98%/K, 7.96 × 10-5 W/K, 1.094 ms and 2.57 × 105 V/W at 2 μA bias current, respectively. We experimentally demonstrated integrating cytochrome c protein with a CMOS circuit as a sensing pixel for a longwavelength infrared microbolometer. Based on our experimental results, such a microbolometer array holds promise for the future.

  9. On the role of the chaperonin CCT in the just-in-time assembly process of APC/CCdc20.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Carien

    2010-02-05

    The just-in-time hypothesis relates to the assembly of large multi-protein complexes and their regulation of activation in the cell. Here I postulate that chaperonins may contribute to the timely assembly and activation of such complexes. For the case of anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome(Cdc20) assembly by the eukaryotic chaperonin chaperonin containing Tcp1 it is shown that just-in-time synthesis and chaperone-assisted folding can synergise to generate a highly regulated assembly process of a protein complex that is vital for cell cycle progression. Once dependency has been established transcriptional regulation and chaperonin-dependency may have co-evolved to safeguard the timely activation of important multi-protein complexes.

  10. Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Due-Hansen, J.; Midtbø, K.; Poppe, E.; Summanwar, A.; Jensen, G. U.; Breivik, L.; Wang, D. T.; Schjølberg-Henriksen, K.

    2012-07-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUTs) can be used to realize miniature ultrasound probes. Through-silicon vias (TSVs) allow for close integration of the CMUT and read-out electronics. A fabrication process enabling the realization of a CMUT array with TSVs is being developed. The integrated process requires the formation of highly doped polysilicon electrodes with low surface roughness. A process for polysilicon film deposition, doping, CMP, RIE and thermal annealing that resulted in a film with sheet resistance of 4.0 Ω/□ and a surface roughness of 1 nm rms has been developed. The surface roughness of the polysilicon film was found to increase with higher phosphorus concentrations. The surface roughness also increased when oxygen was present in the thermal annealing ambient. The RIE process for etching CMUT cavities in the doped polysilicon gave a mean etch depth of 59.2 ± 3.9 nm and a uniformity across the wafer ranging from 1.0 to 4.7%. The two presented processes are key processes that enable the fabrication of CMUT arrays suitable for applications in for instance intravascular cardiology and gastrointestinal imaging.

  11. Modeling of Membrane-Electrode-Assembly Degradation in Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells - Local H2 Starvation and Start-Stop Induced Carbon-Support Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wenbin; Yu, Paul T.; Carter, Robert N.; Makharia, Rohit; Gasteiger, Hubert A.

    Carbon-support corrosion causes electrode structure damage and thus electrode degradation. This chapter discusses fundamental models developed to predict cathode carbon-support corrosion induced by local H2 starvation and start-stop in a proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Kinetic models based on the balance of current among the various electrode reactions are illustrative, yielding much insight on the origin of carbon corrosion and its implications for future materials developments. They are particularly useful in assessing carbon corrosion rates at a quasi-steady-state when an H2-rich region serves as a power source that drives an H2-free region as a load. Coupled kinetic and transport models are essential in predicting when local H2 starvation occurs and how it affects the carbon corrosion rate. They are specifically needed to estimate length scales at which H2 will be depleted and time scales that are valuable for developing mitigation strategies. To predict carbon-support loss distributions over an entire active area, incorporating the electrode pseudo-capacitance appears necessary for situations with shorter residence times such as start-stop events. As carbon-support corrosion is observed under normal transient operations, further model improvement shall be focused on finding the carbon corrosion kinetics associated with voltage cycling and incorporating mechanisms that can quantify voltage decay with carbon-support loss.

  12. The importance of neutral and niche processes for bacterial community assembly differs between habitat generalists and specialists.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jingqiu; Cao, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Jie; Gao, Zhe; Wang, Michael Cai; Huang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    The mechanisms of community assembly are a central focus in the field of microbial ecology. However, to what extent these mechanisms differ in importance by traits of groups is poorly understood. Here we quantified the importance of neutral and niche processes in community assembly for bacteria, habitat specialists and generalists in 21 plateau lakes of China. Results showed that both neutral and niche processes played a critical role in the assembly of entire bacterial communities, shaping a unique biogeographical pattern. A few habitat generalists and many specialists were identified. Interestingly, habitat specialists were only governed by niche process, with seven significant environmental variables-salinity, dissolved oxygen, water transparency, total phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, temperature and total nitrogen-independently explaining 40.3% of the biological variation. By contrast, habitat generalists were strongly driven by neutral process, with 50.9% of the variation of detection frequency explained in neutral community model. Only three environmental variables-salinity, total nitrogen and dissolved oxygen-significantly affected the distribution of habitat generalists, independently explaining 13.6% of the variation. Governed by different assembly mechanisms, habitat specialists and generalists presented disparate biogeographical patterns. Our result emphasizes the importance of investigating the bacterial community assembly at more refined levels than entire communities.

  13. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  14. Processing of procollagen III by meprins: new players in extracellular matrix assembly?

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Daniel; Bruns, Bernd C; Moali, Catherine; Vadon-Le Goff, Sandrine; Sterchi, Erwin E; Traupe, Heiko; Böhm, Markus; Hulmes, David J S; Stöcker, Walter; Becker-Pauly, Christoph

    2010-12-01

    Meprins α and β, a subgroup of zinc metalloproteinases belonging to the astacin family, are known to cleave components of the extracellular matrix, either during physiological remodeling or in pathological situations. In this study we present a new role for meprins in matrix assembly, namely the proteolytic processing of procollagens. Both meprins α and β release the N- and C-propeptides from procollagen III, with such processing events being critical steps in collagen fibril formation. In addition, both meprins cleave procollagen III at exactly the same site as the procollagen C-proteinases, including bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1) and other members of the tolloid proteinase family. Indeed, cleavage of procollagen III by meprins is more efficient than by BMP-1. In addition, unlike BMP-1, whose activity is stimulated by procollagen C-proteinase enhancer proteins (PCPEs), the activity of meprins on procollagen III is diminished by PCPE-1. Finally, following our earlier observations of meprin expression by human epidermal keratinocytes, meprin α is also shown to be expressed by human dermal fibroblasts. In the dermis of fibrotic skin (keloids), expression of meprin α increases and meprin β begins to be detected. Our study suggests that meprins could be important players in several remodeling processes involving collagen fiber deposition.

  15. High-volume manufacturing equipment and processing for directed self-assembly applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somervell, Mark; Yamauchi, Takashi; Okada, Soichiro; Tomita, Tadatoshi; Nishi, Takanori; Iijima, Etsuo; Nakano, Takeo; Ishiguro, Takumi; Nagahara, Seiji; Iwaki, Hiroyuki; Dojun, Makiko; Ozawa, Mariko; Yatsuda, Koichi; Tobana, Toshikatsu; Romo Negreira, Ainhoa; Parnell, Doni; Kawakami, Shinchiro; Muramatsu, Makoto; Rathsack, Benjamen; Nafus, Kathleen; Peyre, Jean-Luc; Kitano, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) is one of the most promising technologies for scaling feature sizes to 16 nm and below. Both line/space and hole patterns can be created with various block copolymer morphologies, and these materials allow for molecular-level control of the feature shapes—exactly the characteristics that are required for creating high fidelity lithographic patterns. Over the past five years, the industry has been addressing the technical challenges of maturing this technology by addressing concerns such as pattern defectivity, materials specifications, design layout, and tool requirements. Though the learning curve has been steep, DSA has made significant progress toward implementation in high-volume manufacturing. Tokyo Electron has been focused on the best methods of achieving high-fidelity patterns using DSA processing. Unlike other technologies where optics and photons drive the formation of patterns, DSA relies on surface interactions and polymer thermodynamics to determine the final pattern shapes. These phenomena, in turn, are controlled by the processing that occurs on clean-tracks, etchers, and cleaning systems, and so a host of new technology has been developed to facilitate DSA. In this paper we will discuss the processes and hardware that are emerging as critical enablers for DSA implementation, and we will also demonstrate the kinds of high fidelity patterns typical of mainstream DSA integrations.

  16. Mtr4-like protein coordinates nuclear RNA processing for heterochromatin assembly and for telomere maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nathan N.; Chalamcharla, Venkata R.; Reyes-Turcu, Francisca; Mehta, Sameet; Zofall, Martin; Balachandran, Vanivilasini; Dhakshnamoorthy, Jothy; Taneja, Nitika; Yamanaka, Soichiro; Zhou, Ming; Grewal, Shiv I. S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The regulation of protein-coding and noncoding RNAs is linked to nuclear processes including chromatin modifications and gene silencing. However, the mechanisms that distinguish RNAs and mediate their functions are poorly understood. We describe a nuclear RNA processing network in fission yeast with a core module comprising the Mtr4-like protein, Mtl1, and the zinc finger protein, Red1. The Mtl1-Red1 core promotes degradation of mRNAs and noncoding RNAs, and associates with different proteins to assemble heterochromatin via distinct mechanisms. Mtl1 also forms Red1-independent interactions with evolutionarily conserved proteins named Nrl1 and Ctr1, which associate with splicing factors. Whereas Nrl1 targets transcripts with cryptic introns to form heterochromatin at developmental genes and retrotransposons, Ctr1 functions in processing intron-containing telomerase RNA. Together with our discovery of widespread cryptic introns, including in noncoding RNAs, these findings reveal unique cellular strategies for recognizing regulatory RNAs and coordinating their functions in response to developmental and environmental cues. PMID:24210919

  17. Analysis of the self-assembling and the defect annihilation processes in DSA using meso-scale simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Hiroshi; Norizoe, Yuki

    2015-03-01

    Recently, directed self-assembly (DSA) method is focused on as a next generation lithography technique. We performed the DPD simulations to analyze the self-assembling process of block copolymer in DSA using OCTA (in detail, see http://octa.jp) system. Using DPD simulation, we can obtain the phase separated structures at each moment consisted by block copolymer chains. As those structures are consisted by polymer chains, an analysis can be done on those structures. In this paper, we study the dynamics of end particles in the defect annihilation process to understand the dynamics of self-assembling of block copolymer in DSA. From our analysis, the end particles moves in advance than the change of domain structure in the defect annihilation process.

  18. Low-temperature self-assembled vertically aligned carbon nanofibers as counter-electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahpeykar, S. M.; Tabatabaei, M. K.; Ghafoori-fard, H.; Habibiyan, H.; Koohsorkhi, J.

    2013-11-01

    Low-temperature AC-DC PECVD is employed for direct growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) on ordinary transparent conductive glass as counter-electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on utilization of VACNFs grown directly on ordinary FTO-coated glass as a cost-effective catalyst material in DSSCs. According to the FESEM images, the as-grown arrays are well aligned and dense, and offer uniform coverage on the surface of the substrate. In-plane and out-of-plane conductivity measurements reveal their good electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy suggests a high number of electrocatalytic active sites, favoring charge transport at the electrolyte/electrode interface. Hybrid VACNF/Pt electrodes are also fabricated for performance comparison with Pt and VACNF electrodes. X-ray diffraction results verify the crystallization of Pt in hybrid electrodes and further confirm the vertical alignment of carbon nanofibers. Electrochemical characterization indicates that VACNFs provide both high catalytic and good charge transfer capability, which can be attributed to their high surface area, defect-rich and one-dimensional structure, vertical alignment and low contact resistance. As a result, VACNF cells can achieve a comparable performance (˜5.6%) to that of the reference Pt cells (˜6.5%). Moreover, by combination of the excellent charge transport and catalytic ability of VACNFs and the high conductivity of Pt nanoparticles, hybrid VACNF/Pt cells can deliver a performance superior to that of the Pt cells (˜7.2%), despite having a much smaller amount of Pt loading, which raises hopes for low-cost large-scale production of DSSCs in the future.

  19. Integration of colloidal silicon nanocrystals on metal electrodes in single-electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashikawa, Yasuhiro; Azuma, Yasuo; Majima, Yutaka; Kano, Shinya; Fujii, Minoru

    2016-11-01

    We develop a facile process to integrate colloidal silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) with metal electrodes in a single-electron transistor by self-assembly. Gold (Au) surface is modified by an amine-terminated self-assembled monolayer to have a positive potential. All-inorganic boron (B) and phosphorus (P) codoped Si NCs, with a negative surface potential and size-controllability, are selectively adsorbed on an amine-terminated Au surface by electrostatic attraction. We demonstrate the fabrication of SETs consisting of electroless-plated Au nanogap electrodes and codoped Si NCs using this process and observation of clear Coulomb diamonds at 9 K.

  20. In-situ photoelectron microspectroscopy and imaging of electrochemical processes at the electrodes of a self-driven cell.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Benedetto; Amati, Matteo; Gregoratti, Luca; Kiskinova, Maya

    2013-10-04

    The challenges in development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are reducing their dimensions and increasing their efficiency and durability, which requires physicochemical characterization at micro-scales of the device components during operation conditions. Recently, the unique potential of scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM) has been demonstrated by in-situ studies of externally-driven SOFCs, which mimic real devices. Here we overcome the gap between model and real systems using a single-chamber Ni|YSZ|Mn SOFC, supporting a range of self-driven electrochemical reactions in variable gas environments and temperatures. The reported SPEM results, obtained during spontaneous electrochemical processes occurring in reactive gas ambient, demonstrate the chemical evolution of electrodic material, in particular the lateral distribution of the oxidation state and the induced local potential, clearly marking out the electrochemically most active micro-regions of the Ni anode.

  1. CdS-Nanowires Flexible Photo-detector with Ag-Nanowires Electrode Based on Non-transfer Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yanli; Pei, Ruihan; Liang, Xiaoci; Wang, Yuhao; Liu, Ling; Chen, Haibiao; Liang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    In this study, UV-visible flexible resistivity-type photo-detectors were demonstrated with CdS-nanowires (NWs) percolation network channel and Ag-NWs percolation network electrode. The devices were fabricated on Mixed Cellulose Esters (MCE) membrane using a lithographic filtration method combined with a facile non-transfer process. The photo-detectors demonstrated strong adhesion, fast response time, fast decay time, and high photo sensitivity. The high performance could be attributed to the high quality single crystalline CdS-NWs, encapsulation of NWs in MCE matrix and excellent interconnection of the NWs. Furthermore, the sensing performance was maintained even the device was bent at an angle of 90°. This research may pave the way for the facile fabrication of flexible photo-detectors with high performances.

  2. Power module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  3. pH Influences the Importance of Niche-Related and Neutral Processes in Lacustrine Bacterioplankton Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Lijuan; Jeppesen, Erik; He, Dan; Wang, Jianjun; Liboriussen, Lone; Xing, Peng

    2015-01-01

    pH is an important factor that shapes the structure of bacterial communities. However, we have very limited information about the patterns and processes by which overall bacterioplankton communities assemble across wide pH gradients in natural freshwater lakes. Here, we used pyrosequencing to analyze the bacterioplankton communities in 25 discrete freshwater lakes in Denmark with pH levels ranging from 3.8 to 8.8. We found that pH was the key factor impacting lacustrine bacterioplankton community assembly. More acidic lakes imposed stronger environmental filtering, which decreased the richness and evenness of bacterioplankton operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and largely shifted community composition. Although environmental filtering was determined to be the most important determinant of bacterioplankton community assembly, the importance of neutral assembly processes must also be considered, notably in acidic lakes, where the species (OTU) diversity was low. We observed that the strong effect of environmental filtering in more acidic lakes was weakened by the enhanced relative importance of neutral community assembly, and bacterioplankton communities tended to be less phylogenetically clustered in more acidic lakes. In summary, we propose that pH is a major environmental determinant in freshwater lakes, regulating the relative importance and interplay between niche-related and neutral processes and shaping the patterns of freshwater lake bacterioplankton biodiversity. PMID:25724952

  4. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E.; Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L.; Lacroix, M.; Carra, O.; Prele, G.

    2012-07-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO{sub 2} interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  5. Divided electrochemical cell assembly

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ch. J. H.

    1985-02-19

    A divided electrochemical cell assembly comprises stacked bipolar substantially square parallel planar electrodes and membranes. The corners and edges of the electrodes with bordering insulative spacers in juxtaposition with the chamber walls define four electrolyte circulation manifolds. Anolyte and catholyte channeling means permit the separate introduction of anolyte and catholyte into two of the manifolds and the withdrawal of anolyte and catholyte separately from at least two other manifolds. The electrodes and membranes are separated from one another by the insulative spacers which are also channeling means disposed to provide electrolyte channels across the interfaces of adjacent electrodes and membranes.

  6. Assembly of the Nuclear Transcription and Processing Machinery: Cajal Bodies (Coiled Bodies) and Transcriptosomes

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Joseph G.; Bellini, Michel; Wu, Zheng’an; Murphy, Christine

    1999-01-01

    We have examined the distribution of RNA transcription and processing factors in the amphibian oocyte nucleus or germinal vesicle. RNA polymerase I (pol I), pol II, and pol III occur in the Cajal bodies (coiled bodies) along with various components required for transcription and processing of the three classes of nuclear transcripts: mRNA, rRNA, and pol III transcripts. Among these components are transcription factor IIF (TFIIF), TFIIS, splicing factors, the U7 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle, the stem–loop binding protein, SR proteins, cleavage and polyadenylation factors, small nucleolar RNAs, nucleolar proteins that are probably involved in pre-rRNA processing, and TFIIIA. Earlier studies and data presented here show that several of these components are first targeted to Cajal bodies when injected into the oocyte and only subsequently appear in the chromosomes or nucleoli, where transcription itself occurs. We suggest that pol I, pol II, and pol III transcription and processing components are preassembled in Cajal bodies before transport to the chromosomes and nucleoli. Most components of the pol II transcription and processing pathway that occur in Cajal bodies are also found in the many hundreds of B-snurposomes in the germinal vesicle. Electron microscopic images show that B-snurposomes consist primarily, if not exclusively, of 20- to 30-nm particles, which closely resemble the interchromatin granules described from sections of somatic nuclei. We suggest the name pol II transcriptosome for these particles to emphasize their content of factors involved in synthesis and processing of mRNA transcripts. We present a model in which pol I, pol II, and pol III transcriptosomes are assembled in the Cajal bodies before export to the nucleolus (pol I), to the B-snurposomes and eventually to the chromosomes (pol II), and directly to the chromosomes (pol III). The key feature of this model is the preassembly of the transcription and processing machinery into

  7. Point-process analysis of neural spiking activity of muscle spindles recorded from thin-film longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes.

    PubMed

    Citi, Luca; Djilas, Milan; Azevedo-Coste, Christine; Yoshida, Ken; Brown, Emery N; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Recordings from thin-film Longitudinal Intra-Fascicular Electrodes (tfLIFE) together with a wavelet-based de-noising and a correlation-based spike sorting algorithm, give access to firing patterns of muscle spindle afferents. In this study we use a point process probability structure to assess mechanical stimulus-response characteristics of muscle spindle spike trains. We assume that the stimulus intensity is primarily a linear combination of the spontaneous firing rate, the muscle extension, and the stretch velocity. By using the ability of the point process framework to provide an objective goodness of fit analysis, we were able to distinguish two classes of spike clusters with different statistical structure. We found that spike clusters with higher SNR have a temporal structure that can be fitted by an inverse Gaussian distribution while lower SNR clusters follow a Poisson-like distribution. The point process algorithm is further able to provide the instantaneous intensity function associated with the stimulus-response model with the best goodness of fit. This important result is a first step towards a point process decoding algorithm to estimate the muscle length and possibly provide closed loop Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) systems with natural sensory feedback information.

  8. Innovative production technique for PEFC electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Bevers, D.; Guelzow, E.; Helmbold, A.; Mueller, B.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells are high efficient and low polluting energy conversation devices. Using hydrogen as a fuel gas they are applicable to solve environmental problems e.g. CO{sub 2} impact on the climate. Thus international research efforts have been increased in recent years. Low temperature fuel cells e.g. the PEFC are specially applicable for future transportation and stationary energy supply systems. Application and economics success of his technology is obstructed by the high investment costs with respect to conventional energy conversion devices. The intent of our activities is the improvement of electrodes and membrane-electrode-assemblies as used in PEFC. Commercial and technical aspects of electrode manufacturing have been considered in early stages of the development of the production procedure. Two different techniques are developed at DLR. The first is a rolling procedure as used for production for batteries and alkaline fuel cells which has been modified and adapted to the specific demand of PEFC electrodes. The second technique is a new printing process to produce ultra thin layers of catalyst directly on the electrolyte. In this paper we will show the first results of the first electrode technique which have been tested in fuel cells and a short description of the second very new method.

  9. Nanoporous carbon-based electrodes for high strain ionomeric bending actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmre, Viljar; Brandell, Daniel; Mäeorg, Uno; Torop, Janno; Volobujeva, Olga; Punning, Andres; Johanson, Urmas; Kruusmaa, Maarja; Aabloo, Alvo

    2009-09-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are electroactive material devices that bend at low applied voltage (1-4 V). Inversely, a voltage is generated when the materials are deformed, which makes them useful both as sensors and actuators. In this paper, we propose two new highly porous carbon materials as electrodes for IPMC actuators, generating a high specific area, and compare their electromechanical performance with recently reported RuO2 electrodes and conventional IPMCs. Using a direct assembly process (DAP), we synthesize ionic liquid (Emi-Tf) actuators with either carbide-derived carbon (CDC) or coconut-shell-based activated carbon-based electrodes. The carbon electrodes were applied onto ionic liquid-swollen Nafion membranes using a direct assembly process. The study demonstrates that actuators based on carbon electrodes derived from TiC have the greatest peak-to-peak strain output, reaching up to 20.4 mɛ (equivalent to>2%) at a 2 V actuation signal, exceeding that of the RuO2 electrodes by more than 100%. The electrodes synthesized from TiC-derived carbon also exhibit significantly higher maximum strain rate. The differences between the materials are discussed in terms of molecular interactions and mechanisms upon actuation in the different electrodes.

  10. Engineering within the assembly, verification, and integration (AIV) process in ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Bernhard; McMullin, Joseph P.; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Duvall, Eugene

    2010-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an interferometer in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert. As part of the ALMA construction phase the Assembly, Verification and Integration (AIV) team receives antennas and instrumentation from Integrated Product Teams (IPTs), verifies that the sub-systems perform as expected, performs the assembly and integration of the scientific instrumentation and verifies that functional and performance requirements are met. This paper aims to describe those aspects related to the AIV Engineering team, its role within the 4-station AIV process, the different phases the group underwent, lessons learned and potential space for improvement. AIV Engineering initially focused on the preparation of the necessary site infrastructure for AIV activities, on the purchase of tools and equipment and on the first ALMA system installations. With the first antennas arriving on site the team started to gather experience with AIV Station 1 beacon holography measurements for the assessment of the overall antenna surface quality, and with optical pointing to confirm the antenna pointing and tracking capabilities. With the arrival of the first receiver AIV Station 2 was developed which focuses on the installation of electrical and cryogenic systems and incrementally establishes the full connectivity of the antenna as an observing platform. Further antenna deliveries then allowed to refine the related procedures, develop staff expertise and to transition towards a more routine production process. Stations 3 and 4 deal with verification of the antenna with integrated electronics by the AIV Science Team and is not covered

  11. New Electrode Manufacturing Process Equipment: Novel High Energy Density Lithium-Ion Cell Designs via Innovative Manufacturing Process Modules for Cathode and Integrated Separator

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Applied Materials is developing new tools for manufacturing Li-Ion batteries that could dramatically increase their performance. Traditionally, the positive and negative terminals of Li-Ion batteries are mixed with glue-like materials called binders, pressed onto electrodes, and then physically kept apart by winding a polymer mesh material between them called a separator. With the Applied Materials system, many of these manually intensive processes will be replaced by next generation coating technology to apply each component. This process will improve product reliability and performance of the cells at a fraction of the current cost. These novel manufacturing techniques will also increase the energy density of the battery and reduce the size of several of the battery’s components to free up more space within the cell for storage.

  12. Interfacial and Electrode Modifications in P3HT:PC61BM based Organic Solar Cells: Devices, Processing and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sayantan

    The inexorable upsurge in world’s energy demand has steered the search for newer renewable energy sources and photovoltaics seemed to be one of the best alternatives for energy production. Among the various photovoltaic technologies that emerged, organic/polymer photovoltaics based on solution processed bulk-heterojunctions (BHJ) of semiconducting polymers has gained serious attention owing to the use of inexpensive light-weight materials, exhibiting high mechanical flexibility and compatibility with low temperature roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques on flexible substrates. The most widely studied material to date is the blend of regioregular P3HT and PC61BM used as donor and acceptor materials. The object of this study was to investigate and improve the performance/stability of the organic solar cells by use of inexpensive materials. In an attempt to enhance the efficiency of organic solar cells, we have demonstrated the use of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode in bulk heterojunction solar cell structure The device studies showed a significant enhancement in the short-circuit current as well as in the shunt resistance on use of the hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) layer. In another approach a p-type CuI hole-transport layer was utilized that could possibly replace the acidic PEDOT:PSS layer in the fabrication of high-efficiency solar cells. The device optimization was done by varying the concentration of CuI in the precursor solution which played an important role in the efficiency of the solar cell devices. Recently a substantial amount of research has been focused on identifying suitable interfacial layers in organic solar cells which has efficient charge transport properties. It was illustrated that a thin layer of silver oxide interfacial layer showed a 28% increase in power conversion efficiency in comparison to that of the control cell. The optoelectronic properties and morphological features of indium-free Zn

  13. Assembly processes of gastropod community change with horizontal and vertical zonation in ancient Lake Ohrid: a metacommunity speciation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauffe, Torsten; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The Balkan Lake Ohrid is the oldest and most diverse freshwater lacustrine system in Europe. However, it remains unclear whether species community composition, as well as the diversification of its endemic taxa, is mainly driven by dispersal limitation, environmental filtering, or species interaction. This calls for a holistic perspective involving both evolutionary processes and ecological dynamics, as provided by the unifying framework of the "metacommunity speciation model".The current study used the species-rich model taxon Gastropoda to assess how extant communities in Lake Ohrid are structured by performing process-based metacommunity analyses. Specifically, the study aimed (1) to identifying the relative importance of the three community assembly processes and (2) to test whether the importance of these individual processes changes gradually with lake depth or discontinuously with eco-zone shifts.Based on automated eco-zone detection and process-specific simulation steps, we demonstrated that dispersal limitation had the strongest influence on gastropod community composition. However, it was not the exclusive assembly process, but acted together with the other two processes - environmental filtering and species interaction. The relative importance of the community assembly processes varied both with lake depth and eco-zones, though the processes were better predicted by the latter.This suggests that environmental characteristics have a pronounced effect on shaping gastropod communities via assembly processes. Moreover, the study corroborated the high importance of dispersal limitation for both maintaining species richness in Lake Ohrid (through its impact on community composition) and generating endemic biodiversity (via its influence on diversification processes). However, according to the metacommunity speciation model, the inferred importance of environmental filtering and biotic interaction also suggests a small but significant influence of ecological

  14. Assembly, integration, and verification (AIV) in ALMA: series processing of array elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Bernhard; Jager, Rieks; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Knee, Lewis B. G.; McMullin, Joseph P.

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. It is the responsibility of ALMA AIV to deliver the fully assembled, integrated, and verified antennas (array elements) to the telescope array. After an initial phase of infrastructure setup AIV activities began when the first ALMA antenna and subsystems became available in mid 2008. During the second semester of 2009 a project-wide effort was made to put in operation a first 3- antenna interferometer at the Array Operations Site (AOS). In 2010 the AIV focus was the transition from event-driven activities towards routine series production. Also, due to the ramp-up of operations activities, AIV underwent an organizational change from an autonomous department into a project within a strong matrix management structure. When the subsystem deliveries stabilized in early 2011, steady-state series processing could be achieved in an efficient and reliable manner. The challenge today is to maintain this production pace until completion towards the end of 2013. This paper describes the way ALMA AIV evolved successfully from the initial phase to the present steady-state of array element series processing. It elaborates on the different project phases and their relationships, presents processing statistics, illustrates the lessons learned and relevant best practices, and concludes with an outlook of the path towards completion.

  15. Conductivity of ruthenate nanosheets prepared via electrostatic self-assembly: characterization of isolated single nanosheet crystallite to mono- and multilayer electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun; Kato, Hisato; Kimura, Mutsumi; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Sugimoto, Wataru

    2010-12-07

    Ultrathin films composed of ruthenate nanosheets (RuO(2)ns) were fabricated via electrostatic self-assembly of unilamellar RuO(2)ns crystallites derived by total exfoliation of an ion-exchangeable layered ruthenate. Ultrathin films with submonolayer to monolayer RuO(2)ns coverage and multilayered RuO(2)ns thin films were prepared by controlled electrostatic self-assembly and layer-by-layer deposition using a cationic copolymer as the counterion. Electrical properties of a single RuO(2)ns crystallite were successfully measured by means of scanning probe microscopy. The sheet resistance of an isolated single RuO(2)ns crystallite was 12 kΩ sq(-1). Self-assembled submonolayer films behaved as a continuous conducting film for coverage above 70%, which was discussed based on a two-dimensional percolation model. Low sheet resistance was attained for multilayered films with values less than 1 kΩ sq(-1). Interestingly, the grain boundary resistance between nanosheets seems to contribute only slightly to the sheet resistance of self-assembled films.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells with reduced graphene oxide as the counter electrode prepared by a green photothermal reduction process.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Min-Hsin; Lin, Lu-Yin; Chang, Ling-Yu; Leu, Yow-An; Cheng, Wan-Yu; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2014-04-14

    Highly conductive reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with good electrocatalytic ability for reducing triiodide ions (I3(-)) is a promising catalyst for the counter electrode (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, hazardous chemical reducing agents or energy-consuming thermal treatments are required for preparing rGO from graphene oxide (GO). Therefore, it is necessary to find other effective and green reduction processes for the preparation of rGO and to fabricate rGO-based DSSCs. In this study, GO was prepared using a modified Hummers method from graphite powder, and further reduced to rGO through a photothermal reduction process (to give P-rGO). P-rGO shows better electrocatalytic ability due mainly to its high standard heterogeneous rate constant for I3(-) reduction and in part to its considerable electrochemical surface area. The corresponding DSSC shows a higher cell efficiency (η) of 7.62% than that of the cell with a GO-based CE (η=0.03%). When the low-temperature photothermal reduction process is applied to all-flexible plastic DSSCs, the DSSC with a P-rGO CE shows an η of 4.16%.

  17. A Module for Hospital Central Processing Technicians on Decontamination, Assembly and Wrapping Concepts of GYN Hysterectomy Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojcik, Roseann B.; Moseley, James L.

    This learning module can be used as an orientation guide, inservice tool, or resource guide for hospital central processing department technicians and instructors. It contains information sheets, worksheets, worksheet answers, a posttest, and posttest answers on correct procedures for decontaminating, assembling, and wrapping the medical…

  18. Case studies on the formation of chalcogenide self-assembled monolayers on surfaces and dissociative processes

    PubMed Central

    Bendounan, Azzedine; Harish, Makri Nimbegondi Kotresh; Giglia, Angelo; Kubsky, Stefan; Sirotti, Fausto; Pasquali, Luca; Sampath, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Summary This report examines the assembly of chalcogenide organic molecules on various surfaces, focusing on cases when chemisorption is accompanied by carbon–chalcogen atom-bond scission. In the case of alkane and benzyl chalcogenides, this induces formation of a chalcogenized interface layer. This process can occur during the initial stages of adsorption and then, after passivation of the surface, molecular adsorption can proceed. The characteristics of the chalcogenized interface layer can be significantly different from the metal layer and can affect various properties such as electron conduction. For chalcogenophenes, the carbon–chalcogen atom-bond breaking can lead to opening of the ring and adsorption of an alkene chalcogenide. Such a disruption of the π-electron system affects charge transport along the chains. Awareness about these effects is of importance from the point of view of molecular electronics. We discuss some recent studies based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that shed light on these aspects for a series of such organic molecules. PMID:26977383

  19. Characterization of the Post-Assembly Line Tailoring Processes in Teicoplanin Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yushchuk, Oleksandr; Ostash, Bohdan; Pham, Thu H; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Fedorenko, Victor; Truman, Andrew W; Horbal, Liliya

    2016-08-19

    Actinoplanes teichomyceticus produces teicoplanin (Tcp), a "last resort" lipoglycopeptide antibiotic used to treat severe multidrug resistant infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A number of studies have addressed various steps of Tcp biosynthesis using in vitro assays, although the exact sequence of Tcp peptide core tailoring reactions remained speculative. Here, we describe the generation and analysis of a set of A. teichomyceticus mutant strains that have been used to elucidate the sequence of reactions from the Tcp aglycone to mature Tcp. By combining these results with previously published data, we propose an updated order of post-assembly line tailoring processes in Tcp biosynthesis. We also demonstrate that the acyl-CoA-synthetase Tei13* and the type II thioesterase Tei30* are dispensable for Tcp production. Five Tcp derivatives featuring hitherto undescribed combinations of glycosylation and acylation patterns are described. The generation of strains that produce novel Tcp analogues now provides a platform for the production of additional Tcp-like molecules via combinatorial biosynthesis or chemical derivatization.

  20. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.; Fan, X.

    1998-10-27

    An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.