Thermal quantum electrodynamics of nonrelativistic charged fluids.
Buenzli, Pascal R; Martin, Philippe A; Ryser, Marc D
2007-04-01
The theory relevant to the study of matter in equilibrium with the radiation field is thermal quantum electrodynamics (TQED). We present a formulation of the theory, suitable for nonrelativistic fluids, based on a joint functional integral representation of matter and field variables. In this formalism cluster expansion techniques of classical statistical mechanics become operative. They provide an alternative to the usual Feynman diagrammatics in many-body problems, which is not perturbative with respect to the coupling constant. As an application we show that the effective Coulomb interaction between quantum charges is partially screened by thermalized photons at large distances. More precisely one observes an exact cancellation of the dipolar electric part of the interaction, so that the asymptotic particle density correlation is now determined by relativistic effects. It still has the r(-6) decay typical for quantum charges, but with an amplitude strongly reduced by a relativistic factor.
Thermal quantum electrodynamics of nonrelativistic charged fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buenzli, Pascal R.; Martin, Philippe A.; Ryser, Marc D.
2007-04-01
The theory relevant to the study of matter in equilibrium with the radiation field is thermal quantum electrodynamics (TQED). We present a formulation of the theory, suitable for nonrelativistic fluids, based on a joint functional integral representation of matter and field variables. In this formalism cluster expansion techniques of classical statistical mechanics become operative. They provide an alternative to the usual Feynman diagrammatics in many-body problems, which is not perturbative with respect to the coupling constant. As an application we show that the effective Coulomb interaction between quantum charges is partially screened by thermalized photons at large distances. More precisely one observes an exact cancellation of the dipolar electric part of the interaction, so that the asymptotic particle density correlation is now determined by relativistic effects. It still has the r-6 decay typical for quantum charges, but with an amplitude strongly reduced by a relativistic factor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scudder, J. D.; Aggson, T. L.; Mangeney, A.; Lacombe, C.; Harvey, C. C.
1986-01-01
Using the results of Scudder et al. (1986) on the bow shock wave observed by ISEE satellites, a quantitative description is presented of the electrodynamics of ion and electron fluids, and phase-standing wave interaction which manifests itself as a supercritical MHD shock. The cross-shock electrical profile was determined in both the normal incidence frame and in the deHoffman-Teller frame by two different methods, and the results were compared with dc electric field measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scudder, J. D.; Aggson, T. L.; Mangeney, A.; Lacombe, C.; Harvey, C. C.
1986-01-01
Using the results of Scudder et al. (1986) on the bow shock wave observed by ISEE satellites, a quantitative description is presented of the electrodynamics of ion and electron fluids, and phase-standing wave interaction which manifests itself as a supercritical MHD shock. The cross-shock electrical profile was determined in both the normal incidence frame and in the deHoffman-Teller frame by two different methods, and the results were compared with dc electric field measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lierke, E. G.; Holitzner, L.
2008-11-01
The feasibility of an acoustic-electrostatic hybrid levitator for small fluid and solid samples is evaluated. A proposed design and its theoretical assessment are based on the optional implementation of simple hardware components (ring electrodes) and standard laboratory equipment into typical commercial ultrasonic standing wave levitators. These levitators allow precise electrical charging of drops during syringe- or ink-jet-type deployment. The homogeneous electric 'Millikan field' between the grounded ultrasonic transducer and the electrically charged reflector provide an axial compensation of the sample weight in an indifferent equilibrium, which can be balanced by using commercial optical position sensors in combination with standard electronic PID position control. Radial electrostatic repulsion forces between the charged sample and concentric ring electrodes of the same polarity provide stable positioning at the centre of the levitator. The levitator can be used in a pure acoustic or electrostatic mode or in a hybrid combination of both subsystems. Analytical evaluations of the radial-axial force profiles are verified with detailed numerical finite element calculations under consideration of alternative boundary conditions. The simple hardware modification with implemented double-ring electrodes in ac/dc operation is also feasible for an electrodynamic/acoustic hybrid levitator.
Eringen, A.C.; Maugin, G.A.
1990-01-01
A unified approach is presented to the nonlinear continuum theory of deformable and fluent media subject to electromagnetic and thermal loads. Basic laws are used to establish the macroscopic electromagnetic theory are treated from first principles and nonlinear constitutive equations for large fields are developed. Many solutions of linear and nonlinear problems in the field of rigid media, elastic dielectrics, piezoelectricity, magnetoelasticity, ferromagnets, and magnetohydrodynamics are discussed. Applications are extended to ferrofluids, electrodynamics, memory-dependent materials, nonlocal theories, and relativistic continua.
Cunningham, J; Gatenby, R
2014-06-01
Purpose: To develop a simulation to catalyze a reevaluation of common assumptions about 3 dimensional diffusive processes and help cell biologists gain a more nuanced, intuitive understanding of the true physical hurdles of protein signaling cascades. Furthermore, to discuss the possibility of intracellular electrodynamics as a critical, unrecognized component of cellular biology and protein dynamics that is necessary for optimal information flow from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Methods: The Unity 3D gaming physics engine was used to build an accurate virtual scale model of the cytoplasm within a few hundred nanometers of the nuclear membrane. A cloud of simulated pERK proteins is controlled by the physics simulation, where diffusion is based on experimentally measured values and the electrodynamics are based on theoretical nano-fluid dynamics. The trajectories of pERK within the cytoplasm and through the 1250 nuclear pores on the nuclear surface is recorded and analyzed. Results: The simulation quickly demonstrates that pERKs moving solely by diffusion will rarely locate and come within capture distance of a nuclear pore. The addition of intracellular electrodynamics between charges on the nuclear pore complexes and on pERKs increases the number of successful translocations by allowing the electro-physical attractive effects to draw in pERKs from the cytoplasm. The effects of changes in intracellular shielding ion concentrations allowed for estimation of the “capture radius” under varying conditions. Conclusion: The simulation allows a shift in perspective that is paramount in attempting to communicate the scale and dynamics of intracellular protein cascade mechanics. This work has allowed researchers to more fully understand the parameters involved in intracellular electrodynamics, such as shielding anion concentration and protein charge. As these effects are still far below the spatial resolution of currently available measurement technology this
Structure of Aristotelian electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobson, Ted
2015-07-01
Aristotelian electrodynamics (AE) describes the regime of a plasma with a very strong electric field that is not shorted out, with the charge current determined completely by pair production and the balance of the Lorentz 4-force against the curvature radiation reaction. Here it is shown how the principal null directions and associated eigenvalues of the field tensor govern AE, and how force-free electrodynamics arises smoothly from AE when the eigenvalues (and therefore the electric field in some frame) vanish. A criterion for validity of AE and force-free electrodynamics is proposed in terms of a pair of "field curvature scalars" formed from the first derivative of the principal null directions.
Electrodynamics of Pulsar Magnetospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerutti, Benoît; Beloborodov, Andrei M.
2016-12-01
We review electrodynamics of rotating magnetized neutron stars, from the early vacuum model to recent numerical experiments with plasma-filled magnetospheres. Significant progress became possible due to the development of global particle-in-cell simulations which capture particle acceleration, emission of high-energy photons, and electron-positron pair creation. The numerical experiments show from first principles how and where electric gaps form, and promise to explain the observed pulsar activity from radio waves to gamma-rays.
Electrodynamics of chiral matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Zebin; Cao, Gaoqing; Huang, Xu-Guang
2017-02-01
Many-body systems with chiral fermions can exhibit novel transport phenomena that violate parity and time-reversal symmetries, such as the chiral magnetic effect, the anomalous Hall effect, and the anomalous generation of charge. Based on the Maxwell-Chern-Simons electrodynamics, we examine some electromagnetic and optical properties of such systems including the electrostatics, the magnetostatics, the propagation of electromagnetic waves, the novel optical effects, etc.
Electrodynamics of Pulsar Magnetospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerutti, Benoît; Beloborodov, Andrei M.
2017-07-01
We review electrodynamics of rotating magnetized neutron stars, from the early vacuum model to recent numerical experiments with plasma-filled magnetospheres. Significant progress became possible due to the development of global particle-in-cell simulations which capture particle acceleration, emission of high-energy photons, and electron-positron pair creation. The numerical experiments show from first principles how and where electric gaps form, and promise to explain the observed pulsar activity from radio waves to gamma-rays.
Charged relativistic fluids and non-linear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dereli, T.; Tucker, R. W.
2010-01-01
The electromagnetic fields in Maxwell's theory satisfy linear equations in the classical vacuum. This is modified in classical non-linear electrodynamic theories. To date there has been little experimental evidence that any of these modified theories are tenable. However with the advent of high-intensity lasers and powerful laboratory magnetic fields this situation may be changing. We argue that an approach involving the self-consistent relativistic motion of a smooth fluid-like distribution of matter (composed of a large number of charged or neutral particles) in an electromagnetic field offers a viable theoretical framework in which to explore the experimental consequences of non-linear electrodynamics. We construct such a model based on the theory of Born and Infeld and suggest that a simple laboratory experiment involving the propagation of light in a static magnetic field could be used to place bounds on the fundamental coupling in that theory. Such a framework has many applications including a new description of the motion of particles in modern accelerators and plasmas as well as phenomena in astrophysical contexts such as in the environment of magnetars, quasars and gamma-ray bursts.
Electrodynamics of Perfect Conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Essén, Hanno
2013-05-01
The most general electrodynamic equations of a perfect conducting state are obtained using a variational principle in a classical framework, following an approach by Pierre-Gilles de Gennes. London equations are derived as the time-independent case of these equations, corresponding to the magnetostatic minimal energy state of the perfect conducting system. For further confirmation, the same equations are also derived in the classical limit of the Coleman-Weinberg model, the most successful quantum macroscopic theory of superconductivity. The magnetic field expulsion is, therefore, a direct consequence of zero resistivity and not an exclusive property of superconductors.
Two applications of axion electrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilczek, Frank
1987-01-01
The equations of axion electrodynamics are studied. Variations in the axion field can give rise to peculiar distributions of charge and current. These effects provide a simple understanding of the fractional electric charge on dyons and of some recently discovered oddities in the electrodynamics of antiphase boundaries in PbTe. Some speculations regarding the possible occurrence of related phenomena in other solids are presented.
Apparent Paradoxes in Classical Electrodynamics: A Fluid Medium in an Electromagnetic Field
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kholmetskii, A. L.; Yarman, T.
2008-01-01
In this paper we analyse a number of teaching paradoxes of classical electrodynamics, dealing with the relativistic transformation of energy and momentum for a fluid medium in an external electromagnetic field. In particular, we consider a moving parallel plate charged capacitor, where the electric attraction of its plates is balanced by the…
Apparent Paradoxes in Classical Electrodynamics: A Fluid Medium in an Electromagnetic Field
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kholmetskii, A. L.; Yarman, T.
2008-01-01
In this paper we analyse a number of teaching paradoxes of classical electrodynamics, dealing with the relativistic transformation of energy and momentum for a fluid medium in an external electromagnetic field. In particular, we consider a moving parallel plate charged capacitor, where the electric attraction of its plates is balanced by the…
Summary Presentation of the Electrodynamics Interactions Panel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, N. H.
1985-01-01
Technological and scientific uses of electrodynamic tethers in space are considered. Areas of concern for such applications of electrodynamic tethers are enumerated. Thrust and power generation using tethers are discussed.
Quantization of general linear electrodynamics
Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P.
2011-03-15
General linear electrodynamics allow for an arbitrary linear constitutive relation between the field strength 2-form and induction 2-form density if crucial hyperbolicity and energy conditions are satisfied, which render the theory predictive and physically interpretable. Taking into account the higher-order polynomial dispersion relation and associated causal structure of general linear electrodynamics, we carefully develop its Hamiltonian formulation from first principles. Canonical quantization of the resulting constrained system then results in a quantum vacuum which is sensitive to the constitutive tensor of the classical theory. As an application we calculate the Casimir effect in a birefringent linear optical medium.
Optimal Control of Electrodynamic Tethers
2008-06-01
left with ( ) ( ) 1 2 1 2 23 3 3 32 1 2 1 2 3 3 ˆ ˆ 2 2 2 ˆ ˆ 6 6 t t t t t t m m m m m T m L m L M M m LM M M MLm M M... Contract RH4-394049, March 1985, p 31. 9 Pelaez, J. and Lorenzini, E. C., “Libration Control of Electrodynamic Tethers in Inclined Orbit,” Journal of...COVERED (From – To) Aug 2006 – Jul 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optimal Control of Electrodynamic Tethers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b
Asymptotic structure of electrodynamics revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herdegen, Andrzej
2017-03-01
We point out that recently published analyses of null and timelike infinity and long-range structures in electrodynamics to large extent rediscover results present in the literature. At the same time, some of the conclusions these recent works put forward may prove controversial. In view of these facts, we find it desirable to revisit the analysis taken up more than two decades ago, starting from earlier works on null infinity by other authors.
A model of nonlinear electrodynamics
Kruglov, S.I.
2015-02-15
A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with two parameters is investigated. We also consider a model with one dimensional parameter. It was shown that the electric field of a point-like charge is not singular at the origin and there is the finiteness of the static electric energy of point-like charged particle. We obtain the canonical and symmetrical Belinfante energy–momentum tensors and dilatation currents. It is demonstrated that the dilatation symmetry and dual symmetry are broken in the models suggested. We have calculated the static electric energy of point-like particles.
A reformulation of mechanics and electrodynamics.
Pinheiro, Mario J
2017-07-01
Classical mechanics, as commonly taught in engineering and science, are confined to the conventional Newtonian theory. But classical mechanics has not really changed in substance since Newton formulation, describing simultaneous rotation and translation of objects with somewhat complicate drawbacks, risking interpretation of forces in non-inertial frames. In this work we introduce a new variational principle for out-of-equilibrium, rotating systems, obtaining a set of two first order differential equations that introduces a thermodynamic-mechanistic time into Newton's dynamical equation, and revealing the same formal symplectic structure shared by classical mechanics, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. The results is a more consistent formulation of dynamics and electrodynamics, explaining natural phenomena as the outcome from a balance between energy and entropy, embedding translational with rotational motion into a single equation, showing centrifugal and Coriolis force as derivatives from the transport of angular momentum, and offering a natural method to handle variational problems, as shown with the brachistochrone problem. In consequence, a new force term appears, the topological torsion current, important for spacecraft dynamics. We describe a set of solved problems showing the potential of a competing technique, with significant interest to electrodynamics as well. We expect this new approach to have impact in a large class of scientific and technological problems.
Electrodynamic studies of upper and lower atmospheric coupling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiu, Y. T.; Cornwall, J. M.; Edgar, B. C.; Schulz, M.; Sharp, L. R.
1981-01-01
Theoretical interprotations and data interpretations of electrodynamical studies in upper and lower atmosphere coupling are reported. The following topics are discussed: (1) magnetosphere/ionosphere/atmosphere coupling in auroral electrodynamics; (2) middle atmosphere electrodynamics; (3) thermosphere troposphere coupling; and (4) tropospheric electrodynamics. Understanding of the near Earth space environment shows the interrelationships between various components of the Earth's atmosphere.
Report of the Electrodynamic Interactions Panel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, N. H.; Taylor, R. S.; Benford, S.; Binsack, J. H.; Dobrowolny, M.; Finnegan, P.; Grossi, M. D.; Hudson, M.; Intriligator, D.; Kaminskas, R.
1985-01-01
A wide range of opportunities is provided by the electrodynamic tether to more fully understand the generation of waves in plasmas, the behavior of field aligned currents, the behavior of large body-space plasma interactions, and for process simulation, using the electrodynamic tether to study processes and phenomena relevant to solar system and astrophysics plasma physics. The electrodynamic tether offers a means of study and experimentation in space which will provide a rich yield in new scientific results and will enhance the understanding of space plasma physics. It also has promising technological applications (e.g., the generation of electrical power and thrust) which may be highly significant to future space operations.
Fluctuational electrodynamics of hyperbolic metamaterials
Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin
2014-06-21
We give a detailed account of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fluctuational electrodynamics of hyperbolic metamaterials. We show the unifying aspects of two different approaches; one utilizes the second kind of fluctuation dissipation theorem and the other makes use of the scattering method. We analyze the near-field of hyperbolic media at finite temperatures and show that the lack of spatial coherence can be attributed to the multi-modal nature of super-Planckian thermal emission. We also adopt the analysis to phonon-polaritonic super-lattice metamaterials and describe the regimes suitable for experimental verification of our predicted effects. The results reveal that far-field thermal emission spectra are dominated by epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole responses as expected from Kirchoff's laws. Our work should aid both theorists and experimentalists to study complex media and engineer equilibrium and non-equilibrium fluctuations for applications in thermal photonics.
Symmetries of field equations of axion electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikitin, A. G.; Kuriksha, Oksana
2012-07-01
The group classification of models of axion electrodynamics with arbitrary self-interaction of axionic field is carried out. It is shown that extensions of the basic Poincaré invariance of these models appear only for constant and exponential interactions. The related conservation laws are discussed. The maximal continuous symmetries of the 3d Chern-Simons electrodynamics and Carroll-Field-Jackiw electrodynamics are presented. Using the Inönü-Wigner contraction the nonrelativistic limit of equations of axion electrodynamics is found. Exact solutions for the electromagnetic and axion fields are discussed including those which describe propagation with group velocities faster than the speed of light. However these solutions are causal since the corresponding energy velocities are subluminal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, Jing; Liu, Zhong
2010-06-01
We propose a scheme to generate two-atom maximally entangled state in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). The scheme can be extended to generation of entangled multi-atom Dicke states if we control the interaction time of atoms with cavity modes. We use adiabatically state evolution under large atom-cavity detuning, so the scheme is insensitive to atomic spontaneous decay. The influence of cavity decay on fidelity and success probability is discussed.
Lie algebras of classical and stochastic electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neto, J. J. Soares; Vianna, J. D. M.
1994-03-01
The Lie algebras associated with infinitesimal symmetry transformations of third-order differential equations of interest to classical electrodynamics and stochastic electrodynamics have been obtained. The structure constants for a general case are presented and the Lie algebra for each particular application is easily achieved. By the method used here it is not necessary to know the explicit expressions of the infinitesimal generators in order to determine the structure constants of the Lie algebra.
Subsystem approach to the electrodynamics in dielectric fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kemp, Brandon A.
2012-10-01
A century has now passed since the origins of the Abraham-Minkowski controversy pertaining to the correct form of optical momentum in media. Since, the debate has come to reference the general debate over optical momentum, including a number of competing formulations. The pervasive modern view is that the Abraham momentum represents the optical momentum contained within the fields and the Minkowski momentum includes a material component which is coupled with the fields. A recently proposed resolution to the debate identified Abraham's kinetic momentum as responsible for the overall center-of-mass translations of a medium and Minkowski's canonical momentum as responsible for local translations of a medium within or with respect to another medium. Still, current literature reveals significant confusion as to how systems of light and matter should be modeled as to deduce the equations of motion when multiple material types are present. For example, the state-of-the-art model for optical dynamics of submerged particles assumes over damped systems such that the mass of the particles is ignored in the equations of motion. In this paper, we apply the subsystem approach to deduce the electrodynamics of such systems. We show that regardless of which electromagnetic momentum continuity law is applied, the equations of motion can be correctly deduced as long as the continuity law is consistent with Maxwells equations and the overall system is closed such that momentum is conserved. Because the closed system includes the material response, the model can be very complex. However, we demonstrate with simple, well-known examples.
Electrodynamics of superconducting pnictide superlattices
Perucchi, A.; Pietro, P. Di; Capitani, F.; Lupi, S.; Lee, S.; Kang, J. H.; Eom, C. B.; Jiang, J.; Weiss, J. D.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Dore, P.
2014-06-02
It was recently shown that superlattices where layers of the 8% Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} superconducting pnictide are intercalated with non superconducting ultrathin layers of either SrTiO{sub 3} or of oxygen-rich BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, can be used to control flux pinning, thereby increasing critical fields and currents, without significantly affecting the critical temperature of the pristine superconducting material. However, little is known about the electron properties of these systems. Here, we investigate the electrodynamics of these superconducting pnictide superlattices in the normal and superconducting state by using infrared reflectivity, from THz to visible range. We find that multigap structure of these superlattices is preserved, whereas some significant changes are observed in their electronic structure with respect to those of the original pnictide. Our results suggest that possible attempts to further increase the flux pinning may lead to a breakdown of the pnictide superconducting properties.
Thermodynamics of anisotropic emergent universe in nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Sarwar, Ayesha
2016-07-01
In this paper, we study the emergent universe (EU) with interacting fluids in the background of Bianchi type I (BI) universe model. For this purpose, we consider polytropic equation of state (EoS) which constitutes three non-interacting fluids. In order to check the viability of the cosmological models, we take a two-fluid model interacting with dust fluid and a three-fluid model in which each fluid has nonlinear EoS interacting at t ≥ t0. It turns out that both models are realistic cosmological viable. We also check the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) for EU with interacting fluids. Finally, we study its validity in the framework of nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) on apparent horizon.
Emergence of Supersymmetric Quantum Electrodynamics.
Jian, Shao-Kai; Lin, Chien-Hung; Maciejko, Joseph; Yao, Hong
2017-04-21
Supersymmetric (SUSY) gauge theories such as the minimal supersymmetric standard model play a fundamental role in modern particle physics, but have not been verified so far in nature. Here, we show that a SUSY gauge theory with dynamical gauge bosons and fermionic gauginos emerges naturally at the pair-density-wave (PDW) quantum phase transition on the surface of a correlated topological insulator hosting three Dirac cones, such as the topological Kondo insulator SmB_{6}. At the quantum tricritical point between the surface Dirac semimetal and nematic PDW phases, three massless bosonic Cooper pair fields emerge as the superpartners of three massless surface Dirac fermions. The resulting low-energy effective theory is the supersymmetric XYZ model, which is dual by mirror symmetry to N=2 supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions, providing a first example of emergent supersymmetric gauge theory in condensed matter systems. Supersymmetry allows us to determine certain critical exponents and the optical conductivity of the surface states at the strongly coupled tricritical point exactly, which may be measured in future experiments.
Emergence of Supersymmetric Quantum Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jian, Shao-Kai; Lin, Chien-Hung; Maciejko, Joseph; Yao, Hong
2017-04-01
Supersymmetric (SUSY) gauge theories such as the minimal supersymmetric standard model play a fundamental role in modern particle physics, but have not been verified so far in nature. Here, we show that a SUSY gauge theory with dynamical gauge bosons and fermionic gauginos emerges naturally at the pair-density-wave (PDW) quantum phase transition on the surface of a correlated topological insulator hosting three Dirac cones, such as the topological Kondo insulator SmB6 . At the quantum tricritical point between the surface Dirac semimetal and nematic PDW phases, three massless bosonic Cooper pair fields emerge as the superpartners of three massless surface Dirac fermions. The resulting low-energy effective theory is the supersymmetric X Y Z model, which is dual by mirror symmetry to N =2 supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics in 2 +1 dimensions, providing a first example of emergent supersymmetric gauge theory in condensed matter systems. Supersymmetry allows us to determine certain critical exponents and the optical conductivity of the surface states at the strongly coupled tricritical point exactly, which may be measured in future experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizzo, R.
2017-01-01
In this paper an innovative multi-gap magnetorheological clutch is described. It is inspired by a device previously developed by the author’s research group and contains a novel solution based on electrodynamic effects, capable to considerably improve the transmissible torque during the engagement phase. Since this (transient) phase is characterized by a non-zero angular speed between the two clutch shafts, the rotation of a permanent magnets system, used to excite the fluid, induces eddy currents on some conductive material strategically positioned in the device. As a consequence, an electromagnetic torque is produced which is added to the torque transmitted by the magnetorheological fluid only. Once the clutch is completely engaged and the relative speed between the two shafts is zero, the electrodynamic effects vanish and the device operates like a conventional magnetorheological clutch. The system is investigated and designed by means a 3D FEM model and the performance of the device is experimentally validated on a prototype.
Renormalizable Electrodynamics of Scalar and Vector Mesons. Part II
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Salam, Abdus; Delbourgo, Robert
1964-01-01
The "gauge" technique" for solving theories introduced in an earlier paper is applied to scalar and vector electrodynamics. It is shown that for scalar electrodynamics, there is no {lambda}φ*2φ2 infinity in the theory, while with conventional subtractions vector electrodynamics is completely finite. The essential ideas of the gauge technique are explained in section 3, and a preliminary set of rules for finite computation in vector electrodynamics is set out in Eqs. (7.28) - (7.34).
Electrodynamic treatment of reversed-type emulsions
Skachkov, A.E.; Lavrov, I.S.; Timonov, S.M.
1985-11-01
The authors have produced an inhomogeneous electric field in processing reversed emulsions by using the oscillations of conducting spheres in an electric field; this is known as the electrical pendulum effect. The apparatus for the electrodynamic treatment of reversed-type emulsion is shown and the physical characteristics (density, kinematic viscosity, dielectric constant) are shown for the hydrocarbons used: hexane, octane, hexadecane and diesel fuel. It is shown that there is a minimum in the dependence of the residual water content after electrodynamic treatment on the external field strength; the minimum shifts to larger external field strength as the viscosity increases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amano, Takanobu
2016-11-01
A new multidimensional simulation code for relativistic two-fluid electrodynamics (RTFED) is described. The basic equations consist of the full set of Maxwell’s equations coupled with relativistic hydrodynamic equations for separate two charged fluids, representing the dynamics of either an electron-positron or an electron-proton plasma. It can be recognized as an extension of conventional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD). Finite resistivity may be introduced as a friction between the two species, which reduces to resistive RMHD in the long wavelength limit without suffering from a singularity at infinite conductivity. A numerical scheme based on HLL (Harten-Lax-Van Leer) Riemann solver is proposed that exactly preserves the two divergence constraints for Maxwell’s equations simultaneously. Several benchmark problems demonstrate that it is capable of describing RMHD shocks/discontinuities at long wavelength limit, as well as dispersive characteristics due to the two-fluid effect appearing at small scales. This shows that the RTFED model is a promising tool for high energy astrophysics application.
Strong field electrodynamics of a thin foil
Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Bulanov, Stepan S.; Rykovanov, Sergey G.; Pegoraro, Francesco
2013-12-15
Exact solutions describing the nonlinear electrodynamics of a thin double layer foil are presented. These solutions correspond to a broad range of problems of interest for the interaction of high intensity laser pulses with overdense plasmas, such as frequency upshifting, high order harmonic generation, and high energy ion acceleration.
Strong field electrodynamics of a thin foil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulanov, S. S.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Rykovanov, S.; Pegoraro, F.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.
2017-03-01
A new one-dimensional analytical model of a thin double layer foil interaction with a laser pulse is presented. It is based on one-dimensional electrodynamics. This model can be used for the study of high intensity laser pulse interactions with overdense plasmas, leading to frequency upshifting, high order harmonic generation, and ion acceleration in different regimes.
Alternative formulations of magnetospheric plasma electrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cragin, B. L.; Heikkila, W. J.
1981-01-01
The fundamental equations of magnetospheric plasma electrodynamics are considered from a theoretical standpoint that stresses the basic equivalence of various seemingly different formal representations. The mathematical properties of vector fields are reviewed, and their implications in electrodynamics are studied. The irrotational and solenoidal parts of the electric field are associated with two physically distinct types of sources. Relativistic covariance and gauge invariance in electromagnetic theory are reviewed and discussed in the context of an approach in which the mathematical properties of vector fields are taken as primary concepts. Special attention is given to the use and interpretation of the Coulomb gauge potential functions. This choice of gauge is sometimes regarded with undue suspicion, possibly because of a certain paradox concerning causality. The paradox is discussed and resolved. Useful properties of the Coulomb gauge are identified. These need not be limited to the case of slow time variations and can extend beyond the limits of validity of ideal MHD theory.
Alternative formulations of magnetospheric plasma electrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cragin, B. L.; Heikkila, W. J.
1981-01-01
The fundamental equations of magnetospheric plasma electrodynamics are considered from a theoretical standpoint that stresses the basic equivalence of various seemingly different formal representations. The mathematical properties of vector fields are reviewed, and their implications in electrodynamics are studied. The irrotational and solenoidal parts of the electric field are associated with two physically distinct types of sources. Relativistic covariance and gauge invariance in electromagnetic theory are reviewed and discussed in the context of an approach in which the mathematical properties of vector fields are taken as primary concepts. Special attention is given to the use and interpretation of the Coulomb gauge potential functions. This choice of gauge is sometimes regarded with undue suspicion, possibly because of a certain paradox concerning causality. The paradox is discussed and resolved. Useful properties of the Coulomb gauge are identified. These need not be limited to the case of slow time variations and can extend beyond the limits of validity of ideal MHD theory.
Electrodynamics of planar Archimedean spiral resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maleeva, N.; Averkin, A.; Abramov, N. N.; Fistul, M. V.; Karpov, A.; Zhuravel, A. P.; Ustinov, A. V.
2015-07-01
We present a theoretical and experimental study of electrodynamics of a planar spiral superconducting resonator of a finite length. The resonator is made in the form of a monofilar Archimedean spiral. By making use of a general model of inhomogeneous alternating current flowing along the resonator and specific boundary conditions on the surface of the strip, we obtain analytically the frequencies fn of resonances which can be excited in such system. We also calculate corresponding inhomogeneous RF current distributions ψ n ( r ) , where r is the coordinate across a spiral. We show that the resonant frequencies and current distributions are well described by simple relationships f n = f 1 n and ψ n ( r ) ≃ sin [ π n ( r / R e ) 2 ] , where n = 1 , 2... and Re is the external radius of the spiral. Our analysis of electrodynamic properties of spiral resonators' is in good agreement with direct numerical simulations and measurements made using specifically designed magnetic probe and laser scanning microscope.
The Foundations of Linear Stochastic Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peña, L. De La; Cetto, A. M.
2006-03-01
An analysis is briefly presented of the possible causes of the failure of stochastic electrodynamics (SED) when applied to systems with nonlinear forces, on the basis that the main principles of the theory are correct. In light of this analysis, an alternative approach to the theory is discussed, whose postulates allow to establish contact with quantum mechanics in a natural way. The ensuing theory, linear SED, confirms the essential role of the vacuum particle interaction as the source of quantum phenomena.
Modified Nonlinear Model of Arcsin-Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruglov, S. I.
2016-07-01
A new modified model of nonlinear arcsin-electrodynamics with two parameters is proposed and analyzed. We obtain the corrections to the Coulomb law. The effect of vacuum birefringence takes place when the external constant magnetic field is present. We calculate indices of refraction for two perpendicular polarizations of electromagnetic waves and estimate bounds on the parameter γ from the BMV and PVLAS experiments. It is shown that the electric field of a point-like charge is finite at the origin. We calculate the finite static electric energy of point-like particles and demonstrate that the electron mass can have the pure electromagnetic nature. The symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and dilatation current are found. We show that the dilatation symmetry and dual symmetry are broken in the model suggested. We have investigated the gauge covariant quantization of the nonlinear electrodynamics fields as well as the gauge fixing approach based on Dirac's brackets.
Quantum Electrodynamics of Heavy Ions and Atoms
Shabaev, V. M.; Artemyev, A. N.; Glazov, D. A.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Volotka, A. V.; Yerokhin, V. A.
2006-11-07
The present status of quantum electrodynamics (QED) theory of heavy few-electrons is reviewed. The theoretical results are compared with available experimental data. A special attention is focused on tests of QED at strong fields and on determination of the fundamental constants. A recent progress on calculations of the QED corrections to the parity nonconserving 6s-7s transition amplitude in neutral Cs is also discussed.
Inflation of universe due to nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruglov, S. I.
2017-05-01
A model of nonlinear electrodynamics with a dimensional parameter β is considered. Electromagnetic fields are the source of the gravitation field and inflation of the universe. We imply that the universe is filled by stochastic magnetic fields. It is demonstrated that after the universe inflation the universe decelerates approaching the Minkowski space-time. We evaluate the spectral index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and the running of the spectral index which approximately agree with the Planck and WMAP data.
Assimilative Mapping of Interhemispheric Polar Ionospheric Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuo, T.; Richmond, A. D.; Knipp, D. J.; McGranaghan, R. M.
2015-12-01
The Earth's main magnetic field is asymmetric between hemispheres due to its non-dipolar component, leading to various hemispherical differences in the coupling among the solar wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere. Manifestation of the asymmetric coupling through different electrodynamic parameters reported in past studies is considerably diverse. To fill the gap in our current understanding, obtained so far by analyzing individual parameters separately and comparing statistical behaviors of the parameters, we quantify the degree of instantaneous inter-hemispheric imbalance of electromagnetic energy deposition (Poynting flux), field-aligned currents, and convection electric fields though global and self-consistent analysis of electrodynamic variables at both polar regions, by means of data assimilation. Inter-hemispheric assimilative maps of different high-latitude electrodynamical parameters are obtained from simultaneous analysis of multiple types of space-based and ground-based observations made available though the AMPERE, SuperDARN, SuperMAG and DMSP programs with rigorous consideration of the uncertainty associated with each observation.
Equations of motion for variational electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Luca, Jayme
2016-04-01
We extend the variational problem of Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics by generalizing the electromagnetic functional to a local space of absolutely continuous trajectories possessing a derivative (velocities) of bounded variation. We show here that the Gateaux derivative of the generalized functional defines two partial Lagrangians for variations in our generalized local space, one for each particle. We prove that the critical-point conditions of the generalized variational problem are: (i) the Euler-Lagrange equations must hold Lebesgue-almost-everywhere and (ii) the momentum of each partial Lagrangian and the Legendre transform of each partial Lagrangian must be absolutely continuous functions, generalizing the Weierstrass-Erdmann conditions.
Path integral quantization of generalized quantum electrodynamics
Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E. R.
2011-02-15
In this paper, a complete covariant quantization of generalized electrodynamics is shown through the path integral approach. To this goal, we first studied the Hamiltonian structure of the system following Dirac's methodology and, then, we followed the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to obtain the transition amplitude. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) of the correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an explicit calculation of one-loop approximations of all Green's functions and a discussion about the obtained results are presented.
Path integral quantization of generalized quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E. R.
2011-02-01
In this paper, a complete covariant quantization of generalized electrodynamics is shown through the path integral approach. To this goal, we first studied the Hamiltonian structure of the system following Dirac’s methodology and, then, we followed the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to obtain the transition amplitude. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) of the correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an explicit calculation of one-loop approximations of all Green’s functions and a discussion about the obtained results are presented.
Electrodynamics of the high latitude middle atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, R. A.
1987-01-01
Atmospheric electrodynamics is reviewed. The discovery of apparent large (V/m) electric fields within the mesosphere invites the possibility for this region to be electrically active. Observations of the V/m field were made at high latitudes even under active conditions, but always below heights where significant enhancements in electrical conductivity are found to occur. Two measurements at Andoya (Norway) show anticorrelation of horizontal field directions with wind directions, suggesting a mechanism which involves mechanical separation of charged aerosols. Reported evidence for such aerosols makes this concept more viable. Noctilucent clouds and mesospheric turbulence, and their influence on the local electrical environment are mentioned.
Modelling of auroral electrodynamical processes: Magnetosphere to mesosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiu, Y. T.; Gorney, D. J.; Kishi, A. M.; Newman, A. L.; Schulz, M.; Walterscheid, R. L.; CORNWALL; Prasad, S. S.
1982-01-01
Research conducted on auroral electrodynamic coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere-atmosphere in support of the development of a global scale kinetic plasma theory is reviewed. Topics covered include electric potential structure in the evening sector; morning and dayside auroras; auroral plasma formation; electrodynamic coupling with the thermosphere; and auroral electron interaction with the atmosphere.
Modelling of auroral electrodynamical processes: Magnetosphere to mesosphere. Final Report
Chiu, Y.T.; Gorney, D.J.
1982-01-01
Research conducted on auroral electrodynamic coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere-atmosphere in support of the development of a global scale kinetic plasma theory is reviewed. Topics covered include electric potential structure in the evening sector, morning and dayside auroras, auroral plasma formation, electrodynamic coupling with the thermosphere, and auroral electron interaction with the atmosphere.
Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Amano, Takanobu; Garain, Sudip; Kim, Jinho
2016-08-01
In various astrophysics settings it is common to have a two-fluid relativistic plasma that interacts with the electromagnetic field. While it is common to ignore the displacement current in the ideal, classical magnetohydrodynamic limit, when the flows become relativistic this approximation is less than absolutely well-justified. In such a situation, it is more natural to consider a positively charged fluid made up of positrons or protons interacting with a negatively charged fluid made up of electrons. The two fluids interact collectively with the full set of Maxwell's equations. As a result, a solution strategy for that coupled system of equations is sought and found here. Our strategy extends to higher orders, providing increasing accuracy. The primary variables in the Maxwell solver are taken to be the facially-collocated components of the electric and magnetic fields. Consistent with such a collocation, three important innovations are reported here. The first two pertain to the Maxwell solver. In our first innovation, the magnetic field within each zone is reconstructed in a divergence-free fashion while the electric field within each zone is reconstructed in a form that is consistent with Gauss' law. In our second innovation, a multidimensionally upwinded strategy is presented which ensures that the magnetic field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of Faraday's law and the electric field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of the generalized Ampere's law. This multidimensional upwinding is achieved via a multidimensional Riemann solver. The multidimensional Riemann solver automatically provides edge-centered electric field components for the Stokes law-based update of the magnetic field. It also provides edge-centered magnetic field components for the Stokes law-based update of the electric field. The update strategy ensures that the electric field is always consistent with Gauss' law and the magnetic field is always divergence-free. This
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Amano, Takanobu; Garain, Sudip; Kim, Jinho
2016-08-01
In various astrophysics settings it is common to have a two-fluid relativistic plasma that interacts with the electromagnetic field. While it is common to ignore the displacement current in the ideal, classical magnetohydrodynamic limit, when the flows become relativistic this approximation is less than absolutely well-justified. In such a situation, it is more natural to consider a positively charged fluid made up of positrons or protons interacting with a negatively charged fluid made up of electrons. The two fluids interact collectively with the full set of Maxwell's equations. As a result, a solution strategy for that coupled system of equations is sought and found here. Our strategy extends to higher orders, providing increasing accuracy. The primary variables in the Maxwell solver are taken to be the facially-collocated components of the electric and magnetic fields. Consistent with such a collocation, three important innovations are reported here. The first two pertain to the Maxwell solver. In our first innovation, the magnetic field within each zone is reconstructed in a divergence-free fashion while the electric field within each zone is reconstructed in a form that is consistent with Gauss' law. In our second innovation, a multidimensionally upwinded strategy is presented which ensures that the magnetic field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of Faraday's law and the electric field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of the generalized Ampere's law. This multidimensional upwinding is achieved via a multidimensional Riemann solver. The multidimensional Riemann solver automatically provides edge-centered electric field components for the Stokes law-based update of the magnetic field. It also provides edge-centered magnetic field components for the Stokes law-based update of the electric field. The update strategy ensures that the electric field is always consistent with Gauss' law and the magnetic field is always divergence-free. This
Electrodynamic trapping and manipulation of particle clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vehring, R.; Aardahl, C. L.; Davis, E. J.; Schweiger, G.; Covert, D. S.
1997-01-01
Apparatus and techniques were developed to electrodynamically trap and manipulate groups of microparticles. The equipment consists of a vibrating orifice aerosol generator, an inductive particle charger, a plenum chamber, and a double-ring electrodynamic balance. Salt particles (NaNO3) of controllable and measurable mass and charge were produced and introduced into the balance in nitrogen at flow rates up to 25 cm3/min. Ordered arrays of any number of particles up to 26 were assembled and manipulated. Methods for compressing the arrays are presented, and controlled ejection of single particles from a trapped array is demonstrated. Particles of opposite polarity were successfully levitated and kept apart, and aggregation of these particles was then induced by changing the electric field. Raman spectra were recorded for multiple salt particles, each having a diameter of 3.5 μm, by aligning them in a laser beam. The enhanced Raman signal is compared with that from a single particle isolated from the array. From the results, a detection limit of 0.4 pg per particle was estimated.
Quantum Electrodynamics of Atomic Resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballesteros, Miguel; Faupin, Jérémy; Fröhlich, Jürg; Schubnel, Baptiste
2015-07-01
A simple model of an atom interacting with the quantized electromagnetic field is studied. The atom has a finite mass m, finitely many excited states and an electric dipole moment, , where and is proportional to the elementary electric charge. The interaction of the atom with the radiation field is described with the help of the Ritz Hamiltonian, , where is the electric field, cut off at large frequencies. A mathematical study of the Lamb shift, the decay channels and the life times of the excited states of the atom is presented. It is rigorously proven that these quantities are analytic functions of the momentum of the atom and of the coupling constant , provided and and are sufficiently small. The proof relies on a somewhat novel inductive construction involving a sequence of `smooth Feshbach-Schur maps' applied to a complex dilatation of the original Hamiltonian, which yields an algorithm for the calculation of resonance energies that converges super-exponentially fast.
Electrodynamics of massless charged particles
Lechner, Kurt
2015-02-15
We derive the classical dynamics of massless charged particles in a rigorous way from first principles. Since due to ultraviolet divergences this dynamics does not follow from an action principle, we rely on (a) Maxwell’s equations, (b) Lorentz- and reparameterization-invariance, and (c) local conservation of energy and momentum. Despite the presence of pronounced singularities of the electromagnetic field along Dirac-like strings, we give a constructive proof of the existence of a unique distribution-valued energy-momentum tensor. Its conservation requires the particles to obey standard Lorentz equations and they experience, hence, no radiation reaction. Correspondingly, the dynamics of interacting classical massless charged particles can be consistently defined, although they do not emit bremsstrahlung end experience no self-interaction.
Electrostatics and electrodynamics of bacteriorhodopsin.
Porschke, D
1996-12-01
The stationary electric dichroism of bacteriorhodopsin is in qualitative, but not quantitative, agreement with the orientation function for disks having a permanent dipole directed perpendicular to the plane and an induced dipole in the plane. Fits of the orientation function to data measured at low field strengths demonstrate: an increase of the permanent dipole moment mu with the square of the disk radius r2, whereas the polarizability alpha increases with r4; the ionic strength dependence is small for mu and clearly stronger for alpha; the permanent dipole moment is 4x10(6) D at r = 0.5 micron. According to the risetime constants, the induced dipole does not saturate and increases to 4x10(8) D at 40 kV/cm and r = 0.5 micron. The data indicate that the permanent dipole is not of some interfacial character but is due to a real assymetry of the charge distribution. The experimental dipole moment per protein monomer is approximately 55 D, whereas calculations based on the structure of Grigorieff et al. (Grigorieff, N., T.A. Ceska, K.H. Downing, J.M. Baldwin, and R. Henderson. 1996. Electron-crystallographic refinement of the structure of bacteriorhodopsin. J. Mol. Biol. 259:393-421) provide a dipole moment of approximately 570 D. The difference is probably due to a nonsymmetric distribution of charged lipid residues. It is concluded that experimental dipole moments reflect the mu-potential at the plane of shear for rotational diffusion, in analogy to the sigma-potential used for translational diffusion. It is suggested that the permanent dipole of bacteriorhodopsin supports proton transport by attraction of protons inside and repulsion of protons outside of the cell. Dichroism rise curves at field strengths between E = 150 and 800 V/cm reveal an exponential component with time constants tau 3r in the range between 1 and 40 ms, which is not found in Brownian dynamics simulations on a disk structure using hydrodynamic and electric parameters characteristic of
Electrodynamics of neutrinos in plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bingham, R.; Silva, L. O.; Dawson, J. M.; Mendonca, J. T.; Shukla, P. K.
1999-11-01
There is considerable interest in the propagation dynamics of neutrinos in a background dispersive medium, particularly in the search for a mechanism to explain the dynamics of type II supernovae and solve the solar neutrino problem. Neutrino interactions with matter are usually considered as non self-consistent single particle processes. However, it is well known that the self consistent description of a stream of particles moving through a medium such as a plasma give rise to a new class of processes known as collective interactions, a stream of neutrinos interacting via the weak force is no exception. We will describe neutrino streaming instabilities within supernovae plasmas, resulting in longitudinal and transverse waves using coupled kinetic equations for both neutrinos and plasma particles including magnetic field effects. The tranverse waves have energies in the γ-ray range which suggests that this may be a possible mechanism for γ-ray bursters which are associated with supernovae. Another interesting result is an asymmetry in the momentum balance imparted by the neutrinos to the core of the exploding star due to a magnetic field effect. This can result in a directed velocity of the resulting neutron star or pulsar and can explain the so called natal kick.
Electrodynamics of convection in the inner magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spiro, R. W.; Wolf, R. A.
1984-01-01
During the past ten years, substantial progress has been made in the development of quantitative models of convection in the magnetosphere and of the electrodynamic processes that couple that magnetosphere and ionosphere. Using a computational scheme first proposed by Vasyliunas, the convection models under consideration separate the three-dimensional problem of convection in the inner magnetosphere/ionosphere into a pair of two-dimensional problems coupled by Birkeland currents flowing between the two regions. The logic, development, and major results of the inner magnetosphere convection model are reviewed with emphasis on ionospheric and magnetospheric currents. A major theoretical result of the models has been the clarification of the relationship between the region 1/region 2 picture of field-aligned currents and the older partial ring current/tail current interruption picture of substorm dynamics.
Unified theory of nonlinear electrodynamics and gravity
Torres-Gomez, Alexander; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos
2011-01-15
We describe a class of unified theories of electromagnetism and gravity. The Lagrangian is of the BF type, with a potential for the B field, the gauge group is U(2) (complexified). Given a choice of the potential function the theory is a deformation of (complex) general relativity and electromagnetism, and describes just two propagating polarizations of the graviton and two of the photon. When gravity is switched off the theory becomes the usual nonlinear electrodynamics with a general structure function. The Einstein-Maxwell theory can be recovered by sending some of the parameters of the defining potential to zero, but for any generic choice of the potential the theory is indistinguishable from Einstein-Maxwell at low energies. A real theory is obtained by imposing suitable reality conditions. We also study the spherically-symmetric solution and show how the usual Reissner-Nordstrom solution is recovered.
Electrodynamics of the Getaway Tether Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greene, Michael; Baginski, Michael; Wheelock, Douglas
1989-01-01
An electrodynamic circuit model of the interaction of a pair of small tethered satellites and the ionosphere is developed and analyzed. The system under study, the Getaway Tether Experiment (GATE), is composed of two small satellites and 1 km of insulated conducting tether. The nonlinear model has elements representing the emission, collection, and resistive flow of charge through an electrically conductive tether, plasma contactors, and the ionosphere. The circuit model is incorporated into a dynamic orbital simulation to predict mission performance. Simulation results show the feasibility to bilaterally transfer energy between stored electrical energy and orbital momentum. A transient model is also developed using the circuit model and a string of N lumped-parameter modules, each consisting of resistance, capacitance, and induced potential for the tether. Transients are shown via simulation to occur over millisecond intervals.
Lagrangian formulation of Born-Infeld electrodynamics in fractional space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosropour, B.
2017-07-01
In this work, after a brief review of the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion in fractional space and Lagrangian formulation of Born-Infeld electrodynamics, we obtain the inhomogeneous and homogeneous Born-Infeld equations in fractional space. A fractional generalization of the Born-Infeld electrodynamics in vector form is found. Then, corresponding to fractal Born-Infeld equations we obtain the Laplace and Poisson equations in fractional space. Also, Faraday's law and Amper's law of Born-Infeld electrodynamics in fractional space are derived.
Electrodynamics of the high-latitude mesosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Richard A.
1989-01-01
The discovery of apparent large (V/m) electric fields within the mesosphere suggests that this region is more active electrically than originally suspected. High-latitude observations have been particularly productive in developing new concepts regarding mesospheric electrodynamics. Several high-latitude observations of large mesospheric fields have been made under both quiet and aurorally active conditions but always below heights where enhanced ionizing radiations could significantly penetrate. Two measurements from Andoya, Norway, have also produced an anticorrelation of horizontal electric field directions with neutral wind velocities, leading to the theoretical description of a newly defined mechanism for V/m electric field generation involving wind-induced separation of charged aerosols. Evidence for mesospheric aerosols and winds exists at all latitudes but is most evident at high latitudes during the appearance of noctilucent and/or polar mesospheric clouds.
A numerical simulation of auroral ionospheric electrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mallinckrodt, A. J.
1985-01-01
A computer simulation of auroral ionospheric electrodynamics in the altitude range 80 to 250 km has been developed. The routine will either simulate typical electron precipitation profiles or accept observed data. Using a model background ionosphere, ion production rates are calculated from which equilibrium electron densities and the Hall and Pedersen conductivities may be determined. With the specification of suitable boundary conditions, the entire three-dimensional current system and electric field may be calculated within the simulation region. The results of the application of the routine to a typical inverted-V precipitation profile are demonstrated. The routine is used to explore the observed anticorrelation between electric field magnitude and peak energy in the precipitating electron spectrum of an auroral arc.
Electrodynamics of ionospheric weather over low latitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdu, Mangalathayil Ali
2016-12-01
The dynamic state of the ionosphere at low latitudes is largely controlled by electric fields originating from dynamo actions by atmospheric waves propagating from below and the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction from above. These electric fields cause structuring of the ionosphere in wide ranging spatial and temporal scales that impact on space-based communication and navigation systems constituting an important segment of our technology-based day-to-day lives. The largest of the ionosphere structures, the equatorial ionization anomaly, with global maximum of plasma densities can cause propagation delays on the GNSS signals. The sunset electrodynamics is responsible for the generation of plasma bubble wide spectrum irregularities that can cause scintillation or even disruptions of satellite communication/navigation signals. Driven basically by upward propagating tides, these electric fields can suffer significant modulations from perturbation winds due to gravity waves, planetary/Kelvin waves, and non-migrating tides, as recent observational and modeling results have demonstrated. The changing state of the plasma distribution arising from these highly variable electric fields constitutes an important component of the ionospheric weather disturbances. Another, often dominating, component arises from solar disturbances when coronal mass ejection (CME) interaction with the earth's magnetosphere results in energy transport to low latitudes in the form of storm time prompt penetration electric fields and thermospheric disturbance winds. As a result, drastic modifications can occur in the form of layer restructuring (Es-, F3 layers etc.), large total electron content (TEC) enhancements, equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) latitudinal expansion/contraction, anomalous polarization electric fields/vertical drifts, enhanced growth/suppression of plasma structuring, etc. A brief review of our current understanding of the ionospheric weather variations and the
Hydrodynamic view of electrodynamics: energy rays and electromagnetic effective stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E.
2011-06-01
Energy rays ('photon trajectories') based upon the hydrodynamic formulation of electrodynamics are presented for time-dependent electromagnetic wave propagation. We derive Cauchy's equation of motion for the electromagnetic effective force governing the dynamics of energy rays. The effective force generated by the electromagnetic effective stress provides a surface force acting on the energy fluid element. For the head-on collision of two electromagnetic Gaussian pulses, the electromagnetic effective force, analogous to the role played by the quantum force in Bohmian mechanics, guides these non-crossing energy rays. For an electromagnetic pulse traveling from free space to a dielectric medium, the energy rays guided by the electromagnetic effective stress display reflection and refraction at the interface.
Macroscopic test of quantum mechanics versus stochastic electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaturvedi, S.; Drummond, Peter D.
1997-02-01
We identify a test of quantum mechanics versus macroscopic local realism in the form of stochastic electrodynamics. The test uses the steady-state triple quadrature correlations of a parametric oscillator below threshold.
Electrodynamics of long metallic tethers in the ionospheric plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dobrowolny, M.
1978-01-01
A study is presented of the electrodynamic interactions of long metallic tethers (lengths up to 100 km) with the ionospheric plasma. The study, which is of interest in view of possible future experiments using long tethers in space, includes the derivation of current and potential distribution along the tether, taking also the effects of internal resistance into account. Electrostatic and electrodynamic drag forces are computed and compared with aerodynamic drag.
Electrodynamics of long metallic tethers in the ionospheric plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dobrowolny, M.
1978-01-01
A study is presented of the electrodynamic interactions of long metallic tethers (lengths up to 100 km) with the ionospheric plasma. The study, which is of interest in view of possible future experiments using long tethers in space, includes the derivation of current and potential distribution along the tether, taking also the effects of internal resistance into account. Electrostatic and electrodynamic drag forces are computed and compared with aerodynamic drag.
Three-dimensional fluid and electrodynamic modeling for MHD DCW channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, B. L.; Lineberry, J. T.; Schmidt, H. J.
1983-01-01
A three dimensional, numerical solution for modeling diagonal conducting wall (DCW) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators is developed and discussed. Cross plane gasdynamic and electrodynamic profiles are computed considering coupled MHD flow and electrical phenomena. A turbulent transport model based on the mixing length theory is used to deal with wall roughness generated turbulence effects. The infinitely fine electrode segmentation formulation is applied to simplify the governing electrical equations. Calculations show the development of distorted temperature and velocity profiles under influence of magnetohydrodynamic interaction. Since both sidewall and electrode wall boundary losses are treated, the results furnish a realistic representation of MHD generator behavior.
An Experiment on the Limits of Quantum Electro-dynamics
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Barber, W. C.; Richter, B.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; O'Neill, G. K.; Gittelman, B.
1959-06-01
The limitations of previously performed or suggested electrodynamic cutoff experiments are reviewed, and an electron-electron scattering experiment to be performed with storage rings to investigate further the limits of the validity of quantum electrodynamics is described. The foreseen experimental problems are discussed, and the results of the associated calculations are given. The parameters and status of the equipment are summarized. (D.C.W.)
Electrodynamic arrow of time and cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radecke, Hans-Dieter
Simplified mathematical models were used for the examination of the relationship between the arrows of time of electrodynamics and cosmology. The model of a 1-D harmonic oscillator, coupled to a scalar field, was first used. The combined system of coupled differential equations could be exactly resolved and allowed an examination of the field solution type, with regard to retard and advance in the framework of the cosmological geometry of the standard model, by which a closed universe was taken as a basis. It was shown that the oscillation radiation was clearly retarded at the big bang, and clearly advanced at the final explosion. In order to interpolate between these asymptotical boundary values, it was necessary to consider the radiation absorption of the cosmical medium. The general behavior of the considered system solutions showed that only the retarded radiation prevailed at big bang. Because of the cosmical absorption, its amplitude was completely attenuated to zero, before the universe heat death was installed. The advanced field amplitude is to be preceived after the universe contraction beginning and swings to a maximal value which is reached at the final explosion.
Dark aspects of massive spinor electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Edward J.; Kouwn, Seyen; Oh, Phillial; Park, Chan-Gyung
2014-07-01
We investigate the cosmology of massive spinor electrodynamics when torsion is non-vanishing. A non-minimal interaction is introduced between the torsion and the vector field and the coupling constant between them plays an important role in subsequential cosmology. It is shown that the mass of the vector field and torsion conspire to generate dark energy and pressureless dark matter, and for generic values of the coupling constant, the theory effectively provides an interacting model between them with an additional energy density of the form ~ 1/a6. The evolution equations mimic ΛCDM behavior up to 1/a3 term and the additional term represents a deviation from ΛCDM. We show that the deviation is compatible with the observational data, if it is very small. We find that the non-minimal interaction is responsible for generating an effective cosmological constant which is directly proportional to the mass squared of the vector field and the mass of the photon within its current observational limit could be the source of the dark energy.
Dark aspects of massive spinor electrodynamics
Kim, Edward J.; Kouwn, Seyen; Oh, Phillial; Park, Chan-Gyung E-mail: seyen@ewha.ac.kr E-mail: parkc@jbnu.ac.kr
2014-07-01
We investigate the cosmology of massive spinor electrodynamics when torsion is non-vanishing. A non-minimal interaction is introduced between the torsion and the vector field and the coupling constant between them plays an important role in subsequential cosmology. It is shown that the mass of the vector field and torsion conspire to generate dark energy and pressureless dark matter, and for generic values of the coupling constant, the theory effectively provides an interacting model between them with an additional energy density of the form ∼ 1/a{sup 6}. The evolution equations mimic ΛCDM behavior up to 1/a{sup 3} term and the additional term represents a deviation from ΛCDM. We show that the deviation is compatible with the observational data, if it is very small. We find that the non-minimal interaction is responsible for generating an effective cosmological constant which is directly proportional to the mass squared of the vector field and the mass of the photon within its current observational limit could be the source of the dark energy.
Unified modelling of passive homopolar and heteropolar electrodynamic bearings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Detoni, J. G.; Impinna, F.; Tonoli, A.; Amati, N.
2012-09-01
A model of passive electrodynamic bearings based on the R-L dynamics of the eddy currents inside a conductor is presented. The model is derived from an analytical solution of the magnetic field in the air region surrounding the rotor for electrodynamic bearings having an even number of magnetic pole pairs. It allows homopolar and heteropolar electrodynamic bearings to be considered in a single unified way that accounts for the electromechanical interactions between the rotating conductor and the magnetic field of the stator. The model of the bearings is then coupled to a Jeffcott rotor model using complex coordinates in a state-space representation, allowing the dynamics of rotors supported by electrodynamic bearings to be studied. The number of magnetic pole pairs is found to influence rotordynamic stability, unbalance responses and frequency responses. The results demonstrate that homopolar electrodynamic bearings have a unique characteristic of passively filtering the transmission of forces due to residual unbalance of the rotor to the machine supports. The models are also used to perform a stability analysis of a case study presented in literature, and results from experimental observation are compared to those obtained analytically.
Emergent Electrodynamics of Skyrmions in Chiral Magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfleiderer, Christian
2013-03-01
Skyrmions are particle-like states of continuous fields named after the English particle physicist Tony Skyrme. Their existence has long been considered in nuclear matter, quantum Hall systems, liquid crystals, superfluid 3He and ultracold atoms. As their defining property they support a topological winding number of 1. In magnetic materials spin configurations with a non-vanishing topological winding number, driven by the interplay of magnetic anisotropies, dipolar interactions and geometrical frustration, have been known for a long time. This is contrasted by the recent discovery of skyrmion lattices in chiral magnets, i.e., long-range magnetic order in which each magnetic unit cell contains a skyrmion and thus a non-zero winding number. As a practical consequence, the non-zero topological winding number implies that the conduction electrons in the presence of a skyrmion experience changes of Berry phase, that correspond precisely to one quantum of emergent magnetic flux. In transport measurements this leads directly to a topological Hall signal. Moreover, tiny electric current densities are already sufficient to generate a motion of the skyrmions first observed indirectly in neutron scattering. Since each skyrmion supports one quantum of emergent magnetic flux the motion of the skyrmions induces an emergent electric field consistent with Faradays law of induction that may also be observed experimentally. The excellent theoretical description of the skyrmion lattices observed so far in metals, doped semiconductors and insulators suggests that they represent a rather universal phenomenon to be expected in a wide range of systems supporting chiral spin interactions. Taken together with the first insights into their emergent electrodynamics, skyrmion lattices in chiral magnets develop into a new area of condensed matter magnetism offering insights relevant for applications.
Covariant hyperbolization of force-free electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrasco, F. L.; Reula, O. A.
2016-04-01
Force-free electrodynamics (FFE) is a nonlinear system of equations modeling the evolution of the electromagnetic field, in the presence of a magnetically dominated relativistic plasma. This configuration arises on several astrophysical scenarios which represent exciting laboratories to understand physics in extreme regimes. We show that this system, when restricted to the correct constraint submanifold, is symmetric hyperbolic. In numerical applications, it is not feasible to keep the system in that submanifold, and so it is necessary to analyze its structure first in the tangent space of that submanifold and then in a whole neighborhood of it. As has been shown [1], a direct (or naive) formulation of this system (in the whole tangent space) results in a weakly hyperbolic system of evolution equations for which well-posedness for the initial value formulation does not follow. Using the generalized symmetric hyperbolic formalism of Geroch [2], we introduce here a covariant hyperbolization for the FFE system. In fact, in analogy to the usual Maxwell case, a complete family of hyperbolizers is found, both for the restricted system on the constraint submanifold as well as for a suitably extended system defined in a whole neighborhood of it. A particular symmetrizer among the family is then used to write down the pertaining evolution equations, in a generic (3 +1 ) decomposition on a background spacetime. Interestingly, it turns out that for a particular choice of the lapse and shift functions of the foliation, our symmetrized system reduces to the one found in [1]. Finally, we analyze the characteristic structure of the resulting evolution system.
Quantum Mechanics as a Statistical Description of Classical Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knoll, Yehonatan
2017-07-01
It is shown that quantum mechanics is a plausible statistical description of an ontology described by classical electrodynamics. The reason that no contradiction arises with various no-go theorems regarding the compatibility of QM with a classical ontology, can be traced to the fact that classical electrodynamics of interacting particles has never been given a consistent definition. Once this is done, our conjecture follows rather naturally, including a purely classical explanation of photon related phenomena. Our analysis entirely rests on the block-universe view entailed by relativity theory.
Engineering squeezed states of microwave radiation with circuit quantum electrodynamics
Li Pengbo; Li Fuli
2011-03-15
We introduce a squeezed state source for microwave radiation with tunable parameters in circuit quantum electrodynamics. We show that when a superconducting artificial multilevel atom interacting with a transmission line resonator is suitably driven by external classical fields, two-mode squeezed states of the cavity modes can be engineered in a controllable fashion from the vacuum state via adiabatic following of the ground state of the system. This scheme appears to be robust against decoherence and is realizable with present techniques in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Nonlinear electrodynamics of high-temperature superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zutic, Igor
We investigate the effects of nonlinear electrodynamics in unconventional superconductors. These effects can serve as fingerprints to identify the symmetry of the superconducting pairing state and to provide information about the unknown pairing mechanism in High Temperature Superconductors (HTSC). In the Meissner regime, at low temperatures, a nonlinear magnetic response arises from the presence of lines on the Fermi surface where the superconducting energy gap is very small or zero. This can be used to perform "node spectroscopy", that is, as a sensitive bulk probe to locate the angular position of those lines. We first compute the nonlinear magnetic moment as a function of applied field and geometry, assuming d-wave pairing and anisotropic penetration depth, for realistic finite sample. Our novel, numerically implemented, perturbative procedure exploits the small ratio of the penetration depths to the sample size and substantially reduces the computational work required. We next generalize these considerations to other candidates for the energy gap and to perform node spectroscopy. In calculating the nonlinear supercurrent response, we include the effects of orthorhombic distortion and a-b plane anisotropy. Analytic results presented demonstrate a systematic way to experimentally distinguish order parameters of different symmetries, including cases with mixed symmetry (for example, d+s and s+id). We finally extend our findings to the case of low frequency harmonic magnetic field. The nonlinear magnetic response for various physical quantities generates higher harmonics of the frequency of the applied field. We discuss how examination of the field and angular dependences of these harmonics allows determination of the structure of the energy gap. We show how to distinguish nodes from small minima ("quasinodes"). Gaps with nodal lines give rise to universal power law field dependences for the nonlinear magnetic moment and torque. They both have separable temporal
Application of Science Aesthetics in the Teaching of Electrodynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Haiyan
2010-01-01
As the important part of the theoretical physics, the electrodynamics is a theoretical basic course of the physics and relative subjects. To adapt the demands for cultivating the target of highly-quality talents in the 21st century, the aesthetic principle can be used in the teaching to stimulate students' learning desire and cultivate students'…
On some electrodynamic properties of binary pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sironi, Lorenzo
2006-07-01
The main purpose of my thesis is to examine some electrodynamic properties of binary pulsars, trying to understand the peculiar physical processes that can happen in their magnetospheres; the ultimate aim is to discuss if such systems can be the source of the observed flux of cosmic rays between the knee and the ankle, since the mechanisms of acceleration for the cosmic rays in this range of energies are still unknown. Attention around binary pulsars has arisen after the recent discovery (December 2003) of the first double neutron star system in which both the stars are visible as pulsars (PSR J0737-3039); the inspection of the physical features of this binary pulsar has led to some intriguing possibilities up to now unexplored. In this thesis I will first of all review what is already known about the main properties of this binary system. I will describe in particular the possibility to go further in the verification of the predictions of general relativity with the so-called post-Keplerian parameters; I will discuss the possibility of studying the optical properties of the magnetospheres, since the inclination angle of the orbit is nearly 90Â° and some orbital phases show an eclipse of the light from one pulsar due to absorption by the magnetosphere of the companion; I will rapidly summarize how the discovery of that binary pulsar can enlarge our knowledge about the origin and evolution of double neutron star systems; lastly, I will examine the increase in the estimate of the Galactic double neutron star merger rate due to the discovery of PSR J0737-3039. I will then summarize the current knowledge about the magnetosphere of a single pulsar. After describing the Gold-Pacini model for the energy loss of the oblique rotator (in which the magnetic and rotational axes are not parallel), I will discuss the Goldreich-Julian model for the aligned axisymmetric rotator in the force-free approximation in which the inertial and gravitational forces are neglected with
The electrodynamics of aerosols and bacteria in a microplasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maguire, P. D.; Mahony, C. M. O.; Diver, D.; Mariotti, D.; Bennet, E.; Potts, H.; McDowell, D. A.
2013-09-01
The physics of living organisms is considered a grand challenge of science. Plasma interactions with living organisms, particularly at atmospheric pressure, offer a unique opportunity to study the physical mechanisms and surface electrodynamics of individual microorganisms. The impact on the plasma of such macroscopic entities is itself important; the dynamics of non-spherical and non-rigid nano-/micro-scale structures have received little attention. Also the plasma interaction with water, from molecules to droplets, is becoming increasingly significant due to induced chemistries that differ considerably from conventional plasma chemistry. We investigate the bulk and surface physical properties of individual microorganisms, particularly bacteria, through electrical and visco-mechanical excitation. Individual organisms are transported by water droplets to an rf microplasma. Their impact on the plasma is determined by imaging, optical and electrical diagnostics. We report, using imaging, electrostatics and simulation, on (i) fluid stability under evaporative stress of charged microbe-carrying macroscopic droplets, (ii) impact of the plasma on the stochastic component of motion and (iii) the acquired charge distribution and transfer from liquid to lipid surface. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council EP/K006088, EP/K006142.
Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This picture is an artist's concept of an orbiting vehicle using the Electrodynamic Tethers Propulsion System. Relatively short electrodynamic tethers can use solar power to push against a planetary magnetic field to achieve propulsion without the expenditure of propellant.
Apparent Paradoxes in Classical Electrodynamics: Relativistic Transformation of Force
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kholmetskii, A. L.; Yarman, T.
2007-01-01
In this paper, we analyse a number of paradoxical teaching problems of classical electrodynamics, dealing with the relativistic transformation of force for complex macro systems, consisting of a number of subsystems with nonzero relative velocities such as electric circuits that change their shape in the course of time. (Contains 7 figures.)
Apparent Paradoxes in Classical Electrodynamics: Relativistic Transformation of Force
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kholmetskii, A. L.; Yarman, T.
2007-01-01
In this paper, we analyse a number of paradoxical teaching problems of classical electrodynamics, dealing with the relativistic transformation of force for complex macro systems, consisting of a number of subsystems with nonzero relative velocities such as electric circuits that change their shape in the course of time. (Contains 7 figures.)
Quantum mechanical ground state of hydrogen obtained from classical electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, Daniel C.; Zou, Yi
2003-10-01
The behavior of a classical charged point particle under the influence of only a Coulombic binding potential and classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, is shown to agree closely with the probability density distribution of Schrödinger's wave equation for the ground state of hydrogen. These results again raise the possibility that the main tenets of stochastic electrodynamics (SED) are correct.
Electrodynamics, Differential Forms and the Method of Images
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Low, Robert J.
2011-01-01
This paper gives a brief description of how Maxwell's equations are expressed in the language of differential forms and use this to provide an elegant demonstration of how the method of images (well known in electrostatics) also works for electrodynamics in the presence of an infinite plane conducting boundary. The paper should be accessible to an…
Electrodynamics, Differential Forms and the Method of Images
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Low, Robert J.
2011-01-01
This paper gives a brief description of how Maxwell's equations are expressed in the language of differential forms and use this to provide an elegant demonstration of how the method of images (well known in electrostatics) also works for electrodynamics in the presence of an infinite plane conducting boundary. The paper should be accessible to an…
Modelling of Electrodynamic Phenomena in Slowly Moving Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozov, Andrey Leonidovich
2017-08-01
We discuss the feasibility of using, along with Minkowski equations obtained on the basis of the theory of relativity and used at present in electrodynamics, alternative methods of describing the processes of interaction between electromagnetic fields and moving media. In this article, a way of describing electromagnetic fields in terms of classical mechanics is offered. A system of electrodynamic equations for slowly moving media was derived on the basis of Maxwell's theory within the framework of classical mechanics using Wilsons' experimental data with dielectrics in a previous article [A. Rozov, Z. Naturforsch. 70, 1019 (2015)]. This article puts forward a physical model that explains the features of the derived equations. The offered model made it possible to suggest a new approach to the derivation of electrodynamic equations for slowly moving media. A variant of Galileo's relativity principle, in accordance with which the electrodynamic equations for slowly moving media should be considered as Galilean-invariant, is laid down on the basis of both the interpretation of Galileo's concept following from Galileo's works and Pauli's concept of postulate of relativity within the framework of the represented physical model.
Scaling limit of quantum electrodynamics with spatial cutoffs
Takaesu, Toshimitsu
2011-02-15
In this paper, the Hamiltonian of quantum electrodynamics with spatial cutoffs is investigated. A scaled total Hamiltonian is introduced and its asymptotic behavior is investigated. In the main theorem, it is shown that the scaled total Hamiltonian converges to a self-adjoint operator in the strong resolvent sense, and the effective potential of the Dirac field is derived.
A Toy Model of Quantum Electrodynamics in (1 + 1) Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boozer, A. D.
2008-01-01
We present a toy model of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in (1 + 1) dimensions. The QED model is much simpler than QED in (3 + 1) dimensions but exhibits many of the same physical phenomena, and serves as a pedagogical introduction to both QED and quantum field theory in general. We show how the QED model can be derived by quantizing a toy model of…
A Toy Model of Quantum Electrodynamics in (1 + 1) Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boozer, A. D.
2008-01-01
We present a toy model of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in (1 + 1) dimensions. The QED model is much simpler than QED in (3 + 1) dimensions but exhibits many of the same physical phenomena, and serves as a pedagogical introduction to both QED and quantum field theory in general. We show how the QED model can be derived by quantizing a toy model of…
The Two-Body Problem of Classical Electrodynamics
1980-06-01
and 7., are continuous positive functions of bounded variation . tApplied Mathematics Department 5640, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM...gi is a continuous function of bounded variation . This generalized Lipschitz-type condition is indeed satisfied in the electrodynamics case. The m
Two-dimensional coupled fluid and electrodynamic calculations for a MHD DCW channel with slag layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, B. L.
1982-01-01
A fully coupled, two dimensional numerical method of modeling linear, coal-fired MHD generators is developed for the case of a plasma flow bounded by a slag layer on the channel walls. The governing partial differential equations for the plasma flow, slag layer and electrodynamics are presented and their coupling discussed. An iterative, numerical procedure employing non-uniform computational meshes and appropriate tridiagonal matrix solution schemes for the equations is presented. The method permits the investigation of the mutual plasma flow-slag layer development for prescribed wall temperatures, electrode geometry, slag properties and channel loading. In particular, the slag layer-plasma interface properties which require prior specification in an uncoupled analysis comprise part of the solution in the present approach. Results are presented for a short diagonally connected generator channel and include contour plots of the electric potential and current stream function as well as transverse and axial profiles of pertinent plasma properties. The results indicate that a thin electrode slag layer can be maintained in the presence of reasonable current density levels.
A Toy Model of Electrodynamics in (1 + 1) Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boozer, A. D.
2007-01-01
A model is presented that describes a scalar field interacting with a point particle in (1+1) dimensions. The model exhibits many of the same phenomena that appear in classical electrodynamics, such as radiation and radiation damping, yet has a much simpler mathematical structure. By studying these phenomena in a highly simplified model, the…
On the electrodynamics of Minkowski at low velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rousseaux, G.
2008-10-01
The Galilean constitutive equations for the electrodynamics of moving media are derived for the first time. They explain all the historic and modern experiments which were interpreted so far in a relativistic framework assuming the constant light celerity principle. Here, we show the latter to be sufficient but not necessary.
A Toy Model of Electrodynamics in (1 + 1) Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boozer, A. D.
2007-01-01
A model is presented that describes a scalar field interacting with a point particle in (1+1) dimensions. The model exhibits many of the same phenomena that appear in classical electrodynamics, such as radiation and radiation damping, yet has a much simpler mathematical structure. By studying these phenomena in a highly simplified model, the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mead, Carver A.
2002-08-01
In this book Carver Mead offers a radically new approach to the standard problems of electromagnetic theory. Motivated by the belief that the goal of scientific research should be the simplification and unification of knowledge, he describes a new way of doing electrodynamics--collective electrodynamics--that does not rely on Maxwell's equations, but rather uses the quantum nature of matter as its sole basis. Collective electrodynamics is a way of looking at how electrons interact, based on experiments that tell us about the electrons directly. (As Mead points out, Maxwell had no access to these experiments.) The results Mead derives for standard electromagnetic problems are identical to those found in any text. Collective electrodynamics reveals, however, that quantities that we usually think of as being very different are, in fact, the same--that electromagnetic phenomena are simple and direct manifestations of quantum phenomena. Mead views his approach as a first step toward reformulating quantum concepts in a clear and comprehensible manner. The book is divided into five sections: magnetic interaction of steady currents, propagating waves, electromagnetic energy, radiation in free space, and electromagnetic interaction of atoms. In an engaging preface, Mead tells how his approach to electromagnetic theory was inspired by his interaction with Richard Feynman. Carver A. Mead is the Gordon and Betty Moore Professor of Engineering and Applied Science, Emeritus, at the California Institute of Technology. He won the 1999 Lemelson-MIT Prize for Invention and Innovation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richmond, A. D.; Fang, T.-W.
2015-03-01
We analyze how the evening equatorial plasma vortex and the prereversal enhancement (PRE) of the vertical drift are influenced by the distributions of conductivity in the E and F regions in relation to the wind, through numerical simulations with the thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model coupled with the global ionosphere-plasmasphere model. The nightside electric potential satisfies an approximate minimization principle that unifies the connection of the horizontal and vertical components of plasma convection to the wind and conductivity distributions. The relative roles of E and F region conductivities on the convection and current closure are clarified. Evening time F region zonal winds at latitudes that encompass the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region provide the main energy source to drive the convection, including the PRE. The E region helps regulate both the meridional and the zonal convection through drag on the meridional convection associated with Cowling current. For large nighttime E region conductivities, additional drag on the zonal convection comes from the Pedersen conductance. The minimization principle favors meridional plasma inflow to the EIA region from lower rather than higher magnetic apex heights, so long as the E region Cowling conductance is not too large. This upward/poleward inflow maximizes on field lines that traverse the lower F layer near the equatorward edge of the EIA region, producing a PRE with maximum vertical velocity within the equatorial F layer.
The application of the electrodynamic separator in minerals beneficiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skowron, M.; Syrek, P.; Surowiak, A.
2017-05-01
The aim of presented paper is elaboration of methodology of upgrading natural minerals in example of chalcocite and bornite sample. The results were obtained by means of laboratory drum separator. This device operates in accordance to properties of materials, which in this case was electrical conductivity. The study contains the analysis of the forces occurring inside of electrodynamic separator chamber, that act on the particles of various electrical properties. Both, the potential and electric field strength distributions were calculated, with set of separators setpoints. Theoretical analysis influenced on separator parameters, and hence impacted the empirical results too. Next, the authors conducted empirical research on chalcocite and bornite beneficiation by means of electrodynamic separation. The results of this process were shown graphically in form of upgrading curves of chalcocite considering elementary copper and lead.
The electric field and global electrodynamics of the magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stern, D. P.
1979-01-01
The conception of the electrodynamics of the quiet-time magnetosphere obtained during the last four years of magnetospheric study is presented. Current understandings of the open magnetosphere, convective plasma flows in the plasma sheet, the shielding of the inner magnetosphere from the convective magnetospheric electric field, the space charge produced when injected electrons drift towards dawn and injected ions drift towards dusk, the disruption of the flow of the Birkeland current by plasma instabilities and the shielding of the convective electric field by the dayside magnetopause are discussed. Attention is also given to changes of magnetic field line topology magnetic storms and substorms. Unresolved questions and new tools which may play a role in the further understanding of magnetospheric electrodynamics and the role of the magnetospheric electric field are presented.
Sedeonic equations of ideal fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, Victor L.; Mironov, Sergey V.
2017-08-01
In the present paper, we propose the generalized equations for an ideal fluid based on space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. It is shown that the dynamics of isentropic fluid can be described by sedeonic first-order wave equation for fluid potentials. The key features of the proposed formalism are illustrated on the problem of the sound waves propagation. We consider the plane wave solution of linearized sedeonic wave equation and derive the second-order relations for the sound potential analogues to the Poynting theorem in electrodynamics. The generalization of proposed sedeonic equations for the description of viscous fluid is also discussed.
On the electrodynamics of Josephson effect in anisotropic superconductors
Mints, R.G.
1989-01-01
Specificities of Josephson effect electrodynamics in anisotropic superconductors are of considerable interest for the study of high temperature superconductors with strongly anisotropic layered structure. In this paper the authors give the calculation for the tunnel Josephson contact of an isolated vortex, the law of dispersion of its low-amplitude oscillations, the critical field H/sub cl/ for the penetration of magnetic flux, and the maximum current across a rectangular contact.
Structures of general relativity in dilaton-Maxwell electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kechkin, O. V.; Mosharev, P. A.
2016-08-01
It is shown that electro (magneto) static sector of Maxwell’s electrodynamics coupled to the dilaton field in a string theory form possesses the symmetry group of the stationary General Relativity in vacuum. Performing the Ernst formalism, we develope a technique for generation of exact solutions in this modified electrodynamics on the base of the normalized Ehlers symmetry transformation. In the electrostatic case, we construct and study a general class of spherically symmetric solutions that describes a pointlike source of the Coulomb type. It is demonstrated that this source is characterized by finite and singularity-free interaction at short distances. Also it is established that the total electrostatic energy of this source is finite and inversely proportional to the dilaton-Maxwell coupling constant.
Electrodynamic Context of Magnetopause Dynamics Observed by Magnetospheric Multiscale
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Brian J.; Russell, Christopher T.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Magnes, Werner; Fischer, David; Korth, Haje; Merkin, Viacheslav G.; Barnes, Robin J.; Waters, Colin L.;
2016-01-01
Magnetopause observations by Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Birkeland currents observed by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment are used to relate magnetopause encounters to ionospheric electrodynamics. MMS magnetopause crossings on 15 August and 19 September 2015 occurred earthward of expectations due to solar wind ram pressure alone and coincided with equatorward expansion of the Birkeland currents. Magnetopause erosion, consistent with expansion of the polar cap, contributed to the magnetopause crossings. The ionospheric projections of MMS during the events and at times of the magnetopause crossings indicate that MMS observations are related to the main path of flux transport in one case but not in a second. The analysis provides a way to routinely relate in situ observations to the context of in situ convection and flux transport.
Electrodynamic context of magnetopause dynamics observed by magnetospheric multiscale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Brian J.; Russell, Christopher T.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Magnes, Werner; Fischer, David; Korth, Haje; Merkin, Viacheslav G.; Barnes, Robin J.; Waters, Colin L.; Cohen, Ian J.; Westlake, Joseph H.; Mauk, Barry H.; Leinweber, Hannes K.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Giles, Barbara L.; Le, Guan; Torbert, Roy B.; Burch, James L.
2016-06-01
Magnetopause observations by Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Birkeland currents observed by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment are used to relate magnetopause encounters to ionospheric electrodynamics. MMS magnetopause crossings on 15 August and 19 September 2015 occurred earthward of expectations due to solar wind ram pressure alone and coincided with equatorward expansion of the Birkeland currents. Magnetopause erosion, consistent with expansion of the polar cap, contributed to the magnetopause crossings. The ionospheric projections of MMS during the events and at times of the magnetopause crossings indicate that MMS observations are related to the main path of flux transport in one case but not in a second. The analysis provides a way to routinely relate in situ observations to the context of in situ convection and flux transport.
Emergent electrodynamics of skyrmions in a chiral magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulz, T.; Ritz, R.; Bauer, A.; Halder, M.; Wagner, M.; Franz, C.; Pfleiderer, C.; Everschor, K.; Garst, M.; Rosch, A.
2012-04-01
When an electron moves in a smoothly varying non-collinear magnetic structure, its spin orientation adapts constantly, thereby inducing forces that act both on the magnetic structure and on the electron. These forces may be described by electric and magnetic fields of an emergent electrodynamics. The topologically quantized winding number of so-called skyrmions--a type of magnetic whirl discovered recently in chiral magnets--has been predicted to induce exactly one quantum of emergent magnetic flux per skyrmion. A moving skyrmion is therefore expected to induce an emergent electric field following Faraday's law of induction, which inherits this topological quantization. Here we report Hall-effect measurements that establish quantitatively the predicted emergent electrodynamics. We obtain quantitative evidence for the depinning of skyrmions from impurities (at current densities of only 106Am-2) and their subsequent motion. The combination of exceptionally small current densities and simple transport measurements offers fundamental insights into the connection between the emergent and real electrodynamics of skyrmions in chiral magnets, and might, in the long term, be important for applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plimak, L. I.; Ivanov, Misha; Aiello, A.; Stenholm, S.
2015-08-01
Quantum electrodynamics under conditions of distinguishability of interacting matter entities, and of controlled actions and back-actions between them, is considered. Such "mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics" is shown to share its dynamical structure with the classical stochastic electrodynamics. In formal terms, we demonstrate that all general relations of the mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics may be recast in a form lacking Planck's constant. Mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics is therefore subject to "doing quantum electrodynamics while thinking classically," allowing one to substitute essentially classical considerations for quantum ones without any loss in generality. Implications of these results for the quantum measurement theory are discussed.
Electrodynamic Tethers for Reboost of the International Space Station
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Les; Herrmann, Melody; Vas, Irwin; Estes, Bob
1999-01-01
The International Space Station (ISS) will require periodic reboost due to atmospheric aerodynamic drag. This is nominally achieved through the use of thruster firings by the attached Progress M spacecraft. Many Progress flights to the ISS are required annually. Electrodynamic tethers provide an attractive alternative in that they can provide periodic reboost or continuous drag cancellation using no consumables, propellant nor conventional propulsion elements. The system could also serve as an emergency backup reboost system used only in the event resupply and reboost are delayed for some reason. The system also has direct application to spacecraft and upper stage propulsion. Electrodynamic tethers have been demonstrated in space previously with the Plasma Motor Generator (PMG) experiment and the Tethered Satellite System (TSS-IR). The advanced electrodynamic tether proposed for ISS reboost has significant advantages over previous systems in that hi-her thrust is achievable with significantly shorter tethers and without the need for an active current collection device, hence making the system simpler and much less expensive.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scudder, J. D.; Mangeney, A.; Lacombe, C.; Harvey, C. C.; Wu, C. S.
1986-01-01
The analysis of the fluid continuum level within the shock layer observed on November 7, 1977 by the ISEE satellites (Scudder et al., 1986) is extended to examine, within the framework of Vlasov electrodynamics, direct observational evidence for 'collisionless' resistivity. The analysis is based on the measured wave turbulence and the deviation of the observed electron velocity distribution function from the form predicted using the reversible individual electron trajectories in the presence of dc forces.
Electrodynamic analysis of helical radiators located on an elliptical surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dementyev, A. N.; Klyuev, D. S.; Tabakov, D. P.
2017-02-01
On the basis of integral representations of the electromagnetic field, mathematical models of the spiral radiators located on the surface of an ellipsoid are constructed. The internal electrodynamic problem is reduced to the set of linear algebraic equations written with respect to unknown values of current on radiating elements. In the band of normalized frequencies, the input resistance of antennas and the distribution of currents over the branches of spirals are calculated. Analysis of the frequency dependences of the input resistance makes it possible to reveal the phenomena of the parallel and serial macroresonance caused by the shape of the surface containing branches of spirals.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maynard, N. C. (Editor)
1979-01-01
Significant deficiencies exist in the present understanding of the basic physical processes taking place within the middle atmosphere (the region between the tropopause and the mesopause), and in the knowledge of the variability of many of the primary parameters that regulate Middle Atmosphere Electrodynamics (MAE). Knowledge of the electrical properties, i.e., electric fields, plasma characteristics, conductivity and currents, and the physical processes that govern them is of fundamental importance to the physics of the region. Middle atmosphere electrodynamics may play a critical role in the electrodynamical aspects of solar-terrestrial relations. As a first step, the Workshop on the Role of the Electrodynamics of the Middle Atmosphere on Solar-Terrestrial Coupling was held to review the present status and define recommendations for future MAE research.
8-Spinors and structure of solitons in generalized Mie electrodynamics
Rybakov, Yu. P.
2013-02-15
A generalization of Mie electrodynamics is considered. It includes a 8-spinor field and higher powers of the Mie invariant A{sub {mu}}A{sup {mu}}. Particular topological properties of 8-spinors are indicated and are associated with the existence of the remarkable Brioschi identity of eight squares, which permits deriving a natural 8-spinor unification of the Skyrme model of baryons and the Faddeev model of leptons, these particles being treated as topological solitons. Two types of soliton configurations admitted by the model are constructed. These are charged static and neutral lightlike (luxons) ones.
Evaluation of a six-DOF electrodynamic shaker system.
Gregory, Danny Lynn; Smallwood, David Ora
2009-03-01
The paper describes the preliminary evaluation of a 6 degree of freedom electrodynamic shaker system. The 8 by 8 inch (20.3 cm) table is driven by 12 electrodynamic shakers producing motion in all 6 rigid body modes. A small electrodynamic shaker system suitable for small component testing is described. The principal purpose of the system is to demonstrate the technology. The shaker is driven by 12 electrodynamic shakers each with a force capability of about 50 lbs (220 N). The system was developed through an informal cooperative agreement between Sandia National Laboratories, Team Corp. and Spectral Dynamics Corporation. Sandia provided the laboratory space and some development funds. Team provided the mechanical system, and Spectral Dynamics provided the control system. Spectral Dynamics was chosen to provide the control system partly because of their experience in MIMO control and partly because Sandia already had part of the system in house. The shaker system was conceived and manufactured by TEAM Corp. Figure 1 shows the overall system. The vibration table, electrodynamic shakers, hydraulic pumps, and amplifiers are all housed in a single cabinet. Figure 2 is a drawing showing how the electrodynamic shakers are coupled to the table. The shakers are coupled to the table through a hydraulic spherical pad bearing providing 5 degrees of freedom and one stiff degree of freedom. The pad bearing must be preloaded with a static force as they are unable to provide any tension forces. The horizontal bearings are preloaded with steel springs. The drawing shows a spring providing the vertical preload. This was changed in the final design. The vertical preload is provided by multiple strands of an O-ring material as shown in Figure 4. Four shakers provide excitation in each of the three orthogonal axes. The specifications of the shaker are outlined in Table 1. Four shakers provide inputs in each of the three orthogonal directions. By choosing the phase relationships
Electrodynamic boundary conditions for planar arrays of thin magnetic elements
Lisenkov, Ivan; Tyberkevych, Vasyl; Slavin, Andrei; Nikitov, Sergei
2015-08-24
Approximate electrodynamic boundary conditions are derived for an array of dipolarly coupled magnetic elements. It is assumed that the elements' thickness is small compared to the wavelength of an electromagnetic wave in a free space. The boundary conditions relate electric and magnetic fields existing at the top and bottom sides of the array through the averaged uniform dynamic magnetization of the array. This dynamic magnetization is determined by the collective dynamic eigen-excitations (spin wave modes) of the array and is found using the external magnetic susceptibility tensor. The problem of oblique scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave on the array is considered to illustrate the use of the derived boundary conditions.
Electrodynamic Balance for Studies of Cosmic Dust Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spann, J. F.; Abbas, M. M.; Venturini, C. C.; Comfort, R. H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Knowledge of the formation and distribution of interstellar, interplanetary, and planetary dust grains, and their physical, chemical and optical characteristics provide valuable information about many issues dealing with the origin and formation of the solar system bodies, interplanetary and interstellar environments as well as various industrial processes. Understanding the microphysics of individual grains and their interaction with the surrounding, environment is key to properly model various conditions and interpret existing data. The theory and models of individual dust grains are well developed for environments that vary from dense planetary atmospheres to dusty plasmas to diffuse environments such as interplanetary space. However, experimental investigations of individual dust grains in equilibrium are less common, perhaps due to the difficulty of these experiments. Laboratory measurements of dust grains have primarily measured ensemble properties or transient properties of single grains. A technique developed in the 1950's for ion spectroscopy, generally referred to as a quadrupole trap has recently been employed as an electrodynamic balance to investigate single micron-sized dust grains and for atmospheric aerosol research. A description of the theoretical basis and the experimental setup of the electrodynamic balance being developed in our laboratory are given. This laboratory technique lends itself to many applications that relate to planetary atmospheres, heliospheric environments, pre-stellar and pre-planetary conditions, and industrial settings. We present results from some recent experiments carried out to investigate the equilibrium potential of dust grains exposed to far ultraviolet light or to an electron beam. Some future experiments using an electrodynamic balance to investigate the optical characteristics, and condensation process involving dust grains in various astrophysical environments are discussed.
Electrodynamic Balance for Studies of Cosmic Dust Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spann, J. F.; Abbas, M. M.; Venturini, C. C.; Comfort, R. H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Knowledge of the formation and distribution of interstellar, interplanetary, and planetary dust grains, and their physical, chemical and optical characteristics provide valuable information about many issues dealing with the origin and formation of the solar system bodies, interplanetary and interstellar environments as well as various industrial processes. Understanding the microphysics of individual grains and their interaction with the surrounding, environment is key to properly model various conditions and interpret existing data. The theory and models of individual dust grains are well developed for environments that vary from dense planetary atmospheres to dusty plasmas to diffuse environments such as interplanetary space. However, experimental investigations of individual dust grains in equilibrium are less common, perhaps due to the difficulty of these experiments. Laboratory measurements of dust grains have primarily measured ensemble properties or transient properties of single grains. A technique developed in the 1950's for ion spectroscopy, generally referred to as a quadrupole trap has recently been employed as an electrodynamic balance to investigate single micron-sized dust grains and for atmospheric aerosol research. A description of the theoretical basis and the experimental setup of the electrodynamic balance being developed in our laboratory are given. This laboratory technique lends itself to many applications that relate to planetary atmospheres, heliospheric environments, pre-stellar and pre-planetary conditions, and industrial settings. We present results from some recent experiments carried out to investigate the equilibrium potential of dust grains exposed to far ultraviolet light or to an electron beam. Some future experiments using an electrodynamic balance to investigate the optical characteristics, and condensation process involving dust grains in various astrophysical environments are discussed.
Applications of the Electrodynamic Tether to Interstellar Travel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matloff, Gregory L.; Johnson, Les
2005-01-01
After considering relevant properties of the local interstellar medium and defining a sample interstellar mission, this paper considers possible interstellar applications of the electrodynamic tether, or EDT. These include use of the EDT to provide on-board power and affect trajectory modifications and direct application of the EDT to starship acceleration. It is demonstrated that comparatively modest EDTs can provide substantial quantities of on-board power, if combined with a large-area electron-collection device such as the Cassenti toroidal-field ramscoop. More substantial tethers can be used to accomplish large-radius thrustless turns. Direct application of the EDT to starship acceleration is apparently infeasible.
On Irreversibility and Radiation in Classical Electrodynamics of Point Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, Gernot; Deckert, Dirk-André; Dürr, Detlef; Hinrichs, Günter
2013-09-01
The direct interaction theory of electromagnetism, also known as Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics, is often misinterpreted and found unappealing because of its reference to the absorber and, more importantly, to the so-called absorber condition. Here we remark that the absorber condition is indeed questionable and presumably not relevant for the explanation of irreversible radiation phenomena in our universe. What is relevant and deserves further scrutiny is the emergent effective description of a source particle in an environment. We therefore rephrase what we consider the relevant calculation by Wheeler and Feynman and comment on the status of the theory.
Quantum electrodynamics vacuum polarization modification of photon acceleration in plasma
Bu Zhigang; Ji Peiyong
2010-07-15
The modification of photon frequency shifting based on taking into account the nonlinear quantum electrodynamics vacuum properties in plasma is studied. Motion equations of a laser field propagating in a plasma are derived from the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian density. It is found that besides the classical density perturbation of the plasma electrons, the energy density perturbation of the laser field will induce the frequency shifting via the ponderomotive force of the laser field on the vacuum. In addition it is shown that the electron density will be suppressed, which is attributed to a screening effect on the plasma electrons via the quantum vacuum polarization.
Capabilities of electrodynamic shakers when used for mechanical shock testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keegan, W. B.
1973-01-01
The results of a research task to investigate the capabilities of electrodynamic vibrators (shakers) to perform mechanical shock tests are presented. The simulation method employed was that of developing a transient whose shock response spectrum matched the desired shock response spectrum. Areas investigated included the maximum amplitude capabilities of the shaker systems, the ability to control the shape of the resultant shock response spectrum, the response levels induced at frequencies outside the controlled bandwidth, and the nonlinearities in structural response induced by a change in test level.
Gravito-electrodynamics and the structure of planetary ring systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mendis, D. A.
1984-01-01
Recent spacecraft observations of the Saturnian and Jovian ring systems have highlighted a plethora of interesting new phenomena associated with those regions containing fine (micron and sub-micron sized) dust. Recognizing that these dust grains, by virtue of being immersed within the planetary magnetospheres, are electrostatically charged to the point that they experience comparable gravitational and electric forces, a new 'gravito-electrodynamic' theory has been developed to describe their dynamics. This theory has been successful in explaining all these phenomena in a systematic way. In this review, the basic model and its range of validity are outlined, and its application to the Saturnian and Jovian ring systems are discussed.
Electrodynamics of the middle atmosphere: Superpressure balloon program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holzworth, Robert H.
1987-01-01
In this experiment a comprehensive set of electrical parameters were measured during eight long duration flights in the southern hemisphere stratosphere. These flight resulted in the largest data set ever collected from the stratosphere. The stratosphere has never been electrodynamically sampled in the systematic manner before. New discoveries include short term variability in the planetary scale electric current system, the unexpected observation of stratospheric conductivity variations over thunderstorms and the observation of direct stratospheric conductivity variations following a relatively small solar flare. Major statistical studies were conducted of the large scale current systems, the stratospheric conductivity and the neutral gravity waves (from pressure and temperature data) using the entire data set.
A simple electrodynamic model of a dust devil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Cummer, Steven A.; Marshall, John R.
2003-10-01
We present an electrodynamic model of a dust devil applying a similar methodology as performed previously for charging in terrestrial thunderstorms. While thunderstorm processes focus on inductive charging between large graupel and smaller ice and water droplets, we tailor the model to focus on the electric charge transfer between dust grains of different sizes and compositions. We specifically compare and contrast the triboelectric dust charging processes presented previously in Melnik and Parrot [1998] and Desch and Cuzzi [2000] in the development of macroscopic dust devil electric fields. We find that large vertical E-fields (~20 kV/m) can develop in the devil.
Scattering of force-free electrodynamic waves by spacetime curvature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fan; McWilliams, Sean
2014-03-01
The electromagnetic fields E and B are vectors that couple to spacetime curvatures via Ricci identities, and so force-free electrodynamic waves will in general be scattered. However, Brennan, Gralla and Jacobson found a family of exact solutions that escape scattering. We analytically and numerically study these solutions and their alterations, in order to provide more details as to what features allow them to possess this property. We hope our results will be useful when searching for other solutions of this type. We also provide physical intuition for some commonly encountered theoretical constructs.
Space Environmental Testing of the Electrodynamic Dust Shield Technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calle, Carlos I.; Mackey, P. J.; Hogue, M. D.; Johansen, M .R.; Yim, H.; Delaune, P. B.; Clements, J. S.
2013-01-01
NASA's exploration missions to Mars and the moon may be jeopardized by dust that will adhere to surfaces of (a) Optical systems, viewports and solar panels, (b) Thermal radiators, (c) Instrumentation, and (d) Spacesuits. We have developed an active dust mitigation technology, the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, a multilayer coating that can remove dust and also prevents its accumulation Extensive testing in simulated laboratory environments and on a reduced gravity flight shows that high dust removal performance can be achieved Long duration exposure to the space environment as part of the MISSE-X payload will validate the technology for lunar missions.
Experimental Evaluation of Three Designs of Electrodynamic Flexural Transducers.
Eriksson, Tobias J R; Laws, Michael; Kang, Lei; Fan, Yichao; Ramadas, Sivaram N; Dixon, Steve
2016-08-25
Three designs for electrodynamic flexural transducers (EDFT) for air-coupled ultrasonics are presented and compared. An all-metal housing was used for robustness, which makes the designs more suitable for industrial applications. The housing is designed such that there is a thin metal plate at the front, with a fundamental flexural vibration mode at ∼50 kHz. By using a flexural resonance mode, good coupling to the load medium was achieved without the use of matching layers. The front radiating plate is actuated electrodynamically by a spiral coil inside the transducer, which produces an induced magnetic field when an AC current is applied to it. The transducers operate without the use of piezoelectric materials, which can simplify manufacturing and prolong the lifetime of the transducers, as well as open up possibilities for high-temperature applications. The results show that different designs perform best for the generation and reception of ultrasound. All three designs produced large acoustic pressure outputs, with a recorded sound pressure level (SPL) above 120 dB at a 40 cm distance from the highest output transducer. The sensitivity of the transducers was low, however, with single shot signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR ) ≃ 15 dB in transmit-receive mode, with transmitter and receiver 40 cm apart.
Experimental Evaluation of Three Designs of Electrodynamic Flexural Transducers
Eriksson, Tobias J. R.; Laws, Michael; Kang, Lei; Fan, Yichao; Ramadas, Sivaram N.; Dixon, Steve
2016-01-01
Three designs for electrodynamic flexural transducers (EDFT) for air-coupled ultrasonics are presented and compared. An all-metal housing was used for robustness, which makes the designs more suitable for industrial applications. The housing is designed such that there is a thin metal plate at the front, with a fundamental flexural vibration mode at ∼50 kHz. By using a flexural resonance mode, good coupling to the load medium was achieved without the use of matching layers. The front radiating plate is actuated electrodynamically by a spiral coil inside the transducer, which produces an induced magnetic field when an AC current is applied to it. The transducers operate without the use of piezoelectric materials, which can simplify manufacturing and prolong the lifetime of the transducers, as well as open up possibilities for high-temperature applications. The results show that different designs perform best for the generation and reception of ultrasound. All three designs produced large acoustic pressure outputs, with a recorded sound pressure level (SPL) above 120 dB at a 40 cm distance from the highest output transducer. The sensitivity of the transducers was low, however, with single shot signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)≃15 dB in transmit–receive mode, with transmitter and receiver 40 cm apart. PMID:27571075
Speeds of light in Stueckelberg-Horwitz-Piron electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Land, Martin
2017-05-01
Stueckelberg-Horwitz-Piron (SHP) electrodynamics formalizes the distinction between coordinate time (measured by laboratory clocks) and chronology (temporal ordering) by defining 4D spacetime events x μ as functions of an external evolution parameter τ. As τ grows monotonically, the spacetime evolution of classical events x μ (τ) trace out particle worldlines dynamically and induce the five U(1) gauge potentials through which events interact. In analogy with the constant c that associates a unit of length x 0 with intervals of time t in standard relativity, we introduce a constant c 5 associated with the external time τ. Whereas the nonrelativistic limit of special relativity can be found by taking c → ∞, we show that 5D SHP goes over to an equilibrium state of Maxwell theory in the limit c 5 → 0. Thus, the dimensionless ratio c 5/c parameterizes the deviation of SHP from standard electrodynamics, in particular the coupling of events. Put another way, Maxwell theory can be understood as currents and fields relaxing to an equilibrium independent of chronological time as c 5 τ slows to zero. We find that taking 0 < c 5/c < 1 enables the resolution of several longstanding difficulties in SHP theory.
Electrodynamics of the Middle Atmosphere: Superpressure Balloon Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holzworth, Robert H.
1990-01-01
This project called Electrodynamics of the Middle Atmosphere (EMA): Superpressure Balloon Program was begun by the PI at the Aerospace Corporation in Los Angeles under joint NSF and NASA funding originally combined in one grant ATM80-17071 and has continued at the University of Washington under grants ATM8212283, ATM84-11326 and ATM86-15628 and NASA grants NAGW-724 and NAGS-635. In the EMA experiment a comprehensive set of electrical parameters was measured during eight long-duration balloon flights in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere. These flights resulted in the largest vector electric field data set ever collected from the stratosphere which has been a treasure-trove of new phenomena. Since the stratosphere has never been electrodynamically sampled in this systematic manner before, it is perhaps not surprising that several new discoveries have been made and reported. Another way to measure the success of this first EMA project is to note that all together the total data rate was about 1 bit/sec/payload amounting to 12 MBytes (1/3 of 1 standard 1600 BPI magnetic tape) which nevertheless has resulted in 14 papers and 2 masters theses (so far! . Ten of these papers and one masters thesis specifically acknowledge the support by NASA grant NAGS-635 are discussed herein.
Problems of Technical Electrodynamics (Selected Articles),
1984-04-11
the maximum temperature is measured at the depth of 8-10 mm from the end/face of core (axis II). This is explained-by the - screening effect of the...sharply descends in proportion to removal/distance in the direction of back, for the pressure collar, which plays the role of screen . On the basis of...value Ba. almost is three times less than in the zone of crown; in the region of the back, shielded by the pressure/clamping collar, which works as screen
Electrodynamic thermal breakdown of a capacitor insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emel'Yanov, O. A.
2011-11-01
A mechanism of the electrical breakdown is proposed for modern metal-field capacitors with the well-known property of self-healing of the breakdown strength. Upon an increase in the working voltage, the self-healing time increases to tens of microseconds, and the heating of adjacent insulator layers becomes significant. The propagating thermally activated conduction wave facilitates the enhancement of the electric field up to breakdown values. Analysis of the dynamics of electric field increase is carried out for capacitors based on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) dielectric.
Electrodynamic force of dielectric barrier discharge
Shang, J. S.; Roveda, F.; Huang, P. G.
2011-06-01
The periodic electrostatic force of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in nitrogen for flow control is investigated by a system of physics-based, two-dimensional model equations. The plasma generation process of DBD is mainly the avalanche growth of electrons through the secondary emission from cathode. Therefore, the charged particle motion of a succession of random micro discharges can be approximated by the drift-diffusion model. The force of DBD generated by charge separation and accumulation over the dielectrics is obtained by solving the model equations with the rigorous media interface boundary condition of Maxwell equations in the time domain. The discharge structure and force components by different electrical permittivity and amplitudes of externally applied electrical potential are delineated and quantified.
Overview of the Electrodynamic Delivery Express (EDDE)
2003-07-01
to distributing multiple small payloads to custom orbits. EDDE may also enable removal of most existing orbital debris from LEO. We describe two options for a low-cost proof-of-concept demonstration in space.
Dynamic stability of electrodynamic maglev systems
Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Rote, D.M.
1997-01-01
Because dynamic instabilities are not acceptable in any commercial maglev system, it is important to consider dynamic instability in the development of all maglev systems. This study considers the stability of maglev systems based on mathematical models and experimental data. Divergence and flutter are obtained for coupled vibration of a three-degree-of-freedom maglev vehicle on a guideway consisting of double L-shaped aluminum segments. The theory and analysis for motion-dependent magnetic-force-induced instability developed in this study provides basic stability characteristics and identifies future research needs for maglev systems.
Nanoscale electrodynamics of strongly correlated quantum materials.
Liu, Mengkun; Sternbach, Aaron J; Basov, D N
2017-01-01
Electronic, magnetic, and structural phase inhomogeneities are ubiquitous in strongly correlated quantum materials. The characteristic length scales of the phase inhomogeneities can range from atomic to mesoscopic, depending on their microscopic origins as well as various sample dependent factors. Therefore, progress with the understanding of correlated phenomena critically depends on the experimental techniques suitable to provide appropriate spatial resolution. This requirement is difficult to meet for some of the most informative methods in condensed matter physics, including infrared and optical spectroscopy. Yet, recent developments in near-field optics and imaging enabled a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic response with a spatial resolution down to 10 nm. Thus it is now feasible to exploit at the nanoscale well-established capabilities of optical methods for characterization of electronic processes and lattice dynamics in diverse classes of correlated quantum systems. This review offers a concise description of the state-of-the-art near-field techniques applied to prototypical correlated quantum materials. We also discuss complementary microscopic and spectroscopic methods which reveal important mesoscopic dynamics of quantum materials at different energy scales.
Electrodynamic study of YIG filters and resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krupka, Jerzy; Salski, Bartlomiej; Kopyt, Pawel; Gwarek, Wojciech
2016-10-01
Numerical solutions of coupled Maxwell and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations for a magnetized yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere acting as a one-stage filter are presented. The filter is analysed using finite-difference time-domain technique. Contrary to the state of the art, the study shows that the maximum electromagnetic power transmission through the YIG filter occurs at the frequency of the magnetic plasmon resonance with the effective permeability of the gyromagnetic medium μr ≈ -2, and not at a ferromagnetic resonance frequency. Such a new understanding of the YIG filter operation, makes it one of the most commonly used single-negative plasmonic metamaterials. The frequency of maximum transmission is also found to weakly depend on the size of the YIG sphere. An analytic electromagnetic analysis of resonances in a YIG sphere is performed for circularly polarized electromagnetic fields. The YIG sphere is situated in a free space and in a large spherical cavity. The study demonstrates that both volume resonances and magnetic plasmon resonances can be solutions of the same transcendental equations.
Electrodynamic study of YIG filters and resonators
Krupka, Jerzy; Salski, Bartlomiej; Kopyt, Pawel; Gwarek, Wojciech
2016-01-01
Numerical solutions of coupled Maxwell and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations for a magnetized yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere acting as a one-stage filter are presented. The filter is analysed using finite-difference time-domain technique. Contrary to the state of the art, the study shows that the maximum electromagnetic power transmission through the YIG filter occurs at the frequency of the magnetic plasmon resonance with the effective permeability of the gyromagnetic medium μr ≈ −2, and not at a ferromagnetic resonance frequency. Such a new understanding of the YIG filter operation, makes it one of the most commonly used single-negative plasmonic metamaterials. The frequency of maximum transmission is also found to weakly depend on the size of the YIG sphere. An analytic electromagnetic analysis of resonances in a YIG sphere is performed for circularly polarized electromagnetic fields. The YIG sphere is situated in a free space and in a large spherical cavity. The study demonstrates that both volume resonances and magnetic plasmon resonances can be solutions of the same transcendental equations. PMID:27698467
Nanoscale electrodynamics of strongly correlated quantum materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Mengkun; Sternbach, Aaron J.; Basov, D. N.
2017-01-01
Electronic, magnetic, and structural phase inhomogeneities are ubiquitous in strongly correlated quantum materials. The characteristic length scales of the phase inhomogeneities can range from atomic to mesoscopic, depending on their microscopic origins as well as various sample dependent factors. Therefore, progress with the understanding of correlated phenomena critically depends on the experimental techniques suitable to provide appropriate spatial resolution. This requirement is difficult to meet for some of the most informative methods in condensed matter physics, including infrared and optical spectroscopy. Yet, recent developments in near-field optics and imaging enabled a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic response with a spatial resolution down to 10 nm. Thus it is now feasible to exploit at the nanoscale well-established capabilities of optical methods for characterization of electronic processes and lattice dynamics in diverse classes of correlated quantum systems. This review offers a concise description of the state-of-the-art near-field techniques applied to prototypical correlated quantum materials. We also discuss complementary microscopic and spectroscopic methods which reveal important mesoscopic dynamics of quantum materials at different energy scales.
Electrodynamics of the westward traveling surge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kan, J. R.; Kamide, Y.
1985-01-01
It is shown that the global convection pattern, the ionospheric current, and the field-aligned current associated with the westward traveling surge in the asymptotic state can be modeled quantitatively as consequences of a blockage of the Hall current from closure in the magnetosphere via field-aligned currents. The conductivity is allowed to increase self-consistently with increasing upward field-aligned current in the model. This inclusion of the self-consistent enhanced ionospheric conductivity due to discrete auroral precipitations is found to generate a localized intense westward electrojet on the poleward side of the Harang discontinuity. The westward electrojet is also found to rotate counterclockwise, merging into the eastward electrojet around the leading edge of the surge. Thus the major features of the westward traveling surge can be reproduced reasonably well in the model.
Electrodynamics of AN Ion Inverted V.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgess, Georgette Olive
Particle precipitation around the earth's polar regions may be the footprint of various energizing phenomena in the magnetosphere. Satellite-observed electron fluxes whose peak energy increases then decreases are called inverted V's. The Atmosphere Explorer-D Low Energy Electron (LEE) data for January 11, 1976 indicates that the precipitating ions have been accelerated. In this event the spectrograms of the ion flux shows the change of the peak energy with time characteristic of an inverted V. The electron population is decelerated as the ion population is accelerated, consistent with a downward electric field. The Birkeland current at an inverted V may be calculated in two ways: from the divergence of the electric field or from the observed particle fluxes. We found that the two methods agree on the location of Birkeland current throughout the event, but the magnitudes are not the same. This is not surprising, since the component of (DEL)((')(SIGMA)(.)(')E) perpendicular to the trajectory can not be determined. The electric potential along the spacecraft's trajectory (790-650 km altitude) was calculated from the measured electric fields. The sum of the parallel potential drop (inferred from the ion distribution function) and the ionospheric potential gives the potential profile at the magnetosphere. The parallel electric field thus partially decoupled the ionospheric flow from the magnetospheric flow. The electric field pattern in the magnetosphere -ionosphere system demands field-aligned currents. When the thermal current is insufficient, a field-aligned potential drop can accelerate particles to satisfy the requirements. The thermal electron current from the ionosphere is much greater than that from the magnetosphere. Thus, it is more common to observe the signatures of an upward electric field: the electron "inverted V". In the ion inverted V observed during AE-D orbit 1141, the postulated parallel potential has reduced the required parallel current. This high
Terahertz Electrodynamics of Dirac Fermions in Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frenzel, Alex James
Charge carriers in graphene mimic two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions with linear energy dispersion, resulting in unique optical and electronic properties. They exhibit high mobility and strong interaction with electromagnetic radiation over a broad frequency range. Interband transitions in graphene give rise to pronounced optical absorption in the mid-infrared to visible spectral range, where the optical conductivity is close to a universal value sigma_0 = pi e. 2/2h. Free-carrier intraband transitions, on the otherhand, cause low-frequency absorption, which varies significantly with charge density and results in strong light extinction at high carrier density. These properties together suggest a rich variety of possible optoelectronic applications for graphene. In this thesis, we investigate the optoelectronic properties of graphene by measuring transient photoconductivity with optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy. We demonstrate that graphene exhibits semiconducting positive photoconductivity near zero carrier density, which crosses over to metallic negative photoconductivity at high carrier density. These observations are accounted for by the interplay between photoinduced changes of both the Drude weight and carrier scattering rate. Our findings provide a complete picture to explain the opposite photoconductivity behavior reported in (undoped) graphene grown epitaxially and (doped) graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. Our measurements also reveal the non-monotonic temperature dependence of the Drude weight in graphene, a unique property of two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions.
Electrodynamics of the High Latitude Ionosphere
1990-02-01
Local Time (d-sg) 66 ,70- 4.4 " -1- z ,- - / , - + \\ / * -2 60 7 *9 8 0 6 Mogrneti+c LOL’. ,tde (deg) P’ .". 0 2m ,,r- -40 - _o 0 ’> 0 12 , \\$I...2 ight ba(it obsewrved plastia dist nibut ions at high lat itutdes. 2.1.. Nortlird IMEF One of thle p~roiducts o f the con1vect iotn tilel...CD . ... N< . -- > , C Z ..~ t hat have liven put foirward as i epreserntatinis for the flow during t irne of northward I.I. l lenl
Studies of nonlinear electrodynamics of high-temperature superconductors
Lam, Quan-Chiu H.
1991-08-01
Nonlinear electrodynamics of high-{Tc} superconductors are studied both theoretically and experimentally. For powdered samples, a novel model is presented in which the metallographically observed superconducting grains in the powder are modeled as superconducting current loops of various areas with weak links. Surprising harmonic generation behavior in an arc field, H{sub 1} cos({omega}t), is predicted by the model; the power at high harmonics show sharp dips almost periodic in a superposing dc magnetic field, revealing flux quantization in the prototype loops in the model. Such oscillation of the harmonic power in dc magnetic field P{sub nf}(H{sub dc}), is indeed experimentally observed in powdered YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}. Other experimental aspects also agree with model predictions. For bulk sintered cylindrical samples, a generalized critical state model is presented. In this model, the nonlinear electrodynamics are due to flux-pinning, somewhat similar to low-temperature type-II superconductors, but with a more generalized critical current densities' dependence on magnetic field -- J{sub c}(H){approximately}H{sub local}{sup -{beta}}, with {beta} being an adjustable parameter. Experiments in ac and dc magnetic fields on a sintered cylindrical rod of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} yield unambiguous evidence of independent inter- and intragranular contributions to the complex harmonic permeability {tilde {mu}}{sub n} = {mu}{prime}{sub n} -i{mu}{double prime}{sub n}. Temperature- dependence measurements reveal that, while the intragranular supercurrents disappear at {Tc}{ge}91.2 K, the intergranular supercurrents disappear at T{ge}86.6 K. This result is, to our knowledge, the first clear measurement of the phase-locking temperature of the 3-D matrix formed by YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} grains, which are in electrical contact with one another through weak links.
Studies of nonlinear electrodynamics of high-temperature superconductors
Lam, Quan-Chiu H.
1991-08-01
Nonlinear electrodynamics of high-{Tc} superconductors are studied both theoretically and experimentally. For powdered samples, a novel model is presented in which the metallographically observed superconducting grains in the powder are modeled as superconducting current loops of various areas with weak links. Surprising harmonic generation behavior in an arc field, H{sub 1} cos({omega}t), is predicted by the model; the power at high harmonics show sharp dips almost periodic in a superposing dc magnetic field, revealing flux quantization in the prototype loops in the model. Such oscillation of the harmonic power in dc magnetic field P{sub nf}(H{sub dc}), is indeed experimentally observed in powdered YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}. Other experimental aspects also agree with model predictions. For bulk sintered cylindrical samples, a generalized critical state model is presented. In this model, the nonlinear electrodynamics are due to flux-pinning, somewhat similar to low-temperature type-II superconductors, but with a more generalized critical current densities` dependence on magnetic field -- J{sub c}(H){approximately}H{sub local}{sup -{beta}}, with {beta} being an adjustable parameter. Experiments in ac and dc magnetic fields on a sintered cylindrical rod of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} yield unambiguous evidence of independent inter- and intragranular contributions to the complex harmonic permeability {tilde {mu}}{sub n} = {mu}{prime}{sub n} -i{mu}{double_prime}{sub n}. Temperature- dependence measurements reveal that, while the intragranular supercurrents disappear at {Tc}{ge}91.2 K, the intergranular supercurrents disappear at T{ge}86.6 K. This result is, to our knowledge, the first clear measurement of the phase-locking temperature of the 3-D matrix formed by YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} grains, which are in electrical contact with one another through weak links.
Influence of nonlinear electrodynamics on stability of thin-shell wormholes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia
2016-07-01
The aim of this paper is to discuss stability of regular thin-shell wormholes coupled with non-linear electrodynamics and cosmological constant. The surface stresses are formulated by using Lanczos equations. We examine attractive and repulsive behavior of these constructed wormholes corresponding to outward and inward-directed acceleration components, respectively. We also investigate stability conditions for the existence of traversable thin-shell wormholes with arbitrarily small amount of different fluids as exotic matter. We consider linear, logarithmic and Chaplygin gas models and find that a modified generalized Chaplygin gas model provides maximum viable regions for stability of the respective thin-shell wormholes. It is found that formation of stable regions for ABGB thin-shell wormholes highly depends on the physically acceptable range of charge and other parameters.
Electrodynamics of disk-accreting magnetic neutron stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, M. Coleman; Lamb, Frederick K.; Hamilton, Russell J.
1994-01-01
We have investigated the electrodynamics of magnetic neutron stars accreting from Keplerian disks and the implications for particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission by such systems. We argue that the particle density in the magnetospheres of such stars is larger by orders of magnitude than the Goldreich-Julian density, so that the formation of vacuum gaps is unlikely. We show that even if the star rotates slowly, electromotive forces (EMFs) of order 10(exp 15) V are produced by the interaction of plasma in the accretion disk with the magnetic field of the neutron star. The resistance of the disk-magnetosphere-star circuit is small, and hence these EMFs drive very large conduction currents. Such large currents are likely to produce magnetospheric instabilities, such as relativistic double layers and reconnection events, that can accelerate electrons or ions to very high energies.
Electrodynamics of disk-accreting magnetic neutron stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, M. Coleman; Lamb, Frederick K.; Hamilton, Russell J.
1994-01-01
We have investigated the electrodynamics of magnetic neutron stars accreting from Keplerian disks and the implications for particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission by such systems. We argue that the particle density in the magnetospheres of such stars is larger by orders of magnitude than the Goldreich-Julian density, so that the formation of vacuum gaps is unlikely. We show that even if the star rotates slowly, electromotive forces (EMFs) of order 10(exp 15) V are produced by the interaction of plasma in the accretion disk with the magnetic field of the neutron star. The resistance of the disk-magnetosphere-star circuit is small, and hence these EMFs drive very large conduction currents. Such large currents are likely to produce magnetospheric instabilities, such as relativistic double layers and reconnection events, that can accelerate electrons or ions to very high energies.
Effects of random potentials in three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Peng-Lu; Wang, An-Min; Liu, Guo-Zhu
2017-06-01
Three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics exhibits a number of interesting properties, such as dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, weak confinement, and non-Fermi-liquid behavior, and also has wide applications in condensed-matter physics. We study the effects of random potentials, which exist in almost all realistic condensed-matter systems, on the low-energy behaviors of massless Dirac fermions by means of renormalization-group method, and show that the role of random mass is significantly enhanced by the gauge interaction, whereas random scalar and vector potentials are insusceptible to the gauge interaction at the one-loop order. The static random potential breaks the Lorentz invariance, and as such induces unusual renormalization of fermion velocity. We then consider the case in which three types of random potentials coexist in the system. The random scalar potential is found to play a dominant role in the low-energy region, and drives the system to undergo a quantum phase transition.
Quantum Electrodynamics Effects in Rovibrational Spectra of Molecular Hydrogen.
Komasa, Jacek; Piszczatowski, Konrad; Łach, Grzegorz; Przybytek, Michał; Jeziorski, Bogumił; Pachucki, Krzysztof
2011-10-11
The dissociation energies from all rovibrational levels of H2 and D2 in the ground electronic state are calculated with high accuracy by including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects in the nonadiabatic treatment of the nuclear motion. For D2, the obtained energies have theoretical uncertainties of 0.001 cm(-1). For H2, similar uncertainties are for the lowest levels, while for the higher ones the uncertainty increases to 0.005 cm(-1). Very good agreement with recent high-resolution measurements of the rotational v = 0 levels of H2, including states with large angular momentum J, is achieved. This agreement would not have been possible without accurate evaluation of the relativistic and QED contributions and may be viewed as the first observation of the QED effects, mainly the electron self-energy, in a molecular spectrum. For several electric quadrupole transitions, we still observe certain disagreement with experimental results, which remains to be explained.
Electrodynamics of the stratosphere using 5000 cu m superpressure balloons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holzworth, R. H.
1983-01-01
The Electrodynamics of the Middle Atmosphere research project encompasses the design of a microprocessor-controlled payload and the launch of up to eight small superpressure balloons in the 1982-1984 period. The primary payload instrument will measure the vector electric field from dc to 10 kHz, and the payloads will include instruments measuring local ionization, electrical conductivity, magnetic field, and temperature and pressure fluctuations. In addition, optical lightning will be recorded. The simultaneous measurement of these stratospheric parameters by several balloons, for periods extending over several solar rotations, will allow the study of electrical coupling between atmosphere and magnetosphere, of global current systems, and of global response to solar flares and magnetospheric storms.
Quantum electrodynamics and plasmonic resonance of metallic nanostructures.
Zhang, Mingliang; Xiang, Hongping; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang
2016-04-20
Plasmonic resonance of a metallic nanostructure results from coherent motion of its conduction electrons driven by incident light. At the resonance, the induced dipole in the nanostructure is proportional to the number of the conduction electrons, hence 10(7) times larger than that in an atom. The interaction energy between the induced dipole and fluctuating virtual field of the incident light can reach a few tenths of an eV. Therefore, the classical electromagnetism dominating the field may become inadequate. We propose that quantum electrodynamics (QED) may be used as a fundamental theory to describe the interaction between the virtual field and the oscillating electrons. Based on QED, we derive analytic expressions for the plasmon resonant frequency, which depends on three easily accessible material parameters. The analytic theory reproduces very well the experimental data, and can be used in rational design of materials for plasmonic applications.
One-loop renormalization of quantum electrodynamics in curved spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panangaden, Prakash
1981-04-01
In this paper we discuss the renormalizability of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in a general curved spacetime. A generating functional is introduced and position-space Feynman rules are obtained. Functional techniques are used to show that a form of Ward's identity can be derived in curved spacetime. A local momentum representation for the scalar and vector propagators is introduced. The one-loop diagrams for the electron and photon self-energy are computed and it is shown that there are no divergences that are not present in flat space. It is shown that this latter result depends crucially on the gauge invariance of the theory and is not merely a trivial consequence of renormalizability of QED in flat spacetime.
Study of Japanese electrodynamic-suspension maglev systems
He, J.L.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.
1994-04-01
This report presents the results of a study of the Japanese MLU magnetic-levitation (maglev) system. The development of the MLU system is reviewed, and the dynamic circuit model then is introduced and applied to the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension system. Three different types of figure-eight-shaped null-flux suspension systems are discussed in detail: (1) the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension system without cross-connection; (2) the combined suspension and guidance system; and (3) the combined propulsion, levitation, and guidance system. The electrodynamic-suspension maglev systems developed in Japan seem to be very promising and could result in a commercial application in the near future.
Nonperturbative renormalization of scalar quantum electrodynamics in d=3
Dimock, J.
2015-10-15
For scalar quantum electrodynamics on a three-dimensional toroidal lattice with a fine lattice spacing, we consider the renormalization problem of choosing counter terms depending on the lattice spacing, so that the theory stays finite as the spacing goes to zero. We employ a renormalization group method which analyzes the flow of the mass and the vacuum energy as a problem in discrete dynamical systems. The main result is that counter terms can be chosen so that at the end of the iteration these quantities take preassigned values. No use is made of perturbation theory. The renormalization group transformations are defined with bounded fields, an approximation which can be justified in Balaban’s approach to the renormalization group.
Ill posedness of force-free electrodynamics in Euler potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reula, Oscar A.; Rubio, Marcelo E.
2017-03-01
We prove that the initial value problem for force-free electrodynamics in Euler variables is not well posed. We establish this result by showing that a well-posedness criterion provided by Kreiss fails to hold for this theory, and using a theorem provided by Strang. To show the nature of the problem we display a particular bounded (in Sobolev norms) sequence of initial data for the force-free equations such that at any given time as close to zero as one wishes, the corresponding evolution sequence is not bounded. Thus, the force-free evolution is noncontinuous in that norm with respect to the initial data. We furthermore prove that this problem is also ill-posed in the Leray-Ohya sense.
Simulation of the hydrogen ground state in stochastic electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.; Liska, Matthew T. P.
2015-10-01
Stochastic electrodynamics is a classical theory which assumes that the physical vacuum consists of classical stochastic fields with average energy \\frac{1}{2}{{\\hslash }}ω in each mode, i.e., the zero-point Planck spectrum. While this classical theory explains many quantum phenomena related to harmonic oscillator problems, hard results on nonlinear systems are still lacking. In this work the hydrogen ground state is studied by numerically solving the Abraham-Lorentz equation in the dipole approximation. First the stochastic Gaussian field is represented by a sum over Gaussian frequency components, next the dynamics is solved numerically using OpenCL. The approach improves on work by Cole and Zou 2003 by treating the full 3d problem and reaching longer simulation times. The results are compared with a conjecture for the ground state phase space density. Though short time results suggest a trend towards confirmation, in all attempted modellings the atom ionises at longer times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gulyaev, Yurii V.; Kravchenko, Viktor F.; Kuraev, Aleksandr A.
2004-06-01
Optimal control theory-based methods for improving the efficiency of Cherenkov microwave amplifiers with irregular electrodynamic structures are reviewed. The physics of optimal processes in amplifiers and oscillators with Cherenkov- and combined-type interactions is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kholmetskii, A. L.; Missevitch, O. V.; Yarman, T.
2016-09-01
We consider the relativistic transformation of the magnetic dipole moment and disclose its physical meaning, shedding light on the related difficulties in the physical interpretation of classical electrodynamics in material media.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
The middle atmosphere (MA), which is defined as the region bounded below by the tropopause near 10 km and above by the mesopause near 90 to 100 km, is regarded as a passive medium through which electric fields and currents are transmitted from sources above and below. A scientific background is given for: sources of MA electric fields; MA conductivity and currents; and MA plasma characteristics. Recommendations are given for research in MA electrodynamics in the following areas: (1) MA electrodynamical parameters; (2) models and supportive laboratory measurements; and (3) investigation of specific problems in the coupled systems.
The detection of gravitational waves using electrodynamic system of Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grunskaya, Lubov; Isakevich, Valiriy
There is studied the interconnection of tide processes of geophysical and astrophysical origin with the Earth electromagnetic fields. There has been developed a programme-analytical system (PAS) to investigate signal structures in spectral and time series, caused by geophysical and astrophysical processes based on the method of eigen vectors. There were discovered frequencies in the electrical and geomagnetical field of ELF range with PAS, which coincide with the frequency of gravitational -wave radiation of a number of double stellar systems. In the electrical and geomagnetic field there was discovered a specific axion frequency VA=0.5*10-5 Hz belonging to the ELF range which was predicted by the theory. The problem of the anomalous behavior of the electrodynamic system response to the gravitational - wave affect is being discussed. On the basis of the rich experimental material have been investigated the frequencies of gravitational-wave radiation of a number of binary systems: J0700+6418, J1012+5307, J1537+1155, J1959+2048, J2130+1210, J1915+1606. The work is carried out with supporting of RFFI № 14-07-97510, State Task to Universities on 2014-2016.
Model of fractionalization of Faraday lines in compact electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geraedts, Scott D.; Motrunich, Olexei I.
2014-12-01
Motivated by ideas of fractionalization and intrinsic topological order in bosonic models with short-range interactions, we consider similar phenomena in formal lattice gauge theory models. Specifically, we show that a compact quantum electrodynamics (CQED) can have, besides the familiar Coulomb and confined phases, additional unusual confined phases where excitations are quantum lines carrying fractions of the elementary unit of electric field strength. We construct a model that has N -tupled monopole condensation and realizes 1 /N fractionalization of the quantum Faraday lines. This phase has another excitation which is a ZN quantum surface in spatial dimensions five and higher, but can be viewed as a quantum line or a quantum particle in four or three spatial dimensions, respectively. These excitations have statistical interactions with the fractionalized Faraday lines; for example, in three spatial dimensions, the particle excitation picks up a Berry phase of ei 2 π /N when going around the fractionalized Faraday line excitation. We demonstrate the existence of this phase by Monte Carlo simulations in (3+1) space-time dimensions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stern, David P.
1990-01-01
The present one-dimensional model analysis of substorm electrodynamics proceeds from the standard scenario in which the plasma sheet collapses into a neutral sheet, and magnetic merging occurs between the two tail lobes; plasma flows into the neutral sheet from the lobes and the sides, undergoing acceleration in the dawn-dusk direction. The process is modified by the tendency of the accelerated plasma to unbalance charge neutrality, leading to an exchange of electrons with the ionosphere in order to maintain neutrality. The cross-tail current is weakened by the diversion: this reduces the adjacent lobe-field intensity, but without notable effects apart from a slight expansion of the tail boundary.
Longitudinal Differences of Ionospheric Vertical Density Distribution and Equatorial Electrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Valledares, C.E.; Pfaff, R. F.
2012-01-01
Accurate estimation of global vertical distribution of ionospheric and plasmaspheric density as a function of local time, season, and magnetic activity is required to improve the operation of space-based navigation and communication systems. The vertical density distribution, especially at low and equatorial latitudes, is governed by the equatorial electrodynamics that produces a vertical driving force. The vertical structure of the equatorial density distribution can be observed by using tomographic reconstruction techniques on ground-based global positioning system (GPS) total electron content (TEC). Similarly, the vertical drift, which is one of the driving mechanisms that govern equatorial electrodynamics and strongly affect the structure and dynamics of the ionosphere in the low/midlatitude region, can be estimated using ground magnetometer observations. We present tomographically reconstructed density distribution and the corresponding vertical drifts at two different longitudes: the East African and west South American sectors. Chains of GPS stations in the east African and west South American longitudinal sectors, covering the equatorial anomaly region of meridian approx. 37 deg and 290 deg E, respectively, are used to reconstruct the vertical density distribution. Similarly, magnetometer sites of African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and INTERMAGNET for the east African sector and South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) are used to estimate the vertical drift velocity at two distinct longitudes. The comparison between the reconstructed and Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) measured density profiles shows excellent agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of tomographic reconstruction technique in providing the vertical density distribution at different longitudes. Similarly, the comparison between magnetometer estimated vertical drift and other independent drift observation
Quantum electrodynamic approach to the conductivity of gapped graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.
2016-11-01
The electrical conductivity of graphene with a nonzero mass-gap parameter is investigated starting from the first principles of quantum electrodynamics in (2+1)-dimensional space time at any temperature. The formalism of the polarization tensor defined over the entire plane of complex frequency is used. At zero temperature we reproduce the results for both real and imaginary parts of the conductivity, obtained previously in the local approximation, and generalize them taking into account the effects of nonlocality. At nonzero temperature the exact analytic expressions for real and imaginary parts of the longitudinal and transverse conductivities of gapped graphene are derived, as well as their local limits and approximate expressions in several asymptotic regimes. Specifically, a simple local result for the real part of conductivity of gapped graphene valid at any temperature is obtained. According to our results, the real part of the conductivity is not equal to zero for frequencies exceeding the width of the gap and goes to the universal conductivity with increasing frequency. The imaginary part of conductivity of gapped graphene varies from infinity at zero frequency to minus infinity at the frequency defined by the gap parameter and then goes to zero with further increase of frequency. The analytic expressions are accompanied by the results of numerical computations. Possible future generalization of the used formalism is discussed.
Nonlinear electrodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of rotating dilaton black branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, A.; Naeimipour, F.; Zebarjad, S. M.
2016-07-01
We construct a new class of rotating dilaton solutions in the presence of logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics. These solutions represent black branes with flat horizon and contain k=[(n-1)/2] rotation parameters in n-dimensional spacetime where [ x] is the integer part of x. We study the causal structure of the spacetime and calculate thermodynamic and conserved quantities and show that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics on the black brane horizon, { dM}={ TdS}+{{{sum _{i=1}k}}}Ω id{J}i+{ Ud}{Q}. Then, we study geometrical approach towards thermodynamics by choosing an appropriate geometrical metric. We show that the singularity of the Ricci scalar coincides exactly with the phase transition points. We observe that our system encounters two types of phase transitions depending on the metric parameters. For the first one the heat capacity is zero and for the second one the heat capacity diverges. In the first kind of phase transition, the brane has a transition from an unstable non-physical to a stable physical state. In the second type of phase transition the brane moves from a stable to an unstable state. Finally, we comment on the dynamical stability of the obtained solutions under perturbations in four dimensions.
On the initial value formulation of classical electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deckert, Dirk-André; Hartenstein, Vera
2016-11-01
We describe a seemingly un-noticed feature of the text-book Maxwell-Lorentz system of classical electrodynamics which challenges its formulation in terms of an initial value problem. For point-charges, even after appropriate renormalization, we demonstrate that most of the generic initial data evolves to develop singularities in the electromagnetic fields along the light cones of the initial charge positions. We provide explicit formulas for the corresponding fields, demonstrate how this phenomenon renders the initial value problem ill-posed, and show how such bad initial data can be ruled out by extra conditions in addition to the Maxwell constraints. These extra conditions, however, require knowledge of the history of the solution and, as we discuss, effectively turn the Maxwell-Lorentz system into a system of delay equations much like the Fokker-Schwarzschild-Tetrode equations. For extended charges such singular light fronts persist in a smoothened form and, as we argue, yield physically doubtful solutions. Our results also apply to some extent to expectation values of field operators in quantum field theory.
Ultrafast terahertz electrodynamics of photonic and electronic nanostructures
Luo, Liang
2015-01-01
This thesis summarizes my work on using ultrafast laser pulses to study Terahertz (THz) electrodynamics of photonic and electronic nanostructures and microstructures. Ultrafast timeresolved (optical, NIR, MIR, THz) pump-probe spectroscopy setup has been successfully built, which enables me to perform a series of relevant experiments. Firstly, a novel high e ciency and compact THz wave emitter based on split-ring-resonators has been developed and characterized. The emitter can be pumped at any wavelength by tailoring the magnetic resonance and could generate gapless THz waves covering the entire THz band. Secondly, two kinds of new photonic structures for THz wave manipulation have been successfully designed and characterized. One is based on the 1D and 2D photo-imprinted di ractive elements. The other is based on the photoexcited double-split-ring-resonator metamaterials. Both structures are exible and can modulate THz waves with large tunability. Thirdly, the dark excitons in semiconducting singlewalled carbon nanotubes are studied by optical pump and THz probe spectroscopy, which provides the rst insights into the THz responses of nonequilibrium excitonic correlations and dynamics from the dark ground states in carbon nanotubes. Next, several on-going projects are brie y presented such as the study of ultrafast THz dynamics of Dirac fermions in topological insulator Bi_{2}Se_{3} with Mid-infrared excitation. Finally, the thesis ends with a summary of the completed experiments and an outlook of the future plan.
Thermodynamics of charged black holes with a nonlinear electrodynamics source
Gonzalez, Hernan A.; Hassaiene, Mokhtar; Martinez, Cristian
2009-11-15
We study the thermodynamical properties of electrically charged black hole solutions of a nonlinear electrodynamics theory defined by a power p of the Maxwell invariant, which is coupled to Einstein gravity in four and higher spacetime dimensions. Depending on the range of the parameter p, these solutions present different asymptotic behaviors. We compute the Euclidean action with the appropriate boundary term in the grand canonical ensemble. The thermodynamical quantities are identified and, in particular, the mass and the charge are shown to be finite for all classes of solutions. Interestingly, a generalized Smarr formula is derived and it is shown that this latter encodes perfectly the different asymptotic behaviors of the black hole solutions. The local stability is analyzed by computing the heat capacity and the electrical permittivity and we find that a set of small black holes is locally stable. In contrast to the standard Reissner-Nordstroem solution, there is a first-order phase transition between a class of these nonlinear charged black holes and the Minkowski spacetime.
Thermodynamics of charged black holes with a nonlinear electrodynamics source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, Hernán A.; Hassaïne, Mokhtar; Martínez, Cristián
2009-11-01
We study the thermodynamical properties of electrically charged black hole solutions of a nonlinear electrodynamics theory defined by a power p of the Maxwell invariant, which is coupled to Einstein gravity in four and higher spacetime dimensions. Depending on the range of the parameter p, these solutions present different asymptotic behaviors. We compute the Euclidean action with the appropriate boundary term in the grand canonical ensemble. The thermodynamical quantities are identified and, in particular, the mass and the charge are shown to be finite for all classes of solutions. Interestingly, a generalized Smarr formula is derived and it is shown that this latter encodes perfectly the different asymptotic behaviors of the black hole solutions. The local stability is analyzed by computing the heat capacity and the electrical permittivity and we find that a set of small black holes is locally stable. In contrast to the standard Reissner-Nordström solution, there is a first-order phase transition between a class of these nonlinear charged black holes and the Minkowski spacetime.
Modeling and study of nonlinear effects in electrodynamic shakers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saraswat, Abhishek; Tiwari, Nachiketa
2017-02-01
An electrodynamic shaker is inherently a nonlinear electro-mechanical system. In this work, we have developed a lumped parameter model for the entire electromechanical system, developed an approach to non-destructively determine these parameters, and predict the nonlinear response of the shaker. This predicted response has been validated using experimental data. Through such an approach, we have been able to accurately predict the resulting distortions in the response of the shaker and other nonlinear effects like DC offset in the displacement response. Our approach offers a key advantage vis-à-vis other approaches which rely on techniques involving Volterra Series expansions or techniques based on blackbox models like neural networks, which is that in our approach, apart from predicting the response of the shaker, the model parameters obtained have a physical significance and changes in the parameters can be directly mapped to modification in key design parameters of the shaker. The proposed approach is also advantageous in one more way: it requires measurement of only four parameters, voltage, current, displacement and acceleration for estimating shaker model parameters non-destructively. The proposed model can be used for the design of linearization controllers, prototype testing and simulation of new shaker designs as well as for performance prediction of shakers under testing conditions.
Dipolar quantum electrodynamics of the two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todorov, Yanko
2015-03-01
Similarly to a previous work on the homogeneous electron gas [Y. Todorov, Phys. Rev. B 89, 075115 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.075115], we apply the Power-Zienau-Wooley (PZW) formulation of the quantum electrodynamics to the case of an electron gas quantum confined by one-dimensional potential. We provide a microscopic description of all collective plasmon modes of the gas, oscillating both along and perpendicular to the direction of quantum confinement. Furthermore, we study the interaction of the collective modes with a photonic structure, planar metallic waveguide, by using the full expansion of the electromagnetic field into normal modes. We show how the boundary conditions for the electromagnetic field influence both the transverse light-matter coupling and the longitudinal particle-particle interactions. The PZW descriptions appear thus as a convenient tool to study semiconductor quantum optics in geometries where quantum-confined particles interact with strongly confined electromagnetic fields in microresonators, such as the ones used to achieve the ultrastrong light-matter coupling regime.
Effect of laser polarization on quantum electrodynamical cascading
Bashmakov, V. F.; Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Fedotov, A. M.; Narozhny, N. B.
2014-01-15
Development of quantum electrodynamical (QED) cascades in a standing electromagnetic wave for circular and linear polarizations is simulated numerically with a 3D PIC-MC code. It is demonstrated that for the same laser energy the number of particles produced in a circularly polarized field is greater than in a linearly polarized field, though the acquiring mean energy per particle is larger in the latter case. The qualitative model of laser-assisted QED cascades is extended by including the effect of polarization of the field. It turns out that cascade dynamics is notably more complicated in the case of linearly polarized field, where separation into the qualitatively different “electric” and “magnetic” regions (where the electric field is stronger than the magnetic field and vice versa) becomes essential. In the “magnetic” regions, acceleration is suppressed, and moreover the high-energy electrons are even getting cooled by photon emission. The volumes of the “electric” and “magnetic” regions evolve periodically in time and so does the cascade growth rate. In contrast to the linear polarization, the charged particles can be accelerated by circularly polarized wave even in “magnetic region.” The “electric” and “magnetic” regions do not evolve in time, and cascade growth rate almost does not depend on time for circular polarization.
Acoustic characteristics of an electrodynamic planar digital loudspeaker.
Furihata, Kenji; Hayama, Atsushi; Asano, David K; Yanagisawa, Takesaburo
2003-07-01
In this paper, an electrodynamic planar loudspeaker driven by a digital signal is experimentally discussed. The digital loudspeaker consists of 22 voice coils, 11 permanent magnets, a diaphragm with streamlined sections molded in plastic, and a suspension made of handmade Japanese paper between the diaphragm and the frame. First, the acoustic responses are affected by the arrangement of the voice coils, so an asymmetric arrangement is studied. This asymmetric arrangement is designed to obtain as flat a frequency response to an analog signal as possible. This arrangement is compared with a symmetric one and results show that the flatness of the frequency response around 1 kHz and 4 kHz is improved and that the sound reproduction band is from 40 Hz to 10 kHz. Second, to evaluate the acoustic responses to a digital signal, the digital loudspeaker is driven with a pulse code modulation signal. Results show that the digital loudspeaker can reproduce pure sound with a total harmonic distortion of less than 5% from 40 Hz to 10 kHz, exceeding this value only in a narrow frequency band near 4 kHz. This digital loudspeaker was demonstrated to have good linearity over its dynamic range of 84 dB.
Interference control of perfect photon absorption in cavity quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Liyong; Di, Ke; Zhu, Yifu; Agarwal, G. S.
2017-01-01
We propose and analyze a scheme for controlling coherent photon transmission and reflection in a cavity-quantum-electrodynamics (CQED) system consisting of an optical resonator coupled with three-level atoms coherently prepared by a control laser from free space. When the control laser is off and the cavity is excited by two identical light fields from two ends of the cavity, the two input light fields can be completely absorbed by the CQED system and the light energy is converted into the excitation of the polariton states, but no light can escape from the cavity. Two distinct cases of controlling the perfect photon absorption are analyzed: (a) when the control laser is tuned to the atomic resonance and creates electromagnetically induced transparency, the perfect photon absorption is suppressed and the input light fields are nearly completely transmitted through the cavity; (b) when the control laser is tuned to the polariton state resonance and inhibits the polariton state excitation, the perfect photon absorption is again suppressed and the input light fields are nearly completely reflected from the cavity. Thus, the CQED system can act as a perfect absorber or near-perfect transmitter and/or reflector by simply turning the control laser off or on. Such interference control of the coherent photon-atom interaction in the CQED system should be useful for a variety of applications in optical logical devices.
Electrodynamical Model of Quasi-Efficient Financial Markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilinski, Kirill N.; Stepanenko, Alexander S.
The modelling of financial markets presents a problem which is both theoretically challenging and practically important. The theoretical aspects concern the issue of market efficiency which may even have political implications [1], whilst the practical side of the problem has clear relevance to portfolio management [2] and derivative pricing [3]. Up till now all market models contain "smart money" traders and "noise" traders whose joint activity constitutes the market [4, 5]. On a short time scale this traditional separation does not seem to be realistic, and is hardly acceptable since all high-frequency market participants are professional traders and cannot be separated into "smart" and "noisy." In this paper we present a "microscopic" model with homogenuous quasi-rational behaviour of traders, aiming to describe short time market behaviour. To construct the model we use an analogy between "screening" in quantum electrodynamics and an equilibration process in a market with temporal mispricing [6, 7]. As a result, we obtain the time-dependent distribution function of the returns which is in quantitative agreement with real market data and obeys the anomalous scaling relations recently reported for both high-frequency exchange rates [8], S&P500 [9] and other stock market indices [10, 11].
Optimal parametrization of electrodynamical battery model using model selection criteria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suárez-García, Andrés; Alfonsín, Víctor; Urréjola, Santiago; Sánchez, Ángel
2015-07-01
This paper describes the mathematical parametrization of an electrodynamical battery model using different model selection criteria. A good modeling technique is needed by the battery management units in order to increase battery lifetime. The elements of battery models can be mathematically parametrized to enhance their implementation in simulation environments. In this work, the best mathematical parametrizations are selected using three model selection criteria: the coefficient of determination (R2), the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayes Information Criterion (BIC). The R2 criterion only takes into account the error of the mathematical parametrizations, whereas AIC and BIC consider complexity. A commercial 40 Ah lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery is modeled and then simulated for contrasting. The OpenModelica open-source modeling and simulation environment is used for doing the battery simulations. The mean percent error of the simulations is 0.0985% for the models parametrized with R2 , 0.2300% for the AIC ones, and 0.3756% for the BIC ones. As expected, the R2 selected the most precise, complex and slowest mathematical parametrizations. The AIC criterion chose parametrizations with similar accuracy, but simpler and faster than the R2 ones.
Electrodynamic structure of the morning high-latitude trough region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanhamäki, H.; Aikio, A.; Voiculescu, M.; Juusola, L.; Nygrén, T.; Kuula, R.
2016-03-01
We describe the electrodynamics of a postmidnight, high-latitude ionospheric trough, observed with the European Incoherent Scatter radar in northern Scandinavia on 24-25 June 2003 around 22:00-02:30 UT during quiet conditions. The UHF radar made meridian scans with a 30 min cadence resulting in nine cross sections of ionospheric parameters. The F region electric field was also determined with the tristatic system. Ionospheric equivalent currents, calculated from ground magnetometer data, mostly show an electrojet-like current that is reasonably uniform in the longitudinal direction. Combined analysis of the conductances and equivalent current with a local Kamide-Richmond-Matsushita (KRM) method yields the ionospheric electric field and field-aligned current (FAC) in a 2-D (latitude-longitude) area around the radar. We conclude that the most likely scenario is one where the trough is initially created poleward of the auroral oval by downward FAC that evacuates the F region, but as the trough moves to lower latitudes during the early morning hours, it becomes colocated with the westward electrojet. There the electron density further decreases due to increased recombination caused by enhanced ion temperature, which in turn is brought about by a larger convection speed. Later in the morning the convection speed decreases and the trough is filled by increasing photoionization.
Class of gauge-invariant models of quantum electrodynamics with nonlocal interaction
Mei, Tao
2017-01-01
We present a class of gauge-invariant models of quantum electrodynamics with nonlocal interaction. The models have translation, Lorentz and gauge invariance and reduce to the conventional local quantum electrodynamics under the appropriate limit conditions, both the equations of motion of the charged particle and electromagnetic field obtained by the action principle lead to the normal form of current conservation. Quantization of the models is realized by taking advantage of the formalism based on the Yang-Feldman equations and the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formulas. Finally, we employ a special choice of the models to calculate the vacuum polarization as an example to demonstrate the possibility of establishing a theory of quantum electrodynamics without divergence. PMID:28368044
Class of gauge-invariant models of quantum electrodynamics with nonlocal interaction.
Mei, Tao
2017-04-03
We present a class of gauge-invariant models of quantum electrodynamics with nonlocal interaction. The models have translation, Lorentz and gauge invariance and reduce to the conventional local quantum electrodynamics under the appropriate limit conditions, both the equations of motion of the charged particle and electromagnetic field obtained by the action principle lead to the normal form of current conservation. Quantization of the models is realized by taking advantage of the formalism based on the Yang-Feldman equations and the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formulas. Finally, we employ a special choice of the models to calculate the vacuum polarization as an example to demonstrate the possibility of establishing a theory of quantum electrodynamics without divergence.
Class of gauge-invariant models of quantum electrodynamics with nonlocal interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Tao
2017-04-01
We present a class of gauge-invariant models of quantum electrodynamics with nonlocal interaction. The models have translation, Lorentz and gauge invariance and reduce to the conventional local quantum electrodynamics under the appropriate limit conditions, both the equations of motion of the charged particle and electromagnetic field obtained by the action principle lead to the normal form of current conservation. Quantization of the models is realized by taking advantage of the formalism based on the Yang-Feldman equations and the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formulas. Finally, we employ a special choice of the models to calculate the vacuum polarization as an example to demonstrate the possibility of establishing a theory of quantum electrodynamics without divergence.
Scintillation Observations and Response of The Ionosphere to Electrodynamics (SORTIE)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crowley, G.
2015-12-01
The Scintillation Observations and Response of The Ionosphere to Electrodynamics, or SORTIE, mission is a 6U NASA Heliophysics CubeSat designed to study the ionosphere at altitudes below 400km. The SORTIE mission is being developed by a team including ASTRA (lead institution), AFRL, University of Texas at Dallas (UTD), COSMIAC (Satellite Integrator), and Boston College. SORTIE will address cutting-edge science in the area of ionospheric dynamics. The SORTIE mission will address the following science questions: Q1) Discover the sources of wave-like plasma perturbations in the F-region ionosphere. Q2) Determine the relative role of dynamo action and more direct mechanical forcing in the formation of wave-like plasma perturbations. To address these questions we plan to fly a CubeSat with novel sensors that measure key plasma parameters in a circular, low to middle inclination orbit near 350-400 km altitude. The sensors include an ion velocity meter (built by UTD) and a Planar Langmuir Probe (built by AFRL). The SORTIE mission plan is to describe the distribution of wave-like structures in the plasma density of the ionospheric F-region. In doing so, the SORTIE team will determine the possible role of these perturbations in aiding the growth of plasma instabilities. SORTIE will provide (1) the initial spectrum of wave perturbations which are the starting point for the RT calculation; (2) measured electric fields which determine the magnitude of the instability growth rate near the region where plasma bubbles are generated; (3) initial observations of irregularities in plasma density which result from RT growth. SORTIE results will be used as input to PBMOD, an assimilative first-principles physical model of the ionosphere, in order to predict evolution of EPBs. In this presentation, we will review the science objectives, provide an overview of the spacecraft and instrument design, and present a concept of operations plan.
Long term dynamics and optimal control of nano-satellite deorbit using a short electrodynamic tether
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, R.; Zhu, Z. H.
2013-10-01
This paper studies the long term dynamics and optimal control of a nano-satellite deorbit by a short electrodynamic tether. The long term deorbit process is discretized into intervals and within each interval a two-phase optimal control law is proposed to achieve libration stability and fast deorbit simultaneously. The first-phase formulates an open-loop fast-deorbit control trajectory by a simplified model that assumes the slow-varying orbital elements of electrodynamic tethered system as constant and ignores perturbation forces other than the electrodynamic force. The second phase tracks the optimal trajectory derived in the first phase by a finite receding horizon control method while considering a full dynamic model of electrodynamic tether system. Both optimal control problems are solved by direct collocation method base on the Hermite-Simpson discretization schemes with coincident nodes. The resulting piecewise nonlinear programing problems in the sequential intervals reduces the problem size and improve the computational efficiency, which enable an on-orbit control application. Numerical results for deorbit control of a short electrodynamic tethered nano-satellite system in both equatorial and highly inclined orbits demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed control method. An optimal balance between the libration stability and a fast deorbit of satellite with minimum control efforts is achieved.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics of nanoscale two-level systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarabi, Bahman
In this dissertation, I introduce a novel method for measuring individual nanoscale two-level systems (TLSs) in amorphous solids based on strong direct coupling between a TLS and a cavity. I describe power- and temperature-dependent analysis of individual TLSs using a theoretical model based on cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED). This method allows for measuring individual TLSs in different insulators and over a wide range of film thicknesses. For a silicon nitride film at 25 mK and a lumped-element cavity resonance at 6.9 GHz, I find TLSs with coherence times on the order of microseconds which can potentially be used as coherent resources. Furthermore, I introduce a device which enables spectroscopy of TLSs in insulating films by DC-tuning the TLSs. I present measurement results on 60 TLSs accompanied by theoretical analysis and extraction of distribution statistics of the TLS parameters. I find evidence for at least two TLS dipole sizes. I also investigate the role of RF-induced DC bias voltage on the growth of titanium nitride films on silicon (100) substrates deposited by DC magnetron reactive sputtering. I present hybrid designs of TiN coplanar resonators which were fabricated with an aluminum transmission line to avoid impedance mismatches due to large kinetic inductance of TiN films. I observe remarkably large kinetic inductance at certain substrate DC bias voltages. Finally, I describe several trilayer resonators designed to measure TLS ensembles within atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown aluminum oxide. Each resonator is unique in trilayer capacitor perimeter and hence the alumina air-exposed cross section. I compare the measured loss tangents of the resonators and investigate the effect of the capacitor perimeter on TLS defect density at different temperatures.
Electrodynamics of relativistic electron beam x-ray sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niknejadi, Pardis
gun has been enhanced and/or the optical cavity (the final step of this proof-of-principle experiment) has been commissioned. Due to the complexity of this integrated system, one of the goals of this work is to serve the future members and staff of the UH FEL laboratory in configuring and operating this complex system. The final goal of the UH ICS project is to establish the principles on which producing a successful turn-key commercial inverse-Compton x-ray source will depend on. In the second part of this work we start with the discussion of coherent radiation at its most fundamental level, with emphasis on conservation of energy. We show that for coherently radiating particles the failure of conventional classical electrodynamics (CED) is far more serious than the well-known failure of CED at small scales. We will present a covariant picture of radiation in terms of the theory of action-at-a-distance and introduce a time-symmetric approach to electrodynamics. We demonstrate that this time symmetric approach provides a perfect match to the energy radiated by two coherently oscillating charged particles. This work is novel, as this was an unsolved problem in classical electrodynamics up until now. We also discuss how the conceptual implication of this work is demanding. For this purpose, we will propose two different experiments that can further our understanding of the presented problem. The first experiment involves a small (lambda/10) antenna, and the goal is to measure the advanced field of the absorber at distances of 5lambda or less. Calculation and precise measurement of the antenna field/potential at distances of order lambda is challenging, causing this experiment to be a difficult yet possible task. In the second experiment, we discuss in some detail the experimental setup that would verify and/or further our understanding of the underlying physics of Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FELs. We provide an analytical verification as a first step
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curé, Jorge C.
1982-10-01
The probable existence of a new electrodynamic field is obtained by analogy with the general theory of relativity. The new field is derived from a scalar electrodynamic potential which is similar to the Edwards potential discovered experimentally in recent years. A modification of the Millikan oil drop experiment is also suggested to empirically verify the new field avoiding misinterpretations of Edwards' results.
Electrodynamic model for the formation of auroral inospheric cavities
Doe, R.A.; Vickrey, J.F.; Mendillo, M.
1995-06-01
Auroral ionospheric cavities (AICs) are latitudinally narrow, field-aligned density depletions of the wintertime polar F region ionosphere. AICs have been detected in incoherent scatter radar data from the Sondrestrom radar facility in a 2-year sample and during two coordinated multi-instrument campaigns. These data suggest the possibility that AICs are created by the ionospheric closure of field-aligned currents (FACs) in the polar ionosphere. In this scenario, the cavity forms in a region where ionospheric electrons are evacuated upward as charge carriers for a downward FAC. In order to model this process, a two-dimensional (altitude versus latitude) simulation has been constructed that imposes an oppositely directed FAC pair at the top of a polar ionosphere that is subject to chemical loss and diffusive transport; the pertinent equations are solved for the resultant system of closure currents and localized plasma loss. Electrodynamic evacuation is modeled by solving Ohm`s law and {del}{center_dot}j = 0 on the ionospheric grid with an imposed constant topside potential. The sensitivity of the modeled ionosphere to modification from chemistry and diffusion alone is evaluated by removing the topside potential, and imposing a region of enhanced ion temperature ion-neutral (slip) velocity at F region altitudes. This confirms the authors earlier conclusion that perturbed thermospheric temperatures and velocities alone cannot create AICs on observed time scales. Modeling results from field-aligned current closure, on the other hand, indicate that FACs are very efficient at modifying the polar ionosphere: modest currents of 0.2 to 0.02 {mu}A m{sup {minus}2} can create cavitylike structure on time scales from 30 to 64 s, respectively. 41 refs., 11 figs.
Some Quantum Experiments from the Point of View of Stochastic Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Špička, V.; Mareš, J. J.; Hubík, P.; Krištofik, J.
2007-09-01
Stochastic electrodynamics (SED), an alternative theory to quantum phenomena based on laws of classical physics is shortly reviewed and compared with quantum electrodynamics. Experiments supporting the existence of zero-point fluctuating radiation field, the key concept of SED, are discussed. Relation between measurements of the black-body radiation spectrum and noise is analysed to define conditions under which the zero-point component of radiation or noise can be observed. Further, it is shown that stability of weakly localized orbits, measured in disordered solid state systems, can be explained by the presence of zero-point fluctuations of vacuum.
Geometrothermodynamics of black holes in Lovelock gravity with a nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Naderi, R.
2015-01-01
The objective of the present paper is to analyze the phase transition of asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) black-hole solutions in Lovelock gravity in the presence of nonlinear electrodynamics. First, we present the asymptotically AdS black-hole solutions for two classes of the Born-Infeld type of nonlinear electrodynamics coupled (separately) with Einstein, Gauss-Bonnet, and third-order Lovelock gravity. Then, in order to discuss the phase transition, we calculate both the heat capacity and the Ricci scalar of the thermodynamical line element. We present a comparison between the singular points of the Ricci scalar using the geometrothermodynamics method and the corresponding vanishing points of the heat capacity in the canonical ensemble. In addition, we discuss the effects of both Lovelock and nonlinear electrodynamics on the phase transition points.
On analytical study of holographic superconductors with Born-Infeld electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Chuyu; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang; Wang, Yongjiu
2015-10-01
Based on the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem, Banerjee et al. proposed a perturbative approach to analytically investigate the properties of the (2 + 1)-dimensional superconductor with Born-Infeld electrodynamics (Banerjee et al., 2013) [29]. By introducing an iterative procedure, we will further improve the analytical results and the consistency with the numerical findings, and can easily extend the analytical study to the higher-dimensional superconductor with Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We observe that the higher Born-Infeld corrections make it harder for the condensation to form but do not affect the critical phenomena of the system. Our analytical results can be used to back up the numerical computations for the holographic superconductors with various condensates in Born-Infeld electrodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M.; Zesta, E.
2015-12-01
The currently funded African Meridian B-Field Education and Research (AMBER) magnetometer array comprises more than thirteen magnetometers stationed globally in the vicinity of geomagnetic equator. One of the main objectives of AMBER network is to understand the longitudinal variability of equatorial electrodynamics as function of local time, magnetic activity, and season. While providing complete meridian observation in the region and filling the largest land-based gap in global magnetometer coverage, the AMBER array addresses two fundamental areas of space physics: first, the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude (or L-shell), local time, longitude, magnetic activity, and season, and second, ULF pulsation strength at low/mid-latitude regions and its connection with equatorial electrojet and density fluctuation. The global AMBER network can also be used to augment observations from space-based instruments, such us the triplet SWARM mission and the upcoming ICON missions. Thus, in coordination with space-based and other ground-based observations, the AMBER magnetometer network provides a great opportunity to understand the electrodynamics that governs equatorial ionosphere motions. In this paper we present the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrodynamics using the combination of instruments onboard SWARM and C/NOFS satellites and ground-based AMBER network. Both ground- and pace-based observations show stronger dayside and evening sector equatorial electrodynamics in the American and Asian sectors compared to the African sector. On the other hand, the African sector is home to stronger and year-round ionospheric bubbles/irregularities compared to the American and Asian sectors. This raises the question if the evening sector equatorial electrodynamics (vertical drift), which is believed to be the main cause for the enhancement of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate, is stronger in the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, A.; Hajkhalili, S.
2015-11-01
We study topological dilaton black holes of Einstein gravity in the presence of exponential nonlinear electrodynamics. The event horizons of these black holes can be a two-dimensional positive, zero or negative constant curvature surface. We analyze thermodynamics of these solutions by calculating all conserved and thermodynamic quantities and showing that the first law holds on the black hole horizon. Then, we perform the stability analysis in both canonical and grand canonical ensemble and disclose the effects of the dilaton and nonlinear electrodynamics on the thermal stability of the solutions. Finally, we study the phase transition points of these black holes in the thermodynamic geometry approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsen, M. K.; Dechoum, K.; Plimak, L. I.
2001-04-01
We show that stochastic electrodynamics and quantum mechanics give quantitatively different predictions for the quantum nondemolition (QND) correlations in travelling wave second harmonic generation. Using phase space methods and stochastic integration, we calculate correlations in both the positive-P and truncated Wigner representations, the latter being equivalent to the semi-classical theory of stochastic electrodynamics. We show that the semi-classical results are different in the regions where the system performs best in relation to the QND criteria, and that they significantly overestimate the performance in these regions.
Methods of numerical analysis of 1-dimensional 2-body problem in Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimenko, S. V.; Nikitin, I. N.; Urazmetov, W. F.
2000-04-01
Numerical methods for solution of differential equations with deviating arguments describing 1-dimensional ultra-relativistic scattering of 2 identical charged particles in classical electrodynamics with half-retarded/halfadvanced interaction (Wheeler and Feynman, 1949) are developed. A bifurcation of solutions and violation of their reflectional symmetries in the region of velocities v>0.937c are found in numerical analysis.
Circuit quantum electrodynamics simulator of flat band physics in a Lieb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zi-He; Wang, Yan-Pu; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Yang, Wan-Li; Hu, Yong; Gao, Jin-Hua; Wu, Ying
2016-06-01
The concept of flat band plays an important role in strongly correlated many-body physics. However, the demonstration of the flat band physics is highly nontrivial due to intrinsic limitations in conventional condensed-matter materials. Here we propose a circuit quantum electrodynamics simulator of the two-dimensional (2D) Lieb lattice exhibiting a flat middle band. By exploiting the parametric conversion method, we design a photonic Lieb lattice with in situ tunable hopping strengths in a 2D array of coupled superconducting transmissionline resonators. Moreover, the flexibility of our proposal enables the incorporation of both the artificial gauge field and the strong photon-photon interaction in a time- and site-resolved manner. To unambiguously demonstrate the synthesized flat band, we further investigate the observation of the flat band localization of microwave photons through the pumping and the steady-state measurements of only a few sites on the lattice. Requiring only current level of technique and being robust against imperfections in realistic circuits, our scheme can be readily tested in experiment and may pave a new way towards the realization of exotic photonic quantum Hall fluids including anomalous quantum Hall effect and bosonic fractional quantum Hall effect without magnetic field.
Conformal invariant vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denisov, V. I.; Dolgaya, E. E.; Sokolov, V. A.; Denisova, I. P.
2017-08-01
In this paper, a general case of conformal invariant vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics is studied. We analyze the consistency of this electrodynamics model with fundamental principles such as causality, unitarity, and the Ellis-Hawking dominant energy condition. Certain features of the electromagnetic waves in this model are investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheppard, Cheyenne J.
Optical momentum within material media has been studied for a century. Although great strides have been made towards understanding photon momenta, there is still a question regarding the correct momentum of light. This is due to the many mathematical interpretations of Maxwell's unification of electromagnetism, yielding many independent views of classical electrodynamic quantities. Within this correspondence, the optical momentum controversy is studied via mathematical principles of continuum relativistic electrodynamics. The electromagnetic wave momentum is studied via moving contribution, where a framework for moving media is developed. Application of the framework with respect to independent formulations of electrodynamics are shown to be consistent with conservation of energy and momentum. In doing this, thought experiments are employed to test each approach and demonstrate the electrodynamic forces with respect to each formulation. This is first applied to two moving perfect reflector submerged in a dielectric medium such that both Abraham and Minkowski momenta are derived. Second, a moving slab of moving magneto-dielectric material is studied expanding the arguments into time average and time varying calculations. Each approach is consistent with electromagnetic wave theory and demonstrates the mathematical methods for deriving the both Abraham and Minkowski momentum models. The kinetic subsystem is studied by use of established physical principles, namely the Lagrangian. The field energy density and momentum density are used to derive the force expressions of electromagnetic fields. This formulates the respective system of equations, forming Maxwell's equations in terms of the field energy and momentum density. By use of the relativistic principle of virtual power, the Maxwell field stress tensor and kinetic momentum density are derived uniquely, disproving specific electrodynamic formulations as the kinetic formulation.
First quantized electrodynamics
Bennett, A.F.
2014-06-15
The parametrized Dirac wave equation represents position and time as operators, and can be formulated for many particles. It thus provides, unlike field-theoretic Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), an elementary and unrestricted representation of electrons entangled in space or time. The parametrized formalism leads directly and without further conjecture to the Bethe–Salpeter equation for bound states. The formalism also yields the Uehling shift of the hydrogenic spectrum, the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron to leading order in the fine structure constant, the Lamb shift and the axial anomaly of QED. -- Highlights: •First-quantized electrodynamics of the parametrized Dirac equation is developed. •Unrestricted entanglement in time is made explicit. •Bethe and Salpeter’s equation for relativistic bound states is derived without further conjecture. •One-loop scattering corrections and the axial anomaly are derived using a partial summation. •Wide utility of semi-classical Quantum Electrodynamics is argued.
Regions of the nanoparticle confinement by the electrodynamic linear Paul trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lapitsky, D. S.
2016-09-01
The possibility of the nanoparticles confinement by the electrodynamic Paul trap is shown. The areas of a nanoparticle confinement in gas flow are found. The electric potential of a nanoparticle for its capturing in the Paul trap should be of order 0.5 V to 150 V for particle sizes from 0.03 nmto 1 μm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoyt, Robert P.
2001-02-01
The LEO==>GTO Tether Boost Facility will combine momentum-exchange tether techniques with electrodynamic tether propulsion to provide a reusable infrastructure capable of repeatedly boosting payloads from low Earth orbit to geostationary transfer orbit without requiring propellant expenditure. Designs for the orbital mechanics and system sizing of a tether facility capable of boosting 2,500 kg payloads from LEO to GTO once every 30 days are presented. The entire tether facility is sized to enable an operational capability to be deployed with a single Delta-IV-H launch. The system is designed in a modular fashion so that its capacity can be increased with additional launches. The tether facility can also boost 1000 kg payloads to lunar transfer orbits, and will serve as the first building block of an Earth-Moon-Mars Tether Transportation Architecture. The tether facility will utilize electrodynamic tether propulsion to restore its orbit after each payload boost operation. Using numerical modeling of tether dynamics, orbital mechanics, electrodynamics, and other relevant physics, we validate the orbital design of the system and investigate methods for performing electrodynamic reboost of the station. .
Exact electrodynamics versus standard optics for a slab of cold dense gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javanainen, Juha; Ruostekoski, Janne; Li, Yi; Yoo, Sung-Mi
2017-09-01
We study light propagation through a slab of cold gas using both the standard electrodynamics of polarizable media and massive atom-by-atom simulations of the electrodynamics. The main finding is that the predictions from the two methods may differ qualitatively when the density of the atomic sample ρ and the wave number of resonant light k satisfy ρ k-3≳1 . The reason is that the standard electrodynamics is a mean-field theory, whereas for sufficiently strong light-mediated dipole-dipole interactions the atomic sample becomes strongly correlated. The deviations from mean-field theory appear to scale with the parameter ρ k-3 , and we demonstrate noticeable effects already at ρ k-3≃10-2 . In dilute gases and in gases with an added inhomogeneous broadening the simulations show shifts of the resonance lines in qualitative agreement with the predicted Lorentz-Lorenz shift and "cooperative Lamb shift," but the quantitative agreement is unsatisfactory. Our interpretation is that the microscopic basis for the local-field corrections in electrodynamics is not fully understood.
Particle-like representation for the field of a moving point charge in nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gitman, D. M.; E Shabad, A.; Shishmarev, A. A.
2017-05-01
In a simple nonlinear model stemming from quantum electrodynamics wherein the pointlike charge has finite field-self-energy, we demonstrate that the latter can be presented as a soliton with its energy-momentum vector satisfying the standard mechanical relation characteristic of a free moving massive relativistic particle.
History and Flight Devleopment of the Electrodynamic Dust Shield
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johansen, Michael R.; Mackey, Paul J.; Hogue, Michael D.; Cox, Rachel E.; Phillips, James R., III; Calle, Carlos I.
2015-01-01
The surfaces of the moon, Mars, and that of some asteroids are covered with a layer of dust that may hinder robotic and human exploration missions. During the Apollo missions, for example, lunar dust caused a number of issues including vision obscuration, false instrument readings, contamination, and elevated temperatures. In fact, some equipment neared failure after only 75 hours on the lunar surface due to effects of lunar dust. NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed an active technology to remove dust from surfaces during exploration missions. The Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS), which consists of a series of embedded electrodes in a high dielectric strength substrate, uses a low power, low frequency signal that produces an electric field wave that travels across the surface. This non-uniform electric field generates dielectrophoretic and electrostatic forces capable of moving dust out of these surfaces. Implementations of the EDS have been developed for solar radiators, optical systems, camera lenses, visors, windows, thermal radiators, and fabrics The EDS implementation for transparent applications (solar panels, optical systems, windows, etc.) uses transparent indium tin oxide electrodes on glass or transparent lm. Extensive testing was performed in a roughly simulated lunar environment (one-sixth gravity at 1 mPa atmospheric pressure) with lunar simulant dust. EDS panels over solar radiators showed dust removal that restored solar panel output reaching values very close to their initial output. EDS implementations for thermal radiator protection (metallic spacecraft surfaces with white thermal paint and reflective films) were also extensively tested at similar high vacuum conditions. Reflectance spectra for these types of implementations showed dust removal efficiencies in the 96% to 99% range. These tests indicate that the EDS technology is now at a Technology Readiness Level of 4 to 5. As part of EDS development, a flight version is being prepared for
Electrodynamics, wind and temperature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidlin, F. J.
1988-01-01
This RTOP provides for correlative meteorological wind and temperature measurements with atmospheric electrodynamic measurements. Meteorological rocketsondes were launched as part of a number of electrodynamic investigations in Alaska, Norway, Peru, Sweden, and at the Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia. Measurements obtained as part of the MAC/Epsilon campaign during October 1987 from Andoya, Norway, were in conjunction with electric field, ion mobility, conductivity, and energy deposition studies. The measurements obtained between 30 and 90 km are to evaluate and correlate changes in the atmospheric electrical structure caused by the neutral wind and temperature, or changes in the neutral atmosphere resulting from electrical anomalies.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics
Berman, P.R.
1994-12-31
This report contains papers on the following topics: perturbative cavity quantum electrodynamics; the micromoser; manipulation of neoclassical field states in a cavity by atom interferometry; quantum optics of driven atoms in colored vacua; structure and dynamics in cavity quantum electrodynamics; on electron in a cavity; spontaneous emission by moving atoms; single atom emission in an optical resonator; nonperturbation atom-photon interactions in an optical cavity; and new aspects of the Casimir effect: fluctuations and radiative reaction. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.
Electrodynamics panel presentation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccoy, J.
1986-01-01
The Plasma Motor Generator (PMG) concept is explained in detail. The PMG tether systems being used to calculate the estimated performance data is described. The voltage drops and current contact geometries involved in the operation of an electrodynamic tether are displayed illustrating the comparative behavior of hollow cathodes, electron guns, and passive collectors for current coupling into the ionosphere. The basic PMG design involving the massive tether cable with little or no satellite mass at the far end(s) are also described. The Jupiter mission and its use of electrodynamic tethers are given. The need for demonstration experiments is stressed.
Electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spjut, R. Erik; Bar-Ziv, Ezra; Sarofim, Adel F.; Longwell, John P.
1986-08-01
The design and operation of a new device for studying single-aerosol-particle kinetics at elevated temperatures, the electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer (EDTGA), was examined theoretically and experimentally. The completed device consists of an electrodynamic balance modified to permit particle heating by a CO2 laser, temperature measurement by a three-color infrared-pyrometry system, and continuous weighing by a position-control system. In this paper, the position-control, particle-weight-measurement, heating, and temperature-measurement systems are described and their limitations examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuo, Tomoko; Knipp, Delores J.; Richmond, Arthur D.; Kilcommons, Liam; Anderson, Brian J.
2015-06-01
This paper presents an analysis of data from the magnetometers on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F-15, F-16, F-17, and F-18 satellites and the Iridium satellite constellation, using an inverse procedure for high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics, during the period of 29-30 May 2010. The Iridium magnetometer data are made available through the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) program. The method presented here is built upon the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics procedure but with a more complete treatment of the prior model uncertainty to facilitate an optimal inference of complete polar maps of electrodynamic variables from irregularly distributed observational data. The procedure can provide an objective measure of uncertainty associated with the analysis. The cross-validation analysis, in which the DMSP data are used as independent validation data sets, suggests that the procedure yields the spatial prediction of DMSP perturbation magnetic fields from AMPERE data alone with a median discrepancy of 30-50 nT. Discrepancies larger than 100 nT are seen in about 20% of total samples, whose location and magnitude are generally consistent with the previously identified discrepancy between DMSP and AMPERE data sets. Resulting field-aligned current (FAC) patterns exhibit more distinct spatial patterns without spurious high-frequency oscillatory features in comparison to the FAC products provided by AMPERE. Maps of the toroidal magnetic potential and FAC estimated from both AMPERE and DMSP data under four distinctive interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions during a magnetic cloud event demonstrate the IMF control of high-latitude electrodynamics and the opportunity for future scientific investigation.
Figliozzi, Patrick; Sule, Nishant; Yan, Zijie; Bao, Ying; Burov, Stanislav; Gray, Stephen K; Rice, Stuart A; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Scherer, Norbert F
2017-02-01
To date investigations of the dynamics of driven colloidal systems have focused on hydrodynamic interactions and often employ optical (laser) tweezers for manipulation. However, the optical fields that provide confinement and drive also result in electrodynamic interactions that are generally neglected. We address this issue with a detailed study of interparticle dynamics in an optical ring vortex trap using 150-nm diameter Ag nanoparticles. We term the resultant electrodynamically interacting nanoparticles a driven optical matter system. We also show that a superior trap is created by using a Au nanoplate mirror in a retroreflection geometry, which increases the electric field intensity, the optical drive force, and spatial confinement. Using nanoparticles versus micron sized colloids significantly reduces the surface hydrodynamic friction allowing us to access small values of optical topological charge and drive force. We quantify a further 50% reduction of hydrodynamic friction when the nanoparticles are driven over the Au nanoplate mirrors versus over a mildly electrostatically repulsive glass surface. Further, we demonstrate through experiments and electrodynamics-Langevin dynamics simulations that the optical drive force and the interparticle interactions are not constant around the ring for linearly polarized light, resulting in a strong position-dependent variation in the nanoparticle velocity. The nonuniformity in the optical drive force is also manifest as an increase in fluctuations of interparticle separation, or effective temperature, as the optical driving force is increased. Finally, we resolve an open issue in the literature on periodic modulation of interparticle separation with comparative measurements of driven 300-nm-diameter polystyrene beads that also clearly reveal the significance of electrodynamic forces and interactions in optically driven colloidal systems. Therefore, the modulations in the optical forces and electrodynamic interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figliozzi, Patrick; Sule, Nishant; Yan, Zijie; Bao, Ying; Burov, Stanislav; Gray, Stephen K.; Rice, Stuart A.; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Scherer, Norbert F.
2017-02-01
To date investigations of the dynamics of driven colloidal systems have focused on hydrodynamic interactions and often employ optical (laser) tweezers for manipulation. However, the optical fields that provide confinement and drive also result in electrodynamic interactions that are generally neglected. We address this issue with a detailed study of interparticle dynamics in an optical ring vortex trap using 150-nm diameter Ag nanoparticles. We term the resultant electrodynamically interacting nanoparticles a driven optical matter system. We also show that a superior trap is created by using a Au nanoplate mirror in a retroreflection geometry, which increases the electric field intensity, the optical drive force, and spatial confinement. Using nanoparticles versus micron sized colloids significantly reduces the surface hydrodynamic friction allowing us to access small values of optical topological charge and drive force. We quantify a further 50% reduction of hydrodynamic friction when the nanoparticles are driven over the Au nanoplate mirrors versus over a mildly electrostatically repulsive glass surface. Further, we demonstrate through experiments and electrodynamics-Langevin dynamics simulations that the optical drive force and the interparticle interactions are not constant around the ring for linearly polarized light, resulting in a strong position-dependent variation in the nanoparticle velocity. The nonuniformity in the optical drive force is also manifest as an increase in fluctuations of interparticle separation, or effective temperature, as the optical driving force is increased. Finally, we resolve an open issue in the literature on periodic modulation of interparticle separation with comparative measurements of driven 300-nm-diameter polystyrene beads that also clearly reveal the significance of electrodynamic forces and interactions in optically driven colloidal systems. Therefore, the modulations in the optical forces and electrodynamic interactions
Laboratory experiments on the electrodynamic behavior of tethers in space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stenzel, Reiner L.; Urrutia, Manuel J.
1991-06-01
The transient current systems between tethered plasmas in a large magnetoplasma are investigated experimentally for extrapolation to electrodynamic tethers in space. The studies measure the perturbed magnetic fields and the current density associated with pulsed currents to electrodes in three-dimensional space and time. The electrodes excite electron whistlers because they produce fields that dominantly couple to electrons, allowing pulsed currents to propagate and disperse as whistler wave packets. The wave packets evolve into force-free, flux-ropelike field configurations, and a whistler 'wedge' is formed in the plasma due to 'eddy' currents caused by insulated tethers with dc currents. Substantial radiation into the whistler mode happens with moving VLF antennas as well as tethers, and the wave spread within the ray cone is the most significant characteristic event. The wave spread widens the current channel, incites current closure, and is also associated with a 'phantom loop' phenomenon.
Venediktov, V Yu
2015-04-30
This methodological note is dedicated to the analysis of the imaginary experiment proposed in the paper by R.I. Khrapko 'On the possibility of an experiment on 'nonlocality' of electrodynamics' [Quantum Electronics, 42, 1133 (2012)]. (discussion)
Quantum Electrodynamics: Theory
Lincoln, Don
2016-03-30
The Standard Model of particle physics is composed of several theories that are added together. The most precise component theory is the theory of quantum electrodynamics or QED. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains how theoretical QED calculations can be done. This video links to other videos, giving the viewer a deep understanding of the process.
Quantum Electrodynamics: Theory
Lincoln, Don
2016-07-12
The Standard Model of particle physics is composed of several theories that are added together. The most precise component theory is the theory of quantum electrodynamics or QED. In this video, Fermilabâs Dr. Don Lincoln explains how theoretical QED calculations can be done. This video links to other videos, giving the viewer a deep understanding of the process.
Causality in Classical Electrodynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Savage, Craig
2012-01-01
Causality in electrodynamics is a subject of some confusion, especially regarding the application of Faraday's law and the Ampere-Maxwell law. This has led to the suggestion that we should not teach students that electric and magnetic fields can cause each other, but rather focus on charges and currents as the causal agents. In this paper I argue…
Causality in Classical Electrodynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Savage, Craig
2012-01-01
Causality in electrodynamics is a subject of some confusion, especially regarding the application of Faraday's law and the Ampere-Maxwell law. This has led to the suggestion that we should not teach students that electric and magnetic fields can cause each other, but rather focus on charges and currents as the causal agents. In this paper I argue…
High voltage characteristics of the electrodynamic tether and the generation of power and propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williamson, P. R.
1986-01-01
The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) will deploy and retrieve a satellite from the Space Shuttle orbiter with a tether of up to 100 km in length attached between the satellite and the orbiter. The characteristics of the TSS which are related to high voltages, electrical currents, energy storage, power, and the generation of plasma waves are described. A number of specific features of the tether system of importance in assessing the operational characteristics of the electrodynamic TSS are identified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogolubov, Nikolai N.; Prykarpatsky, Anatoliy K.
2010-05-01
The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian properties of classical electrodynamics models and their associated Dirac quantizations are studied. Using the vacuum field theory approach developed in (Prykarpatsky et al. Theor. Math. Phys. 160(2): 1079-1095, 2009 and The field structure of a vacuum, Maxwell equations and relativity theory aspects. Preprint ICTP) consistent canonical Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised, and these formulations include the Lorentz condition in a natural way. The Dirac quantization procedure corresponding to the Hamiltonian formulations is developed. The crucial importance of the rest reference systems, with respect to which the dynamics of charged point particles is framed, is explained and emphasized. A concise expression for the Lorentz force is derived by suitably taking into account the duality of electromagnetic field and charged particle interactions. Finally, a physical explanation of the vacuum field medium and its relativistic properties fitting the mathematical framework developed is formulated and discussed.
Stability of the accelerated expansion in nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia
2017-02-01
This paper is devoted to the phase space analysis of an isotropic and homogeneous model of the universe by taking a noninteracting mixture of the electromagnetic and viscous radiating fluids whose viscous pressure satisfies a nonlinear version of the Israel-Stewart transport equation. We establish an autonomous system of equations by introducing normalized dimensionless variables. In order to analyze the stability of the system, we find corresponding critical points for different values of the parameters. We also evaluate the power-law scale factor whose behavior indicates different phases of the universe in this model. It is concluded that the bulk viscosity as well as electromagnetic field enhances the stability of the accelerated expansion of the isotropic and homogeneous model of the universe.
Rodriguez, Justo
2008-10-01
A general expression for optical binding energy between particles of any size, in counterpropagating beams with and without interference, is derived using quantum electrodynamics. The effect of particle size on the optically induced interparticle energy surface, which has been the subject of recent research, is explored. Significant changes in this surface when particle size approaches the wavelength of the optical field are revealed. Finally, optically induced particle arrays that may be fabricated with these potentials are briefly discussed.
Modeling of Mars' ionospheric electrodynamics under various local magnetic field topologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riousset, J. A.; Paty, C. S.; Lillis, R. J.; Fillingim, M. O.; England, S.; Withers, P.; Hale, J. M.
2012-12-01
The interactions between Mars' unique crustal magnetic fields and upper atmospheric electrons, ions and neutrals lead to the formation of currents in the ionospheric dynamo region. These interactions involve elastic and inelastic collisions between ions, electrons and neutrals in the presence of varying pressures, temperatures and densities. The current remanent fields embedded in the crust provide Mars with a very rich magnetic topology with significant variations in term of geometry and magnitude on the order of a few tens to hundreds of kilometers spatially and several order of magnitude in amplitude. Here we present mesoscale, three-dimensional, multi-fluid, self-consistent simulations of Mars' ionospheric electrodynamics in the dynamo region ( ˜100--400~km altitude), where differential motion of ions and electrons occurs. Our investigations focus on the influence of the magnetic field strength and geometry, and neutral wind speeds, on the dynamo current. We look in particular at the influence of the magnetic field magnitude through simpler, uniform geometries. In addition, our model is able to simulate highly non-uniform magnetic fields involving cusps and loops. To achieve these geometries, we position a small magnetic dipole in the crust and are able to produce representative field configurations. The work presented here investigates the effects of thermospheric neutral winds, magnetic topologies, and variations in dayside and nightside on the formation and evolution of ionospheric currents on Mars. These simulation predictions will be compared to the data from Mars Atmospheric and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission starting in early 2015. They will ultimately help to assess the ionospheric effects on future missions to the Red Planet.
On a modified electrodynamics.
Reiss, H R
2012-09-01
A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The 'gauge-invariant electrodynamics' of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics.
Theory of plasma contractors for electrodynamic tethered satellite systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parks, D. E.; Katz, I.
1986-01-01
Recent data from ground and space experiments indicate that plasma releases from an object dramatically reduce the sheath impedance between the object and the ambient plasma surrounding it. Available data is in qualitative accord with the theory developed to quantify the flow of current in the sheath. Electron transport in the theory is based on a fluid model of a collisionless plasma with an effective collision frequency comparable to frequencies of plasma oscillations. The theory leads to low effective impedances varying inversely with the square root of the injected plasma density. To support such a low impedance mode of operation using an argon plasma source for example requires that only one argon ion be injected for each thirty electrons extracted from the ambient plasma. The required plasma flow rates are quite low; to extract one ampere of electron current requires a mass flow rate of about one gram of argon per day.
Five degrees of freedom linear state-space representation of electrodynamic thrust bearings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verdeghem, J. Van; Kluyskens, V.; Dehez, B.
2017-09-01
Electrodynamic bearings can provide stable and contactless levitation of rotors while operating at room temperatures. Depending solely on passive phenomena, specific models have to be developed to study the forces they exert and the resulting rotordynamics. In recent years, models allowing us to describe the axial dynamics of a large range of electrodynamic thrust bearings have been derived. However, these bearings being devised to be integrated into fully magnetic suspensions, the existing models still suffer from restrictions. Indeed, assuming the spin speed as varying slowly, a rigid rotor is characterised by five independent degrees of freedom whereas early models only considered the axial degree. This paper presents a model free of the previous limitations. It consists in a linear state-space representation describing the rotor's complete dynamics by considering the impact of the rotor axial, radial and angular displacements as well as the gyroscopic effects. This set of ten equations depends on twenty parameters whose identification can be easily performed through static finite element simulations or quasi-static experimental measurements. The model stresses the intrinsic decoupling between the axial dynamics and the other degrees of freedom as well as the existence of electrodynamic angular torques restoring the rotor to its nominal position. Finally, a stability analysis performed on the model highlights the presence of two conical whirling modes related to the angular dynamics, namely the nutation and precession motions. The former, whose intrinsic stability depends on the ratio between polar and transverse moments of inertia, can be easily stabilised through external damping whereas the latter, which is stable up to an instability threshold linked to the angular electrodynamic cross-coupling stiffness, is less impacted by that damping.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drewsen, Michael
2009-11-01
Cavity Quantum ElectroDynamics (CQED) is a research field which focuses on understanding the interactions between matter and the electromagnetic field in cavities at the quantum level. Currently, CQED is a very active research field due to the prospect of creating efficient light-matter quantum interfaces at the single photon level for quantum information science. Ion Coulomb crystals have a series of properties of particular interest for CQED studies, as demonstrated in recent CQED experiments [1]. The coupling strength between ions in the crystals and photons in the cavity strongly depend on the motion of the ions due to the Doppler-effect. Consequently, the CQED signals can be exploited to learn about excitations of plasma modes in ion Coulomb crystals. Since the method relies on having one or less photons in the cavity at any time, it constitutes a noninvasive alternative to the Doppler-fluorescence method previous demonstrated in Penning trap experiments [2]. So far, CQED signal has been used to characterize how several normal mode frequencies depend on the aspect ratio of Coulomb crystals, and how the so-called micromotion of ions confined in rf traps influences the damping of the mode [3]. The observed mode frequencies are in remarkable agreement with theoretical prediction based on uniformly charged fluids [4]. [4pt] [1] P. F. Herskind, A. Dantan, J. P. Marler, M. Albert, and M. Drewsen, to appear in Nature Physics (2009). [0pt] [2] T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, X.-P. Huang, and W. M. Itano, Opt. Express 2, 314 (1998). [0pt] [3] J. P. Marler, M. Albert, D. Guenot, P. F. Herskind, A. Dantan and M. Drewsen, manuscript in preparation. [0pt] [4] D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2076 (1991).
Fundamental role of the retarded potential in the electrodynamics of superluminal sources: comment.
Hannay, J H
2009-10-01
The commented paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 543 (2008] denies the truth of a standard general formula of electrodynamics [Eq. (6.52) of Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1999)]). The motivation for challenging orthodoxy is that the formula directly disproves the repeated claim of the commented authors that electromagnetic radiation, under some circumstances, can have unusually long range. The formula they challenge is for the magnetic field: B=Integral over all space of (mu0/4pi)[Curl j]/Range. Instead they advocate a (correct) formula for the vector potential: A=Integral over all space of (mu0/4pi)[j]/Range. However, as one might suppose, the former equation follows as a purely mathematical consequence of taking the curl of the latter equation. This is straightforward to make rigorous in the particular circumstances in question (confined smooth current density j). Therefore by their own formula, the standard one of electrodynamics is confirmed, and the disproof of their long range claim stands.
Exact solutions of f(R) gravity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics
Hollenstein, Lukas; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2008-12-15
In this work, exact solutions of static and spherically symmetric space-times are analyzed in f(R) modified theories of gravity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. First, we restrict the metric fields to one degree of freedom, considering the specific case of g{sub tt}g{sub rr}=-1. Using the dual P formalism of nonlinear electrodynamics, an exact general solution is deduced in terms of the structural function H{sub P}. In particular, specific exact solutions to the gravitational field equations are found, confirming previous results and new pure electric field solutions are found. Second, motivated by the existence of regular electric fields at the center, and allowing for the case of g{sub tt}g{sub rr}{ne}-1, new specific solutions are found. Finally, we outline alternative approaches by considering the specific case of constant curvature, followed by the analysis of a specific form for f(R)
Field theory on R× S 3 topology. IV: Electrodynamics of magnetic moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmeli, M.; Malin, S.
1986-08-01
The equations of electrodynamics for the interactions between magnetic moments are written on R×S3 topology rather than on Minkowskian space-time manifold of ordinary Maxwell's equations. The new field equations are an extension of the previously obtained Klein-Gordon-type, Schrödinger-type, Weyl-type, and Dirac-type equations. The concept of the magnetic moment in our case takes over that of the charge in ordinary electrodynamics as the fundamental entity. The new equations have R×S3 invariance as compared to the Lorentz invariance of Maxwell's equations. The solutions of the new field equations are given. In this theory the divergence of the electric field vanishes whereas that of the magnetic field does not.
Resonant electrodynamic heating of stellar coronal loops - An LRC circuit analog
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ionson, J. A.
1982-01-01
The problem of electrodynamic coupling of stellar coronal loops where beta is less than 1 to underlying velocity fields where beta is greater than approximately 1 is treated. A rigorous analysis reveals that the physics can be represented by a simple yet equivalent LRC circuit analog. This derived analog suggests the existence of global structure oscillations which resonantly excite internal field line oscillations at a spatial resonance within the coronal loop. Even though the width of this spatial resonance, as well as the induced currents and coronal velocity field, within the resonance region explicitly depends on viscosity and resistivity, the resonant form of the generalized electrodynamic heating functions is virtually independent of irreversibilities. This is a classic feature of high-quality resonators that are driven externally by a broad-band source of spectral power.
Resonant electrodynamic heating of stellar coronal loops: An LRC circuit analogue
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ionson, J. A.
1980-01-01
The electrodynamic coupling of stellar coronal loops to underlying beta velocity fields. A rigorous analysis revealed that the physics can be represented by a simple yet equivalent LRC circuit analogue. This analogue points to the existence of global structure oscillations which resonantly excite internal field line oscillations at a spatial resonance within the coronal loop. Although the width of this spatial resonance, as well as the induced currents and coronal velocity field, explicitly depend upon viscosity and resistivity, the resonant form of the generalized electrodynamic heating function is virtually independent of irreversibilities. This is a classic feature of high quality resonators that are externally driven by a broad band source of spectral power. Applications to solar coronal loops result in remarkable agreement with observations.
Asymptotic stability of a satellite with electrodynamic attitude control in the orbital frame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aleksandrov, A. Yu.; Tikhonov, A. A.
2017-10-01
A satellite in a circular near-Earth orbit is under consideration. The three-axis stabilization of the satellite in the orbital coordinate system with the use of electrodynamic attitude control system is studied. No constraints are imposed on the Earth's magnetic field approximation. The gravity gradient disturbing torque acting on the satellite attitude dynamics is taken into account as the largest disturbing torque. With the use of the Lyapunov direct method, conditions under which electrodynamic control solves the problem are obtained. The restrictions on the control parameter values for which one can guarantee the asymptotic stability of the programmed satellite motion are found and represented in an explicit form. Comparison of the results of numerical simulation and analytical investigation demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Panahiyan, S.
2014-12-01
Motivated by the string corrections on the gravity and electrodynamics sides, we consider a quadratic Maxwell invariant term as a correction of the Maxwell Lagrangian to obtain exact solutions of higher dimensional topological black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We first investigate the asymptotically flat solutions and obtain conserved and thermodynamic quantities which satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also analyze thermodynamic stability of the solutions by calculating the heat capacity and the Hessian matrix. Then, we focus on horizon-flat solutions with an anti-de Sitter (AdS) asymptote and produce a rotating spacetime with a suitable transformation. In addition, we calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities for asymptotically AdS black branes which satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, we perform thermodynamic instability criterion to investigate the effects of nonlinear electrodynamics in canonical and grand canonical ensembles.
Chen, Xing; Moore, Justin E; Zekarias, Meserret; Jensen, Lasse
2015-11-10
The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles with nanometre dimensions exhibit features that cannot be described by classical electrodynamics. In this quantum size regime, the near-field properties are significantly modified and depend strongly on the geometric arrangements. However, simulating realistically sized systems while retaining the atomistic description remains computationally intractable for fully quantum mechanical approaches. Here we introduce an atomistic electrodynamics model where the traditional description of nanoparticles in terms of a macroscopic homogenous dielectric constant is replaced by an atomic representation with dielectric properties that depend on the local chemical environment. This model provides a unified description of bare and ligand-coated nanoparticles, as well as strongly interacting nanoparticle dimer systems. The non-local screening owing to an inhomogeneous ligand layer is shown to drastically modify the near-field properties. This will be important to consider in optimization of plasmonic nanostructures for near-field spectroscopy and sensing applications.
Chen, Xing; Moore, Justin E.; Zekarias, Meserret; Jensen, Lasse
2015-01-01
The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles with nanometre dimensions exhibit features that cannot be described by classical electrodynamics. In this quantum size regime, the near-field properties are significantly modified and depend strongly on the geometric arrangements. However, simulating realistically sized systems while retaining the atomistic description remains computationally intractable for fully quantum mechanical approaches. Here we introduce an atomistic electrodynamics model where the traditional description of nanoparticles in terms of a macroscopic homogenous dielectric constant is replaced by an atomic representation with dielectric properties that depend on the local chemical environment. This model provides a unified description of bare and ligand-coated nanoparticles, as well as strongly interacting nanoparticle dimer systems. The non-local screening owing to an inhomogeneous ligand layer is shown to drastically modify the near-field properties. This will be important to consider in optimization of plasmonic nanostructures for near-field spectroscopy and sensing applications. PMID:26555179
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xing; Moore, Justin E.; Zekarias, Meserret; Jensen, Lasse
2015-11-01
The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles with nanometre dimensions exhibit features that cannot be described by classical electrodynamics. In this quantum size regime, the near-field properties are significantly modified and depend strongly on the geometric arrangements. However, simulating realistically sized systems while retaining the atomistic description remains computationally intractable for fully quantum mechanical approaches. Here we introduce an atomistic electrodynamics model where the traditional description of nanoparticles in terms of a macroscopic homogenous dielectric constant is replaced by an atomic representation with dielectric properties that depend on the local chemical environment. This model provides a unified description of bare and ligand-coated nanoparticles, as well as strongly interacting nanoparticle dimer systems. The non-local screening owing to an inhomogeneous ligand layer is shown to drastically modify the near-field properties. This will be important to consider in optimization of plasmonic nanostructures for near-field spectroscopy and sensing applications.
Quantized Faraday and Kerr rotation and axion electrodynamics of a 3D topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Liang; Salehi, M.; Koirala, N.; Moon, J.; Oh, S.; Armitage, N. P.
2016-12-01
Topological insulators have been proposed to be best characterized as bulk magnetoelectric materials that show response functions quantized in terms of fundamental physical constants. Here, we lower the chemical potential of three-dimensional (3D) Bi2Se3 films to ~30 meV above the Dirac point and probe their low-energy electrodynamic response in the presence of magnetic fields with high-precision time-domain terahertz polarimetry. For fields higher than 5 tesla, we observed quantized Faraday and Kerr rotations, whereas the dc transport is still semiclassical. A nontrivial Berry’s phase offset to these values gives evidence for axion electrodynamics and the topological magnetoelectric effect. The time structure used in these measurements allows a direct measure of the fine-structure constant based on a topological invariant of a solid-state system.
A Method for Stable Deployment of an Electrodynamic Tethered Satellite in Three-Dimensional Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, B. S.; Jin, D. P.; Wen, H.
2016-09-01
The paper presents an asymptotic stabilization strategy for the deployment of a controlled tethered satellite system in three-dimensional space, in which the tether length rate is taken as the control variable. Firstly, a rigid-rod tether model is employed to establish the nonlinear dynamic equations of in-plane and out-of-plane motions of the system. Then, by stability analysis of the linearized system at a preassigned direction to deploy, the control law and asymptotic stability condition for the deployment are obtained. The electrodynamic tethered satellite in equatorial plane is discussed. As a result, the large swing motions during deployment are stabilized asymptotically through reliance on the electrodynamic force and the tether length rate. The case studies in the paper well demonstrate the proposed stabilization control strategy.
Quantized Faraday and Kerr rotation and axion electrodynamics of a 3D topological insulator.
Wu, Liang; Salehi, M; Koirala, N; Moon, J; Oh, S; Armitage, N P
2016-12-02
Topological insulators have been proposed to be best characterized as bulk magnetoelectric materials that show response functions quantized in terms of fundamental physical constants. Here, we lower the chemical potential of three-dimensional (3D) Bi2Se3 films to ~30 meV above the Dirac point and probe their low-energy electrodynamic response in the presence of magnetic fields with high-precision time-domain terahertz polarimetry. For fields higher than 5 tesla, we observed quantized Faraday and Kerr rotations, whereas the dc transport is still semiclassical. A nontrivial Berry's phase offset to these values gives evidence for axion electrodynamics and the topological magnetoelectric effect. The time structure used in these measurements allows a direct measure of the fine-structure constant based on a topological invariant of a solid-state system.
Magnetically charged regular black hole in a model of nonlinear electrodynamics
Ma, Meng-Sen
2015-11-15
We obtain a magnetically charged regular black hole in general relativity. The source to the Einstein field equations is nonlinear electrodynamic field in a physically reasonable model of nonlinear electrodynamics (NED). “Physically” here means the NED model is constructed on the basis of three conditions: the Maxwell asymptotic in the weak electromagnetic field limit; the presence of vacuum birefringence phenomenon; and satisfying the weak energy condition (WEC). In addition, we analyze the thermodynamic properties of the regular black hole in two ways. According to the usual black hole thermodynamics, we calculate the heat capacity at constant charge, from which we know the smaller black hole is more stable. We also employ the horizon thermodynamics to discuss the thermodynamic quantities, especially the heat capacity at constant pressure.
Numerical and Analytical Model of an Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Solar Panels on Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calle, C. I.; Linell, B.; Chen, A.; Meyer, J.; Clements, S.; Mazumder, M. K.
2006-01-01
Masuda and collaborators at the University of Tokyo developed a method to confine and transport particles called the electric curtain in which a series of parallel electrodes connected to an AC source generates a traveling wave that acts as a contactless conveyor. The curtain electrodes can be excited by a single-phase or a multi-phase AC voltage. A multi-phase curtain produces a non-uniform traveling wave that provides controlled transport of those particles [1-6]. Multi-phase electric curtains from two to six phases have been developed and studied by several research groups [7-9]. We have developed an Electrodynamic Dust Shield prototype using threephase AC voltage electrodes to remove dust from surfaces. The purpose of the modeling work presented here is to research and to better understand the physics governing the electrodynamic shield, as well as to advance and to support the experimental dust shield research.
Benefits and risks of using electrodynamic tethers to de-orbit spacecraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pardini, Carmen; Hanada, Toshiya; Krisko, Paula H.
2009-03-01
By using electrodynamic drag to greatly increase the orbital decay rate, an electrodynamic space tether can remove spent or dysfunctional spacecraft from low Earth orbit (LEO) rapidly and safely. Moreover, the low mass requirements of such tether devices make them highly advantageous compared to conventional rocket-based de-orbit systems. However, a tether system is much more vulnerable to space debris impacts than a typical spacecraft and its design must be proved to be safe up to a certain confidence level before being adopted for potential applications. To assess space debris related concerns, in March 2001 a new task (Action Item 19.1) on the "Potential Benefits and Risks of Using Electrodynamic Tethers for End-of-life De-orbit of LEO Spacecraft" was defined by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). Two tests were proposed to compute the fatal impact rate of meteoroids and orbital debris on space tethers in circular orbits, at different altitudes and inclinations, as a function of the tether diameter to assess the survival probability of an electrodynamic tether system during typical de-orbiting missions. IADC members from three agencies, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), participated in the study and different computational approaches were specifically developed within the framework of the IADC task. This paper summarizes the content of the IADC AI 19.1 Final Report. In particular, it introduces the potential benefits and risks of using tethers in space, it describes the assumptions made in the study plan, it compares and discusses the results obtained by ASI, JAXA and NASA for the two tests proposed. Some general conclusions and recommendations are finally extrapolated from this massive and intensive piece of research.
Quantum Zeno Effect in the Strong Measurement Regime of Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics
2016-05-17
New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 053031 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/5/053031 PAPER Quantum Zeno effect in the strongmeasurement regime of circuit quantum ...Keywords: quantumZeno effect, quantum jumps, superconducting qubit, circuit QED, random telegraph signals Abstract Weobserve the quantumZeno effect...where the act ofmeasurement slows the rate of quantum state transitions—in a superconducting qubit using linear circuit quantum electrodynamics readout
Gaigalas, Gediminas; Gaidamauskas, Erikas; Rudzikas, Zenonas; Magnani, Nicola; Caciuffo, Roberto
2010-02-15
Large-scale multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations have been performed for the superheavy element eka-thorium, Z=122. The resulting atomic structure is compared with that obtained by various computational approaches involving different degrees of approximation in order to elucidate the role that correlation, relativistic, Breit, and quantum electrodynamics corrections play in determining the low-energy atomic spectrum. The accuracy of the calculations is assessed by comparing theoretical results obtained for thorium with available experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zangeneh, M. Kord; Dehyadegari, A.; Sheykhi, A.; Dehghani, M. H.
2016-03-01
In this paper, we construct a new class of topological black hole Lifshitz solutions in the presence of nonlinear exponential electrodynamics for Einstein-dilaton gravity. We show that the reality of Lifshitz supporting Maxwell matter fields exclude the negative horizon curvature solutions except for the asymptotic AdS case. Calculating the conserved and thermodynamical quantities, we obtain a Smarr type formula for the mass and confirm that thermodynamics first law is satisfied on the black hole horizon. Afterward, we study the thermal stability of our solutions and figure out the effects of different parameters on the stability of solutions under thermal perturbations. Next, we apply the gauge/gravity duality in order to calculate the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy for a three-dimensional hydrodynamic system by using the pole method. Furthermore, we study the behavior of holographic conductivity for two-dimensional systems such as graphene. We consider linear Maxwell and nonlinear exponential electrodynamics separately and disclose the effect of nonlinearity on holographic conductivity. We indicate that holographic conductivity vanishes for z > 3 in the case of nonlinear electrodynamics while it does not in the linear Maxwell case. Finally, we solve perturbative additional field equations numerically and plot the behaviors of real and imaginary parts of conductivity for asymptotic AdS and Lifshitz cases. We present experimental results match with our numerical ones.
Vacuum nonlinear electrodynamic polarization effects in hard emission of pulsars and magnetars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denisov, V. I.; Sokolov, V. A.; Svertilov, S. I.
2017-09-01
The nonlinear electrodynamics influence of pulsar magnetic field on the electromagnetic pulse polarization is discussed from the point of observation interpretation. The calculations of pulsar magnetic field impact on the electromagnetic pulse polarization are made in such a way to make it easier to interpret these effects in space experiments. The law of hard emission pulse propagation in the pulsar magnetic field according to the vacuum (nonlinear electrodynamics is obtained. It has been shown, that due to the birefringence in the vacuum the front part of any hard emission pulse coming from a pulsar should be linearly polarized and the rest of pulse can have arbitrary polarization. The observational possibilities of vacuum birefringence are discussed. In this paper we give the estimations of detector parameters such as effective area, exposure time and necessity of polarization measurements with high accuracy. The combination of large area and extremely long exposure time gives the good opportunity to search the fine polarization effects like vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics birefringence.
Feynman propagator for the nonbirefringent CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M., Jr.; Gomes, Adalto R.; Dos Santos, Frederico E. P.
2010-12-01
The CPT-even gauge sector of the standard model extension is composed of 19 components comprised in the tensor (KF)μνρσ, of which nine do not yield birefringence. In this work, we examine the Maxwell electrodynamics supplemented by these nine nonbirefringent CPT-even components in aspects related to the Feynman propagator and full consistency (stability, causality, unitarity). We adopt a prescription that parametrizes the nonbirefringent components in terms of a symmetric and traceless tensor, Kμν, and second parametrization that writes Kμν in terms of two arbitrary four-vectors, Uμ and Vν. We then explicitly evaluate the gauge propagator of this electrodynamics in a tensor closed way. In the sequel, we show that this propagator and involved dispersion relations can be specialized for the parity-odd and parity-even sectors of the tensor (KF)μνρσ. In this way, we reassess some results of the literature and derive some new outcomes showing that the parity-even anisotropic sector engenders a stable, noncausal and unitary electrodynamics.
Feynman propagator for the nonbirefringent CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension
Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M. Jr.; Santos, Frederico E. P. dos; Gomes, Adalto R.
2010-12-15
The CPT-even gauge sector of the standard model extension is composed of 19 components comprised in the tensor (K{sub F}){sub {mu}{nu}{rho}{sigma}}, of which nine do not yield birefringence. In this work, we examine the Maxwell electrodynamics supplemented by these nine nonbirefringent CPT-even components in aspects related to the Feynman propagator and full consistency (stability, causality, unitarity). We adopt a prescription that parametrizes the nonbirefringent components in terms of a symmetric and traceless tensor, K{sub {mu}{nu}}, and second parametrization that writes K{sub {mu}{nu}} in terms of two arbitrary four-vectors, U{sub {mu}} and V{sub {nu}}. We then explicitly evaluate the gauge propagator of this electrodynamics in a tensor closed way. In the sequel, we show that this propagator and involved dispersion relations can be specialized for the parity-odd and parity-even sectors of the tensor (K{sub F}){sub {mu}{nu}{rho}{sigma}}. In this way, we reassess some results of the literature and derive some new outcomes showing that the parity-even anisotropic sector engenders a stable, noncausal and unitary electrodynamics.
Desert Research and Technology Studies Exposure of Lotus Coated Electrodynamic Shield Samples
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriquez, Marcello; Peters, Wanda C.; Straka, Sharon A.; Jones, Craig B.
2011-01-01
The Lotus dust mitigation coating and the electrodynamic shield (EDS) are two new technologies currently being developed by NASA as countermeasures for addressing dust accumulation for long-duration human space exploration. These combined technologies were chosen by the Habitation Demonstration Unit (HDU) program for desert dust exposure at the Desert Research and Technologies Studies (D-RaTS) test site in Arizona. Characterization of these samples was performed prior to, during and post D-RaTS exposure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zessin, H.; Spies, P.; Mateu, L.
2016-11-01
In this study, we report a power management circuit for a combined piezoelectric- electrodynamic generator. A piezoelectric element is bonded to a spring steel cantilever beam and a magnet, used as tip mass, oscillates through a coil. This principle creates the combined generator. A test setup has been created to automate the characterization of the piezoelectric generator and its power management circuit. Three different power management circuits for the piezoelectric part of the combined generator have been analysed: a bridge rectifier, an SSHI circuit with an external inductance and an SSHI circuit which utilizes the coil of the electrodynamic generator as circuit element. The three circuits are compared in terms of their output power, efficiency and power density. The SSHI circuit with an external inductance has the highest output power and efficiency, followed by the SSHI circuit with the electrodynamic generator coil. The power density of the bridge rectifier is the highest but for higher efficiency the power density of the SSHI circuit with the coil of the electromagnetic generator reaches the best results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Gangqiang; Zhu, Zheng H.; Ruel, Stephane; Meguid, S. A.
2017-08-01
This paper developed a new multiphysics finite element method for the elastodynamic analysis of space debris deorbit by a bare flexible electrodynamic tether. Orbital motion limited theory and dynamics of flexible electrodynamic tethers are discretized by the finite element method, where the motional electric field is variant along the tether and coupled with tether deflection and motion. Accordingly, the electrical current and potential bias profiles of tether are solved together with the tether dynamics by the nodal position finite element method. The newly proposed multiphysics finite element method is applied to analyze the deorbit dynamics of space debris by electrodynamic tethers with a two-stage energy control strategy to ensure an efficient and stable deorbit process. Numerical simulations are conducted to study the coupled effect between the motional electric field and the tether dynamics. The results reveal that the coupling effect has a significant influence on the tether stability and the deorbit performance. It cannot be ignored when the libration and deflection of the tether are significant.
Entropy concepts in classical electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, Daniel C.
2002-11-01
Aspects of entropy and related thermodynamic analyses are discussed here that have been deduced in recent years in the area of classical electrodynamics. A motivating factor for most of this work has been an attempted theory of nature often called, "stochastic electrodynamics" (SED). This theory involves classical electrodynamics (Maxwell's equations plus the relativistic version of Newton's second law of motion for particles), but with the consideration that motion and fluctuations should not necessarily be assumed to reduce to zero at temperature T = 0. Both fairly subtle and rather blatant assumptions were often imposed in early thermodynamic analyses of electrodynamic systems that prevented the analyses from being sufficiently general to account for these "zero-point" properties, which hindered classical physics from being able to better account for quantum mechanical phenomena observed in nature. In turn, such thermodynamic considerations have helped motivate many of the key ideas of SED.
Timelike Momenta In Quantum Electrodynamics
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Brodsky, S. J.; Ting, S. C. C.
1965-12-01
In this note we discuss the possibility of studying the quantum electrodynamics of timelike photon propagators in muon or electron pair production by incident high energy muon or electron beams from presently available proton or electron accelerators.
Electrodynamic Arrays Having Nanomaterial Electrodes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trigwell, Steven (Inventor); Biris, Alexandru S. (Inventor); Calle, Carlos I. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
An electrodynamic array of conductive nanomaterial electrodes and a method of making such an electrodynamic array. In one embodiment, a liquid solution containing nanomaterials is deposited as an array of conductive electrodes on a substrate, including rigid or flexible substrates such as fabrics, and opaque or transparent substrates. The nanomaterial electrodes may also be grown in situ. The nanomaterials may include carbon nanomaterials, other organic or inorganic nanomaterials or mixtures.
Effect of the plasma piston size on the efficiency of the electrodynamic acceleration of a body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drobyshevskii, E. M.; Rozov, S. I.; Zhukov, B. G.; Kurakin, R. O.; Sokolov, V. M.
1991-01-01
The objective of the experiments reported here was to investigate the effect of the size of the plasma piston on velocity saturation during the electrodynamic acceleration of a body in rail-gun accelerators. An analysis of the results suggests that the observed decrease of the efficiency of the accelerating action of an expanded plasma piston is associated with the increased permeability of the piston with respect to the gas enclosed between the piston and the body. This conclusion is consistent with the concept of the plasma piston as a combination of merging and separating arc channels.
Reiss, H.R.
2012-01-01
A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The ‘gauge-invariant electrodynamics’ of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics. PMID:23105173
Extended symmetrical classical electrodynamics.
Fedorov, A V; Kalashnikov, E G
2008-03-01
In this paper, we discuss a modification of classical electrodynamics in which "ordinary" point charges are absent. The modified equations contain additional terms describing the induced charges and currents. The densities of the induced charges and currents depend on the vector k and the vectors of the electromagnetic field, E and B . It is shown that the vectors E and B can be defined in terms of two four-potentials and the components of k are the components of a four-tensor of the third rank. The Lagrangian of the modified electrodynamics is defined. The conditions are derived at which only one four-potential determines the behavior of the electromagnetic field. It is also shown that static modified electrodynamics can describe the electromagnetic field in the inner region of an electric monopole. In the outer region of the electric monopole the electric field is governed by the Maxwell equations. It follows from boundary conditions at the interface between the inner and outer regions of the monopole that the vector k has a discrete spectrum. The electric and magnetic fields, energy, and angular momentum of the monopole are found for different eigenvalues of k .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Arthur I.
1995-10-01
Preface; Notes to the Preface; Acknowledgements; Notes to the Reader; 1. From quantum mechanics toward quantum electrodynamics; 1.1. Niels Bohr's atomic theory, 1913-23; 1.2. The coupling mechanism; 1.3. Virtual oscillators; 1.4. Quantum mechanics versus wave mechanics; 1.5. Intrinsic symmetry; 1.6. Transformation theory and word meanings; 1.7. The uncertainty principle paper; 1.8. Complementarity; 1.9. Conclusion; 2. Second quantization; 2.1. Jordan's 1926 results; 2.2. Dirac's quantization of the electromagnetic field; 2.3. Jordan's quantization of bosons and fermions; 2.4. Jordan and Pauli's relativistic quantization of charge-free electromagnetic fields; 3. Photons and relativistic electrons; 3.1. The Dirac equation; 3.2. Heisenberg and Pauli on quantum electrodynamics, 1929; 3.3. The electron's mass in classical and quantum electrodynamics; 3.4. From negative energy states to positrons; 4. Quantum electrodynamics; 4.1. Measurement problems in a quantum theory of the electromagnetic field; 4.2. Heisenberg's first attempt at a fundamental length; 4.3. An 'intuitive' time-dependent perturbation theory; 4.4. Multiple-time theory, hole theory and second quantization; 4.5. Dirac at Solvay in 1933: vacuum polarization; 4.6. The Heisenberg-Pauli collaboration on positron theory; 4.7. The subtraction physics; 4.7.1. Dirac defines the problem; 4.7.2. Weisskopf's calculation of the electron's self-energy in hole theory; 4.7.3. Beyond the correspondence principle; 4.7.4. Heisenberg's formulation of subtraction physics; 4.7.5. Some reactions to Heisenberg; 4.8. Quantization of the Klein-Gordon equation: the Pauli-Weisskopf statistics.
Continuous Variable Teleportation Within Stochastic Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmichael, H. J.; Nha, Hyunchul
2004-12-01
Stochastic electrodynamics provides a local realistic interpretation of the continuous variable teleportation of coherent light. Time-domain simulations illustrate broadband features of the teleportation process.
Electrodynamics of the equatorial evening ionosphere: 1. Importance of winds in different regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richmond, A. D.; Fang, T.-W.; Maute, A.
2015-03-01
The importance of winds at different altitudes and latitudes for the electrodynamics of the low-latitude evening ionosphere is examined with a model of the global coupled ionosphere-thermosphere system. The model reproduces the main observed features of the evening equatorial plasma vortex and the prereversal enhancement (PRE) of the vertical drift. The electrodynamics is driven primarily by the zonal wind forced by the diurnally varying zonal pressure-gradient force. The zonal wind lags the zonal pressure-gradient force owing to inertia. When ion drag is important, the time lag of the wind behind the pressure gradient force is shortened, and the high-altitude evening wind turns eastward earlier than the wind at lower altitudes, where ion drag is less important. Therefore, a vertical shear of the zonal wind tends to develop at altitudes around the transition between small and large ion drag at the bottom of the F region. This wind shear is closely associated with the vertical shear in the zonal convection velocity that is part of the evening plasma vortex. Unlike previous studies, we find that the winds driving the PRE lie mainly on field lines with apexes above the peak of the equatorial F layer, field lines that extend in magnetic latitude out to nearly 30° and encompass the entire evening equatorial ionization anomaly region. Contrary to previous suggestions, the westward convection in the bottomside of the evening plasma vortex is found to weaken, rather than strengthen, the PRE. Daytime winds have relatively little influence on the low-latitude evening electrodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Liska, Matthew T. P.
2015-10-01
In a recent paper the authors studied numerically the hydrogen ground state in stochastic electrodynamics (SED) within the the non-relativistic approximation. In quantum theory the leading non-relativistic corrections to the ground state energy dominate the Lamb shift related to the photon cloud that should cause the quantum-like behaviour of SED. The present work takes these corrections into account in the numerical modelling. It is found that they have little effect; the self-ionisation that occurs without them remains present. It is speculated that the point-charge approximation for the electron is the cause of the failure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, Mitzi; HabashKrause, Linda
2012-01-01
Recent interest in using electrodynamic tethers (EDTs) for orbital maneuvering in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) has prompted the development of the Marshall ElectroDynamic Tether Orbit Propagator (MEDTOP) model. The model is comprised of several modules which address various aspects of EDT propulsion, including calculation of state vectors using a standard orbit propagator (e.g., J2), an atmospheric drag model, realistic ionospheric and magnetic field models, space weather effects, and tether librations. The natural electromotive force (EMF) attained during a radially-aligned conductive tether results in electrons flowing down the tether and accumulating on the lower-altitude spacecraft. The energy that drives this EMF is sourced from the orbital energy of the system; thus, EDTs are often proposed as de-orbiting systems. However, when the current is reversed using satellite charged particle sources, then propulsion is possible. One of the most difficult challenges of the modeling effort is to ascertain the equivalent circuit between the spacecraft and the ionospheric plasma. The present study investigates the use of the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) to calculate currents to and from the tethered satellites and the ionospheric plasma. NASCAP is a sophisticated set of computational tools to model the surface charging of three-dimensional (3D) spacecraft surfaces in a time-varying space environment. The model's surface is tessellated into a collection of facets, and NASCAP calculates currents and potentials for each one. Additionally, NASCAP provides for the construction of one or more nested grids to calculate space potential and time-varying electric fields. This provides for the capability to track individual particles orbits, to model charged particle wakes, and to incorporate external charged particle sources. With this study, we have developed a model of calculating currents incident onto an electrodynamic tethered satellite system, and first results are shown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milan, S. E.; Coxon, J. C.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.
2014-04-01
We present observations of the global terrestrial Birkeland field-aligned current (FAC) pattern observed by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) during a sequence of substorms. The observations show that the region 1 and 2 current systems move to lower latitudes during the substorm growth phase and retreat to higher latitudes following substorm expansion phase onset. We interpret these observations within the framework of the expanding/contracting polar cap paradigm. This links expansion of the polar cap and equatorward motion of the auroras and FAC systems to the action of magnetopause reconnection increasing the open magnetic flux content of the magnetosphere.
The Lagrangian formulation of strong-field quantum electrodynamics in a plasma
Raicher, Erez; Eliezer, Shalom; Zigler, Arie
2014-05-15
The Lagrangian formulation of the scalar and spinor quantum electrodynamics in the presence of strong laser fields in a plasma medium is considered. We include the plasma influence in the free Lagrangian analogously to the “Furry picture” and obtain coupled equations of motion for the plasma particles and for the laser propagation. We demonstrate that the strong-field wave (i.e., the laser) satisfies a massive dispersion relation and obtain self-consistently the effective mass of the laser photons. The Lagrangian formulation derived in this paper is the basis for the cross sections calculation of quantum processes taking place in the presence of a plasma.
Non-perturbative aspects of particle acceleration in non-linear electrodynamics
Burton, David A.; Flood, Stephen P.; Wen, Haibao
2015-04-15
We undertake an investigation of particle acceleration in the context of non-linear electrodynamics. We deduce the maximum energy that an electron can gain in a non-linear density wave in a magnetised plasma, and we show that an electron can “surf” a sufficiently intense Born-Infeld electromagnetic plane wave and be strongly accelerated by the wave. The first result is valid for a large class of physically reasonable modifications of the linear Maxwell equations, whilst the second result exploits the special mathematical structure of Born-Infeld theory.
An illustration of the light-front coupled-cluster method in quantum electrodynamics
Chabysheva, S. S.
2012-10-23
A field-theoretic formulation of the exponential-operator technique is applied to a nonperturbative Hamiltonian eigenvalue problem in electrodynamics, quantized in light-front coordinates. Specifically, we consider the dressed-electron state, without positron contributions but with an unlimited number of photons, and compute its anomalous magnetic moment. A simple perturbative solution immediately yields the Schwinger result of {alpha}/2{pi}. The nonperturbative solution, which requires numerical techniques, sums a subset of corrections to all orders in {alpha} and incorporates additional physics.
Interference control of nonlinear excitation in a multi-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics system.
Yang, Guoqing; Tan, Zheng; Zou, Bichen; Zhu, Yifu
2014-12-01
We show that by manipulating quantum interference in a multi-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) system, the nonlinear excitation of the cavity-atom polariton can be resonantly enhanced while the linear excitation is suppressed. Under the appropriate conditions, it is possible to selectively enhance or suppress the polariton excitation with two free-pace laser fields. We report on an experiment with cold Rb atoms in an optical cavity and present experimental results that demonstrate such interference control of the CQED excitation and its direct application to studies of all-optical switching and cross-phase modulation of the cavity-transmitted light.
Low-energy limit of scalar electrodynamics in M/sup 6/
Svetovoi, V.B.; Khariton, N.G.
1988-10-01
We consider scalar electrodynamics in the space M/sup 6/ with a nontrivial vacuum with respect to the two extra dimensions. Reduction to four-dimensional space is carried out. The low-energy sector turns out to possess U/sup loc/(1) x O/sup glob/(2) symmetry, which is broken by nonperturbative effects. The gap in the mass spectrum between heavy and light excitations is due to the breaking of the symmetry of the space by the vacuum. The model studied here provides an example of a natural hierarchy of mass scales.
A comprehensive study of small-scale electrodynamics in the auroral ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noel, Jean-Marc A.
A number of independent and diverse observations have shown the existence of extremely narrow auroral structures. By narrow we mean structures that have widths of a few meters (ultra-thin arcs) up to widths of a few tens of meters (thin arcs). Some authors using data obtained from radars, satellites and rockets have also reported observations that suggest the existence of very intense and highly localized electrodynamics in the vicinity of these narrow structures. By intense we mean field-aligned current densities that can reach magnitudes that are up to a thousand times larger than the average expected value and velocity shears on the order of meters per second per meter. In this thesis, we set out to explore the conditions under which the ionosphere could sustain large currents and large velocity shears. The first step that we took was to develop an electrodynamical model based on a simple Ohm's law and couple it with a pre-existing comprehensive transport model made available to us by Dr. P.-L. Blelly of Le centre d'étude spatiale des rayonnements (CESR). The resulting model would serve as a first step towards a self-consistent model in a so-far neglected ionospheric perspective. With this model we were able to study feedbacks between the composition, energetics, electron precipitation patterns and the electrodynamics. Using our new model it was found that in order to obtain velocity shears that are on the order of meters per second per meter, horizontal gradients scales in the precipitation patterns on the order of 100 meters are needed. These sharp horizontal gradients also lead to extremely intense and highly localized field-aligned current densities having magnitudes that are on the order of five hundred times larger than the average expected value. A positive feedback between electron heating due to waves and the generation of large field-aligned current densities was also found. Electron heating combined with sharp horizontal gradients leads to large
A stochastic electrodynamics interpretation of spontaneous transitions in the hydrogen atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
França, H. M.; Franco, H.; Malta, C. P.
1997-09-01
Seidl and Lipas have calculated the lifetime of the excited states of the hydrogen atom within an entirely classical framework and obtained good agreement with the corresponding quantum results. Here we propose an explanation for this good agreement and show that the agreement can be significantly improved by including in their classical model the effects of the random zero-point electromagnetic fields postulated by the classical stochastic electrodynamics. Moreover, we show that the zero-point electromagnetic radiation provides a physical mechanism for the atomic stability on classical grounds.
Electrodynamics of long conducting tethers in the near-earth environment. [in the ionosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dobrowolny, M.; Colombo, G.; Grossi, M. D.
1976-01-01
An analytical approach was developed to evaluate the electrodynamic interactions affecting a thin, bare metallic wire moving in the ionosphere. The wire's diameter was smaller than the Debye length; therefore, the plasma sheath around the wire was taken into account in computing inducing drag force and torque. Computer programs were prepared for the numerical evaluation of mathematical functions that were required to compute the distribution of the potential along the wire and of the current in the wire. Numerical calculations based on this software are shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pope, D. T.; Drummond, P. D.; Munro, W. J.
2000-10-01
Intracavity and external third order correlations in the damped nondegenerate parametric oscillator are calculated for quantum mechanics and stochastic electrodynamics (SED), a semiclassical theory. The two theories yield greatly different results, with the correlations of quantum mechanics being cubic in the system's nonlinear coupling constant and those of SED being linear in the same constant. In particular, differences between the two theories are present in at least a mesoscopic regime. They also exist when realistic damping is included. Such differences illustrate distinctions between quantum mechanics and a hidden variable theory for continuous variables.
Electrodynamic model of atmospheric and ionospheric processes on the eve of an earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorokin, V. M.; Ruzhin, Yu. Ya.
2015-09-01
Electric field generation and its accompanying phenomena in the atmosphere-ionosphere system have been intensively studied in recent years. This paper considers the results of these studies, which have served as the physical basis for the model of lithosphere-ionosphere coupling. According to our model, the intensive processes in the lower atmosphere and lithosphere have an electrodynamic effect on the ionospheric plasma. The model was used to conduct theoretical studies of plasma and electromagnetic effects accompanying the generation of conduction current in the global circuit. It has been shown that the electrodynamic model of the influence of seismic and meteorological processes on cosmic plasma can serve as a physical basis for a satellite system to monitor earthquake precursors and the catastrophic phase of typhoon development. The model makes it possible to couple the satellite data of electromagnetic and plasma measurements with electrophysical and meteorological characteristics of the lower atmosphere at the stage of earthquake preparation and typhoon initiation. The model suggests that the numerous effects in the cosmic plasma have a single source: a change in the conduction current flowing in the atmosphere-ionosphere circuit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pineda, John Sebastian
Stellar coronal activity has been shown to persist into the low-mass star regime, down to late M-dwarf spectral types. However, there is now an accumulation of evidence suggesting that at the end of the main sequence there is a transition in the nature of the magnetic activity from chromospheric and coronal to planet-like and auroral, from local impulsive heating via flares and MHD wave dissipation to energy dissipation from strong large-scale magnetospheric current systems. In this dissertation, I examine the effects of these processes on the atmospheres of brown dwarfs across multiple different wavebands and investigate the underlying mechanisms powering the electrodynamic engine responsible for auroral emission in brown dwarfs. I conduct observational surveys looking for the emission features of H-alpha and as indicative of auroral systems across the ultracool dwarf regime. I further provide a comprehensive view of brown dwarf magnetic activity and auroral phenomena, detailing the various emission processes, and expectations for auroral brown dwarfs. I also initiate a preliminary analysis of the detailed emission features and discuss the constraints imposed on the electrodynamic engine of these objects.
The Electrodynamic, Thermal, and Energetic Character of Intense Sun- Aligned Arcs in the Polar Cap
1991-02-01
Vici’jewski et 0/.. 19891. with " detailed analysis of its optical. ion production-loss rates, and u 200 ionizing flux properties. Observed in the UV by...kIEMNr INsmrumE 1IICAi 0 MIlL N ORCANIZATION I (if aipplicable) r~ lk. AD01MV; (Cafy, 5ldtV.,J#dli /If’COUdt) 10 Stu JICI. U FUNUING NUNiIRS ’l-IJiAM...sented by R’ifl and Run h 119851. Their analysis implies a 1380 VALLADARES AND CARLSON: POLAR ARC ELECTRODYNAMICS/ENERGETICS four-cell convection
Hayama, Atsushi; Furihata, Kenji; Asano, David K; Yanagisawa, Takesaburo
2005-06-01
The present study extends our previous work [Furihata et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 174-184 (2003)] by investigating our electrodynamic planar loudspeaker when driven by a 12 bit digital signal with noise shaping. Changing the structure of the loudspeaker can lead to improvement, but in this paper improvements that can be made using signal processing are investigated. Results show that the digital loudspeaker demonstrated good linearity over its 84 dB dynamic range from 40 Hz to 10 kHz. This shows that a 12 bit digital loudspeaker which is equivalent to a 16 bit one is possible.
Clemens, M.; Weiland, T.
1996-12-31
In the field of computational electrodynamics the discretization of Maxwell`s equations using the Finite Integration Theory (FIT) yields very large, sparse, complex symmetric linear systems of equations. For this class of complex non-Hermitian systems a number of conjugate gradient-type algorithms is considered. The complex version of the biconjugate gradient (BiCG) method by Jacobs can be extended to a whole class of methods for complex-symmetric algorithms SCBiCG(T, n), which only require one matrix vector multiplication per iteration step. In this class the well-known conjugate orthogonal conjugate gradient (COCG) method for complex-symmetric systems corresponds to the case n = 0. The case n = 1 yields the BiCGCR method which corresponds to the conjugate residual algorithm for the real-valued case. These methods in combination with a minimal residual smoothing process are applied separately to practical 3D electro-quasistatical and eddy-current problems in electrodynamics. The practical performance of the SCBiCG methods is compared with other methods such as QMR and TFQMR.
Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures
Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.
2004-05-03
The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.
Spatiotemporally resolved electrodynamic properties of a Sun-aligned arc over Resolute Bay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perry, G. W.; Dahlgren, H.; Nicolls, M. J.; Zettergren, M.; St.-Maurice, J.-P.; Semeter, J. L.; Sundberg, T.; Hosokawa, K.; Shiokawa, K.; Chen, S.
2015-11-01
Common volume measurements by the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar-North (RISR-N) and Optical Mesosphere and Thermosphere Imagers (OMTI) have been used to clarify the electrodynamic structure of a Sun-aligned arc in the polar cap. The plasma parameters of the dusk-to-dawn drifting arc and surrounding ionosphere are extracted using the volumetric imaging capabilities of RISR-N. Multipoint line-of-sight RISR-N measurements of the plasma drift are inverted to construct a time sequence of the electric field and field-aligned current system of the arc. Evidence of dramatic electrodynamic and plasma structuring of the polar cap ionosphere due to the arc is described. One notable feature of the arc is a meridionally extended plasma density depletion on its leading edge, located partially within a downward field-aligned current region. The depletion is determined to be a by-product of enhanced chemical recombination operating on a time scale of 15 min. A similarly shaped electric field structure of over 100 mV/m and line-of-sight ion temperatures nearing 3000 K were collocated with the depletion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbasi, Muhammad Salman; Song, Ryungeun; Kim, Jaehoon; Lee, Jinkee
2016-11-01
In this paper, numerical solution of electro-dynamic behavior and interface instability of double emulsion droplet is presented. Level set method and leaky dielectric model coupled with Navier-Stokes equation are used to solve the electrodynamic problem. The method is validated against the theoretical analysis and the simulation results of the other researchers. Double emulsion droplet with inner droplet (core) and outer droplet (shell) phases immersed in continuous phase is subjected to high electric field. Shell/continuous and core/shell interfaces of the droplet undergo prolate-oblate or oblate-prolate deformation depending on the extent of the penetration of electric potential and sense of charge distribution at the interfaces. The deformation of the shell deviates from theory at larger volume fraction of core for oblate-prolate case whereas it follows theory for prolate-oblate case. The interfaces showing oblate-prolate deformation split away at the poles whereas, for prolate-oblate, they split at the equator. The re-union of the two split parts under high electric field results with production of daughter droplet at the core. The large decrease in critical electric field for oblate-prolate case shows their less interface stability at larger volume fraction of core. When the core is eccentric, the electric field drives it towards the shell center or to the shell/continuous interface depending on electrical parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Hao; Jin, Dongping; Hu, Haiyan
2016-12-01
The concept of space tether has found a great deal of promising applications in space engineering. A prerequisite of any space tether mission is to deploy its tether to a commanded length. This paper aims to achieving the three-dimensional deployment of an electro-dynamic tether system in a propellant-free manner via the feedback control of the tension and electric current in the tether. The proposed controller is formulated in an analytical form with an extremely low level of computational load, and can explicitly account for the physical bounds of the tether tension and electric current by using a pair of strictly increasing saturation functions. In addition, the Lyapunov analysis is made to gain an insight into the stability characteristics of the proposed control strategy. To facilitate the theoretical analysis, the dynamic model of the system is developed under the widely used dumbbell assumption, along with the geomagnetic field modeled using a tilted dipole approximation. Finally, numerical case studies on a representative electro-dynamic tether system are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed controller and the influence of the actuating conditions and orbital inclinations.
Transient response of an electrodynamic tether system in the ionosphere: TSS-1 first results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
BiléN, Sven G.; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Bonifazi, Carlo; Melchioni, Enrico
1995-09-01
The electrical transient response of an electrodynamic tether system in low earth orbit has been investigated experimentally and by computer simulation. Our experimental results come from the first Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) mission flown on the space shuttle in 1992. During this mission a tethered satellite was deployed to a distance of 267 m above the shuttle using a conducting, insulated cable. It is shown by computer simulation that the electrical transient response of the system is due to a combination of both the tether electrical circuit and the interaction of the tether system with the space plasma. In general, ground measurements showed that the TSS-1 electrical circuit is approximately second order and underdamped. However, it was found that on-orbit transient decay as well as the symmetry of transient oscillations could be dramatically altered, following closely with ionospheric plasma density variations. Combined electrical circuit and plasma interaction modeling shows that these differences can be explained by accounting for ion and electron current collection capabilities of the tether end connections with the space plasma. These results have implications for the use of electrodynamic tethers for high current switched applications including direct generation of low-frequency electromagnetic signals and high electrical power generation as well as detection of natural electric field transient signatures.
Strong coupling of a single photon to a superconducting qubit using circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Wallraff, A; Schuster, D I; Blais, A; Frunzio, L; Huang, R- S; Majer, J; Kumar, S; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J
2004-09-09
The interaction of matter and light is one of the fundamental processes occurring in nature, and its most elementary form is realized when a single atom interacts with a single photon. Reaching this regime has been a major focus of research in atomic physics and quantum optics for several decades and has generated the field of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we perform an experiment in which a superconducting two-level system, playing the role of an artificial atom, is coupled to an on-chip cavity consisting of a superconducting transmission line resonator. We show that the strong coupling regime can be attained in a solid-state system, and we experimentally observe the coherent interaction of a superconducting two-level system with a single microwave photon. The concept of circuit quantum electrodynamics opens many new possibilities for studying the strong interaction of light and matter. This system can also be exploited for quantum information processing and quantum communication and may lead to new approaches for single photon generation and detection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welter, A.; Raab, R. E.; de Lange, O. L.
2013-02-01
We consider semi-classical macroscopic electrodynamics that is translationally invariant (independent of the choice of an arbitrary, implicit set of coordinate origins for molecule-fixed axes) for linear, homogeneous, anisotropic media interacting with harmonic, plane electromagnetic waves. We extend a previous formulation at electric octopole-magnetic quadrupole order to include media comprising magnetic molecules (those possessing both time-even and time-odd properties). This requires two additional invariant, time-odd molecular polarizabilities. Overall, the electrodynamics depends on 10 invariant polarizabilities—5 time even (one each of electric dipole and electric quadrupole-magnetic dipole order, and three of electric octopole-magnetic quadrupole order) and 5 time odd (one, two, and two, respectively)—that are required for the description of linear transmission and reflection phenomena, and material constants. The two additional time-odd polarizabilities account for certain predicted effects, and one of them contributes to the inverse ac permeability of magnetic media. The results are presented in a form that is suitable for numerical computation.
Electrodynamic Context of Magnetotail and Magnetopause Dynamics Observed by Magnetospheric Multiscal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Waters, C. L.; Barnes, R. J.; Samara, M.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Plaschke, F.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Merkin, V. G.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Leinweber, H. K.; Le, G.; Bromund, K. R.; Chutter, M.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.; Le Contel, O.; Mauk, B.; Westlake, J. H.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.
2015-12-01
After successful launch and deployment on 14 March 2015, the four Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft were commissioned during the first local time precession of the orbit line of apsides across the magnetotail from dawn to dusk. Prime science observations began in September 2015 when orbit apogee had moved to the dusk sector at magnetopause distances. Signatures of magnetotail dynamics were observed during payload and fleet commissioning. The electrodynamic context of the magnetotail events at MMS as well as observations at the dusk and afternoon magnetopause is assessed using correlative observations from low Earth orbit and ground-based instruments including the Active Magnetosphere and Polar Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE), SuperMAG, and SuperDARN. Substorm current onsets are prevalent in AMPERE data and are highly correlated with magnetotail injections and dipolarizations observed by MMS. To better constrain how the MMS magnetotail observations are related to global processes, we also examine the occurrence and prevalence of similar ionospheric onset signatures when MMS was at high altitudes in the magnetotail but observed no local signatures of injections or dipolarizations. For MMS magnetopause observations, we explore the relationship of magnetic reconnection signatures at MMS with the convection patterns derived from AMPERE and ionosphere observations to establish the relationship of the local MMS observations and global magnetospheric convective state.
Magnetobraking: Use of tether electrodynamic drag for Earth return from Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Landis, Geoffrey A.
1994-01-01
It has often been proposed that a vehicle returning from Mars will use aerobraking in the Earth's atmosphere to dissipate hyperbolic excess velocity to capture into Earth orbit. Here a different system for dissipating excess velocity without expenditure of reaction mass, magnetobraking, is proposed. Magnetobraking uses the force on an electrodynamic tether in the Earth's magnetic field to produce thrust. An electrodynamic tether is deployed from the spacecraft as it approaches the Earth. The Earth's magnetic field produces a force on electrical current in the tether. If the tether is oriented perpendicularly to the Earth's magnetic field and to the direction of motion of the spacecraft, force produced by the Earth's magnetic field can be used to either brake or accelerate the spacecraft without expenditure of reaction mass. The peak acceleration on the Mars return is 0.007 m/sq sec, and the amount of braking possible is dependent on the density and current-carrying capacity of the tether, but is independent of length. A superconducting tether is required. The required critical current is shown to be within the range of superconducting technology now available in the laboratory.
Analytical description of the electrodynamic properties of metallic photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vetluzhskii, A. Yu.; Lomukhin, Yu. L.
2017-08-01
We consider the excitation by a dipole of metallic photonic crystals—systems of infinitely extended parallel-oriented metallic cylinders with a small circular cross section. Based on the rigorous statement of the problem, analytical expressions are obtained that make it possible to give a simple estimate of frequencies that determine the band gap edges in the spectrum of eigenstates of such a crystal and, also, to describe the amplitude characteristics of radiation in the low-frequency range, in which the approximations used in our study are correct. We compare our results with those obtained by strictly numerical simulation.
Källén-Lehmann representation of noncommutative quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bufalo, R.; Cardoso, T. R.; Pimentel, B. M.
2014-04-01
Noncommutative (NC) quantum field theory is the subject of many analyses on formal and general aspects looking for deviations and, therefore, potential noncommutative spacetime effects. Within of this large class, we may now pay some attention to the quantization of NC field theory on lower dimensions and look closely at the issue of dynamical mass generation to the gauge field. This work encompasses the quantization of the two-dimensional massive quantum electrodynamics and three-dimensional topologically massive quantum electrodynamics. We begin by addressing the problem on a general dimensionality making use of the perturbative Seiberg-Witten map to, thus, construct a general action, to only then specify the problem to two and three dimensions. The quantization takes place through the Källén-Lehmann spectral representation and Yang-Feldman-Källén formulation, where we calculate the respective spectral density function to the gauge field. Furthermore, regarding the photon two-point function, we discuss how its infrared behavior is related to the term generated by quantum corrections in two dimensions, and, moreover, in three dimensions, we study the issue of nontrivial θ-dependent corrections to the dynamical mass generation.
On the possibility of an experiment on 'nonlocality' of electrodynamics
Khrapko, Radii I
2012-12-31
It has been known since the 19th century that a circularly polarised electromagnetic wave carries an angular momentum. A simple experiment (Righi, 1882) apparently indicates that the angular momentum is distributed over the entire cross section of the beam. According to some modern ideas, the angular momentum of the beam with the given polarisation is localised near the beam 'surface' and represents a spin of photons, while the energy in the beam is distributed throughout its cross section, which is inconsistent with the principle of locality. For the experimental determination of the localisation of the angular momentum, we propose a new scheme, in which we study the interference pattern of two coherent circularly polarised beams. Each beam first passes through a half-wave plate, one of the plates being divided into two coaxial parts. With (manual) rotation of one parts of the plate we change the frequency of the light passing through it: the plate absorbs the momentum and, therefore, work is done. This change in frequency should cause a movement of the interference fringes and show the distribution of the angular momentum over the beam cross section. (light polarisation)
On the possibility of an experiment on 'nonlocality' of electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrapko, Radii I.
2012-12-01
It has been known since the 19th century that a circularly polarised electromagnetic wave carries an angular momentum. A simple experiment (Righi, 1882) apparently indicates that the angular momentum is distributed over the entire cross section of the beam. According to some modern ideas, the angular momentum of the beam with the given polarisation is localised near the beam 'surface' and represents a spin of photons, while the energy in the beam is distributed throughout its cross section, which is inconsistent with the principle of locality. For the experimental determination of the localisation of the angular momentum, we propose a new scheme, in which we study the interference pattern of two coherent circularly polarised beams. Each beam first passes through a half-wave plate, one of the plates being divided into two coaxial parts. With (manual) rotation of one parts of the plate we change the frequency of the light passing through it: the plate absorbs the momentum and, therefore, work is done. This change in frequency should cause a movement of the interference fringes and show the distribution of the angular momentum over the beam cross section.
On Kottler's path: Origin and evolution of the premetric program in gravity and in electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hehl, Friedrich W.; Itin, Yakov; Obukhov, Yuri N.
2016-09-01
In 1922, Kottler put forward the program to remove the gravitational potential, the metric of spacetime, from the fundamental equations in physics as far as possible. He successfully applied this idea to Newton’s gravitostatics and to Maxwell’s electrodynamics, where Kottler recast the field equations in premetric form and specified a metric-dependent constitutive law. We will discuss the basics of the premetric approach and some of its beautiful consequences, like the division of universal constants into two classes. We show that classical electrodynamics can be developed without a metric quite straightforwardly: the Maxwell equations, together with a local and linear response law for electromagnetic media, admit a consistent premetric formulation. Kottler’s program succeeds here without provisos. In Kottler’s approach to gravity, making the theory relativistic, two premetric quasi-Maxwellian field equations arise, but their field variables, if interpreted in terms of general relativity, do depend on the metric. However, one can hope to bring the Kottler idea to work by using the teleparallelism equivalent of general relativity, where the gravitational potential, the coframe, can be chosen in a premetric way.
Terahertz-infrared electrodynamics of single-wall carbon nanotube films.
Zhukova, Elena S; Grebenko, Artem K; Bubis, Anton V; Prokhorov, Anatolii S; Belyanchikov, Mikhail A; Tsapenko, Alexey P; Gilshteyn, Evgenia; Kopylova, Daria S; Gladush, Yury G; Anisimov, Anton S; Anzin, Vladimir B; Nasibulin, Albert; Gorshunov, Boris P
2017-08-23
Broad-band (4 to 20 000 cm<sup>-1</sup>) spectra of real and imaginary conductance of a set of high-quality pristine and AuCl<sub>3</sub>-dopped single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films with different transparency are systematically measured. It is shown that while the high-energy (≥1 eV) response is determined by well-known interband transitions, the lower-energy electrodynamic properties of the films are fully dominated by unbound charge carriers. Their main spectral effect is seen as the free-carrier Drude-type contribution. Partial localization of these carriers leads to a weak plasmon resonance around 100 cm<sup>-1</sup>. At the lowest frequencies, below 10 cm<sup>-1</sup>, a gap-like feature is detected whose origin is associated with the energy barrier experienced by the carriers at the intersections between SWCNTs. It is assumed that these three mechanisms are universal and determine the low-frequency terahertz-infrared electrodynamics of SWCNT wafer-scale films. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Study on electrodynamic sensor of multi-modality system for multiphase flow measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Xiang; Chen, Dixiang; Yang, Wuqiang
2011-12-01
Accurate measurement of multiphase flows, including gas/solids, gas/liquid, and liquid/liquid flows, is still challenging. In principle, electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) can be used to measure the concentration of solids in a gas/solids flow and the liquid (e.g., oil) fraction in a gas/liquid flow, if the liquid is non-conductive. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) can be used to measure a gas/liquid flow, if the liquid is conductive. It has been attempted to use a dual-modality ECT/ERT system to measure both the concentration profile and the velocity profile by pixel-based cross correlation. However, this approach is not realistic because of the dynamic characteristics and the complexity of multiphase flows and the difficulties in determining the velocities by cross correlation. In this paper, the issues with dual modality ECT/ERT and the difficulties with pixel-based cross correlation will be discussed. A new adaptive multi-modality (ECT, ERT and electro-dynamic) sensor, which can be used to measure a gas/solids or gas/liquid flow, will be described. Especially, some details of the electrodynamic sensor of multi-modality system such as sensing electrodes optimum design, electrostatic charge amplifier, and signal processing will be discussed. Initial experimental results will be given.
Study on electrodynamic sensor of multi-modality system for multiphase flow measurement.
Deng, Xiang; Chen, Dixiang; Yang, Wuqiang
2011-12-01
Accurate measurement of multiphase flows, including gas/solids, gas/liquid, and liquid/liquid flows, is still challenging. In principle, electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) can be used to measure the concentration of solids in a gas/solids flow and the liquid (e.g., oil) fraction in a gas/liquid flow, if the liquid is non-conductive. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) can be used to measure a gas/liquid flow, if the liquid is conductive. It has been attempted to use a dual-modality ECT/ERT system to measure both the concentration profile and the velocity profile by pixel-based cross correlation. However, this approach is not realistic because of the dynamic characteristics and the complexity of multiphase flows and the difficulties in determining the velocities by cross correlation. In this paper, the issues with dual modality ECT/ERT and the difficulties with pixel-based cross correlation will be discussed. A new adaptive multi-modality (ECT, ERT and electro-dynamic) sensor, which can be used to measure a gas/solids or gas/liquid flow, will be described. Especially, some details of the electrodynamic sensor of multi-modality system such as sensing electrodes optimum design, electrostatic charge amplifier, and signal processing will be discussed. Initial experimental results will be given.
Electrodynamic, thermal, and energetic character of intense sun-aligned arcs in the polar cap
Valladares, C.E.; Carlson, H.C.
1991-02-01
The electrodynamic, thermal and energetic character of stable Sun-aligned arcs in the polar cap can be meaningfully diagnosed by an incoherent scatter radar, provided a suitable observing scheme is selected. The authors report here such measurements of two intense Sun-aligned arcs. The two arcs were diagnosed on two different nights (February 26 and March 1, 1987) using the Sondre Stomfjord radar as a stand-alone diagnostic. Repeatable patterns are found in mesoscale area maps of altitude profiles for observed electron and ion gas number densities, temperatures, and line-of-sight velocities, and projected mesoscale area maps of derived electric fields, Pedersen and Hall conductivities, horizontal and field-aligned currents, Joule heating rate, and Poynting flux. They confirm, for the first time with continuous mesoscale area maps, that the arcs have the anticipated simple arc electrodynamics. That is, the visual and enhanced ionization signatures of the arc are produced by incoming energetic electrons carrying the outgoing current from the electric field convergence in the arc.
Investigation of electrodynamic stabilization and control of long orbiting tethers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colombo, G.; Arnold, D.
1984-01-01
The state-of-the-art in tether modelling among participants in the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Program, the slack tether and its behavior, and certain advanced applications of the tether to problems in orbital mechanics are identified. The features and applications of the TSS software set are reviewed. Modelling the slack tether analytically with as many as 50 mass points and the application of this new model to a study of the behavior of a broken tether near the Shuttle are described. A reel control algorithm developed by SAO and examples of its use are described, including an example which also demonstrates the use of the tether in transferring a heavy payload from a low-orbiting Shuttle to a high circular orbit. Capture of a low-orbiting payload by a Space Station in high circular orbit is described. Energy transfer within a dumbbell-type spacecraft by cyclical reeling operations or gravitational effects on the natural elasticity of the connecting tether, it is shown, can circularize the orbit of the spacecraft.
Anomalous segregation during electrodynamic gradient freeze growth of cadmium zinc telluride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Nan; Yeckel, Andrew; Burger, Arnold; Cui, Yunlong; Lynn, Kelvin G.; Derby, Jeffrey J.
2011-06-01
A transient, coupled model has been developed to analyze the segregation of zinc in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) grown in an electrodynamic gradient freeze (EDG) furnace. The coupled model consists of a local model that solves for time-dependent melt flow, heat transfer, melt-crystal interface position, and zinc distribution in both melt and solid phases and a quasi-steady-state global model that features realistic furnace heat transfer. After verification and validation tests, the model is applied to predict composition patterns in a large-scale CZT EDG growth system previously analyzed by Gasperino et al. [On crucible effects during the growth of cadmium zinc telluride in an electrodynamic gradient freeze furnace, J. Crys. Growth 311 (2009) 2327-2335]. Surprisingly, anomalous zinc segregation is predicted, featuring a non-monotonic axial concentration profile and several local minima and maxima across the boule. A mechanistic explanation is put forth based on the cumulative effect of changes in multi-cellular melt flow structures, a particularly susceptible occurrence for CZT systems. Additional effects of furnace translation rate and solid state diffusion are probed.
Singular Behaviour of the Electrodynamic Fields of an Oscillating Dipole
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leung, P. T.
2008-01-01
The singularity of the exact electromagnetic fields is derived to include the "source terms" for harmonically oscillating electric (and magnetic) dipoles, so that the fields will be consistent with the full Maxwell equations with a source. It is shown explicitly, as somewhat expected, that the same [delta]-function terms for the case of static…
Nonperturbative quasiclassical theory of the nonlinear electrodynamic response of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikhailov, S. A.
2017-02-01
An electromagnetic response of a single graphene layer to a uniform, arbitrarily strong electric field E (t ) is calculated by solving the kinetic Boltzmann equation within the relaxation-time approximation. The theory is valid at low (microwave, terahertz, infrared) frequencies satisfying the condition ℏ ω ≲2 EF , where EF is the Fermi energy. We investigate the saturable absorption and higher harmonics generation effects, as well as the transmission, reflection, and absorption of radiation incident on the graphene layer, as a function of the frequency and power of the incident radiation and of the ratio of the radiative to scattering damping rates. We show that the optical bistability effect, predicted in Phys. Rev. B 90, 125425 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.125425 on the basis of a perturbative approach, disappears when the problem is solved exactly. We show that under the action of a high-power radiation (≳100 kW /cm2 ) both the reflection and absorption coefficients strongly decrease and the layer becomes transparent.
Singular Behaviour of the Electrodynamic Fields of an Oscillating Dipole
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leung, P. T.
2008-01-01
The singularity of the exact electromagnetic fields is derived to include the "source terms" for harmonically oscillating electric (and magnetic) dipoles, so that the fields will be consistent with the full Maxwell equations with a source. It is shown explicitly, as somewhat expected, that the same [delta]-function terms for the case of static…
Preliminary investigation of the electrodynamics of a conducting tether
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, W. B.
1985-01-01
An introductory study of the properties of an electrically conducting tether flown from the shuttle is presented. Only a single configuration is considered: a vertical conductor moving normally across the Earth's field, connecting the shuttle to a large conducting balloon that passively extracts electrons from the ionosphere. The distortions in the plasma at maximum current collection are described, as are the local and distant wakes. Numerical values are given.
2006 Status of the Momentum eXchange Electrodynamic Re-Boost (MXER) Tether Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonometti, Joseph A.; Sorensen, Kirk F.; Dankanich, John W.; Frame, Kyle L.
2006-01-01
The MXER Tether technology development is a high-payoff/high-risk investment area within the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program. The ISPT program is managed by the NASA Headquarters Science Mission Directorate and implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The MXER concept was identified and competitively ranked within NASA's comprehensive Integrated In-Space Transportation Plan (IISTP); an agency-wide technology assessment activity. The objective of the MXER tether project within ISPT is to advance the technological maturation level for the MXER system, and its subsystems, as well as other space and terrestrial tether applications. Recent hardware efforts have focused on the manufacturability of space-survivable high-strength tether material and coatings, high-current electrodynamic tether, lightweight catch mechanism, high-accuracy propagator/predictor code, and efficient electron collection/current generation. Significant technical progress has been achieved with modest ISPT funding to the extent that MXER has evolved to a well-characterized system with greater capability as the design has been matured. Synergistic efforts in high-current electrodynamic tethers and efficient electron collection/current generation have been made possible through SBIR and STTR support. The entire development endeavor was orchestrated as a collaborative team effort across multiple individual contracts and has established a solid technology resource base, which permits a wide variety of future space cable/tether applications to be realized.
Plasma contactors for electrodynamic tether
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patterson, Michael J.; Wilbur, Paul J.
1986-01-01
The role plasma contactors play in effective electrodynamic tether operation is discussed. Hollow cathodes and hollow cathode-based plasma sources have been identified as leading candidates for the electrodynamic tether plasma contactor. Present experimental efforts to evaluate the suitability of these devices as plasma contactors, conducted concurrently at NASA Lewis Research Center and Colorado State University, are reviewed. These research programs include the definition of preliminary plasma contactor designs, and the characterization of their operation both as electron emitters and electron collectors to and from a simulated space plasma. Results indicate that ampere-level electron currents, sufficient for electrodynamic tether operation, can be exchanged between hollow cathode-based plasma contactors and a dilute plasma.
Characterizing electrodynamic shakers
Smallwood, D.O.
1996-12-31
An electrodynamic shaker is modeled as a mixed electrical/mechanical system with an experimentally derived two port network characterization. The model characterizes the shaker in a manner that the performance of the shaker with a mounted load (test item and fixture) can be predicted. The characterization depends on the measurements of shaker input voltage and current, and on the acceleration of the shaker armature with several mounted loads. The force into the load is also required, and can be measured directly or inferred from the load apparent mass.
Perturbative cavity quantum electrodynamics
Hinds., E.A.
1994-12-31
Charged particles are coupled to the electromagnetic radiation field at a fundamental level. Even in a vacuum, an atom is perturbed by the zero-point quantum noise of the electromagnetic field, and this coupling is responsible for some basic phenomena such as the Lamb shift and spontaneous radiative decay. These radiative effects can be calculated to high precision using the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED), and for cases when the atom is in free space, remarkable agreement has been found between theory and experiment. One is led to conclude QED provides a reliable description of the coupling between the charged particles and electromagnetic fields. 101 refs., 20 figs.
Wheeler and Feynman electrodynamics within the framework of retarded causality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yaremko, Yu
2002-11-01
A frontal collision of two point-like charged particles which are asymptotically free in the remote past and in the distant future is considered. Ten conserved quantities corresponding to the symmetry of a closed system of particles and electromagnetic field under the Poincaré group are expressed in terms of particle variables. It is shown that an interference of outgoing electromagnetic waves (retarded Liénard-Wiechert solutions) ensures the action of the field of one source on another (mutual interaction). The combination of wave motions accords with the modified Wheeler and Feynman absorber theory of radiation where (acausal) 'perfect absorption' is replaced by an interference phenomenon.
Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.
2011-12-01
Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.
Electrodynamics of spoof plasmons in periodically corrugated waveguides.
Erementchouk, Mikhail; Joy, Soumitra Roy; Mazumder, Pinaki
2016-11-01
States of the electromagnetic field confined near a periodically corrugated surface of a perfect conductor, spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPP), are approached systematically based on the developed adaptation of the mode matching technique to the transfer matrix formalism. Within this approach, in the approximation of narrow grooves, systems with arbitrary transversal structure can be investigated straightforwardly, thus lifting the restrictions of the effective medium description and usual implementations of mode matching. A compact expression for the SSPP coupling parameter accounting for the effect of higher Bloch modes is found. The results of the general analysis are applied for studying the effect of dielectric environment on SSPP spectra. It is shown that the effective SSPP plasma frequency is unaffected by the dielectric constant of the medium outside of the grooves and the main effect of sufficiently wide dielectric slabs covering the corrugated surface is described by simple rescaling of the maximal value of the Bloch wavenumber and the coupling parameter. Additionally, in the case of a thin dielectric layer, it is shown that SSPP are sensitive to variation of the thickness of the layer on the sub-wavelength scale.
Electrodynamics of spoof plasmons in periodically corrugated waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erementchouk, Mikhail; Joy, Soumitra Roy; Mazumder, Pinaki
2016-11-01
States of the electromagnetic field confined near a periodically corrugated surface of a perfect conductor, spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPP), are approached systematically based on the developed adaptation of the mode matching technique to the transfer matrix formalism. Within this approach, in the approximation of narrow grooves, systems with arbitrary transversal structure can be investigated straightforwardly, thus lifting the restrictions of the effective medium description and usual implementations of mode matching. A compact expression for the SSPP coupling parameter accounting for the effect of higher Bloch modes is found. The results of the general analysis are applied for studying the effect of dielectric environment on SSPP spectra. It is shown that the effective SSPP plasma frequency is unaffected by the dielectric constant of the medium outside of the grooves and the main effect of sufficiently wide dielectric slabs covering the corrugated surface is described by simple rescaling of the maximal value of the Bloch wavenumber and the coupling parameter. Additionally, in the case of a thin dielectric layer, it is shown that SSPP are sensitive to variation of the thickness of the layer on the sub-wavelength scale.
Electrodynamics payloads for small rockets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Croskey, C. L.; Hale, L. C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Mccarthy, S. P.; Goodnow, K. J.; Li, C.; Goldberg, R. A.
1992-01-01
Totally integrated design facilitates electrical cleanliness and light weight, which are necessary in subsonic parachute-borne payloads for electrodynamics investigations. 'Blunt' probes measure ion conductivity, as do Gerdien condensers. Recent finite-element computer analyses combining flow and electrodynamics have resolved problems in determining ion densities and mobilities from Gerdien data. Three-axis electric fields are measured with deployable boom-mounted electrodes from dc through VLF. Splitting the cylindrical payload with an insulator and measuring the current between halves has provided a vertical Maxwell current detector mechanically rigid enough to measure, at ELF, energy related to coupling. A nose tip 'Smith' probe turbulence measurement is usually performed on ascent. Other instrumentation, such as photo-ionization sources and X-ray detectors, can also be included. These electrodynamic measurement payloads are about one meter in length and have a mass of about 9 kg. They can be launched with an Orion-class or smaller vehicle.
Electrodynamics payloads for small rockets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Croskey, C. L.; Hale, L. C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Mccarthy, S. P.; Goodnow, K. J.; Li, C.; Goldberg, R. A.
1992-01-01
Totally integrated design facilitates electrical cleanliness and light weight, which are necessary in subsonic parachute-borne payloads for electrodynamics investigations. 'Blunt' probes measure ion conductivity, as do Gerdien condensers. Recent finite-element computer analyses combining flow and electrodynamics have resolved problems in determining ion densities and mobilities from Gerdien data. Three-axis electric fields are measured with deployable boom-mounted electrodes from dc through VLF. Splitting the cylindrical payload with an insulator and measuring the current between halves has provided a vertical Maxwell current detector mechanically rigid enough to measure, at ELF, energy related to coupling. A nose tip 'Smith' probe turbulence measurement is usually performed on ascent. Other instrumentation, such as photo-ionization sources and X-ray detectors, can also be included. These electrodynamic measurement payloads are about one meter in length and have a mass of about 9 kg. They can be launched with an Orion-class or smaller vehicle.
The Fourth Law of Motion in Classical Mechanics and Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinheiro, Mario J.
2010-01-01
Newton's second law has limited scope of application when transient phenomena are at stake. We endeavor here to consider a modification of Newton's second law in order to take into account sudden change (surge) of angular momentum or linear momentum. It is shown that space react back according to a kind of induction law that is related to inertia, but also appears to give evidence of a "fluidic" nature of space itself. The back-reaction is quantified by the time rate of the angular momentum flux threading a surface, mass dependent, and bearing similarity to the quantum mechanics phase shift, present in the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, thus giving evidence of the property of vacuum polarization, a phenomena which is relative to local space. It is formulated a kind of (qualitative) Lenz law that gives an explanation to precession.
Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in animals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nedbalova, M.; Jandova, A.; Dohnalova, A.
2011-12-01
A specific kind of intracellular organelles, the mitochondria, is the place of metabolic energy production by oxidative mechanism. We used cell mediated immunity method for verification of the energy metabolism (ATP production). The antigen (immunological functional RNA) was obtained from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) and prepared by the high pressure gel chromatography (HPGC). We have studied the immunological adaptability of LDH viral antigen in 62 pigs (12 parents and 50 piglings). Exitus of piglings was in case of positive imunological response on LDV. The statement results from a comparison of the relative frequency of an incidence of identical findings in male piglets and sows and from identical findings in female piglets and pigs. The efficient elaboration and utilization of energy in cell may be damaged by the changes of energy production systems and also by long-term parasitary depletion of ATP energy. Biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms. Biophysical processes are also involved in the transfer of information and its processing for making decisions and providing control, which are important parts of biological activity. These experimental results were used for the same study in human.
Classical electrodynamics in a space with spin noncommutativity of coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasyuta, V. M.; Tkachuk, V. M.
2016-10-01
We propose a relativistic Lorentz-invariant spin-noncommutative algebra. Using the Weyl ordering of noncommutative position operators, we find a mapping from a space of commutative functions into space of noncommutative functions. The Lagrange function of an electromagnetic field in the space with spin noncommutativity is constructed. In such a space electromagnetic field becomes non-abelian. A gauge transformation law of this field is also obtained. Exact nonlinear field equations of noncommutative electromagnetic field are derived from the least action principle. Within the perturbative approach we consider field of a point charge in a constant magnetic field and interaction of two plane waves. An exact solution of a plane wave propagation in a constant magnetic and electric fields is found.
Electrodynamic response of the middle atmosphere to auroral pulsations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, R. A.; Croskey, C. L.; Hale, L. C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Barcus, J. R.
1990-01-01
The MAC/EPSILON observational campaign encompassed the use of two Nike Orion rocket payloads which studied the effects of auroral energetics on the middle atmosphere. While one payload was launched during the recovery phase of a moderate magnetic substorm, during fairly stable auroral conditions, the other was launched during highly active postbreakup conditions during which Pc5 pulsations were in progress. The energetic radiation of the first event was composed almost entirely of relativistic electrons below 200 keV, while that of the second was dominated by much softer electrons whose high X-ray fluxes exceeded the cosmic ray background as an ionizing source down to below 30 km.
Electrodynamics of a ring-shaped spiral resonator
Maleeva, N.; Karpov, A.; Averkin, A.; Fistul, M. V.; Zhuravel, A. P.; Jung, P.; Ustinov, A. V.
2014-02-14
We present analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations of electromagnetic resonant modes of a compact monofilar Archimedean spiral resonator shaped in a ring, with no central part. Planar spiral resonators are interesting as components of metamaterials for their compact deep-subwavelength size. Such resonators couple primarily to the magnetic field component of the incident electromagnetic wave, offering properties suitable for magnetic meta-atoms. Surprisingly, the relative frequencies of the resonant modes follow the sequence of the odd numbers as f{sub 1}:f{sub 2}:f{sub 3}:f{sub 4}… = 1:3:5:7…, despite the nearly identical boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields at the extremities of the resonator. In order to explain the observed spectrum of resonant modes, we show that the current distribution inside the spiral satisfies a particular Carleman type singular integral equation. By solving this equation, we obtain a set of resonant frequencies. The analytically calculated resonance frequencies and the current distributions are in good agreement with experimental data and the results of numerical simulations. By using low-temperature laser scanning microscopy of a superconducting spiral resonator, we compare the experimentally visualized ac current distributions over the spiral with the calculated ones. Theory and experiment agree well with each other. Our analytical model allows for calculation of a detailed three-dimensional magnetic field structure of the resonators.
Electrodynamics of a ring-shaped spiral resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maleeva, N.; Fistul, M. V.; Karpov, A.; Zhuravel, A. P.; Averkin, A.; Jung, P.; Ustinov, A. V.
2014-02-01
We present analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations of electromagnetic resonant modes of a compact monofilar Archimedean spiral resonator shaped in a ring, with no central part. Planar spiral resonators are interesting as components of metamaterials for their compact deep-subwavelength size. Such resonators couple primarily to the magnetic field component of the incident electromagnetic wave, offering properties suitable for magnetic meta-atoms. Surprisingly, the relative frequencies of the resonant modes follow the sequence of the odd numbers as f1:f2:f3:f4… = 1:3:5:7…, despite the nearly identical boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields at the extremities of the resonator. In order to explain the observed spectrum of resonant modes, we show that the current distribution inside the spiral satisfies a particular Carleman type singular integral equation. By solving this equation, we obtain a set of resonant frequencies. The analytically calculated resonance frequencies and the current distributions are in good agreement with experimental data and the results of numerical simulations. By using low-temperature laser scanning microscopy of a superconducting spiral resonator, we compare the experimentally visualized ac current distributions over the spiral with the calculated ones. Theory and experiment agree well with each other. Our analytical model allows for calculation of a detailed three-dimensional magnetic field structure of the resonators.
Semi-classical Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lestone, John
2016-03-01
Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. We describe semi-classical approaches that can be used to obtain a more intuitive physical feel for several QED processes including electro-statics, Compton scattering, pair annihilation, the anomalous magnetic moment, and the Lamb shift, that could be taught easily to undergraduate students. Any physicist who brings their laptop to the talk will be able to build spread sheets in less than 10 minutes to calculate g/2 =1.001160 and a Lamb shift of 1057 MHz.
Electrodynamics of moving media inducing positive and negative refraction
Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M.; Kong, Jin Au
2006-07-15
Negative refraction is a phenomenon that has been recently reported with left-handed media (either isotropic or not), photonic crystals, and rotated uniaxial media. In this Brief Report, we identify another origin of negative refraction, due to the motion of the transmitted medium parallel to the interface at which refraction occurs. Previous works in this domain have concentrated on media velocities that are above the Cerenkov limit, while we show here that negative refraction is in fact achievable at any velocities of the transmitted medium. A possible experimental implementation is proposed to verify this effect. Next, we consider an isotropic frequency-dispersive medium for which the index of refraction can take negative values, and we study the wave refraction phenomenon as a function of frequency and medium velocity. It is found that the motion of the medium induces a rotation of refraction, which can either enhance or attenuate the natural negative refraction of the medium.
Collinear n-body problem of classical electrodynamics
Driver, R. D.; Norris, M. J.
1980-01-01
One model for the motion of n charged particles on the x-axis leads to a system of delay differential equations with delays that depend on the unknown trajectories. If appropriate past histories of the trajectories are given, say on (-r,0), then for sufficiently small t greater than or equal to 0 one has a system of n/sup 2/ ordinary differential equations of the form y' = f(t,y) with y(0) = y/sub 0/ given. The function f, which involves the known past histories of the trajectories, is continuous; thus, existence of solutions is assured. However, f does not satisfy the Lipschitz condition usually used for proving uniqueness. The main new result is that the solution of the above equation is unique provided.
Cavity tests of parity-odd Lorentz violations in electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mewes, Matthew; Petroff, Alexander
2007-03-01
Electromagnetic resonant cavities form the basis for a number modern tests of Lorentz invariance. The geometry of most of these experiments implies unsuppressed sensitivities to parity-even Lorentz violations only. Parity-odd violations typically enter through suppressed boost effects, causing a reduction in sensitivity by roughly 4 orders of magnitude. Here we discuss possible techniques for achieving unsuppressed sensitivities to parity-odd violations using asymmetric resonators.
Situational Knowledge in Physics: The Case of Electrodynamics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; de Jong, Ton; Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G. M.
2002-01-01
Investigates how situational knowledge differs across individuals of different competence levels. Analyzes participants' descriptions of physics problem situations. Discusses the relationship between competence and the structure of problem situations, differences between experts and novices, and implications for teaching. (Author/KHR)
New limit on signals of Lorentz violation in electrodynamics.
Lipa, J A; Nissen, J A; Wang, S; Stricker, D A; Avaloff, D
2003-02-14
We describe the results of an experiment to test for spacetime anisotropy terms that might exist from Lorentz violations. The apparatus consists of a pair of cylindrical superconducting cavity-stabilized oscillators operating in the TM010 mode with one axis east-west and the other vertical. Spatial anisotropy is detected by monitoring the beat frequency at the sidereal rate and its first harmonic. We see no anisotropy to a part in 10(13). This puts a comparable bound on four linear combinations of parameters in the general standard model extension, and a weaker bound of < 4 x 10(-9) on three others.
Electrodynamic properties and height of atmospheric convective boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anisimov, S. V.; Galichenko, S. V.; Mareev, E. A.
2017-09-01
We consider the relations between the mixed layer height and atmospheric electric parameters affected by convective mixing. Vertical turbulent transport of radon, its progeny and electrically charged particles is described under Lagrangian stochastic framework, which is the next step to develop a consistent model for the formation of electrical conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer. Using the data from detailed and complex measurements of vertical profiles of the temperature and turbulence statistics as input, we calculated non-stationary vertical profiles of radon and its daughter products concentrations, atmospheric electric conductivity and intensity of electric field in the convective boundary layer from the morning transition through early afternoon quasi-stationary conditions. These profiles demonstrate substantial variability due to the changing turbulent regime in the evolving boundary layer. We obtained quantitative estimates of the atmospheric electric field variability range essentially related to the sunrise and convection development. It is shown that the local change in the electrical conductivity is the only factor that can change the intensity of electric field at the earth's surface more than twice during the transition from night to day. The established relations between electric and turbulent parameters of the boundary layer indicate that the effect of sunrise is more pronounced in the case when development of convection is accompanied by an increase in aerosol concentration and, hence, a decrease in local conductivity.
Electrodynamics of a magnet moving through a conducting pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Partovi, M. H.; Morris, E. J.
2006-04-01
The popular demonstration involving a permanent magnet falling through a conducting pipe is treated as an axially symmetric boundary-value problem. Specifically, Maxwell's equations are solved for an axially symmetric magnet moving coaxially inside an infinitely long, conducting cylindrical shell of arbitrary thickness at nonrelativistic speeds. Analytic solutions for the fields are developed and used to derive the resulting drag force acting on the magnet in integral form. This treatment represents a significant improvement over existing models, which idealize the problem as a point dipole moving slowly inside a pipe of negligible thickness. It also provides a rigorous study of eddy currents under a broad range of conditions, and can be used for magnetic braking applications. The case of a uniformly magnetized cylindrical magnet is considered in detail, and a comprehensive analytical and numerical study of the properties of the drag force is presented for this geometry. Various limiting cases of interest involving the shape and speed of the magnet and the full range of conductivity and magnetic behavior of the pipe material are investigated and corresponding asymptotic formulas are developed.
Electrodynamics with Lorentz-violating operators of arbitrary dimension
Kostelecky, V. Alan; Mewes, Matthew
2009-07-01
The behavior of photons in the presence of Lorentz and CPT violation is studied. Allowing for operators of arbitrary mass dimension, we classify all gauge-invariant Lorentz- and CPT-violating terms in the quadratic Lagrange density associated with the effective photon propagator. The covariant dispersion relation is obtained, and conditions for birefringence are discussed. We provide a complete characterization of the coefficients for Lorentz violation for all mass dimensions via a decomposition using spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The resulting nine independent sets of spherical coefficients control birefringence, dispersion, and anisotropy in the photon propagator. We discuss the restriction of the general theory to various special models, including among others the minimal standard-model extension, the isotropic limit, the case of vacuum propagation, the nonbirefringent limit, and the vacuum-orthogonal model. The transformation of the spherical coefficients for Lorentz violation between the laboratory frame and the standard Sun-centered frame is provided. We apply the results to various astrophysical observations and laboratory experiments. Astrophysical searches of relevance include studies of birefringence and of dispersion. We use polarimetric and dispersive data from gamma-ray bursts to set constraints on coefficients for Lorentz violation involving operators of dimensions four through nine, and we describe the mixing of polarizations induced by Lorentz and CPT violation in the cosmic-microwave background. Laboratory searches of interest include cavity experiments. We present the general theory for searches with cavities, derive the experiment-dependent factors for coefficients in the vacuum-orthogonal model, and predict the corresponding frequency shift for a circular-cylindrical cavity.
The Morphology and Electrodynamics of the Boreal Polar Winter Cusp.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McHarg, Matthew G.
The major result of this thesis is the magnetic signatures of the dayside cusp region. These signatures were determined by comparing the magnetic observations to optical observations of different energy particle precipitation regions observed in the cusp. In this thesis, the cusp is defined as the location of most direct entry of magnetosheath particles into the ionosphere. Optical observations show that the observing station rotates daily beneath regions of different incident energy particles. Typically, the station passes from a region in the morning of high energy particles into a region near magnetic noon of very low energy precipitation, and then returns to a region of high energy precipitation after magnetic noon. A tentative identification of the cusp is made on the basis of these observations. The optical observations also are used to determine the upward field aligned current density, which is found to be most intense in the region identified as the cusp. The magnetic field measurements are found to correlate with the optical measurements. When the characteristic energy is high, the spectrogram shows large amplitude broad band signals. The Pc5 component of these oscillations is right hand polarized in the morning, and left hand polarized in the afternoon. During the time the optics detect precipitation with a minimum characteristic energy, the magnetic spectrogram shows a unique narrow band tone at 3-5 mHz. The occurrence statistics of the magnetic oscillations are compared to DMSP satellite observations of the cusp and low latitude boundary layer. The pulses that make the narrow band tone are found to come in wave trains that are phase coherent. These trains of coherent pulses are found to be separated by phase jumps from adjacent wave trains. These jumps in phase occur when a new field aligned current appears on the equatorward edge of the cusp. This combination of phase coherent wave trains associated with poleward propagating auroral forms which are
The gravito-electrodynamics of charged dust in planetary magnetospheres
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mendis, D. A.; Houpis, H. L. F.; Hill, J. R.
1982-01-01
The orbital dynamics of small electrically charged dust grains within the corotating regions of planetary magnetospheres is considered. Equations are derived for the elliptical epicyclic motion of positively and negatively charged particles about the guiding center in an equilibrium circular orbit under the influence of small perturbations. Those orbits that are stable to the perturbations are found to have a ratio of the semiaxes of the epicycle between 1/2 and 1, depending on the specific charge, and a gyration frequency about the guiding center between the Kepler frequency and the grain gyrofrequency in a nonrotating frame. In the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, where the grains are expected to be negatively charged and move in a prograde sense, the guiding centers are predicted to have speeds intermediate to the Kepler speed and the corotation speed and thus may undergo a 1:1 magneto-gravitational resonance with a neighboring satellite. Results may be used in the interpretation of the waves in the F ring of Saturn in terms of the dust size distribution.
Mass shell of strong-field quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiss, H. R.
2014-02-01
It has long been known that a free electron in an intense plane-wave field has a mass shell that differs from the usual free-electron mass shell, with a form that implies that an intensity-dependent increase in mass occurs. It has been an attractive but elusive goal to observe this mass shift. Many schemes have been proposed by which a definitive measurement might be made, and some claims of success exist, but these tests are not conclusive. It is shown here that the intense-field mass shell is not the result of a change in mass. Rather, it is a consequence of the potential energy that a charged particle must possess in the presence of a plane-wave field. When the effects of this potential are incorporated in a properly covariant form, the mass shift no longer appears and kinematic relations are conventional. If the plane-wave pulse is sufficiently long to allow the electron to exit the field adiabatically, then there is no alteration at all of the mass shell expression. Other aspects of the role played by a ponderomotive 4-potential are examined. It is also shown that the putative "relativistic mass" of the electron is illusory when confronted with covariance requirements. Both "mass increases" of the free electron are thereby nullified by fundamental principles.
Electrodynamics of memory-dependent nonlocal elastic continua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eringen, A. Cemal
1984-11-01
Balance laws and constitutive equations are given for elastic continua with memory of past motions and electromagnetic fields. Nonlinear, finite-linear, and linear constitutive equations are obtained and restricted by the second law of thermodynamics. Memory-dependent nonlocal piezoelectricity, piezomagnetism, heat and electric conduction, viscoelasticity, and other allied physical phenomena are in the domain of the general theory. The theory is applied to discuss infrared dispersion and lattice vibrations, natural optical activity, anomalous skin effect, and superconductivity, indicating the power and the potential of the nonlocal theory.
Consistent quantization of massive chiral electrodynamics in four dimensions
Andrianov, A. ); Bassetto, A.; Soldati, R.
1989-10-09
We discuss the quantization of a four-dimensional model in which a massive Abelian vector field interacts with chiral massless fermions. We show that, by introducing extra scalar fields, a renormalizable unitary {ital S} matrix can be obtained in a suitably defined Hilbert space of physical states.
The Electrodynamics of the Solar Wind Interaction with Venus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russell, C. T.; Ma, Y. J.; Luhman, J. G.
2010-05-01
Venus has a thick atmosphere whose upper reaches are ionized by solar EUV. The temperature and density of this ionosphere provide sufficient pressure that, at solar maximum for normal solar wind pressures, the solar wind is deflected at altitudes far above the region of significant ion-neutral collisions. Hence when the interplanetary field changes, a current is induced at the ionopause that excludes the magnetic field from the ionosphere. A magnetic barrier of magnetic field draped around the ionosphere builds up and forms the obstacle to the solar wind flow. Since the size of the Venus obstacle vastly exceeds that of the ion-gyro motion, a bow shock forms that slows, heats, and deflects the solar wind plasma. This interaction is the epitome of the induced magnetosphere. At times though, the solar wind pressure is too strong to be stood off by the ionosphere, and the ionopause drops to collisional altitudes. At this point, the ionosphere becomes magnetized throughout. Venus also has an H and O exosphere that extends into the solar wind. These can lead to the occurrence of cometary processes like mass pickup and deceleration of the flow. In short, the solar wind interaction with Venus has many facets and is sufficiently complex to continue to fuel new discoveries and a little controversy.
Electrodynamic response properties of low-dimensional conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Brian Lewis
Two classes of low-dimensional materials are examined to expand current knowledge on their potentially useful electrical and/or optical properties. First, complex AC conductance measurements from 0.01 to 50 GHz, across temperatures of 4.2 to 300 K and magnetic fields up to 2.0 T were made on textile sheets of highly aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes drawn from 329, 420 and 520 microm-high forests. The AC conductance of sheets with strands oriented parallel and perpendicular to the electric field polarization is roughly modeled by a shunt capacitance in parallel with a frequency-independent conductance, with no inductive contribution. This is consistent with diffusive Drude AC conduction up to 50 GHz. Further, AC conductance is found to be essentially independent of temperature and magnetic field. The absence of temperature dependence implies elastic defect and impurity scattering is dominant in these materials, while a lack of magnetoconductance suggests uncompensated single band conduction with no coherent weak localization backscattering. Second, the effect of Cr doping on properties of Cr(x)V(1-x)O2 thin films across the metal-insulator transition (MIT) has been studied. Resistance, Hall effect and infrared reflectance show Cr doping systematically increases the transition temperature Tc from 59 C at x=0 to 70 C at x=0.11, but the effect appears to saturate. This is in contrast to a prior study of bulk ceramic samples where the transition temperature increased without saturation for chromium doping fractions up to x=0.20. Results also show conductance changes across the MIT for the Cr(x)V(1-x)O2 thin films to be largely due to increases in carrier density rather than mobility, consistent with theoretical expectations.
Anomalous electrodynamics of neutral pion matter in strong magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brauner, Tomáš; Kadam, Saurabh V.
2017-03-01
The ground state of quantum chromodynamics in sufficiently strong external magnetic fields and at moderate baryon chemical potential is a chiral soliton lattice (CSL) of neutral pions [1]. We investigate the interplay between the CSL structure and dynamical electromagnetic fields. Our main result is that in presence of the CSL background, the two physical photon polarizations and the neutral pion mix, giving rise to two gapped excitations and one gapless mode with a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. The nature of this mode depends on the direction of its propagation, interpolating between a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave [2] and a neutral pion surface wave, which in turn arises from the spontaneously broken translation invariance. Quite remarkably, there is a neutral-pion-like mode that remains gapped even in the chiral limit, in seeming contradiction to the Goldstone theorem. Finally, we have a first look at the effect of thermal fluctuations of the CSL, showing that even the soft nonrelativistic excitation does not lead to the Landau-Peierls instability. However, it leads to an anomalous contribution to pressure that scales with temperature and magnetic field as T 5/2( B/f π )3/2.
A Collinear n-Body Problem of Classical Electrodynamics.
1980-05-01
ni)l + K Z l1i - nil, i=l i=m+l where K > 0 is constant and each gi is a continuous function of bounded , variation . This generalized Lipschitz-type...any norm in R P , K > 0 is a constant, and each gi: R 9 R is continuous and is of bounded variation on bounded subintervals. The theorem proved in [53...Theorem 3. Let 0i, "’’" *n be given functions on [a,03 with each continuous and of bounded variation . Assume that (i) 0j(0) # 01 (0) when j # i, (ii) I0l(t
Electrodynamics of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kan, Joseph R.; Akasofu, Syun-Ichi
1989-01-01
The paper presents a coherent picture of fundamental physical processes in three basic elements of the solar-wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere coupling system: (1) the field-aligned potential structure which leads to the formation of auroral arcs, (2) the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling which leads to the onset of magnetospheric substorms, and (3) the solar-wind/magnetosphere dynamo which supplies the power driving various magnetospheric processes. Process (1) is forced into existence by the loss-cone constriction effect when the upward field-aligned current density exceeds the loss-cone thermal flux limit. Substorm onset occurs when the ionosphere responds fully to the enhanced magnetospheric convection driven by the solar wind. Energy is transferred from the solar wind to the magnetosphere by a dynamo process, primarily on open field lines.
New methods of testing Lorentz violation in electrodynamics
Tobar, Michael Edmund; Fowler, Alison; Hartnett, John Gideon; Wolf, Peter
2005-01-15
We investigate experiments that are sensitive to the scalar and parity-odd coefficients for Lorentz violation in the photon sector of the standard model extension (SME). We show that of the classic tests of special relativity, Ives-Stilwell (IS) experiments are sensitive to the scalar coefficient, but at only parts in 10{sup 5} for the state-of-the-art experiment. We then propose asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers with different electromagnetic properties in the two arms, including recycling techniques based on travelling wave resonators to improve the sensitivity. With present technology we estimate that the scalar and parity-odd coefficients may be measured with a sensitivity better than parts in 10{sup 11} and 10{sup 15} respectively.
Change in the coil distribution of electrodynamic suspension system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tanaka, Hisashi
1992-01-01
At the Miyazaki Maglev Test Center, the initial test runs were completed using a system design that required the superconducting coils to be parallel with the ground levitation coils. Recently, the coil distribution was changed to a system such that the two types of coils were perpendicular to each other. Further system changes will lead to the construction of a side wall levitation system. It is hoped that the development will culminate in a system whereby a superconducting coil will maintain all the functions: levitation, propulsion, and guidance.
Advanced Electrodynamic Tether Systems: Modeling of Scattering and Unsteady Effects
2008-06-06
spacecraft and satellites. A high altitude nuclear detonation would likely create a new high energy electron belt and increase the radiation risk to...deflection of high energy particles into their loss cone. On July 9, 1962, the United States detonated 1.4 Megaton nuclear warhead code-named ”Starfish...In addition, the explosion created a thin region of very high energy electrons near L = 1.2 [6]. On October 28, 1962, the U.S.S.R. detonated a
The electrodynamics of charged dust in the cometary environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horanyi, M.; Mendis, D. A.
1991-01-01
Dust in the plasma and radiative environment of a comet is necessarily electrically charged. This charging has both physical and dynamical effects on the dust, being particularly important on the smallest particles observed in the dust size spectrum. In this paper, these dynamical effects are reviewed and the pertinent observations are discussed.
Sound-based analogue of cavity quantum electrodynamics in silicon.
Soykal, Ö O; Ruskov, Rusko; Tahan, Charles
2011-12-02
A quantum mechanical superposition of a long-lived, localized phonon and a matter excitation is described. We identify a realization in strained silicon: a low-lying donor transition (P or Li) driven solely by acoustic phonons at wavelengths where high-Q phonon cavities can be built. This phonon-matter resonance is shown to enter the strongly coupled regime where the "vacuum" Rabi frequency exceeds the spontaneous phonon emission into noncavity modes, phonon leakage from the cavity, and phonon anharmonicity and scattering. We introduce a micropillar distributed Bragg reflector Si/Ge cavity, where Q≃10(5)-10(6) and mode volumes V≲25λ(3) are reachable. These results indicate that single or many-body devices based on these systems are experimentally realizable. © 2011 American Physical Society
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verweij, A. P.
2006-07-01
CUDI is the extended Fortran code to calculate the electrodynamic and thermal behaviour of any type of Rutherford cable subject to global and/or local variations in field, transport current, and external heat release. The internal parameters of the cable can be freely varied along the length and across the width, such as contact resistances, critical current, cooling rates etc. In this way, all the typical non-uniformities occurring in a cable, e.g. broken filaments, strand welds, cable joints, and edge degradation can be simulated. Also the characteristics of the strands in the cable can be varied from strand to strand. Heat flows through the matrix, through the interstrand contacts, and to the helium are incorporated, as well as the self-field and self- and mutual inductances between the strands. The main features and structure of the program will be discussed.
An electrodynamic model of the solar wind interaction with the ionospheres of Mars and Venus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cloutier, P. A.; Daniell, R. E., Jr.
1979-01-01
The electrodynamic model for the solar wind interaction with nonmagnetic planets modified to include the effects of nonohmic currents in the upper ionosphere is examined. The model is used to calculate convection patterns induced by the solar wind in the ionospheres of Mars and Venus, with the observations of the neutral mass spectrometer of Vikings 1 and 2 providing the neutral atmosphere for Mars. Model calculations reproduced the retarding potential analyzer data and indicate that the ionosphere above 200 km is probably controlled by convection rather than chemistry or diffusion. The resulting model calculations were compared to radio occultation data from Mariners 5 and 10 and Venera 9 which represent extremes in the variability of the upper Cytherean ionosphere, and the calculations fell within this variation.
Quantization of second-order Lagrangians: The Fokker-Wheeler-Feynman model of electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, R. A.; Scott, T. C.
1992-10-01
The consequences of quantizing the Fokker-Wheeler-Feynman model of electrodynamics, treating the Lagrangian via its acceleration-dependent (1/c) power-series representation, is examined using recently validated methods. An exact treatment of this acceleration dependence yields, under certain circumstances, high-energy resonant modes. In the past, such modes have been assumed unphysical and have been removed by perturbative or order-reduction techniques. However, these modes appear to be of physical significance. This conclusion follows because this completely ab initio calculation, with no adjustable parameters, has a number of successes. It provides a description for resonances observed in the electron-positron emission from heavy-ion collisions, in particular, and in diproton collisions and, possibly, in other collision experiments as well.
An electrodynamic model of the solar wind interaction with the ionospheres of Mars and Venus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cloutier, P. A.; Daniell, R. E., Jr.
1979-01-01
The electrodynamic model for the solar wind interaction with nonmagnetic planets modified to include the effects of nonohmic currents in the upper ionosphere is examined. The model is used to calculate convection patterns induced by the solar wind in the ionospheres of Mars and Venus, with the observations of the neutral mass spectrometer of Vikings 1 and 2 providing the neutral atmosphere for Mars. Model calculations reproduced the retarding potential analyzer data and indicate that the ionosphere above 200 km is probably controlled by convection rather than chemistry or diffusion. The resulting model calculations were compared to radio occultation data from Mariners 5 and 10 and Venera 9 which represent extremes in the variability of the upper Cytherean ionosphere, and the calculations fell within this variation.
Principles of Fluid Management.
Rewa, Oleksa; Bagshaw, Sean M
2015-10-01
Fluid therapy is the most common intervention received by acutely ill hospitalized patients; however, important questions on its optimal use remain. Its prescription should be patient and context specific, with clear indications and contradictions, and have the type, dose, and rate specified. Any fluid therapy, if provided inappropriately, can contribute unnecessary harm to patients. The quantitative toxicity of fluid therapy contributes to worse outcomes; this should prompt greater bedside attention to fluid prescription, fluid balance, development of avoidable complications attributable to fluid overload, and for the timely deresuscitation of patients whose clinical status and physiology allow active fluid mobilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
On the Stability of Classical Orbits of the Hydrogen Ground State in Stochastic Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus
2016-04-01
de la Pe\\~na 1980 and Puthoff 1987 show that circular orbits in the hydrogen problem of Stochastic Electrodynamics are stable. Though the Cole-Zou 2003 simulations support the stability, our recent numerics always lead to self-ionisation. Here the de la Pe\\~na-Puthoff argument is extended to elliptic orbits. For very eccentric orbits with energy close to zero and angular momentum below some not-small value, there is on the average a net gain in energy for each revolution, which explains the self-ionisation. Next, an $1/r^2$ potential is added, which could stem from a dipolar deformation of the nuclear charge by the electron at its moving position. This shape retains the analytical solvability. When it is enough repulsive, the ground state of this modified hydrogen problem is predicted to be stable. The same conclusions hold for positronium.
Lee, Yea-Lee; Park, Hee Chul; Ihm, Jisoon; Son, Young-Woo
2015-09-15
Because topological surface states of a single-crystal topological insulator can exist on all surfaces with different crystal orientations enclosing the crystal, mutual interactions among those states contiguous to each other through edges can lead to unique phenomena inconceivable in normal insulators. Here we show, based on a first-principles approach, that the difference in the work function between adjacent surfaces with different crystal-face orientations generates a built-in electric field around facet edges of a prototypical topological insulator such as Bi2Se3. Owing to the topological magnetoelectric coupling for a given broken time-reversal symmetry in the crystal, the electric field, in turn, forces effective magnetic dipoles to accumulate along the edges, realizing the facet-edge magnetic ordering. We demonstrate that the predicted magnetic ordering is in fact a manifestation of the axion electrodynamics in real solids.
Manifestation of axion electrodynamics through magnetic ordering on edges of a topological insulator
Lee, Yea-Lee; Park, Hee Chul; Ihm, Jisoon; Son, Young-Woo
2015-01-01
Because topological surface states of a single-crystal topological insulator can exist on all surfaces with different crystal orientations enclosing the crystal, mutual interactions among those states contiguous to each other through edges can lead to unique phenomena inconceivable in normal insulators. Here we show, based on a first-principles approach, that the difference in the work function between adjacent surfaces with different crystal-face orientations generates a built-in electric field around facet edges of a prototypical topological insulator such as Bi2Se3. Owing to the topological magnetoelectric coupling for a given broken time-reversal symmetry in the crystal, the electric field, in turn, forces effective magnetic dipoles to accumulate along the edges, realizing the facet-edge magnetic ordering. We demonstrate that the predicted magnetic ordering is in fact a manifestation of the axion electrodynamics in real solids. PMID:26324891
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nason, Steven; Davis, Kris; Hickman, Nicoleta; McFall, Judith; Arens, Ellen; Calle, Carlos
2009-01-01
The viability of photovoltaics on the Lunar and Martian surfaces may be determined by their ability to withstand significant degradation in the Lunar and Martian environments. One of the greatest threats is posed by fine dust particles which are continually blown about the surfaces. In an effort to determine the extent of the threat, and to investigate some abatement strategies, a series of experiments were conducted outdoors and in the Moon and Mars environmental chamber at the Florida Solar Energy Center. Electrodynamic dust shield prototypes based on the electric curtain concept have been developed by our collaborators at the Kennedy Space Center [1]. These thin film layers can remove dust from surfaces and prevent dust accumulation. Several types of dust shields were designed, built and tested under high vacuum conditions and simulated lunar gravity to validate the technology for lunar exploration applications. Gallium arsenide, single crystal and polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic integrated devices were designed, built and tested under Moon and Mars environmental conditions as well as under ambient conditions. Photovoltaic efficiency measurements were performed on each individual cell with the following configurations; without an encapsulation layer, with a glass covering, and with various thin film dust shields. It was found that the PV efficiency of the hybrid systems was unaffected by these various thin film dust shields, proving that the optical transmission of light through the device is virtually uninhibited by these layers. The future goal of this project is to incorporate a photovoltaic cell as the power source for the electrodynamic dust shield system, and experimentally show the effective removal of dust obstructing any light incident on the cell, thus insuring power production is maximized over time.
Out-of-equilibrium charge dynamics in a hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viennot, J. J.; Delbecq, M. R.; Dartiailh, M. C.; Cottet, A.; Kontos, T.
2014-04-01
The recent development of hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics allows one to study how cavity photons interact with a system driven out of equilibrium by fermionic reservoirs. We study here one of the simplest combination: a double quantum dot coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field. We are able to couple resonantly the charge levels of a carbon-nanotube-based double dot to cavity photons. We perform a microwave readout of the charge states of this system, which allows us to unveil features of the out-of-equilibrium charge dynamics, otherwise invisible in the DC current. We extract the relaxation rate, dephasing rate, and photon number of the hybrid system using a theory based on a master equation technique. These findings open the path for manipulating other degrees of freedom, e.g., the spin and/or the valley in nanotube-based double dots using microwave light.
Perfect photon absorption in the nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, G. S.; Di, Ke; Wang, Liyong; Zhu, Yifu
2016-06-01
It has been shown that perfect photon absorption can occur in the linear excitation regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), in which photons from two identical light fields coupled into two ends of the cavity are completely absorbed and result in excitation of the polariton state of the CQED system. The output light from the cavity is totally suppressed by destructive interference and the polariton state can only decay incoherently back to the ground state. Here we analyze perfect photon absorption and the onset of optical bistability in the nonlinear regime of the CQED and show that perfect photon absorption persists in the nonlinear regime of the CQED below the threshold of optical bistability. Therefore perfect photon absorption is a phenomenon that can be observed in both linear and nonlinear regimes of CQED. Furthermore, our study reveals that optical bistability is influenced by input-light interference and can be manipulated by varying the relative phase of the two input fields.
The positronium and the dipositronium in a Hartree-Fock approximation of quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sok, Jérémy
2016-02-01
The Bogoliubov-Dirac-Fock (BDF) model is a no-photon approximation of quantum electrodynamics. It allows to study relativistic electrons in interaction with the Dirac sea. A state is fully characterized by its one-body density matrix, an infinite rank non-negative projector. We prove the existence of the para-positronium, the bound state of an electron and a positron with antiparallel spins, in the BDF model represented by a critical point of the energy functional in the absence of an external field. We also prove the existence of the dipositronium, a molecule made of two electrons and two positrons that also appears as a critical point. More generally, for any half integer j ∈ 1/2 + Z + , we prove the existence of a critical point of the energy functional made of 2j + 1 electrons and 2j + 1 positrons.
Effective Lagrangian in nonlinear electrodynamics and its properties of causality and unitarity
Shabad, Anatoly E.; Usov, Vladimir V.
2011-05-15
In nonlinear electrodynamics, by implementing the causality principle as the requirement that the group velocity of elementary excitations over a background field should not exceed the speed of light in the vacuum c=1, and the unitarity principle as the requirement that the residue of the propagator should be nonnegative, we establish the positive convexity of the effective Lagrangian on the class of constant fields, also the positivity of all characteristic dielectric and magnetic permittivity constants that are derivatives of the effective Lagrangian with respect to the field invariants. Violation of the general principles by the one-loop approximation in QED at exponentially large magnetic field is analyzed, resulting in complex energy ghosts that signal the instability of the magnetized vacuum. Superluminal excitations (tachyons) appear, too, but for the magnetic field exceeding its instability threshold. Also other popular Lagrangians are tested to establish that the ones leading to spontaneous vacuum magnetization possess wrong convexity.
Correlation of Dirac potentials and atomic inversion in cavity quantum electrodynamics
Trisetyarso, Agung
2010-07-15
Controlling the time evolution of the population of two states in cavity quantum electrodynamics is necessary by tuning the modified Rabi frequency in which the extra classical effect of electromagnetic field is taken into account. The theoretical explanation underlying the perturbation of potential on spatial regime of bloch sphere is by the use of Bagrov-Baldiotti-Gitman-Shamshutdinova-Darboux transformations [Bagrov et al., 'Darboux transformation for two-level system', Ann. Phys. 14, 390 (2005)] on the electromagnetic field potential in one-dimensional stationary Dirac model in which the Pauli matrices are the central parameters for controlling the collapse and revival of the Rabi oscillations. It is shown that by choosing sigma{sub 1} in the transformation generates the parabolic potential causing the total collapse of oscillations, while (sigma{sub 2},sigma{sub 3}) yield the harmonic oscillator potentials ensuring the coherence of qubits.
Effective Lagrangian in nonlinear electrodynamics and its properties of causality and unitarity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shabad, Anatoly E.; Usov, Vladimir V.
2011-05-01
In nonlinear electrodynamics, by implementing the causality principle as the requirement that the group velocity of elementary excitations over a background field should not exceed the speed of light in the vacuum c=1, and the unitarity principle as the requirement that the residue of the propagator should be nonnegative, we establish the positive convexity of the effective Lagrangian on the class of constant fields, also the positivity of all characteristic dielectric and magnetic permittivity constants that are derivatives of the effective Lagrangian with respect to the field invariants. Violation of the general principles by the one-loop approximation in QED at exponentially large magnetic field is analyzed, resulting in complex energy ghosts that signal the instability of the magnetized vacuum. Superluminal excitations (tachyons) appear, too, but for the magnetic field exceeding its instability threshold. Also other popular Lagrangians are tested to establish that the ones leading to spontaneous vacuum magnetization possess wrong convexity.
Modeling of induced currents from electrodynamic tethers in a laboratory plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.
1990-01-01
The presently accepted picture of the current path for electrodynamic tethers envisions a quasi-dc current flow in a 'phantom loop' consisting of the tether, two field-aligned current channels into the ionosphere and a cross-field closing current in the E-layer. Predictions are made on the establishment and maintenance of a current loop in space based on observations of time-dependent currents between tethered electrodes in a large laboratory magnetoplasma. In addition to radiation from the contactors ('whistler wings'), the insulated tether is observed to emit waves (a 'whistler wedge'). The 'wedge' provides closure during loop formation by carrying cross-field polarization currents. Whistler spread within the ray cone leads to overlapping of the current wings not far from the tether hence minimizing the role of the ionospheric closure. Maintenance of the loop requires the continuous emission of whistler waves by the entire tether thereby providing severe radiation losses.
Experimental tests of hidden variable theories from dBB to stochastic electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genovese, Marco; Brida, Giorgio; Gramegna, Marco; Piacentini, Fabrizio; Predazzi, Enrico; Ruo-Berchera, Ivano
2007-05-01
The studies concerning the possible existence of a deterministic theory, of which quantum mechanics would be an approximation, date to the celebrated 1935 Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper. Since Bell's proposal of 1964 various experiments were addressed to a general experimental test of local hidden variable theories, leading to strong indications favourable to Standard Quantum Mechanics. Nevertheless, detection loophole still persists. After a short presentation of recent PDC photon experiments, we will present our recent works in this field and, in particular, a conclusive negative test of stochastic electrodynamics. Finally, we will also mention possible tests of non-local deterministic models and give some detail on our test of the dBB model.
Deterministic amplification of Schrödinger cat states in circuit quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joo, Jaewoo; Elliott, Matthew; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Ginossar, Eran; Spiller, Timothy P.
2016-02-01
Perfect deterministic amplification of arbitrary quantum states is prohibited by quantum mechanics, but determinism can be achieved by compromising between fidelity and amplification power. We propose a dynamical scheme for deterministically amplifying photonic Schrödinger cat states, which show great promise as a tool for quantum information processing. Our protocol is designed for strongly coupled circuit quantum electrodynamics and utilizes artificial atomic states and external microwave controls to engineer a set of optimal state transfers and achieve high fidelity amplification. We compare analytical results with full simulations of the open, driven Jaynes-Cummings model, using realistic device parameters for state of the art superconducting circuits. Amplification with a fidelity of 0.9 can be achieved for sizable cat states in the presence of cavity and atomic-level decoherence. This tool could be applied to practical continuous-variable information processing for the purification and stabilization of cat states in the presence of photon losses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vashi, Bharat I.
1992-01-01
The first Tethered-Satellite-System (TSS-1), scheduled for a flight in late 1992, is expected to provide relevant information related to the concept of generating an emf in a 20-km-long (or longer) conducting wire. This paper presents numerical simulations of the electrodynamic interactions between the TSS system and space plasma, using a 2D and 3D models of the system. The 2D case code simulates the motion of a long cylinder past a plasma, which is composed of electrons and H(+) ions. The system is solved by allowing the plasma to flow past the cylinder with an imposed magnetic field. The more complex 3D case is considered to study the dynamics in great detail. Results of 2D simulation show that the interaction of a satellite with plasma flowing perpendicularly to the magnetic field results in an enhancement in the current collection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.
2015-12-01
Principal component analysis is performed on Birkeland or field-aligned current (FAC) measurements from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment. Principal component analysis (PCA) identifies the patterns in the FACs that respond coherently to different aspects of geomagnetic activity. The regions 1 and 2 current system is shown to be the most reproducible feature of the currents, followed by cusp currents associated with magnetic tension forces on newly reconnected field lines. The cusp currents are strongly modulated by season, indicating that their strength is regulated by the ionospheric conductance at the foot of the field lines. PCA does not identify a pattern that is clearly characteristic of a substorm current wedge. Rather, a superposed epoch analysis of the currents associated with substorms demonstrates that there is not a single mode of response, but a complicated and subtle mixture of different patterns.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.
2015-12-01
Principle Component Analysis is performed on northern and southern hemisphere Birkeland or field-aligned current (FAC) measurements from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE). PCA identifies the patterns in the FACs that respond coherently to different aspects of geomagnetic activity. The region 1 and 2 current system is shown to be the most reproducible feature of the currents, followed by cusp currents associated with magnetic tension forces on newly-reconnected field lines. The cusp currents are strongly modulated by season, indicating that their strength is regulated by the ionospheric conductance at the foot of the field lines. PCA does not identify a pattern that is clearly characteristic of a substorm current wedge. Rather, a superposed epoch analysis of the currents associated with substorms demonstrates that there is not a single mode of response, but a complicated and subtle mixture of different patterns. Other interhemispheric differences are discussed.
Zimanyi, Eric N; Silbey, Robert J
2010-10-14
Recent experiments on resonance energy transfer (RET) in photosynthetic systems have found evidence of quantum coherence between the donor and the acceptor. Under these conditions, Förster's theory of RET is no longer applicable and no theory of coherent RET advanced to date rivals the intuitive simplicity of Förster's theory. Here, we develop a framework for understanding RET that is based on classical electrodynamics but still captures the essence of the quantum coherence between the molecules. Our theory requires only a knowledge of the complex polarizabilities of the two molecules participating in the transfer as well as the distance between them. We compare our results to quantum mechanical calculations and show that the results agree quantitatively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vashi, Bharat I.
1992-01-01
The first Tethered-Satellite-System (TSS-1), scheduled for a flight in late 1992, is expected to provide relevant information related to the concept of generating an emf in a 20-km-long (or longer) conducting wire. This paper presents numerical simulations of the electrodynamic interactions between the TSS system and space plasma, using a 2D and 3D models of the system. The 2D case code simulates the motion of a long cylinder past a plasma, which is composed of electrons and H(+) ions. The system is solved by allowing the plasma to flow past the cylinder with an imposed magnetic field. The more complex 3D case is considered to study the dynamics in great detail. Results of 2D simulation show that the interaction of a satellite with plasma flowing perpendicularly to the magnetic field results in an enhancement in the current collection.
Further observations of Space Shuttle plasma-electrodynamic effects from OSS-1/STS-3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, N. H.; Hwang, K. S.; Wright, K. H., Jr.; Samir, U.; Murphy, G. B.; Shawhan, S. D.
1986-01-01
Recent analyses of ion measurements obtained from the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) on the deployed Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) during the OSS-1/STS-3 mission have provided an additional insight into the plasma-electrodynamics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter: (1) Measured ion flow directions and energies suggest that the disturbance created in the ionospheric plasma by the Shuttle Orbiter may be confined to an interaction region that extends on the order of 10 m in the forward direction and has a boundary thickness of about 2 m. (2) A correlation between the DIFP and pressure gauge measurements indicates a direct, local proportionality between the neutral gas and ion densities. (3) Preliminary results from a theoretical model of the possible interaction between measured secondary, high inclination ion streams and the ambient plasma indicate the generation of broad-band electrostatic noise such as that observed by wave instruments on the PDP.
Further observations of Space Shuttle plasma-electrodynamic effects from OSS-1/STS-3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, N. H.; Hwang, K. S.; Wright, K. H., Jr.; Samir, U.; Murphy, G. B.; Shawhan, S. D.
1986-01-01
Recent analyses of ion measurements obtained from the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) on the deployed Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) during the OSS-1/STS-3 mission have provided an additional insight into the plasma-electrodynamics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter: (1) Measured ion flow directions and energies suggest that the disturbance created in the ionospheric plasma by the Shuttle Orbiter may be confined to an interaction region that extends on the order of 10 m in the forward direction and has a boundary thickness of about 2 m. (2) A correlation between the DIFP and pressure gauge measurements indicates a direct, local proportionality between the neutral gas and ion densities. (3) Preliminary results from a theoretical model of the possible interaction between measured secondary, high inclination ion streams and the ambient plasma indicate the generation of broad-band electrostatic noise such as that observed by wave instruments on the PDP.
Electrodynamic response of the type-II Weyl semimetal YbMnBi2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chinotti, M.; Pal, A.; Ren, W. J.; Petrovic, C.; Degiorgi, L.
2016-12-01
Weyl fermions play a major role in quantum field theory but have been quite elusive as fundamental particles. Materials based on quasi-two-dimensional bismuth layers were recently designed and provide an arena for studying the interplay between anisotropic Dirac fermions, magnetism, and structural changes, allowing the formation of Weyl fermions in condensed matter. Here, we perform an optical investigation of YbMnBi2, a representative type-II Weyl semimetal, and contrast its excitation spectrum with the optical response of the more conventional semimetal EuMnBi2. Our comparative study allows us to disentangle the optical fingerprints of type-II Weyl fermions, but also challenges the present theoretical understanding of their electrodynamic response.
Comparison of major parameters in electrodynamic and electromagnetic levitation transport systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, W. S.; Dauwalter, C. R.; Heger, F.; Weinberg, M. S.
1992-09-01
The study compiles quantitative design information that can be used in selecting a high-speed magnetic levitation system. Analytic models were developed for three configurations of electromagnetic (EMS) and three electrodynamic (EDS) systems, and for linear induction and synchronous motors. The models permit comparisons based on consistent assumptions. The following results indicate that the hoped-for advantages of EDS are difficult to realize: (1) all of the systems studied require smooth guideways to achieve acceptable ride quality unless active control techniques are developed; (2) the estimated weight of the superconducting magnets for the EDS systems is surprisingly large and comparable to the weight of the EMS onboard electromagnets; and (3) real power consumption in sheet guideway null flux EDS is similar to EMS when practical configurations and end effects are considered.
Electrodynamic-Tether Magnetosphere Interaction From Capture to Low Jovian Orbit of its Spacecraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanmartin, J. R.; Charro, M.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Bombardelli, C.; Bramanti, C.
2007-12-01
An orbiting conductive tether provides a dissipative mechanism in planets that have magnetic field and ionosphere/magnetosphere. The Jovian system is a particularly appropriate place for use of an electrodynamic tether because the magnetic field is intense, the stationary orbit is close to the planet, and moon Io provides a dense plasma torus farther away. The interaction of the tether with the magnetized plasma is analyzed under a variety of conditions, since the spacecraft is captured into an equatorial, highly elliptical orbit with perijove inside the stationary orbit, till the spacecraft reaches a low circular orbit around Jupiter, below the radiation belts. The radiation dose accumulated as the apojove distance is reduced through of sequence of perijove passes, is studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dechoum, K.; Franca, H. M.; Malta, C. P.
We study the statistical evolution of a charged particle moving in phase space under the action of vacuum fluctuations of the zero-point electromagnetic field. Our starting point is the Liouville equation, from which we derive a classical stochastic Schrodinger like equation for the probability amplitude in configuration space. It should be stressed that we are not deriving the Schrodinger wave equation. An equation formally identical to the Schrodinger equation used in Quantum Mechanics is obtained as a particular case of the classical stochastic Schrodinger like equation. An inconsistency appearing in the standard Schrodinger equation, when vacuum electromagnetic fluctuations and radiation reaction are taken into account, is clearly identified and explained. The classical stochastic Schrodinger like equation, however, is consistently interpreted within the realm of Stochastic Electrodynamics.
Electrodynamic response of the type-II Weyl semimetal YbMnBi2
Chinotti, M.; Pal, A.; Ren, W. J.; ...
2016-12-01
Weyl fermions play a major role in quantum field theory but have been quite elusive as fundamental particles. These quasi-two-dimensional bismuth layers based materials were recently designed and provide an arena for studying the interplay between anisotropic Dirac fermions, magnetism, and structural changes, allowing the formation of Weyl fermions in condensed matter. We perform an optical investigation of YbMnBi 2 , a representative type-II Weyl semimetal, and contrast its excitation spectrum with the optical response of the more conventional semimetal EuMnBi 2 . This comparative study allows us to disentangle the optical fingerprints of type-II Weyl fermions, but also challengesmore » the present theoretical understanding of their electrodynamic response.« less
Effective field theory for the quantum electrodynamics of a graphene wire
Faccioli, P.; Lipparini, E.
2009-07-15
We study the low-energy quantum electrodynamics of electrons and holes in a thin graphene wire. We develop an effective field theory (EFT) based on an expansion in p/p{sub T}, where p{sub T} is the typical momentum of electrons and holes in the transverse direction, while p are the momenta in the longitudinal direction. We show that, to the lowest order in (p/p{sub T}), our EFT theory is formally equivalent to the exactly solvable Schwinger model. By exploiting such an analogy, we find that the ground state of the quantum wire contains a condensate of electron-hole pairs. The excitation spectrum is saturated by electron-hole collective bound states, and we calculate the dispersion law of such modes. We also compute the dc conductivity per unit length at zero chemical potential and find g{sub s}(e{sup 2}/h), where g{sub s}=4 is the degeneracy factor.
Quantum electrodynamics in 2 + 1 dimensions, confinement, and the stability of U(1) spin liquids.
Nogueira, Flavio S; Kleinert, Hagen
2005-10-21
Compact quantum electrodynamics in 2 + 1 dimensions often arises as an effective theory for a Mott insulator, with the Dirac fermions representing the low-energy spinons. An important and controversial issue in this context is whether a deconfinement transition takes place. We perform a renormalization group analysis to show that deconfinement occurs when N > Nc = 36/pi3 approximately to 1.161, where N is the number of fermion replica. For N < Nc, however, there are two stable fixed points separated by a line containing a unstable nontrivial fixed point: a fixed point corresponding to the scaling limit of the noncompact theory, and another one governing the scaling behavior of the compact theory. The string tension associated with the confining interspinon potential is shown to exhibit a universal jump as N --> Nc-. Our results imply the stability of a spin liquid at the physical value N = 2 for Mott insulators.
Modelling and fabrication of GaAs photonic-crystal cavities for cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Khankhoje, U K; Kim, S-H; Richards, B C; Hendrickson, J; Sweet, J; Olitzky, J D; Khitrova, G; Gibbs, H M; Scherer, A
2010-02-10
In this paper, we present recent progress in the growth, modelling, fabrication and characterization of gallium arsenide (GaAs) two-dimensional (2D) photonic-crystal slab cavities with embedded indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots (QDs) that are designed for cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) experiments. Photonic-crystal modelling and device fabrication are discussed, followed by a detailed discussion of different failure modes that lead to photon loss. It is found that, along with errors introduced during fabrication, other significant factors such as the presence of a bottom substrate and cavity axis orientation with respect to the crystal axis, can influence the cavity quality factor (Q). A useful diagnostic tool in the form of contour finite-difference time domain (FDTD) is employed to analyse device performance.
Instantaneous pictures of the high-latitude electrodynamics using Viking and DMSP/F7 observations
Marklund, G.T.; Blomberg, L.G.; Hardy, D.A.; Rich, F.J.
1987-08-01
Simultaneous observations by the Viking and the DMSP/F7 satellites were applied to a new technique to obtain realistic pictures of the auroral electrodynamics. In particular, an instantaneous global equipotential pattern is calculated using field-aligned current and conductivity distributions that are qualitatively consistent with the Viking auroral imager data and quantitatively consistent with magnetic-field and particle data from the two satellites. This convection pattern agrees with the E x B-drift vectors estimated from Viking electric-field data. Discrepancies consistent with upward parallel electric fields occur in regions of upward currents. The pattern is of the normal two-cell type, with a small dusk cell and a large, elongated crescent-shaped dawn cell. The excellent agreement between the satellite and model data demonstrates the reliability of the results.
An analytic description of electrodynamic dispersion in free-flow zone electrophoresis.
Dutta, Debashis
2015-07-24
The present work analyzes the electrodynamic dispersion of sample streams in a free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) chamber resulting due to partial or complete blockage of electroosmotic flow (EOF) across the channel width by the sidewalls of the conduit. This blockage of EOF has been assumed to generate a pressure-driven backflow in the transverse direction for maintaining flow balance in the system. A parallel-plate based FFZE device with the analyte stream located far away from the channel side regions has been considered to simplify the current analysis. Applying a method-of-moments formulation, an analytic expression was derived for the variance of the sample zone at steady state as a function of its position in the separation chamber under these conditions. It has been shown that the increase in stream broadening due to the electrodynamic dispersion phenomenon is additive to the contributions from molecular diffusion and sample injection, and simply modifies the coefficient for the hydrodynamic dispersion term for a fixed lateral migration distance of the sample stream. Moreover, this dispersion mechanism can dominate the overall spatial variance of analyte zones when a significant fraction of the EOF is blocked by the channel sidewalls. The analysis also shows that analyte streams do not undergo any hydrodynamic broadening due to unwanted pressure-driven cross-flows in an FFZE chamber in the absence of a transverse electric field. The noted results have been validated using Monte Carlo simulations which further demonstrate that while the sample concentration profile at the channel outlet approaches a Gaussian distribution only in FFZE chambers substantially longer than the product of the axial pressure-driven velocity and the characteristic diffusion time in the system, the spatial variance of the exiting analyte stream is well described by the Taylor-Aris dispersion limit even in analysis ducts much shorter than this length scale.
Auroral vector electric field and particle comparisons. II - Electrodynamics of an arc
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, D. S.; Maynard, N. C.; Troim, J.; Jacobsen, T.; Egeland, A.
1977-01-01
The paper reports the results of energetic auroral electron and vector electric field measurements taken near and above a discrete auroral form and discusses their electrodynamic implications. Height-integrated Hall and Pedersen conductivities are computed in a quantitative fashion along the rocket payload trajectory. These conductivities, together with the electric fields, are used to describe the local auroral electrojet current system and to demonstrate an inverse relationship between the local electric field intensity and the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity. An analysis is presented of the divergence of both the electric field and the horizontal current as an effort to infer space charge densities and magnetic-field-aligned electrical currents near an auroral arc.
Single-shot optical readout of a quantum bit using cavity quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shuo; Waks, Edo
2016-07-01
We propose a method to perform single-shot optical readout of a quantum bit (qubit) using cavity quantum electrodynamics. We selectively couple the optical transitions associated with different qubit basis states to the cavity and utilize the change in cavity transmissivity to generate a qubit readout signal composed of many photons. We show that this approach enables single-shot optical readout even when the qubit does not have a good cycling transition, which is required for standard resonance fluorescence measurements. We calculate the probability that the measurement detects the correct qubit state using the example of a quantum-dot spin under various experimental conditions and demonstrate that it can exceed 0.99.
A unified theory of electrodynamic coupling in coronal magnetic loops - The coronal heating problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ionson, J. A.
1984-01-01
The coronal heating problem is studied, and it is demonstrated that Ionson's (1982) LRC approach results in a unified theory of coronal heating which unveils a variety of new heating mechanisms and which links together previously proposed mechanisms. Ionson's LRC equation is rederived, focusing on various aspects that were not clarified in the original article and incorporating new processes that were neglected. A parameterized heating rate is obtained. It is shown that Alfvenic surface wave heating, stochastic magnetic pumping, resonant electrodynamic heating, and dynamical dissipation emerge as special cases of a much more general formalism. This generalized theory is applied to solar coronal loops and it is found that active region and large scale loops are underdamped systems. Young active region loops and (possibly) bright points are found to be overdamped systems.
Integration of the Electrodynamic Dust Shield on a Lunar Habitat Demonstration Unit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calle, C. I.; Immer, C. D.; Ferreira, J.; Hogue, M. D.; Chen, A.; Csonka, M. W.; VanSuetendael, N.; Snyder, S. J.
2010-01-01
NASA is developing a Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) to investigate the feasibility of lunar surface technologies and lunar ground operations. The HDU will define and validate lunar scenario architecture through field analog testing. It will contain a four-port vertical habitat module with docking demonstration capabilities. The Electrodynamic Oust Shield (EDS) is being incorporated into the HDU to demonstrate dust removal from a viewport and from a door prior to docking procedures. In this paper, we will describe our efforts to scale up the EDS to protect a viewport 20 cm in diameter. We will also describe the development of several 20 cm x 25 cm EDS patches to demonstrate dust removal from one of the HDU doors.
Electrodynamics and energy characteristics of aurora at high resolution by optical methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahlgren, H.; Lanchester, B. S.; Ivchenko, N.; Whiter, D. K.
2016-06-01
Technological advances leading to improved sensitivity of optical detectors have revealed that aurora contains a richness of dynamic and thin filamentary structures, but the source of the structured emissions is not fully understood. In addition, high-resolution radar data have indicated that thin auroral arcs can be correlated with highly varying and large electric fields, but the detailed picture of the electrodynamics of auroral filaments is yet incomplete. The Auroral Structure and Kinetics (ASK) instrument is a state-of-the-art ground-based instrument designed to investigate these smallest auroral features at very high spatial and temporal resolution, by using three electron multiplying CCDs in parallel for three different narrow spectral regions. ASK is specifically designed to utilize a new optical technique to determine the ionospheric electric fields. By imaging the long-lived O+ line at 732 nm, the plasma flow in the region can be traced, and since the plasma motion is controlled by the electric field, the field strength and direction can be estimated at unprecedented resolution. The method is a powerful tool to investigate the detailed electrodynamics and current systems around the thin auroral filaments. The two other ASK cameras provide information on the precipitation by imaging prompt emissions, and the emission brightness ratio of the two emissions, together with ion chemistry modeling, is used to give information on the energy and energy flux of the precipitating electrons. In this paper, we discuss these measuring techniques and give a few examples of how they are used to reveal the nature and source of fine-scale structuring in the aurora.
Command Generation and Control of Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost Tethered Satellite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, Michael J.
2005-01-01
The research completed for this NASA Graduate Student Research Program Fellowship sought to enhance the current state-of-the-art dynamic models and control laws for Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost satellite systems by utilizing command generation, specifically Input Shaping. The precise control of tethered spacecraft with flexible appendages is extremely difficult. The complexity is magnified many times when the satellite must interact with other satellites as in a momentum exchange via a tether. The Momentum Exchange Electronic Reboost Tether (MXER) concept encapsulates all of these challenging tasks [l]. Input Shaping is a command generation technique that allows flexible spacecraft to move without inducing residual vibration [2], limit transient deflection [3] and utilize fuel-efficient actuation [4]. Input shaping is implemented by convolving a sequence of impulses, known as the input shaper, with a desired system command to produce a shaped input that is then used to drive the system. This process is demonstrated in Figure 1. The shaped command is then use to drive the system without residual vibration while meeting many other performance specifications. The completed work developed tether control algorithms for retrieval. A simple model of the tether response has been developed and command shaping was implemented to minimize unwanted dynamics. A model of a flexible electrodynamic tether has been developed to investigate the tether s response during reboost. Command shaping techniques have been developed to eliminate the tether oscillations and reduce the tether s deflection to pre-specified levels during reboost. Additionally, a model for the spin-up of a tethered system was developed. This model was used in determining the parameters for optimization the resulting angular velocity.
Introduction to Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffiths, David J.
2017-06-01
1. Vector analysis; 2. Electrostatics; 3. Potentials; 4. Electric fields in matter; 5. Magnetostatics; 6. Magnetic fields in matter; 7. Electrodynamics; 8. Conservation laws; 9. Electromagnetic waves; 10. Potentials and fields; 11. Radiation; 12. Electrodynamics and relativity; Appendix A. Vector calculus in curvilinear coordinates; Appendix B. The Helmholtz theorem; Appendix C. Units; Index.
Primordial magnetic fields and nonlinear electrodynamics
Kunze, Kerstin E.
2008-01-15
The creation of large scale magnetic fields is studied in an inflationary universe where electrodynamics is assumed to be nonlinear. After inflation ends electrodynamics becomes linear and thus the description of reheating and the subsequent radiation dominated stage are unaltered. The nonlinear regime of electrodynamics is described by Lagrangians having a power-law dependence on one of the invariants of the electromagnetic field. It is found that there is a range of parameters for which primordial magnetic fields of cosmologically interesting strengths can be created.
Methods of Numerical Analysis of One-Dimensional Two-Body Problem in Wheeler-Feynman Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimenko, S. V.; Nikitin, I. N.; Urazmetov, W. F.
Numerical methods for solutions of differential equations with deviating arguments describing one-dimensional ultra-relativistic scattering of two identical charged particles in Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics with half-retarded/half-advanced interaction are developed. Utilization of the methods for the physical problem analysis leads to the discovery of a bifurcation of solutions and breaking of their reflectional symmetry for particles asymptotic velocity v>0.937c in their center-of-mass frame.
Electrodynamic Tethers for Spacecraft Propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Les; Estes, Robert D.; Lorenzini, Enrico; Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel; Sanmartin, Juan; Vas, Irwin
1998-01-01
Relatively short electrodynamic tethers can use solar power to 'push' against a planetary magnetic field to achieve propulsion without the expenditure of propellant. The groundwork has been laid for this type of propulsion. NASA began developing tether technology for space applications in the 1960's. Important recent milestones include retrieval of a tether in space (TSS-1, 1992), successful deployment of a 20-km-long tether in space (SEDS-1, 1993), and operation of an electrodynamic tether with tether current driven in both directions-power and thrust modes (PMG, 1993). The planned Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) experiment will demonstrate electrodynamic tether thrust during its flight in early 2000. ProSEDS will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a 5 km bare copper tether from a Delta II upper stage to achieve approximately 0.4 N drag thrust, thus deorbiting the stage. The experiment will use a predominantly 'bare' tether for current collection in lieu of the endmass collector and insulated tether approach used on previous missions. Theory and ground-based plasma chamber testing indicate that the bare tether is a highly-efficient current collector. The flight experiment is a precursor to utilization of the technology on the International Space Station for reboost application and the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes - all using electrodynamic thrust. In addition, the use of this type of propulsion may be attractive for future missions at Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aharonovich, I.; Horwitz, L. P.
2011-08-01
In previous papers derivations of the Green function have been given for 5D off-shell electrodynamics in the framework of the manifestly covariant relativistic dynamics of Stueckelberg (with invariant evolution parameter τ). In this paper, we reconcile these derivations resulting in different explicit forms, and relate our results to the conventional fundamental solutions of linear 5D wave equations published in the mathematical literature. We give physical arguments for the choice of the Green function retarded in the fifth variable τ.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Charles L. (Inventor); Ballance, Judy L. (Inventor); Welzyn, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Vaughn, Jason A. (Inventor); Lorenzini, Enrico (Inventor); Schuler, Peter S. (Inventor)
2006-01-01
A tether system for providing thrust to or power subsystems of an artificial satellite in a low earth orbit. The tether has three main sections, an insulated section connected to the satellite, a conducting section connected to the insulating section for drawing in and releasing electrons from the space plasma and a non-conducting section for providing a tension to the other sections of the tether. An oxygen resistant coating is applied to the bare wire of the conducting section as well as the insulated wires of the insulated section that prevents breakdown during tether operations in the space plasma. The insulated and bare wire sections also surround a high tensile flexible polymer core to prevent any debris from breaking the tether during use.
Defining the coupling coefficient for electrodynamic transducers.
Cheng, Shuo; Arnold, David P
2013-11-01
This paper provides a simple, practical definition of the coupling coefficient for electrodynamic transducers. Comparing to efforts made in previous works that assumed a lossless spring-inductor model, the definition presented here is based on a lossy mass-inductor model. Time-harmonic analysis is used to model the energy flow in the transducer. Both energy storage and energy dissipation are included in the electrodynamic coupling coefficient definition. An in-depth discussion is provided to explain and justify the derivation and overall methodology. This definition is expected to provide a useful and practical measure of the electromechanical energy conversion performance of electrodynamic transducers, both actuators and generators.
Kamenev, Yu E; Masalov, S A; Filimonova, A A
2005-04-30
A method is proposed and a device is described for determining the electrodynamic parameters of one-dimensional wire gratings in the submillimetre range. The grating under study was used as the output mirror of the laser. The transmission coefficient and the phase shift are determined experimentally for several gratings with different parameters at a wavelength of 337 {mu}m. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Middle atmospheric electrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelley, M. C.
1983-01-01
A review is presented of the advances made during the last few years with respect to the study of the electrodynamics in the earth's middle atmosphere. In a report of the experimental work conducted, attention is given to large middle atmospheric electric fields, the downward coupling of high altitude processes into the middle atmosphere, and upward coupling of tropospheric processes into the middle atmosphere. It is pointed out that new developments in tethered balloons and superpressure balloons should greatly increase the measurement duration of earth-ionospheric potential measurements and of stratospheric electric field measurements in the next few years. Theoretical work considered provides an excellent starting point for study of upward coupling of transient and dc electric fields. Hays and Roble (1979) were the first to construct a model which included orographic features as well as the classical thunderstorm generator.
2009-01-01
Electrodynamics and Scintillation using a Coupled Atmosphere-Ionosphere Model Dr. Sarah McDonald Space Science Division Code 7643 Naval Research...responsible for the observed seasonal patterns in the occurrence and intensity of scintillation in the Earth’s low-latitude ionosphere. An improved...occurrence of scintillation . During the first two years, we will also use the SAMI3/ESF “wedge” model to gain insight into how the instabilities are
Dirac's quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kojevnikov, Alexei
In the present paper I examine Dirac's contribution to quantum electrodynamics during the years 1926 to 1933, paying attention to the importance and the specificity of his approach and also tracing the roots of his dissatisfaction with the theory, which goes back to the same time and which, as I see it, in many ways influenced his attitude to its subsequent development. Some of Dirac's crucial accomplishments of that period, in particular his theory of the relativistic electron, have already been studied by historians in much detail. I will describe them more briefly, placing them in the context of Dirac's other works and of the general situation in quantum theory and leaving more room for other, less studied works, such as the 1932 Dirac-Fock-Podolsky theory.
Electrodynamic tether system study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
The purpose of this program is to define an Electrodynamic Tether System (ETS) that could be erected from the space station and/or platforms to function as an energy storage device. A schematic representation of the ETS concept mounted on the space station is presented. In addition to the hardware design and configuration efforts, studies are also documented involving simulations of the Earth's magnetic fields and the effects this has on overall system efficiency calculations. Also discussed are some preliminary computer simulations of orbit perturbations caused by the cyclic/night operations of the ETS. System cost estimates, an outline for future development testing for the ETS system, and conclusions and recommendations are also provided.
Scaling of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect as an Indicator of Axion Electrodynamics.
Grauer, S; Fijalkowski, K M; Schreyeck, S; Winnerlein, M; Brunner, K; Thomale, R; Gould, C; Molenkamp, L W
2017-06-16
We report on the scaling behavior of V-doped (Bi,Sb)_{2}Te_{3} samples in the quantum anomalous Hall regime for samples of various thickness. While previous quantum anomalous Hall measurements showed the same scaling as expected from a two-dimensional integer quantum Hall state, we observe a dimensional crossover to three spatial dimensions as a function of layer thickness. In the limit of a sufficiently thick layer, we find scaling behavior matching the flow diagram of two parallel conducting topological surface states of a three-dimensional topological insulator each featuring a fractional shift of 1/2e^{2}/h in the flow diagram Hall conductivity, while we recover the expected integer quantum Hall behavior for thinner layers. This constitutes the observation of a distinct type of quantum anomalous Hall effect, resulting from 1/2e^{2}/h Hall conductance quantization of three-dimensional topological insulator surface states, in an experiment which does not require decomposition of the signal to separate the contribution of two surfaces. This provides a possible experimental link between quantum Hall physics and axion electrodynamics.
Convergence of the multimode quantum Rabi model of circuit quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gely, Mario F.; Parra-Rodriguez, Adrian; Bothner, Daniel; Blanter, Ya. M.; Bosman, Sal J.; Solano, Enrique; Steele, Gary A.
2017-06-01
Circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) studies the interaction of artificial atoms, open transmission lines, and electromagnetic resonators fabricated from superconducting electronics. While the theory of an artificial atom coupled to one mode of a resonator is well studied, considering multiple modes leads to divergences which are not well understood. Here, we introduce a first-principles model of a multimode resonator coupled to a Josephson junction atom. Studying the model in the absence of any cutoff, in which the coupling rate to mode number n scales as √{n } for n up to ∞ , we find that quantities such as the Lamb shift do not diverge due to a natural rescaling of the bare atomic parameters that arises directly from the circuit analysis. Introducing a cutoff in the coupling from a nonzero capacitance of the Josephson junction, we provide a physical interpretation of the decoupling of higher modes in the context of circuit analysis. In addition to explaining the convergence of the quantum Rabi model with no cutoff, our work also provides a useful framework for analyzing the ultrastrong coupling regime of a multimode circuit QED.
Electrodynamics of Lipid Membrane Interactions in the Presence of Zwitterionic Buffers
Koerner, Megan M.; Palacio, Luis A.; Wright, Johnnie W.; Schweitzer, Kelly S.; Ray, Bruce D.; Petrache, Horia I.
2011-01-01
Due to thermal motion and molecular polarizability, electrical interactions in biological systems have a dynamic character. Zwitterions are dipolar molecules that typically are highly polarizable and exhibit both a positive and a negative charge depending on the pH of the solution. We use multilamellar structures of common lipids to identify and quantify the effects of zwitterionic buffers that go beyond the control of pH. We use the fact that the repeat spacing of multilamellar lipid bilayers is a sensitive and accurate indicator of the force balance between membranes. We show that common buffers can in fact charge up neutral membranes. However, this electrostatic effect is not immediately recognized because of the concomitant modification of dispersion (van der Waals) forces. We show that although surface charging can be weak, electrostatic forces are significant even at large distances because of reduced ionic screening and reduced van der Waals attraction. The zwitterionic interactions that we identify are expected to be relevant for interfacial biological processes involving lipid bilayers, and for a wide range of biomaterials, including amino acids, detergents, and pharmaceutical drugs. An appreciation of zwitterionic electrodynamic character can lead to a better understanding of molecular interactions in biological systems and in soft materials in general. PMID:21767488
Electrodynamics of lipid membrane interactions in the presence of zwitterionic buffers.
Koerner, Megan M; Palacio, Luis A; Wright, Johnnie W; Schweitzer, Kelly S; Ray, Bruce D; Petrache, Horia I
2011-07-20
Due to thermal motion and molecular polarizability, electrical interactions in biological systems have a dynamic character. Zwitterions are dipolar molecules that typically are highly polarizable and exhibit both a positive and a negative charge depending on the pH of the solution. We use multilamellar structures of common lipids to identify and quantify the effects of zwitterionic buffers that go beyond the control of pH. We use the fact that the repeat spacing of multilamellar lipid bilayers is a sensitive and accurate indicator of the force balance between membranes. We show that common buffers can in fact charge up neutral membranes. However, this electrostatic effect is not immediately recognized because of the concomitant modification of dispersion (van der Waals) forces. We show that although surface charging can be weak, electrostatic forces are significant even at large distances because of reduced ionic screening and reduced van der Waals attraction. The zwitterionic interactions that we identify are expected to be relevant for interfacial biological processes involving lipid bilayers, and for a wide range of biomaterials, including amino acids, detergents, and pharmaceutical drugs. An appreciation of zwitterionic electrodynamic character can lead to a better understanding of molecular interactions in biological systems and in soft materials in general.
Scaling of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect as an Indicator of Axion Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grauer, S.; Fijalkowski, K. M.; Schreyeck, S.; Winnerlein, M.; Brunner, K.; Thomale, R.; Gould, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.
2017-06-01
We report on the scaling behavior of V-doped (Bi ,Sb )2Te3 samples in the quantum anomalous Hall regime for samples of various thickness. While previous quantum anomalous Hall measurements showed the same scaling as expected from a two-dimensional integer quantum Hall state, we observe a dimensional crossover to three spatial dimensions as a function of layer thickness. In the limit of a sufficiently thick layer, we find scaling behavior matching the flow diagram of two parallel conducting topological surface states of a three-dimensional topological insulator each featuring a fractional shift of 1/2 e2/h in the flow diagram Hall conductivity, while we recover the expected integer quantum Hall behavior for thinner layers. This constitutes the observation of a distinct type of quantum anomalous Hall effect, resulting from 1/2 e2/h Hall conductance quantization of three-dimensional topological insulator surface states, in an experiment which does not require decomposition of the signal to separate the contribution of two surfaces. This provides a possible experimental link between quantum Hall physics and axion electrodynamics.
Electrodynamic tailoring of self-assembled three-dimensional electrospun constructs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reis, Tiago C.; Correia, Ilídio J.; Aguiar-Ricardo, Ana
2013-07-01
The rational design of three-dimensional electrospun constructs (3DECs) can lead to striking topographies and tailored shapes of electrospun materials. This new generation of materials is suppressing some of the current limitations of the usual 2D non-woven electrospun fiber mats, such as small pore sizes or only flat shaped constructs. Herein, we pursued an explanation for the self-assembly of 3DECs based on electrodynamic simulations and experimental validation. We concluded that the self-assembly process is driven by the establishment of attractive electrostatic forces between the positively charged aerial fibers and the already collected ones, which tend to acquire a negatively charged network oriented towards the nozzle. The in situ polarization degree is strengthened by higher amounts of clustered fibers, and therefore the initial high density fibrous regions are the preliminary motifs for the self-assembly mechanism. As such regions increase their in situ polarization electrostatic repulsive forces will appear, favoring a competitive growth of these self-assembled fibrous clusters. Highly polarized regions will evidence higher distances between consecutive micro-assembled fibers (MAFs). Different processing parameters - deposition time, electric field intensity, concentration of polymer solution, environmental temperature and relative humidity - were evaluated in an attempt to control material's design.The rational design of three-dimensional electrospun constructs (3DECs) can lead to striking topographies and tailored shapes of electrospun materials. This new generation of materials is suppressing some of the current limitations of the usual 2D non-woven electrospun fiber mats, such as small pore sizes or only flat shaped constructs. Herein, we pursued an explanation for the self-assembly of 3DECs based on electrodynamic simulations and experimental validation. We concluded that the self-assembly process is driven by the establishment of attractive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reising, Steven Craig
In the past few years, dramatic experimental evidence has emerged, showing that tropospheric lightning discharges modify the mesosphere and the lower ionosphere through heating and ionization, producing gamma-ray bursts and optical emissions known as Sprites, blue jets, and elves. These processes may have long-term effects such as increased production of mesospheric and stratospheric nitrogen oxides (NOy) and persistent heating of ionospheric electrons. To determine the effects of this electrodynamic coupling, the global occurrence rate of Sprites needs to be known. Since optical monitoring of Sprite occurrence on large spatial scales is not practical, a continuous proxy indicator for Sprite occurrence is needed. Sprites are intense, transient luminous events in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere above thunderstorm systems. They extend from ~40 to ~90 km in altitude, are primarily red in color, and develop to full brightness in a few ms. Sprites are nearly uniquely associated with a subset of positive cloud-to-ground lightning fiashes, but the peak current of each flash, measured by the National Lightning Detection Network, is not sufficient to determine the likelihood of Sprite occurrence. In this work, remote sensing of the electrodynamic coupling between thunderstorms and the middle atmosphere is accomplished by measurement of radio atmospherics in the ELF (extremely low frequency, here 15 Hz-1.5 kHz) and VLF (very low frequency, here 1.5-22 kHz) ranges. Radio atmospherics ('sferics'), the electromagnetic signatures of each lightning discharge, propagate efficiently in the waveguide bounded by the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. Novel digital signal processing techniques allow automated detection of individual sferics and the determination of their arrival azimuth with /pm1o precision at Palmer Station, Antarctica, a source-to-receiver distance of ~12,000 km. Broadband measurements of sferics performed near Ft. Collins, Colorado, ~500 km from the source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavalleri, Giancarlo; Barbero, Francesco; Bertazzi, Gianfranco; Cesaroni, Eros; Tonni, Ernesto; Bosi, Leonardo; Spavieri, Gianfranco; Gillies, George T.
2010-03-01
Stochastic electrodynamics (SED) without spin, denoted as pure SED, has been discussed and seriously considered in the literature for several decades because it accounts for important aspects of quantum mechanics (QM). SED is based on the introduction of the nonrenormalized, electromagnetic stochastic zero-point field (ZPF), but neglects the Lorentz force due to the radiation random magnetic field Br. In addition to that rather basic limitation, other drawbacks remain, as well: i) SED fails when there are nonlinear forces; ii) it is not possible to derive the Schrödinger equation in general; iii) it predicts broad spectra for rarefied gases instead of the observed narrow spectral lines; iv) it does not explain double-slit electron diffraction patterns. We show in this short review that all of those drawbacks, and mainly the first most basic one, can be overcome in principle by introducing spin into stochastic electrodynamics (SEDS). Moreover, this modification of the theory also explains four observed effects that are otherwise so far unexplainable by QED, i.e., 1) the physical origin of the ZPF, and its natural upper cutoff; 2) an anomaly in experimental studies of the neutrino rest mass; 3) the origin and quantitative treatment of 1/ f noise; and 4) the high-energy tail (˜ 1021 eV) of cosmic rays. We review the theoretical and experimental situation regarding these things and go on to propose a double-slit electron diffraction experiment that is aimed at discriminating between QM and SEDS. We show that, in the context of this experiment, for the case of an electron beam focused on just one of the slits, no interference pattern due to the other slit is predicted by QM, while this is not the case for SEDS. A second experiment that could discriminate between QED and SEDS regards a transversely large electron beam including both slits obtained in an insulating wall, where the ZPF is reduced but not vanished. The interference pattern according to SEDS should be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGranaghan, Ryan; Knipp, Delores J.; Matsuo, Tomoko; Cousins, Ellen
2016-05-01
We have developed a new optimal interpolation (OI) technique to estimate complete high-latitude ionospheric conductance distributions from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program particle data. The technique combines particle precipitation-based calculations of ionospheric conductances and their errors with a background model and its error covariance (modeled with empirical orthogonal functions) to infer complete distributions of the high-latitude ionospheric conductances. We demonstrate this technique for the 26 November through 2 December 2011 period and analyze a moderate geomagnetic storm event on 30 November 2011. Quantitatively and qualitatively, this new technique provides better ionospheric conductance specification than past statistical models, especially during heightened geomagnetic activity. We provide initial evidence that auroral images from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager instrument can be used to further improve the OI conductance maps. Our OI conductance patterns allow assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics reconstructions driven separately by radar and satellite magnetometer observations to be in closer agreement than when other, commonly used, conductance models are applied. This work (1) supports better use of the diverse observations available for high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics specification and (2) supports the Cousins et al. (2015b) assertion that more accurate models of the ionospheric conductance are needed to robustly assimilate ground- and space-based observations of ionospheric electrodynamics. We find that the OI conductance distributions better capture the dynamics and locations of discrete electron precipitation that modulate the coupling of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system.
Numerical Tests of the Quasilinear Approximation of Mean-field Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zsargo, J.; Petrovay, K.
1995-05-01
It is widely known that a sufficient condition for the applicability of quasilinear-type approximations (e.g. the second-order correlation approximation or SOCA) in mean-field electrodynamics is that Utau << min {l, H} where l, H, U and tau are characteristic horizontal and vertical scale lengths, velocity, and time, respectively. A necessary condition for their validity is however not known. In order to check the validity of the quasilinear results in cases where the above condition is not satisfied, as well as to study qualitative and quantitative differences between the quasilinear results and the actual solutions, we numerically solve the MHD induction equation for the kinematical case in a series of simplified "toy" model flows and then compare the results with the corresponding quasilinear solutions. Our model flows are two-dimensional two-component flows with simple (exponential or linear) stratifications. For conceptual clarity, in each model only one independent physical quantity (initial magnetic field, density, or velocity amplitude, respectively) has an inhomogeneous distribution. Solutions are computed for several widely differing values of the l/H horizontal/vertical scale length ratio. In all cases we find that the computed turbulent electromotive force does not differ from the quasilinear value by more than an order-of-unity factor, as long as Utau does not greatly exceed min {l, H}.
On spacetime structure and electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Wei-Tou
2016-10-01
Electrodynamics is the most tested fundamental physical theory. Relativity arose from the completion of Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics. Introducing the metric gij as gravitational potential in 1913, versed in general (coordinate-)covariant formalism in 1914 and shortly after the completion of general relativity, Einstein put the Maxwell equations in general covariant form with only the constitutive relation between the excitation and the field dependent on and connected by the metric in 1916. Further clarification and developments by Weyl in 1918, Murnaghan in 1921, Kottler in 1922 and Cartan in 1923 together with the corresponding developments in electrodynamics of continuous media by Bateman in 1910, Tamm in 1924, Laue in 1952 and Post in 1962 established the premetric formalism of electrodynamics. Since almost all phenomena electrodynamics deal with have energy scales much lower than the Higgs mass energy and intermediate boson energy, electrodynamics of continuous media should be applicable and the constitutive relation of spacetime/vacuum should be local and linear. What is the key characteristic of the spacetime/vacuum? It is the Weak Equivalence Principle I (WEP I) for photons/wave packets of light which states that the spacetime trajectory of light in a gravitational field depends only on its initial position and direction of propagation, and does not depend on its frequency (energy) and polarization, i.e. nonbirefringence of light propagation in spacetime/vacuum. With this principle it is proved by the author in 1981 in the weak field limit, and by Lammerzahl and Hehl in 2004 together with Favaro and Bergamin in 2011 without assuming the weak-field condition that the constitutive tensor must be of the core metric form with only two additional degrees of freedom — the pseudoscalar (Abelian axion or EM axion) degree of freedom and the scalar (dilaton) degree of freedom (i.e. metric with axion and dilaton). In this paper, we review this connection and the
The PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, C. Les; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Alexander, Leslie; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael
2012-01-01
The PROPEL ("Propulsion using Electrodynamics") mission will demonstrate the operation of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system in low Earth orbit and advance its technology readiness level for multiple applications. The PROPEL mission has two primary objectives: first, to demonstrate the capability of electrodynamic tether technology to provide robust and safe, near-propellantless propulsion for orbit-raising, de-orbit, plane change, and station keeping, as well as to perform orbital power harvesting and formation flight; and, second, to fully characterize and validate the performance of an integrated electrodynamic tether propulsion system, qualifying it for infusion into future multiple satellite platforms and missions with minimal modification. This paper provides an overview of the PROPEL system and design reference missions; mission goals and required measurements; and ongoing PROPEL mission design efforts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, A.; Naeimipour, F.; Zebarjad, S. M.
2015-06-01
Considering the Lagrangian of the logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics in the presence of a scalar dilaton field, we obtain a new class of topological black hole solutions of Einstein-dilaton gravity with two Liouville-type dilaton potentials. Black hole horizons and cosmological horizons, in these spacetimes, can be a two-dimensional positive, zero, or negative constant curvature surface. We find that the behavior of the electric field crucially depends on the dilaton coupling constant α . For small α , the electric field diverges near the origin, although its divergency is weaker than the linear Maxwell field. However, with increasing α , the behavior of the electric field, near the origin, approaches to that of the Maxwell field. We also study casual structure, asymptotic behavior, and physical properties of the solutions. We find that, depending on the model parameters, the topological dilaton black holes may have one or two horizons, and even in some cases we encounter a naked singularity without horizon. We compute the conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the spacetime and investigate that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also probe thermal stability in the canonical and grand canonical ensembles and disclose the effects of the dilaton field as well as nonlinear parameter on the thermal stability of the solutions. Finally, we investigate thermodynamical geometry of the obtained solutions by introducing a new metric and studying the phase transition points due to the divergency of the Ricci scalar. We find that the dilaton field affects the phase transition points of the system.
Grid Sphere Electrodes used for Current Collection at the Positive Pole of Electrodynamic Tethers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, N. H.; Moore, J. D.
2004-01-01
The generation of either electrical power or propulsive thrust with an electrodynamic tether system necessarily depends on driving a return current through the system's ambient space plasma environment. An electrical connection is, therefore, required between the plasma and each end of the tether. The voltage required to drive current through the system is derived either from the orbital motion of the conducting tether through the magnetic field of the Earth, or from a high-voltage power supply that taps into an external energy source (e.g., the sun). In either case, one end of the tether will receive a positive bias. This positive bias, between the tether and the ambient plasma, allows electrons to be collected effectively with a simple, passive electrode. Passive electrode contactors offer several important advantages, including simplification of the upper end-body design and operations, minimization of system mass, and an increase of system reliability and robustness. A preliminary analysis of an inflatable Grid-Sphere end-body concept is presented that is interesting because of the potential for collecting arbitrarily large currents independent of tether length, while the device has the physical characteristics of a high area-to-mass ratio, a low drag coefficient, and simplicity. In particular, we will discuss the physics of current collection by a biased Grid-Sphere and the present state-of-the-art of materials, attainable area-to-mass ratios, and deployment techniques.
Applications of the Fokker-Planck equation in circuit quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elliott, Matthew; Ginossar, Eran
2016-10-01
We study exact solutions of the steady-state behavior of several nonlinear open quantum systems which can be applied to the field of circuit quantum electrodynamics. Using Fokker-Planck equations in the generalized P representation, we investigate the analytical solutions of two fundamental models. First, we solve for the steady-state response of a linear cavity that is coupled to an approximate transmon qubit and use this solution to study both the weak and strong driving regimes, using analytical expressions for the moments of both cavity and transmon fields, along with the Husimi Q function for the transmon. Second, we revist exact solutions of a quantum Duffing oscillator, which is driven both coherently and parametrically while also experiencing decoherence by the loss of single photons and pairs of photons. We use this solution to discuss both stabilization of Schrödinger cat states and the generation of squeezed states in parametric amplifiers, in addition to studying the Q functions of the different phases of the quantum system. The field of superconducting circuits, with its strong nonlinearities and couplings, has provided access to parameter regimes in which returning to these exact quantum optics methods can provide valuable insights.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weeraddana, Dilusha; Premaratne, Malin; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Andrews, David L.
2016-08-01
A fundamental theory is developed for describing laser-driven resonance energy transfer (RET) in dimensionally constrained nanostructures within the framework of quantum electrodynamics. The process of RET communicates electronic excitation between suitably disposed emitter and detector particles in close proximity, activated by the initial excitation of the emitter. Here, we demonstrate that the transfer rate can be significantly increased by propagation of an auxiliary laser beam through a pair of nanostructure particles. This is due to the higher order perturbative contribution to the Förster-type RET, in which laser field is applied to stimulate the energy transfer process. We construct a detailed picture of how excitation energy transfer is affected by an off-resonant radiation field, which includes the derivation of second and fourth order quantum amplitudes. The analysis delivers detailed results for the dependence of the transfer rates on orientational, distance, and laser intensity factor, providing a comprehensive fundamental understanding of laser-driven RET in nanostructures. The results of the derivations demonstrate that the geometry of the system exercises considerable control over the laser-assisted RET mechanism. Thus, under favorable conformational conditions and relative spacing of donor-acceptor nanostructures, the effect of the auxiliary laser beam is shown to produce up to 70% enhancement in the energy migration rate. This degree of control allows optical switching applications to be identified.
What the electrical impedance can tell about the intrinsic properties of an electrodynamic shaker
Lütkenhöner, Bernd
2017-01-01
Small electrodynamic shakers are becoming increasingly popular for diagnostic investigations of the human vestibular system. More specifically, they are used as mechanical stimulators for eliciting a vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). However, it is largely unknown how shakers perform under typical measurement conditions, which considerably differ from the normal use of a shaker. Here, it is shown how the basic properties of a shaker can be determined without requiring special sensors such as accelerometers or force gauges. In essence, the mechanical parts of the shaker leave a signature in the electrical impedance, and an interpretation of this signature using a simple model allows for drawing conclusions about the properties of the shaker. The theory developed (which is quite general so that it is usable also in other contexts) is applied to experimental data obtained for the minishaker commonly used in VEMP measurements. It is shown that the experimental conditions substantially influence the properties of the shaker. Relevant factors are, in particular, the spatial orientation of the shaker (upright, horizontal or upside-down) and the static force acting on the table of the shaker (which in a real measurement corresponds to the force by which the shaker is pressed against the test person’s head). These results underline the desirability of a proper standardization of VEMP measurements. Direct measurements of displacement and acceleration prove the consistency of the conclusions derived from the electrical impedance. PMID:28328999
Merlin, Jenny; Duval, Jérôme F L
2014-08-07
We report a theory for the evaluation of the electrodynamics of dispersions of spherical soft multilayered (bio)particles, with microorganisms and polyelectrolyte multilayers-coated particles as illustrative paradigms. These particles generally consist of a hard (ion- and water-impermeable) core component supporting a succession of step-function or diffuse-like concentric soft (permeable) polymeric layers defined by distinct electrostatic, hydrodynamic and structural properties. The formalism is based on a rigorous numerical resolution of the coupled Navier-Stokes-Brinkman equation, continuity equations for the flow and for the ionic species present in solution, and the non-linear Poisson equation corrected for the multilayered nature of the soft interphase. The frequency-dependent dynamic mobility and dielectric permittivity of such soft particles suspensions are discussed as a function of the key electrohydrodynamic features of the constituting particulate peripheral layers and solution salinity. It is shown that the frequency dependent permittivity is mostly affected by the total charge carried by the overall soft interphase. In contrast, the dynamic mobility is mainly determined by the charge and friction characteristics of the layers located within an electrokinetically-active outer particle region whose extension is defined by the electric double layer thickness and the Brinkman length. Results highlight that under particular electrolyte concentration and layer-to-layer thickness ratio conditions, the dynamic mobility may reflect the physico-chemical and structural properties of the only innermost layers of the soft particle coating.
What the electrical impedance can tell about the intrinsic properties of an electrodynamic shaker.
Lütkenhöner, Bernd
2017-01-01
Small electrodynamic shakers are becoming increasingly popular for diagnostic investigations of the human vestibular system. More specifically, they are used as mechanical stimulators for eliciting a vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). However, it is largely unknown how shakers perform under typical measurement conditions, which considerably differ from the normal use of a shaker. Here, it is shown how the basic properties of a shaker can be determined without requiring special sensors such as accelerometers or force gauges. In essence, the mechanical parts of the shaker leave a signature in the electrical impedance, and an interpretation of this signature using a simple model allows for drawing conclusions about the properties of the shaker. The theory developed (which is quite general so that it is usable also in other contexts) is applied to experimental data obtained for the minishaker commonly used in VEMP measurements. It is shown that the experimental conditions substantially influence the properties of the shaker. Relevant factors are, in particular, the spatial orientation of the shaker (upright, horizontal or upside-down) and the static force acting on the table of the shaker (which in a real measurement corresponds to the force by which the shaker is pressed against the test person's head). These results underline the desirability of a proper standardization of VEMP measurements. Direct measurements of displacement and acceleration prove the consistency of the conclusions derived from the electrical impedance.
A preliminary assessment of grid spheres used as end-body electrodes for electrodynamic tethers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, N. H.; Moore, J. D.; Clayton, W. R.; Gierow, P. A.
2002-01-01
The generation of either electrical power or propulsive thrust with an electrodynamic tether system necessarily depends on driving a return current through the system's ambient space plasma environment. An electrical connection is, therefore, required between the plasma and each end of the tether. The voltage required to drive current through the system is derived either from the orbital motion of the conducting tether through the magnetic field of the Earth, or from a high-voltage power supply that taps into an external energy source (e.g., the sun). In either case, one end of the tether will receive a positive bias. This positive bias, between the tether and the ambient plasma, allows electrons to be collected effectively with a simple, passive electrode. Passive electrode contactors offer several important advantages, including simplification of the upper end-body design and operations, minimization of system mass, and an increase of system reliability and robustness. A preliminary analysis of an inflatable Grid-Sphere end-body concept is presented that is interesting because of the potential for a high area-to-mass ratio, a low drag coefficient, and simplicity. In particular, we will discuss the physics of current collection by a biased grid; and the present state-of-the-art materials, attainable area-to-mass ratios, and deployment techniques. .
Ponderomotive forces in electrodynamics of moving media: The Minkowski and Abraham approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesterenko, V. V.; Nesterenko, A. V.
2016-09-01
In the general setting of the problem, the explicit compact formulae are derived for the ponderomotive forces in the macroscopic electrodynamics of moving media in the Minkowski and Abraham approaches. Taking account of the Minkowski constitutive relations and making use of a special representation for the Abraham energy-momentum tensor enable one to obtain a compact expression for the Abraham force in the case of arbitrary dependence of the medium velocity on spatial coordinates and the time and for nonstationary external electromagnetic field. We term the difference between the ponderomotive forces in the Abraham and Minkowski approaches as the Abraham force not only under consideration of media at rest but also in the case of moving media. The Lorentz force is found which is exerted by external electromagnetic field on the conduction current in a medium, the covariant Ohm law, and the constitutive Minkowski relations being taken into account. The physical argumentation is traced for the definition of the 4-vector of the ponderomotive force as the 4-divergence of the energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic field in a medium.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heelis, R. A.
1998-01-01
Sporadic layers, which appear in the region from 100 km to 120 km are thought to be formed by convergent Pedersen drifts induced by altitude gradients in the zonal neutral wind. In this altitude region NO+ and 02+ are the major ions produced by photoionization and charge exchange of atmospheric and ionospheric species. The relative composition of atmospheric ions and meteoric ions in sporadic layers is important in determining their persistence, the time scales for formation, and the electrical conductivity of the layers. This rocket investigation will include a diagnosis of the neutral wind field and the electric field distribution. Coupled with ion composition measurements we will be able to expose the relevant formation mechanisms and the electrodynamic consequences of their existence. A rocket trajectory has been chosen to provide substantial horizontal sampling of the layer properties and knowledge of the horizontal gradients in composition and density are essential to determine the polarization electric fields that may be associated with ionospheric layers. The University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) is responsible for designing, building, and operating the ion mass spectrometers included on these rockets. The following provides a summary of the UTD accomplishments in the second year of the project as well as a description of the plans for the third year's activities. The UTD mass spectrometer acronym has been coined as PRIMS for Puerto Rico Ion Mass Spectrometer.
Understanding the Magnetosphere: The Counter-intuitive Simplicity of Cosmic Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasyliūnas, V. M.
2008-12-01
Planetary magnetospheres exhibit an amazing variety of phenomena, unlimited in complexity if followed into endlessly fine detail. The challenge of theory is to understand this variety and complexity, ultimately by seeing how the observed effects follow from the basic equations of physics (a point emphasized by Eugene Parker). The basic equations themselves are remarkably simple, only their consequences being exceedingly complex (a point emphasized by Fred Hoyle). In this lecture I trace the development of electrodynamics as an essential ingredient of magnetospheric physics, through the three stages it has undergone to date. Stage I is the initial application of MHD concepts and constraints (sometimes phrased in equivalent single-particle terms). Stage II is the classical formulation of self-consistent coupling between magnetosphere and ionosphere. Stage III is the more recent recognition that properly elucidating time sequence and cause-effect relations requires Maxwell's equations combined with the unique constraints of large-scale plasma. Problems and controversies underlie the transition from each stage to the following. For each stage, there are specific observed aspects of the magnetosphere that can be understood at its level; also, each stage implies a specific way to formulate unresolved questions (particularly important in this age of extensive multi-point observations and ever-more-detailed numerical simulations).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M., Jr.; Moreira, Roemir P. M.
2011-12-01
We have studied a (1+2)-dimensional Lorentz-violating model which is obtained from the dimensional reduction of the nonbirefringent sector of the CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension. The planar theory contains a gauge sector and a scalar sector which are linearly coupled by means of a Lorentz-invariance violating (LIV) vector, Sμ, while the kinetic terms of both sectors are affected by the components of a Lorentz-violating symmetric tensor, κμν. The energy-momentum tensor reveals that both sectors present energy stability for sufficiently small values of the Lorentz-violating parameters. The full dispersion relation equations are exactly determined and analyzed for some special configurations of the LIV backgrounds, showing that the planar model is entirely nonbirefringent at any order in the LIV parameters. At first order, the gauge and scalar sectors are described by the same dispersion relations. Finally, the equations of motion have been solved in the stationary regime and at first order in the LIV parameters. It is observed that the Lorentz-violating parameters do not alter the asymptotical behavior of the electric and magnetic fields but induce an angular dependence which is not present in Maxwell’s planar theory.
Feasibility Study of Electrodynamic Tether Technology Demonstration on H-II Transfer Vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasai, Toru; Tsuijita, Daisuke; Uchiyama, Takashi; Harada, Masayuki; Kawamoto, Satomi; Ohkawa, Yasushi; Inoue, Koichi
2013-09-01
Space debris has been steadily increasing. Cascading effect caused by the collision between the objects would worsen the situation further. To ensure the safety of future space activities, aggressive measures to reduce debris is needed. Since density of debris in the region of 800 km to 1500 km altitude is particularly high, the occurrence of cascade event can be a major obstacle for activities in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). To avoid this situation, JAXA is investigating a service system to capture a defunct satellite and remove it from this "crowded" orbit to waste orbit. Conventional propulsion system, which requires much propellant, is inefficient for this application. JAXA has been investigating to use of ElectroDynamic Tether (EDT) propulsion system. By using the interaction with the Earth magnetic field, EDT can generate a sufficient thrust for orbit transfer over a realistic time period. JAXA is now investigating to demonstrate EDT technology on-orbit and H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV), JAXA's unmanned cargo transfer spacecraft to the International Space Station (ISS), is a potential candidate of hosted vehicle. This paper will present HTV's active deorbit design in first, and also present result of feasibility study of JAXA's first attempt of EDT on-orbit demonstration on the HTV.
Bryson, W.R.
1983-06-01
Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, Ian J.; Lessard, Marc; Lund, Eric J.; Bounds, Scott R.; Kletzing, Craig; Kaeppler, Stephen R.; Sigsbee, Kristine M.; Streltsov, Anatoly V.; Labelle, James W.; Dombrowski, Micah P.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Rowland, Doug; Jones, Sarah; Anderson, Brian Jay; Heinselman, Craig J.; Gjerloev, Jesper W.; Dudok de Wit, Thierry
2011-01-01
In 2009, the Auroral Current and Electrodynamics Structure (ACES) High and Low sounding rockets were launched from the Poker Flat Rocket Range (PFRR) in Alaska, with the science objective of gathering in-situ data to quantify current closure in a discrete auroral arc. As ACES High crossed through the return current of an arc (that was monitored using an all sky camera from the ground at Fort Yukon), its instruments recorded clear Alfv nic signatures both poleward and equatorward of the return current region, but not within the main region of the return current itself. These data provide an excellent opportunity to study ionospheric feedback and how it interacts with the Alfv n resonator. We compare the observations with predictions and new results from a model of ionospheric feedback in the ionospheric Alfv n resonator (IAR) and report the significance and impact of these new data for the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfv n Resonator (MICA) rocket mission to launch from PFRR this winter. MICA s primary science objectives specifically focus on better understanding the small-scale structure that the model predicts should exist within the return current region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Brian Thompson
1998-07-01
An isotropic three-dimensional non-relativistic charged harmonic oscillator immersed in the stochastic zero point field, an applied classical radiation field, and a constant uniform magnetic field is treated. The method followed is that of previous work [1, 2, 3, 4] with no static magnetic field present. Starting from a non-runaway classical stochastic motion equation, an appropriate conjugate momentum is derived. The classical position/conjugate momentum phase space distribution, a product of Dirac delta distributions, is ensemble averaged. The Liouville equation for this ensemble averaged phase space distribution, along with a separate independent equation that the distribution must satisfy, are derived in dipole approximation. The Weyl transformed Liouville, equation is used to derive a stochastic Schroedinger equation valid to first order in the Larmor frequency. The stochastic equation is the same as the quantum one to this order, except for the presence of radiation reaction vector potentials that produce spontaneous emission without quantization of the applied radiation field. The ensemble averaged Weyl transformed phase space distribution is also shown to be separable into a product of Schroedinger eigenfunctions, in general. Electric dipole spectra and transition probabilities for spontaneous emission and resonant absorption are calculated using the stochastic Schroedinger equation and its exact solutions. The results are compared to the corresponding predictions of quantum electrodynamics and found to be in agreement.
Lin, En-Chiang; Fang, Jun; Park, Se-Chul; Johnson, Forrest W.; Jacobs, Heiko O.
2013-01-01
Various nanostructured sensor designs currently aim to achieve or claim single molecular detection by a reduction of the active sensor size. However, a reduction of the sensor size has the negative effect of reducing the capture probability considering the diffusion-based analyte transport commonly used. Here we introduce and apply a localized programmable electrodynamic precipitation concept as an alternative to diffusion. The process provides higher collection rates of airborne species and detection at lower concentration. As an example, we compare an identical nanostructured surfaced-enhanced Raman spectroscopy sensor with and without localized delivery and find that the sensitivity and detection time is improved by at least two orders of magnitudes. Localized collection in an active-matrix array-like fashion is also tested, yielding hybrid molecular arrays on a single chip over a broad range of molecular weights, including small benzenethiol (110.18 Da) and 4-fluorobenzenethiol (128.17 Da), or large macromolecules such as anti-mouse IgG (~150 kDa). PMID:23535657
Snapshots of high-latitude electrodynamics using Viking and DMSP F7 observations
Marklund, G.T.; Blomberg, L.G.; Stasiewicz, K.; Murphree, J.S.; Pottelette, R.; Zanetti, L.J.; Potemra, T.A.; Hardy, D.A.; Rich, F.J.
1988-12-01
Simultandeous observations by the Viking an the DMSP F7 satellites have been used as input to a new method to obtain snapshot pictures of the auroral electrodynamics. In particular, an ''instantaneous'' global equipotential (or convection) pattern is calculated from distributions of field-aligned current and conductivity which are qualitatively consistent with the Viking auroral imager data and quantitatively consistent with magnetic field and particle data from the two satellites. This convection pattern, which is of the normal two-cell type, with a weak dusk cell and a strong, elongated crescent-shape dawn cell (consistent with positive interplanetary magnetic field B/sub y/), agrees well with the Viking electric field data. The model and the observed potential profiles agree nicely along the entire Viking orbit except for two intervals above acceleration regions where deviations are to be expected (due to parallel electric fields). These regions are characterized by U-shaped potential minima, upward field-aligned currents, upgoing ion beams, and relatively intense auroral kilometric radiation. Thus, the model results are consistent with the Viking observations not only on a global scale but also on the scale of the auroral acceleration regions. The corresponding convection in the magnetosphere is obtained from a simple projection to the equatorial plane of the deduced two-cell convection pattern. From this location of the plasmapause is inferred. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988
Snapshots of high-latitude electrodynamics using Viking and DMSP f7 observations
Marklund, G.T.; Blomberg, L.G.; Stasiewicz, K.; Murphree, J.S.; Pottelette, R.
1988-12-01
Simultaneous observations by the Viking and the DMSP F7 satellites were used as input to a new method to obtain snapshot pictures of the auroral electrodynamics. In particular, an instantaneous global equipotential (or convection) pattern is calculated from distributions of field-aligned current and conductivity which are qualitatively consistent with the Viking auroral imager data and quantitatively consistent with magnetic field and particle data from the two satellites. This convection pattern, which is of the normal two-cell type, with a weak dusk cell and a strong, elongated crescent-shaped dawn cell (consistent with positive interplanetary magnetic field By), agrees well with the Viking electric-field data. The model and the observed potential profiles agree nicely along the entire Viking orbit except for two intervals above acceleration regions where deviations are to be expected (due to parallel electric fields). These regions are characterized by U-shaped potential minima, upward field-aligned currents, upgoing ion beams, and relatively intense auroral kilometric radiation. Thus, the model results are consistent with the Viking observations not only on a global scale but also on the scale of the auroral acceleration regions. The corresponding convection in the magnetosphere is obtained from a simple projection to the equatorial plane of the deduced two-cell convection pattern. From this the location of the plasmapause is inferred.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Xiaobin; Sun, Rui; Koike, Fumihiro; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Dong, Chenzhong
2017-03-01
The electron correlation effects and Breit interaction as well as Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED) effects were expected to have important contribution to the energy level and transition properties of heavy highly charged ions. The ground states [Ne]3s23p63d2 and first excited states [Ne]3s23p53d3 of W54+ ion have been studied by using Multi-Configuration Dirac-Fock method with the implementation of Grasp2K package. A restricted active space method was employed to investigate the correlation contribution from different models. The Breit interaction and QED effects were taken into account in the relativistic configuration interaction calculation with the converged wavefunction. It is found that the correlation contribution from 3s and 3p orbital have important contribution to the energy level, transition wavelength and probability of the ground and the first excited state of W54+ ion. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, R. A.
1989-01-01
On the nights of October 21 and 28, 1987 (UT), two Nike Orion payloads (NASA 31.066 and 31.067) were launched from Andoya, Norway, as part of the MAC/Epsilon campaign, to study auroral energetics and their effect on the middle atmosphere. Each payload carried instrumentation to measure relativistic electrons from 0.1 to 1.0 MeV in 12 differential channels, and Bremsstrahlung X-rays from greater than 5 to greater than 80 KeV in 5 integral channels. In addition, instrumentation to measure ion densities and electric fields were also included on these and, in the case of 31.066, on other near simultaneous payloads. The first flight, 31.066, was launched under pre-magnetic midnight conditions during relatively stable auroral conditions. Flight 31.067 was launched during post-breakup conditions at which time pulsations of approx. 100 seconds duration were evident. The measured radiations including their spectral characteristics are compared for these two events, to appraise their effect on the electrodynamic properties of the middle atmosphere as determined by other rocket-borne measurements.
Two-electrode gas switch with electrodynamical acceleration of a discharge channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Kumpyak, E. V.; Tsoy, N. V.
2015-12-01
High-energy switches and trigger generators are required for MJ-level capacitor banks. We have developed a compact gas switch and a matched series injection trigger generator. A series inductance is required for isolation of the trigger pulse from the surrounded circuit. A saturable inductor is employed here because low inductance is needed after the switch breakdown. The switch is of coaxial two-electrode design with electrodynamic acceleration of a spark channel. The switch operates at atmospheric pressure. The spark gap can be triggered reliably down to zero voltage (at 50 kV self-breakdown voltage) with less than 35 ns timing jitter. Energy losses in this spark gap have been accurately investigated. The main results are as follows: energy losses in the switch do not exceed 4% at voltages higher than 15 kV, i.e., when operation voltage exceeds ˜36% of the self-breakdown voltage. The spark gap is designed for 24 kV charging voltage, at a current up to 250 kA, and ˜70 C charge transfer. In this paper, we present a design for the spark gap, inductor and trigger generator. Test bed schematics and results of the tests are also described.
Electrodynamics and Spacetime Geometry: Foundations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2016-11-01
We explore the intimate connection between spacetime geometry and electrodynamics. This link is already implicit in the constitutive relations between the field strengths and excitations, which are an essential part of the axiomatic structure of electromagnetism, clearly formulated via integration theory and differential forms. We review the foundations of classical electromagnetism based on charge and magnetic flux conservation, the Lorentz force and the constitutive relations. These relations introduce the conformal part of the metric and allow the study of electrodynamics for specific spacetime geometries. At the foundational level, we discuss the possibility of generalizing the vacuum constitutive relations, by relaxing the fixed conditions of homogeneity and isotropy, and by assuming that the symmetry properties of the electro-vacuum follow the spacetime isometries. The implications of this extension are briefly discussed in the context of the intimate connection between electromagnetism and the geometry (and causal structure) of spacetime.
Electrodynamics and Spacetime Geometry: Foundations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2017-02-01
We explore the intimate connection between spacetime geometry and electrodynamics. This link is already implicit in the constitutive relations between the field strengths and excitations, which are an essential part of the axiomatic structure of electromagnetism, clearly formulated via integration theory and differential forms. We review the foundations of classical electromagnetism based on charge and magnetic flux conservation, the Lorentz force and the constitutive relations. These relations introduce the conformal part of the metric and allow the study of electrodynamics for specific spacetime geometries. At the foundational level, we discuss the possibility of generalizing the vacuum constitutive relations, by relaxing the fixed conditions of homogeneity and isotropy, and by assuming that the symmetry properties of the electro-vacuum follow the spacetime isometries. The implications of this extension are briefly discussed in the context of the intimate connection between electromagnetism and the geometry (and causal structure) of spacetime.
Sarabi, B; Ramanayaka, A N; Burin, A L; Wellstood, F C; Osborn, K D
2016-04-22
Material-based two-level systems (TLSs), appearing as defects in low-temperature devices including superconducting qubits and photon detectors, are difficult to characterize. In this study we apply a uniform dc electric field across a film to tune the energies of TLSs within. The film is embedded in a superconducting resonator such that it forms a circuit quantum electrodynamical system. The energy of individual TLSs is observed as a function of the known tuning field. By studying TLSs for which we can determine the tunneling energy, the actual p_{z}, dipole moments projected along the uniform field direction, are individually obtained. A distribution is created with 60 p_{z}. We describe the distribution using a model with two dipole moment magnitudes, and a fit yields the corresponding values p=p_{1}=2.8±0.2 D and p=p_{2}=8.3±0.4 D. For a strong-coupled TLS the vacuum-Rabi splitting can be obtained with p_{z} and tunneling energy. This allows a measurement of the circuit's zero-point electric-field fluctuations, in a method that does not need the electric-field volume.
Stability of exact force-free electrodynamic solutions and scattering from spacetime curvature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fan; McWilliams, Sean T.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.
2015-07-01
Recently, a family of exact force-free electrodynamic (FFE) solutions was given by Brennan, Gralla and Jacobson, which generalizes earlier solutions by Michel, Menon and Dermer, and other authors. These solutions have been proposed as useful models for describing the outer magnetosphere of conducting stars. As with any exact analytical solution that aspires to describe actual physical systems, it is vitally important that the solution possess the necessary stability. In this paper, we show via fully nonlinear numerical simulations that the aforementioned FFE solutions, despite being highly special in their properties, are nonetheless stable under small perturbations. Through this study, we also introduce a three-dimensional pseudospectral relativistic FFE code that achieves exponential convergence for smooth test cases, as well as two additional well-posed FFE evolution systems in the appendix that have desirable mathematical properties. Furthermore, we provide an explicit analysis that demonstrates how propagation along degenerate principal null directions of the spacetime curvature tensor simplifies scattering, thereby providing an intuitive understanding of why these exact solutions are tractable, i.e. why they are not backscattered by spacetime curvature.
Modulated phases of graphene quantum Hall polariton fluids
Pellegrino, Francesco M. D.; Giovannetti, Vittorio; MacDonald, Allan H.; Polini, Marco
2016-01-01
There is a growing experimental interest in coupling cavity photons to the cyclotron resonance excitations of electron liquids in high-mobility semiconductor quantum wells or graphene sheets. These media offer unique platforms to carry out fundamental studies of exciton-polariton condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics in a regime, in which electron–electron interactions are expected to play a pivotal role. Here, focusing on graphene, we present a theoretical study of the impact of electron–electron interactions on a quantum Hall polariton fluid, that is a fluid of magneto-excitons resonantly coupled to cavity photons. We show that electron–electron interactions are responsible for an instability of graphene integer quantum Hall polariton fluids towards a modulated phase. We demonstrate that this phase can be detected by measuring the collective excitation spectra, which is often at a characteristic wave vector of the order of the inverse magnetic length. PMID:27841346
Modulated phases of graphene quantum Hall polariton fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pellegrino, Francesco M. D.; Giovannetti, Vittorio; MacDonald, Allan H.; Polini, Marco
2016-11-01
There is a growing experimental interest in coupling cavity photons to the cyclotron resonance excitations of electron liquids in high-mobility semiconductor quantum wells or graphene sheets. These media offer unique platforms to carry out fundamental studies of exciton-polariton condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics in a regime, in which electron-electron interactions are expected to play a pivotal role. Here, focusing on graphene, we present a theoretical study of the impact of electron-electron interactions on a quantum Hall polariton fluid, that is a fluid of magneto-excitons resonantly coupled to cavity photons. We show that electron-electron interactions are responsible for an instability of graphene integer quantum Hall polariton fluids towards a modulated phase. We demonstrate that this phase can be detected by measuring the collective excitation spectra, which is often at a characteristic wave vector of the order of the inverse magnetic length.
Laser opacity in underdense preplasma of solid targets due to quantum electrodynamics effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, W.-M.; Gibbon, P.; Sheng, Z.-M.; Li, Y.-T.; Zhang, J.
2017-07-01
We investigate how next-generation laser pulses at 10 -200 PW interact with a solid target in the presence of a relativistically underdense preplasma produced by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). Laser hole boring and relativistic transparency are strongly restrained due to the generation of electron-positron pairs and γ -ray photons via quantum electrodynamics (QED) processes. A pair plasma with a density above the initial preplasma density is formed, counteracting the electron-free channel produced by hole boring. This pair-dominated plasma can block laser transport and trigger an avalanchelike QED cascade, efficiently transferring the laser energy to the photons. This renders a 1 -μ m scale-length, underdense preplasma completely opaque to laser pulses at this power level. The QED-induced opacity therefore sets much higher contrast requirements for such a pulse in solid-target experiments than expected by classical plasma physics. Our simulations show, for example, that proton acceleration from the rear of a solid with a preplasma would be strongly impaired.
Parity-odd and CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M., Jr.; Silva, Madson R. O.
2010-05-01
This work examines the finite temperature properties of the CPT-even and parity-odd electrodynamics of the standard model extension. The starting point is the partition function computed for an arbitrary and sufficiently small tensor (kF)ανρφ [see R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira, Jr., J. S. Rodrigues, and M. R. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 085026 (2009).10.1103/PhysRevD.80.085026]. After specializing the Lorentz-violating tensor (kF)ανρφ for the leading-order-nonbirefringent and parity-odd coefficients, the partition function is explicitly carried out, showing that it is a power of the Maxwell partition function. Also, it is observed that the Lorentz invariance violation coefficients induce an anisotropy in the black-body angular energy density distribution. Planck’s radiation law retains its usual frequency dependence and the Stefan-Boltzmann law keeps the same form, except for a global proportionality constant.
Carl Neumann's Contributions to Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlote, Karl-Heinz
2004-09-01
I examine the publications of Carl Neumann (1832 1925) on electrodynamics, which constitute a major part of his work and which illuminate his approach to mathematical physics. I show how Neumann contributed to physics at an important stage in its development and how his work led to a polemic with Hermann Helmholtz (1821 1894). Neumann advanced and extended the ideas of the Königsberg school of mathematical physics. His investigations were aimed at founding a mathematically exact physical theory of electrodynamics, following the approach of Carl G.J. Jacobi (1804 1851) on the foundation of a physical theory as outlined in Jacobi’s lectures on analytical mechanics. Neumann’s work also shows how he clung to principles that impeded him in appreciating and developing new ideas such as those on field theory that were proposed by Michael Faraday (1791 1867) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831 1879).
Photon propagator for axion electrodynamics
Itin, Yakov
2007-10-15
The axion modified electrodynamics is usually used as a model for description of possible violation of Lorentz invariance in field theory. The low-energy manifestation of Lorentz violation can hopefully be observed in experiments with electromagnetic waves. It justifies the importance of studying how a small axion addition can modify the wave propagation. Although a constant axion does not contribute to the dispersion relation at all, even a slowly varying axion field destroys the light cone structure. In this paper, we study the wave propagation in the axion modified electrodynamics in the framework of the premetric approach. In addition to the modified dispersion relation, we derive the axion generalization of the photon propagator in Feynman and Landau gauge. Our consideration is free of the usual restriction to the constant gradient axion field. It is remarkable that the axion modified propagator is Hermitian. Consequently, the dissipation effects are absent even in the phenomenological model considered here.
Agglomeration of magnetorheological fluid mass to an immersed vibrating electromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vavreck, Andrew N.; Black, Jessica E.
2007-04-01
Dynamic vibration absorbers (DVAs) have been designed with variable spring and damping elements to enable realtime or non-real-time adaptation to vibration conditions. Mass, the third element of a DVA, is more difficult to adjust. The subject paper describes an experimental study of a small electromagnet immersed in magnetorheological (MR) fluid and vibrated at a single frequency by an electrodynamic shaker as force and acceleration data are acquired. When the magnet is energized, MR fluid clings to it, potentially allowing for design of a DVA with variable mass and even damping, as the shape of the electromagnet-MR fluid mass changes. It is found that the effective mass of the system depends on the vibration conditions, with less mass adhering at higher frequencies and displacements, but significant increases in mass are possible at lower frequencies and displacements. The paper outlines the experimental apparatus used, presents data acquired, and proposes a dependency of the effective mass on frequency and displacement.
Holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition with the nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Wu, Ya-Bo; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Huan-Yu; Wu, Meng-Meng
2017-01-01
In the probe limit, we investigate the nonlinear electrodynamical effects of the both exponential form and the logarithmic form on the holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition in the background of a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole spacetime. Moreover, by comparing the exponential form of nonlinear electrodynamics with the logarithmic form of nonlinear electrodynamics and the Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics which has been presented in Ref. [55], we find that the higher nonlinear electrodynamics correction makes the critical temperature smaller and the magnetic moment harder form in the case without external field. Furthermore, the increase of nonlinear parameter b will result in extending the period of the external magnetic field. Especially, the effect of the exponential form of nonlinear electrodynamics on the periodicity of hysteresis loop is more noticeable.
Pyroshock testing-electrodynamic shakers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smallwood, David O.
2002-05-01
Far field pyroshock (accelerations less than a few hundred grams, and bandwidths less than a few kHz) can be simulated on electrodynamic shakers. Typically, the specification is in terms of the shock response spectrum (SRS). Wave forms are synthesized which will match the required SRS. The process is not unique, as many wave forms can have essentially the same SRS. Sometimes additional restrictions are placed on the synthesized wave form. Most common are restrictions on the duration of the wave form. The process of synthesizing wave forms, which will match an SRS and conform to the limitations of electrodynamic shakers, will be described. The methods used to reproduce these wave forms on the shaker will then be discussed.
Applications of supercritical fluids.
Brunner, Gerd
2010-01-01
This review discusses supercritical fluids in industrial and near-to-industry applications. Supercritical fluids are flexible tools for processing materials. Supercritical fluids have been applied to mass-transfer processes, phase-transition processes, reactive systems, materials-related processes, and nanostructured materials. Some applications are already at industrial capacity, whereas others remain under development. In addition to extraction, application areas include impregnation and cleaning, multistage countercurrent separation, particle formation, coating, and reactive systems such as hydrogenation, biomass gasification, and supercritical water oxidation. Polymers are modified with supercritical fluids, and colloids and emulsions as well as nanostructured materials exhibit interesting phenomena when in contact with supercritical fluids that can be industrially exploited. For these applications to succeed, the properties of supercritical fluids in combination with the materials processed must be clearly determined and fundamental knowledge of the complex behavior must be made readily available.
Quantum electrodynamics for vector mesons.
Djukanovic, Dalibor; Schindler, Matthias R; Gegelia, Jambul; Scherer, Stefan
2005-07-01
Quantum electrodynamics for rho mesons is considered. It is shown that, at the tree level, the value of the gyromagnetic ratio of the rho+ is fixed to 2 in a self-consistent effective quantum field theory. Further, the mixing parameter of the photon and the neutral vector meson is equal to the ratio of electromagnetic and strong couplings, leading to the mass difference M(rho0)-M(rho+/-) approximately 1 MeV at tree order.
Electrodynamics on extrasolar giant planets
Koskinen, T. T.; Yelle, R. V.; Lavvas, P.; Cho, J. Y-K.
2014-11-20
Strong ionization on close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) suggests that their atmospheres may be affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Recent models of ion drag on these planets, however, are based on thermal ionization only and do not include the upper atmosphere above the 1 mbar level. These models are also based on simplified equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics that are not always valid in extrasolar planet atmospheres. We show that photoionization dominates over thermal ionization over much of the dayside atmosphere above the 100 mbar level, creating an upper ionosphere dominated by ionization of H and He and a lower ionosphere dominated by ionization of metals such as Na, K, and Mg. The resulting dayside electron densities on close-in exoplanets are higher than those encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the conductivities are comparable to the chromosphere of the Sun. Based on these results and assumed magnetic fields, we constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in EGPs and use a generalized Ohm's law to study the basic effects of electrodynamics in their atmospheres. We find that ion drag is important above the 10 mbar level where it can also significantly alter the energy balance through resistive heating. Due to frequent collisions of the electrons and ions with the neutral atmosphere, however, ion drag is largely negligible in the lower atmosphere below the 10 mbar level for a reasonable range of planetary magnetic moments. We find that the atmospheric conductivity decreases by several orders of magnitude in the night side of tidally locked planets, leading to a potentially interesting large-scale dichotomy in electrodynamics between the day and night sides. A combined approach that relies on UV observations of the upper atmosphere, phase curve and Doppler measurements of global dynamics, and visual transit observations to probe the alkali metals can potentially be
Induction of the Lorentz-violating effective actions in quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Holanda, O.; Passos, E.
2017-07-01
We introduce a Lorentz-symmetry violating extended quantum electrodynamics (QED) which preserves gauge symmetry. The extended fermionic sector can radiatively induce an extended effective action which simultaneously displays the same electromagnetic terms present in the Carroll-Field-Jackiw, Myers-Pospelov and Aether actions.
Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review
Jones, Kevin W
2010-01-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.
Critical Researches on General Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ritz, Walter; Fritzius, Robert
1980-11-01
Electric and electrodynamic phenomena have acquired in the course of these last years more and more importance. They include Optics, the laws of radiation and the innumerable molecular phenomena associated with the presence of charged centers, ions and electrons. Finally, with the notion of electromagnetic mass, Mechanics itself seems obliged to become a chapter of General Electrodynamics. In the form given to it by H. A. Lorentz, Maxwell's theory would thus become the turning point towards a new conception of nature, where the laws of electrodynamics, considered as primary, would contain the laws of motion as special cases and would play the fundamental role in the physical theories which, until now, have belonged to Mechanics. Under these circumstances, it is plainly desirable to have a rigorous criticism of the foundations of this theory, to give it the degree of clarity and precision that Mechanics itself reached only recently after much controversy. It is in order to ask which hypotheses are essential and can be deduced from observations, which others are logically useless or can be discarded without experience ceasing to be adequately represented, and finally, which are those which can be, and should be rejected; a question which is asked principally in regard to absolute motion.
Conjunctions and Collision Avoidance with Electrodynamic Tethers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, E.
2013-09-01
Electrodynamic propulsion technology is currently in development by NASA, ESA, and JAXA for the purpose of affordable removal of large debris objects from LEO. At the same time, the Naval Research Laboratory is preparing a 3U CubeSat with a 1-km electrodynamic tether for a flight demonstration of electrodynamic propulsion. This type of propulsion does not require fuel. The electrodynamic thrust is the Lorentz force acting on the electric current in a long conductor (tether) in the geomagnetic field. Electrons are collected from the ambient plasma on one end and emitted back into the plasma from the other end. The electric current loop is closed through the ionosphere, as demonstrated in two previous flights. The vehicle is solar powered. To support safe navigation of electrodynamic tethers, proper conjunction analysis and collision avoidance strategies are needed. The typical lengths of electrodynamic tethers for near-term applications are measured in kilometers, and the conjunction geometry is very different from the geometry of conjunctions between compact objects. It is commonly thought that the collision cross-section in a conjunction between a tether and a compact object is represented by the product of the tether length and the size of the object. However, rigorous analysis shows that this is not the case, and that the above assumption leads to grossly overestimated collision probabilities. The paper will present the results of a detailed mathematical analysis of the conjunction geometry and collision probabilities in close approaches between electrodynamic tethers and compact objects, such as satellites, rocket bodies, and debris fragments. Electrodynamic spacecraft will not require fuel, and therefore, can thrust constantly. Their orbit transfers can take many days, but can result in major orbit changes, including large rotations of the orbital plane, both in the inclination and the node. During these orbit transfers, the electrodynamic spacecraft will
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Il'chenko, L. G.; Il'chenko, V. V.; Gavrilenko, A. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I.
2013-09-01
Efficient engineering of metamaterials involves modeling of electric field profiles around these structures. Realistic modeling of the electric field in metamaterials requires accurate knowledge of optical constants of the compo- nents for which traditionally the bulk values are taken. Further progress in the developing of metamaterials is characterized by a reduction of the pattern size, dimensions of single layers in multilayered structures etc. It has been understood that optical functions in low-dimensional and nano-sized materials substantially differ from their bulk values increasingly affecting by quantum processes. In this work we develop a complex method for analytical modeling of electric field profiles in metamaterials including quantum processes in nano-sized multi-layered structures. In particular based on first principles density functional theory we obtained simple analytical functions allowing predictions the optical functions variations with the size reduction of single metamaterial components over a wide spectral region. It is shown that optical functions of nano-sized films substantially (by 50 percent and more) differ from those in bulk. The new calculated optical functions of the components are used for electric field profile modeling of nano-sized multilayered structures by nonlocal Green function technique including effects of spatial dispersion. Silicon, silicon dioxide, and water layers are used as an example. The method effectively incorporates real atomic structure reconstruction on surfaces and inner interfaces thus providing with a more realistic picture for modeling. By comparison with experiment it is demonstrated that our method predicts image potential of the nanostructures in better agreement with experiment than if using traditional classic electrodynamics approach neglecting the quantum effects. The results are discussed in comparison with literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Min-gu; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Sim, Jaesam; Kim, Jongbaeg; Kim, Yong-Jun
2012-04-01
This paper proposes an integrated sensor chip for continuous monitoring of a biochemical process. It is composed of a preconcentrator and a thermoelectric biosensor. In the preconcentrator, the concentration of the injected biochemical sample is electrodynamically condensed. Then, in the downstream thermoelectric biosensor, the preconcentrated target molecules react with sequentially injected capture molecules and generate reaction heat. The reaction heat is detected based on the thermoelectric effect, and an integrated split-flow microchannel improves the sensor stability by providing ability to self-compensate thermal noise. These sequential preconcentration and detection processes are performed in completely label-free and continuous conditions and consequently enhance the sensor sensitivity. The performance of the integrated biosensor chip was evaluated at various flow rates and applied voltages. First, in order to verify characteristics of the fabricated preconcentrator, 10 µm -diameter polystyrene (PS) particles were used. The particles were concentrated by applying ac voltage from 0 to 16 Vpp at 3 MHz at various flow rates. In the experimental result, approximately 92.8% of concentration efficiency was achieved at a voltage over 16 Vpp and at a flow rate below 100 µl h-1. The downstream thermoelectric biosensor was characterized by measuring reaction heat of biotin-streptavidin interaction. The preconcentrated streptavidin-coated PS particles flow into the reaction chamber and react with titrated biotin. The measured output voltage was 288.2 µV at a flow rate of 100 µl h-1 without preconcentration. However, by using proposed preconcentrator, an output voltage of 812.3 µV was achieved with a 16 Vpp-applied preconcentration in the same given sample and flow rate. According to these results, the proposed label-free biomolecular preconcentration and detection technique can be applied in continuous and high-throughput biochemical applications.
A Rocket-Base Study of Auroral Electrodynamics Within the Current Closure Ionosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaeppler, Stephen R.; Kletzing, Craig; Bounds, Scott R.; Sigsbee, Kristine M.; Gjerloev, Jesper W.; Anderson, Brian Jay; Korth, Haje; Lessard, Marc; Labelle, James W.; Dombrowski, Micah P.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Rowland, Douglas E.; Jones, Sarah; Heinselman, Craig J.; DudokdeWit, Thierry
2011-01-01
The Auroral Current and Electrodynamics Structure (ACES) mission consisted of two sounding rockets launched nearly simultaneously from Poker Flat Research Range, AK on January 29, 2009 into a dynamic multiple-arc aurora. The ACES rocket mission, in conjunction with the PFISR Radar, was designed to observe the three-dimensional current system of a stable auroral arc system. ACES utilized two well instrumented payloads flown along very similar magnetic field footprints, at various altitudes with small temporal separation between both payloads. ACES High, the higher altitude payload (apogee 360 km), took in-situ measurements of the plasma parameters above the current closure region to provide the input signature into the lower ionosphere. ACES Low, the low-altitude payload (apogee 130 km), took similar observations within the current closure region, where cross-field currents can flow. We present results comparing observations of the electric fields, magnetic fields, electron flux, and the electron temperature at similar magnetic footpoints between both payloads. We further present data from all-sky imagers and PFISR detailing the evolution of the auroral event as the payloads traversed regions connected by similar magnetic footpoints. Current measurements derived from the magnetometers on both payloads are further compared. We examine data from both PFISR and observations on the high-altitude payload which we interpreted as a signature of electron acceleration by means of Alfv n waves. We further examine all measurements to understand ionospheric conductivity and how energy is being deposited into the ionosphere through Joule heating. Data from ACES is compared against models of Joule heating to make inferences regarding the effect of collisions at various altitudes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chelibanov, V. P.; Polubotko, A. M.
2014-07-01
It is demonstrated that the strong quadrupole light-molecule interaction, which is responsible for the most enhancement of Surface Enhanced Hyper Raman Scattering (SEHRS), experiences so-called electrodynamical forbiddance in the methane molecule and molecules with cubic symmetry groups and does not influence on formation of the SEHRS spectra. This forbiddance results in the fact that the lines, caused by the totally symmetric vibrations, which are observed in pyrazine and phenazine, must be slight, or absent at all. In this case, in methane, the most enhanced lines are those, caused by vibrations, transforming after the irreducible representations T1 , or T2 .
Self-consistent electrodynamics of large-area high-frequency capacitive plasma discharge
Chen Zhigang; Rauf, Shahid; Collins, Ken
2010-10-15
Capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) generated using high frequency (3-30 MHz) and very high frequency (30-300 MHz) radio-frequency (rf) sources are used for many plasma processing applications including thin film etching and deposition. When chamber dimensions become commensurate with the effective rf wavelength in the plasma, electromagnetic wave effects impose a significant influence on plasma behavior. Because the effective rf wavelength in plasma depends upon both rf and plasma process conditions (e.g., rf power and gas pressure), a self-consistent model including both the rf power delivery system and the plasma discharge is highly desirable to capture a more complete physical picture of the plasma behavior. A three-dimensional model for self-consistently studying both electrodynamic and plasma dynamic behavior of large-area (Gen 10, >8 m{sup 2}) CCP is described in this paper. This model includes Maxwell's equations and transport equations for charged and neutral species, which are coupled and solved in the time domain. The complete rf plasma discharge chamber including the rf power delivery subsystem, rf feed, electrodes, and the plasma domain is modeled as an integrated system. Based on this full-wave solution model, important limitations for processing uniformity imposed by electromagnetic wave propagation effects in a large-area CCP (3.05x2.85 m{sup 2} electrode size) are studied. The behavior of H{sub 2} plasmas in such a reactor is examined from 13.56 to 200 MHz. It is shown that various rectangular harmonics of electromagnetic fields can be excited in a large-area rectangular reactor as the rf or power is increased. The rectangular harmonics can create not only center-high plasma distribution but also high plasma density at the corners and along the edges of the reactor.
Experiments with Electrodynamic Wheels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaul, Nathan; Corey, Daniel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian
2015-04-01
Our experiments were involving inductive magnetic levitation. A Halbach array is a system in which a series of magnets is arranged in a manner such that the magnetic field is cancelled on one side of the array while strengthening the field on the other. We constructed two circular Halbach wheels, making the strong magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such system is usually dubbed as an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We demonstrated that these interactions produce both drag and lift forces on the EDW which can theoretically be used for lift and propulsion of the EDW. The focus of our experiments is determining how to maximize the lift-to-drag ratio by the proper choice of the induction element. We will also describe our experiments with a rotating circular Halbach array having the strong magnetic field of about 1 T on the flat side of the ring, and acting as a hovercraft.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yiqun; Jordanova, Vania K.; Ridley, Aaron J.; Toth, Gabor; Heelis, Roderick
2017-05-01
We report a self-consistent electric field coupling between the midlatitude ionospheric electrodynamics and inner magnetosphere dynamics represented in a kinetic ring current model. This implementation in the model features another self-consistency in addition to its already existing self-consistent magnetic field coupling with plasma. The model is therefore named as Ring current-Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistent magnetic (B) and electric (E) fields, or RAM-SCB-E. With this new model, we explore, by comparing with previously employed empirical Weimer potential, the impact of using self-consistent electric fields on the modeling of storm time global electric potential distribution, plasma sheet particle injection, and the subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) which heavily rely on the coupled interplay between the inner magnetosphere and midlatitude ionosphere. We find the following phenomena in the self-consistent model: (1) The spatially localized enhancement of electric field is produced within 2.5 < L < 4 during geomagnetic active time in the dusk-premidnight sector, with a similar dynamic penetration as found in statistical observations. (2) The electric potential contours show more substantial skewing toward the postmidnight than the Weimer potential, suggesting the resistance on the particles from directly injecting toward the low-L region. (3) The proton flux indeed indicates that the plasma sheet inner boundary at the dusk-premidnight sector is located further away from the Earth than in the Weimer potential, and a "tongue" of low-energy protons extends eastward toward the dawn, leading to the Harang reversal. (4) SAPS are reproduced in the subauroral region, and their magnitude and latitudinal width are in reasonable agreement with data.
Yu, Yiqun; Jordanova, Vania Koleva; Ridley, Aaron J.; ...
2017-05-10
Here, we report a self-consistent electric field coupling between the midlatitude ionospheric electrodynamics and inner magnetosphere dynamics represented in a kinetic ring current model. This implementation in the model features another self-consistency in addition to its already existing self-consistent magnetic field coupling with plasma. The model is therefore named as Ring current-Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistent magnetic (B) and electric (E) fields, or RAM-SCB-E. With this new model, we explore, by comparing with previously employed empirical Weimer potential, the impact of using self-consistent electric fields on the modeling of storm time global electric potential distribution, plasma sheet particle injection, andmore » the subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) which heavily rely on the coupled interplay between the inner magnetosphere and midlatitude ionosphere. We find the following phenomena in the self-consistent model: (1) The spatially localized enhancement of electric field is produced within 2.5 < L < 4 during geomagnetic active time in the dusk-premidnight sector, with a similar dynamic penetration as found in statistical observations. (2) The electric potential contours show more substantial skewing toward the postmidnight than the Weimer potential, suggesting the resistance on the particles from directly injecting toward the low-L region. (3) The proton flux indeed indicates that the plasma sheet inner boundary at the dusk-premidnight sector is located further away from the Earth than in the Weimer potential, and a “tongue” of low-energy protons extends eastward toward the dawn, leading to the Harang reversal. (4) SAPS are reproduced in the subauroral region, and their magnitude and latitudinal width are in reasonable agreement with data.« less
Eremeev, Vitalie; Ciobanu, Nellu; Orszag, Miguel
2014-05-01
We investigate thermal effects on sudden changes and freezing of the quantum and classical correlations of remote qubits in a cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) network with losses. We find that the detrimental effect of thermal reservoirs on the freezing of correlations can be compensated via an efficient coupling of the fiber connecting the two cavities of the system. Furthermore, for certain initial conditions, we find a double sudden transition in the dynamics of Bures geometrical quantum discord. The second transition tends to disappear at a critical temperature, hence freezing the discord. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of the experimental realization of the present proposal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohta, Tadayuki; Kimura, Toshiei
1993-10-01
The second post-Coulombian Lagrangian of Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics for a many-particle system is treated according to a canonical formalism of a singular Lagrangian with higher derivatives. The canonical equations are given in terms of a reduced Hamiltonian with Dirac brackets, but they are transformed to be expressed in terms of ordinary Poisson brackets by redefinition of canonical variables. The reduced Hamiltonian includes a characteristic form of three-particle and four-particle potentials. Finally a direct pathway to the reduced Hamiltonian is presented via first-order formalism of the Maxwell theory with charged particles.
Fundamentals of fluid lubrication
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamrock, Bernard J.
1991-01-01
The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Estes, Robert D.
1998-01-01
Our TSS-1/R investigation, which we shall refer to as EMET in this report, was an integral part of the effort by the TSS-1/R Investigators' Working Group (IWG) to come to an understanding of the complex interaction between the tethered satellite system and the ionosphere. All of the space-borne experiments were designed to collect data relevant to the local interaction. Only the ground- based experiments, EMET and its Italian counterpart Observations on the Earth's Surface of Electromagnetic Emissions (OESEE), held out any hope of characterizing the long range effects of the interaction. This was to be done by detecting electromagnetic waves generated by the system in the ionosphere, assuming the signal reached the Earth's surface with sufficient amplitude. As the type of plasma waves excited to carry charge away from the charge-exchange regions of the system at each end of the tether is one of the theoretical points about which there is greatest disagreement, a definitive identification of tether-generated waves could mark significant progress in the so-called current closure problem of electrodynamic tethers. Dr. Mario Grossi of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) initiated the investigation, and his experience in the field of ULF-ELF waves and their detection was invaluable throughout its course. Rice University had the responsibility of setting up the EMET ULF-VLF ground stations under a subcontract from SAO. Principal Investigator (PI) for the Rice effort was Prof. William E. Gordon, who was primary observer at the Arecibo Observatory during TSS-LR. Dr. Steve Noble handled major day-to-day operations, training, and planning for the ground-based measurements. Dr. James McCoy of NASA JSC, a member of the Mona/Arecibo team, was pilot for the numerous flights ferrying personnel and equipment between Puerto Rico and Mona Island. Final responsibility for the measurements rested with SAO, and the activities of field personnel and SAO investigators were
Kampmeier, Tim; Rehberg, Sebastian; Ertmer, Christian
2014-09-01
The human organism consists of evolutionary conserved mechanisms to prevent death from hypovolaemia. Intravenous fluid therapy to support these mechanisms had first been published about 180 years ago. The present review depicts the evolution of fluid therapy from early, not well-defined solutions up to modern balanced fluids. Notably, evidence accumulates that the most commonly used fluid (i.e. 0.9% saline) has no advantage over balanced solutions, increases the risk of acute kidney injury and should therefore be abandoned. Notably, in published trials, the prognostically important 'golden hours' of shock, where fluid therapy may be essential, have not been adequately addressed. It is therefore unclear whether negative data on colloids in some trials reflect real harm or rather inadequate use. Future studies should focus on optimal protocols for initiation, dosing and discontinuation of fluid therapy in specific disease entities. Moreover, the practice of de-resuscitation after fluid-based haemodynamic stabilization should be further investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voisin, G.; Bonazzola, S.; Mottez, F.
2016-12-01
Curvature radiation is a key phenomenon in pulsar and magnetar magnetospheres. It is classically conceptually very close to synchrotron radiation, however we will show that in ultra-relativistic very-high-magnetic-field environments, the same approximations that lead to its use are also leading quickly to a potential quantized regime where the classical theory may fail. We explain in some details these caveats and give an outline of a quantum-electrodynamics treatment. We show that the internal consistency of the theory of curvature radiation is improved, and some interesting effects due to spin-flip transitions may occur.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radożycki, Tomasz
2015-09-01
The Lorentz transformation properties of the equal-time bound-state Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in the two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics (the so-called Schwinger model) are considered. It is shown that while boosting a bound state (a `meson') this amplitude is subject to approximate Lorentz contraction. The effect is exact for large separations of constituent particles (`quarks'), while for small distances the deviation is more significant. For this phenomenon to appear, the full function, i.e. with the inclusion of all instanton contributions, has to be considered. The amplitude in each separate topological sector does not exhibit such properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.
1976-01-01
The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, A.; Naeimipour, F.; Zebarjad, S. M.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we construct a new class of black hole solutions which is coupled to the logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics in the context of dilaton gravity. We consider an n -dimensional action in which gravity is coupled to the logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics field and a scalar dilaton field to obtain the equations of motion of the gravitational, dilaton and electromagnetic fields. This leads to finding a new class of n -dimensional static and spherically symmetric black hole solutions in the presence of two Liouville-type dilaton potentials. The asymptotic behavior of these solutions is neither flat nor (anti-)de Sitter [(A)dS], and in the limiting case where the nonlinear parameter β goes to infinity, our solutions reduce to the black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity in higher dimensions. Thermodynamic quantities such as mass, temperature, electric potential and entropy are also computed, and it is shown that they agree with the first law of thermodynamics. Furthermore, we find that for small values of the electric charge parameter q , and the dilaton coupling constant α , as well as small dimension n , the solutions are thermally stable. By increasing n , the region of stability stands for smaller values of α independent of q . Finally, we use the method of thermodynamical geometry and find the phase transition points by calculating the Ricci scalar of a thermodynamic metric.
Classifications of fluid systems
1997-06-01
Descriptions of fluid-system classifications, product functions and source companies are listed on these pages. System descriptions and product definitions have been kept as simple as possible and, wherever practical, reflect general industry practice and terminology consistent with descriptions adopted by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC). Nine distinct fluid systems are defined, with the first six being water-based. Next are oil- and synthetic-based systems, along with the last, which consists of air, mist, foam or gas as the circulating medium. All chemicals and fluid systems listed in these tables are designed for use in drilling, completion and workover operations.
Mross, David F; Alicea, Jason; Motrunich, Olexei I
2016-07-01
We explicitly derive the duality between a free electronic Dirac cone and quantum electrodynamics in (2+1) dimensions (QED_{3}) with N=1 fermion flavors. The duality proceeds via an exact, nonlocal mapping from electrons to dual fermions with long-range interactions encoded by an emergent gauge field. This mapping allows us to construct parent Hamiltonians for exotic topological-insulator surface phases, derive the particle-hole-symmetric field theory of a half-filled Landau level, and nontrivially constrain QED_{3} scaling dimensions. We similarly establish duality between bosonic topological insulator surfaces and N=2 QED_{3}.
Practicality of using a Tether for electrodynamic reboost of the International Space Station
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blumer, John H.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Bangham, Michal E.
2001-02-01
ElectroDynamic (ED) Tethers can generate continuous low thrust in a low Earth orbit. An induced current running through the length of the tether reacts with the geomagnetic field to produce thrust. The amount of thrust scales with tether length and current. The International Space Station (ISS) requires periodic reboost to maintain an approximately circular orbit above the Earth. The baseline reboost method is a traditional bi-propellant rocket thruster and tankage system which must to be refueled via Soyuz/Progress or other launch vehicle. The estimated propellant costs associated with keeping ISS in the designated orbit over a 10-year life have been extremely high. The ED Tether would draw energy from the renewable ISS Solar Array electrical power system. Propulsion requirements for ISS vary depending on solar wind and other conditions. It is projected that a ED Tether could provide the majority of the required reboost thrust for ISS for a nominal solar year. For above nominal solar wind years the ISS would have to use the rocket reboost system, but at a greatly reduced level. Thus resulting in substantial cost savings, via the reduction in the number of Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle flights to the ISS that must bring reboost propellant. However, the purposes of this paper is to further previous research on an ISS ED Tether and examine the operational and technical issues working against using a ED Tether on ISS. Issues such as Shuttle rendezvous and flight path concerns raise serious safety concerns and restrictions on tether use. Tether issues such as tether librations and off angle thrust raise concerns about impacts to microgravity payloads and the long-term effect on ISS orbital path and inclination. Operational issues such as peak power available to an ED Tether and allowable duty cycle may impose severe restrictions on tether design and ultimately limit the practicality of an ED Tether on ISS. Thus while at first glance the cost numbers appear to be
Observability of Viscoelastic Fluids
2010-01-01
THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Author’s personal copy J. Non - Newtonian Fluid Mech. 165 (2010) 425...434 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Non - Newtonian Fluid Mechanics journa l homepage: www.e lsev ier .com/ locate / jnnfm...by Elsevier B.V. doi:10.1016/j.jnnfm.2010.01.025 Author’s personal copy 426 H. Zhou et al. / J. Non - Newtonian Fluid Mech. 165 (2010) 425–434 the
Dias, C S; Araújo, N A M; Telo da Gama, M M
2017-07-06
Network fluids are structured fluids consisting of chains and branches. They are characterized by unusual physical properties, such as, exotic bulk phase diagrams, interfacial roughening and wetting transitions, and equilibrium and nonequilibrium gels. Here, we provide an overview of a selection of their equilibrium and dynamical properties. Recent research efforts towards bridging equilibrium and non-equilibrium studies are discussed, as well as several open questions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Observations on the Freezing of Supercooled Pollen Washing Water by a New Electrodynamic Balance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Haijie; Pope, Francis D.; Kalberer, Markus
2014-05-01
Primary biological particles can act as efficient ice nuclei (IN) by initiating freezing events at temperatures warmer than the homogenous freezing temperature [1, 2]. For example, pollen grain particles can trigger freezing events at temperatures as warm as -5 °C in the contact freezing mode [3]. More recently pollen residues, which are released by washing pollen grains in water, were also observed to act as efficient IN in the immersion mode [4, 5]. In this study we developed a new cold electrodynamic balance (CEDB) system and investigated the freezing properties of single particles of supercooled pollen washing water (SPWW). The EDB technique allows for a contact free measurement of freezing events. The phase of the particle (liquid or frozen solid) can be distinguished via measuring the Mie scattering signal from the particle. Furthermore the size of liquid (spherical) particles can be determined. The freezing events are characterized through the loss of the regular Mie scattering signal from the levitated droplet as it changes state from liquid to a frozen solid. The statistical freezing probabilities of SPWW were obtained in the temperature range: -15 to -40 °C. Each temperature measurement point consists of the analysis of 30-100 droplets. Preliminary conclusions are that SPWW is IN active in the immersion mode. Further discussion will focus on the temperature range of the IN activity, the important variables (other than temperature) for IN activity, other likely modes of IN activity, and the implications of these results in terms of the atmospheric relevance of SPWW. This study was supported by the NERC. We acknowledge Professor Jonathan Reid and James Davis from the University of Bristol for providing information of the design of the warm EDB system. References: [1] Möhler, O., et al. (2007) Biogeosciences, 4, 1059-1071. [2] Prenni, A. J., et al. (2009) Nat. Geosci., 2, 401-404. [3] Diehl, K., et al. (2002) Atmos. Res., 61, 125-133. [4] Pummer, B. G
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Panahiyan, S.; Eslam Panah, B.
2016-10-01
In this paper, we take into account the black-hole solutions of Einstein gravity in the presence of logarithmic and exponential forms of nonlinear electrodynamics. At first, we consider the cosmological constant as a dynamical pressure to study the phase transitions and analogy of the black holes with the Van der Waals liquid-gas system in the extended phase space. We make a comparison between linear and nonlinear electrodynamics and show that the lowest critical temperature belongs to Maxwell theory. Also, we make some arguments regarding how power of nonlinearity brings the system to Schwarzschild-like and Reissner-Nordström-like limitations. Next, we study the critical behavior of the system in the context of heat capacity. We show that critical behavior of system is similar to the one in phase diagrams of extended phase space. We also extend the study of phase transition points through geometrical thermodynamics (GTs). We introduce two new thermodynamical metrics for extended phase space and show that divergencies of thermodynamical Ricci scalar (TRS) of the new metrics coincide with phase transition points of the system. Then, we introduce a new method for obtaining critical pressure and horizon radius by considering denominator of the heat capacity.
Kubasov, A.A.; Shikhmurzaev, Yu.D.
1988-03-01
A mathematical model of the process of passing an alternating electric current through a magnetic fluid is proposed. An expression was obtained for the impedance of the part of the circuit containing the cell with the magnetic fluid in the case of high frequencies. It is shown that in the case of low volume concentration of the dispersed phase the conductivity of the magnetic fluid depends on the volume concentration of the dispersed phase and the dimensionless frequency of variation of the potential difference applied to the cell containing the magnetic fluid. A new method of determining the particle size of the dispersed phase in a magnetic fluid, based on electrodynamic behavior, is proposed.
Circuit quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishop, Lev Samuel
Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics (cQED), the study of the interaction between superconducting circuits behaving as artificial atoms and 1-dimensional transmission-line resonators, has shown much promise for quantum information processing tasks. For the purposes of quantum computing it is usual to approximate the artificial atoms as 2-level qubits, and much effort has been expended on attempts to isolate these qubits from the environment and to invent ever more sophisticated control and measurement schemes. Rather than focussing on these technological aspects of the field, this thesis investigates the opportunities for using these carefully engineered systems for answering questions of fundamental physics. The low dissipation and small mode volume of the circuits allows easy access to the strong-coupling regime of quantum optics, where one can investigate the interaction of light and matter at the level of single atoms and photons. A signature of strong coupling is the splitting of the cavity transmission peak into a pair of resolvable peaks when a single resonant atom is placed inside the cavity---an effect known as vacuum Rabi splitting. The cQED architecture is ideally suited for going beyond this linear response effect. This thesis shows that increasing the drive power results in two unique nonlinear features in the transmitted heterodyne signal: the supersplitting of each vacuum Rabi peak into a doublet, and the appearance of additional peaks with the characteristic n spacing of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder. These constitute direct evidence for the coupling between the quantized microwave field and the anharmonic spectrum of a superconducting qubit acting as an artificial atom. This thesis also addresses the idea of Bell tests, which are experiments that aim to disprove certain types of classical theories, presenting a proposed method for preparing maximally entangled 3-qubit states via a 'preparation by measurement' scheme using an optimized filter on the time
Collective Optomechanical Effects in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cortese, Erika; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G.; De Liberato, Simone
2017-07-01
We investigate a cavity quantum electrodynamic effect, where the alignment of two-dimensional freely rotating optical dipoles is driven by their collective coupling to the cavity field. By exploiting the formal equivalence of a set of rotating dipoles with a polymer we calculate the partition function of the coupled light-matter system and demonstrate that it exhibits a second order phase transition between a bunched state of isotropic orientations and a stretched one with all the dipoles aligned. Such a transition manifests itself as an intensity-dependent shift of the polariton mode resonance. Our work, lying at the crossroads of cavity quantum electrodynamics and quantum optomechanics has to become the crossroads between cavity quantum electrodynamics and quantum optomechanics.
Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics and duality.
Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan
2009-04-10
We discuss under what conditions the duality between electric and magnetic fields is a valid symmetry of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that Maxwell's equations in the absence of free charges satisfy duality invariance on an operator level, whereas this is not true for Lorentz forces and atom-field couplings in general. We prove that derived quantities such as Casimir forces, local-field corrected decay rates, as well as van der Waals potentials are invariant with respect to a global exchange of electric and magnetic quantities. This exact symmetry can be used to deduce the physics of new configurations on the basis of already established ones.
Universe acceleration and nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruglov, S. I.
2015-12-01
A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with a dimensional parameter β coupled to gravity is considered. We show that an accelerated expansion of the universe takes place if the nonlinear electromagnetic field is the source of the gravitational field. A pure magnetic universe is investigated, and the magnetic field drives the universe to accelerate. In this model, after the big bang, the universe undergoes inflation and the accelerated expansion and then decelerates approaching Minkowski spacetime asymptotically. We demonstrate the causality of the model and a classical stability at the deceleration phase.
Stochastic Electrodynamics: A Road to Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavenda, B. H.
A formal analogy exists between electrodynamic and gravitational phenomena: the Coulomb potential is analogous to the Newton potential and both possess fine structure constants. There are no singularities in Nature; uncertainties in the measurement of small distances are accounted for by an extreme value probability distribution for smallest value of the radial coordinate. Quantum electrodynamic phenomena can simply be accounted for by a stochastic generalization of the Bohr model which we will then carry over to the quantum Kepler model. Both in quantum electrodynamics and gravitation all characteristic scales are related by simple powers of the fine structure constants. A new uncertainty relation between momentum and inverse separation between particles is derived. Electromagnetic and gravitational radiation phenomena are analyzed and compared.
Accretion disk electrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coroniti, F. V.
1985-01-01
Accretion disk electrodynamic phenomena are separable into two classes: (1) disks and coronas with turbulent magnetic fields; (2) disks and black holes which are connected to a large-scale external magnetic field. Turbulent fields may originate in an alpha-omega dynamo, provide anomalous viscous transport, and sustain an active corona by magnetic buoyancy. The large-scale field can extract energy and angular momentum from the disk and black hole, and be dynamically configured into a collimated relativistic jet.
Finite field-energy and interparticle potential in logarithmic electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Patricio; Helayël-Neto, José
2014-03-01
We pursue an investigation of logarithmic electrodynamics, for which the field energy of a point-like charge is finite, as happens in the case of the usual Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We also show that, contrary to the latter, logarithmic electrodynamics exhibits the feature of birefringence. Next, we analyze the lowest-order modifications for both logarithmic electrodynamics and for its non-commutative version, within the framework of the gauge-invariant path-dependent variables formalism. The calculation shows a long-range correction (-type) to the Coulomb potential for logarithmic electrodynamics. Interestingly enough, for its non-commutative version, the interaction energy is ultraviolet finite. We highlight the role played by the new quantum of length in our analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preto, Jordane; Floriani, Elena; Nardecchia, Ilaria; Ferrier, Pierre; Pettini, Marco
2012-04-01
Highly specific spatiotemporal interactions between cognate molecular partners essentially sustain all biochemical transactions in living matter. That such an exquisite level of accuracy may result from encountering forces solely driven by thermal diffusive processes is unlikely. Here we propose a yet unexplored strategy to experimentally tackle the long-standing question of a possibly active recruitment at a distance of cognate partners of biomolecular reactions via the action of resonant electrodynamic interactions. We considered two simplified models for a preliminary feasibility investigation of the devised methodology. By taking advantage of advanced experimental techniques nowadays available, we propose to measure the characteristic encounter time scales of dually interacting biopartners and to compare them with theoretical predictions worked out in both the presence and absence of putative long-range electromagnetic forces.
Electrodynamics at the highest energies
Klein, Spencer R.
2002-06-17
At very high energies, the bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections exhibit complex behavior due to the material in which the interactions occur. The cross sections in dense media can be dramatically different than for isolated atoms. This writeup discusses these in-medium effects, emphasizing how the cross section has different energy and target density dependencies in different regimes. Data from SLAC experiment E-146 will be presented to confirm the energy and density scaling. Finally, QCD analogs of the electrodynamics effects will be discussed.
Electrodynamic Tethers for Spacecraft Propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Les
2009-01-01
Electrodynamic (Drag) Tether Thrust Principles: a) Uses both solar energy and consumes no propellant. b) Tether's orbital velocity v (approx. 7500 m/s) through North-pointing geomagnetic field B(sub north) (0.18 - 0.32 Gauss) induces voltage (35 - 160 V/km) in tether. c) Return current is through surrounding plasma. d) Current I produces a drag thrust force F on the tether. e) Magnetic force F from current I through insulated tether of length l: F = lI x B(sub north).
The tethered satellite electrodynamics experiment project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Price, John M.
1988-01-01
NASA and Italy's PSN have undertaken the Tethered Satellite Electrodynamics Experiment, in which two tethered bodies will be equipped with data-collecting scientific instruments, as the first stage of the development of the Tethered Satellite System that can be deployed by the Space Shuttle. The experiment will give attention to the electromagnetic interaction between the satellite/tether/orbiter system and the ambient space plasma, and should demonstrate the operation of both satellite- and Shuttle-borne electrodynamic instruments with a conductive tether.
[Fluid management: estimation of fluid status].
Renner, Jochen; Broch, Ole; Bein, Berthold
2012-07-01
Cardiac filling pressures alone are not appropriate to estimate the effect of a volume challenge on the corresponding change in stroke volume. Dynamic variables of fluid responsiveness have been shown to discriminate with acceptable sensitivity and specificity between responders and non-responders to a volume challenge. However, several clinical confounders have been indentified which potentially influence the predictive power of these variables. Sound knowledge of these confounders and the acknowledgement that there is no unique threshold value for volume optimisation but a considerable "gray zone" is necessary to fully exploit the advantages of functional haemodynamic monitoring.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaboronkova, T. M.; Zaitseva, A. S.; Kudrin, A. V.; Spagnolo, B.
2015-04-01
We study the electrodynamic characteristics of an antenna having the form of an infinitesimally thin, perfectly conducting narrow strip located on a plane interface of a resonant magnetoplasma and an isotropic medium. The antenna is perpendicular to an external magnetic field and is excited by a given voltage. Singular integral equations for the antenna current, on the basis of which the current distribution is found in the case of an infinitely long radiator, are obtained. The limits of applicability of an approximate method based on the transmission line theory for determining the current distribution and input impedance of the antenna are established. Within the framework of this method, the results obtained are generalized to the case of a finite-length strip antenna.
Quantum gravitational contributions to quantum electrodynamics.
Toms, David J
2010-11-04
Quantum electrodynamics describes the interactions of electrons and photons. Electric charge (the gauge coupling constant) is energy dependent, and there is a previous claim that charge is affected by gravity (described by general relativity) with the implication that the charge is reduced at high energies. However, that claim has been very controversial and the matter has not been settled. Here I report an analysis (free from the earlier controversies) demonstrating that quantum gravity corrections to quantum electrodynamics have a quadratic energy dependence that result in the electric charge vanishing at high energies, a result known as asymptotic freedom.
Electrodynamics in Giant Planet Atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koskinen, T.; Yelle, R. V.; Lavvas, P.; Cho, J.
2014-12-01
The atmospheres of close-in extrasolar giant planets such as HD209458b are strongly ionized by the UV flux of their host stars. We show that photoionization on such planets creates a dayside ionosphere that extends from the thermosphere to the 100 mbar level. The resulting peak electron density near the 1 mbar level is higher than that encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the model conductivity is in fact comparable to the atmospheres of Sun-like stars. As a result, the momentum and energy balance in the upper atmosphere of HD209458b and similar planets can be strongly affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Despite much weaker ionization, electrodynamics is nevertheless also important on the giant planets of the solar system. We use a generic framework to constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in extrasolar planets, and compare the results with conductivites based on the same approach for Jupiter and Saturn. By using a generalized Ohm's law and assumed magnetic fields, we then demonstrate the basic effects of wind-driven ion drag in giant planet atmospheres. Our results show that ion drag is often significant in the upper atmosphere where it can also substantially alter the energy budget through resistive heating.
Fluid loss control differences of crosslinked and linear fracturing fluids
Zigrye, J.L.; Whitfill, D.L.; Sievert, J.A.
1983-01-01
Three fracturing fluids--a crosslinked guar, a delayed hydrating guar, and a linear guar--were tested for fluid loss control at set time intervals while being conditioned in a heated, pressurized flow loop. Each fluid was tested with 3 different fluid loss additive systems: diesel, silica flour, and a combination of diesel and silica flour. The crosslinked system was tested also with 2 additional fluid loss additive systems. These fluids were diesel plus an anionic surfactant and the combination of diesel/silica flour plus the anionic surfactant. These tests show that the fluid loss of crosslinked fracturing fluids is best controlled by using diesel in combination with a surfactant or a properly sized particulate material. The fluid loss of linear fluids is controlled best with particulate additives.
Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stankie, Charles G.
2013-01-01
The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid
Dobrovolsky, V.
2014-10-21
Developed in this work is an electrodynamic model of field effect transistor (FET) application for THz/subTHz radiation detection. It is based on solution of the Maxwell equations in the gate dielectric, expression for current in the channel, which takes into account both the drift and diffusion current components, and the equation of current continuity. For the regimes under and above threshold at the strong inversion the response voltage, responsivity, wave impedance, power of ohmic loss in the gate and channel have been found, and the electrical noise equivalent power (ENEP) has been estimated. The responsivity is orders of magnitude higher and ENEP under threshold is orders of magnitude less than these values above threshold. Under the threshold, the electromagnetic field in the gate oxide is identical to field of the plane waves in free-space. At the same time, for strong inversion the charging of the gate capacitance through the resistance of channel determines the electric field in oxide.
Electrodynamics and quantum capacity: The case of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator
Craco, L.
2015-11-14
Layered Bi-chalcogenide topological insulators are among the most available energy conversion (thermoelectric) and storage (battery) materials. Motivated by this applied aspect of fundamental importance and the good agreement between theory and key experiments probing spectroscopy and dc transport, we undertake a detailed study of electrodynamic responses of bulk Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator. In particular, we confirm that the interplay between spin-orbit and electron correlations underpins its bulk metallicity. We show the implications of our proposal for the multi-channel nature of galvanostatic, voltage-capacity profiles intrinsic to Li{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} battery material. Supported by a microscopic description of quantum capacity, we predict that layered Bi-based topological insulators are promising candidates for future high-voltage solid-state batteries.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Estes, Robert D.
1988-01-01
The goal is to extend the previous analysis of electromagnetic wave generation by an electrodynamic tethered satellite system to a more realistic model that includes the effects on wave propagation and reflection to the boundaries between ionosphere, atmosphere, and earth. One of the major activities was searching the scientific literature for publications that might be relevant to the problem. The software developed as SAO to follow the path of waves along field lines through the ionosphere to the atmosphere starting from an arbitary position in the atmosphere is described. Some preliminary results are presented from applying the code to the location of wave reception hot spots on the earth's surface for satellites operating at 300 and 600 km altitudes. A generalization of the Alfven wing analysis is presented to allow for arbitrary angles between the velocity vector, geomagnetic field, and the veritcal. This will be utilized in the modeling of the problem with boundaries included.
Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Waters, C. L.; ...
2014-05-07
The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment uses magnetic field data from the Iridium constellation to derive the global Birkeland current distribution every 10 min. We examine cases in which the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) rotated from northward to southward resulting in onsets of the Birkeland currents. Dayside Region 1/2 currents, totaling ~25% of the final current, appear within 20 min of the IMF southward turning and remain steady. In the onset of nightside currents occurs 40 to 70 min after the dayside currents appear. Afterwards, the currents intensify at dawn, dusk, and on the dayside, yielding a fullymore » formed Region 1/2 system ~30 min after the nightside onset. Our results imply that the dayside Birkeland currents are driven by magnetopause reconnection, and the remainder of the system forms as magnetospheric return flows start and progress sunward, ultimately closing the Dungey convection cycle.« less
Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Waters, C. L.; Green, D. L.; Merkin, V. G.; Barnes, R. J.; Dyrud, L. P.
2014-05-07
The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment uses magnetic field data from the Iridium constellation to derive the global Birkeland current distribution every 10 min. We examine cases in which the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) rotated from northward to southward resulting in onsets of the Birkeland currents. Dayside Region 1/2 currents, totaling ~25% of the final current, appear within 20 min of the IMF southward turning and remain steady. In the onset of nightside currents occurs 40 to 70 min after the dayside currents appear. Afterwards, the currents intensify at dawn, dusk, and on the dayside, yielding a fully formed Region 1/2 system ~30 min after the nightside onset. Our results imply that the dayside Birkeland currents are driven by magnetopause reconnection, and the remainder of the system forms as magnetospheric return flows start and progress sunward, ultimately closing the Dungey convection cycle.
Brown, W.S.; Dauwalter, C.R.; Heger, F.; Weinberg, M.S.
1992-09-01
The study compiles quantitative design information that can be used in selecting a high-speed magnetic levitation system. Analytic models were developed for three configurations of electromagnetic (EMS) and three electrodynamic (EDS) systems, and for linear induction and synchronous motors. The models permit comparisons based on consistent assumptions. The following results indicate that the hoped-for advantages of EDS are difficult to realize: (1) all of the systems studied require smooth guideways to achieve acceptable ride quality unless active control techniques are developed; (2) the estimated weight of the superconducting magnets for the EDS systems is surprisingly large and comparable to the weight of the EMS onboard electromagnets; and (3) real power consumption in sheet guideway null flux EDS is similar to EMS when practical configurations and end effects are considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshihara, F.; Fuse, T.; Ashhab, S.; Kakuyanagi, K.; Saito, S.; Semba, K.
2017-05-01
We report on spectra of circuit-quantum-electrodynamics (QED) systems in an intermediate regime that lies between the ultrastrong- and the deep-strong-coupling regimes, which have been reported previously in the literature. Our experimental results, along with numerical simulations, demonstrate that as the coupling strength increases, the spectrum of a circuit-QED system undergoes multiple qualitative transformations, such that several coupling regimes are identified, each with its own unique spectral features. The different spectral transformations can be related to crossings between energy level differences and to changes in the symmetries of the energy eigenstates. These results allow us to use qualitative spectral features to infer certain properties and parameters of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peronio, Angelo; Giessibl, Franz J.
2016-09-01
We perform an experiment to test between two theories of the electrodynamics of superconductors: the standard London theory and an alternative proposed by J. E. Hirsch [Phys. Rev. B 69, 214515 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevB.69.214515]. The two alternatives give different predictions with respect to the screening of an electric field by a superconductor, and we try to detect this effect using atomic force microscopy on a niobium sample. We also perform the reverse experiment, where we demonstrate a superconductive tip mounted on a qPlus force sensor. Due to limited accuracy, we are able neither to prove nor to disprove Hirsch's hypothesis. Within our accuracy of 0.17 N/m, the superconductive transition does not alter the atomic-scale interaction between tip and sample.