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Sample records for electroluminescence efficiency degradation

  1. Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M. A.; O'Brien, D. F.; You, Y.; Shoustikov, A.; Sibley, S.; Thompson, M. E.; Forrest, S. R.

    1998-09-01

    The efficiency of electroluminescent organic light-emitting devices, can be improved by the introduction of a fluorescent dye. Energy transfer from the host to the dye occurs via excitons, but only the singlet spin states induce fluorescent emission; these represent a small fraction (about 25%) of the total excited-state population (the remainder are triplet states). Phosphorescent dyes, however, offer a means of achieving improved light-emission efficiencies, as emission may result from both singlet and triplet states. Here we report high-efficiency (≳90%) energy transfer from both singlet and triplet states, in a host material doped with the phosphorescent dye 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphine platinum(II) (PtOEP). Our doped electroluminescent devices generate saturated red emission with peak external and internal quantum efficiencies of 4% and 23%, respectively. The luminescent efficiencies attainable with phosphorescent dyes may lead to new applications for organic materials. Moreover, our work establishes the utility of PtOEP as a probe of triplet behaviour and energy transfer in organic solid-state systems.

  2. Electroluminescence efficiencies of erbium in silicon-based hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Cueff, Sébastien E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr; Manel Ramírez, Joan; Berencén, Yonder; Garrido, Blas; Kurvits, Jonathan A.; Zia, Rashid; Rizk, Richard; Labbé, Christophe E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr

    2013-11-04

    We report on room-temperature 1.5 μm electroluminescence from trivalent erbium (Er{sup 3+}) ions embedded in three different CMOS-compatible silicon-based hosts: SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and SiN{sub x}. We show that although the insertion of either nitrogen or excess silicon helps enhance electrical conduction and reduce the onset voltage for electroluminescence, it drastically decreases the external quantum efficiency of Er{sup 3+} ions from 2% in SiO{sub 2} to 0.001% and 0.0004% in SiN{sub x} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, respectively. Furthermore, we present strong evidence that hot carrier injection is significantly more efficient than defect-assisted conduction for the electrical excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions. These results suggest strategies to optimize the engineering of on-chip electrically excited silicon-based nanophotonic light sources.

  3. Efficient electroluminescence from new lanthanide (Eu3+, Sm3+) complexes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiangbo; Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Hongjie; Zheng, Youxuan; Li, Huanrong; Deng, Ruiping; Peng, Zeping; Li, Zhefeng

    2005-03-07

    The syntheses, structures, and electroluminescent properties are described for two new lanthanide complexes Ln(HFNH)3phen [HFNH = 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptafluoro-1-(2-naphthyl)hexane-1,3-dione; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; Ln = Eu3+ (1), Sm3+ (2)]. Both complexes exhibit bright photoluminescence at room temperature (RT) due to the characteristic emission of Eu3+ and Sm3+ ion. Several devices using the two complexes as emitters were fabricated. The performances of these devices are among the best reported for devices using europium complex and samarium complex as emitters. The device based on 1 with the structure ITO/TPD (50 nm)/1:CBP (10%, 40 nm)/BCP (20 nm)/AlQ (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm) exhibits the maximum brightness of 957 cd/m2, current efficiency of 4.14 cd/A, and power efficiency of 2.28 lm/W with a pure red Eu3+ ion emission. Especially, at the high brightness of 200 cd/m2, the device of 1 still has a high current efficiency of 2.15 cd/A. The device of 2 with a three-layer structure of ITO/TPD (50 nm)/2 (50 nm)/BCP (20 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm) gives the maximum brightness of 42 cd/m2, current efficiency of 0.18 cd/A. By the comparison of the electroluminescent properties of devices based on Eu(TTA3phen (TTA = 2-thenoyltrifluoroacteonate) and 1, we conclude that the polyfluoration on the alkyl group of the ligand and the introduction of the long conjugate naphthyl group into the ligand improve the efficiency of 1-doped devices, especially at high current densities.

  4. Analysis of degradation mechanisms in AlInN/GaN HEMTs by electroluminescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthet, F.; Petitdidier, S.; Guhel, Y.; Trolet, J. L.; Mary, P.; Vivier, A.; Gaquière, C.; Boudart, B.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of a severe on-state stress on the IDS (VDS, VGS) characteristics of AlInN/GaN devices is analyzed by electroluminescence technique performed at room temperature. In fact, the devices operate in bias conditions that allow measuring the bell- shaped gate current. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a bell-shaped gate current centered at a positive VGS and measured at room temperature has been shown for an AlInN/GaN transistor. We have also highlighted that electroluminescence spectra are related to the superposition of intraband radiative electron transitions, Fabry-Perot oscillations, and emission bands induced by recombination of electrons due to electron traps. In these conditions, it is not so easy to extract energies levels of electron traps existing in unstressed and stressed AlInN/GaN HEMTs from electroluminescence spectra. Thus, we have also shown that the electrical degradations induced by on-state stress are mainly related to the trapping of hot electron by deep pre-existing electron traps in the devices. Moreover, we have highlighted the existence of two electron traps activated at 1.6 and 1.8 eV in the devices.

  5. Organic electroluminescent devices and method for improving energy efficiency and optical stability thereof

    DOEpatents

    Heller, Christian Maria

    2004-04-27

    An organic electroluminescent device ("OELD") has a controllable brightness, an improved energy efficiency, and stable optical output at low brightness. The OELD is activated with a series of voltage pulses, each of which has a maximum voltage value that corresponds to the maximum power efficiency when the OELD is activated. The frequency of the pulses, or the duty cycle, or both are chosen to provide the desired average brightness.

  6. Degradation and rejuvenation studies of AC electroluminescent ZnS:Cu,Cl phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Jacob; Jiang, Yu; Bridges, Frank; Carter, Sue A.; Ruhlen, Laurel

    2010-02-01

    We report detailed degradation and rejuvenation studies of AC electroluminescence (EL) of the phosphor ZnS:Cu,Cl, aiming to better understand the physical mechanisms that control EL emission. We find that the AC EL emission spectra vary considerably with the AC driving frequency but all spectra can be fit to a sum of four Gaussians. During degradation, although there is a large overall decrease in amplitude, the shape of the emission spectra measured at a given AC frequency does not change. Annealing the samples after they are significantly degraded can rejuvenate the phosphors with a maximum rejuvenation occurring (for fixed annealing times) near 180 °C. Further, these test cells can be degraded and rejuvenated multiple times. However studies at slightly higher annealing temperatures (240 °C) show significant thermal degradation and, perhaps more importantly, a change in the spectral shape; this likely indicates that two distinct mechanisms are then operative. In extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments we find that the CuS nanoprecipitates in the ZnS host (~75% of the Cu is in the CuS precipitates) do not change significantly after the 240 °C anneal; these experiments also provide a more detailed comparison of the local structure about Cu in pure CuS, and in ZnS:Cu,Cl. In addition, the EXAFS experiments also place an upper limit on the fraction of possible interstitial Cu sites, proposed as a blue emission center, at less than 10%. The combined experiments place strong constraints on the mechanisms for degradation and rejuvenation and suggest that EL degradation is most likely caused by either Cu or Cl diffusion under high E-fields, while thermal diffusion at slightly elevated temperatures without E-fields present, re-randomizes the (isolated) dopant distributions. Higher T anneals appear to damage the sharp tips on the precipitates.

  7. Observation of degradation processes of Al electrodes in organic electroluminescence devices by electroluminescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, L. M.; Han, E. M.; Niidome, Y.; Fujihira, M.; Kanno, T.; Yoshida, S.; Maeda, A.; Ikushima, A. J.

    1994-11-01

    Degradation of top electrodes is one of the most important factors to determine the lifetimes of organic electroluminescence (EL) devices. An organic EL device (indium thin oxide (ITO/N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (TPD)/tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline)aluminum (Al q(sub 3))/Al) was prepared and a morphological change of the Al top electrode was observed during and/or after applying voltage by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The change in the electrode surface, i.e., the increase in surface roughness was observed during the current flow. The degradation process started from faint dark core parts and propagated into disks with different rates depending on the magnitude of applied voltage. Degraded sites of the Al electrode, which were analyzed as aluminum oxide by Auger electron spectroscopy, protruded into the air on the organic layers. In SEM images of a life-end electrode, discontinuities due to crevasse formation in the organic layers sandwiched by the ITO base and the metal top electrodes were observed in many places. These results confirm that one of the most crucial factors of the degradation process was deformation of metal and organic layers due to heat, gas evolution, and oxidation caused by applied voltage.

  8. Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Jagielski, Jakub; Yakunin, Sergii; Rice, Peter; Chiu, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingchao; Nedelcu, Georgian; Kim, Yeongin; Lin, Shangchao; Santos, Elton J G; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Shih, Chih-Jen

    2016-10-03

    Solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites are emerging as one of the most promising candidates for low-cost light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, due to a small exciton binding energy, it is not yet possible to achieve an efficient electroluminescence within the blue wavelength region at room temperature, as is necessary for full-spectrum light sources. Here, we demonstrate efficient blue LEDs based on the colloidal, quantum-confined 2D perovskites, with precisely controlled stacking down to one-unit-cell thickness (n = 1). A variety of low-k organic host compounds are used to disperse the 2D perovskites, effectively creating a matrix of the dielectric quantum wells, which significantly boosts the exciton binding energy by the dielectric confinement effect. Through the Förster resonance energy transfer, the excitons down-convert and recombine radiatively in the 2D perovskites. We report room-temperature pure green (n = 7-10), sky blue (n = 5), pure blue (n = 3), and deep blue (n = 1) electroluminescence, with record-high external quantum efficiencies in the green-to-blue wavelength region.

  9. Efficient, Color-Tunable Electroluminescent Devices from Doped Polymers and Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. C.; Sturm, J. C.; Tian, J.; Register, R. A.; Dana, E. P.; Thompson, M. E.

    1998-03-01

    We have prepared electroluminescent materials with a wide color tunability and fabricated them into relatively efficient (>1% front-facing emission) light-emitting devices. The materials are based on poly(N-vinylcarbazole), PVK, a good hole conductor; the efficiency is obtained by adding substantial levels of electron-transporting oxadiazoles or quinolates. Color tunability (from blue to green to red) is achieved by doping with fluorescent molecules, both small-molecule laser dyes and a polymer, poly(3-phn-butylpyridylvinylene). In photoluminescence (PL), very efficient transfer of energy to the smaller-gap dopants occurs even at doping levels on the order of 1wt%. However, the predominant mechanism of electroluminescence (EL) at low doping levels appears to be the formation of excitons at the dopant emission centers, rather than transfer from the PVK matrix. Luminances of 100 cd/m^2 (television brightness) can be obtained at driving voltages below 10V, and the devices can produce luminances of 5000 cd/m^2 (comparable to fluorescent lamps). We have also demonstrated the integration of red, green, and blue devices onto a single substrate, thus forming the basic element of a full-color display.

  10. Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-16

    World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I-V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I-V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the "balance sheets" of tandem solar cells.

  11. Efficient electroluminescent cooling with a light-emitting diode coupled to a photovoltaic cell (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Tianyao P.; Chen, Kaifeng; Santhanam, Parthiban; Fan, Shanhui; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2017-02-01

    The new breakthrough in photovoltaics, exemplified by the slogan "A great solar cell has to be a great light-emitting diode (LED)", has led to all the major new solar cell records, while also leading to extraordinary LED efficiency. As an LED becomes very efficient in converting its electrical input into light, the device cools as it operates because the photons carry away entropy as well as energy. If these photons are absorbed in a photovoltaic (PV) cell, the generated electricity can be used to provide part of the electrical input that drives the LED. Indeed, the LED/PV cell combination forms a new type of heat engine with light as the working fluid. The electroluminescent refrigerator requires only a small amount of external electricity to provide cooling, leading to a high coefficient of performance. We present the theoretical performance of such a refrigerator, in which the cool side (LED) is radiatively coupled to the hot side (PV) across a vacuum gap. The coefficient of performance is maximized by using a highly luminescent material, such as GaAs, together with device structures that optimize extraction of the luminescence. We consider both a macroscopic vacuum gap and a sub-wavelength gap; the latter allows for evanescent coupling of photons between the devices, potentially providing a further enhancement to the efficiency of light extraction. Using device assumptions based on the current record-efficiency solar cells, we show that electroluminescent cooling can, in certain regimes of cooling power, achieve a higher coefficient of performance than thermoelectric cooling.

  12. Mechanisms of efficiency enhancement in the doped electroluminescent devices based on a europium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Hongjie; Shi, Weidong; Deng, Ruiping; Li, Zhefeng; Yu, Jiangbo; Guo, Zhiyong

    2008-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the dependence of electroluminescence (EL) efficiency on carrier distribution in the light-emitting layer (EML) of the device based on Eu(TTA)3phen (TTA=thenoyltrifluoroacetone, phen=1,10-phenanthroline) doped 4,4'-N,N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) system. We found that EL efficiency increases monotonously with increasing hole injection even when holes are the majority carriers. This phenomenon was attributed to the accumulation of holes in EML, which improves the balance of holes and electrons on Eu(TTA)3phen molecules, thus enhancing the EL efficiency. To further improve the balance of holes and electrons on Eu(TTA)3phen molecules, the injection of electron was gently decreased by modulating the thickness of Al and LiF layers. Interestingly, EL efficiency increases gradually to a maximum and then decreases rapidly with decreasing electron injection. As a result, the device with 80 nm Al and 1.2 nm LiF obtained the maximal current efficiency of 9.53 cd/A, power efficiency of 5.35 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 5.15%. Our experimental results demonstrated that the balance of holes and electrons on dye molecules is the precondition for the doped device to obtain high EL efficiency, when carrier trapping is the dominant EL mechanism.

  13. Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I–V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I–V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the “balance sheets” of tandem solar cells. PMID:25592484

  14. Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Taro; Nakanotani, Hajime; Inoue, Munetomo; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-01-01

    Recently, triplet harvesting via a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) process has been established as a realistic route for obtaining ultimate internal electroluminescence (EL) quantum efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, the possibility that the rather long transient lifetime of the triplet excited states would reduce operational stability due to an increased chance for unwarranted chemical reactions has been a concern. Herein, we demonstrate dual enhancement of EL efficiency and operational stability in OLEDs by employing a TADF molecule as an assistant dopant and a fluorescent molecule as an end emitter. The proper combination of assistant dopant and emitter molecules realized a “one-way” rapid Förster energy transfer of singlet excitons from TADF molecules to fluorescent emitters, reducing the number of cycles of intersystem crossing (ISC) and reverse ISC in the TADF molecules and resulting in a significant enhancement of operational stability compared to OLEDs with a TADF molecule as the end emitter. In addition, we found that the presence of this rapid energy transfer significantly suppresses singlet-triplet annihilation. Using this finely-tuned rapid triplet-exciton upconversion scheme, OLED performance and lifetime was greatly improved. PMID:25673259

  15. Fluorene-fluorenone copolymer: Stable and efficient yellow-emitting material for electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panozzo, S.; Vial, J.-C.; Kervella, Y.; Stéphan, O.

    2002-10-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a new fluorene copolymer exhibiting bright yellow luminescence. In order to ensure a complete π-stacking of the active layer, a 9-fluorenone monomeric unit (FOne) has been used as comonomer in conjunction with the more classical 9,9-di-n-nonylfluorene unit. As expected with fluorene-based materials, when excited at 370 nm, the corresponding dilute copolymer solution photoluminescence spectra exhibit a main peak centered at 450 nm in the blue part of the visible spectrum. However, in the solid state, immediate structural reorganization of the layer occurs, leading to a red-shifted emission (bright yellow emission) centered at 550 nm. The origin of the emitted light has been attributed to excimers and/or aggregates based on short FOne segments and involves mainly exciton transfer between nonaggregated fluorene segments and aggregated ones. It is noteworthy that organic light-emitting devices based on these new materials exhibit no spectral evolution upon device operation. However, although stacking leads generally to a detrimental quenching of the luminescence in the solid state, as for regular poly(alkyl-fluorene), the luminescence efficiency of the fluorene-fluorenone copolymer remains suitable for device preparation. High material stability is attributed to an efficient and fast structural reorganization of the active layer, triggered by the small proportion of fluorenone. High electroluminescence efficiency, when compared to aggregated regular poly(alkyl-fluorene), results from an improved electron injection, a better carrier transport, and the conjunction of an efficient energy transfer from fluorene segments to excimers and/or aggregates with the implication of spin triplet, which is often lacking when using regular semiconducting polymers.

  16. Space charge effects on the electroluminescence efficiency and stability of organic light-emitting devices with mixed emitting layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yichun; Aziz, Hany

    2009-08-01

    In organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), the decay rate of triplet state population in the electron/hole recombination zone is found to be highly sensitive to space charge densities, providing an avenue for inferring variations in their formation. In OLEDs containing mixtures of N ,N'-Bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (AlQ3) in the emitting layer, optimizing the NPB/AlQ3 is found to reduce hole space charges, and leads to an increase in electroluminescence stability. Conversely, electroluminescence efficiency is found to be only weakly dependent on the mixture composition, suggesting that hole space charges are not effective quenchers of AlQ3 singlet excitons in mixed emitting layer OLEDs.

  17. Microstructure and atomic effects on the electroluminescent efficiency of SrS:Ce thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, W. L.; Seager, C. H.; Sun, S.-S.; Naman, A.; Holloway, P. H.; Jones, K. S.; Soininen, E.

    1997-11-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction data show that rapid thermal anneals of SrS:Ce thin films enhance grain size and reduce crystalline defects. Electron paramagnetic resonance results suggest that these anneals lead to less variance in the crystal field environments at the nearly cubic Ce3+ sites along with the formation of another type of Ce3+ site believed to involve a nearby Sr vacancy. We suggest that the association of Ce3+ sites with VSr shifts the electroluminescence towards larger wavelengths as the symmetry of the activator site is lowered.

  18. Highly efficient electroluminescence from a heterostructure device combined with emissive layered-perovskite and an electron-transporting organic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Toshiaki; Taira, Takahiro; Era, Masanao; Tsutsui, Tetsuo; Saito, Shugu

    1996-05-01

    Two Pbl-based layer perovskite compounds, which possess cyclohexenylethylamine or phenylbutylamine as an organic ammonium layer, were newly found to exhibit efficient exciton emission due to their self-organized quantum well structure where a lead halide semiconducting layer and an organic ammonium dielectric layer are alternately piled up. We prepared heterostructure electroluminescent devices using the combination of the emissive layered perovskite and an electron-transporting oxadiazole. When the heterostructure devices were driven at 110 K, greenish emission, which corresponded well to the exciton emission, was observed. In the device using the perovskite with an organic layer of cyclohexenythylamine, a high luminance exceeding 4000 cd m -2 and high external EL quantum efficiency of 2.8% were attained at a current density of 50 mA cm -2 at an applied voltage of 24 V.

  19. Rare Earth Complex as Electron Trapper and Energy Transfer Ladder for Efficient Red Iridium Complex Based Electroluminescent Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Li, Leijiao; Jiang, Yunlong; Cui, Rongzhen; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Xuesen; Zhang, Hongjie

    2015-07-29

    In this work, we experimentally demonstrated the new functions of trivalent rare earth complex in improving the electroluminescent (EL) performances of iridium complex by codoping trace Eu(TTA)3phen (TTA = thenoyltrifluoroacetone, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) into a light-emitting layer based on PQ2Ir(dpm) (iridium(III)bis(2-phenylquinoly-N,C(2'))dipivaloylmethane). Compared with a reference device, the codoped devices displayed higher efficiencies, slower efficiency roll-off, higher brightness, and even better color purity. Experimental results demonstrated that Eu(TTA)3phen molecules function as electron trappers due to its low-lying energy levels, which are helpful in balancing holes and electrons and in broadening recombination zone. In addition, the matched triplet energy of Eu(TTA)3phen is instrumental in facilitating energy transfer from host to emitter. Finally, highly efficient red EL devices with the highest current efficiency, power efficiency and brightness up to 58.98 cd A(-1) (external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 21%), 61.73 lm W(-1) and 100870 cd m(-2), respectively, were obtained by appropriately decreasing the doping concentration of iridium complex. At certain brightness of 1000 cd m(-2), EL current efficiency up to 51.94 cd A(-1) (EQE = 18.5%) was retained. Our investigation extends the application of rare earth complexes in EL devices and provides a chance to improve the device performances.

  20. Pyrimidine-based twisted donor-acceptor delayed fluorescence molecules: a new universal platform for highly efficient blue electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Park, In Seob; Komiyama, Hideaki; Yasuda, Takuma

    2017-02-01

    Deep-blue emitters that can harvest both singlet and triplet excited states to give high electron-to-photon conversion efficiencies are highly desired for applications in full-color displays and white lighting devices based on organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) molecules based on highly twisted donor-acceptor (D-A) configurations are promising emitting dopants for the construction of efficient deep-blue OLEDs. In this study, a simple and versatile D-A system combining acridan-based donors and pyrimidine-based acceptors has been developed as a new platform for high-efficiency deep-blue TADF emitters. The designed pre-twisted acridan-pyrimidine D-A molecules exhibit small singlet-triplet energy splitting and high photoluminescence quantum yields, functioning as efficient deep-blue TADF emitters. The OLEDs utilizing these TADF emitters display bright blue electroluminescence with external quantum efficiencies of up to 20.4%, maximum current efficiencies of 41.7 cd A(-1), maximum power efficiencies of 37.2 lm W(-1), and color coordinates of (0.16, 0.23). The design strategy featuring such acridan-pyrimidine D-A motifs can offer great prospects for further developing high-performance deep-blue TADF emitters and TADF-OLEDs.

  1. Organic electroluminescent structures for new generation of display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Oleg N.; Kaplunov, Michail G.; Efimov, Oleg N.; Stakharny, Sergey A.

    2007-05-01

    Brief history, modern state and development trends of organic electroluminescent structures technology (so-called OLED technology) are reviewed including research activities in this field in Russia. It's noted that OLED technology is one of the most promising newly emerging display technologies. Due to advantages of these devices (low power consumption, potential flexibility, wide color range) it is particularly well suited for small area display applications (micro displays) such as cell phones, virtual imaging systems, portable electronics. Experimental results for homemade blue light emitting OLED structures and hermetically sealed numeric displays are presented including photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL ) current-voltage and brightness characteristics. It is noted that visible electroluminescence is observed at ultra low current level of nearly 1 μA, luminous efficiency exceeding 1 lm/W thus being nearly the same as for super bright inorganic inGaN/IGaN LEDs. Special attention is paid for destabilizing factors (temperature and degradation phenomena) influence on device characteristics.

  2. Improved color purity and electroluminescent efficiency obtained by modulating thicknesses and evaporation rates of hole block and electron transport layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liang; Deng, Ruiping; Feng, Jing; Li, Xiaona; Li, Xiyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a series of electroluminescent (EL) devices based on trivalent europium (Eu3+) complex Eu(TTA)3phen (TTA = thenoyltrifluoroacetone, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were fabricated by selecting 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) as hole block and electron transport materials, respectively. Interestingly, we found the transport of electrons decreases gradually with increasing thicknesses and evaporation rates of BCP and Alq3 layers. Analyzing carrier distribution and EL spectra, we conclude that appropriately modulating the thicknesses and evaporation rates is an efficient way to decrease the accumulation of electrons in HBL, thus suppressing the EL of hole block material. On the other hand, decreasing the transport of electrons can also facilitate the balance of holes and electrons on Eu(TTA)3phen molecules, thus further enhancing the EL efficiency. As a result, pure Eu3+ emission with the efficiency as high as 8.49 cd/A was realized by controlling the thicknesses and evaporation rates of BCP and Alq3 layers to be 30 nm and 0.10 nm/s, 40 nm and 0.10 nm/s, respectively.

  3. High-efficiency blue electroluminescence based on coumarin derivative 3-(4-(anthracen-10-yl)phenyl)-benzo[5,6]coumarin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Chai, Haifang; Yu, Tianzhi; Zhao, Yuling; Fan, Duowang

    2012-11-01

    The electroluminescent (EL) properties of a new coumarin derivative, 3-(4-(anthracen-10-yl)phenyl)-benzo[5,6]coumarin (APBC), were investigated. The results show that the EL devices comprised of vacuum vapor-deposited films using the derivative as dopant exhibited blue emission that is identical to the photoluminescence of the thin film. The electroluminescence device of ITO/2-TNATA (5 nm)/NPB (40 nm)/CBP : APBC (1.0 wt%, 30 nm)/PBD (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) gives a maximum luminous efficiency of 2.3 cd/A at the current density of 20 mA/cm(2), and maximum luminance of 5169 cd/m(2) at 16 V. The external quantum efficiency of the device is 1.85 %.

  4. Improved efficiency for green and red emitting electroluminescent devices using the same cohost composed of 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene and tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianzhuo; Li, Wenlian; Chu, Bei; Yang, Dongfang; Zhang, Guang; Liu, Huihui; Chen, Yiren; Su, Zisheng; Wang, Junbo; Wu, Shuanghong

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate highly efficient green and red fluorescence dyes-doped electroluminescent devices using cohost strategy. The cohost system is composed of tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Alq) and 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN). The maximum current efficiencies are increased by 54% and 104% for green and red devices by optimizing the ratio between ADN and Alq in the cohost compared to the conventional Alq single-host devices, respectively. We attribute the improvement of efficiencies to balanced hole and electron injection into the emitting layer, the enlarged width of recombination region and the multiple emission processes.

  5. Efficient Deep-Blue Electroluminescence Based on Phenanthroimidazole-Dibenzothiophene Derivatives with Different Oxidation States of the Sulfur Atom.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangyang; Shan, Tong; Bai, Qing; Ma, Hongwei; He, Xin; Lu, Ping

    2017-03-02

    Developing efficient deep-blue materials is a long-term research focus in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, we report two deep-blue molecules, PITO and PISF, which share similar chemical structures but exhibit different photophysical and device properties. These two molecules consist of phenanthroimidazole and dibenzothiophene analogs. The distinction of their chemical structures lies in the different oxidation states of the S atom. For PITO, the S atom is oxidized and the resulting structure dibenzothiophene S,S-dioxide becomes electron deficient. Therefore, PITO displays remarkable solvatochromism, implying a charge-transfer (CT) excited state formed between the donor (D) phenanthroimidazole and acceptor (A) dibenzothiophene S,S-dioxide. For PISF, it is constituted of phenanthroimidazole and dibenzothiophene in which the S atom is not oxidized. PISF displays locally excited (LE) emission with little solvatochromism. Compared with PISF, the D-A molecule PITO with an electron-deficient group shows a much lower LUMO energy level, which is in favor of electron injection in device. In addition, PITO exhibits more balanced carrier transport. However, PISF is capable of emitting in the shorter wavelength region, which is beneficial to obtain better color purity. The doped electroluminescence (EL) device of the D-A molecule PITO manifests deep-blue emission with CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.08) and maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 4.67 %. The doped EL device of the LE molecule PISF, however, reveals an even bluer emission with CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.06) and a maximum EQE of 4.08 %.

  6. Highly efficient electroluminescence from a solution-processable thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, Yoshimasa; Kubo, Shosei; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kaji, Hironori; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-11-02

    We developed a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter, 2,4,6-tris(4-(9,9-dimethylacridan-10-yl)phenyl)-1,3,5-triazine (3ACR-TRZ), suitable for use in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). When doped into 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) host at 16 wt. %, 3ACR-TRZ showed a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 98%. Transient photoluminescence decay measurements of the 16 wt. % 3ACR-TRZ:CBP film confirmed that 3ACR-TRZ exhibits efficient TADF with a triplet-to-light conversion efficiency of 96%. This high conversion efficiency makes 3ACR-TRZ attractive as an emitting dopant in OLEDs. Using 3ACR-TRZ as an emitter, we fabricated a solution-processed OLED exhibiting a maximum external quantum efficiency of 18.6%.

  7. Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Himchan; Jeong, Su-Hun; Park, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Hoon; Wolf, Christoph; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Sadhanala, Aditya; Myoung, NoSoung; Yoo, Seunghyup; Im, Sang Hyuk; Friend, Richard H.; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2015-12-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are emerging low-cost emitters with very high color purity, but their low luminescent efficiency is a critical drawback. We boosted the current efficiency (CE) of perovskite light-emitting diodes with a simple bilayer structure to 42.9 candela per ampere, similar to the CE of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes, with two modifications: We prevented the formation of metallic lead (Pb) atoms that cause strong exciton quenching through a small increase in methylammonium bromide (MABr) molar proportion, and we spatially confined the exciton in uniform MAPbBr3 nanograins (average diameter = 99.7 nanometers) formed by a nanocrystal pinning process and concomitant reduction of exciton diffusion length to 67 nanometers. These changes caused substantial increases in steady-state photoluminescence intensity and efficiency of MAPbBr3 nanograin layers.

  8. Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Himchan; Jeong, Su-Hun; Park, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Hoon; Wolf, Christoph; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Sadhanala, Aditya; Myoung, NoSoung; Yoo, Seunghyup; Im, Sang Hyuk; Friend, Richard H; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2015-12-04

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are emerging low-cost emitters with very high color purity, but their low luminescent efficiency is a critical drawback. We boosted the current efficiency (CE) of perovskite light-emitting diodes with a simple bilayer structure to 42.9 candela per ampere, similar to the CE of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes, with two modifications: We prevented the formation of metallic lead (Pb) atoms that cause strong exciton quenching through a small increase in methylammonium bromide (MABr) molar proportion, and we spatially confined the exciton in uniform MAPbBr3 nanograins (average diameter = 99.7 nanometers) formed by a nanocrystal pinning process and concomitant reduction of exciton diffusion length to 67 nanometers. These changes caused substantial increases in steady-state photoluminescence intensity and efficiency of MAPbBr3 nanograin layers. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Charge carrier trapping and enhanced electroluminescent efficiency of blue light emitting polymer with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Hyeok; Choi, Yu-Ri; Chin, Byung Doo

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the current injection, transport, and luminous efficiency behavior of organic light emitting diode (OLED) containing the 5-10 nm-sized gold particles mixed in the polyfluorene-type copolymer. This nanoparticle-conjugated polymer mixture layer was used as hole injection, transport, and light emitting layer for various structures of OLED based on the phosphorescent and fluorescent emitters. Due to the hole trapping at the nanopaticle, carrier injection is significantly reduced while the hole transport behavior is found to be barely affected. Hole trapping of nanoparticle in light emitting layer (at 4.7 approximately 9.4 x 10(-5) w/w fraction) resulted in an enhancement of efficiency (from 5.23 cd/A to 6.50 cd/A). The existence of the outcoupling effect also supports the carrier trapping behavior, which is amended mechanism of the improved efficiency compared to previously reported mechanism of enhanced photoluminescent stability by a hindrance of photo-oxidation.

  10. Highly Efficient Deep-Blue Electroluminescence from a Charge-Transfer Emitter with Stable Donor Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Yuan, Yi; Ni, Shao-Fei; Zhu, Ze-Lin; Zhang, Jinfeng; Jiang, Zuo-Quan; Liao, Liang-Sheng; Wong, Fu-Lung; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2017-03-01

    Organic materials containing arylamines have been widely used as hole-transporting materials as well as emitters in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). However, it has been pointed out that the C-N bonds in these arylamines can easily suffer from degradation in excited states, especially in deep-blue OLEDs. In this work, phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole (PI) is proposed as a potential donor with higher stability than those of arylamines. Using PI as the donor, a donor-acceptor type deep-blue fluorophore 1-phenyl-2-(4″-(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-[1,1':4',1″-terphenyl]-4-yl)-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole (BITPI) is designed and synthesized. Results from UV-aging test on neat films of BITPI and other three arylamine compounds demonstrate that PI is indeed a more stable donor comparing to common arylamines. An OLED using BITPI as an emitter exhibits good device performances (EQE over 7%) with stable deep-blue emission (color index: (0.15, 0.13)) and longer operation lifetime than the similarly structured device using arylamine-based emitter. Single-organic layer device based on BITPI also shows superior performances, which are comparable to the best results from the arylamine-based donor-acceptor emitters, suggesting that PI is a stable donor with good hole transport/injection capability.

  11. Electrical properties of III-Nitride LEDs: Recombination-based injection model and theoretical limits to electrical efficiency and electroluminescent cooling

    SciTech Connect

    David, Aurelien Hurni, Christophe A.; Young, Nathan G.; Craven, Michael D.

    2016-08-22

    The current-voltage characteristic and ideality factor of III-Nitride quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on bulk GaN substrates are investigated. At operating temperature, these electrical properties exhibit a simple behavior. A model in which only active-region recombinations have a contribution to the LED current is found to account for experimental results. The limit of LED electrical efficiency is discussed based on the model and on thermodynamic arguments, and implications for electroluminescent cooling are examined.

  12. Electrical properties of III-Nitride LEDs: Recombination-based injection model and theoretical limits to electrical efficiency and electroluminescent cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Aurelien; Hurni, Christophe A.; Young, Nathan G.; Craven, Michael D.

    2016-08-01

    The current-voltage characteristic and ideality factor of III-Nitride quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on bulk GaN substrates are investigated. At operating temperature, these electrical properties exhibit a simple behavior. A model in which only active-region recombinations have a contribution to the LED current is found to account for experimental results. The limit of LED electrical efficiency is discussed based on the model and on thermodynamic arguments, and implications for electroluminescent cooling are examined.

  13. Onset of the Efficiency Droop in GaInN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes under Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Guan-Bo; Schubert, E. Fred; Cho, Jaehee; Park, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2015-08-19

    The efficiency of Ga0.87In0.13N/GaN single and multiple quantum well (QW) light-emitting diodes is investigated under photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) excitation. By measuring the laser spot area (knife-edge method) and the absorbance of the GaInN QW (transmittance/reflectance measurements), the PL excitation density can be converted to an equivalent EL excitation density. The EL efficiency droop-onset occurs at an excitation density of 2.08 × 1026 cm–3 s–1 (J = 10 A/cm2), whereas no PL efficiency droop is found for excitation densities as high as 3.11 × 1027 cm–3 s–1 (J = 149 A/cm2). Considering Shockley–Read–Hall, radiative, and Auger recombination and including carrier leakage shows that the EL efficiency droop is consistent with a reduction of injection efficiency.

  14. Performance evaluation of multi-junction solar cells by spatially resolved electroluminescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lijing; Wu, Zhiming; Chen, Shanshan; Cao, Yiyan; Zhang, Yong; Li, Heng; Kang, Junyong

    2015-01-01

    An electroluminescence microscopy combined with a spectroscopy was developed to visually analyze multi-junction solar cells. Triple-junction solar cells with different conversion efficiencies were characterized by using this system. The results showed that the mechanical damages and material defects in solar cells can be clearly distinguished, indicating a high-resolution imaging. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements demonstrated that different types of defects or damages impacted cell performance in various degrees and the electric leakage mostly degraded the EQE. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relationship between electroluminescence intensity and short-circuit current density J SC. The results indicated that the gray value of the electroluminescence image corresponding to the intensity was almost proportional to J SC. This technology provides a potential way to evaluate the current matching status of multi-junction solar cells.

  15. Enabling Efficient Intelligence Analysis in Degraded Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    When facing decisions in underdeveloped, degraded, and denied environments, commanders are likely to rely even more heavily on efficient intelligence ... analysis . Unfortunately, most of the time, the data gathered in these environments will be uncertain, ambiguous, and incomplete. Tools enabling fast

  16. Self-Host Blue Dendrimer Comprised of Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Core and Bipolar Dendrons for Efficient Solution-Processable Nondoped Electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Ban, Xinxin; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Kaiyong; Lin, Baoping; Sun, Yueming

    2017-03-01

    A self-host thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) dendrimer POCz-DPS for solution-processed nondoped blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was designed and synthesized, in which the bipolar phosphine oxide carbazole moiety was introduced by alkyl chain to ensure balanced charge transfer. The investigation of physical properties showed that the bipolar dendrons not only improve the morphological stability but also restrain the concentration quenching effect of the TADF emissive core. The spin-coated OLEDs featuring POCz-DPS as the host-free blue emitter achieved the highest external quantum efficiency (7.3%) and color purity compared with those of doped or nondoped devices based on the parent molecule DMOC-DPS, which indicates that incorporating the merits of encapsulation and bipolar dendron is an effective way to improve the electroluminescent performance of the TADF emitter used for a solution-processed nondoped device.

  17. Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Can Hui; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Chen, Yong Mei; Suo, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    A new type of electroluminescent device achieves giant stretchability by integrating electronic and ionic components. The device uses phosphor powders as electroluminescent materials, and hydrogels as stretchable and transparent ionic conductors. Subject to cyclic voltage, the phosphor powders luminesce, but the ionic conductors do not electrolyze. The device produces constant luminance when stretched up to an area strain of 1500%.

  18. Design and processing of organic electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo-Guzman, Dino Alejandro

    2000-11-01

    The present dissertation compiles three aspects of my Ph.D. work on OLED device design, fabrication and characterization. The first chapter is a review of the concepts and theories describing the mechanisms of organic electroluminescence. The second chapter makes use of these concepts to articulate some basic principles for the design of efficient and stable OLEDs. The third chapter describes the main characterization and sample preparation techniques used along this dissertation. Chapter IV describes the processing of efficient organic electroluminescent EL devices with ITO/TPD/AIQ3/Mg:Ag structures. The screen printing technique of a hole transport polymeric blend was used in an unusual mode to render thin films in the order of 60-80 nm. EL devices were then fabricated on top of these sp films to provide ~0.9% quantum efficiencies, comparable to spin coating with the same structures. Various polymer:TPD and solvent combinations were studied to find the paste with the best rheological properties. The same technique was also used to deposit a patterned MEH-PPV film. Chapter V describes my research work on the wetting of TPD on ITO substrates. The wetting was monitored by following its surface morphology evolution as a function of temperature. The effect of these surface changes was then correlated to the I-V-L characteristics of devices made with these TPD films. The surface roughness was measured with tapping AFM showed island formation at temperatures as low as 50-60°C. I Also investigated the effect of the purity of materials like AlQ3 on the device EL performance, as described in Chapter VI. In order to improve the purity of these environmentally degradable complexes a new in situ purification technique was developed with excellent enhancement of the EL cell properties. The in situ purification process was then used to purify/deposit organic dyes with improved film formation and EL characteristics.

  19. Enhancing the electroluminescence efficiency of Si NC/SiO2 superlattice-based light-emitting diodes through hydrogen ion beam treatment.

    PubMed

    Fu, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Hui-Ju; Wu, Hsuan-Ta; Chen, Shao-Ping; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2016-04-07

    This paper presents a novel method for enhancing the electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of ten-period silicon-rich oxide (SRO)/SiO2 superlattice-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A hydrogen ion beam (HIB) was used to irradiate each SRO layer of the superlattices to increase the interfacial roughness on the nanoscale and the density of the Si nanocrystals (Si NCs). Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling was the major mechanism for injecting the carriers into the Si NCs. The barrier height of the F-N tunneling was lowered by forming a nano-roughened interface and the nonradiative Pb centers were passivated through the HIB treatment. Additionally, the reflectance of the LEDs was lowered because of the nano-roughened interface. These factors considerably increased the slope efficiency of EL and the maximum output power of the LEDs. The lighting efficiency increased by an order of magnitude, and the turn-on voltage decreased considerably. This study established an efficient approach for obtaining bright Si NC/SiO2 superlattice-based LEDs.

  20. Enhancing the electroluminescence efficiency of Si NC/SiO2 superlattice-based light-emitting diodes through hydrogen ion beam treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Hui-Ju; Wu, Hsuan-Ta; Chen, Shao-Ping; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method for enhancing the electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of ten-period silicon-rich oxide (SRO)/SiO2 superlattice-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A hydrogen ion beam (HIB) was used to irradiate each SRO layer of the superlattices to increase the interfacial roughness on the nanoscale and the density of the Si nanocrystals (Si NCs). Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling was the major mechanism for injecting the carriers into the Si NCs. The barrier height of the F-N tunneling was lowered by forming a nano-roughened interface and the nonradiative Pb centers were passivated through the HIB treatment. Additionally, the reflectance of the LEDs was lowered because of the nano-roughened interface. These factors considerably increased the slope efficiency of EL and the maximum output power of the LEDs. The lighting efficiency increased by an order of magnitude, and the turn-on voltage decreased considerably. This study established an efficient approach for obtaining bright Si NC/SiO2 superlattice-based LEDs.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of copper-doped zinc sulfide nanomaterials for the application of energy efficient electroluminescent lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrado, Carley

    Doped nanocrystals (NCs) compose an important subset of nanomaterials in which a small percentage of dopant ion is introduced into host semiconductor nanocrystals with the affect of altering their optical properties. Their tunable, intense, and stable emission make them ideal candidates for a number of opto-electronic applications, including use as phosphors for solid-state lighting applications. ZnS doped with Cu (ZnS:Cu) is a commonly used bulk phosphor material and a promising candidate for use as a nanophospor material, though the energy states involved in the electronic transitions leading to luminescence are not well understood. To shed light on this topic, ZnS:Cu nanocrystals were synthesized and their optical properties were correlated with their structure using UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, TEM, EXAFS, XRD, and ICP. The dependence of the optical and structural properties on dopant concentration, shell growth, co-doping, and solvent were explored. Through EXAFS study about the local structure of the Cu-dopant, it was found that Cu was located at or near the surface of the nanocrystals. A ZnS shell was grown around the ZnS:Cu nanocrystals resulting in increased dopant-related PL emission due to encapsulation of the dopant into the core of the nanocrystals. ZnS:Cu nanocrystals were also synthesized in an organic solvent to enable fabrication of high quality films for electroluminescent lighting applications. Addition of Br was added as a co-activator with the effect of greatly enhanced Cu-dopant PL emission. Characterization of the local structure of the Br-dopant using EXAFS confirmed substitutional incorporation of the Br into the core of the ZnS nanocrystals. Methods were developed to enhance dopant-related PL emission.

  2. Efficient degradation of butylparaben by gamma radiolysis.

    PubMed

    Guin, Jhimli Paul; Bhardwaj, Y K; Varshney, Lalit

    2017-04-01

    Gamma radiolysis and ozonolysis are two competitive advanced oxidation processes for degradation of organic pollutants present in the ground water. In this paper, the gamma radiolytic degradation of an emerging organic pollutant Butylparaben (BP) in aqueous solution has been investigated for the first time at different absorbed doses. The effect of the absorbed dose rate in the degradation and mineralization of BP has been investigated. About 65% mineralization of BP was observed at absorbed dose of 70kGy and dose rate of 0.7kGyh(-1). Interestingly, turbidity appeared in the solution during radiolysis at doses higher than 2kGy, which disappeared again at very higher dose (~90kGy) making the solution again transparent. At lower dose rate of 0.175kGyh(-1) the turbidity was appeared at much lower dose about 1kGy. However, the dose rate showed no effect in the dose of the disappearance of the turbidity. The hydrophobic fragments insoluble in water were generated during the initial stage of gamma radiolysis and those were completely mineralized to CO2 and H2O by direct absorption of gamma radiation. About 90kGy dose was required to achieve ~90% mineralization of BP. On the contrary, maximum 50% mineralization was achieved after 5h of ozonation at the O3 flow rate of 0.5Lmin(-1) at pH 7.5 and it remained even constant upon prolonged ozonation. The oxygen-equivalent-chemical-oxidation-capacity (OCC) was used as the parameter to compare the % mineralization efficiencies of the two oxidative processes studied here and the gamma radiolysis was found to be more efficient between those processes. The phytotoxicity of the treated BP solution to agricultural seeds showed that the radiolytically generated fragments were less toxic compared to ozonolytically generated fragments. Thus gamma radiolysis is effective for reducing the organic burden and the toxicity of water polluted with emerging pollutants like BP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Highly Efficient, Color-Reproducible Full-Color Electroluminescent Devices Based on Red/Green/Blue Quantum Dot-Mixed Multilayer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Heon; Han, Chang-Yeol; Kang, Hee-Don; Ko, Heejoo; Lee, Changho; Lee, Jonghyuk; Myoung, NoSoung; Yim, Sang-Youp; Yang, Heesun

    2015-11-24

    Over the past few years the performance of colloidal quantum dot-light-emitting diode (QLED) has been progressively improved. However, most of QLED work has been fulfilled in the form of monochromatic device, while full-color-enabling white QLED still remains nearly unexplored. Using red, green, and blue quantum dots (QDs), herein, we fabricate bichromatic and trichromatic QLEDs through sequential solution-processed deposition of poly(9-vinlycarbazole) (PVK) hole transport layer, two or three types of QDs-mixed multilayer, and ZnO nanoparticle electron transport layer. The relative electroluminescent (EL) spectral ratios of constituent QDs in the above multicolored devices are found to inevitably vary with applied bias, leading to the common observation of an increasing contribution of a higher-band gap QD EL over low-band gap one at a higher voltage. The white EL from a trichromatic device is resolved into its primary colors through combining with color filters, producing an exceptional color gamut of 126% relative to National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) color space that a state-of-the-art full-color organic LED counterpart cannot attain. Our trichromatic white QLED also displays the record-high EL performance such as the peak values of 23,352 cd/m(2) in luminance, 21.8 cd/A in current efficiency, and 10.9% in external quantum efficiency.

  4. Low amplified spontaneous emission threshold and suppression of electroluminescence efficiency roll-off in layers doped with ter(9,9′-spirobifluorene)

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Munetomo; Matsushima, Toshinori; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-03-28

    We demonstrate that ter(9,9′-spirobifluorene) (TSBF) doped in a host matrix layer of 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) shows a low amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) threshold (E{sub th} = 1.0 μJ cm{sup −2}) and suppressed electroluminescence efficiency roll-off at high current densities (no roll-off up to 100 mA cm{sup −2}). One origin of the low ASE threshold is that the TSBF-doped CBP layer possesses a very large radiative decay constant (k{sub r} = 1.1 × 10{sup 9 }s{sup −1}). Singlet–triplet annihilation is almost suppressed in the TSBF-doped CBP layer, which can be ascribed to the small overlap between the emission and triplet absorption of TSBF. Also, the small energy level difference between TSBF and CBP minimizes carrier trapping in TSBF, leading to the suppression of singlet–polaron annihilation. TSBF showed one of the lowest E{sub th} and the most suppressed efficiency roll-off among organic laser dyes investigated in this study and, therefore, is believed to be a promising candidate to realize electrically pumped organic semiconductor laser diodes in the future.

  5. 2-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole-based four-coordinate boron-containing materials with highly efficient deep-blue photoluminescence and electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Houyu; Jiao, Chuanjun; Ye, Kaiqi; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Jingying; Wang, Yue

    2015-03-16

    Two novel four-coordinate boron-containing emitters 1 and 2 with deep-blue emissions were synthesized by refluxing a 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole ligand with triphenylborane or bromodibenzoborole. The boron chelation produced a new π-conjugated skeleton, which rendered the synthesized boron materials with intense fluorescence, good thermal stability, and high carrier mobility. Both compounds displayed deep-blue emissions in solutions with very high fluorescence quantum yields (over 0.70). More importantly, the samples showed identical fluorescence in the solution and solid states, and the efficiency was maintained at a high level (approximately 0.50) because of the bulky substituents between the boron atom and the benzimidazole unit, which can effectively separate the flat luminescent units. In addition, neat thin films composed of 1 or 2 exhibited high electron and hole mobility in the same order of magnitude 10(-4), as determined by time-of-flight. The fabricated electroluminescent devices that employed 1 or 2 as emitting materials showed high-performance deep-blue emissions with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (X = 0.15, Y = 0.09) and (X = 0.16, Y = 0.08), respectively. Thus, the synthesized boron-containing materials are ideal candidates for fabricating high-performance deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

  6. Electroluminescence-based quality characterization of quantum wells for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprasertpong, Kasidit; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Delamarre, Amaury; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Guillemoles, Jean-François; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2017-04-01

    Material quality is a critical factor which determines the performance, particularly the open-circuit voltage, of multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cells. In this study, we report an electroluminescence-based characterization technique for evaluating luminescence efficiency and Shockley-Read-Hall recombination lifetime in MQW structures as a measure of the material quality. As a demonstration, various structures of InGaAs/GaAsP MQWs inserted in GaAs solar cells are investigated. The complete compensation of strain and the insertion of GaAs interlayers between heterointerfaces result in significant improvement of electroluminescence homogeneity, external luminescence efficiency, and lifetime, agreeing well with the tendency of the open-circuit voltage. We show that this characterization technique can detect even subtle degradations, which are not easily detectable by other typical techniques, such as in-situ reflection, X-ray diffraction, and spectral and transient photoluminescence, but still have a significant impact on the performance of solar cells.

  7. Intense deep blue exciplex electroluminescence from NPB/TPBi:PPh3O-based OLEDs and their intrinsic degradation mechanisms (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinar, Joseph; Hippola, Chamika; Danilovic, Dusan; Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Petrich, Jacob W.; Shinar, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    We describe intense and efficient deep blue (430 - 440 nm) exciplex emission from NPB/TPBi:PPh3O OLEDs where the luminous efficiency approaches 4 Cd/A and the maximal brightness exceeds 22,000 Cd/m2. Time resolved PL measurements confirm the exciplex emission from NPB:TPBi, as studied earlier by Monkman and coworkers [Adv. Mater. 25, 1455 (2013)]. However, the inclusion of PPh3O improves the OLED performance significantly. The effect of PPh3O on the EL and PL will be discussed. The NPB/TPBi:PPh3O-based OLEDs were also studied by optically and electrically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR and EDMR, respectively). In particular, the amplitude of the negative (EL- and current-quenching) spin 1/2 resonance, previously attributed to enhanced formation of strongly EL-quenching positive bipolarons, increases as the OLEDs degrade in a dry nitrogen atmosphere. This degradation mechanism is discussed in relation to degradation induced by hot polarons that are energized by exciton annihilation.

  8. Electrodeposited, Transverse Nanowire Electroluminescent Junctions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shaopeng; Xu, Qiang; Dutta, Rajen K; Le Thai, Mya; Li, Xiaowei; Penner, Reginald M

    2016-09-27

    The preparation by electrodeposition of transverse nanowire electroluminescent junctions (tn-ELJs) is described, and the electroluminescence (EL) properties of these devices are characterized. The lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition process is first used to prepare long (millimeters), linear, nanocrystalline CdSe nanowires on glass. The thickness of these nanowires along the emission axis is 60 nm, and the width, wCdSe, along the electrical axis is adjustable from 100 to 450 nm. Ten pairs of nickel-gold electrical contacts are then positioned along the axis of this nanowire using lithographically directed electrodeposition. The resulting linear array of nickel-CdSe-gold junctions produces EL with an external quantum efficiency, EQE, and threshold voltage, Vth, that depend sensitively on wCdSe. EQE increases with increasing electric field and also with increasing wCdSe, and Vth also increases with wCdSe and, therefore, the electrical resistance of the tn-ELJs. Vth down to 1.8(±0.2) V (for wCdSe ≈ 100 nm) and EQE of 5.5(±0.5) × 10(-5) (for wCdSe ≈ 450 nm) are obtained. tn-ELJs produce a broad EL emission envelope, spanning the wavelength range from 600 to 960 nm.

  9. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  10. Electroluminescence Imaging Of Space Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, C. G.

    2011-10-01

    Space solar power is one of the few applications where large area III-V devices are used. Therefore there is great potential for a spatially resolved technique in the inspection, failure investigation and characterization of these devices. Mechanical defects can be identified by electroluminescence imaging unambiguously. The impact of a cell crack on the current distribution in the cell is modeled and the electroluminescence signature of a cell crack is derived. Another qualitative application is failure investigation of cells that suffer degradation, for example in environmental testing. Series resistance problems can be visualized and the location of an environmental attack can be pinpointed on a μm length scale. Finally under the appropriate simplifications, even a quantitative cell characterization can be attempted. Maps of the open circuit voltage and the current at the operating voltage identify shunts quantitatively.

  11. Mechanically flexible organic electroluminescent device with directional light emission

    DOEpatents

    Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Schaepkens, Marc

    2005-05-10

    A mechanically flexible and environmentally stable organic electroluminescent ("EL") device with directional light emission comprises an organic EL member disposed on a flexible substrate, a surface of which is coated with a multilayer barrier coating which includes at least one sublayer of a substantially transparent organic polymer and at least one sublayer of a substantially transparent inorganic material. The device includes a reflective metal layer disposed on the organic EL member opposite to the substrate. The reflective metal layer provides an increased external quantum efficiency of the device. The reflective metal layer and the multilayer barrier coating form a seal around the organic EL member to reduce the degradation of the device due to environmental elements.

  12. Evolution of Efficient Pathways for Degradation of Anthropogenic Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Copley, Shelley D.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic compounds used as pesticides, solvents, and explosives often persist in the environment and can cause toxicity to humans and wildlife. The persistence of anthropogenic compounds is due to their recent introduction into the environment; microbes in soil and water have had relatively little time to evolve efficient mechanisms for degradation of these novel compounds. Some anthropogenic compounds are easily degraded, while others are degraded very slowly or only partially, leading to accumulation of toxic products. This review examines the factors that affect the ability of microbes to degrade anthropogenic compounds and the mechanisms by which novel pathways emerge in nature. New approaches for engineering microbes with enhanced degradative abilities include assembly of pathways using enzymes from multiple organisms, directed evolution of inefficient enzymes, and genome shuffling to improve microbial fitness under the challenging conditions posed by contaminated environments. PMID:19620997

  13. Degradative encryption: An efficient way to protect SPIHT compressed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Tao; Qu, Jinyu; Yu, Chenyun; Fu, Xinwen

    2012-11-01

    Degradative encryption, a new selective image encryption paradigm, is proposed to encrypt only a small part of image data to make the detail blurred but keep the skeleton discernible. The efficiency is further optimized by combining compression and encryption. A format-compliant degradative encryption algorithm based on set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) is then proposed, and the scheme is designed to work in progressive mode for gaining a tradeoff between efficiency and security. Extensive experiments are conducted to evaluate the strength and efficiency of the scheme, and it is found that less than 10% data need to be encrypted for a secure degradation. In security analysis, the scheme is verified to be immune to cryptographic attacks as well as those adversaries utilizing image processing techniques. The scheme can find its wide applications in online try-and-buy service on mobile devices, searchable multimedia encryption in cloud computing, etc.

  14. [Progress of organometallic complexes and their application to organic electroluminescent materials].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; An, Zhong-Wei; Chai, Sheng-Yong

    2004-08-01

    Organic electroluminescent (EL) material is one of most prospective display materials in flat panel display. Organometallic complexes, which have five or six member ring structures, with high stability, high melting point and high fluorescence quantum efficiency, are widely applied in organic EL devices. The recent progress in organometallic complexes is summarized in terms of the electroluminescence of ligands and metal atoms.

  15. Efficient sonochemical degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid using periodate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Chen, Meng-Jia; Huang, Chin-Pao; Kuo, Jeff; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2016-07-01

    A rapid and efficient treatment method, using periodate (PI) for sonochemical oxidation of persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was developed. With an addition of 45 mM PI, 96.5% of PFOA was decomposed with a defluorination efficiency of 95.7% after 120 min of ultrasound (US). The removals of PFOA were augmented with an increase in PI doses. In all the PI+US experimental runs, decomposition efficiencies were essentially similar to those of defluorination, indicating that PFOA was decomposed and mineralized into fluoride ions. Lower solution pHs resulted in an increase in decomposition and defluorination efficiencies of PFOA due to acid-catalyzation. Dissolved oxygen increased the amount of IO4 radicals produced, which consumed the more effective IO3 radicals. Consequently, presence of oxygen inhibited the destruction of PFOA. The PFOA degradation rates with different gases sparging are in the following order: nitrogen>air>oxygen. Effects of anions follow the Hofmeister effects on PFOA degradation (i.e., Br(-)>none ⩾ Cl(-)>SO4(2)(-)). Br(-) could react with OH to yield radical anion Br2(-) that enhances the PFOA degradation. A reaction pathway was also proposed to describe the PI oxidation of PFOA under US irradiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Zinc oxide tetrapods as efficient photocatalysts for organic pollutant degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangzhou; Leung, Yu Hang; Djurisić, Aleksandra B.; Liao, Changzhong; Shih, Kaimin

    2014-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and other organic pollutants from industrial wastewater have drawn increasing concern in the past decades regarding their environmental and biological risks, and hence developing strategies of effective degradation of BPA and other organic pollutants is imperative. Metal oxide nanostructures, in particular titanium oxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO), have been demonstrated to exhibit efficient photodegradation of various common organic dyes. ZnO tetrapods are of special interest due to their low density of native defects which consequently lead to lower recombination losses and higher photocatalytic efficiency. Tetrapods can be obtained by relatively simple and low-cost vapor phase deposition in large quantity; the micron-scale size would also be advantageous for catalyst recovery. In this study, the photodegradation of BPA with ZnO tetrapods and TiO2 nanostructures under UV illumination were compared. The concentration of BPA dissolved in DI water was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at specified time intervals. It was observed that the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO tetrapods eventually surpassed Degussa P25 in free-standing form, and more than 80% of BPA was degraded after 60 min. Photodegradation of other organic dye pollutants by tetrapods and P25 were also examined. The superior photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO tetrapods for degradation of BPA and other organic dye pollutants and its correlation with the material properties were discussed.

  17. Efficient plant biomass degradation by thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Joost; van Muiswinkel, Gonny C J; Theelen, Bart; Hinz, Sandra W A; de Vries, Ronald P

    2013-02-01

    Rapid and efficient enzymatic degradation of plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a major challenge for the sustainable production of biochemicals and biofuels. Enzymes that are more thermostable (up to 70°C) use shorter reaction times for the complete saccharification of plant polysaccharides compared to hydrolytic enzymes of mesophilic fungi such as Trichoderma and Aspergillus species. The genus Myceliophthora contains four thermophilic fungi producing industrially relevant thermostable enzymes. Within this genus, isolates belonging to M. heterothallica were recently separated from the well-described species M. thermophila. We evaluate here the potential of M. heterothallica isolates to produce efficient enzyme mixtures for biomass degradation. Compared to the other thermophilic Myceliophthora species, isolates belonging to M. heterothallica and M. thermophila grew faster on pretreated spruce, wheat straw, and giant reed. According to their protein profiles and in vitro assays after growth on wheat straw, (hemi-)cellulolytic activities differed strongly between M. thermophila and M. heterothallica isolates. Compared to M. thermophila, M. heterothallica isolates were better in releasing sugars from mildly pretreated wheat straw (with 5% HCl) with a high content of xylan. The high levels of residual xylobiose revealed that enzyme mixtures of Myceliophthora species lack sufficient β-xylosidase activity. Sexual crossing of two M. heterothallica showed that progenies had a large genetic and physiological diversity. In the future, this will allow further improvement of the plant biomass-degrading enzyme mixtures of M. heterothallica.

  18. Interfused semiconductor nanocrystals: brilliant blue photoluminescence and electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Jun, Shinae; Jang, Eunjoo

    2005-09-28

    We describe a method for producing blue light-emitting interfused CdSe//ZnS (QE up to 60%) nanocrystals and report the good performance of an electroluminescent device which uses them (external quantum efficiency approximately 1.5 cd A(-1)).

  19. Heck coupling of haloaromatics with octavinylsilsesquioxane: solution processable nanocomposites for application in electroluminescent devices.

    PubMed

    Sellinger, Alan; Tamaki, Ryo; Laine, Richard M; Ueno, Kazunori; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Williams, Evan; Jabbour, Ghassan E

    2005-08-07

    A new solution processable nanocomposite material has been prepared via the Heck coupling of octavinylsilsesquioxane with a selected bromoaromatic hole transport compound. Resultant electroluminescent devices show an 18% improvement in external quantum efficiencies over their small molecule analogues.

  20. A novel lignin degradation bacterial consortium for efficient pulping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanxia; Liu, Quan; Yan, Lei; Gao, Yamei; Wang, Yanjie; Wang, Weidong

    2013-07-01

    A lignin degradation bacterial consortium named LDC was screened from the sludge of a reeds pond by a restricted subculture. It could break down 60.9% lignin in reeds at 30°C under conditions of static culture within 15 days. In order to analyze the diversity of LDC, plate isolation, 16S rDNA clone library and ARDRA (Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis) were performed. Six bacterial strains were isolated from LDC and eighteen DNA phylotypes were identified from 230 bacterial analyzed clones. They were classified into Clostridiales(9.1%), Geovibrio thiophilus (5.1%), Desulfomicrobium (10.9%), Pseudomonas sp. (25.2%), Azoarcus sp. (5.1%), Thauera (5.1%), Paenibacillus sp. (5.1%), Cohnella sp. (2.2%), Acinetobacter sp. (3.1%), Microbacterium (7.8%), and uncultured bacterium (21.3%). In addition, physical characteristics of paper hand-sheets between biological pretreatment and chemical pretreatment were compared. The results showed that LDC had the capability of lignin degradation and was efficient for pulping, which would provide a new choice for biopulping.

  1. Efficient degradation of tannic acid by black Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Van Diepeningen, Anne D; Debets, Alfons J M; Varga, Janos; van der Gaag, Marijn; Swart, Klaas; Hoekstra, Rolf F

    2004-08-01

    A set of aspergillus strains from culture collections and wild-type black aspergilli isolated on non-selective media were used to validate the use of media with 20% tannic acid for exclusive and complete selection of the black aspergilli. The 20% tannic acid medium proved useful for both quantitative and qualitative selection of all different black aspergilli, including all recognized species: A. carbonarius, A. japonicus, A. aculeatus, A foetidus, A. heteromorphus, A. niger, A. tubingensis and A. brasiliensis haplotypes. Even higher concentrations of tannic acid can be utilized by the black aspergilli suggesting a very efficient tannic acid-degrading system. Colour mutants show that the characteristic ability to grow on high tannic acid concentrations is not causally linked to the other typical feature of these aspergilli, i.e. the formation of brown-black pigments. Sequence analysis of the A. niger genome using the A. oryzae tannase gene yielded eleven tannase-like genes, far more than in related species. Therefore, a unique ecological niche in the degradation of tannic acid and connected nitrogen release seems to be reserved for these black-spored cosmopolitans.

  2. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chung-Yi; Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Chih-Chiang; Liu, C. W.; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Chung, Hua; Chang, Chorng-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells are grown on a 300 mm Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition. The direct bandgap emission from strained GeSn is observed in the photoluminescence spectra and is enhanced by Al2O3/SiO2 passivation due to the field effect. The electroluminescence of the direct bandgap emission of strained GeSn is also observed from the Ni/Al2O3/GeSn metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes. Electroluminescence is a good indicator of GeSn material quality, since defects in GeSn layers degrade the electroluminescence intensity significantly. At the accumulation bias, the holes in the Ni gate electrode tunnel to the strained n-type GeSn layer through the ultrathin Al2O3 and recombine radiatively with electrons. The emission wavelength of photoluminescence and electroluminescence can be tuned by the Sn content.

  3. Interplay of point defects, extended defects, and carrier localization in the efficiency droop of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes investigated using spatially resolved electroluminescence and photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yue; Zhang, Yong Su, Liqin; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wei, Tongbo; Zhang, Jihong; Chen, Zhong

    2014-01-14

    We perform both spatially resolved electroluminescence (SREL) as a function of injection current and spatially resolved photoluminescence (SRPL) as a function of excitation power on InGaN quantum well blue light-emitting diodes to investigate the underlying physics for the phenomenon of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) droop. SREL allows us to study two most commonly observed but distinctly different droop behaviors on a single device, minimizing the ambiguity trying to compare independently fabricated devices. Two representative devices are studied: one with macroscopic scale material non-uniformity, the other being macroscopically uniform, but both with microscopic scale fluctuations. We suggest that the EQE–current curve reflects the interplay of three effects: nonradiative recombination through point defects, carrier localization due to either In composition or well width fluctuation, and nonradiative recombination of the extended defects, which is common to various optoelectronic devices. By comparing SREL and SRPL, two very different excitation/detection modes, we show that individual singular sites exhibiting either particularly strong or weak emission in SRPL do not usually play any significant and direct role in the EQE droop. We introduce a two-level model that can capture the basic physical processes that dictate the EQE–current dependence and describe the whole operating range of the device from 0.01 to 100 A/cm{sup 2}.

  4. Electroluminescence of carbazole-substituted polyacetylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Run G.; Wang, Yunzhang; Zou, Xiaoming; Fahlam, Mats; Zheng, Qianbing; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Masuda, Toshio; Epstein, Arthur J.

    1998-12-01

    We present photo- and electro-luminescence, and hole mobility measurements of carbazole (Cz) substituted polyacetylene (PA-Cz) and poly(diphenylacetylene) (PDPA-Cz). The photoluminescence (PL) of the interband transition in PA-Cz thin film is quenched. PDPA-Cz shows a green-yellow emission with a PL efficiency about 30 percent of the interband transition. The hole mobility of PDPA-Cz is determined to be approximately 10 7 cm2/Vs and the ionization energy is 5.3 eV. PDPA-Cz forms robust thin films and is thermally stable up to 470 degrees C. For a structure of ITO/PDPA-Cz/Alq(tris(8-quinolinolato) aluminum)/MgAg EL quantum efficiency over 1 percent is achieved.

  5. Analysing the effect of crystal size and structure in highly efficient CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells by spatially resolved photo- and electroluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, S; Heinz, F D; Im, J-H; Veurman, W; Padilla, M; Schubert, M C; Würfel, U; Grätzel, M; Park, N-G; Hinsch, A

    2015-12-14

    CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells with a mesoporous TiO2 layer and spiro-MeOTAD as a hole transport layer (HTL) with three different CH3NH3I concentrations (0.032 M, 0.044 M and 0.063 M) were investigated. Strong variations in crystal size and morphology resulting in diversified cell efficiencies (9.2%, 16.9% and 12.3%, respectively) were observed. The physical origin of this behaviour was analysed by detailed characterization combining current-voltage curves with photo- and electroluminescence (PL and EL) imaging as well as light beam induced current measurements (LBIC). It was found that the most efficient cell shows the highest luminescence and the least efficient cell is most strongly limited by non-radiative recombination. Crystal size, morphology and distribution in the capping layer and in the porous scaffold strongly affect the non-radiative recombination. Moreover, the very non-uniform crystal structure with multiple facets, as evidenced by SEM images of the 0.032 M device, suggests the creation of a large number of grain boundaries and crystal dislocations. These defects give rise to increased trap-assisted non-radiative recombination as is confirmed by high-resolution μ-PL images. The different imaging techniques used in this study prove to be well-suited to spatially investigate and thus correlate the crystal morphology of the perovskite layer with the electrical and radiative properties of the solar cells and thus with their performance.

  6. A multilayer organic electroluminescent device using an organic dye salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xueyuan; Gu, Yongdi; Zhang, Jiayu; Cui, Yiping

    2005-01-01

    Organic electroluminescent devices have received considerable attention due to their application in flat-panel displays. To achieve full-color displays, it is necessary to obtain organic layers emitting red, green, and blue light, but it is still a challenge to obtain efficient and stable organic layer emitting red light so far. Recently, we found that an organic salt, trans-4-[p-[N-ethyl-N-(hydroxyethyl)amino]styryl]-N-methylphridinium tetraphenylborate (ASPT), exhibits efficient red-light emission. In this paper, we report a multilayer electrolumicescent device incorporating a hole-transport layer, an ASPT layer, and an electron-transport layer. The dependence of the carrier transport and the luminescence on the device structure is investigated in detail. Compared to the monolayer device, the balance between hole and electron injections is significantly improved for the multilayer device, and thus the electroluminescent efficiency and intensity are enhanced.

  7. Assessment of the degradation efficiency of full-scale biogas plants: A comparative study of degradation indicators.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Nges, Ivo Achu; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Haoyu

    2017-07-29

    Increasing popularity and applications of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process has necessitated the development and identification of tools for obtaining reliable indicators of organic matter degradation rate and hence evaluate the process efficiency especially in full-scale, commercial biogas plants. In this study, four biogas plants (A1, A2, B and C) based on different feedstock, process configuration, scale and operational performance were selected and investigated. Results showed that the biochemical methane potential (BMP) based degradation rate could be use in incisively gauging process efficiency in lieu of the traditional degradation rate indicators. The BMP degradation rates ranged from 70 to 90% wherein plants A2 and C showed the highest throughput. This study, therefore, corroborates the feasibility of using the BMP degradation rate as a practical tool for evaluating process performance in full-scale biogas processes and spots light on the microbial diversity in full-scale biogas processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Addressing proteolytic efficiency in enzymatic degradation therapy for celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Martial; Yang, Menglin; Lee, Linda; Zhang, Ye; Sheff, Joey G.; Sensen, Christoph W.; Mrazek, Hynek; Halada, Petr; Man, Petr; McCarville, Justin L; Verdu, Elena F.; Schriemer, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease is triggered by partially digested gluten proteins. Enzyme therapies that complete protein digestion in vivo could support a gluten-free diet, but the barrier to completeness is high. Current options require enzyme amounts on the same order as the protein meal itself. In this study, we evaluated proteolytic components of the carnivorous pitcher plant (Nepenthes spp.) for use in this context. Remarkably low doses enhance gliadin solubilization rates, and degrade gliadin slurries within the pH and temporal constraints of human gastric digestion. Potencies in excess of 1200:1 (substrate-to-enzyme) are achieved. Digestion generates small peptides through nepenthesin and neprosin, the latter a novel enzyme defining a previously-unknown class of prolyl endoprotease. The digests also exhibit reduced TG2 conversion rates in the immunogenic regions of gliadin, providing a twin mechanism for evading T-cell recognition. When sensitized and dosed with enzyme-treated gliadin, NOD/DQ8 mice did not show intestinal inflammation, when compared to mice challenged with only pepsin-treated gliadin. The low enzyme load needed for effective digestion suggests that gluten detoxification can be achieved in a meal setting, using metered dosing based on meal size. We demonstrate this by showing efficient antigen processing at total substrate-to-enzyme ratios exceeding 12,000:1. PMID:27481162

  9. FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

    2015-05-14

    FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device.

  10. Theoretical and material studies on thin-film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A highly efficient DC electroluminescent display is presented. A variably spaced superlattice structure is used to produce high energy injection of electrons into a ZnSe:Mn active layer in which impact excitation of the Mn centers can occur. The device is predicted to operate at an applied external bias on order of magnitude less than the best DC electroluminescent device to date. The device is predicted to have comparable brightness, since it operates in the saturation regime. The improved efficiency stems from avoiding significant energy loss to phonons. The electrons sequentially tunnel through a multilayer ZnSe/CaSrF2 stack under bias and emerge into the active layer at an energy equal to the conduction band bending. The injection energy is chosen to coincide with the impact excitation energy of the Mn centers. Different device designs are presented and their performance is predicted.

  11. Study on degrading graphene oxide in wastewater under different conditions for developing an efficient and economical degradation method.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Chao-Zhi; Gu, Chengyue

    2017-02-13

    With popular application of graphene and graphene oxide (GO), they have been discharged into water. Graphene and GO harm organisms. However, an efficient and economical method for removing graphene and GO in wastewater has seldom been reported. Graphene can be oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to give GO; therefore, degradation of graphene oxide is an important step in the procedure of removal of graphene from water. In this paper, GO degradation via photo-Fenton reaction under different conditions was carried out. Experimental results suggested that GO in wastewater can be efficiently and economically degraded into carbon dioxide and H2O when pH value is 3, concentration of H2O2 and FeCl3 are 35 mM and 5 ppm, respectively. Degradation mechanism of GO was suggested based on UV-vis absorption spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectra data of degradation intermediates. This paper suggests an efficient and economical degradation way of GO in wastewater.

  12. Organic solution-processible electroluminescent molecular glasses for non-doped standard red OLEDs with electrically stable chromaticity

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Xiaoman; Zuo, Weiwei; Liu, Yingliang Zhang, Zhenru; Zeng, Cen; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The D–A–D electroluminescent molecular glasses are synthesized. • Non-doped red electroluminescent film is fabricated by spin-coating. • Red OLED shows stable wavelength, luminous efficiency and chromaticity. • CIE1931 coordinate is in accord with standard red light in PAL system. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting molecular glasses (OEMGs) are synthesized through the introduction of nonplanar donor and branched aliphatic chain into electroluminescent emitters. The target OEMGs are characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, IR, UV–vis and fluorescent spectra as well as elemental analysis, TG and DSC. The results indicated that the optical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of OEMGs are adjusted successfully by the replacement of electron-donating group. The non-doped OLED device with a standard red electroluminescent emission is achieved by spin-coating the THF solution of OEMG with a triphenylamine moiety. This non-doped red OLED device takes on an electrically stable electroluminescent performance, including the stable maximum electroluminescent wavelength of 640 nm, the stable luminous efficiency of 2.4 cd/A and the stable CIE1931 coordinate of (x, y) = (0.64, 0.35), which is basically in accord with the CIE1931 coordinate (x, y) = (0.64, 0.33) of standard red light in PAL system.

  13. Electroluminescence Efficiency Enhancement using Metal Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-22

    the vicinity of isolated metal nanoparticles and their arrays. Using the example of an InGaN /GaN quantum-well active region positioned in close...emitters placed in the vicinity of isolated metal nanoparticles and their arrays. Using the example of an InGaN /GaN quantum-well active region...electron-hole pair states are localized on the scale of the coherent length on the order of a few nanometers at room temperature, the spontaneous

  14. Silicon nanowire hot electron electroluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Plessis, Monuko; Joubert, Trudi-Heleen

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the avalanche electroluminescence characteristics of pn junctions formed in silicon nanowires fabricated in a silicon-on-insula*tor (SOI) technology. Since carriers are confined to the nanowires, it is possible to study the effect of electric field strength on device performance while the current density and carrier concentrations are kept constant. This is achieved by varying the nanowire length while keeping the bias current constant, eventually driving the pn junction into the reach-through bias condition. It is observed that photon emission for photon energies higher than 1.2 eV increases when the nanowire length is reduced, while photon emission with energies less than 1.2 eV decreases. The higher electric field in the nanowire at shorter nanowire lengths enhances the high-energy photon emission and attenuates the low energy photon emission.

  15. Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambois, O.; Berencen, Y.; Hijazi, K.; Wojdak, M.; Kenyon, A. J.; Gourbilleau, F.; Rizk, R.; Garrido, B.

    2009-09-01

    We have studied the current transport and electroluminescence properties of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices in which the oxide layer, which is codoped with silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions, is made by magnetron sputtering. Electrical measurements have allowed us to identify a Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. We observe an important contribution of the Si nanoclusters to the conduction in silicon oxide films, and no evidence of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The results suggest that the electroluminescence of the erbium ions in these layers is generated by energy transfer from the Si nanoparticles. Finally, we report an electroluminescence power efficiency above 10-3%.

  16. Distribution of electrical energy consumption for the efficient degradation control of THMs mixture in sonophotolytic process.

    PubMed

    Park, Beomguk; Cho, Eunju; Son, Younggyu; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2014-11-01

    Sonophotolytic degradation of THMs mixture with different electrical energy ratio was carried out for efficient design of process. The total consumed electrical energy was fixed around 50W, and five different energy conditions were applied. The maximum degradation rate showed in conditions of US:UV=1:3 and US:UV=0:4. This is because the photolytic degradation of bromate compounds is dominant degradation mechanism for THMs removal. However, the fastest degradation of total organic carbon was observed in a condition of US:UV=1:3. Because hydrogen peroxide generated by sonication was effectively dissociated to hydroxyl radicals by ultraviolet, the concentration of hydroxyl radical was maintained high. This mechanism provided additional degradation of organics. This result was supported by comparison between the concentration of hydrogen peroxide sole and combined process. Consequently, the optimal energy ratio was US:UV=1:3 for degradation of THMs in sonophotolytic process.

  17. Electroluminescent behaviors in multilayer thin-film electroluminescent devices using 9,10-bisstyrylanthracene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminaka, Ei-Ichiro; Tsutsui, Tetsuo; Saito, Shogo

    1994-02-01

    Using nine 9,10-bisstyrylanthracene derivatives (BSA's) with different substituents as emission layer materials, multilayer electroluminescent (EL) devices were fabricated. Among nine BSA's, three BSA's were found to exhibit high EL performance. Four types of devices, a single-layer device with a BSA emission layer, two types of two-layer devices in which BSA emission layers were combined with a triphenylamine dimer as a hole transport layer or an oxadiazole derivative as an electron transport layer, and a three-layer device, were fabricated using the three BSA's. The relationships between the device structures and EL performances of these devices were studied. Ionization potential values in vacuum-deposited films of BSA's were measured. It was found that the introduction of an electron withdrawing group increased electron injection/transport capability, and that of electron donating groups increased hole injection/transport capability. The relative EL efficiencies of various devices were discussed in terms of the electronic nature of BSA's.

  18. Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Walters, Robert J; Bourianoff, George I; Atwater, Harry A

    2005-02-01

    There is currently worldwide interest in developing silicon-based active optical components in order to leverage the infrastructure of silicon microelectronics technology for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Light emission in bulk silicon-based devices is constrained in wavelength to infrared emission, and in efficiency by the indirect bandgap of silicon. One promising strategy for overcoming these challenges is to make use of quantum-confined excitonic emission in silicon nanocrystals. A critical challenge for silicon nanocrystal devices based on nanocrystals embedded in silicon dioxide has been the development of a method for efficient electrical carrier injection. We report here a scheme for electrically pumping dense silicon nanocrystal arrays by a field-effect electroluminescence mechanism. In this excitation process, electrons and holes are both injected from the same semiconductor channel across a tunnelling barrier in a sequential programming process, in contrast to simultaneous carrier injection in conventional pn-junction light-emitting-diode structures. Light emission is strongly correlated with the injection of a second carrier into a nanocrystal that has been previously programmed with a charge of the opposite sign.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa FA-HZ1, an Efficient Dibenzofuran-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Fawad; Hu, Haiyang; Xu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas sp. FA-HZ1, an efficient dibenzofuran-degrading bacterium, was isolated from landfill leachate. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of strain FA-HZ1, which contains only one circular chromosome. The complete genome sequence will be essential for revealing the molecular mechanisms of dibenzofuran degradation. PMID:28209830

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingomonas sp. Strain NIC1, an Efficient Nicotine-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiongyu; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain NIC1, an efficient nicotine-degrading bacterium, was isolated from tobacco leaves. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of strain NIC1, which contains one circular chromosome and two circular plasmids. The genomic information will provide insights into its molecular mechanism for nicotine degradation. PMID:27417841

  1. RANDOM ACCESS CONTROL OF ELECTROLUMINESCENT ELEMENTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) switches were devised to control the luminous emittance of electroluminescent cells in a solid-state display. The technique...purpose of this contract was to establish the feasibility of utilizing the hysteretic effect in cadmium selenide to provide switching and storage to an...array of electroluminescent cells by investigating the cadmium selenide material, by studying panel structure, and by investigating the addressing of

  2. Mechanism insight of PFOA degradation by ZnO assisted-photocatalytic ozonation: Efficiency and intermediates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Li, Xukai; Tang, Yiming; Lu, Ping; Chen, Weirui; Xu, Xiaoting; Li, Laisheng

    2017-04-03

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were prepared by a directly pyrolysis method and employed as catalyst for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) degradation. Comparative experiments were conducted to discuss the catalytic activity and flexibility of ZnO. After ZnO addition, the best PFOA degradation efficiency (70.5%) was achieved by ZnO/UV/O3 system, only 9.5% by sole ozonation and 18.2% by UV254 light irradiation. PFOA degradation was sensitive with pH value and temperature. The better PFOA removal efficiency was achieved at acidic condition. A novel relationship was found among PFOA degradation efficiency with hydroxyl radicals and photo-generated holes. Hydroxyl radicals generated on the surfaces of ZnO nanorods played dominant roles in PFOA degradation. PFOA degradation was found to follow the photo-Kolbe reaction mechanism. C2-C7 shorter-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids and fluoride ion were detected as main intermediates during PFOA degradation process. Based on the results, a proposal degradation pathway was raised.

  3. Efficient degradation of sulfamethoxazole by the Fe(II)/HSO5(-) process enhanced by hydroxylamine: Efficiency and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guifang; Li, Xuchun; Han, Bangjun; Chen, Liwei; Zhu, Linan; Campos, Luiza C

    2017-01-15

    Fenton or Fenton-like processes have been regarded as feasible methods to degrade a wide variety of contaminants by generating reactive species, but the efficiency is still challenged by the slow transformation from Fe(III) to Fe(II) and pH. This study employed hydroxylamine (HA) to improve the oxidation efficiency of Fe(II)/HSO5(-) (Fe(II)/PMS) process, by selecting sulfamethoxazole (SMX) as the target compound. The degradation efficiency and mechanism of SMX by the HA/Fe(II)/PMS process were elucidated for the first time. Compared with Fe(II)/PMS process, the HA/Fe(II)/PMS process showed about 4 times higher degradation efficiency of SMX at pH 3.0. The analysis of steady-state concentration of Fe species indicated that HA enhanced the transformation of Fe(III) to Fe(II), sustaining the rapid Fenton-like reactions. Both sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals accounted for the degradation of SMX, with the latter regarded as the dominant reactive species. Degradation intermediates of SMX were further analyzed, and three main transformation pathways were thus proposed. The HA/Fe(II)/PMS process was also effective in the removal of SMX and total organic carbon from real pharmaceutical wastewater. This work would broaden the scope of application of Fenton and Fenton-like processes enhanced by HA in contaminants treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantum efficiencies of the photo-Fenton degradation of atrazine in water.

    PubMed

    Benzaquén, T B; Isla, M A; Alfano, O M

    2012-01-01

    An experimental work in a well-stirred batch recycling reactor for the photo-Fenton degradation of atrazine in water is presented. A study of the quantum efficiency is performed to assess the effectiveness of the photo-Fenton process on the atrazine degradation and total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization. Apparent and absolute quantum efficiencies of degradation and mineralization of an atrazine-based commercial herbicide are determined under different experimental conditions. Higher apparent efficiencies were found for both atrazine degradation and TOC mineralization when the ferric ion and hydrogen peroxide concentrations are increased. Because of the well known stability of the triazine ring, atrazine was not completely mineralized by the photo-Fenton process. However, a TOC reduction of 40% was achieved, being 62.5% of the maximum value that can be reached.

  5. Catalytic liquid marbles: Ag nanowire-based miniature reactors for highly efficient degradation of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yue-E; Lee, Hiang Kwee; Chew, Wee Shern; Phang, In Yee; Liu, Tianxi; Ling, Xing Yi

    2014-06-04

    Ag nanowire-based catalytic liquid marbles are fabricated as miniature reactors, which demonstrate highly efficient, support-free and rate-controllable heterogeneous degradation of methylene blue, with catalytic efficiency close to 100%. Our miniature catalytic liquid marbles are essential for reactions involving highly toxic/hazardous or costly reactants, where small volume preliminary reactions are preferred.

  6. Device Optimization and Transient Electroluminescence Studies of Organic light Emitting Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lijuan Zou

    2003-08-05

    Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are among the most promising for flat panel display technologies. They are light, bright, flexible, and cost effective. And while they are emerging in commercial product, their low power efficiency and long-term degradation are still challenging. The aim of this work was to investigate their device physics and improve their performance. Violet and blue OLEDs were studied. The devices were prepared by thermal vapor deposition in high vacuum. The combinatorial method was employed in device preparation. Both continuous wave and transient electroluminescence (EL) were studied. A new efficient and intense UV-violet light emitting device was developed. At a current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, the optimal radiance R could reach 0.38 mW/cm{sup 2}, and the quantum efficiency was 1.25%. using the delayed EL technique, electron mobilities in DPVBi and CBP were determined to be {approx} 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/Vs and {approx} 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively. Overshoot effects in the transient El of blue light emitting devices were also observed and studied. This effect was attributed to the charge accumulation at the organic/organic and organic/cathode interfaces.

  7. Electric-field-induced strong enhancement of electroluminescence in multilayer molybdenum disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dehui; Cheng, Rui; Zhou, Hailong; Wang, Chen; Yin, Anxiang; Chen, Yu; Weiss, Nathan O.; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-01-01

    The layered transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted considerable interest for their unique electronic and optical properties. While the monolayer MoS2 exhibits a direct bandgap, the multilayer MoS2 is an indirect bandgap semiconductor and generally optically inactive. Here we report electric-field-induced strong electroluminescence in multilayer MoS2. We show that GaN–Al2O3–MoS2 and GaN–Al2O3–MoS2–Al2O3-graphene vertical heterojunctions can be created with excellent rectification behaviour. Electroluminescence studies demonstrate prominent direct bandgap excitonic emission in multilayer MoS2 over the entire vertical junction area. Importantly, the electroluminescence efficiency observed in multilayer MoS2 is comparable to or higher than that in monolayers. This strong electroluminescence can be attributed to electric-field-induced carrier redistribution from the lowest energy points (indirect bandgap) to higher energy points (direct bandgap) in k-space. The electric-field-induced electroluminescence is general for other layered materials including WSe2 and can open up a new pathway towards transition metal dichalcogenide-based optoelectronic devices. PMID:26130491

  8. Efficient degradation and expression prioritization with small RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Andersson, Anna M. C.; Krishna, Sandeep; Semsey, Szabolcs; Sneppen, Kim

    2007-09-01

    We build a simple model for feedback systems involving small RNA (sRNA) molecules based on the iron metabolism system in the bacterium E. coli, and compare it with the corresponding system in H. pylori which uses purely transcriptional regulation. This reveals several unique features of sRNA-based regulation that could be exploited by cells. Firstly, we show that sRNA regulation can maintain a smaller turnover of target mRNAs than transcriptional regulation, without sacrificing the speed of response to external shocks. Secondly, we propose that a single sRNA can prioritize the usage of different target mRNAs. This suggests that sRNA regulation would be more common in more complex systems which need to co-regulate many mRNAs efficiently.

  9. Improvement of electroluminescence performance by integration of ZnO nanowires and single-crystalline films on ZnO/GaN heterojunction

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yuantao Cui, Xijun; Wu, Bin; Zhuang, Shiwei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong; Yang, Xiaotian

    2014-03-31

    Heterojunction light-emitting diodes based on n-ZnO nanowires/ZnO single-crystalline films/p-GaN structure have been demonstrated for an improved electroluminescence performance. A highly efficient ultraviolet emission was observed under forward bias. Compared with conventional n-ZnO/p-GaN structure, high internal quantum efficiency and light extraction efficiency were simultaneously considered in the proposed diode. In addition, the diode can work continuously for ∼10 h with only a slight degradation in harsh environments, indicating its good reliability and application prospect in the future. This route opens possibilities for the development of advanced nanoscale devices in which the advantages of ZnO single-crystalline films and nanostructures can be integrated together.

  10. Shifts in Microbial Community and Its Correlation with Degradative Efficiency in a Wastewater Treatment Plant.

    PubMed

    Kapley, Atya; Liu, Ruyin; Jadeja, Niti B; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Purohit, Hemant J

    2015-08-01

    A wastewater treatment plant controls the level of pollution reaching the environment. Yet, despite being the most common aerobic route for treatment of wastewater, the activated sludge process is not utilized to its full potential. This is mainly due to the lack of knowledge base correlating the microbial community in the activated sludge to its degradative performance. In this study, the activated biomass at the treatment site was monitored for five consecutive months. Even though operational parameters were kept constant, the microbial community was observed to change after 3 months. This shift was seen to correlate with 25 % loss of degradative efficiency. Target oxygenases were monitored at two time points, and results indicated that the dominating pathway operating in the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) is the degradation of chlorinated aromatics. This study demonstrates the change in degradative efficiency in a CETP with the change in microbial community and analyzes the parameters influencing the microbial community of activated sludge.

  11. Isolation and identification of Bacillus megaterium YB3 from an effluent contaminated site efficiently degrades pyrene.

    PubMed

    Meena, Sumer Singh; Sharma, Radhey Shyam; Gupta, Priti; Karmakar, Swagata; Aggarwal, Kamal Krishan

    2016-04-01

    Industrial effluents contaminated sites may serve as repositories of ecologically adapted efficient pyrene degrading bacteria. In the present study, six bacterial isolates from industrial effluents were purified using serial enrichment technique and their pyrene degrading potential on pyrene supplemented mineral salt medium was assessed. 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that they belong to four bacterial genera, namely Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Microbacterium, and Ochrobactrum. Among these isolates, Bacillus megaterium YB3 showed considerably good growth and was further evaluated for its pyrene-degrading efficiency. B. megaterium YB3 could degrade 72.44% of 500 mg L(-1) pyrene within 7 days. GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate extracted fractions detected two relatively less toxic metabolic intermediates of the pyrene degradation pathway. B. megaterium YB3 also tested positive for catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase and aromatic-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase indole-indigo conversion assays. Considering the ability and efficiency of B. megaterium YB3 to degrade high pyrene content, the strain can be used as a tool to develop bioremediation technologies for the effective biodegradation of pyrene and possibly other PAHs in the environment.

  12. Evaluation of fuel cell system efficiency and degradation at development and during commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmen, R. S.; Johnson, C. D.

    Two primary parameters stand out for characterizing fuel cell system performance. The first and most important parameter is system efficiency. This parameter is relatively easy to define, and protocols for its assessment are already available. Another important parameter yet to be fully considered is system degradation. Degradation is important because customers desire to know how long their purchased fuel cell unit will last. The measure of degradation describes this performance factor by quantifying, for example, how the efficiency of the unit degrades over time. While both efficiency and degradation concepts are readily understood, the coupling between these two parameters must also be understood so that proper testing and evaluation of fuel cell systems is achieved. Tests not properly performed, and results not properly understood, may result in improper use of the evaluation data, producing improper R&D planning decisions and financial investments. This paper presents an analysis of system degradation, recommends an approach to its measurement, and shows how these two parameters are related and how one can be "traded-off" for the other.

  13. SOI back reflector for Tb-doped oxide electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Harjinder Singh; MacElwee, T. W.; Rankin, A.; Wojcik, J.; Miles, A. M.; Tarr, N. G.; Mascher, P.

    2011-08-01

    Electroluminescent devices based on light emission from Tb-doped SiO2 incorporated in a MOS capacitor structure have been formed on SOI substrates. It is shown that with appropriate choice of Si film and buried oxide thickness the SOI substrate can serve as a quarter-wave high-low-high index back reflector. Analysis predicts this back reflector can boost total light output integrated over the Tb emission spectrum by approximately 35% compared to a bulk substrate control device. Experimental devices using 100 nm thick PECVD SiO2 emitting layers doped with 1% Tb were fabricated on substrates with nominal 32 and 108 nm Si film thickness (corresponding to approximately λ/4 and 3λ/4 at the Tb emission peak). The Si films were doped to 1019 - 1020 cm-3 by As implantation. Uniform bright green electroluminescence was obtained from 250 μm square devices, demonstrating that current crowding is not an issue even with such a thin Si film. The comparison of output spectra for thick and thin Si films demonstrates that optical absorption in the heavily doped Si film does not seriously degrade the light output of the devices.

  14. ER-Golgi Traffic Is a Prerequisite for Efficient ER Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Taxis, Christof; Vogel, Frank; Wolf, Dieter H.

    2002-01-01

    Protein quality control is an essential function of the endoplasmic reticulum. Misfolded proteins unable to acquire their native conformation are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, retro-translocated back into the cytosol, and degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. We show that efficient degradation of soluble malfolded proteins in yeast requires a fully competent early secretory pathway. Mutations in proteins essential for ER-Golgi protein traffic severely inhibit ER degradation of the model substrate CPY*. We found ER localization of CPY* in WT cells, but no other specific organelle for ER degradation could be identified by electron microscopy studies. Because CPY* is degraded in COPI coat mutants, only a minor fraction of CPY* or of a proteinaceous factor required for degradation seems to enter the recycling pathway between ER and Golgi. Therefore, we propose that the disorganized structure of the ER and/or the mislocalization of Kar2p, observed in early secretory mutants, is responsible for the reduction in CPY* degradation. Further, we observed that mutations in proteins directly involved in degradation of malfolded proteins (Der1p, Der3/Hrd1p, and Hrd3p) lead to morphological changes of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi, escape of CPY* into the secretory pathway and a slower maturation rate of wild-type CPY. PMID:12058050

  15. A highly efficient degradation mechanism of methyl orange using Fe-based metallic glass powders.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shenghui; Huang, Ping; Kruzic, Jamie J; Zeng, Xierong; Qian, Haixia

    2016-02-23

    A new Fe-based metallic glass with composition Fe76B12Si9Y3 (at. %) is found to have extraordinary degradation efficiency towards methyl orange (MO, C14H14N3SO3) in strong acidic and near neutral environments compared to crystalline zero-valent iron (ZVI) powders and other Fe-based metallic glasses. The influence of temperature (294-328 K) on the degradation reaction rate was measured using ball-milled metallic glass powders revealing a low thermal activation energy barrier of 22.6 kJ/mol. The excellent properties are mainly attributed to the heterogeneous structure consisting of local Fe-rich and Fe-poor atomic clusters, rather than the large specific surface and strong residual stress in the powders. The metallic glass powders can sustain almost unchanged degradation efficiency after 13 cycles at room temperature, while a drop in degradation efficiency with further cycles is attributed to visible surface oxidation. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis conducted during the reaction was used to elucidate the underlying degradation mechanism. The present findings may provide a new, highly efficient and low cost commercial method for azo dye wastewater treatment.

  16. A highly efficient degradation mechanism of methyl orange using Fe-based metallic glass powders

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shenghui; Huang, Ping; Kruzic, Jamie J.; Zeng, Xierong; Qian, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    A new Fe-based metallic glass with composition Fe76B12Si9Y3 (at. %) is found to have extraordinary degradation efficiency towards methyl orange (MO, C14H14N3SO3) in strong acidic and near neutral environments compared to crystalline zero-valent iron (ZVI) powders and other Fe-based metallic glasses. The influence of temperature (294–328 K) on the degradation reaction rate was measured using ball-milled metallic glass powders revealing a low thermal activation energy barrier of 22.6 kJ/mol. The excellent properties are mainly attributed to the heterogeneous structure consisting of local Fe-rich and Fe-poor atomic clusters, rather than the large specific surface and strong residual stress in the powders. The metallic glass powders can sustain almost unchanged degradation efficiency after 13 cycles at room temperature, while a drop in degradation efficiency with further cycles is attributed to visible surface oxidation. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis conducted during the reaction was used to elucidate the underlying degradation mechanism. The present findings may provide a new, highly efficient and low cost commercial method for azo dye wastewater treatment. PMID:26902824

  17. A highly efficient degradation mechanism of methyl orange using Fe-based metallic glass powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shenghui; Huang, Ping; Kruzic, Jamie J.; Zeng, Xierong; Qian, Haixia

    2016-02-01

    A new Fe-based metallic glass with composition Fe76B12Si9Y3 (at. %) is found to have extraordinary degradation efficiency towards methyl orange (MO, C14H14N3SO3) in strong acidic and near neutral environments compared to crystalline zero-valent iron (ZVI) powders and other Fe-based metallic glasses. The influence of temperature (294–328 K) on the degradation reaction rate was measured using ball-milled metallic glass powders revealing a low thermal activation energy barrier of 22.6 kJ/mol. The excellent properties are mainly attributed to the heterogeneous structure consisting of local Fe-rich and Fe-poor atomic clusters, rather than the large specific surface and strong residual stress in the powders. The metallic glass powders can sustain almost unchanged degradation efficiency after 13 cycles at room temperature, while a drop in degradation efficiency with further cycles is attributed to visible surface oxidation. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis conducted during the reaction was used to elucidate the underlying degradation mechanism. The present findings may provide a new, highly efficient and low cost commercial method for azo dye wastewater treatment.

  18. Efficient enzymatic degradation used as pre-stage treatment for norfloxacin removal by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruinan; Li, Xiaohong; Hu, Mancheng; Li, Shuni; Zhai, Quanguo; Jiang, Yucheng

    2017-08-01

    Norfloxacin is often found in wastewater treatment plants, groundwater, and even drinking water causing environmental concerns because of its potential undesirable effects on human health or aquatic ecosystems. However, conventional treatments cannot deal with norfloxacin efficiently. This work proposes an efficiently enzymatic degradation of norfloxacin by chloroperoxidase (CPO). 82.18% degradation efficiency of norfloxacin was achieved after 25 min reaction time at pH 5.0 with an enzyme concentration of 1.5 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). HPLC-MS was used to determine the intermediates or final products. The product analysis and determination of the chemical oxygen demand indicated if the enzymatic degradation by CPO was carried out before the usually existing bioremediation techniques (usually activated sludge) in sewage treatment plant, the effluent containing norfloxacin can be decontaminated more efficiently and thoroughly than that only by activated sludge treatment. The eco-toxicity tests using a green algae, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, indicated that the toxicity of degraded products of norfloxacin was lower than the parent norfloxacin molecule. CPO-catalyzed degradation of norfloxacin is a promising alternative for treating effluent containing norfloxacin.

  19. Phonon-assisted transient electroluminescence in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Tzu-Huan; Chu-Su, Yu; Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2014-06-30

    The phonon-replica infrared emission is observed at room temperature from indirect band gap Si light-emitting diode under forward bias. With increasing injection current density, the broadened electroluminescence spectrum and band gap reduction are observed due to joule heating. The spectral-resolved temporal response of electroluminescence reveals the competitiveness between single (TO) and dual (TO + TA) phonon-assisted indirect band gap transitions. As compared to infrared emission with TO phonon-replica, the retarder of radiative recombination at long wavelength region (∼1.2 μm) indicates lower transition probability of dual phonon-replica before thermal equivalent.

  20. Strongly enhanced field-dependent single-molecule electroluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Hee; Gonzalez, Jose I.; Dickson, Robert M.

    2002-08-01

    Individual, strongly electroluminescent Agn molecules (n = 28 atoms) have been electrically written within otherwise nonemissive silver oxide films. Exhibiting characteristic single-molecule behavior, these individual room-temperature molecules exhibit extreme electroluminescence enhancements (>104 vs. bulk and dc excitation on a per molecule basis) when excited with specific ac frequencies. Occurring through field extraction of electrons with subsequent reinjection and radiative recombination, single-molecule electroluminescence is enhanced by a general mechanism that avoids slow bulk material response. Thus, while we detail strong electroluminescence from single, highly fluorescent Agn molecules, this mechanism also yields strong ac-excited electroluminescence from similarly prepared, but otherwise nonemissive, individual Cu nanoclusters.

  1. Electroluminescent, polycrystalline cadmium selenide nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Ayvazian, Talin; van der Veer, Wytze E; Xing, Wendong; Yan, Wenbo; Penner, Reginald M

    2013-10-22

    Electroluminescence (EL) from nanocrystalline CdSe (nc-CdSe) nanowire arrays is reported. The n-type, nc-CdSe nanowires, 400-450 nm in width and 60 nm in thickness, were synthesized using lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition, and metal-semiconductor-metal (M-S-M) devices were prepared by the evaporation of two gold contacts spaced by either 0.6 or 5 μm. These M-S-M devices showed symmetrical current voltage curves characterized by currents that increased exponentially with applied voltage bias. As the applied biased was increased, an increasing number of nanowires within the array "turned on", culminating in EL emission from 30 to 50% of these nanowires at applied voltages of 25-30 V. The spectrum of the emitted light was broad and centered at 770 nm, close to the 1.74 eV (712 nm) band gap of CdSe. EL light emission occurred with an external quantum efficiency of 4 × 10(-6) for devices with a 0.60 μm gap between the gold contacts and 0.5 × 10(-6) for a 5 μm gap-values similar to those reported for M-S-M devices constructed from single-crystalline CdSe nanowires. Kelvin probe force microscopy of 5 μm nc-CdSe nanowire arrays showed pronounced electric fields at the gold electrical contacts, coinciding with the location of strongest EL light emission in these devices. This electric field is implicated in the Poole-Frenkel minority carrier emission and recombination mechanism proposed to account for EL light emission in most of the devices that were investigated.

  2. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chung-Yi; Chang, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shih-Hsien; Liu, C. W.; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Chung, Hua; Chang, Chorng-Ping

    2016-08-29

    Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells are grown on a 300 mm Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition. The direct bandgap emission from strained GeSn is observed in the photoluminescence spectra and is enhanced by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} passivation due to the field effect. The electroluminescence of the direct bandgap emission of strained GeSn is also observed from the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GeSn metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes. Electroluminescence is a good indicator of GeSn material quality, since defects in GeSn layers degrade the electroluminescence intensity significantly. At the accumulation bias, the holes in the Ni gate electrode tunnel to the strained n-type GeSn layer through the ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and recombine radiatively with electrons. The emission wavelength of photoluminescence and electroluminescence can be tuned by the Sn content.

  3. Structure–efficiency relationships of cyclodextrin scavengers in the hydrolytic degradation of organophosphorus compounds

    PubMed Central

    Letort, Sophie; Bosco, Michaël; Cornelio, Benedetta; Brégier, Frédérique; Daulon, Sébastien; Gouhier, Géraldine

    2017-01-01

    New derivatives of cyclodextrins were prepared in order to determine the relative importance of the structural key elements involved in the degradation of organophosphorus nerve agents. To avoid a competitive inclusion between the organophosphorus substrate and the iodosobenzoate group, responsible for its degradation, the latter group had to be covalently bound to the cyclodextrin scaffold. Although the presence of the α nucleophile iodosobenzoate was a determinant in the hydrolysis process, an imidazole group was added to get a synergistic effect towards the degradation of the agents. The degradation efficiency was found to be dependent on the relative position of the heterocycle towards the reactive group as well as on the nature of the organophosphorus derivative. PMID:28382180

  4. Poly(aspartic acid)-based degradable assemblies for highly efficient gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing-Jun; Dou, Xue-Bo; Hu, Hao; Yu, Bingran; Chen, Da-Fu; Wang, Ren-Xian; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2015-01-14

    Due to its good properties such as low cytotoxicity, degradability, and biocompatibility, poly(aspartic acid) (PAsp) is a good candidate for the development of new drug delivery systems. In this work, a series of new PAsp-based degradable supramolecular assemblies were prepared for effective gene therapy via the host-guest interactions between the cyclodextrin (CD)-cored PAsp-based polycations and the pendant benzene group-containing PAsp backbones. Such supramolecular assemblies exhibited good degradability, enhanced pDNA condensation ability, and low cytotoxicity. More importantly, the gene transfection efficiencies of supramolecular assemblies were much higher than those of CD-cored PAsp-based counterparts at various N/P ratios. In addition, the effective antitumor ability of assemblies was demonstrated with a suicide gene therapy system. The present study would provide a new means to produce degradable supramolecular drug delivery systems.

  5. Efficient catalytic effect of CuO nanostructures on the degradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, S.; Zainelabdin, A.; Amin, G.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2012-11-01

    An efficient catalytic effect of petals and flowers like CuO nanostructures (NSs) on the degradation of two organic dyes, methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RB) were investigated. The highest degradation of 95% in CuO petals and 72% in flowers for MB is observed in 24 h. For RB, the degradation was 85% and 80% in petals and flowers, respectively for 5 h. It was observed that CuO petals appeared to be more active than flowers for degradation of both dyes associated to high specific surface area. The petals and flower like CuO NSs were synthesized using the chemical bath method at 90 °C. The grown CuO NSs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  6. Catalytic strategy for efficient degradation of nitroaromatic pesticides by using gold nanoflower.

    PubMed

    Mao, Kang; Chen, Yinran; Wu, Zitong; Zhou, Xiaodong; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2014-11-05

    In this contribution, we report a new type of Au nanoflower-based nitroaromatic pesticide degradation platform that is fast, efficient, and simple. We found a straightforward, economically viable, and "green" approach for the synthesis and stabilization of relatively monodisperse Au nanoflowers by using nontoxic chemical of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) without stabilizer and the adjustment of the pH environment. This experiment shows that these Au nanoflowers function as effective catalyst for the reduction of pendimethalin in the presence of NaBH4 (otherwise unfeasible if NaBH4 is the only agent employed), which was reflected by the UV/vis spectra of the catalytic reaction kinetics. Importantly, the novel degradation platform could be put in use in two different practical soil samples with satisfactory results under laboratory conditions. To demonstrate the feasibility and universality of our design, two other nitroaromatic pesticides, trifluralin, and p-nitrophenol, were selected and were successfully degraded using this degradation platform.

  7. Preparation of ZnO Photocatalyst for the Efficient and Rapid Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dyes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqing; Wu, Zhansheng; Liu, Dandan; Gao, Zhenzhen

    2017-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) photocatalysts were synthesized by sol-gel method using zinc acetate as precursor for degradation of azo dyes under UV irradiation. The resultant samples were characterized by different techniques, such as XRD, SEM, and EDX. The influence of preparation conditions such as calcination temperature and composite ratio on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) was investigated. ZnO prepared with a composite ratio of 4:1 and calcination temperature of 400 °C exhibited 99.70% removal rate for MO. The effect of operation parameters on the degradation was also studied. Results showed that the removal rate of azo dyes increased with the increased dosage of catalyst and decreased initial concentration of azo dyes and the acidic condition is favorable for degradation. Furthermore, the kinetics and scavengers of the reactive species during the degradation were also investigated. It was found that the degradation of azo dyes fitted the first-order kinetics and superoxide ions were the main species. The proposed photocatalyst can efficiently and rapidly degrade azo dyes; thus, this economical and environment-friendly photocatalyst can be applied to the treatment of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes.

  8. Preparation of ZnO Photocatalyst for the Efficient and Rapid Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoqing; Wu, Zhansheng; Liu, Dandan; Gao, Zhenzhen

    2017-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) photocatalysts were synthesized by sol-gel method using zinc acetate as precursor for degradation of azo dyes under UV irradiation. The resultant samples were characterized by different techniques, such as XRD, SEM, and EDX. The influence of preparation conditions such as calcination temperature and composite ratio on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) was investigated. ZnO prepared with a composite ratio of 4:1 and calcination temperature of 400 °C exhibited 99.70% removal rate for MO. The effect of operation parameters on the degradation was also studied. Results showed that the removal rate of azo dyes increased with the increased dosage of catalyst and decreased initial concentration of azo dyes and the acidic condition is favorable for degradation. Furthermore, the kinetics and scavengers of the reactive species during the degradation were also investigated. It was found that the degradation of azo dyes fitted the first-order kinetics and superoxide ions were the main species. The proposed photocatalyst can efficiently and rapidly degrade azo dyes; thus, this economical and environment-friendly photocatalyst can be applied to the treatment of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes.

  9. Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction

    DOEpatents

    Shiang, Joseph John

    2007-07-17

    Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction include a light-scattering medium disposed adjacent thereto. The light-scattering medium has a light scattering anisotropy parameter g in the range from greater than zero to about 0.99, and a scatterance parameter S less than about 0.22 or greater than about 3.

  10. Legibility of electroluminescent instrument panels investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Lean, M. V.; Miller, G. E.

    1966-01-01

    Legibility studies of several EL /electroluminescent/ displays correlate reading time and accuracy with number size, stroke/width ratio, indicia size, pointer width, contrast, ambient illumination, and color background and and contrast. Human factor criteria established on non-EL displays may not apply to EL displays.

  11. Development of gallium aluminum phosphide electroluminescent diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicotka, R. J.; Lorenz, M. R.; Nethercot, A. H.; Pettit, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Work done on the development of gallium aluminum phosphide alloys for electroluminescent light sources is described. The preparation of this wide band gap semiconductor alloy, its physical properties (particularly the band structure, the electrical characteristics, and the light emitting properties) and work done on the fabrication of diode structures from these alloys are broadly covered.

  12. Electroluminescent Displays Made With Alternative Dopants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Metals and metal fluorides deposited in ZnS to form color phosphors. Single-layer, thin-film electroluminescent display device contains ZnS host layer doped to form green, red, and blue phosphors. Luminescence in chosen colors at chosen intersections between rows and columns produced by application of voltages to appropriate row-and-column pairs of conductors.

  13. Sphere-supported thin film electroluminescent technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yingwei

    A new Sphere-Supported Thin Film Electroluminescent (SSTFEL) technology is developed based on a novel device structure containing numerous spherical BaTiO3 particles embedded in a polypropylene matrix with top and bottom area exposed. A TFEL phosphor stack deposited on the top area of the spherical BaTiO3 particles emits light through the same mechanism as conventional flat TFEL devices. Flexibility is realized by the polypropylene matrix. SSTFEL technology provides the first flexible and rollable light-emitting devices based on the TFEL mechanism. Besides the superior flexibility, SSTFEL technology enables high post-annealing temperature for the phosphor up to approximately 1200°C, which permits a wide range of TFEL phosphors to be exploited. After sintering at a temperature higher than 920°C, the spray-dried cubic BaTiO3 spheres have tetragonal phase. The relative dielectric constant of the BaTiO3 spheres depends on the grain size that is mainly controlled by the sintering temperature. Software simulation and experimental measurements indicate that the relative dielectric constant of the BaTiO 3 spheres reaches above 4000 after sintering at 1170° for 2 hours. Assuming angle alpha varying from 0° (top of the BaTiO3 sphere) to 180° (bottom of the BaTiO3 sphere), the phosphor stack sputtered on a BaTiO3 sphere has a nearly uniform thickness with a variation less than +/-2.5% when alpha is between 0° and 25°. When alpha increases from 25° to 45°, the thickness of the phosphor stack gradually decreases up to 12.5%. Software simulation shows that the electric field in the central plane of the phosphor stack increases 18% from the pole to the edge of the light-emitting cap on the BaTiO3 sphere. Experimental results reveal that, instead of the variation in electric field, the nature of the surface of the BaTiO3 spheres before the sputtering process primarily influences the electroluminescent properties of the SSTFEL devices. A new Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO

  14. Degradation of atrazine by UV/chlorine: Efficiency, influencing factors, and products.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiujuan; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yi; Liu, Weili; Liu, Yulei

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the degradation of atrazine by the combination of UV and chlorine (UV/chlorine) due to the formation of radicals during chlorine photolysis was systematically investigated in terms of efficiency, factors that influence the degradation kinetics, as well as oxidation products. It was found that the degradation efficiency of atrazine was enhanced by UV/chlorine compared to UV or chlorine alone. The degradation efficiency of atrazine was favorable at a lower pH, but was inhibited in the presence of natural organic matters. Meanwhile, the initial chlorine dosage, alkalinity, and chloride barely influenced the degradation efficiency under neutral pH conditions. The degradation of atrazine by UV/chlorine was inhibited in real waters (i.e., surface water and ground water) compared to in deionized water but was still more effective than UV alone. The oxidation products of atrazine resulting from de-alkylation, dechlorination-hydroxylation, alkylic-hydroxylation, alkylic-oxidation, alkylic-hydroxylation-dehydration, deamination-hydroxylation, and dechlorination-hydrogenation in UV/chlorine process were detected, which were slightly different from those formed in UV/H2O2 (commonly used UV-based advanced oxidation process). Particularly, the yields of three primary transformation products (desethyl-atrazine (DEA), desisopropyl-atrazine (DIA), and desethyl-desisopropyl-atrazine (DEIA)) were comparatively quantified in these two processes. The different trend of them formed in UV/chlorine system (DEA:DIA≈4) compared to that formed in UV/H2O2 system (DEA:DIA≈1) could be ascribed to the different reaction reactivities and mechanisms between HO• and Cl• with atrazine.

  15. Contactless Electroluminescence Imaging for Cell and Module Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Steve

    2015-06-14

    Module performance can be characterized by imaging using baseline and periodic images to track defects and degradation. Both thermal images, which can be acquired during sunny operating conditions, and photoluminescence images, which could be acquired at night, can be collected without electrical connection. Electroluminescence (EL) images, which are useful to detect many types of defects such as cracks, interconnect and solder faults, and resistances, have typically required electrical connection to drive current in the cells and modules. Here, a contactless EL imaging technique is proposed, which provides an EL image without the need for electrical connection to drive current through the module. Such EL imaging has the capability to be collected at night without disruption to daytime power generation.

  16. Evaluation of the absolute photoluminescence quantum yields of molecularly doped organic composite films and the electroluminescence efficiencies of molecular light-emitting devices containing oligoheterocycles as efficient emission centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushto, Gary P.; Hill, Ian G.; Mitschke, Ullrich; Baeuerle, Peter; Kafafi, Zakya H.

    2001-02-01

    The absolute photoluminescence quantum yields ((Phi) PL) of three end-capped oligothiophene derivatives dispersed in N,N'-((alpha) -naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl ((alpha) -NPD) have been evaluated and the most efficient of the emitters was used as a dopant in molecular organic LEDs. Composite films of 2,5-bis [5-(4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thien-2-yl) thien-2-yl]-furan (EC5FUR); 2,5-bis [5-(4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thien-2-yl) thien-2-yl]-oxazole (EC5OXZ) and 2,5-bis [5-(4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thien-2-yl)thien-2-yl]-1,3,4- oxadiazole (EC5OXD) doped into (alpha) -NPD were found to have (Phi) PL values of 78, 62 and 28%, respectively. MOLED devices were fabricated using an EC5FUR/(alpha) -NPD composite as the emitting layer and the external quantum efficiencies ((eta) EL) of these devices were evaluated. The results of the device characterization show that the inclusion of EC5FUR in the NPD hole transport layer increases the device (eta) EL to 1.45% at a current density of 10 mA/cm2. In addition, the concentration dependence of the (eta) EL on the EC5FUR dopant in certain device structures when considered in conjunction with the current results of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopic experiments suggests that this dopant species may be acting as both a hole and electron trap in the (alpha) -NPD host.

  17. Degradable Molybdenum Oxide Nanosheets with Rapid Clearance and Efficient Tumor Homing Capabilities as a Therapeutic Nanoplatform.

    PubMed

    Song, Guosheng; Hao, Jiali; Liang, Chao; Liu, Teng; Gao, Min; Cheng, Liang; Hu, Junqing; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-02-05

    Molybdenum oxide (MoOx) nanosheets with high near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and pH-dependent oxidative degradation properties were synthesized, functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and then used as a degradable photothermal agent and drug carrier. The nanosheets, which are relatively stable under acidic pH, could be degraded at physiological pH. Therefore, MoOx-PEG distributed in organs upon intravenous injection would be rapidly degraded and excreted without apparent in vivo toxicity. MoOx-PEG shows efficient accumulation in tumors, the acidic pH of which then leads to longer tumor retention of those nanosheets. Along with the capability of acting as a photothermal agent for effective tumor ablation, MoOx-PEG can load therapeutic molecules with high efficiencies. This concept of inorganic theranostic nanoagent should be relatively stable in tumors to allow imaging and treatment, while being readily degradable in normal organs to enable rapid excretion and avoid long-term retention/toxicity.

  18. Efficient degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution with bicarbonate-activated hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aihua; Li, Xiaoxia; Xiong, Hui; Yin, Guochuan

    2011-02-01

    Bicarbonate anion is an efficient activator for hydrogen peroxide to generate many active oxygen species including peroxymonocarbonate (HCO(4)(-)), superoxide ion (O(2)(-)) and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). This study aims to understand the oxidative degradation of organic pollutants including methyl blue, methyl orange, rhodamine B, and 4-chlorophenol, with H(2)O(2) activated by sodium bicarbonate at room temperature. The obtained results indicate that such a method is apparently efficient in versatile pollutant degradation. Compared with using H(2)O(2) alone under similar pH conditions, the degradation rates of the pollutants were greatly enhanced through adding NaHCO(3). Through LC-MS, FT-IR and the TOC analysis, the degradation of methylene blue was revealed to proceed by the transformation of dimethylamino group in methylene blue to methylamino, aldehyde and nitro group, and the opening of phenyl ring into small molecular compounds and CO(2). The studies using the (1)O(2) scavenger sodium azide and the O(2)(-) indicator nitro blue tetrazolium suggest that the active O(2)(-) intermediate, generated from HCO(4)(-) decomposition, rather than (1)O(2) was involved in the pollutant degradation.

  19. Efficiency of uronic acid uptake in marine alginate-degrading fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumann, K.; Weide, G.

    1995-03-01

    Despite the fact that many marine fungi, including phycomycetes, yeasts, ascomycetes and hyphomycetes, have been recorded from living and/or dead phaeophytes, only a few of these have been shown to be capable of degrading alginic acid or alginates. The degradation is achieved by the action of an exoenzyme complex, comprising alginate lyase, as well as alginate hydrolase activities. The latter was detected only recently by the authors. In this study, the growth of two marine sodiumalginate-degrading deuteromycetes, Asteromyces cruciatus and Dendryphiella salina, was investigated, and the assimilation efficiency of sodiumalginate and its uronic acid degradation products, respectively, was estimated from the economic coefficient (E). E is calculated from the mycelial dry weight, divided by the weight of substrate consumed for this production. The economic coefficient for A. cruciatus was 48.6%, and that of D. salina 38.9%. This indicates that the former species uses the alginate degradation products more efficiently than the latter. The observed E-values for the marine deuteromycetes agree with those from other fungi, e.g. terrestrial species. In general, it is concluded that the marine fungi appear to play a more important role in kelp-based ecosystems than was realized previously.

  20. Development of a novel high-entropy alloy with eminent efficiency of degrading azo dye solutions

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Z. Y.; Liu, X. J.; Jia, B.; Wang, H.; Wu, Y.; Lu, Z. P.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its scientific importance, the degradation of azo dyes is of practical significance from the perspective of environmental protection. Although encouraging progress has been made on developing degradation approaches and materials, it is still challenging to fully resolve this long-standing problem. Herein, we report that high entropy alloys, which have been emerging as a new class of metallic materials in the last decade, have excellent performance in degradation of azo dyes. In particular, the newly developed AlCoCrTiZn high-entropy alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying exhibits a prominent efficiency in degradation of the azo dye (Direct Blue 6: DB6), as high as that of the best metallic glass reported so far. The newly developed AlCoCrTiZn HEA powder has low activation energy barrier, i.e., 30 kJ/mol, for the degrading reaction and thus make the occurrence of reaction easier as compared with other materials such as the glassy Fe-based powders. The excellent capability of our high-entropy alloys in degrading azo dye is attributed to their unique atomic structure with severe lattice distortion, chemical composition effect, residual stress and high specific surface area. Our findings have important implications in developing novel high-entropy alloys for functional applications as catalyst materials. PMID:27677462

  1. Development of a novel high-entropy alloy with eminent efficiency of degrading azo dye solutions.

    PubMed

    Lv, Z Y; Liu, X J; Jia, B; Wang, H; Wu, Y; Lu, Z P

    2016-09-28

    In addition to its scientific importance, the degradation of azo dyes is of practical significance from the perspective of environmental protection. Although encouraging progress has been made on developing degradation approaches and materials, it is still challenging to fully resolve this long-standing problem. Herein, we report that high entropy alloys, which have been emerging as a new class of metallic materials in the last decade, have excellent performance in degradation of azo dyes. In particular, the newly developed AlCoCrTiZn high-entropy alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying exhibits a prominent efficiency in degradation of the azo dye (Direct Blue 6: DB6), as high as that of the best metallic glass reported so far. The newly developed AlCoCrTiZn HEA powder has low activation energy barrier, i.e., 30 kJ/mol, for the degrading reaction and thus make the occurrence of reaction easier as compared with other materials such as the glassy Fe-based powders. The excellent capability of our high-entropy alloys in degrading azo dye is attributed to their unique atomic structure with severe lattice distortion, chemical composition effect, residual stress and high specific surface area. Our findings have important implications in developing novel high-entropy alloys for functional applications as catalyst materials.

  2. Development of a novel high-entropy alloy with eminent efficiency of degrading azo dye solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Z. Y.; Liu, X. J.; Jia, B.; Wang, H.; Wu, Y.; Lu, Z. P.

    2016-09-01

    In addition to its scientific importance, the degradation of azo dyes is of practical significance from the perspective of environmental protection. Although encouraging progress has been made on developing degradation approaches and materials, it is still challenging to fully resolve this long-standing problem. Herein, we report that high entropy alloys, which have been emerging as a new class of metallic materials in the last decade, have excellent performance in degradation of azo dyes. In particular, the newly developed AlCoCrTiZn high-entropy alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying exhibits a prominent efficiency in degradation of the azo dye (Direct Blue 6: DB6), as high as that of the best metallic glass reported so far. The newly developed AlCoCrTiZn HEA powder has low activation energy barrier, i.e., 30 kJ/mol, for the degrading reaction and thus make the occurrence of reaction easier as compared with other materials such as the glassy Fe-based powders. The excellent capability of our high-entropy alloys in degrading azo dye is attributed to their unique atomic structure with severe lattice distortion, chemical composition effect, residual stress and high specific surface area. Our findings have important implications in developing novel high-entropy alloys for functional applications as catalyst materials.

  3. Optical characterization of voltage-accelerated degradation in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Handa, Taketo; Tex, David M; Shimazaki, Ai; Aharen, Tomoko; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-16

    We investigate the performance degradation mechanism of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells under bias voltage in air and nitrogen atmospheres using photoluminescence and electroluminescence techniques. When applying forward bias, the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells decreased significantly in air, but showed no degradation in nitrogen atmosphere. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements on these devices revealed that the application of forward bias in air accelerates the generation of non-radiative recombination centers in the perovskite layer buried in the device. We found a negative correlation between the electroluminescence intensity and the injected current intensity in air. The irreversible change of the perovskite grain surface in air initiates the degradation of the perovskite solar cells.

  4. Theoretical and material studies of thin-film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) devices are studied for a possible means of achieving a high resolution, light weight, compact video display panel for computer terminals or television screens. The performance of TFEL devices depends upon the probability of an electron impact exciting a luminescent center which in turn depends upon the density of centers present in the semiconductor layer, the possibility of an electron achieving the impact excitation threshold energy, and the collision cross section itself. Efficiency of such a device is presently very poor. It can best be improved by increasing the number of hot electrons capable of impact exciting a center. Hot electron distributions and a method for increasing the efficiency and brightness of TFEL devices (with the additional advantage of low voltage direct current operation) are investigated.

  5. Composite nanofibers for highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Alaa; El-Sayed, Ramy; Osman, T A; Toprak, M S; Muhammed, M; Uheida, A

    2016-02-01

    In this study highly efficient photocatalyst based on composite nanofibers containing polyacrylonitrile (PAN), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and surface functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles was developed. The composite nanofibers were fabricated using electrospinning technique followed by chemical crosslinking. The surface modification and morphology changes of the fabricated composite nanofibers were examined through SEM, TEM, and FTIR analysis. The photocatalytic performance of the composite nanofibers for the degradation of model molecules, methylene blue and indigo carmine, under UV irradiation in aqueous solutions was investigated. The results demonstrated that high photodegradation efficiency was obtained in a short time and at low power intensity compared to other reported studies. The effective factors on the degradation of the dyes, such as the amount of catalyst, solution pH and irradiation time were investigated. The experimental kinetic data were fitted using pseudo-first order model. The effect of the composite nanofibers as individual components on the degradation efficiency of MB and IC was evaluated in order to understand the overall photodegradation mechanism. The results obtained showed that all the components possess significant effect on the photodegradation activity of the composite nanofibers. The stability studies demonstrated that the photodegradation efficiency can remain constant at the level of 99% after five consecutive cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficient and selective degradation of polyethylenes into liquid fuels and waxes under mild conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiangqing; Qin, Chuan; Friedberger, Tobias; Guan, Zhibin; Huang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume synthetic polymer, and its chemical inertness makes its degradation by low-energy processes a challenging problem. We report a tandem catalytic cross alkane metathesis method for highly efficient degradation of polyethylenes under mild conditions. With the use of widely available, low-value, short alkanes (for example, petroleum ethers) as cross metathesis partners, different types of polyethylenes with various molecular weights undergo complete conversion into useful liquid fuels and waxes. This method shows excellent selectivity for linear alkane formation, and the degradation product distribution (liquid fuels versus waxes) can be controlled by the catalyst structure and reaction time. In addition, the catalysts are compatible with various polyolefin additives; therefore, common plastic wastes, such as postconsumer polyethylene bottles, bags, and films could be converted into valuable chemical feedstocks without any pretreatment. PMID:27386559

  7. Efficient adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of Congo red onto hydrothermally synthesized NiS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongxu; Ke, Yingchang; Wang, Dongfeng; Lin, Kaili; Shen, Ruxiang; Chen, Jianhua; Weng, Wen

    2013-03-01

    NiS nanoparticles (NiS NPs) have been hydrothermally prepared and characterized by the methods of X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence, and thermogravimetric analysis. NiS NPs exhibit fast adsorption in the removal of Congo red (CR) in aqueous solution, in which the pseudo-second-order model was the best to describe the adsorption kinetics, and the intraparticle diffusion was not only the rate-limiting step. The NiS NPs also exhibit efficient photocatalytic activity in the degradation of CR under visible-light irradiation, in which the 30 mg/L CR was almost completely degraded after illumination during 210 min. The •OH radicals in the process of photocatalytic degradation were observed by fluorescence technique.

  8. Efficient heterogeneous and environmentally friendly degradation of nerve agents on a tungsten-based POM.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Dana M; Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay

    2010-07-15

    Common (chemical warfare agent) CWA decontaminants exhibit harsh and corrosive characteristics, and are harmful to the environment. In the course of our quest for active sorbents as efficient decontaminants, Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) (NH(4))(3)PW(12)O(40) was tested for oxidative degradation of CWAs. Although oxidation did not take place, sarin (GB) and VX were smoothly decontaminated to non-toxic products within 1 and 10 days, respectively. Degradation was carried out directly on the powder, eliminating the need for solvents. Mustard gas (HD), whose degradation is highly dependent on oxidation, was not decontaminated by this POM. Solid state MAS NMR ((31)P and (13)C) was utilized both for POM characterization and for decontamination studies monitoring.

  9. Efficient and selective degradation of polyethylenes into liquid fuels and waxes under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiangqing; Qin, Chuan; Friedberger, Tobias; Guan, Zhibin; Huang, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume synthetic polymer, and its chemical inertness makes its degradation by low-energy processes a challenging problem. We report a tandem catalytic cross alkane metathesis method for highly efficient degradation of polyethylenes under mild conditions. With the use of widely available, low-value, short alkanes (for example, petroleum ethers) as cross metathesis partners, different types of polyethylenes with various molecular weights undergo complete conversion into useful liquid fuels and waxes. This method shows excellent selectivity for linear alkane formation, and the degradation product distribution (liquid fuels versus waxes) can be controlled by the catalyst structure and reaction time. In addition, the catalysts are compatible with various polyolefin additives; therefore, common plastic wastes, such as postconsumer polyethylene bottles, bags, and films could be converted into valuable chemical feedstocks without any pretreatment.

  10. Relationship between phenol degradation efficiency and microbial community structure in an anaerobic SBR.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, F; Cabrol, L; Carballa, M; Donoso-Bravo, A; Cruz, L; Ruiz-Filippi, G; Chamy, R; Lema, J M

    2013-11-01

    Phenol is a common wastewater contaminant from various industrial processes, including petrochemical refineries and chemical compounds production. Due to its toxicity to microbial activity, it can affect the efficiency of biological wastewater treatment processes. In this study, the efficiency of an Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (ASBR) fed with increasing phenol concentrations (from 120 to 1200 mg L(-1)) was assessed and the relationship between phenol degradation capacity and the microbial community structure was evaluated. Up to a feeding concentration of 800 mg L(-1), the initial degradation rate steadily increased with phenol concentration (up to 180 mg L(-1) d(-1)) and the elimination capacity remained relatively constant around 27 mg phenol removed∙gVSS(-1) d(-1). Operation at higher concentrations (1200 mg L(-1)) resulted in a still efficient but slower process: the elimination capacity and the initial degradation rate decreased to, respectively, 11 mg phenol removed∙gVSS(-1) d(-1) and 154 mg L(-1) d(-1). As revealed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, the increase of phenol concentration induced level-dependent structural modifications of the community composition which suggest an adaptation process. The increase of phenol concentration from 120 to 800 mg L(-1) had little effect on the community structure, while it involved drastic structural changes when increasing from 800 to 1200 mg L(-1), including a strong community structure shift, suggesting the specialization of the community through the emergence and selection of most adapted phylotypes. The thresholds of structural and functional disturbances were similar, suggesting the correlation of degradation performance and community structure. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) confirmed that the ASBR functional performance was essentially driven by specific community traits. Under the highest feeding concentration, the most abundant ribotype probably involved in

  11. Mechanochemical transformation of an organic ligand on mineral surfaces: the efficiency of birnessite in catechol degradation.

    PubMed

    Di Leo, Paola; Pizzigallo, Maria Donata Rosa; Ancona, Valeria; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Mesto, Ernesto; Schingaro, Emanuela; Ventruti, Gennaro

    2012-01-30

    The aim of this work is to investigate the efficiency of the phyllomanganate birnessite in degrading catechol after mechanochemical treatments. A synthesized birnessite and the organic molecule were grounded together in a high energy mill and the xenobiotic-mineral surface reactions induced by the grinding treatment have been investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermal analysis and spectroscopic techniques as well as high-performance liquid chromatography and voltammetric techniques. If compared to the simple contact between the birnessite and the organic molecule, mechanochemical treatments have revealed to be highly efficient in degrading catechol molecules, in terms both of time and extent. Due to the two phenolic groups of catechol and the small steric hindrance of the molecule, the extent of the mechanochemically induced degradation of catechol onto birnessite surfaces is quite high. The degradation mechanism mainly occurs via a redox reaction. It implies the formation of a surface bidentate inner-sphere complex between the phenolic group of the organic molecules and the Mn(IV) from the birnessite structure. Structural changes occur on the MnO(6) layers of birnessite as due to the mechanically induced surface reactions: reduction of Mn(IV), consequent formation of Mn(III) and new vacancies, and free Mn(2+) ions production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The oligomeric architecture of the archaeal exosome is important for processive and efficient RNA degradation

    PubMed Central

    Audin, Maxime J. C.; Wurm, Jan Philip; Cvetkovic, Milos A.; Sprangers, Remco

    2016-01-01

    The exosome plays an important role in RNA degradation and processing. In archaea, three Rrp41:Rrp42 heterodimers assemble into a barrel like structure that contains a narrow RNA entrance pore and a lumen that contains three active sites. Here, we demonstrate that this quaternary structure of the exosome is important for efficient RNA degradation. We find that the entrance pore of the barrel is required for nM substrate affinity. This strong interaction is crucial for processive substrate degradation and prevents premature release of the RNA from the enzyme. Using methyl TROSY NMR techniques, we establish that the 3′ end of the substrate remains highly flexible inside the lumen. As a result, the RNA jumps between the three active sites that all equally participate in substrate degradation. The RNA jumping rate is, however, much faster than the cleavage rate, indicating that not all active site:substrate encounters result in catalysis. Enzymatic turnover therefore benefits from the confinement of the active sites and substrate in the lumen, which ensures that the RNA is at all times bound to one of the active sites. The evolution of the exosome into a hexameric complex and the optimization of its catalytic efficiency were thus likely co-occurring events. PMID:26837575

  13. Phenol-degrading anode biofilm with high coulombic efficiency in graphite electrodes microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Li, Zhiling; Zhang, Chunfang; Zhou, Xue; Xiao, Zhixing; Awata, Takanori; Katayama, Arata

    2017-03-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC), with graphite electrodes as both the anode and cathode, was operated with a soil-free anaerobic consortium for phenol degradation. This phenol-degrading MFC showed high efficiency with a current density of 120 mA/m(2) and a coulombic efficiency of 22.7%, despite the lack of a platinum catalyst cathode and inoculation of sediment/soil. Removal of planktonic bacteria by renewing the anaerobic medium did not decrease the performance, suggesting that the phenol-degrading MFC was not maintained by the planktonic bacteria but by the microorganisms in the anode biofilm. Cyclic voltammetry analysis of the anode biofilm showed distinct oxidation and reduction peaks. Analysis of the microbial community structure of the anode biofilm and the planktonic bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that Geobacter sp. was the phenol degrader in the anode biofilm and was responsible for current generation. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electroplating sludge derived zinc-ferrite catalyst for the efficient photo-Fenton degradation of dye.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhenbang; Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Jizhi; Ruan, Xiuxiu; Chen, Dan; Liu, Jianyong; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren

    2017-05-15

    A zinc-dominant ferrite catalyst for efficient degradation of organic dye was prepared by the calcination of electroplating sludge (ES). Characterizations indicated that zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) coexisted with Fe2O3 structure was the predominant phase in the calcined electroplating sludge (CES). CES displayed a high decolorization ratio (88.3%) of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H2O2 combined with UV irradiation. The high efficiency could be ascribed to the photocatalytic process induced by ZnFe2O4 and the photo-Fenton dye degradation by ferrous content, and a small amount of Al and Mg in the sludge might also contribute to the catalysis. Moreover, the degradation capability of dye by CES was supported by the synthetic ZnFe2O4 with different Zn to Fe molar ratio (n(Zn): n(Fe)), as 84.81%-86.83% of dye was removed with n(Zn): n(Fe) ranged from 1:0.5 to 1:3. All synthetic ferrite samples in the simulation achieved adjacent equilibrium decolorization ratio, the flexible proportioning of divalent metal ions (M(2+)) to trivalent metal ions (M(3+)) applied in the synthesis indicated that the catalyst has a high availability. Therefore, an efficacious catalyst for the degradation of dye can potentially be derived from heavy metal-containing ES, it's a novel approach for the reutilization of ES.

  15. Isolation and identification of efficient Egyptian malathion-degrading bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, S A; Marzouk, M A; Abbassy, M A; Abd-El-Haleem, D A; Shamseldin, Abdelaal

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial isolates degrading malathion were isolated from the soil and agricultural waste water due to their ability to grow on minimal salt media amended with malathion as a sole carbon source. Efficiencies of native Egyptian bacterial malathion-degrading isolates were investigated and the study generated nine highly effective malathion-degrading bacterial strains among 40. Strains were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA analysis. Comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequences revealed that these bacteria are similar with the genus Acinetobacter and Bacillus spp. and RFLP based PCR of 16S rDNA gave four different RFLP patterns among strains with enzyme HinfI while with enzyme HaeI they gave two RFLP profiles. The degradation rate of malathion in liquid culture was estimated using gas chromatography. Bacterial strains could degrade more than 90% of the initial malathion concentration (1000 ppm) within 4 days. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Organic Electroluminescent Sensor for Pressure Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Yu; Ueno, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Egami, Yasuhiro; Niimi, Tomohide

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed a novel concept of a pressure sensor called electroluminescent pressure sensor (ELPS) based on oxygen quenching of electroluminescence. The sensor was fabricated as an organic light-emitting device (OLED) with phosphorescent dyes whose phosphorescence can be quenched by oxygen molecules, and with a polymer electrode which permeates oxygen molecules. The sensor was a single-layer OLED with Platinum (II) octaethylporphine (PtOEP) doped into poly(vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as an oxygen sensitive emissive layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as an oxygen permeating polymer anode. The pressure sensitivity of the fabricated ELPS sample was equivalent to that of the sensor excited by an illumination light source. Moreover, the pressure sensitivity of the sensor is equivalent to that of conventional pressure-sensitive paint (PSP), which is an optical pressure sensor based on photoluminescence. PMID:23202027

  17. Blue electroluminescence from AlN nanowhiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokhmintsev, A. S.; Weinstein, I. A.; Chaikin, D. V.; Fedorov, M. D.; Afonin, Yu. D.

    2015-04-01

    AlN nanowhiskers with an average diameter of 68 nm, for which a chemical analysis showed an Al: N ratio of about 1: 0.8 and a high content of oxygen and carbon impurities, have been synthesized. The electroluminescent properties of the nanostructures have been studied at room temperature in the spectral range of 4.0-1.77 eV (310-700 nm) at varied voltage (75-200 V) and frequency (0.5-10.0 kHz) of the exciting harmonic signal. It is shown that the electroluminescence recorded in the blue spectral range is constituted by bands peaked at E max ≈ 2.53 and 2.75 eV and half-widths ω ≈ 0.39 and 0.30 eV, respectively, which may be associated with electron-optical transitions involving impurity-vacancy centers in the anion and cation sublattices of AlN.

  18. Organic electroluminescent sensor for pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yu; Ueno, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Egami, Yasuhiro; Niimi, Tomohide

    2012-10-16

    We have proposed a novel concept of a pressure sensor called electroluminescent pressure sensor (ELPS) based on oxygen quenching of electroluminescence. The sensor was fabricated as an organic light-emitting device (OLED) with phosphorescent dyes whose phosphorescence can be quenched by oxygenmolecules, and with a polymer electrode which permeates oxygen molecules. The sensor was a single-layer OLED with Platinum (II) octaethylporphine (PtOEP) doped into poly(vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as an oxygen sensitive emissive layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as an oxygen permeating polymer anode. The pressure sensitivity of the fabricated ELPS sample was equivalent to that of the sensor excited by an illumination light source. Moreover, the pressure sensitivity of the sensor is equivalent to that of conventional pressure-sensitive paint (PSP), which is an optical pressure sensor based on photoluminescence.

  19. [Electroluminescence character of novel unsymmetry substituted phthalocyanines].

    PubMed

    Xia, Dao-cheng; Li, Wan-cheng; Han, Shuang; Cheng, Chuan-hui; Li, Quan-quan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhu

    2010-09-01

    The authors for the first time fabricated OLEDs employing novel phthalocynines: 2(3)-(p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(1), 2(3),16(17)-di(p-tert-butyl-phenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(2) and 2(3), 9(10), 16(17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(3) as light emitting layer, and their electroluminescence character was studied. The final structures of three-layer OLEDs based on copper 2(3)-(p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine (1) and 2(3), 9(10), 16(17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(3) were ITO/NPB(40 nm)/Pc(30 nm)/AlQ(43.5 nm)/LiF (0.5 nm)/Al(120 nm). The structure of three-layer OLED based on 2(3), 9(10), 16(17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine (3) was ITO/NPB(30 nm)/Pc(30 nm) /BCP(20 nm)/A1Q(30 nm)/LiF (0. 5 nm)/Al(120 nm). Room-temperature electroluminescence was observed at about 869 nmand 1 062 nm for 2(3)-(p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(1); room-temperature electroluminescence of 2(3),16(17) -di(p-tert-butyl-phenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(2) was found at about 1050 nm and 1110 nm; and room-temperature electroluminescence of 2(3), 9(10), 16( 17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(3) was studied at about 1095 and 1204 nm. The emission wavelengths and the half bandwidths were quite different for the phthalocyanine, which may be due to the differences in the number of substituted and the molecular aggregations in vacuum sublimed films. The difference in Stokes shift relaxation was also induced by the molecular aggregations.

  20. Efficient degradation of trichloroethylene in water using persulfate activated by reduced graphene oxide-iron nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ayyaz; Gu, Xiaogang; Li, Li; Lv, Shuguang; Xu, Yisheng; Guo, Xuhong

    2015-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and nano-sized zero-valent iron-reduced graphene oxide (nZVI-rGO) composite were prepared. The GO and nZVI-rGO composite were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy. The size of nZVI was about 6 nm as observed by TEM. The system of nZVI-rGO and persulfate (PS) was used for the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water, and showed 26.5% more efficiency as compared to nZVI/PS system. The different parameters were studied to determine the efficiency of nZVI-rGO to activate the PS system for the TCE degradation. By increasing the PS amount, TCE removal was also improved while no obvious effect was observed by varying the catalyst loading. Degradation was decreased as the TCE initial concentration was increased from 20 to 100 mg/L. Moreover, when initial solution pH was increased, efficiency deteriorated to 80%. Bicarbonate showed more negative effect on TCE removal among the solution matrix. To better understand the effects of radical species in the system, the scavenger tests were performed. The •SO4(-) and •O2(-) were predominant species responsible for TCE removal. The nZVI-rGO-activated PS process shows potential applications in remediation of highly toxic organic contaminants such as TCE present in the groundwater. Graphical abstract Persulfate activated by reduced graphene oxide and nano-sized zero-valent iron composite can be used for efficient degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water.

  1. Resource efficiency analysis for photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of estriol using TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Irwing M; Tuberty, Shea; Hambourger, Mike; Bandala, Erick R

    2017-10-01

    A resource efficiency analysis was developed that evaluated photocatalyst loading and temperature inputs, and assessed hydroxyl radical (OH) production. Catalyst loading (Aeroxide(®) TiO2 P25) between 1 and 1500 mg L(-1) and temperatures between 5 and 50 °C were analyzed as input resources for OH production. After, the best experimental conditions were used to degrade and mineralize estriol (E3). The analysis showed that a low catalyst concentration lead to poor absorption of radiation and a slow reaction. When high catalyst concentrations were tested, most of the radiation was absorbed, which produced results near the top of the slowing rate of OH generation. Temperature was found a relevant resource for increasing interfacial transfer to facilitate OH production following the Arrhenius model. Two indices to measure resource efficiency were proposed: 1) the OH generation index (OHI) and 2) the initial degradation efficiency (IDE). OHI was used to measure the efficiency of a catalyst using photonic flux to generate OH production. IDE evaluated the relationship between the photocatalytic reactor set-up, catalyst, and E3 degradation. It was observed that 1.18 OH was produced when a photon interacts with a photocatalyst particle when a load of 5 mg L(-1) of photocatalyst is used at 20 °C. It was found that at initial time, 2.4 OH was generated in the systems to produce a degradation of one E3 molecule when using a photocatalyst load of 20 mg L(-1) at 20 °C. Additionally, it was demonstrated that E3 mineralization was feasible under different catalyst loading scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Highly efficient gluten degradation with a newly identified prolyl endoprotease: implications for celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Stepniak, Dariusz; Spaenij-Dekking, Liesbeth; Mitea, Cristina; Moester, Martine; de Ru, Arnoud; Baak-Pablo, Renee; van Veelen, Peter; Edens, Luppo; Koning, Frits

    2006-10-01

    Celiac disease is a T cell-driven intolerance to wheat gluten. The gluten-derived T cell epitopes are proline-rich and thereby highly resistant to proteolytic degradation within the gastrointestinal tract. Oral supplementation with prolyl oligopeptidases has therefore been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach. The enzymes studied, however, have limitations as they are irreversibly inactivated by pepsin and acidic pH, both present in the stomach. As a consequence, these enzymes will fail to degrade gluten before it reaches the small intestine, the site where gluten induces inflammatory T cell responses that lead to celiac disease. We have now determined the usefulness of a newly identified prolyl endoprotease from Aspergillus niger for this purpose. Gluten and its peptic/tryptic digest were treated with prolyl endoprotease, and the destruction of the T cell epitopes was tested using mass spectrometry, T cell proliferation assays, ELISA, reverse-phase HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and Western blotting. We observed that the A. niger prolyl endoprotease works optimally at 4-5 pH, remains stable at 2 pH, and is completely resistant to digestion with pepsin. Moreover, the A. niger-derived enzyme efficiently degraded all tested T cell stimulatory peptides as well as intact gluten molecules. On average, the endoprotease from A. niger degraded gluten peptides 60 times faster than a prolyl oligopeptidase. Together these results indicate that the enzyme from A. niger efficiently degrades gluten proteins. Future studies are required to determine if the prolyl endoprotease can be used as an oral supplement to reduce gluten intake in patients.

  3. An efficient and environment-friendly method of removing graphene oxide in wastewater and its degradation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao-Zhi; Li, Ting; Yuan, Yang; Xu, Jianqiang

    2016-06-01

    Graphene and graphene oxide (GO) have already existed in air, water and soil due to their popular application in functional materials. However, degradation of graphene and GO in wastewater has not been reported. Degradation of GO plays a key role in the elimination of graphene and GO in wastewater due to graphene being easily oxidized to GO. In this paper, GO was completely degraded to give CO2 by Photo-Fenton. The degradation intermediates were determined by UV-vis absorption spectra, elemental analysis (EA), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Experimental results showed that graphene oxide was completely degraded to give CO2 after 28 days. Based on UV, FT-IR, LC-MS spectra and EA data of these degradation intermediates, the degradation mechanisms of GO were supposed. This paper suggests an efficient and environment-friendly method to degrade GO and graphene.

  4. Electroluminescence from ZnO-nanofilm/Si-micropillar heterostructure arrays.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu Fei; Su, Wei; Zhang, Chang Xing; Wu, Zheng Long; Tang, Ying; Sun, Xiao Qi; Xu, Hai Jun

    2012-10-22

    ZnO-nanofilm/Si-micropillar p-n nanoheterostructure arrays were prepared by growing n-type ZnO onto a p-type nanoporous Si pillar array. Its current-voltage characteristics of nanoheterostructure showed good rectifying behavior with onset voltage of ~1.5 V, forward current density of ~28.7 mA/cm(2) at 2.5 V, leakage current density of ~0.15 mA/cm(2) and rectifying ratio of ~121 at ± 2.5 V. The electron transport across nanohetreostructure obeys the trap-charge-limit current model. Moreover, strong white light electroluminescence from ZnO-nanofilm/Si-micropillar light-emitting diode (LED) has been achieved, which could open up possibilities to build new ZnO/Si-based highly efficient solid-state lighting devices.

  5. Circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence and electroluminescence of iridium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tian-Yi; Jing, Yi-Ming; Liu, Xuan; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Lin; Tang, Zhiyong; Zheng, You-Xuan; Zuo, Jing-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Nearly all the neutral iridium complexes widely used as dopants in PhOLEDs are racemic mixtures; however, this study observed that these complexes can be separated into stable optically active Λ and ∆ isomers and that their chirality is an intrinsic property. The circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence (CPPPL) signals of Λ/Δ isomers are perfect mirror images with opposite polarisation and equal intensity exhibiting a “handedness” for the polarisation. For the first time, we applied the Λ/Δ iridium isomers as emitters in OLEDs, and the circularly polarised phosphorescent electroluminescence (CPPEL) spectra reveal completely positive or negative broad peaks consistent with the CPPPL spectra. The results demonstrate that the Λ/Δ isomers have potential application for 3D OLEDs because they can exhibit high efficiency and luminance, and 3D display technology based on circularly polarised light is the most comfortable for the eyes.

  6. Natural Magnetite: an efficient catalyst for the degradation of organic contaminant

    PubMed Central

    HE, Hongping; ZHONG, Yuanhong; LIANG, Xiaoliang; TAN, Wei; ZHU, Jianxi; Yan WANG, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Iron (hydr)oxides are ubiquitous earth materials that have high adsorption capacities for toxic elements and degradation ability towards organic contaminants. Many studies have investigated the reactivity of synthetic magnetite, while little is known about natural magnetite. Here, we first report the reactivity of natural magnetites with a variety of elemental impurities for catalyzing the decomposition of H2O2 to produce hydroxyl free radicals (•OH) and the consequent degradation of p-nitrophenol (p-NP). We observed that these natural magnetites show higher catalytic performance than that of the synthetic pure magnetite. The catalytic ability of natural magnetite with high phase purity depends on the surface site density while that for the magnetites with exsolutions relies on the mineralogical nature of the exsolved phases. The pleonaste exsolution can promote the generation of •OH and the consequent degradation of p-NP; the ilmenite exsolution has little effect on the decomposition of H2O2, but can increase the adsorption of p-NP on magnetite. Our results imply that natural magnetite is an efficient catalyst for the degradation of organic contaminants in nature. PMID:25958854

  7. Natural Magnetite: an efficient catalyst for the degradation of organic contaminant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongping; Zhong, Yuanhong; Liang, Xiaoliang; Tan, Wei; Zhu, Jianxi; Yan Wang, Christina

    2015-05-01

    Iron (hydr)oxides are ubiquitous earth materials that have high adsorption capacities for toxic elements and degradation ability towards organic contaminants. Many studies have investigated the reactivity of synthetic magnetite, while little is known about natural magnetite. Here, we first report the reactivity of natural magnetites with a variety of elemental impurities for catalyzing the decomposition of H2O2 to produce hydroxyl free radicals (•OH) and the consequent degradation of p-nitrophenol (p-NP). We observed that these natural magnetites show higher catalytic performance than that of the synthetic pure magnetite. The catalytic ability of natural magnetite with high phase purity depends on the surface site density while that for the magnetites with exsolutions relies on the mineralogical nature of the exsolved phases. The pleonaste exsolution can promote the generation of •OH and the consequent degradation of p-NP; the ilmenite exsolution has little effect on the decomposition of H2O2, but can increase the adsorption of p-NP on magnetite. Our results imply that natural magnetite is an efficient catalyst for the degradation of organic contaminants in nature.

  8. Cellulose surface degradation by a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase and its effect on cellulase hydrolytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Eibinger, Manuel; Ganner, Thomas; Bubner, Patricia; Rošker, Stephanie; Kracher, Daniel; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland; Plank, Harald; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2014-12-26

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) represents a unique principle of oxidative degradation of recalcitrant insoluble polysaccharides. Used in combination with hydrolytic enzymes, LPMO appears to constitute a significant factor of the efficiency of enzymatic biomass depolymerization. LPMO activity on different cellulose substrates has been shown from the slow release of oxidized oligosaccharides into solution, but an immediate and direct demonstration of the enzyme action on the cellulose surface is lacking. Specificity of LPMO for degrading ordered crystalline and unordered amorphous cellulose material of the substrate surface is also unknown. We show by fluorescence dye adsorption analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy that a LPMO (from Neurospora crassa) introduces carboxyl groups primarily in surface-exposed crystalline areas of the cellulosic substrate. Using time-resolved in situ atomic force microscopy we further demonstrate that cellulose nano-fibrils exposed on the surface are degraded into shorter and thinner insoluble fragments. Also using atomic force microscopy, we show that prior action of LPMO enables cellulases to attack otherwise highly resistant crystalline substrate areas and that it promotes an overall faster and more complete surface degradation. Overall, this study reveals key characteristics of LPMO action on the cellulose surface and suggests the effects of substrate morphology on the synergy between LPMO and hydrolytic enzymes in cellulose depolymerization. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Cellulose Surface Degradation by a Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase and Its Effect on Cellulase Hydrolytic Efficiency*

    PubMed Central

    Eibinger, Manuel; Ganner, Thomas; Bubner, Patricia; Rošker, Stephanie; Kracher, Daniel; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland; Plank, Harald; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) represents a unique principle of oxidative degradation of recalcitrant insoluble polysaccharides. Used in combination with hydrolytic enzymes, LPMO appears to constitute a significant factor of the efficiency of enzymatic biomass depolymerization. LPMO activity on different cellulose substrates has been shown from the slow release of oxidized oligosaccharides into solution, but an immediate and direct demonstration of the enzyme action on the cellulose surface is lacking. Specificity of LPMO for degrading ordered crystalline and unordered amorphous cellulose material of the substrate surface is also unknown. We show by fluorescence dye adsorption analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy that a LPMO (from Neurospora crassa) introduces carboxyl groups primarily in surface-exposed crystalline areas of the cellulosic substrate. Using time-resolved in situ atomic force microscopy we further demonstrate that cellulose nano-fibrils exposed on the surface are degraded into shorter and thinner insoluble fragments. Also using atomic force microscopy, we show that prior action of LPMO enables cellulases to attack otherwise highly resistant crystalline substrate areas and that it promotes an overall faster and more complete surface degradation. Overall, this study reveals key characteristics of LPMO action on the cellulose surface and suggests the effects of substrate morphology on the synergy between LPMO and hydrolytic enzymes in cellulose depolymerization. PMID:25361767

  10. Low-voltage polariton electroluminescence from an ultrastrongly coupled organic light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbin, Christopher R.; Maier, Stefan A.; Kéna-Cohen, Stéphane

    2014-06-09

    We demonstrate electroluminescence from Frenkel molecular excitons ultrastrongly coupled to photons of a metal-clad microcavity containing a 2,7-bis[9,9-di(4-methylphenyl)-fluoren-2-yl]-9,9-di(4-methylphenyl)fluorene emissive layer. Thin layers of molybdenum oxide and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline are used as hole and electron injection layers, respectively. The fabricated devices exhibit an electroluminescence threshold of 3.1 V, a value that is below the bare exciton energy. This result is found to be independent of detuning and consistent with a two-step process for polariton formation. Moreover, we investigate the quantum efficiency of carrier to polariton to photon conversion and obtain an external quantum efficiency of 0.1% for the fabricated structures, an improvement of 5 orders of magnitude over previous reports.

  11. Electroluminescence from metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes using compressively strained Ge on Si0.5Ge0.5 virtual substrates.

    PubMed

    Manna, Santanu; Aluguri, Rakesh; Das, Samaresh; Singha, Rajkumar; Ray, Samit K

    2013-11-18

    Direct band gap optical transition in compressively strained Ge film is demonstrated for the first time under current injection through a metal-insulator-semiconductor diode structure. The compressively strained Ge layer is grown on the relaxed Si0.5Ge0.5 substrate by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. The electroluminescence of direct band gap emission from strained Ge film and TO phonon assisted transition in Si and SiGe from the virtual substrate is observed under different current injections. The signature of heavy hole and light hole splitting in valence band is observed in the electroluminescence spectra from strained Ge layer. The temperature dependent electroluminescence characteristics have been studied over a temperature range of 10-300 K. AC frequency modulation for the Ge direct band electroluminescence has been studied to improve the emission efficiency over the DC bias.

  12. Assessment of solar driven TiO2-assisted photocatalysis efficiency on amoxicillin degradation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, João H O S; Reis, Ana C; Nunes, Olga C; Borges, Maria T; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a solar TiO2-assisted photocatalytic process on amoxicillin (AMX) degradation, an antibiotic widely used in human and veterinary medicine. Firstly, solar photolysis of AMX was compared with solar photocatalysis in a compound parabolic collectors pilot scale photoreactor to assess the amount of accumulated UV energy in the system (Q UV) necessary to remove 20 mg L(-1) AMX from aqueous solution and mineralize the intermediary by-products. Another experiment was also carried out to accurately follow the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli DSM 1103 and Staphylococcus aureus DSM 1104 and mineralization of AMX by tracing the contents of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), low molecular weight carboxylate anions, and inorganic anions. Finally, the influence of individual inorganic ions on AMX photocatalytic degradation efficiency and the involvement of some reactive oxygen species were also assessed. Photolysis was shown to be completely ineffective, while only 3.1 kJUV L(-1) was sufficient to fully degrade 20 mg L(-1) AMX and remove 61% of initial DOC content in the presence of the photocatalyst and sunlight. In the experiment with an initial AMX concentration of 40 mg L(-1), antibacterial activity of the solution was considerably reduced after elimination of AMX to levels below the respective detection limit. After 11.7 kJUV L(-1), DOC decreased by 71%; 30% of the AMX nitrogen was converted into ammonium and all sulfur compounds were converted into sulfate. A large percentage of the remaining DOC was in the form of low molecular weight carboxylic acids. Presence of phosphate ions promoted the removal of AMX from solution, while no sizeable effects on the kinetics were found for other inorganic ions. Although the AMX degradation was mainly attributed to hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen also plays an important role in AMX self-photosensitization under UV/visible solar light.

  13. Electroluminescence of Zinc Complexes in Various OLED Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odod, A. V.; Nikonova, E. N.; Nikonov, S. Yu.; Kopylova, T. N.; Kaplunov, M. G.; Krasnikova, S. S.; Nikitenko, S. L.; Yakushchenko, I. K.

    2017-05-01

    Results of spectral-luminescent and electroluminescent studies of organic semiconductor zinc complexes in light-emitting diode devices are presented. A displacement of the electroluminescence band maximum toward longer wavelengths with structure complication is shown. Devices based on zinc metal organic complexes have low threshold voltage (from 2.5 V) and brightness above 100 cd/m2.

  14. Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Guichuan; Wu, Bo; Wu, Xiangyang; Li, Mingjie; Du, Bin; Wei, Qi; Guo, Jia; Yeow, Edwin K. L.; Sum, Tze Chien; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The slow bimolecular recombination that drives three-dimensional lead-halide perovskites' outstanding photovoltaic performance is conversely a fundamental limitation for electroluminescence. Under electroluminescence working conditions with typical charge densities lower than 1015 cm−3, defect-states trapping in three-dimensional perovskites competes effectively with the bimolecular radiative recombination. Herein, we overcome this limitation using van-der-Waals-coupled Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite multi-quantum-wells. Injected charge carriers are rapidly localized from adjacent thin few layer (n≤4) multi-quantum-wells to the thick (n≥5) multi-quantum-wells with extremely high efficiency (over 85%) through quantum coupling. Light emission originates from excitonic recombination in the thick multi-quantum-wells at much higher decay rate and efficiency than bimolecular recombination in three-dimensional perovskites. These multi-quantum-wells retain the simple solution processability and high charge carrier mobility of two-dimensional lead-halide perovskites. Importantly, these Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites offer new functionalities unavailable in single phase constituents, permitting the transcendence of the slow bimolecular recombination bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites for efficient electroluminescence. PMID:28239146

  15. Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Xing, Guichuan; Wu, Bo; Wu, Xiangyang; Li, Mingjie; Du, Bin; Wei, Qi; Guo, Jia; Yeow, Edwin K L; Sum, Tze Chien; Huang, Wei

    2017-02-27

    The slow bimolecular recombination that drives three-dimensional lead-halide perovskites' outstanding photovoltaic performance is conversely a fundamental limitation for electroluminescence. Under electroluminescence working conditions with typical charge densities lower than 10(15) cm(-3), defect-states trapping in three-dimensional perovskites competes effectively with the bimolecular radiative recombination. Herein, we overcome this limitation using van-der-Waals-coupled Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite multi-quantum-wells. Injected charge carriers are rapidly localized from adjacent thin few layer (n≤4) multi-quantum-wells to the thick (n≥5) multi-quantum-wells with extremely high efficiency (over 85%) through quantum coupling. Light emission originates from excitonic recombination in the thick multi-quantum-wells at much higher decay rate and efficiency than bimolecular recombination in three-dimensional perovskites. These multi-quantum-wells retain the simple solution processability and high charge carrier mobility of two-dimensional lead-halide perovskites. Importantly, these Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites offer new functionalities unavailable in single phase constituents, permitting the transcendence of the slow bimolecular recombination bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites for efficient electroluminescence.

  16. Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Guichuan; Wu, Bo; Wu, Xiangyang; Li, Mingjie; Du, Bin; Wei, Qi; Guo, Jia; Yeow, Edwin K. L.; Sum, Tze Chien; Huang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    The slow bimolecular recombination that drives three-dimensional lead-halide perovskites' outstanding photovoltaic performance is conversely a fundamental limitation for electroluminescence. Under electroluminescence working conditions with typical charge densities lower than 1015 cm-3, defect-states trapping in three-dimensional perovskites competes effectively with the bimolecular radiative recombination. Herein, we overcome this limitation using van-der-Waals-coupled Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite multi-quantum-wells. Injected charge carriers are rapidly localized from adjacent thin few layer (n<=4) multi-quantum-wells to the thick (n>=5) multi-quantum-wells with extremely high efficiency (over 85%) through quantum coupling. Light emission originates from excitonic recombination in the thick multi-quantum-wells at much higher decay rate and efficiency than bimolecular recombination in three-dimensional perovskites. These multi-quantum-wells retain the simple solution processability and high charge carrier mobility of two-dimensional lead-halide perovskites. Importantly, these Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites offer new functionalities unavailable in single phase constituents, permitting the transcendence of the slow bimolecular recombination bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites for efficient electroluminescence.

  17. Carrier injection and recombination processes in perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells studied by electroluminescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, Taketo; Okano, Makoto; Tex, David M.; Shimazaki, Ai; Aharen, Tomoko; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2016-02-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials, CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I and Br), are considered as promising candidates for emerging thin-film photovoltaics. For practical implementation, the degradation mechanism and the carrier dynamics during operation have to be clarified. We investigated the degradation mechanism and the carrier injection and recombination processes in perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells using photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) imaging spectroscopies. By applying forward bias-voltage, an inhomogeneous distribution of the EL intensity was clearly observed from the CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells. By comparing the PL- and EL-images, we revealed that the spatial inhomogeneity of the EL intensity is a result of the inhomogeneous luminescence efficiency in the perovskite layer. An application of bias-voltage for several tens of minutes in air caused a decrease in the EL intensity and the conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells. The degradation mechanism of perovskite solar cells under bias-voltage in air is discussed.

  18. Charge collection efficiency degradation induced by MeV ions in semiconductor devices: Model and experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Vittone, Ettore; Pastuovic, Zeljko; Breese, Mark B. H.; ...

    2016-02-08

    This study investigates both theoretically and experimentally the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation in silicon diodes induced by energetic ions. Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out on n- and p-type silicon diodes which were previously irradiated with MeV He ions show evidence that the CCE degradation does not only depend on the mass, energy and fluence of the damaging ion, but also depends on the ion probe species and on the polarization state of the device. A general one-dimensional model is derived, which accounts for the ion-induced defect distribution, the ionization profile of the probing ion and themore » charge induction mechanism. Using the ionizing and non-ionizing energy loss profiles resulting from simulations based on the binary collision approximation and on the electrostatic/transport parameters of the diode under study as input, the model is able to accurately reproduce the experimental CCE degradation curves without introducing any phenomenological additional term or formula. Although limited to low level of damage, the model is quite general, including the displacement damage approach as a special case and can be applied to any semiconductor device. It provides a method to measure the capture coefficients of the radiation induced recombination centres. They can be considered indexes, which can contribute to assessing the relative radiation hardness of semiconductor materials.« less

  19. Charge collection efficiency degradation induced by MeV ions in semiconductor devices: Model and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Vittone, Ettore; Pastuovic, Zeljko; Breese, Mark B. H.; Lopez, Javier Garicia; Jaksic, Milko; Raisanen, Jyrki; Siegele, Rainer; Simon, Aliz; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2016-02-08

    This study investigates both theoretically and experimentally the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation in silicon diodes induced by energetic ions. Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out on n- and p-type silicon diodes which were previously irradiated with MeV He ions show evidence that the CCE degradation does not only depend on the mass, energy and fluence of the damaging ion, but also depends on the ion probe species and on the polarization state of the device. A general one-dimensional model is derived, which accounts for the ion-induced defect distribution, the ionization profile of the probing ion and the charge induction mechanism. Using the ionizing and non-ionizing energy loss profiles resulting from simulations based on the binary collision approximation and on the electrostatic/transport parameters of the diode under study as input, the model is able to accurately reproduce the experimental CCE degradation curves without introducing any phenomenological additional term or formula. Although limited to low level of damage, the model is quite general, including the displacement damage approach as a special case and can be applied to any semiconductor device. It provides a method to measure the capture coefficients of the radiation induced recombination centres. They can be considered indexes, which can contribute to assessing the relative radiation hardness of semiconductor materials.

  20. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles for the efficient removal (degradation) of dye from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-12-01

    The present work reports the utilization of a common household waste material (fish scales of Labeo rohita) for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. The method so developed was found to be green, environment-friendly, and economic. The fish scale extracts were acting as a stabilizing and reducing agents. This method avoids the use of external reducing and stabilizing agents, templates, and solvents. The compositional abundance of gelatin may be envisaged for the effective reductive as well as stabilizing potency. The mechanisms for the formation of nanoparticles have also been presented. The synthesized copper nanoparticles formed were predominantly spherical in nature with an average size of nanoparticles in the range of 25-37 nm. The copper nanoparticles showed characteristic Bragg's reflection planes of fcc which was supported by both selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction pattern and showed surface plasmon resonance at 580 nm. Moreover, the energy dispersive spectroscopy pattern also revealed the presence of only elemental copper in the copper nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were used for the remediation of a carcinogenic and noxious textile dye, Methylene blue, from aqueous solution. Approximately, 96 % degradation of Methylene blue dye was observed within 135 min using copper nanoparticles. The probable mechanism for the degradation of the dye has been presented, and the degraded intermediates have been identified using the liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. The high efficiency of nanoparticles as photocatalysts has opened a promising application for the removal of hazardous dye from industrial effluents contributing indirectly to environmental cleanup process.

  1. Laccase-conjugated amino-functionalized nanosilica for efficient degradation of Reactive Violet 1 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlout, Mayur; Rudakiya, Darshan M.; Gupte, Shilpa; Gupte, Akshaya

    2017-08-01

    Immobilization of enzyme with nanostructures enhances its ideal characteristics, which may allow the enzyme to become more stable and resistant. The present investigation deals with the formulation of laccase nanosilica conjugates to overcome the problems associated with its stability and reusability. Synthesized nanosilica and laccase nanoparticles were spherical shaped, with the mean size of 220 and 615 nm, respectively. Laccase nanoparticles had an optimum temperature of 55 °C and pH 4.0 for the oxidation of ABTS. Laccase nanoparticle retained 79% of residual activity till 20th cycle. It also showed 91% of its initial activity at lower temperatures even after 60 days. Laccase nanoparticles were applied for Reactive Violet 1 degradation wherein 96.76% of decolourization was obtained at pH 5.0 and 30 °C within 12 h. Toxicity studies on microbes and plants suggested that the degraded metabolites were less toxic than control dye. Thus, the method applied for immobilization increased storage stability and reusability of laccase, and therefore, it can be utilized for efficient degradation of azo dyes.

  2. Efficient degradation of gluten by a prolyl endoprotease in a gastrointestinal model: implications for coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Mitea, C; Havenaar, R; Drijfhout, J Wouter; Edens, L; Dekking, L; Koning, F

    2008-01-01

    Coeliac disease is caused by an immune response to gluten. As gluten proteins are proline rich they are resistant to enzymatic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, a property that probably contributes to the immunogenic nature of gluten. This study determined the efficiency of gluten degradation by a post-proline cutting enzyme, Aspergillus niger prolyl endoprotease (AN-PEP), in a dynamic system that closely mimics the human gastrointestinal tract (TIM system). Two experiments were performed. In the first, a slice of bread was processed in the TIM system with and without co-administration of AN-PEP. In the second, a standard fast food menu was used. Samples of the digesting meals were taken from the stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum compartments at time zero until 4 hours after the start of the experiment. In these samples the levels of immunogenic peptides from gliadins and glutenins were assessed by monoclonal antibody-based competition assays, Western blot analysis and proliferation T-cell assays. AN-PEP accelerated the degradation of gluten in the stomach compartment to such an extent that hardly any gluten reached the duodenum compartment. AN-PEP is capable of accelerating the degradation of gluten in a gastrointestinal system that closely mimics in-vivo digestion. This implies that the co-administration of AN-PEP with a gluten-containing meal might eliminate gluten toxicity, thus offering patients the possibility of abandoning (occasionally) their strict gluten-free diet.

  3. ZnO and cobalt phthalocyanine hybridized graphene: efficient photocatalysts for degradation of rhodamine B

    PubMed Central

    Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    A novel method has been developed to synthesize graphene-ZnO composite as a highly efficient catalyst by reduction of graphite oxide and in-situ deposition of ZnO nanoparticles by chemical reduction reaction. The graphene-ZnO catalyst is capable of complete degradation of rhodamine B under exposure to natural sunlight. Further, the catalytic efficiency of graphene-ZnO catalyst was enhanced by sensitizing with cobalt phthalocyanine. The formation of graphene-ZnO pcatalyst and its further sensitization with cobalt phthalocyanine was characterized using UV-vis, ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopy, powder XRD and thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology of both graphene-ZnO and graphene-ZnO-CoPC catalysts was analyzed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes. PMID:24972296

  4. ZnO and cobalt phthalocyanine hybridized graphene: efficient photocatalysts for degradation of rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Neelgund, Gururaj M; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiping

    2014-09-15

    A novel method has been developed to synthesize graphene-ZnO composite as a highly efficient catalyst by reduction of graphite oxide and in situ deposition of ZnO nanoparticles by chemical reduction reaction. The graphene-ZnO catalyst is capable of complete degradation of rhodamine B under exposure to natural sunlight. Further, the catalytic efficiency of graphene-ZnO catalyst was enhanced by sensitizing with cobalt phthalocyanine. The formation of graphene-ZnO photocatalyst and its further sensitization with cobalt phthalocyanine was characterized using UV-vis, ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopy, powder XRD and thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology of both graphene-ZnO and graphene-ZnO-CoPC catalysts was analyzed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of N-nitrosodiethylamine degradation in water by UV irradiation and UV/O3: efficiency, product and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingbing; Chen, Zhonglin; Qi, Fei; Ma, Jun; Wu, Fengchang

    2010-07-15

    N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a member of nitrosamines, which is strong carcinogenic. In order to explore an effective treatment method for NDEA removal from water, sole UV irradiation and UV/O(3) were carried out in this study. The removal efficiency, degradation products and pathways were compared between those two processes. Results showed that NDEA removal efficiency achieved 99% within 15 min by both UV and UV/O(3). Degradation reaction well followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. Water pH had different effect on NDEA degradation in those two processes. Acidic and neutral conditions were good for NDEA degradation by sole UV irradiation. However, NDEA underwent rapid degradation under various pH conditions in the UV/O(3) process. Though the ozone introduction in the UV/O(3) process had little effect on NDEA degradation efficiency, it had significant effect on its degradation products and pathways. Methylamine, dimethylamine, ethylamine and diethylamine were observed as aliphatic amine products of NDEA degradation in both two processes. They were assumed to arise due to N-N bond fission under UV irradiation, or due to the reaction of NDEA and hydroxyl radicals in the UV/O(3) process.

  6. Tunable magneto-conductance and magneto-electroluminescence in polymer light-emitting electrochemical planar devices

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, R.; Mayhew, N. T.; Nguyen, T. D.

    2013-12-09

    We report studies of magneto-conductance (MC) and magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) in polymer light-emitting electrochemical planar devices using “super-yellow” poly-(phenylene vinylene). We observed consistent negative MC while MEL becomes positive when electroluminescence quantum efficiency (ELQE) increases. At an optimal ELQE, the MC has a much narrower width than the MEL, indicating that the MC and MEL do not share a common origin. However, MC reverses and has the same width as MEL when exposed to a threshold laser power. We show that the e-h pair model can explain the positive MEL and MC while the negative MC can be explained by the bipolaron model.

  7. Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, R.; Lynch, S. A.; Paul, D. J.; Ikonic, Z.; Kelsall, R. W.; Harrison, P.; Liew, S. L.; Norris, D. J.; Cullis, A. G.; Tribe, W. R.; Arnone, D. D.

    2003-11-01

    The quantum cascade laser provides one potential method for the efficient generation of light from indirect materials such as silicon. While to date electroluminescence results from THz Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters have shown higher output powers than equivalent III-V emitters, the absence of population inversion within these structures has undermined their potential use for the creation of a laser. Electroluminescence results from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters are presented demonstrating intersubband emission from heavy to light holes interwell (diagonal) transitions between 1.2 THz (250 μm) and 1.9 THz (156 μm). Theoretical modeling of the transitions suggests the existence of population inversion within the system.

  8. Highly Efficient Photocatalysts and Continuous-Flow Photocatalytic Reactors for Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sujie; Yang, Xiaoqiu; Sang, Yuanhua; Liu, Hong

    2016-09-06

    One of the most important applications for photocatalysis is engineered water treatment that photodegrades organic pollutants in wastewater at low cost. To overcome the low efficiency of batch degradation methods, continuous-flow photocatalytic reactors have been proposed and have become the most promising method for mass water treatment. However, most commercial semiconductor photocatalysts are granular nanoparticles with low activity and a narrow active light wavelength band; this creates difficulties for direct use in continuous-flow photocatalytic reactors. Therefore, a high-performance photodegradation photocatalyst with proper morphology or structure is key for continuous photocatalytic degradation. Moreover, a well-designed photocatalytic device is another important component for continuous-flow photocatalysis and determines the efficiency of photocatalysis in practical water treatment. This review describes the basic design principles and synthesis of photocatalysts with excellent performance and special morphologies suitable for a filtering photocatalysis process. Certain promising continuous photodegradation reactors are also categorized and summarized. Additionally, selected scientific and technical problems that must be urgently solved are suggested.

  9. Efficient peroxydisulfate activation process not relying on sulfate radical generation for water pollutant degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Yin; Wang, Yuru; Le Roux, Julien; Yang, Yang; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2014-05-20

    Peroxydisulfate (PDS) is an appealing oxidant for contaminated groundwater and toxic industrial wastewaters. Activation of PDS is necessary for application because of its low reactivity. Present activation processes always generate sulfate radicals as actual oxidants which unselectively oxidize organics and halide anions reducing oxidation capacity of PDS and producing toxic halogenated products. Here we report that copper oxide (CuO) can efficiently activate PDS under mild conditions without producing sulfate radicals. The PDS/CuO coupled process is most efficient at neutral pH for decomposing a model compound, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). In a continuous-flow reaction with an empty-bed contact time of 0.55 min, over 90% of 2,4-DCP (initially 20 μM) and 90% of adsorbable organic chlorine (AOCl) can be removed at the PDS/2,4-DCP molar ratio of 1 and 4, respectively. Based on kinetic study and surface characterization, PDS is proposed to be first activated by CuO through outer-sphere interaction, the rate-limiting step, followed by a rapid reaction with 2,4-DCP present in the solution. In the presence of ubiquitous chloride ions in groundwater/industrial wastewater, the PDS/CuO oxidation shows significant advantages over sulfate radical oxidation by achieving much higher 2,4-DCP degradation capacity and avoiding the formation of highly chlorinated degradation products. This work provides a new way of PDS activation for contaminant removal.

  10. High temperature charging efficiency and degradation behavior of high capacity Ni-MH batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeon; Kim, Joong

    2001-02-01

    Recently the Ni/MH secondary battery has been studied extensively to achieve higher energy density, longer cycle life and faster charging-discharging rate for electric vehicles and portable computers, and etc. In this work, the charging efficiency of the Ni-MH battery which uses Ni electrode with addition of various compounds and the degradation behavior of the 90Ah battery were studied. The battery using the Ni electrode with Ca(OH)2 addition showed the charging efficiency and the utilization ratio significantly better than electrodes without added compounds. After 418 cycles, the residual capacities at the Ni electrode showed nearly the same values in the upper, middle and lower regions. In the case of the MH electrode, the residual capacity in the upper region appeared lower than that in other regions. As a result of ICP analysis, the amount of dissolved elements in the three regions appeared almost the same. The faster degradation in the upper region of the MH electrode was caused by the TiO2 oxide film formed at the electrode surface because of overcharging. The thickness of the oxide film increases with cycling, so it will form a layer that is not able to allow hydrogen to penetrate into the MH electrode.

  11. Method for producing high energy electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Meyerson, Bernard S.; Scott, Bruce A.; Wolford, Jr., Donald J.

    1992-09-29

    A method is described for fabricating electroluminescent devices exhibiting visible electroluminescence at room temperature, where the devices include at least one doped layer of amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H). The a-Si:H layer is deposited on a substrate by homogeneous chemical vapor deposition (H-CVD) in which the substrate is held at a temperature lower than about 200.degree. C. and the a-Si:H layer is doped in-situ during deposition, the amount of hydrogen incorporated in the deposited layer being 12-50 atomic percent. The bandgap of the a-Si:H layer is between 1.6 and 2.6 eV, and in preferrable embodiments is between 2.0 and 2.6 eV. The conductivity of the a-Si:H layer is chosen in accordance with device requirements, and can be 10.sup.16 -10.sup.19 carriers/cm.sup.2. The bandgap of the a-Si:H layer depends at least in part on the temperature of the substrate on which the layer is deposited, and can be "tuned" by changing the substrate temperature.

  12. Highly efficient degradation of dye pollutants by Ce-doped MoO₃ catalyst at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yujian; Li, Na; Liu, Haiqiu; Hua, Xia; Zhang, Qiuying; Chen, Mindong; Teng, Fei

    2014-09-14

    In order to efficiently degrade organic pollutants via an easily operated method, Ce-doped MoO3 (Ce(x)/MoO3) samples are synthesized by a simple impregnation method. The samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), nitrogen sorption isotherms and UV-vis diffused reflectance spectra (UV-DRS), total organic carbon (TOC), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses. Furthermore, we have mainly investigated the degradation of different dye pollutants by the Ce(x)/MoO3 samples, including cationic methylene blue (MB), anionic methyl orange (MO), neutral phenol, and a MB-MO mixture dye. For the single-component MB and MO dyes, the highest degradation efficiencies are achieved by Ce(5)/MoO3 and Ce(10)/MoO3 samples. For the MB-MO mixture dyes, the highest degradation efficiency for MB is achieved by a Ce(10)/MoO3 sample. It is surprising that the degradation efficiency of MB in the MB-MO mixture dye solution is higher than that in the single-component MB dye solution, which has been mainly ascribed to the promoting effect of MO. Moreover, a plausible degradation mechanism of the dyes has been proposed and discussed. It should be noted that the degradation reaction is carried out at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure, and without light irradiation. As a result, this degradation reaction is obviously different from the conventional thermally activated heterogeneous catalysis (or photocatalysis), in which thermal energy (or light irradiation) is indispensable; also different from a sorption technology, in which the pollutants cannot be degraded, but only transformed from one phase to another one. Thus, the reported degradation reaction is a quite promising environmental cleaning technology, which could be widely practically applied.

  13. Reduced operating voltage of organic electroluminescent devices by plasma treatment of the indium tin oxide anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuber, F.; Staudigel, J.; Stössel, M.; Simmerer, J.; Winnacker, A.

    1999-06-01

    The impact of oxygen plasma treatment of indium tin oxide anodes on performance and durability of vapor-deposited organic electroluminescent devices is shown. Investigations focused on the long-term stability using driving conditions suitable for passive matrix driven displays. Reliability studies of solvent only cleaned samples indicate the presence of a predominating degradation process at the interface between indium tin oxide and the hole injection layer which results in a drastic rise of the operating voltage. This voltage increase could be reduced to 0.31 mV/h by oxygen plasma treatment. As hole injection layer copper phthalocyanine is compared with a star-shaped amine derivative.

  14. Unique Kinetic Properties of Phenol-Degrading Variovorax Strains Responsible for Efficient Trichloroethylene Degradation in a Chemostat Enrichment Culture

    PubMed Central

    Futamata, Hiroyuki; Nagano, Yayoi; Watanabe, Kazuya; Hiraishi, Akira

    2005-01-01

    A chemostat enrichment of soil bacteria growing on phenol as the sole carbon source has been shown to exhibit quite high trichloroethylene (TCE)-degrading activities (H. Futamata, S. Harayama, and K. Watanabe, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:4671-4677, 2001). To identify the bacterial populations responsible for the high TCE-degrading activity, a multidisciplinary survey of the chemostat enrichment was conducted by employing molecular-ecological and culture-dependent approaches. Three chemostat enrichment cultures were newly developed under different phenol-loading conditions (0.25, 0.75, and 1.25 g liter−1 day−1) in this study, and the TCE-degrading activities of the enrichments were measured. Among them, the enrichment at 0.75 g liter−1 day−1 (enrichment 0.75) expressed the highest activity. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments detected a Variovorax ribotype as the strongest band in enrichment 0.75; however, it was not a major ribotype in the other samples. Bacteria were isolated from enrichment 0.75 by direct plating, and their 16S rRNA genes and genes encoding the largest subunit of phenol hydroxylase (LmPHs) were analyzed. Among the bacteria isolated, several strains were affiliated with the genus Variovorax and were shown to have high-affinity-type LmPHs. The LmPH of the Variovorax strains was also detected as the major genotype in enrichment 0.75. Kinetic analyses of phenol and TCE degradation revealed, however, that these strains exhibited quite low affinity for phenol compared to other phenol-degrading bacteria, while they showed quite high specific TCE-degrading activities and relatively high affinity for TCE. Owing to these unique kinetic traits, the Variovorax strains can obviate competitive inhibition of TCE degradation by the primary substrate of the catabolic enzyme (i.e., phenol), contributing to the high TCE-degrading activity of the chemostat enrichments. On the basis of physiological information

  15. Ag-ligand modified tungstovandates and their efficient catalysis degradation properties for methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ran; Zhang, Huixia; Liu, Yunping; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Han, Zhangang

    2017-02-01

    Two polytungstovandates [Ag(mbpy)2][Ag2(mbpy)3][VW5O19]·H2O (1) and [Ag(mbpy)]2[Ag(mbpy)2]4[VW12O40] (2) (mbpy =4,4‧-dimethyl-2,2‧-bipyridyl), had been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by IR, TG, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Single-crystal structural analysis revealed that the polyanionic clusters in two compounds are different: Lindqvist-type in 1 and α-Keggin-type in 2, respectively, while the cationic moieties in them are Ag-mbpy units. The experiments showed that this kind of hybrid crystal materials possesses more efficiently catalytic performance for the degradation of organic dye methylene blue (MB) in water solution under the UV irradiation. The significant degradation rate of MB can reach 89.9%, 94.9% by crystals 1 and 2 (40 mg) in the course of about 5 min.

  16. Structuring β-Ga2O3 photonic crystal photocatalyst for efficient degradation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofang; Zhen, Xiuzheng; Meng, Sugang; Xian, Jiangjun; Shao, Yu; Fu, Xianzhi; Li, Danzhen

    2013-09-03

    Coupling photocatalysts with photonic crystals structure is based on the unique property of photonic crystals in confining, controlling, and manipulating the incident photons. This combination enhances the light absorption in photocatalysts and thus greatly improves their photocatalytic performance. In this study, Ga2O3 photonic crystals with well-arranged skeleton structures were prepared via a dip-coating infiltration method. The positions of the electronic band absorption for Ga2O3 photonic crystals could be made to locate on the red edge, on the blue edge, and away from the edge of their photonic band gaps by changing the pore sizes of the samples, respectively. Particularly, the electronic band absorption of the Ga2O3 photonic crystal with a pore size of 135 nm was enhanced more than other samples by making it locate on the red edge of its photonic band gap, which was confirmed by the higher instantaneous photocurrent and photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic pollutants under ultraviolet light irradiation. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism over Ga2O3 photonic crystals was discussed. The design of Ga2O3 photonic crystals presents a prospective application of photonic crystals in photocatalysis to address light harvesting and quantum efficiency problems through manipulating photons or constructing photonic crystal structure as groundwork.

  17. Direct Blue Dye Degradation Using Titanium Nanostructures Under Energy-Efficient UV-LED Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Tayade, Rajesh J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) morphology on the photocatalytic activity under irradiation of ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED). Different TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized using hydrothermal (nanotubes and nanospheres) and solvothermal (nanoflowers) methods. The morphology, phase composition, bandgap, and chemical properties of the synthesized different TiO2 nanostructures were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The surface area of the nanotubes was larger than that of the nanospheres and nanoflowers by four- and three-fold, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts was evaluated by degradation of direct blue-15 dye under UV-LED irradiation in a slurry-type reactor. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanoflowers was higher than that of TiO2 nanotubes or nanospheres, suggesting that nanoflowers can serve as efficient photocatalysts for dye degradation.

  18. Spectral focusing of broadband silver electroluminescence in nanoscopic FRET-LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchert, Robin P.; Steiner, Florian; Plechinger, Gerd; Hofmann, Felix J.; Caspers, Ines; Kirschner, Johanna; Nagler, Philipp; Chernikov, Alexey; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias; Vogelsang, Jan; Bange, Sebastian; Lupton, John M.

    2017-07-01

    Few inventions have shaped the world like the incandescent bulb. Edison used thermal radiation from ohmically heated conductors, but some noble metals also exhibit 'cold' electroluminescence in percolation films, tunnel diodes, electromigrated nanoparticle aggregates, optical antennas or scanning tunnelling microscopy. The origin of this radiation, which is spectrally broad and depends on applied bias, is controversial given the low radiative yields of electronic transitions. Nanoparticle electroluminescence is particularly intriguing because it involves localized surface-plasmon resonances with large dipole moments. Such plasmons enable very efficient non-radiative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) coupling to proximal resonant dipole transitions. Here, we demonstrate nanoscopic FRET-light-emitting diodes which exploit the opposite process, energy transfer from silver nanoparticles to exfoliated monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides. In diffraction-limited hotspots showing pronounced photon bunching, broadband silver electroluminescence is focused into the narrow excitonic resonance of the atomically thin overlayer. Such devices may offer alternatives to conventional nano-light-emitting diodes in on-chip optical interconnects.

  19. Electroluminescent devices using a layered organic-inorganic perovskite structure as emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelle, Michael; Bruetting, Wolfgang; Schwoerer, Markus; Yahiro, Masayuki; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2001-02-01

    Self-organizing layered perovskite compounds like (formula available in paper) naturally form a dielectric quantum-well structure in which semiconducting PbI4 layers and organic (C6H5C2H4NH3) layers are alternately piled up. Due to their low- dimensional semiconductor nature they exhibit a strong absorption and sharp photoluminescence from the exciton band. In electroluminescent devices pure green emission peaking at 520 nm with a very narrow half-width of about 10 nm has been reported. As the organic-inorganic layered structure has promising properties for EL-devices, we investigated two- and three layer structures using this perovskite as emitter material in combination with additional hole and electron injection layers. To get more insight into electrical properties and electroluminescence- mechanisms of this material, temperature dependent current- voltage-luminance characteristics have been measured, showing an increasing onset-voltage for current flow from 2.6 V at room temperature to about 8.8 V at 80 K. Electroluminescence is detected at temperatures below 150 K with onset voltages of about 13 V. At liquid nitrogen temperature efficiencies of (formula available in paper) are obtained.

  20. Highest Efficiency Two-Photon Degradable Copolymer for Remote Controlled Release

    PubMed Central

    Olejniczak, Jason; Sankaranarayanan, Jagadis; Viger, Mathieu L.; Almutairi, Adah

    2013-01-01

    To address the scarcity of polymers that degrade upon absorption of near infrared (NIR) light, we introduce a new polymer containing moieties in its backbone capable of highly efficient NIR-triggered photocleavage. The polymer rapidly undergoes backbone scission in response to both UV-Vis and near infrared light via two-photon absorption, as revealed by gel permeation chromatography. Cleavage of photosensitive groups from the backbone is confirmed by 1H NMR. These polymers were successfully formulated into particles encapsulating a dye that was released upon irradiation with UV-Vis and NIR light, as indicated by changes in fluorescence characteristic of increased solvent interaction with cargo. Thus, this new polymer is readily photocleaved by UV-Vis and NIR light, giving it a variety of potential applications in photopatterning and on-demand release. PMID:24044102

  1. Dielectric relaxation in AC powder electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Su, Haibin; Tan, Chuan Seng; Wong, Terence Kin Shun; Teo, Ronnie Jin Wah

    2017-01-01

    The dielectric properties of AC powder electroluminescent devices were measured and analyzed using complex impedance spectroscopy to determine the relaxation processes occurring within the devices. The relaxation processes identified were ascribed to the electrode polarization caused by ion accumulation at the electrode/resin interfaces, the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars effects at the (ZnS or BaTiO3) particle/resin interfaces, and the dipolar reorientation of polymer chains in the resin matrix. Each relaxation process was represented by its corresponding equivalent circuit component. Space charge polarization at the electrodes were represented by a Warburg element, a resistor, and a constant phase element. The resin matrix, ZnS/resin and BaTiO3/resin interfaces could each be modeled by a resistor and a capacitor in parallel. The simulated equivalent circuits for three different printed structures showed good fitting with their experimental impedance results.

  2. White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Parthasarathy, Gautam

    2006-06-20

    A light-emitting device comprises a light-emitting member, which comprises two electrodes, at least two organic electroluminescent ("EL") materials disposed between the electrodes, a charge blocking material disposed between the electrodes, and at least one photoluminescent ("PL") material. The light-emitting member emits electromagnetic ("EM") radiation having a first spectrum in response to a voltage applied across the two electrodes. The PL material absorbs a portion of the EM radiation emitted by the light-emitting member and emits EM radiation having second spectrum different than the first spectrum. Each of the organic EL materials emits EM radiation having a wavelength range selected from the group consisting of blue and red wavelength ranges.

  3. Efficient treatment of perfluorohexanoic acid by nanofiltration followed by electrochemical degradation of the NF concentrate.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Álvaro; Gorri, Daniel; Urtiaga, Ane

    2017-04-01

    The present study was aimed at the development of a strategy for removing and degrading perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) from industrial process waters at concentrations in the range 60-200 mg L(-1). The treatment train consisted of nanofiltration (NF) separation followed by electrochemical degradation of the NF concentrate. Using a laboratory-scale system and working in the total recirculation mode, the DowFilm NF270 membrane provided PFHxA rejections that varied in the range 96.6-99.4% as the operating pressure was increased from 2.5 to 20 bar. The NF operation in concentration mode enabled a volume reduction factor of 5 and increased the PFHxA concentration in the retentate to 870 mg L(-1). Results showed that the increase in PFHxA concentration and the presence of calcium sulfate salts did not induce irreversible membrane fouling. The NF retentate was treated in a commercial undivided electrochemical cell provided with two parallel flow-by compartments separated by bipolar boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode, BDD counter anode, and counter cathode. Current densities ranging from 20 to 100 A m(-2) were examined. The electrochemical degradation rate of PFHxA reached 98% and was accompanied by its efficient mineralization, as the reduction of total organic carbon was higher than 95%. Energy consumption, which was 15.2 kWh m(-3) of treated NF concentrate, was minimized by selecting operation at 50 A m(-2). While most of the previous research on the treatment of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) focused on the removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), these compounds have been phased out by chemical manufacturers. Our findings are relevant for the treatment of PFHxA, which appears to be one of the present alternatives to long-chain PFASs thanks to its lower bioaccumulative potential than PFOA and PFOS. However, PFHxA also behaves as a persistent pollutant. Moreover, our results highlight the potential of combining

  4. Further studies of proportional electroluminescence in two-phase argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, A.; Buzulutskov, A.; Dolgov, A.; Frolov, E.; Nosov, V.; Oleynikov, V.; Shekhtman, L.; Shemyakina, E.; Sokolov, A.

    2017-05-01

    A study of proportional electroluminescence in two-phase argon is relevant in the field of noble-gas liquid detectors for dark matter search and low-energy neutrino experiments. In this work, we continued to study proportional electroluminescence (EL) in two-phase argon doped with a minor (9 ppm) admixture of nitrogen, in the VUV, UV and visible spectral ranges. We confirmed the effect of enhancement of the EL yield, as well as the presence of a non-VUV component in addition to that of VUV, in proportional electroluminescence in two-phase Ar. On the other hand, the contribution of the non-VUV component determined here within the model of N2 emission in the UV, turned out to be insufficient to explain the enhancement of the EL yield. Hence, the problem of proportional electroluminescence in two-phase Ar remains unresolved.

  5. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for

  6. Electroluminescence enhancement in polymer light-emitting diodes through hole injection layer insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng; Tong, Guo-Ping; George, Thomas F.

    2009-10-01

    After a hole injection layer is inserted into a polymer light-emitting diode (PLED), the positive polaron is easily injected into the polymer layer. An applied electrical field drives the positive polaron to approach and collide with the nonemissive triplet exciton. The collision between the positive polaron and neutral triplet exciton induces the exciton to emit light. Based on this physical picture, the maximum quantum efficiency of the PLEDs, 61.6%, is consistent with the experimental result of 60%. With the help of an external magnetic field, a structure of PLEDs with high electroluminescent efficiency is designed.

  7. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid by a wide band gap p-block metal oxyhydroxide InOOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingjing; Wu, Miaomiao; Yang, Jingwen; Wang, Zhengmei; Chen, Mindong; Teng, Fei

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we prepared a new wide band gap semiconductor, p-block metal oxyhydroxide InOOH, which exhibits efficient activity for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) degradation under mild conditions and UV light irradiation. The apparent rate constant for PFOA degradation by InOOH is 27.6 times higher than that for P25 titania. Results show that ionized PFOA (C7F15COO-) can be adsorbed much more efficiently on the surface of InOOH than P25. Then, the adsorbed C7F15COO- can be decomposed directly by photo-generated holes to form C7F15COOrad radicals. This process is the key step for the photocalytic degradation of PFOA. Major degradation intermediates, fluoride ions and perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with shorter chain lengths were detected during PFOA degradation. A possible pathway for photocatalytic degradation of PFOA is proposed based on the experimental results. Therefore, this studies indicates a potential new material and method for the efficient treatment of PFCA pollutants under mild conditions.

  8. Investigation of InGaN/GaN laser degradation based on luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Pengyan; Zhang, Shuming Liu, Jianping; Li, Deyao; Zhang, Liqun; Sun, Qian; Tian, Aiqin; Zhou, Kun; Yang, Hui; Zhou, Taofei

    2016-06-07

    Degradation of InGaN/GaN laser diode (LD) is investigated based on the luminescence properties. Gradual degradation of the LD is presented with the threshold current increase and the slope efficiency decrease. The cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence characterizations of the LD show a dislocation independent degradation of the active region under the ridge. Detailed studies on the temperature-dependent micro-photoluminescence and the electroluminescence indicate that the degradation of the LD is attributed to the generation of non-radiative recombination centers in the local multiple quantum well regions with lower indium content. The activation energy of the non-radiative recombination centers is about 10.2 meV.

  9. Rumen degradable protein supply affects microbial efficiency in continuous culture and growth in steers.

    PubMed

    Brooks, M A; Harvey, R M; Johnson, N F; Kerley, M S

    2012-12-01

    We hypothesized that microbial efficiency and output from fermentation in the rumen would be optimized when peptide supply was balanced with peptide requirement of ruminal microflora. This study was conducted to measure response of varying rumen degradable peptide (RDPep) supply on ruminal fermentation characteristics and steer growth. A continuous culture experiment was conducted with diets formulated to achieve a predicted RDPep balance (RDPep supplied above RDPep required) of -0.30 to 1.45% CP with rumen degradable N (RDN) balance (RDN supplied above RDN required) above dietary ammonia-N requirement of microbes. Two additional treatments had RDPep balances of -0.30 and 0.78% CP with insufficient ammonia-N supply to meet microbial requirements. Single-flow fermenters (N = 24; n = 6) were inoculated with rumen fluid and maintained anaerobically at 39°C with a 0.06 h(-1) dilution rate. Inadequate RDN decreased OM digestion and microbial N flow, and increased rumen undegradable N (P < 0.01). Microbial efficiency decreased in RDN-deficient diets and was greatest when RDPep balance did not excessively exceed microbial requirement of RDPep predicted (P < 0.01). A growth study was conducted with 49 yearling, crossbred, Angus steers (initial BW 370 ± 34 kg). Animals were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups by BW and further divided into 3 pens with 4 steers per pen to achieve similar initial pen weights. Treatments consisted of 4 isonitrogenous diets balanced for RDN but varying in predicted RDPep balance (0.55%, -0.02%, -0.25%, and -0.65% CP). Animals were maintained on treatment for 70 d with individual BW taken on d 0, 1, 21, 42, 70, and 71. Final BW decreased linearly with decreasing RDPep (P = 0.05). Average daily gain and G:F displayed a quadratic effect with greater ADG and G:F at greater and lesser RDPep levels (P = 0.02). We concluded that balancing RDPep supply to predicted requirement improved fermentation efficiency and microbial output, which in turn

  10. Achieving Pure Deep-Blue Electroluminescence with CIE y≤0.06 via a Rational Design Approach for Highly Efficient Non-Doped Solution-Processed Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Saripally Sudhaker; Sree, Vijaya Gopalan; Cho, Woosum; Jin, Sung-Ho

    2016-11-22

    Deep-blue fluorescent emitters with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) y≤0.06 are urgently needed for high-density storage, full-color displays and solid-state lighting. However, developing such emitters with high color purity and efficiency in solution-processable non-doped organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) remains an important challenge. Here, we present the synthesis of two new deep-blue fluorescent emitters (AFpTPI and AFmTPI) based on 10-(9,9-diethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)-9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine as a core and 1,3- and/or 1,4-phenylene-linked triphenylimidazole (TPI) analogues for non-doped solution-processable OLEDs. Their thermal, photophysical, electrochemical, and device characteristics are explored, and also strongly supported by density functional theory (DFT) study. AFpTPI and AFmTPI exhibit excellent thermal stability (≈450 °C) with high glass transition temperatures (Tg ; 141-152 °C) and deep-blue emission with high quantum yields. Specifically, the solution-processed non-doped device with AFpTPI as an emitter exhibits a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 4.56 % with CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.06), which exactly matches the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) blue standard. In addition, AFmTPI also displays good efficiency and better color purity (EQE: 3.37 %; CIE (0.15, 0.05)). To the best of our knowledge, the present work is the first report on non-doped solution-processable OLEDs with efficiency close to 5 % and CIE y≤0.06.

  11. Pd nanoparticles supported on MIL-101/reduced graphene oxide photocatalyst: an efficient and recyclable photocatalyst for triphenylmethane dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Luo, Hanjin; Zhang, Li

    2015-11-01

    To improve the photocatalytic efficiency of chromium-based metal-organic framework (MIL-101) photocatalyst, Pd nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide were used to modify the MIL-101 via a facile method. The resulting novel photocatalyst was characterized by UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was indicated that the photocatalyst afforded high photocatalytic efficiency for degradation of two triphenylmethane dyes, brilliant green and acid fuchsin, under exposure to visible light irradiation. Cyclic experiments demonstrated that the photocatalyst showed good reusability and stability for the dye degradation.

  12. Substrate Degradation Kinetics, Microbial Diversity, and Current Efficiency of Microbial Fuel Cells Supplied with Marine Plankton▿

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Clare E.; Stecher, Hilmar A.; Westall, John C.; Alleau, Yvan; Howell, Kate A.; Soule, Leslie; White, Helen K.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2007-01-01

    The decomposition of marine plankton in two-chamber, seawater-filled microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been investigated and related to resulting chemical changes, electrode potentials, current efficiencies, and microbial diversity. Six experiments were run at various discharge potentials, and a seventh served as an open-circuit control. The plankton consisted of a mixture of freshly captured phytoplankton and zooplankton (0.21 to 1 mm) added at an initial batch concentration of 27.5 mmol liter−1 particulate organic carbon (OC). After 56.7 days, between 19.6 and 22.2% of the initial OC remained, sulfate reduction coupled to OC oxidation accounted for the majority of the OC that was degraded, and current efficiencies (of the active MFCs) were between 11.3 and 15.5%. In the open-circuit control cell, anaerobic plankton decomposition (as quantified by the decrease in total OC) could be modeled by three terms: two first-order reaction rate expressions (0.79 day−1 and 0.037 day−1, at 15°C) and one constant, no-reaction term (representing 10.6% of the initial OC). However, in each active MFC, decomposition rates increased during the third week, lagging just behind periods of peak electricity generation. We interpret these decomposition rate changes to have been due primarily to the metabolic activity of sulfur-reducing microorganisms at the anode, a finding consistent with the electrochemical oxidization of sulfide to elemental sulfur and the elimination of inhibitory effects of dissolved sulfide. Representative phylotypes, found to be associated with anodes, were allied with Delta-, Epsilon-, and Gammaproteobacteria as well as the Flavobacterium-Cytophaga-Bacteroides and Fusobacteria. Based upon these results, we posit that higher current efficiencies can be achieved by optimizing plankton-fed MFCs for direct electron transfer from organic matter to electrodes, including microbial precolonization of high-surface-area electrodes and pulsed flowthrough additions of

  13. Introducing saccharic acid as an efficient iron chelate to enhance photo-Fenton degradation of organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Gokulakrishnan; Madras, Giridhar

    2016-11-01

    The identification of iron chelates that can enhance photo-Fenton degradation is of great interest in the field of advanced oxidation process. Saccharic acid (SA) is a polyhydroxy carboxylic acid and completely non-toxic. Importantly, it can effectively bind Fe(III) as well as induce photoreduction of Fe(III). Despite having these interesting properties, the effect of SA on photo-Fenton degradation has not been studied. Herein, we demonstrate the first assessment of SA as an iron chelate in photo-Fenton process using methylene blue (MB) as a model organic contaminant. Our results demonstrate that SA has the ability to (i) enhance the photo-Fenton degradation of MB by about 11 times at pH 4.5 (ii) intensify photochemical reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by about 17 times and (iii) accelerate the rate of consumption of H2O2 in photo-Fenton process by about 5 times (iv) increase the TOC reduction by about 2 times and (v) improve the photo-Fenton degradation of MB in the presence of a variety of common inorganic ions and organic matter. The influential properties of SA on photo-Fenton degradation is attributed to the efficient photochemical reduction of Fe(III) via LMCT (ligand to metal charge transfer reaction) to Fe(II), which then activated H2O2 to generate OH and accelerated photo-Fenton degradation efficiency. Moreover, the effect of operational parameters such as oxidant: contaminant (H2O2: MB) ratio, catalyst: contaminant (Fe(III)SA: MB) ratio, Fe(III): SA stoichiometry and pH on the degradation of MB by photo-Fenton in the presence of SA is demonstrated. Importantly, SA assisted photo-Fenton caused effective degradation of MB and 4-Chlorophenol under natural sunlight irradiation in natural water matrix. The findings strongly support SA as a deserving iron chelate to enhance photo-Fenton degradation.

  14. A P450 gene associated with robust resistance to DDT in ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila by efficient degradation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lifang; Fu, Chengjie; Yuan, Dongxia; Miao, Wei

    2014-04-01

    Analysis of metabolic mechanisms of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) accumulation and degradation in microorganisms, which could be used to reduce its hazard to higher organisms at the higher in the food chain, have not been investigated. Robust resistance to DDT (grows well in 256 mg/L DDT) and a surprising ability to degrade DDT (more than 70% DDT within 4h) were found in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. A P450 gene (CYP5013C2) was found to respond specifically to DDT treatment. In the presence of 256 mg/L DDT, cells with overexpressing CYP5013C2 (p450-OE) grew faster and degraded DDT more efficiently than wild-type (WT) cells, while cells with CYP5013C2 partially knocked down (p450-KD) grew slower and exhibited reduced ability to degrade DDT compared to WT cells. Both dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) were detected in cells after exposure to DDT, and the concentration of DDD in the p450-OE strain gradually decreased from 0.5 to 4h. Thus, we argue that this P450 gene (CYP5013C2), by efficiently degrading DDT to DDD, is associated with robust resistance to DDT in Tetrahymena, and that a strain overexpressing this gene has the potential to serve as bioreactor that degrades environmental DDT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of electrochemical treatment of soil washing solution on PAH degradation efficiency and soil respirometry.

    PubMed

    Mousset, Emmanuel; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Nihal; Guibaud, Gilles; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-04-01

    The remediation of a genuinely PAH-contaminated soil was performed, for the first time, through a new and complete investigation, including PAH extraction followed by advanced oxidation treatment of the washing solution and its recirculation, and an analysis of the impact of the PAH extraction on soil respirometry. The study has been performed on the remediation of genuine PAH-contaminated soil, in the following three steps: (i) PAH extraction with soil washing (SW) techniques, (ii) PAH degradation with an electro-Fenton (EF) process, and (iii) recirculation of the partially oxidized effluent for another SW cycle. The following criteria were monitored during the successive washing cycles: PAH extraction efficiency, PAH oxidation rates and yields, extracting agent recovery, soil microbial activity, and pH of soil. Two representative extracting agents were compared: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and a non-ionic surfactant, Tween(®) 80. Six PAH with different numbers of rings were monitored: acenaphthene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP). Tween(®) 80 showed much better PAH extraction efficiency (after several SW cycles) than HPCD, regardless of the number of washing cycles. Based on successive SW experiments, a new mathematical relation taking into account the soil/water partition coefficient (Kd*) was established, and could predict the amount of each PAH extracted by the surfactant with a good correlation with experimental results (R(2) > 0.975). More HPCD was recovered (89%) than Tween(®) 80 (79%), while the monitored pollutants were completely degraded (>99%) after 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Even after being washed with partially oxidized solutions, the Tween(®) 80 solutions extracted significantly more PAH than HPCD and promoted better soil microbial activity, with higher oxygen consumption rates. Moreover, neither the oxidation by-products nor the acidic media (p

  16. Thiogallate Blue Phosphors for Thin Film Electroluminescent Flat Panel Displays

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, Robert C.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1997-04-03

    This project helped to develop a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method that could improve the efficiency of the blue phosphor for full color thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) flat panel displays. High quality SrS and SrS:Ce thin films were deposited from Sr(thd)2, Ce(thd)4 and H2S via a low pressure MOCVD process. Film characteristics were found to be insensitive to the presence of the cerium dopant in the concn. range investigated. Depositions were carried out for a wide temp. range (250-550°C). Deposition rates were found to be relatively insensitive for the temp. range investigated. The films produced were found to be highly cryst. at all temps. investigated. Deposited material showed texturing as a function of substrate material and temp. FWHM of the a 111 ii reflections were found to have a 2Q values of 0.15-0.18 deg. for all temps. RBS and AES shows stoichiometric 1 : 1 SrS with less than 2% carbon and oxygen contaminates. ERO indicates the films to have 1- 2.5% hydrogen. Films doped with 0.019-0.043 atom % Ce showed weak blue-green to green PL with increasing dopant concn. Doped films yielded up to 3.2 cd/m2 EL emission with CIE coordinates of x = 0.22 and y = 0.32 and turn-on voltages of 150-250 V.

  17. Degradation mechanism of laser diodes for 880-nm band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DÄ browska, E.; Nakielska, M.; Kozłowska, A.; Teodorczyk, M.; KrzyŻak, K.; Sobczak, G.; Kalbarczyk, J.; MalÄ g, A.

    2013-01-01

    The laser diodes (LD) have numerous applications and promise to become key elements for next generation laser technologies. LD are usually operated under conditions of heavy thermal load. As a result, the devices are affected by aging processes leading to changes of the operation parameters, degradation and, eventually, complete failure. Degradation of high power semiconductor lasers remains a serious problem for practical application of these devices. We investigated the effect of mounting induced strain and defects on the performance of high power laser. In this paper measurements of the temperature distribution and the electroluminescence along the cavity of InGaAs quantum well lasers before and after accelerated aging processes are presented. The electro-optical parameters of the high output power laser diodes, such as emission wavelength, output power, threshold current, slope efficiency, and operating lifetime are presented too.

  18. Enhanced isolation and culture of highly efficient psychrophilic oil-degrading bacteria from oil-contaminated soils in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Pham, Van H T; Kim, Jaisoo; Jeong, Seung-Woo

    2014-11-01

    It is known that isolation of oil-degrading bacterial strains is difficult at low temperatures, and the biodegradation efficiency of oil-contaminated soil is significantly reduced in cold weather. In this study, 14 strains were isolated from oil-contaminated soil that grew well at 10°C by using a newly developed culture method. 11 of the 14 isolates were successfully cultured in mineral salts medium containing 1,500 ppm of oil components, 500 ppm each kerosene, gasoline, and diesel as carbon sources, at 10°C for 2 weeks. The oil degradation efficiencies of these 11 isolates ranged from 36% to 100%, as measured by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation analyses. Three strains (Pseudomonas simiae G1-10O, P. taiwanensis Y1-4, and P. koreensis Gwa2) displayed complete degradation (100%), and six others (R frederiksbergensis G2-2, P arsenicoxydans Y2-1, R umsongensis Gwa3, P. migulae Gwa5, RhodococcusjialingiaeY 1-l , and R. qingshengii Y2-2) showed relatively high degradation efficiencies (> 70%). This study suggests that these isolates can be effectively utilised in thetreatment of oil-contaminated soil in landfarming, especially during winter.

  19. Visible electroluminescence in spark-processed silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Nigel Dexter

    Spark-processing is a novel technique that transforms silicon into a material with unique optical and magnetic properties. In this work, the electroluminescence (EL) from spark-processed silicon (sp-Si) has been studied and characterized. The devices studied have a MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) type structure. The EL spectrum is broad, and has a threshold wavelength that extends beyond 350 nm, and peaks at around 650 and 730 nm. The threshold voltage for the EL process is typically in the 5--8 V range. Irrespective of whether the base silicon is n or p-type, EL is observed only under the condition of electron injection into the spark-processed layer. The processing conditions that result in the highest EL intensity have been established. Specifically, the processing parameters that results in the highest device currents and EL intensity are 7--8 kV, 10 mA, 12--13 kHz, around 750 mbar and 10 seconds of spark voltage, current, frequency, pressure and time respectively. It has been also been found that processing in air results in higher EL intensities, compared to processing in ultra-high purity nitrogen or oxygen. These conditions are believed to result in the optimal composition and thickness of the near surface SiOx layers, thought to be the optically active region in sp-Si EL devices. These processing conditions are also believed to result in a surface morphology that facilitates the best coverage by the semitransparent metal film, through which the electroluminescence is emitted. When a tungsten wire is used as the anode for spark-processing, the pattern of emission is a circular band of light. This band consists of small light-emitting spots, separated by non-emitting regions. It is shown that by modifying the anode arrangement, significant improvements to the pattern of emission and EL intensity can be achieved. These improvements are proposed to be due to enhanced coverage by the semitransparent metal film. Based on the results of the EL characterization

  20. A bifunctionalized dye-sensitized TiO(2) film for efficient degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Quanping; Zhao, Jun; Qin, Guohui; Wang, Xuezheng; Tong, Xinli; Xue, Song

    2012-01-01

    A new bifunctionalized TiO(2) film containing a dye-sensitized region and a degradation region was described. A similar structure of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was fabricated in the dye-sensitized region to accomplish separation of electrons from positive charges, and separation of dye from pollutants to avoid dye decomposition. The bifunctionalized TiO(2) film electrode and anode electrode can degrade methyl orange (MO) in reactors A and B, respectively. The degradation efficiency was enhanced remarkably by an external electrical potential. The decolorization of MO reaches as high as 95% after 2 h visible light irradiation at an external potential of 0.5 V along with a loss of 41% total organic carbon (TOC). The possible reason for the improvement of degradation by external DC potential was discussed. Effects of pH and inorganic salts on the decolorization are present.

  1. Improved WO3 photocatalytic efficiency using ZrO2 and Ru for the degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin.

    PubMed

    Gar Alalm, Mohamed; Ookawara, Shinichi; Fukushi, Daisuke; Sato, Akira; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2016-01-25

    The photocatalytic degradation of carbofuran (pesticide) and ampicillin (pharmaceutical) using synthesized WO3/ZrO2 nanoparticles under simulated solar light was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectra analyses were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The optimum ratio of WO3 to ZrO2 was determined to be 1:1 for the degradation of both contaminants. The degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin by WO3/ZrO2 after 240 min of irradiation was 100% and 96%, respectively. Ruthenium (Ru) was employed as an additive to WO3/ZrO2 to enhance the photocatalytic degradation rate. Ru/WO3/ZrO2 exhibited faster degradation rates than WO3/ZrO2. Furthermore, 100% and 97% degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin, respectively, was achieved using Ru/WO3/ZrO2 after 180 min of irradiation. The durability of the catalyst was investigated by reusing the same suspended catalyst, which achieved 92% of its initial efficiency. The photocatalytic degradation of ampicillin and carbofuran followed pseudo-first order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  2. The efficiency of turn-over processes in degraded peat as investigated under continuous flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleimeier, Christian; Karsten, Ulf; Janssen, Manon; Lennartz, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Nitrate removal from run-off from agricultural land is in general required to reach a "good chemical status" of surface and groundwater bodies according to the European Water Framework Directive. Removing nitrates via heterotrophic denitrification is highly effective but requires stable anoxic environmental conditions as well as available organic carbon as an electron donator. Constructed wetlands, established on peat soils, through which the nitrate-loaded water is routed, may provide denitrification favorable conditions. A long-term flow experiment (mesocosm) was conducted employing a laboratory container set-up filled with decomposed peat aiming at quantifying the nitrate removal efficiency at various nitrate influx rates. The redox potential was measured at different depths to determine the spatial distribution of denitrificating zones. This new methodological approach allows the observation of biological nitrate turn over without interrupting the adjusted flow rate. We investigated the hydraulic properties and derived transport parameters for the mesocosm by analyzing experimental data from tracer tests. The obtained bromide breakthrough curves (BTC) were subjected to model analysis using the CXTFIT routine of the STANMOD software package. It could be demonstrated that the degraded peat has a dual porosity structure with roughly 40% of the pore water not participating in convective flow and transport processes. Further, the first flushing of mineralized nitrate upon rewetting and onset of flux may compromise any positive clean-up and nitrate removal effects occurring during long-term operation of peat wetlands. The development of the spatial sequence of bacterial cultures is characterized by the redox potential. It is dominated by the available substrates that serve as electron acceptors in bacterial respiration and occurs in a thermodynamically determined top-down order. The zonal development of the nitrate-consuming bacteria was observed and used to describe

  3. Efficient enzymatic degradation process for hydrolysis activity of the Carrageenan from red algae in marine biomass.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dae Hee; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; You, Seung Kyou; Kim, Seung Wook; Han, Sung Ok

    2014-12-20

    Carrageenan is a generic name for a family of polysaccharides obtained from certain species of red algae. New methods to produce useful cost-efficiently materials from red algae are needed to convert enzymatic processes into fermentable sugars. In this study, we constructed chimeric genes cCgkA and cCglA containing the catalytic domain of κ-carrageenase CgkA and λ-carrageenase CglA from Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora fused with a dockerin domain. Recombinant strains expressing the chimeric carrageenase resulted in a halo formation on the carrageenan plate by alcian blue staining. The recombinant cCgkA and cCglA were assembled with scaffoldin miniCbpA via cohesin and dockerin interaction. Carbohydrate binding module (CBM) in scaffoldin was used as a tag for cellulose affinity purification using cellulose as a support. The hydrolysis process was monitored by the amount of reducing sugar released from carrageenan. Interestingly, these results indicated that miniCbpA, cCgkA and cCglA assembled into a complex and that the dockerin-fused enzymes on the scaffoldin had synergistic activity in the degradation of carrageenan. The observed enhancement of activity by carrageenolytic complex was 3.1-fold-higher compared with the corresponding enzymes alone. Thus, the assemblies of advancement of active enzyme complexes will facilitate the commercial production of useful products from red algae biomass which represents inexpensive and sustainable feed-stocks.

  4. Bioremediation as an efficient method to degrade creosote and improve groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Newbern, V.A.

    1994-09-01

    A hydrogeologic monitoring evaluation was conducted to determine the efficiency of bioremediation on a site at which creosote is used for pressure treating and wood preservation. Initially, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and diesel fuel were incorporated with the creosote. The waste water generated from the process was disposed of in three unlined surface impoundments until 1982. Thirteen monitoring wells were installed between August 1981 and the first half of 1982 where both PCP and creosote releases were found and attributed to the impoundments. A groundwater quality assessment program was initiated in April 1986 and a subsequent pilot groundwater remediation program begun in February 1987. A Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been in operation since August 1987 and was designed to remediate groundwater from the uppermost water-bearing sand (Bentley sand), which was affected by the impoundment areas. With the CAP, a system of 21 recovery wells set in 4 lines were implemented to withdraw the groundwater. The groundwater was then treated in above-ground bioreactors where microorganisms were introduced to degrade the creosote compounds. Treated groundwater was then discharged to the public waste-water facility or injected to recharge the Bentley sands by the use of either of the two recharge trenches. Both nutrients and oxygen were added to the water prior to injection to increase the in-situ bioremediation of the creosote and PCP contaminants via two air sparging lines. The results demonstrate the reduction of creosote constituents from the groundwater with the use of bioremediation.

  5. High-Capacity and Photoregenerable Composite Material for Efficient Adsorption and Degradation of Phenanthrene in Water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Cai, Zhengqing; Zhao, Xiao; Wang, Ting; Li, Fan; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-10-18

    We report a novel composite material, referred to as activated charcoal supported titanate nanotubes (TNTs@AC), for highly efficient adsorption and photodegradation of a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), phenanthrene. TNTs@AC was prepared through a one-step hydrothermal method, and is composed of an activated charcoal core and a shell of carbon-coated titanate nanotubes. TNTs@AC offered a maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity of 12.1 mg/g for phenanthrene (a model PAH), which is ∼11 times higher than the parent activated charcoal. Phenanthrene was rapidly concentrated onto TNTs@AC, and subsequently completely photodegraded under UV light within 2 h. The photoregenerated TNTs@AC can then be reused for another adsorption-photodegradation cycle without significant capacity or activity loss. TNTs@AC performed well over a wide range of pH, ionic strength, and dissolved organic matter. Mechanistically, the enhanced adsorption capacity is attributed to the formation of carbon-coated ink-bottle pores of the titanate nanotubes, which are conducive to capillary condensation; in addition, the modified microcarbon facilitates transfer of excited electrons, thereby inhibiting recombination of the electron-hole pairs, resulting in high photocatalytic activity. The combined high adsorption capacity, photocatalytic activity, and regenerability/reusability merit TNTs@AC a very attractive material for concentrating and degrading a host of micropollutants in the environment.

  6. Viral RNA Degradation and Diffusion Act as a Bottleneck for the Influenza A Virus Infection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jolmes, Fabian; Welke, Robert-William; Klipp, Edda; Herrmann, Andreas; Flöttmann, Max

    2016-01-01

    After endocytic uptake, influenza viruses transit early endosomal compartments and eventually reach late endosomes. There, the viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) triggers fusion between endosomal and viral membrane, a critical step that leads to release of the viral segmented genome destined to reach the cell nucleus. Endosomal maturation is a complex process involving acidification of the endosomal lumen as well as endosome motility along microtubules. While the pH drop is clearly critical for the conformational change and membrane fusion activity of HA, the effect of intracellular transport dynamics on the progress of infection remains largely unclear. In this study, we developed a comprehensive mathematical model accounting for the first steps of influenza virus infection. We calibrated our model with experimental data and challenged its predictions using recombinant viruses with altered pH sensitivity of HA. We identified the time point of virus-endosome fusion and thereby the diffusion distance of the released viral genome to the nucleus as a critical bottleneck for efficient virus infection. Further, we concluded and supported experimentally that the viral RNA is subjected to cytosolic degradation strongly limiting the probability of a successful genome import into the nucleus. PMID:27780209

  7. Transparent organic photodiodes stacked with electroluminescence devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Takahiro; Sakanoue, Kei; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2005-10-01

    Stacked devices that consisted of transparent organic photodiodes (TOPDs) and organic electroluminescence devices (OELs) were demonstrated. TOPDs were prepared by poly-(2-methoxy-5- (2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend films as an active layer and transparent Au cathode (10 nm thick). These TOPDs showed about 45 % transmittance on average in visible light region (380-780 nm) and good correlation between incident light intensity and output photocurrent. Based on these results, the stacked devices were prepared by introducing OELs on TOPDs through a SiO insulating layer. The structure of OELs was ITO/Carbon/TPD/Alq3/LiF/Al. These stacked devices work as light emitting devices and also photo diodes. Since TOPDs have transparency, OELs can illuminate a paper put on the glass substrate through TOPDs and TOPDs can receive reflective light from the paper. Although the TOPDs also absorb light from OELs directly, the output signals from TOPDs changed according to the black and white pattern of the paper. These results show that the devices act as an image sensor having light emitting layer and light receiving layer in a same area.

  8. Mechanisms of visible electroluminescence in diode structures on the basis of porous silicon: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, N. G.; Yan, D. T.

    2017-06-01

    The main mechanisms of the visible electroluminescence (EL) of porous silicon are reviewed. Characteristics of photoluminescence and EL of diode structures based on porous silicon are compared. Metals having a smaller value of the electron work function (3.6 eV, Mg) than do Al and Au are proposed as the material for making contacts in such diode structures to increase the efficiency of their EL in the visible region of the spectrum. The main problems and prospects of light-emitting devices based on porous silicon are formulated.

  9. Multi-colour electroluminescence of dendronic antennae containing pyrenes as light harvesters.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Umberto; Mróz, Wojciech; Foggi, Paolo; Fabbrizzi, Pierangelo; Cicchi, Stefano; Botta, Chiara

    2010-02-22

    Dendronic antennae systems containing pyrene units as energy donors and a styrylpyridinium derivative as energy acceptor show efficient energy transfer from the green-emitting pyrene excimer to the red-emitting acceptor. For the third dendron generation the effective screening of the pyrene units on the acceptor provides thin films showing bright red emission. Single-layer light-emitting diodes prepared by properly balancing the dendrons and donor units concentration in polyvinylcarbazole show electroluminescence from the blue, green and red components of the monomeric donor, the donor excimer and the acceptor when excitons are generated in the polymer and subsequently transferred to the molecules by resonant energy transfer.

  10. Experimental observation of electroluminescence enhancement on green LEDs mediated by surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Geol; Choi, Ki-Young; Kim, Jin-Ha; Song, Seok Ho

    2014-08-25

    We experimentally demonstrate the 1.5-fold enhancement of the electroluminescence (EL) of surface-plasmon (SP)-mediated green LEDs. On the p-clad surface of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well LEDs, a 2-dimensional, second-order grating structure is textured and coated with an Ag electrode. With this setup, a larger EL enhancement factor is obtained at a higher injected current, which suggests that SP-LEDs can be a possible solution to efficiency droop, which is one of the main problems in developing high-power LEDs. Details regarding the implementation of our device are discussed.

  11. Modeling charge collection efficiency degradation in partially depleted GaAs photodiodes using the 1- and 2-carrier Hecht equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auden, E. C.; Vizkelethy, G.; Serkland, D. K.; Bossert, D. J.; Doyle, B. L.

    2017-05-01

    The Hecht equation can be used to model the nonlinear degradation of charge collection efficiency (CCE) in response to radiation-induced displacement damage in both fully and partially depleted GaAs photodiodes. CCE degradation is measured for laser-generated photocurrent as a function of fluence and bias in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As p-i-n photodiodes which have been irradiated with 12 MeV C and 7.5 MeV Si ions. CCE is observed to degrade more rapidly with fluence in partially depleted photodiodes than in fully depleted photodiodes. When the intrinsic GaAs layer is fully depleted, the 2-carrier Hecht equation describes CCE degradation as photogenerated electrons and holes recombine at defect sites created by radiation damage in the depletion region. If the GaAs layer is partially depleted, CCE degradation is more appropriately modeled as the sum of the 2-carrier Hecht equation applied to electrons and holes generated within the depletion region and the 1-carrier Hecht equation applied to minority carriers that diffuse from the field-free (non-depleted) region into the depletion region. Enhanced CCE degradation is attributed to holes that recombine within the field-free region of the partially depleted intrinsic GaAs layer before they can diffuse into the depletion region.

  12. Modeling charge collection efficiency degradation in partially depleted GaAs photodiodes using the 1- and 2-carrier Hecht equations

    DOE PAGES

    Auden, E. C.; Vizkelethy, G.; Serkland, D. K.; ...

    2017-03-24

    Here, the Hecht equation can be used to model the nonlinear degradation of charge collection efficiency (CCE) in response to radiation-induced displacement damage in both fully and partially depleted GaAs photodiodes. CCE degradation is measured for laser-generated photocurrent as a function of fluence and bias in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As p-i-n photodiodes which have been irradiated with 12 MeV C and 7.5 MeV Si ions. CCE is observed to degrade more rapidly with fluence in partially depleted photodiodes than in fully depleted photodiodes. When the intrinsic GaAs layer is fully depleted, the 2-carrier Hecht equation describes CCE degradation as photogenerated electrons and holesmore » recombine at defect sites created by radiation damage in the depletion region. If the GaAs layer is partially depleted, CCE degradation is more appropriately modeled as the sum of the 2-carrier Hecht equation applied to electrons and holes generated within the depletion region and the 1-carrier Hecht equation applied to minority carriers that diffuse from the field-free (non-depleted) region into the depletion region. Enhanced CCE degradation is attributed to holes that recombine within the field-free region of the partially depleted intrinsic GaAs layer before they can diffuse into the depletion region.« less

  13. Performance degradation of InGaP solar cells due to 70 keV electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuno, Yasuki; Okuda, Shuichi; Oka, Takashi; Kawakita, Shirou; Imaizumi, Mitsuru

    2017-08-01

    The performance of InGaP solar cells irradiated with electron beams at energies lower than the damage threshold is degraded. To investigate the irradiation effect, GaAs and InGaP solar cells are irradiated with 70 keV electron beams. Measurements of the electroluminescence and external quantum efficiency, in addition to the light current voltage measurement, are conducted. The results show that the performance of the InGaP solar cell, mainly open-circuit voltage, is degraded and affected by nonradiative recombination centers, while the performance of the GaAs solar cell is hardly degraded. The comparison of the experimental results with the prediction from the displacement damage dose model suggests that the non-ionizing energy loss of electrons is the main factor for evaluating the degradation of the InGaP cell caused by electron beams in a relatively low energy range.

  14. Electroluminescence Studies on Longwavelength Indium Arsenide Quantum Dot Microcavities Grown on Gallium Arsenide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONG WAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE THESIS John C...11-46 ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONGWAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE THESIS...58 1 ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONGWAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE I

  15. Analysis of power supply circuits for electroluminescent panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    The electroluminescent panel is a light emitting device that requires for normal operations alternative voltages with peak to peak amplitudes in 100V… 300V range and frequencies in 100Hz … 2 kHz range. Its advantages, when compared with standard light sources like incandescent lamps, gas-discharge lamps or light emitting diodes (LEDs), are lower power consumption, flexible substrate and uniform light without observable luminous points. One disadvantage of electroluminescent panels is the complex power supply required to drive them, but the continuous improvement in passive and active integrated devices for switched mode power supplies will eventually solve this issue. The present paper studies different topologies for these power supplies and the effect of the electric parameters like the amplitude, frequency, waveform of the supplying voltage on the light emission and on power consumption for electroluminescent panels with different size and colors.

  16. Progress and Prospects in Stretchable Electroluminescent Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See

    2017-03-01

    Stretchable electroluminescent (EL) devices are a new form of mechanically deformable electronics that are gaining increasing interests and believed to be one of the essential technologies for next generation lighting and display applications. Apart from the simple bending capability in flexible EL devices, the stretchable EL devices are required to withstand larger mechanical deformations and accommodate stretching strain beyond 10%. The excellent mechanical conformability in these devices enables their applications in rigorous mechanical conditions such as flexing, twisting, stretching, and folding.The stretchable EL devices can be conformably wrapped onto arbitrary curvilinear surface and respond seamlessly to the external or internal forces, leading to unprecedented applications that cannot be addressed with conventional technologies. For example, they are in demand for wide applications in biomedical-related devices or sensors and soft interactive display systems, including activating devices for photosensitive drug, imaging apparatus for internal tissues, electronic skins, interactive input and output devices, robotics, and volumetric displays. With increasingly stringent demand on the mechanical requirements, the fabrication of stretchable EL device is encountering many challenges that are difficult to resolve. In this review, recent progresses in the stretchable EL devices are covered with a focus on the approaches that are adopted to tackle materials and process challenges in stretchable EL devices and delineate the strategies in stretchable electronics. We first introduce the emission mechanisms that have been successfully demonstrated on stretchable EL devices. Limitations and advantages of the different mechanisms for stretchable EL devices are also discussed. Representative reports are reviewed based on different structural and material strategies. Unprecedented applications that have been enabled by the stretchable EL devices are reviewed. Finally, we

  17. Key parameters and practices controlling pesticide degradation efficiency of biobed substrates.

    PubMed

    Karanasios, Evangelos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos G

    2012-01-01

    We studied the contribution of each of the components of a compost-based biomixture (BX), commonly used in Europe, on pesticide degradation. The impact of other key parameters including pesticide dose, temperature and repeated applications on the degradation of eight pesticides, applied as a mixture, in a BX and a peat-based biomixture (OBX) was compared and contrasted to their degradation in soil. Incubation studies showed that straw was essential in maintaining a high pesticide degradation capacity of the biomixture, whereas compost, when mixed with soil, retarded pesticide degradation. The highest rates of degradation were shown in the biomixture composed of soil/compost/straw suggesting that all three components are essential for maximum biobed performance. Increasing doses prolonged the persistence of most pesticides with biomixtures showing a higher tolerance to high pesticide dose levels compared to soil. Increasing the incubation temperature from 15 °C to 25 °C resulted in lower t(1/2) values, with biomixtures performing better than soil at the lower temperature. Repeated applications led to a decrease in the degradation rates of most pesticides in all the substrates, with the exception of iprodione and metalaxyl. Overall, our results stress the ability of biomixtures to perform better than soil under unfavorable conditions and extreme pesticide dose levels.

  18. The effects of the antibiotics ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin on biogas production and their degradation efficiency during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shannon M; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J; Frear, Craig

    2013-12-01

    The impacts of four common animal husbandry antibiotics (ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin) on anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment efficiency and the potential for antibiotic degradation during digestion were evaluated. Sulfamethazine and ampicillin exhibited no impact on total biogas production up to 280 and 350 mg/L, respectively, although ampicillin inhibited biogas production rates during early stages of AD. Tylosin reduced biogas production by 10-38% between 130 and 913 mg/L. Florfenicol reduced biogas by ≈ 5%, 40% and 75% at 6.4, 36 and 210 mg/L, respectively. These antibiotic concentrations are higher than commonly seen for mixed feedlot manure, so impacts on full scale AD should be minimal. Antibiotic degradation products were found, confirming AD effectively degraded ampicillin, florfenicol, and tylosin, although some products were persistent throughout the process. Contamination of AD solid and liquid effluents with sulfamethazine and antibiotic transformation products from florfenicol and tylosin could present an environmental concern. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Mercury oxide as an efficient photocatalyst for degradation of rhodamine B dye under visible-light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Datang; Li, Jiayin; Tang, Jianting

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a new visible-light-responsive photocatalyst, mercury oxide (HgO) was successfully developed. Its activity is significantly higher than that of the highly efficient photocatalyst, Ag3PO4 in degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) dye under irradiation of visible light. The HgO photocatalyst can be reused for at least three cycles without obvious loss of its activity in the degradation experiments. It was found that the RhB degradation rate is significantly influenced by the dye solution pH. The ultrahigh photocatalytic activity of HgO is attributed to its strong oxidization-ablility of the photogenerated holes, and high separation-possibility of the photogenerated carriers.

  20. ZnO/Ag nanocomposite: an efficient catalyst for degradation studies of textile effluents under visible light.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, R; Karthikeyan, N; Gupta, V K; Thirumal, E; Thangadurai, P; Narayanan, V; Stephen, A

    2013-05-01

    Degradation of model organic dye and industry effluent was studied using different weight percentages of Ag into ZnO as a catalyst. In this study, the catalysts were prepared by thermal decomposition method, which was employed for the first time in the preparation of ZnO/Ag nanocomposite catalysts. The physical and chemical properties of the prepared samples were studied using various techniques. The specific surface area, which plays an important role in the photocatalytic degradation, was studied using BET analysis and 10 wt.% Ag into ZnO showed the best degrading efficiency. The optical absorption (UV-vis) and emission (PL) properties of the samples were studied and results suggest better photocatalytic properties for 10 wt.% Ag sample compared to other samples.

  1. Hump-shaped internal collection efficiency of degraded a-Si:H {ital p-i-n} solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smole, F.; Topic, M.; Furlan, J.; Kusian, W.

    1997-07-01

    Measured internal collection efficiency (ICE) characteristics of annealed and degraded a-Si:H p-i-n solar cells were used for an analysis of their internal behavior. Using the numerical simulator ASPIN, simulations were performed in order to fit and explain pronounced hump-shaped voltage-dependent ICE characteristics of degraded structures under weak short-wavelength illumination. Agreement with measured ICE characteristics for a degraded cell was obtained only if in addition to the introduction of light-induced dangling bond defect states, their capture cross sections were also increased, in particular the capture cross section for the charged defect states were increased. This caused a change in the occupancy of defect states at the p-i interface and front part of the i layer under forward biases. Consequently, the electric field in the front part of the cell was sustained under higher forward biases, resulting in recovery of the ICE. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. CPV solar receiver ageing tests: The enhanced electroluminescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabille, Loïc; Mangeant, Christophe; Baudrit, Mathieu

    2013-09-01

    For two years now, CEA INES is involved in the development of insulated metal substrates (IMS) for CPV receivers. In an effort for establishing the reliability of such a new design compared to state-of-the-art direct bonded copper (DBC) design, accelerated ageing test have been carried out. During these tests, several characterization tools were used including current voltage measurements, X-ray tomography and electroluminescence. A new method for the characterization of thermal inhomogeneities has been developed, the so-called Enhanced Electroluminescence (EEL) which is described in this paper.

  3. Dual-degradable disulfide-containing PEI-Pluronic/DNA polyplexes: transfection efficiency and balancing protection and DNA release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifen; Chen, Zhenzhen; Li, Yanfeng

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric gene-delivery vectors to achieve lack of toxicity and a balance between protection and DNA release remains a formidable challenge. Incorporating intracellular environment-responsive degradable bonds is an appreciable step toward developing safer transfection agents. In this study, novel, dual-degradable polycation copolymers (Pluronic-diacrylate [PA]-polyethyleneimine [PEI]-SS) were synthesized through the addition of low molecular weight (800 Da) PEI cross-linked with SS (PEI-SS) to PA. Three PA-PEI-SS copolymers (PA-PEI-SS1, 2, and 3) with different PEI-SS to Pluronic molar ratios were investigated and found to strongly condense plasmid DNA into positively charged nanoparticles with an average particle size of approximately 200 nm and to possess higher stability against DNase I digestion and sodium heparin. Disulfide and ester bonds of the copolymers were susceptible to intracellular redox conditions. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the PA-PEI-SS copolymers had significantly lower cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency in both BGC-823 and 293T cell lines than the controls of degradable PEI-SS and nondegradable 25 kDa PEI. Transfection activity was influenced by the PEI-SS content in the polymers and PA-PEI-SS1 showed the highest efficiency of the three copolymers. These studies suggest that these dual-degradable copolymers could be used as potential biocompatible gene delivery carriers.

  4. Isolation and characterization of Sphingomonas sp. Y2 capable of high-efficiency degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bai, Naling; Wang, Sheng; Abuduaini, Rexiding; Zhu, Xufen; Zhao, Yuhua

    2016-06-01

    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs), although banned for decades, are still widely used in manufactories and thus affect human lives. In this study, a highly efficient NPEO-degrading bacterium, Sphingomonas sp. Y2, was isolated from sewage sludge by enrichment culture. Strain Y2 ensured the complete removal of NPEO in 48 h and degraded 99.2 % NPEO (1,000 mg L(-1)) within 30 h at a specific growth rate of 0.73 h(-1) in minimum salt medium. To date, this degradation efficiency is the highest reported for NPEO metabolism by a pure bacterium under this condition. Furthermore, the application of this bacterium to wastewater treatment demonstrated that it metabolized 98.5 % NPEO (1,000 mg L(-1)) within 5 days with a specific growth rate of 2.03 day(-1). The degradation intermediates, identified as nonylphenol, short-chain NPEOs and short-chain nonylphenol polyethoxycarboxylates by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, indicated the sequential exo-cleavage of the EO chain. Additionally, the enzymes involved in the biodegradation were inducible rather than constitutive. Considering that strain Y2 exhibits prominent biodegradation advantages in industrial wastewater treatment, it might serve as a promising potential candidate for in situ bioremediation of contamination by NPEOs and other structurally similar compounds.

  5. [Selection of a composite microbial system MC1 with efficient and stability cellulose degradation bacteria and its function].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zongjun; Li, Meidan; Piao, Zhe; Huang, Zhiyong; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2002-05-01

    Four groups of microbial mix culture with considerable capability of cellulose degradation were selected from four compost heaps, by combining the four groups, a composite microbial system MC1 with highly efficient cellulose degradation was obtained. It was found that 0.48 g of filter paper, 0.49 g of absorbent cotton, 0.19 g of wheat straw, or 0.08 g of wood residue can be degraded by 100 mL of MC1 at 50 degrees C with in 72 hours under static culture. The CM1 saccharification activity was much higher at 24th hours when degrading filter paper that was 122.3 U.mL-1. This capability of degradation maintained more than 20 days when the substrates were continually added. MC1 could be inoculated in a wide pH rang, from 4 to 10; however, the final pH would be changed to neutrality after incubation. The pH would be stability with filter paper between 6.0 and 6.5, and between 8.0 and 8.5 without the filter paper.

  6. Efficient degradation of crystal violet in magnetic CuFe2O4 aqueous solution coupled with microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongzhe; Yang, Shaogui; Chang, Jiao; Yu, Kai; Li, Dongfang; Sun, Cheng; Li, Aimin

    2012-09-01

    Nanoscale copper ferrite was prepared by co-precipitation method, while citrate acid assisted method was used as reference. Microwave-induced degradation of crystal violet was performed with synthesized copper ferrite, and the behavior of copper ferrite in this process was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and vector network analyzer. Microwave radiation could greatly enhance the activity of copper ferrite in organic oxidation. The variant of copper and iron on the surface and in the inner core of copper ferrite was studied here. Copper ferrite presents relatively low dielectric loss. Meanwhile, microwave radiation makes a faster degradation than conventional heating process, indicating an indispensable non-thermal effect of microwave with copper ferrite in the process. Microwave induced holes could be responsible for the efficient degradation. The effect of annealing on crystallization and degradation process was considered here, and the intermediates and products were studied by GC-MS and LC-MS to provide a comprehensively evaluation of degradation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies on degradation efficiency of polycaprolactone by a naturally-occurring bacterium.

    PubMed

    Motiwalla, Mustafa J; Punyarthi, Priyanka P; Mehta, Mansi K; D'Souza, Jacinta S; Kelkar-Mane, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    We report a strain of Bacillus, isolated from the rhizosphere of the mangrove Sesuvium portulacastrum, that degrades polycaprolactone (PCL) on timescales that are a factor of three shorter than hitherto reported, with complete degradation in only 20 days. The bacterium has been identified as Bacillus pumilus by means of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and FAME analysis; it secretes proteases and lipases and its 'de-polymerase' activity is evident by the zone of clearing in emulsified PCL. It is an aerobic chemoheterotroph capable of utilizing a variety of carbohydrates. Although not a true psychrophile, is a mesophile, growing optimally over a temperature range 30-45 degrees C and pH range 5-12.5. It is a halophile tolerating NaCI concentrations up to 10% w/v, and is unique in degrading and utilizing PCL and its monomer, epsilon-caprolactone (CL), as a sole carbon source. Degradation of PCL was monitored using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This degradation was found to be enhanced by salts (NaCl, KCI, MgSO4, Na2HPO4) and at medium pH values in excess of 7. Under the same growth conditions, another standard Bacillus pumilus strain showed somewhat reduced PCL-degradation.

  8. Electroluminescence from indirect band gap semiconductor ReS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Lezama, Ignacio; Aditya Reddy, Bojja; Ubrig, Nicolas; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2016-12-01

    It has been recently claimed that bulk crystals of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) ReS2 are direct band gap semiconductors, which would make this material an ideal candidate, among all TMDs, for the realization of efficient opto-electronic devices. The situation is however unclear, because even more recently an indirect transition in the PL spectra of this material has been detected, whose energy is smaller than the supposed direct gap. To address this issue we exploit the properties of ionic liquid gated field-effect transistors (FETs) to investigate the gap structure of bulk ReS2. Using these devices, whose high quality is demonstrated by a record high electron FET mobility of 1100 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 4 K, we can induce hole transport at the surface of the material and determine quantitatively the smallest band gap present in the material, irrespective of its direct or indirect nature. The value of the band gap is found to be 1.41 eV, smaller than the 1.5 eV direct optical transition but in good agreement with the energy of the indirect optical transition, providing an independent confirmation that bulk ReS2 is an indirect band gap semiconductor. Nevertheless, contrary to the case of more commonly studied semiconducting TMDs (e.g., MoS2, WS2, etc) in their bulk form, we also find that ReS2 FETs fabricated on bulk crystals do exhibit electroluminescence when driven in the ambipolar injection regime, likely because the difference between direct and indirect gap is only 100 meV. We conclude that ReS2 does deserve more in-depth investigations in relation to possible opto-electronic applications.

  9. Large magneto-conductance and magneto-electroluminescence in exciplex-based organic light-emitting diodes at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yongzhou; Lei, Yanlian; Zhang, Qiaoming; Chen, Lixiang; Song, Qunliang; Xiong, Zuhong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we report on large magneto-conductance (MC) over 60% and magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) as high as 112% at room temperature in an exciplex-based organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with efficient reverse intersystem crossing (ISC). The large MC and MEL are individually confirmed by the current density-voltage characteristics and the electroluminescence spectra under various magnetic fields. We proposed that this type of magnetic field effect (MFE) is governed by the field-modulated reverse ISC between the singlet and triplet exciplex. The temperature-dependent MFEs reveal that the small activation energy of reverse ISC accounts for the large MFEs in the present exciplex-based OLEDs.

  10. Support-dependent active species formation for CuO catalysts: Leading to efficient pollutant degradation in alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yibing; Guo, Lianshuang; Huang, Dekang; Jawad, Ali; Chen, Zhuqi; Yang, Jiakuan; Liu, Weidong; Shen, Yan; Wang, Mingkui; Yin, Guochuan

    2017-04-15

    Redox metal ions play the crucial role in versatile advanced oxidation technologies, in which controlling the active species formation through catalyst design is one of the key challenges in oxidant utilization. This work describes an example of different active species formations in CuO-mediated degradation just because of supporting material differences. Although three CuO catalysts were prepared by similar procedures, it was found that CuO-MgO catalyst demonstrated high efficiency in phenol degradation with bicarbonate activated H2O2, in which the superoxide radical is crucial, while hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen are ignorable. For the CuO-MgO-Al2O3 and CuO-Al2O3 catalysts, the degradation proceeds by popular hydroxyl radical based process, however, the efficiency was poor. The EPR experiments also confirmed the absence of hydroxyl radical in CuO-MgO system but its presence in CuO-MgO-Al2O3 and CuO-Al2O3 system. The high catalytic efficiency with ignorable hydroxyl radical in the CuO-MgO system leads us to propose that an alternative Cu(III) species dominates the degradation. The basic MgO support may facilitate the formation of the Cu(III) species, whereas the neutral MgO-Al2O3 and acidic Al2O3 supports are unable to stabilize the high valent Cu(III) species, leading to the common hydroxyl radical mechanism with low efficiency of H2O2 in alkaline conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence of a tripodal compound containing 7-diethylamino-coumarin moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tianzhi; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yuling; Zhang, Hui; Meng, Jing; Fan, Duowang; Dong, Wenkui

    2008-12-01

    A novel tripodal compound, tris[2-(7-diethylamino-coumarin-3-carboxamide)ethyl]amine (Tren-C), was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared and 1H-NMR spectra. The photoluminescent (PL) and electroluminescent properties of Tren-C were investigated. Tren-C exhibits different colour emissions in solid states and solutions. The electroluminescence devices comprising vacuum vapour-deposited films using the compound as a dopant were fabricated, showing blue emissions that are identical to its PL spectrum in chloroform solutions. With the device structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)/4, 4', 4''-tris-N-naphthyl-N-phenylamino-triphenylamine (2-TNATA) (5 nm)/N, N'-bis-(naphthyl)-N, N'-diphenyl-1, 1'-biphenyl-4, 4'-diamine (NPB) (40 nm)/4, 4'-bis(9-carbazolyl) biphenyl (CBP) : Tren-C (0.5 wt%, 30 nm)/2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole (Bu-PBD) (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm), a maximum external quantum efficiency of 2.85%, a maximum luminous efficiency of 3.85 cd A-1 and a maximum luminance of 1450 cd m-2 are realized.

  12. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    PubMed

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  13. Heterogeneous Fenton degradation of bisphenol A catalyzed by efficient adsorptive Fe3O4/GO nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Hua, Zulin; Ma, Wenqiang; Bai, Xue; Feng, Ranran; Yu, Lu; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Dai, Zhangyan

    2014-06-01

    A new method for the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solution was developed. The oxidative degradation characteristics of BPA in a heterogeneous Fenton reaction catalyzed by Fe3O4/graphite oxide (GO) were studied. Transmission electron microscopic images showed that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were evenly distributed and were ∼6 nm in diameter. Experimental results suggested that BPA conversion was affected by several factors, such as the loading amount of Fe3O4/GO, pH, and initial H2O2 concentration. In the system with 1.0 g L(-1) of Fe3O4/GO and 20 mmol L(-1) of H2O2, almost 90% of BPA (20 mg L(-1)) was degraded within 6 h at pH 6.0. Based on the degradation products identified by GC-MS, the degradation pathways of BPA were proposed. In addition, the reused catalyst Fe3O4/GO still retained its catalytic activity after three cycles, indicating that Fe3O4/GO had good stability and reusability. These results demonstrated that the heterogeneous Fenton reaction catalyzed by Fe3O4/GO is a promising advanced oxidation technology for the treatment of wastewater containing BPA.

  14. Marine bacterium strain screening and pyrethroid insecticide-degrading efficiency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Aili; Liu, Jinghua; Shi, Xizhi; Li, Dexiang; Chen, Jiong; Tang, Daojun

    2014-09-01

    A pyrethroid insecticide-degrading bacterium, strain HS-24, was isolated from an offshore seawater environment. The strain, which can degrade cypermethrin (CYP) and deltamethrin (DEL), was identified as Methylophaga sp. The optimal culture and degradation conditions for CYP and DEL by strain HS-24 is pH 7 at 28°C. Under optimum culture conditions, strain HS-24 exhibited a broad degradation concentration range of 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/L for CYP and DEL. The metabolic intermediates were analyzed by NMR, which provided strong evidence that CYP and DEL removal occurred mainly because of a biological process. The toxicity of the degradation products of strain HS-24 was studied simultaneously by measuring the light output of the luminescence bacterium. This demonstrated that the biodegradation ability of strain HS-24 significantly decreased the toxicity of CYP- and DEL-contaminated aquaculture seawater. Finally, the findings of this paper indicate that strain HS-24 is thus revealed as a biological agent for the remediation of marine aquatic environments.

  15. Efficient degradation of atrazine by magnetic porous copper ferrite catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation via the formation of hydroxyl and sulfate radicals.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ying-Hong; Ma, Jun; Ren, Yue-Ming; Liu, Yu-Lei; Xiao, Jia-Yue; Lin, Ling-qiang; Zhang, Chen

    2013-09-15

    Magnetic porous copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) showed a notable catalytic activity to peroxymonosulfate (PMS). More than 98% of atrazine was degraded within 15 min at 1 mM PMS and 0.1 g/L CuFe2O4. In contrast, CuFe2O4 exhibited no obvious catalytic activity to peroxodisulfate or H2O2. Several factors affecting the catalytic performance of PMS/CuFe2O4 were investigated. Results showed that the catalytic degradation efficiency of atrazine increased with PMS and CuFe2O4 doses, but decreased with the increase of natural organic matters concentration. The catalytic oxidation also showed a dependence on initial pH. The presence of bicarbonate stimulated atrazine degradation by PMS/CuFe2O4 at low concentrations but inhibited the degradation at high concentrations. Furthermore, the reactive species for atrazine degradation in PMS/CuFe2O4 system were identified as hydroxyl radical (HO) and sulfate radical (SO4(·-)) through competition reactions of atrazine and nitrobenzene, instead of commonly used alcohol scavenging, which was not a reliable method in metal oxide catalyzed oxidation. Surface hydroxyl groups of CuFe2O4 were a critical part in radical generation and the copper on CuFe2O4 surface was an active site to catalyze PMS. The catalytic degradation of atrazine by PMS/CuFe2O4 was also effective under the background of actual waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Xylose induces the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica to produce a cutinase-like enzyme which efficiently degrades biodegradable plastics.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Fujii, Takeshi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Hiroko Kuze

    2014-03-01

    There is a need to speed up the degradation of used agricultural mulch films that are made of biodegradable plastics (BPs) in the field. Treating them with BP-degrading enzymes could be a solution to this problem. A cutinase-like enzyme of yeast Pseudozyma antarctica (PaE) has wide specificity of BPs degradation, but needs to be produced efficiently. Here we report that the production of PaE by P. antarctica can be increased by using xylose as carbon source. BP-degradation activity was analyzed using a polybutylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA) emulsion as the substrate. Strain P. antarctica GB-4(1)W was found to be the best PaE producer among the tested strains. Using a 5-L jar fermentor with xylose fed-batch cultivation, high PaE productivity could be maintained and about 21 U/ml of PaE was obtained in 120 h. This amount was 100 times higher than the amount that we obtained previously (0.21 U/ml by flask cultivation using glycerol as carbon source). Under repeated xylose fed-batch cultivation with 24 h intervals, the maximum PaE production rate (0.34 U/ml/h) was maintained and the highest PaE productivity (28,000 U/2 L/d) was repeatedly obtained for 7 intervals. The activity of filtered jar-culture (crude PaE) was stable over 12 weeks at 4°C. Commercially available BP mulch films (20 μm thickness, cut into 1-cm-squares) were completely degraded by submerging them in crude PaE (2 U/ml) at 30°C in 24 h. These results indicated that concentrated PaE can rapidly degrade the strength of BP mulch films in the field so that they do not interfere with plowing.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces reticuli, an efficient degrader of crystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Wibberg, Daniel; Al-Dilaimi, Arwa; Busche, Tobias; Wedderhoff, Ina; Schrempf, Hildgund; Kalinowski, Jörn; Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío

    2016-03-20

    We report the complete, GC-rich genome sequence of the melanin producer Streptomyces reticuli Tü 45 (S. reticuli) that targets and degrades highly crystalline cellulose by the concerted action of a range of biochemically characterized proteins. It consists of a linear 8.3 Mb chromosome, a linear 0.8 Mb megaplasmid, a linear 94 kb plasmid and a circular 76 kb plasmid. Noteworthy, the megaplasmid is the second largest known Streptomyces plasmid. Preliminary analysis reveals, among others, 43 predicted gene clusters for the synthesis of secondary metabolites and 456 predicted genes for binding and degradation of cellulose, other polysaccharides and carbohydrate-containing compounds.

  18. Singlet oxygen as a reactive intermediate in the photodegradation of an electroluminescent polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Scurlock, R.D.; Wang, B.; Ogilby, P.R.; Sheats, J.R.; Clough, R.L.

    1995-10-18

    Singlet molecular oxygen (a{sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}) is shown to be a reactive intermediate in the photoinduced oxidative decomposition of the electroluminescent material poly(2,5-bis(5,6-dihydrocholestanoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) [BCHA-PPV] in both liquid solutions and solid films. Upon irradiation of this polymer in CS{sub 2}, singlet oxygen is produced by energy transfer from the BCHA-PPV triplet state to ground state oxygen with a quantum yield of nearly 0.025. Singlet oxygen reacts with BCHA-PPV, resulting in extensive chain scission of the macromolecule. The reaction with singlet oxygen is unique to the polymer; the monomeric analog of this system, stilbene, does not appreciably react with singlet oxygen. Polymer degradation is proposed to proceed via addition of singlet oxygen in a{sub {pi}} 2+{sub {pi}}2 cycloaddition reaction to the double bond that connects phenylene groups in the macromolecule. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Identification and Characterization of a High Efficiency Aniline Resistance and Degrading Bacterium MC-01.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Ying, Chen; Fang, Ni; Zhong, Yao; Zhao-Xiang, Zhong; Yun, Sun

    2017-01-03

    Biodegradation is one of the important methods for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing aniline. In this paper, a degrading bacterium named MC-01, which could survive in high concentration aniline wastewater, was screened from industrial wastewater containing aniline and sludge. MC-01 was preliminarily identified as Ochrobactrum sp. based on the amplified 16S rDNA gene sequence and Biolog system identification. MC-01 was highly resistant to aniline. After 24-h culture under aniline concentration of 6500 mg/L, the amount of bacterium survived still remained 0.05 × 10(6) CFU/mL. Experiments showed that there was no coupling expression between the growth of MC-01 and aniline degradation. The optimum growth conditions in LB culture were pH 6.0, 30 °C of temperature, and 4% of incubation amount, respectively. And the optimum conditions of aniline degradation of MC-01 were pH 7.0, 45 °C of temperature, and 3.0% of salt concentration, respectively. The degradation rate of MC-01 (48 h) in different aniline concentrations (200~1600 mg/L) was stable under the optimum conditions, which could reach more than 75%.

  20. Layered double hydroxides as efficient photocatalysts for visible-light degradation of Rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Xia, Sheng-Jie; Liu, Feng-Xian; Ni, Zhe-Ming; Xue, Ji-Long; Qian, Ping-Ping

    2013-09-01

    A series of Zn/M-NO3-LDHs (M=Al, Fe, Ti, and Fe/Ti) have been synthesized by two different methods, and their activities for visible-light photocatalytic degradation on Rhodamine B (RB) were tested. Solids were analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, and ICP characterization, confirming the formation of pure LDH phase with good crystal structure. It was observed that the band gap of these nitrate LDH materials was following this order: Zn/Fe-NO3-LDHs (2.55 eV)>Zn/Fe/Ti-NO3-LDHs (2.88 eV)>Zn/Ti-NO3-LDHs (3.0 3eV)>Zn/Al-NO3-LDHs (3.23 eV); however, the degradation performance of RB by four materials followed the order: Zn/Ti-NO3-LDHs (98%)>Zn/Al-NO3-LDHs (96%)>Zn/Fe/Ti-NO3-LDHs (88%)>Zn/Fe-NO3-LDHs (72%). In addition, a possible mechanism for photocatalytic degradation on RB has also been presumed. Moreover, after three regeneration cycles, the percentage of RB degradation rate was still close to 90%.

  1. Strategies to alleviate poverty and grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia: intensification vs production efficiency of livestock systems.

    PubMed

    Briske, David D; Zhao, Mengli; Han, Guodong; Xiu, Changbai; Kemp, David R; Willms, Walter; Havstad, Kris; Kang, Le; Wang, Zhongwu; Wu, Jianguo; Han, Xingguo; Bai, Yongfei

    2015-04-01

    Semi-nomadic pastoralism was replaced by sedentary pastoralism in Inner Mongolia during the 1960's in response to changes in land use policy and increasing human population. Large increases in numbers of livestock and pastoralist households (11- and 9-fold, respectively) during the past 60 yrs have variously degraded the majority of grasslands in Inner Mongolia (78 M ha) and jeopardize the livelihoods of 24 M human inhabitants. A prevailing strategy for alleviating poverty and grassland degradation emphasizes intensification of livestock production systems to maintain both pastoral livelihoods and large livestock numbers. We consider this strategy unsustainable because maximization of livestock revenue incurs high supplemental feed costs, marginalizes net household income, and promotes larger flock sizes to create a positive feedback loop driving grassland degradation. We offer an alternative strategy that increases both livestock production efficiency and net pastoral income by marketing high quality animal products to an increasing affluent Chinese economy while simultaneously reducing livestock impacts on grasslands. We further caution that this strategy be designed and assessed within a social-ecological framework capable of coordinating market expansion for livestock products, sustainable livestock carrying capacities, modified pastoral perceptions of success, and incentives for ecosystem services to interrupt the positive feedback loop that exists between subsistence pastoralism and grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Efficient degradation of carbamazepine by easily recyclable microscaled CuFeO2 mediated heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yaobin; Tang, Hebin; Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Songbo; Tang, Heqing

    2016-11-05

    Microscaled CuFeO2 particles (micro-CuFeO2) were rapidly prepared via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the micro-CuFeO2 was of pure phase and a rhombohedral structure with size in the range of 2.8±0.6μm. The micro-CuFeO2 efficiently catalyzed the activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to generate sulfate radicals (SO4-), causing the fast degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ). The catalytic activity of micro-CuFeO2 was observed to be 6.9 and 25.3 times that of micro-Cu2O and micro-Fe2O3, respectively. The enhanced activity of micro-CuFeO2 for the activation of PMS was confirmed to be attributed to synergistic effect of surface bonded Cu(I) and Fe(III). Sulfate radical was the primary radical species responsible for the CBZ degradation. As a microscaled catalyst, micro-CuFeO2 can be easily recovered by gravity settlement and exhibited improved catalytic stability compared with micro-Cu2O during five successive degradation cycles. Oxidative degradation of CBZ by the couple of PMS/CuFeO2 was effective in the studied actual aqueous environmental systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient degradation of rhodamine B using Fe-based metallic glass catalyst by Fenton-like process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfei; Pan, Ye; Zhu, Zirun; Wu, Jili

    2014-12-01

    An efficient heterogeneous catalyst, Fe-based metallic glass (Fe–Si–B amorphous ribbon), was successfully prepared for Fenton-like degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) by a melt-spinning method. The catalyst was characterized using XRD and SEM. The effects of various reaction parameters such as H2O2 dosage, temperature, initial pH value, Fe–Si–B dosage and initial RhB concentration on the degradation of RhB were studied. Almost complete degradation of RhB (20 mg L−1) was achieved within only 10 min by 0.5 g L−1 Fe–Si–B catalyst and 1.6 mM H2O2 at pH 3.0 at 295 K. Kinetic analyses showed that the degradation process could be described by a pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The catalytic stability was also investigated and it was found that the Fe–Si–B catalyst exhibited good structural stability and no loss of performance even after three cycles. It was concluded that the Fe–Si–B amorphous ribbon was a potential heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst for industrial wastewater treatment.

  4. Bandgap-tailored NiO nanospheres: an efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of crystal violet dye solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahini, Raja; Kumar, Puvaneswaran Senthil; Karuthapandian, Swaminathan

    2016-08-01

    Bandgap-tailored NiO nanospheres were successfully synthesized by facile precipitation method for the first time and characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, FTIR, UV and PL. Interestingly, the modification of the band gap was observed using UV-Vis (DRS) spectroscopy, and the observed band gap is 3.31 eV. The morphology of the materials was analysed by SEM and TEM which show the sphere like structures of NiO with the particle size of ~20 nm. The efficiency of the materials was examined by the degradation of crystal violet dye under UV light illumination. The complete degradation was achieved within 60 min, and the mechanism of the degradation were also been proposed. In addition, the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue dye solution was also carried out to extend the practical applications of NiO nanospheres. The involvement of reactive oxidative species (ROS) was found out by trapping experiment, and the ROS is superoxide radical anion.

  5. Green Phosphorescence and Electroluminescence of Sulfur Pentafluoride-Functionalized Cationic Iridium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Shavaleev, Nail M; Xie, Guohua; Varghese, Shinto; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Momblona, Cristina; Ortí, Enrique; Bolink, Henk J; Samuel, Ifor D W; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2015-06-15

    We report on four cationic iridium(III) complexes [Ir(C^N)2(dtBubpy)](PF6) that have sulfur pentafluoride-modified 1-phenylpyrazole and 2-phenylpyridine cyclometalating (C^N) ligands (dtBubpy = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridyl). Three of the complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. In cyclic voltammetry, the complexes undergo reversible oxidation of iridium(III) and irreversible reduction of the SF5 group. They emit bright green phosphorescence in acetonitrile solution and in thin films at room temperature, with emission maxima in the range of 482-519 nm and photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 79%. The electron-withdrawing sulfur pentafluoride group on the cyclometalating ligands increases the oxidation potential and the redox gap and blue-shifts the phosphorescence of the iridium complexes more so than the commonly employed fluoro and trifluoromethyl groups. The irreversible reduction of the SF5 group may be a problem in organic electronics; for example, the complexes do not exhibit electroluminescence in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LEECs). Nevertheless, the complexes exhibit green to yellow-green electroluminescence in doped multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with emission maxima ranging from 501 nm to 520 nm and with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to 1.7% in solution-processed devices.

  6. Far-infrared (THz) electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Stephen A.; Paul, Douglas J.; Bates, Robert; Norris, David J.; Cullis, Anthony G.; Ikonic, Zoran; Kelsall, Robert W.; Harrison, Paul; Arnone, Donald D.; Pidgeon, Carl R.

    2003-03-01

    There is strong interest in the development of sources that emit radiation in the far infrared (1-10 THz) frequency range for applications which include early detection of skin cancer, dental imaging, telecommunications, security scanning, gas sensing, astronomy, molecular spectroscopy, and the possible detection of biological weapons. While a number of THz sources are available, there are at present no compact, efficient, cheap and practical high-power solid-state sources such as light emitting diodes or lasers. Silicon is an excellent candidate for such a THz source since the lack of polar optical phonon scattering makes it an inherently low loss material at these frequencies. Furthermore, since over 97% of all microelectronics is presently silicon based, the realisation of a silicon based emitter/laser could potentially allow integration with conventional silicon-based microelectronics. In this paper THz electroluminescence from a Si/SiGe quantum cascade structure operating significantly above liquid helium temperatures is demonstrated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was performed using step scan spectrometer with a liquid helium cooled Si-bolometer for detection. Spectra are presented demonstrating intersubband electroluminescence at a number of different frequencies. These spectral features agree very well with the theoretically calculated intersubband transitions predicted for the structure.

  7. Novel Amorphous Red Electroluminescence Material Based on Pyranylidene Indene-1,3-Dione Derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vembris, A.; Porozovs, M.; Muzikante, I.; Latvels, J.; Sarakovskis, A.; Kokars, V.; Zarins, E.

    2010-03-01

    The organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a promising device for future technologies, like flat panel displays and novel light sources. So far the OLED structures have mostly been made by thermal evaporation in vacuum. An alternative approach is to use small molecules which form solid state with glassy structure from solutions. Such compounds can be used in the ink-jet printing technologies and result in reducing the OLED prices. In this paper, we present an original red fluorescent organic compound 2-(2-(4-(bis(2-(trityloxy)ethyl)amino)styryl)-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione (ZWK1), with the maximum of the photoluminescence spectrum for solid state at 657 nm. The structure of the electroluminescent device was ITO/PEDOT: PSS (40 nm)/ZWK1 (120 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm). The electroluminescence spectra correspond to the CIE coordinates x = 0.65 and y = 0.34 with the maximum at 667 nm. The power and luminance efficiency at the luminance of 100 cd/m2 is 0.43 lm/W and 1.97 cd/A, respectively.

  8. Abnormal strong burn-in degradation of highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal donor-acceptor demixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Perea, José Darío; Kassar, Thaer; Richter, Moses; Heumueller, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard J.; Hou, Yi; Güldal, Nusret S.; Chen, Haiwei; Chen, Shi; Langner, Stefan; Berlinghof, Marvin; Unruh, Tobias; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-02-01

    The performance of organic solar cells is determined by the delicate, meticulously optimized bulk-heterojunction microstructure, which consists of finely mixed and relatively separated donor/acceptor regions. Here we demonstrate an abnormal strong burn-in degradation in highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal demixing of the donor and acceptor phases, which dramatically reduces charge generation and can be attributed to the inherently low miscibility of both materials. Even though the microstructure can be kinetically tuned for achieving high-performance, the inherently low miscibility of donor and acceptor leads to spontaneous phase separation in the solid state, even at room temperature and in the dark. A theoretical calculation of the molecular parameters and construction of the spinodal phase diagrams highlight molecular incompatibilities between the donor and acceptor as a dominant mechanism for burn-in degradation, which is to date the major short-time loss reducing the performance and stability of organic solar cells.

  9. Highly efficient degradation of organic dyes by palladium nanoparticles decorated on 2D magnetic reduced graphene oxide nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Li, Siliang; Li, Hua; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Haoli; Yang, Yanmei; Yang, Zhengyin; Wang, Linyun; Wang, Baodui

    2015-05-21

    The application of nanohybrids in water treatment by the catalytic degradation of various pollutants has attracted much attention from researchers. Here, the Pd/Fe3O4-PEI-RGO nanohybrids (1d) with high shape selectivity and high specific surface area have been synthesized by the dispersion of Pd NPs and Fe3O4 NPs on PEI modified graphene oxide sheets. These nanohybrids show superior catalytic activity toward methylene blue with a high degradation efficiency above 99% in the presence of NaBH4 in aqueous solution, which is attributed to the effects of the Pd NPs supported on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. Meanwhile, the 1d catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture by applying an external magnetic field. The catalyst was recycled nine times without showing any significant loss in its activity. Such features enable this catalyst for promising application in catalysis, environment, and new energy fields.

  10. Abnormal strong burn-in degradation of highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal donor-acceptor demixing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Perea, José Darío; Kassar, Thaer; Richter, Moses; Heumueller, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard J.; Hou, Yi; Güldal, Nusret S.; Chen, Haiwei; Chen, Shi; Langner, Stefan; Berlinghof, Marvin; Unruh, Tobias; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of organic solar cells is determined by the delicate, meticulously optimized bulk-heterojunction microstructure, which consists of finely mixed and relatively separated donor/acceptor regions. Here we demonstrate an abnormal strong burn-in degradation in highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal demixing of the donor and acceptor phases, which dramatically reduces charge generation and can be attributed to the inherently low miscibility of both materials. Even though the microstructure can be kinetically tuned for achieving high-performance, the inherently low miscibility of donor and acceptor leads to spontaneous phase separation in the solid state, even at room temperature and in the dark. A theoretical calculation of the molecular parameters and construction of the spinodal phase diagrams highlight molecular incompatibilities between the donor and acceptor as a dominant mechanism for burn-in degradation, which is to date the major short-time loss reducing the performance and stability of organic solar cells. PMID:28224984

  11. Exploration of Up-regulated Key Proteins in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa for High-efficiency Petroleum Degradation by Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Di; Li, Xu-Xiang; Qu, Cheng-Tun

    2017-07-11

    In this work, proteomic analysis was used to identify the up-regulated key proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P6), a bacteria used in petroleum degradation, responsible for its high efficiency in degrading crude oil. Seventeen proteins were identified as up-regulated proteins by proteomic analysis and classified by bioinformatics analysis. The results indicated that most of the up-regulated proteins were responsible for P. aeruginosa (P6) survival under harsh environmental conditions and utilization crude oil as carbon source in a better way. The physiological processes, chemotaxis to carbon sources, terminal oxidation of carbons, carbon source uptake and nutrients transport, were associated with the up-regulated proteins in the study. The findings revealed the most influential proteins and set a clear direction for future research.

  12. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of gaseous formaldehyde by the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Gaoke Qin, Xi

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites were prepared by a sol–gel method. • The composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and good stability. • The physicochemical property of tourmaline may be favor for the degradation of HCHO. • The mixed-phase of anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} may be favor for the degradation of HCHO. - Abstract: The TiO{sub 2} supported tourmaline composites were prepared by a sol–gel method and used as a photocatalyst for the degradation of formaldehyde (HCHO). The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS). The results indicate that the mixed-phase of anatase and rutile exists in the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites. The specific surface area of the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites is much higher than that of the pure TiO{sub 2}. The TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of HCHO, which was 6 times higher than that of the pure TiO{sub 2}. Moreover, the excellent photocatalytic activity of the composites was fully maintained after five photocatalytic cycles, which may be attributed to the physicochemical property of tourmaline and the mixed-phase of anatase and rutile in the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites.

  13. Highly ordered Fe3+/TiO2 nanotube arrays for efficient photocataltyic degradation of nitrobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiyang; Gu, Di; Zhu, Lingyue; Wang, Baohui

    2017-10-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) were prepared through a facile two-step electrochemical anodization, subsequently, active iron ions were introduced into the TiO2 NTs via a direct impregnation method. The XPS results showed that the iron elements existed in TiO2 NTs in the form of Fe3+ ions. Compared with the undoped TiO2 NTs, the absorption edge of Fe3+/TiO2 NTs showed an overt red shift and the photocurrent improved obviously, which indicated that Fe3+/TiO2 had a much higher photocatalytic activity. The optimal doping content was tested to be 0.1 mol/L which could make the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NTs obviously improves under both visible and ultraviolent light. The prepared samples were adopted as photocatalyst to degrade nitrobenzene (NB). The reaction rate constants ks under UV light were in the order kone-stepTiO2NTs = 0.00338 degradation products were probed to be CO2 and H2O, which demonstrated that NB could be completely mineralized to harmless inorganic substance. The mechanism of NB degradation with Fe3+/TiO2 was also discussed and the quenching experiments further confirm that rad OH, h+ and rad O2- are active intermediates in the process of photocatalytic degradation.

  14. Highly efficient degradation of ofloxacin by UV/Oxone/Co2+ oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianhui; Song, Mengke; Feng, Jinglan; Pi, Yunqing

    2012-06-01

    In this study, UV/Oxone/Co(2+) oxidation process was applied to degradation of ofloxacin (OFL) in the presence of Co(2+) as the catalytic and Oxone as the oxidant. The operation parameters including pH, temperature, dosages of reagents, and reaction time were studied in detail. The results showed that the optimum conditions for the UV/Oxone/Co(2+) processes were determined as follows: temperature = 25°C, pH = 5.0, [Oxone] = 0.6 mmol/L, [Oxone]/[Co(2+)] = 1,000, and reaction time = 60 min. Under these conditions, 100% of the OFL degraded. The kinetics was also studied, and degradation of OFL by the UV/Oxone/Co(2+) process could be described by first-order kinetics. Mineralization of the process was investigated by measuring the total organic carbon (TOC), and the TOC decreased by 87.0% after 60 min. This process could be used as a pretreatment method for wastewater containing ofloxacin.

  15. Molecular characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum DMDL 9010, a strain with efficient nitrite degradation capacity.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yong-tao; Liu, Dong-mei; Luo, Tong-hui; Chen, Gu; Wu, Hui; Li, Li; Yu, Yi-gang

    2014-01-01

    Nitrites commonly found in food, especially in fermented vegetables, are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. A Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010) was previously isolated from fermented vegetables by our group, and is not yet fully characterized. A number of phenotypical and genotypical approaches were employed to characterize Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010. Its nitrite degradation capacity was compared with four other Lactobacillus strains, including Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 719, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricu 1.83, Streptococcus thermophilus 1.204, and lactobacillus plantarum 8140, on MRS medium. Compared to these four Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had a significantly higher nitrite degradation capacity (P<0.001). Based on 16S rDNA sequencing and sequence comparison, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 was identified as either Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus pentosus. To further identify this strain, the flanking regions (922 bp and 806 bp upstream and downstream, respectively) of the L-lactate dehydrogenase 1 (L-ldh1) gene were amplified and sequenced. Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had 98.92 and 76.98% sequence identity in the upstream region with L. plantarum WCFS1 and L. pentosus IG1, respectively, suggesting that Lactobacillu sp. DMDL 9010 is an L. plantarum strain. It was therefore named L. plantarum DMDL 9010. Our study provides a platform for genetic engineering of L. plantarum DMDL 9010, in order to further improve its nitrite degradation capacity.

  16. Efficient photo-catalytic degradation of malachite green using nickel tungstate material as photo-catalyst.

    PubMed

    Helaïli, N; Boudjamaa, A; Kebir, M; Bachari, K

    2017-03-01

    The present study focused on the evaluation of photo-catalytic and photo-electrochemical properties of the photo-catalyst based on nickel tungstate material prepared by a nitrate method through the degradation of malachite green (MG) dye's. The effect of catalyst loading and dye concentration was examined. Physico-chemical, optical, electrical, electrochemical, and photo-electrochemical properties of the prepared material were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET analysis, optical reflectance diffuse (DR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry (CV), current intensity, mott-shottky, and nyquist. XRD revealed the formation of monoclinic structure with a small particle size. BET surface area of the sample was around 10 m(2)/g. The results show that the degradation of MG was more than 80%, achieved after 3 h of irradiation at pH 4.6 and with a catalyst loading of 75 mg. Also, it was found that the dye photo-degradation obeyed the pseudo-first order kinetic via Langmuir Hinshelwood model.

  17. Cerium doped red mud catalytic ozonation for bezafibrate degradation in wastewater: Efficiency, intermediates, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingbing; Qi, Fei; Sun, Dezhi; Chen, Zhonglin; Robert, Didier

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the performance of bezafibrate (BZF) degradation and detoxification in the aqueous phase using cerium-modified red mud (RM) catalysts prepared using different cerium sources and synthesis methods were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the surface cerium modification was responsible for the development of the catalytic activity of RM and this was influenced by the cerium source and the synthesis method. Catalyst prepared from cerium (IV) by precipitation was found to show the best catalytic activity in BZF degradation and detoxification. Reactive oxygen species including peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, and super oxide ions were identified in all reactions and we proposed the corresponding catalytic reaction mechanism for each catalyst that prepared from different cerium source and method. This was supported by the intermediates profiles that were generated upon BZF degradation. The surface and the structural properties of cerium-modified RM were characterized in detail by several analytical methods. Two interesting findings were made: (1) the surface texture (specific surface area and mesoporous volume) influenced the catalytic reaction pathway; and (2) Ce(III) species and oxygen vacancies were generated on the surface of the catalyst after cerium modification. This plays an important role in the development of the catalytic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum DMDL 9010, a Strain with Efficient Nitrite Degradation Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Yong-tao; Liu, Dong-mei; Luo, Tong-hui; Chen, Gu; Wu, Hui; Li, Li; Yu, Yi-gang

    2014-01-01

    Nitrites commonly found in food, especially in fermented vegetables, are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. A Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010) was previously isolated from fermented vegetables by our group, and is not yet fully characterized. A number of phenotypical and genotypical approaches were employed to characterize Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010. Its nitrite degradation capacity was compared with four other Lactobacillus strains, including Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 719, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricu 1.83, Streptococcus thermophilus 1.204, and lactobacillus plantarum 8140, on MRS medium. Compared to these four Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had a significantly higher nitrite degradation capacity (P<0.001). Based on 16S rDNA sequencing and sequence comparison, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 was identified as either Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus pentosus. To further identify this strain, the flanking regions (922 bp and 806 bp upstream and downstream, respectively) of the L-lactate dehydrogenase 1 (L-ldh1) gene were amplified and sequenced. Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had 98.92 and 76.98% sequence identity in the upstream region with L. plantarum WCFS1 and L. pentosus IG1, respectively, suggesting that Lactobacillu sp. DMDL 9010 is an L. plantarum strain. It was therefore named L. plantarum DMDL 9010. Our study provides a platform for genetic engineering of L. plantarum DMDL 9010, in order to further improve its nitrite degradation capacity. PMID:25423449

  19. Bacteria encapsulated in layered double hydroxides: towards an efficient bionanohybrid for pollutant degradation.

    PubMed

    Halma, Matilte; Mousty, Christine; Forano, Claude; Sancelme, Martine; Besse-Hoggan, Pascale; Prevot, Vanessa

    2015-02-01

    A soft chemical process was successfully used to immobilize Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP (ADP), a well-known atrazine (herbicide) degrading bacterium, within a Mg2Al-layered double hydroxide host matrix. This approach is based on a simple, quick and ecofriendly direct coprecipitation of metal salts in the presence of a colloidal suspension of bacteria in water. It must be stressed that by this process the mass ratio between inorganic and biological components was easily tuned ranging from 2 to 40. This ratio strongly influenced the biological activity of the bacteria towards atrazine degradation. The better results were obtained for ratios of 10 or lower, leading to an enhanced atrazine degradation rate and percentage compared to free cells. Moreover the biohybrid material maintained this biodegradative activity after four cycles of reutilization and 3 weeks storage at 4°C. The ADP@MgAl-LDH bionanohybrid materials were completely characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning and transmission electronic microscopy (SEM and TEM) evidencing the successful immobilization of ADP within the inorganic matrix. This synthetic approach could be readily extended to other microbial whole-cell immobilization of interest for new developments in biotechnological systems.

  20. Strong yellow electroluminescence from manganese-silicon-implanted silicon-dioxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Sergey; Ovchinnikov, Victor F.; Haerkoenen, Jaakko; Sinkkonen, Juha A.

    2001-05-01

    Room temperature (RT) electroluminescence (EL) was obtained for the first time from Mn enriched Si/SiO2 structure. Si+ or Ar+ stimulated knock-on implantation through 20 nm Mn film with the subsequent annealing was used for EL device fabrication. Devices exhibit bright emission band at the 2.06 eV. The position does neither depend on implanted ion dose nor annealing procedure. EL is visible by naked eye even at current density as low as 1.5x10-6 Acm-2. Continuous wave external quantum efficiency 1.1x10-3 and power efficiency 1.5x10-5 have been achieved.

  1. Improved modeling of photoluminescent and electroluminescent coupling in multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Dongchen; Geisz, John F.; Steiner, Myles A.; Garcia, Ivan; Friedman, Daniel J.; Green, Martin A.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of tandem stacks of Group III-V multijunction solar cells continues to improve rapidly, both through improved performance of the individual cells in the stack and through increase in the number of stacked cells. As the radiative efficiency of these individual cells increases, radiative coupling between the stacked cells becomes an increasingly important factor not only in cell design, but also in accurate efficiency measurement and in determining performance of cells and systems under varying spectral conditions in the field. Past modeling has concentrated on electroluminescent coupling between the cells, although photoluminescent coupling is shown to be important for cells operating near their maximum power point voltage or below or when junction defect recombination is significant. Extension of earlier models is proposed to allow this non-negligible component of luminescent coupling to be included. The refined model is validated by measurement of the closely related external emission from both single and double junction cells.

  2. Ag loaded WO3 nanoplates for efficient photocatalytic degradation of sulfanilamide and their bactericidal effect under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenyu; Liu, Jincheng; Yu, Shuyan; Zhou, Yan; Yan, Xiaoli

    2016-11-15

    Sulfonamides (SAs) are extensively used antibiotics and their residues in the water bodies propose potential threat to the public. In this study, degradation efficiency of sulfanilamide (SAM), which is the precursor of SAs, using WO3 nanoplates and their Ag heterogeneous as photocatalysts was investigated. WO3 nanoplates with uniform size were synthesized by a facile one step hydrothermal method. Different amount of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were loaded onto WO3 nanoplates using a photo-reduction method to generate WO3/Ag composites. The physio-chemical properties of synthesized nanomaterials were systematically characterized. Photodegradation of SAM by WO3 and WO3/Ag composites was conducted under visible light irradiation. The results show that WO3/Ag composites performed much better than pure WO3 where the highest removal rate was 96.2% in 5h. Ag as excellent antibacterial agent also endows certain antibacterial efficiency to WO3, and 100% removal efficiency against Escherichia Coli and Bacillus subtilis could be achieved in 2h under visible light irradiation for all three WO3/Ag composites synthesized. The improved performance in terms of SAM degradation and antibacterial activity of WO3/Ag can be attributed to the improved electron-hole pair separation rate where Ag NPs act as effective electron trapper during the photocatalytic process.

  3. Degradation efficiency and mechanism of azo dye RR2 by a novel ozone aerated internal micro-electrolysis filter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Bing; Dong, Wen-Yi; Sun, Fei-Yun; Yang, Wei; Dong, Jiao

    2014-07-15

    A newly designed ozone aerated internal micro-electrolysis filter (OIEF) was developed to investigate its degradation efficiencies and correlated reaction mechanisms of RR2 dye. Complete decolorization and 82% TOC removal efficiency were stably achieved in OIEF process. Based on the comprehensive experimental results, an empirical equation was proposed to illustrate the effects of initial dye concentration and ozone dosage rate on color removal. The results indicated that OIEF process could be operated at wide pH range without significant treatment efficiencies change, while the optimum pH for RR2 dye degradation was 9.0. There were 15, 8 and 6 kinds of identified intermediates during ozonation, IE and OIEF treatment processes, respectively. Less identified intermediates and their lower concentrations in OIEF may attribute to its rather excellent mineralization performance. It was found that ozonation, Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) catalyzed ozonation, the redox reactions of electro-reduction and electro-oxidation are the most important mechanisms in OIEF process. The catalytic effect of Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) would induce mutual conversion between dissolved Fe(2+) and Fe(3+), and then decrease the dissolution rate of ZVI. The excellent treatment performance proved that the OIEF process is one promising technology applied for reactive azo dyes and other refractory wastewater treatment.

  4. Efficient visible light-induced degradation of rhodamine B by W(NxS1−x)2 nanoflowers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peitao; Zhang, Jingyan; Gao, Daqiang; Ye, Weichun

    2017-01-01

    Here, W(NxS1−x)2 nanoflowers were fabricated by simple sintering process. Photocatalytic activity results indicated our fabricated N-doped WS2 nanoflowers shown outstanding photoactivity of degradating of rhodamine B with visible light. Which is attributed to the high separation efficiency of photoinduced electron–hole pairs, the broadening of the valence band (VB), and the narrowing of energy band gap. Meanwhile, our work provided a novel method to induce surface sulfur vacancies in crystals by introduing impurities atoms for enhancing their photodegradation. PMID:28106096

  5. Ascorbate-Promoted Surface Iron Cycle for Efficient Heterogeneous Fenton Alachlor Degradation with Hematite Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Hou, Xiaojing; Jia, Falong; Song, Fahui; Zhao, Jincai; Zhang, Lizhi

    2017-03-15

    This study reports the H2O2 activation with different hematite nanocrystals and ascorbate ions for the herbicide alachlor degradation at pH 5. We found that hematite nanoplates (HNPs) exposed with {001} facets exhibited better catalytic performance than hematite nanocubes (HNCs) exposed with {012} facets, which was attributed to the formation of inner-sphere iron-ascorbate complexes on the hematite facets. The 3-fold undercoordination Fe cations of {001} facet favors the formation of inner-sphere iron-ascorbate complexes, while the 5-fold undercoordination Fe cations of {012} facet has stereo-hindrance effect, disfavoring the complex formation. The surface area normalized alachlor degradation rate constant (23.3 × 10(-4) min(-1) L m(-2)) of HNPs-ascorbate Fenton system was about 2.6 times that (9.1 × 10(-4) min(-1) L m(-2)) of HNCs-ascorbate counterpart. Meanwhile, the 89.0% of dechlorination and 30.0% of denitrification in the HNPs-ascorbate Fenton system were also significantly higher than those (60.9% and 13.1%) of the HNCs-ascorbate one. More importantly, the reductive dissolution of hematite by ascorbate was strongly coupled with the subsequent H2O2 decomposition by surface bound ferrous ions through surface iron cycle on the hematite facets in the hematite-ascorbate Fenton systems. This coupling could significantly inhibit the conversion of surface bound ferrous ions to dissolved ones, and thus account for the stability of hematite nanocrystals. This work sheds light on the internal relationship between iron geochemical cycling and contaminants degradation, and also inspires us to utilize surface iron cycle of widely existent hematite for environmental remediation.

  6. Quantifying Solar Cell Cracks in Photovoltaic Modules by Electroluminescence Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso; Glick, Stephen; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-06-14

    This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module's electroluminescence intensity distribution, applied at module and cell level. These concepts are demonstrated on a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module that was subjected to several rounds of mechanical loading and humidity-freeze cycling, causing increasing levels of solar cell cracks. The proposed method can be used as a diagnostic tool to rate cell damage or quality of modules after transportation. Moreover, the method can be automated and used in quality control for module manufacturers, installers, or as a diagnostic tool by plant operators and diagnostic service providers.

  7. Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device.

    PubMed

    Kido, J; Kimura, M; Nagai, K

    1995-03-03

    Organic electroluminescent devices are light-emitting diodes in which the active materials consist entirely of organic materials. Here, the fabrication of a white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device made from vacuum-deposited organic thin films is reported. In this device, three emitter layers with different carrier transport properties, each emitting blue, green, or red light, are used to generate white light. Bright white light, over 2000 candelas per square meter, nearly as bright as a fluorescent lamp, was successfully obtained at low drive voltages such as 15 to 16 volts. The applications of such a device include paper-thin light sources, which are particularly useful for places that require lightweight illumination devices, such as in aircraft and space shuttles. Other uses are a backlight for liquid crystal display as well as full color displays, achieved by combining the emitters with micropatterned color filters.

  8. Efficient activation of peroxymonosulfate by magnetic Mn-MGO for degradation of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiangkun; Bao, Jianguo; Liu, Ying; Ling, Haibo; Zheng, Han; Kim, Sang Hoon; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-12-15

    A heterogeneous manganese/magnetite/graphene oxide (Mn-MGO) hybrid catalyst was fabricated through the reduction of KMnO4 by ethylene glycol in the presence of magnetite/GO (MGO) particles. The Mn-MGO catalyst exhibited high efficacy and long-term stability in activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to generate sulfate radicals for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water. The results of the batch experiments indicated that an increase in the catalyst dose and solution pH could enhance BPA degradation in the coupled Mn-MGO/PMS system. Regardless of the initial pH, the solution pH significantly dropped after the reaction, which was caused by catalytic PMS activation. The production of sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals was validated through radical quenching and electron paramagnetic resonances (EPR) tests. BPA degradation pathways were proposed on the basis of LC-MS and GC-MS analyses. Finally, a possible mechanism of catalytic PMS activation was proposed that involved electron transfer from MnO or Mn2O3 to PMS with the generation of sulfate radicals, protons and MnO2, as well as the simultaneous reduction of MnO2 by PMS.

  9. An efficient fermentation method for the degradation of cyanogenic glycosides in flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-F; Xu, X-M; Huang, S-H; Deng, M-C; Feng, A-J; Peng, J; Yuan, J-P; Wang, J-H

    2012-01-01

    Recently, flaxseed has become increasingly popular in the health food market because it contains a considerable amount of specific beneficial nutrients such as lignans and omega-3 fatty acids. However, the presence of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs) in flaxseed severely limits the exploitation of its health benefits and nutritive value. We, therefore, developed an effective fermentation method, optimised by response surface methodology (RSM), for degrading CGs with an enzymatic preparation that includes 12.5% β-glucosidase and 8.9% cyanide hydratase. These optimised conditions resulted in a maximum CG degradation level of 99.3%, reducing the concentration of cyanide in the flaxseed power from 1.156 to 0.015 mg g(-1) after 48 h of fermentation. The avoidance of steam heat to evaporate hydrocyanic acid (HCN) results in lower energy consumption and no environmental pollution. In addition, the detoxified flaxseed retained the beneficial nutrients, lignans and fatty acids at the same level as untreated flaxseed, and this method could provide a new means of removing CGs from other edible plants, such as cassava, almond and sorghum by simultaneously expressing cyanide hydratase and β-glucosidase.

  10. Effect of nitrate ions on the efficiency of sonophotochemical phenol degradation.

    PubMed

    Zaviska, François; Drogui, Patrick; El Hachemi, Errachid M; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    A sonophotochemical oxidation process has been used for the treatment of an aqueous solution of phenol. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of nitrate ions on hydroxyl radical production and on phenol oxidation. It has been demonstrated that ultrasound can produce NOx (nitrate and nitrite), with a production rate of 2.2 μM min(-1). The photolysis of nitrate can significantly improve the hydroxyl radical production. The apparent rate constant for hydroxyl radical production increased from 0.0015 min(-1) to 0.0073 min(-1) while increasing initial nitrate concentration from 0 to 0.5mM. The concentration of hydroxyl radical was directly proportional to the initial nitrate concentration. Using US/UV process, the apparent reaction rate constant of phenol degradation in the presence of nitrate reached 0.020 min(-1), which was relatively lower than the value obtained (0.027 min(-1)) in the absence of nitrate. It appeared that, nitrate ions can inhibit the sonochemical degradation of organic compounds such as phenol.

  11. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solution by SnO2:Sb nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamdi, Abdullah M.; Sillanpää, Mika; Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2016-05-01

    Photodegradation of phenol in the presence of tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles under UV light irradiation is known to be an effective photocatalytic process. However, phenol degradation under solar light is less effective due to the large band gap of SnO2. In this study antimony (Sb) doped tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles were prepared at a low temperature (80 °C) by a sol-gel method and studied for its photocatalytic activity with phenol as a test contaminant. The catalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous media was studied using high performance liquid chromatography and total organic carbon measurements. The change in the concentration of phenol affects the pH of the solution due to the by-products formed during the photo-oxidation of phenol. The photoactivity of SnO2:Sb was found to be a maximum for 0.6 wt.% Sb doped SnO2 nanoparticles with 10 mg L-1 phenol in water. Within 2 h of photodegradation, more than 95% of phenol could be removed under solar light irradiation.

  12. White electroluminescence of n-ZnO:Al/p-diamond heterostructure devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Can; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Li-Jun; Pan, Xiu-Fang; Li, Song-Kun; Jing, Long-Wei

    2013-08-01

    An n-ZnO:Al/p-boron-doped diamond heterostructure electroluminescent device is produced, and a rectifying behavior can be observed. The electroluminescence spectrum at room temperature exhibits two visible bands centred at 450 nm-485 nm (blue emission) and 570 nm-640 nm (yellow emission). Light emission with a luminance of 15 cd/m2 is observed from the electroluminescent device at a forward applied voltage of 85 V, which is distinguished from white light by the naked eye.

  13. Multimode fixed legend liquid crystal and electroluminescent display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, D. G.; Krueger, H. H.; Theis, D.

    1985-04-01

    A novel arrangement of color-capable multi-legend displays is described. The electrodes are patterned to carry a continuous fixed message in positive or negative contrast. Color is obtained either by dyes in guest-host type liquid crystal displays or by using a combination with thin film electroluminescent backlights. The main advantages is in its use in the future for keyboards where the keys can be used in a touch-sensitive interactive display mode.

  14. Theoretical and material studies on thin-film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    Electroluminescent materials and device technology were assessed. The evaluation strongly suggests the need for a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of both materials and device structures, particularly in the following areas: carrier generation and multiplication; radiative and nonradiative processes of luminescent centers; device modeling; new device concepts; and single crystal materials growth and characterization. Modeling of transport properties of hot electrons in ZnSe and the generation of device concepts were initiated.

  15. Optical sensors and multisensor arrays containing thin film electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Aylott, Jonathan W.; Chen-Esterlit, Zoe; Friedl, Jon H.; Kopelman, Raoul; Savvateev, Vadim N.; Shinar, Joseph

    2001-12-18

    Optical sensor, probe and array devices for detecting chemical biological, and physical analytes. The devices include an analyte-sensitive layer optically coupled to a thin film electroluminescent layer which activates the analyte-sensitive layer to provide an optical response. The optical response varies depending upon the presence of an analyte and is detected by a photodetector and analyzed to determine the properties of the analyte.

  16. Efficient degradation of Acid Orange 7 in aqueous solution by iron ore tailing Fenton-like process.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianming; Gao, Zhanqi; He, Huan; Yang, Shaogui; Sun, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    An effective method based on iron ore tailing Fenton-like process was studied for removing an azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solution. Five tailings were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscope (XFS), Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) measurement, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The result of XFS showed that Fe, Si and Ca were the most abundant elements and some toxic heavy metals were also present in the studied tailings. The result of BET analysis indicated that the studied tailings had very low surface areas (0.64-5.68 m(2) g(-1)). The degradation efficiencies of AO7 were positively correlated with the content of iron oxide and cupric oxide, and not related with the BET surface area of the tailings. The co-existing metal elements, particularly Cu, might accelerate the heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction. The effects of other parameters on heterogeneous Fenton-like degradation of AO7 by a converter slag iron tailing (tailing E) which contains highest iron oxide were also investigated. The tailing could be reused 10 times without significant decrease of the catalytic capacity. Very low amount of iron species and almost undetectable toxic elements were leached in the catalytic degradation of AO7 by the tailing E. The reaction products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a possible pathway of AO7 degradation was proposed. This study not only provides an effective method for removing azo dyes in polluted water by employing waste tailings as Fenton-like catalysts, but also uses waste tailings as the secondary resource.

  17. Photofunctional triplet excited states of cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes: beyond electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    You, Youngmin; Nam, Wonwoo

    2012-11-07

    The development of cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes has enabled important breakthroughs in electroluminescence because such complexes permit the efficient population of triplet excited states that give rise to luminescent transitions. The triplet states of Ir(III) complexes are advantageous over those of other transition metal complexes in that their electronic transitions and charge-transfer characteristics are tunable over wide ranges. These favorable properties suggest that Ir(III) complexes have significant potential in a variety of photofunctions other than electroluminescence. In this critical review, we describe recent photonic applications of novel Ir(III) complexes. Ir(III) complexes have been shown to affect the exciton statistics in the active layers of organic photovoltaic cells, thereby improving the photon-to-current conversion efficiencies. Nonlinear optical applications that take advantage of the strong charge-transfer properties of triplet transitions are also discussed. The tunability of the electrochemical potentials facilitates the development of efficient photocatalysis in the context of water photolysis or organic syntheses. The photoredox reactivities of Ir(III) complexes have been employed in studies of charge migration along DNA chains. The photoinduced cytotoxicity of Ir(III) complexes on live cells suggests that the complexes may be useful in photodynamic therapy. Potential biological applications of the complexes include phosphorescence labeling and sensing. Intriguing platforms based on cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes potentially provide novel protein tagging and ratiometric detection. We envision that future research into the photofunctionality of Ir(III) complexes will provide important breakthroughs in a variety of photonic applications.

  18. Efficient visible-light photocatalytic degradation of sulfadiazine sodium with hierarchical Bi₇O₉I₃under solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xu, MengMeng; Zhao, YaLei; Yan, QiShe

    2015-01-01

    Bi₇O₉I₃, a kind of visible-light-responsive photocatalyst, with hierarchical micro/nano-architecture was successfully synthesized by oil-bath heating method, with ethylene glycol as solvent, and applied to degrade sulfonamide antibiotics. The as-prepared product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-visible diffuse reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD and XPS tests confirmed that the product was indeed Bi₇O₉I₃. The result of SEM observation shows that the as-synthesized Bi₇O₉I₃ consists of a large number of micro-sheets with parallel rectangle structure. The optical test exhibited strong photoabsorption in visible light irradiation, with 617 nm of absorption edges. Moreover, the difference in the photocatalytic efficiency of as-prepared Bi₇O₉I₃ at different seasons of a whole year was investigated in this study. The chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency and concentration of NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-) of solution after reaction were also researched to confirm whether degradation of the pollutant was complete; the results indicated a high mineralization capacity of Bi₇O₉I₃. The as-synthesized Bi₇O₉I₃exhibits an excellent oxidizing capacity of sulfadiazine sodium and favorable stability during the photocatalytic reaction.

  19. Degradation in the efficiency of glass Resistive Plate Chambers operated without external gas supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baesso, P.; Cussans, D.; Thomay, C.; Velthuis, J.; Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Stapleton, M.; Steer, C.

    2015-06-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC) are particle detectors commonly used by the high energy physics community. Their normal operation requires a constant flow of gas mixture to prevent self-poisoning which reduces the chamber's capability to detect particles. We studied how quickly the efficiency of two RPCs drops when operated in sealed mode, i.e. without refreshing the gas mixture. The test aim is to determine how RPCs could be used as particle detectors in non-laboratory applications, such as those exploiting muon tomography for geological imaging or homeland security. The two sealed RPCs were operated in proportional mode for a period of more than three months, and their efficiencies were recorded continuously and analysed in 8-hours intervals. The results show that the efficiency drops on average by 0.79 ± 0.01 % every 24 hours of operation and returns close to the initial value after purging the old gas mixture and flushing the chambers with fresh gas.

  20. Thick film electroluminescent lamps on ZnS, Cu base and their application in safety systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciez, Michal; Porada, Zbigniew W.

    2004-08-01

    The paper presents known for above 60 years phenomenon of intrinsic electroluminescence and its practical use in modern light sources called light emitting capacitors or electroluminescent lamps. Applying polymer thick film technology the authors have realized multilayer electroluminescent structures (Destriau cells). The influence of various constructional factors and exploitational conditions (supplying voltage, temperature) on luminance level of structures was determined. The test results achieved are presented in the diagrams and tables. A few examples of applications of electroluminescent lamps in emergency and warning systems are reported.

  1. Graphene-SnO2 composites for highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under sunlight.

    PubMed

    Seema, Humaira; Christian Kemp, K; Chandra, Vimlesh; Kim, Kwang S

    2012-09-07

    Graphene sheets decorated with SnO(2) nanoparticles (RGO-SnO(2)) were prepared via a redox reaction between graphene oxide (GO) and SnCl(2). Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced to graphene (RGO) and Sn(2+) was oxidized to SnO(2) during the redox reaction, leading to a homogeneous distribution of SnO(2) nanoparticles on RGO sheets. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show uniform distribution of the nanoparticles on the RGO surface and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows an average particle size of 3-5 nm. The RGO-SnO(2) composite showed an enhanced photocatalytic degradation activity for the organic dye methylene blue under sunlight compared to bare SnO(2) nanoparticles. This result leads us to believe that the RGO-SnO(2) composite could be used in catalytic photodegradation of other organic dyes.

  2. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine 6G with a quantum dot-metal organic framework nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajnish; Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Paul, A K; Deep, Akash

    2016-07-01

    The hybrid structures of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and nanoparticles may offer the realization of effective photocatalytic materials due to combined benefits of the porous and molecular sieving properties of MOF matrix and the functional characteristics of encapsulated nanoparticles. In this study, cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QD) are conjugated with a europium-MOF for the synthesis of a novel nanocomposite material with photocatalytic properties. Successful synthesis of a QD/Eu-MOF nanocomposite was characterized with various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. This QD/Eu-MOF is found to be an effective catalyst to complete the degradation of Rhodamine 6G dye within 50 min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation of immobilized coating Fenton-like catalyst for high efficient degradation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiankang; Yao, Zhongping; Wang, Yajing; Xia, Qixing; Chu, Huiya; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2017-03-06

    In this study, solid acid amorphous Fe3O4/SiO2 ceramic coating decorated with sulfur on Q235 carbon steel as Fenton-like catalyst for phenol degradation was successfully prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in silicate electrolyte containing Na2S2O8 as sulfur source. The surface morphology and phase composition were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS analyses. NH3-TPD was used to evaluate surface acidity of PEO coating. The results indicated that sulfur decorated amorphous Fe3O4/SiO2 ceramic coatings with porous structure and higher acid strength had the similar pore size and the surface became more and more uneven with the increase of Na2S2O8 in the silicate electrolyte. The Fenton-like catalytic activity of sulfur decorated PEO coatings was also evaluated. In contrast to negligible catalytic activity of sulfur undecorated PEO coating, catalytic activity of sulfur decorated PEO coating was excellent and PEO coating prepared with 3.0 g Na2S2O8 had the highest catalytic activity which could degrade 99% of phenol within 8 min under circumneutral pH. The outstanding performance of sulfur decorated PEO coating was attributed to strong acidic microenvironment and more Fe(2+) on the surface. The strong acid sites played a key factor in determining catalytic activity of catalyst. In conclusion, rapid phenol removal under circumneutral pH and easier separation endowed it potential application in wastewater treatment. In addition, this strategy of preparing immobilized solid acid coating could provide guidance for designing Fenton-like catalyst with excellent catalytic activity and easier separation.

  4. Electroluminescence from Ge1-ySny diodes with degenerate pn junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, J. D.; Senaratne, C. L.; Wallace, P. M.; Menéndez, J.; Kouvetakis, J.

    2015-09-01

    The light emission properties of GeSn pn diodes were investigated as a function of alloy composition and doping levels. Very sharp interfaces between contiguous ultra-highly doped p- and n-layers were obtained using in situ doping with B2H6 and P(SiH3)3 in a chemical vapor deposition environment, yielding nearly ideal model systems for systematic studies. Changes in the doping levels and layer Sn concentrations are shown to greatly affect the electroluminescence spectra. This sensitivity should make it possible to optimize the emission efficiency for these structures in the interesting quasi-direct regime, for which direct gap luminescence is observed due to the proximity of the conduction band quasi-Fermi level to the minimum of the conduction band at the center of the Brillouin zone. Such structures represent the basic building block of Ge-based electrically pumped lasers.

  5. Ultraviolet Electroluminescence and Blue-Green Phosphorescence using an Organic Diphosphine Oxide Charge Transporting Layer.

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, Paul E.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Sapochak, Linda S.; Djurovich, Peter I.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2006-05-01

    We report electroluminescence with a peak wavelength at 338 nm from a simple bilayer organic light emitting device (OLED) made using 4,4’-bis(diphenylphosphine oxide) biphenyl (PO1). In an OLED geometry, the material is preferentially electron transporting. Doping the PO1 layer with iridium(III)bis(4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N, C2’)picolinate (FIrpic) gives rise to electrophosphorescence with a peak external quantum efficiency of 7.8% at 0.09 mA/cm2 and 5.8% at 13 mA/cm2. The latter current density is obtained at 6.3 V applied forward bias. This represents a new class of wide-bandgap charge transporting organic materials which may prove useful as host materials for blue electrophosphoresent OLEDs.

  6. Efficient degradation of rhodamine B using modified graphite felt gas diffusion electrode by electro-Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiangnan; Olajuyin, Ayobami Matthew; Mu, Tingzhen; Yang, Maohua; Xing, Jianmin

    2016-06-01

    The electro-Fenton (EF) process treatment of 0.1-M (rhodamine B) RhB solution was studied with different graphite cathode materials, and graphite felt (GF) was selected as a promising material in further investigation. Then, the degradation performances of gas diffusion electrode (GDE) and graphite felt (GF) were compared, and GDE was confirmed to be more efficient in RhB removal. The operational parameters such as Fe(2+) dosage and current density were optimized, and comparison among different modified methods-polytetrafluoroethylene-carbon black (PTFE-CB), polytetrafluoroethylene-carbon nanotube (PTFE-CNT), electrodeposition-CB, and electrodeposition-CNT-showed 98.49 % RhB removal by PTFE-CB-modified cathode in 0.05 M Na2SO4 at a current density of 50 A/m(2) and an air flow rate of 1 L/min after 20 min. Meanwhile, after cathode modified by PTFE-CB, the mineralization efficiency and mineralization current efficiency performed absolutely better than the pristine one. Cyclic voltammograms, SEM images, contact angles, and BET surface area were carried out to demonstrate stronger current responses and higher hydrophilicity of GF after modified. The value of biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) increased from 0.049 to 0.331 after 90-min treatment, suggesting the solution was biodegradable, and the modified cathode was confirmed to be stable after ten circle runs. Finally, a proposed degradation pathway of RhB was put forward.

  7. Pretreatment combining ultrasound and sodium percarbonate under mild conditions for efficient degradation of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazunori; Ebi, Yuuki; Kubo, Masaki; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) can be used to disrupt microcrystalline cellulose to give nanofibers via ultrasonic cavitation. Sodium percarbonate (SP), consisting of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, generates highly reactive radicals, which cause oxidative delignification. Here, we describe a novel pretreatment technique using a combination of US and SP (US-SP) for the efficient saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic corn stover. Although US-SP pretreatment was conducted under mild condition (i.e., at room temperature and atmospheric pressure), the pretreatment greatly increased lignin removal and cellulose digestibility. We also determined the optimum US-SP treatment conditions, such as ultrasonic power output, pretreatment time, pretreatment temperature, and SP concentration for an efficient cellulose saccharification. Moreover, xylose could be effectively recovered from US-SP pretreated biomass without the formation of microbial inhibitor furfural.

  8. Highly efficient visible light mediated azo dye degradation through barium titanate decorated reduced graphene oxide sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Monisha; Kushwaha, H. S.; Vaish, Rahul

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates BaTiO3 decorated reduced graphene oxide sheets as a potential visible light active catalyst for dye degradation (Rhodamine B). The composites were prepared through conventional hydrothermal synthesis technique using hydrazine as a reducing agent. A number of techniques have been employed to affirm the morphology, composition and photocatalytic properties of the composites; these include UV-visible spectrophotoscopy that assisted in quantifying the concentration difference of Rhodamine B. The phase homogeneity of the composites was examined through x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was employed to confirm the orientation of the BaTiO3 particles over the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra assisted in determining the surface structure and excited state of the catalyst. Fourier transformed-infrared (FTIR) spectra investigated the vibrations and adsorption peak of the composites, thereby ascertaining the formation of reduced graphene oxide. In addition, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) demonstrated an enhanced absorption in the visible region. The experimental investigations revealed that graphene oxide acted as charge collector and simultaneously facilitated surface adsorption and photo-sensitization. It could be deduced that BaTiO3-reduced graphene oxide composites are of significant interest the field of water purification through solar photocatalysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Efficient tetracycline adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B by uranyl coordination polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Ya-Nan; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Lin-Xia; Zheng, Yue-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Two mixed uranyl-cadmium malonate coordination polymers [(UO2)2Cd(H-bipy)2(mal)4(H2O)2]·4H2O 1 and [(UO2)Cd(bipy)(mal)2]·H2O 2 (H2mal = malonic acid, bipy =4,4‧-bipyridine) have been synthesized in room temperature. Compound 1 represents a one-dimensional (1D) chain assembly of Cd(II) ions, uranyl centers and malonate ligands. Compound 2 exhibits a two-dimensional (2D) 2D +2D → 3D polycatenated framework based on inclined interlocked 2D 44 sql grids. The two compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy. And the ferroelectric property of 2 also has been studied. Moreover, compound 2 exhibits good photocatalytic activity for dye degradation under UV light and is excellent adsorbent for removing tetracycline antibiotics in the aqueous solution.

  10. Immobilization of degradative bacteria in polyurethane-based foams: embedding efficiency and effect on bacterial activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Radway, J.C.; Hazen, T.C.; Hermann, P.

    1996-09-03

    The immobilization of TCE-degrading bacterium Burkholderia cepacia was evaluated using hydrophilic polyurethane foam. The influence of several foam formulation parameters upon cell retention was examined. Surfactant type was a major determinant of retention, with a lecithin- based compound retaining more cells than pluronic or silicone based surfactants. Excessive amounts of surfactant led to increased washout of bacteria. Increasing the biomass concentration from 4.8% to 10.5% caused fewer cells to be washed out. Embedding at reduced temperature did not significantly affect retention, while the use of a silane binding agent gave inconsistent results. The optimal formulation retained all but 0.2% of total embedded cells during passage of 2 liters of water through columns containing 2 g of foam. All foam formulations tested reduced the culturability of embedded cells by several orders of magnitude. However, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} evolution rates of embedded cells were never less than 50% of unembedded cells. Nutrient amendments stimulated an increase in cell volume and ribosomal activity as indicated by hybridization studies using fluorescently labeled ribosomal probes. these results indicated that, although immobilized cells were nonculturable, they were metabolically active and thus could be used for biodegradation of toxic compounds.

  11. Highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by Cu doped ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Sini; Satpati, Biswarup; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2015-10-14

    Copper doped ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by a facile wet chemical method. Structural properties of as-synthesized nanomaterials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, while UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to study their optical properties. Sunlight driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) dyes in water was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of Cu doped ZnO nanostructures using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that there is an optimum Cu doping level which leads to the highly enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu doped ZnO nanostructures, as compared to pure ZnO nanostructures. A mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu-ZnO nanostructures is tentatively proposed. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu-ZnO nanostructures is attributed to the combined effects of improved separation of photogenerated charge carriers due to optimal Cu doping in ZnO nanostructures and the formation of ZnO-CuO nanoheterojunctions.

  12. Sprayed nanostructured TiO2 films for efficient photocatalytic degradation of textile azo dye.

    PubMed

    Stambolova, Irina; Shipochka, Capital Em Cyrillicaria; Blaskov, Vladimir; Loukanov, Alexandrе; Vassilev, Sasho

    2012-12-05

    Spray pyrolysis procedure for preparation of nanostructured TiO(2) films with higher photocatalytic effectiveness and longer exploitation life is presented in this study. Thin films of active nanocrystalline TiO(2) were obtained from titanium isopropoxide, stabilized with acetyl acetone and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The activity of sprayed nanostructured TiO(2) is tested for photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye with concentrations up to 80 ppm. Interesting result of the work is the reduction of toxicity after photocatalytic treatment of RB5 with TiO(2), which was confirmed by the lower percentage of mortality of Artemia salina. It was proved that the film thickness, conditions of post deposition treatment and the type of the substrate affected significantly the photocatalytic reaction. Taking into account that the parameters are interdependent, it is necessary to optimize the preparation conditions in order to synthesize photocatalytic active films.

  13. Brewer's yeast efficiently degrades phytate phosphorus in a corn-soybean meal diet during soaking treatment.

    PubMed

    Chu, Gyo-Moon; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Kawashima, Tomoyuki; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2009-08-01

    Microbes such as yeast and Aspergillus are known to produce phytase, and Aspergillus phytase has been used as a feed additive for improving phytate-phosphorus bioavailability in monogastric animals. We measured phytase activity in some by-products from fermented food and beverage productions by yeast and Aspergillus. The phytase activity was as high as 3577 and 2225 PU/kg DM in raw and dried brewer's yeasts, respectively. On the other hand, the phytase activity was approximately 400 PU/kg DM in white-wine yeast and red-wine yeast. The phytase activity was further low in natto (fermented soybean) residue, soy sauce cake, rice brewer's grain and the activity was not detected in dried corn-barley distiller's grain with soluble and sweet-potato distiller's residue. The stability of phytase against pepsin was much lower in the brewer's yeast than in an Aspergillus phytase preparation. On the other hand, the addition of raw brewer's yeast effectively degraded phytate phosphorus in a corn-soybean meal diet during soaking. These results suggest that phytase in the examined by-products is not suitable for the phytase source of conventional diets, but that the soaking treatment with a raw brewer's yeast is an alternative method for improving phytate-phosphorus bioavailability in corn-soybean meal diets for pigs.

  14. Radiolytic Degradation in Lanthanide/Actinide Separation Ligands–NOPOPO: Radical Kinetics and Efficiencies Determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Katy L. Swancutt; Stephen P. Mezyk; Richard D. Tillotson; Sylvie Pailloux; Manab Chakravarty; Robert T. Paine; Leigh R. Martin

    2011-07-01

    Trivalent lanthanide/actinide separations from used nuclear fuel occurs in the presence radiation fields that degrades the extraction ligands and solvents. Here we have investigated the stability of a new ligand for lanthanide/actinide separation; 2,6-bis[(di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphino)methyl] pyridine N,P,P-trioxide, TEH(NOPOPO). The impact of {gamma}-radiolysis on the distribution ratios for actinide (Am) and Lanthanide (Eu) extraction both in the presence and absence of an acidic aqueous phase by TEH(NOPOPO) was determined. Corresponding reaction rate constants for the two major radicals, hydroxyl and nitrate, were determined for TEH(NOPOPO) in the aqueous phase, with room temperature values of (3.49 {+-} 0.10) x 10{sup 9} and (1.95 {+-} 0.15) x 10{sup 8} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The activation energy for this reaction was found to be 30.2 {+-} 4.1 kJ mol{sup -1}. Rate constants for two analogues (2-methylphosphonic acid pyridine N,P-dioxide and 2,6-bis(methylphosphonic acid) pyridine N,P,P-trioxide) were also determined to assist in determining the major reaction pathways.

  15. Extremely low amplified spontaneous emission threshold and blue electroluminescence from a spin-coated octafluorene neat film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.-H.; Sandanayaka, A. S. D.; Zhao, L.; Pitrat, D.; Mulatier, J. C.; Matsushima, T.; Andraud, C.; Ribierre, J. C.; Adachi, C.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the photophysical, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), and electroluminescence properties of a blue-emitting octafluorene derivative in spin-coated films. The neat film shows an extremely low ASE threshold of 90 nJ/cm2, which is related to its high photoluminescence quantum yield of 87% and its large radiative decay rate of 1.7 × 109 s-1. Low-threshold organic distributed feedback semiconductor lasers and fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a maximum external quantum efficiency as high as 4.4% are then demonstrated, providing evidence that this octafluorene derivative is a promising candidate for organic laser applications.

  16. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Self-quenching of excited europium ions in Eu(DBM)3bath-based organic electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C. J.; Wong, T. C.; Hung, L. S.; Lee, S. T.; Hong, Z. R.; Li, W. L.

    2001-06-01

    Luminance-current characteristics of organic electroluminescent devices based on the europium complex of europium(dibenzoylmethanato)3 (bathophenanthroline) (Eu(DBM)3bath) have been investigated. Transient measurements were carried out to study the decay process of excited Eu3+ ions. A comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculation shows that biexcitonic quenching among the excited Eu3+ ions is an important channel in their decay process, and this quenching process is a primary cause for our observation of a rapid decrease in quantum efficiency with increasing current density. Extending the recombination zone is found to be beneficial to reducing this defective effect. The mechanism of the quenching process is also discussed.

  17. Efficiency degradation due to tracking errors for point focusing solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1978-01-01

    An important parameter in the design of point focusing solar collectors is the intercept factor which is a measure of efficiency and of energy available for use in the receiver. Using statistical methods, an expression of the expected value of the intercept factor is derived for various configurations and control law implementations. The analysis assumes that a radially symmetric flux distribution (not necessarily Gaussian) is generated at the focal plane due to the sun's finite image and various reflector errors. The time-varying tracking errors are assumed to be uniformly distributed within the threshold limits and allows the expected value calculation.

  18. Highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by PoPD/TiO2 nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuanxi; Zhang, Ming; Dong, Wenping; Cui, Guanwei; Ren, Zongming; Wang, Weiliang

    2017-01-01

    The poly-o-phenylenediamine (PoPD)/TiO2 nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via 'in situ' oxidative polymerization method. The modified photocatalysts were characterized by BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrarad spectra (FT-IR), thermogravimrtic analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-Vis DRS) and Photocurrent Test. The results showed that the PoPD exists on the surface of TiO2, the presence of PoPD does not impact on the lattice structure and grain size of TiO2, and the presence of PoPD enhances the visible response and photoelectric property. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was chosen as a model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of TiO2 and PoPD/TiO2. The optimal preparation condition was the molar ratio of oPD to TiO2 = 3:1, HCl concentration = 1.2 mol/L, the molar ratio of APS to oPD = 1:1. The apparent first-order rate constant kapp of PoPD/TiO2 nanocomposite was 0.0098 min-1, which is 6 times higher than TiO2 (0.0016 min-1). Meanwhile, the PoPD/TiO2 nanocomposites showed excellent photocatalytic stability, and the photocatalytic stability was depended on the stability of structure. At last, the photocatalytic mechanism of POPD/TiO2 nanocomposites was also proposed based on the synergetic effect between TiO2 and PoPD.

  19. Highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by PoPD/TiO2 nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenping; Cui, Guanwei; Ren, Zongming

    2017-01-01

    The poly-o-phenylenediamine (PoPD)/TiO2 nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via ‘in situ’ oxidative polymerization method. The modified photocatalysts were characterized by BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrarad spectra (FT-IR), thermogravimrtic analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-Vis DRS) and Photocurrent Test. The results showed that the PoPD exists on the surface of TiO2, the presence of PoPD does not impact on the lattice structure and grain size of TiO2, and the presence of PoPD enhances the visible response and photoelectric property. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was chosen as a model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of TiO2 and PoPD/TiO2. The optimal preparation condition was the molar ratio of oPD to TiO2 = 3:1, HCl concentration = 1.2 mol/L, the molar ratio of APS to oPD = 1:1. The apparent first-order rate constant kapp of PoPD/TiO2 nanocomposite was 0.0098 min-1, which is 6 times higher than TiO2 (0.0016 min-1). Meanwhile, the PoPD/TiO2 nanocomposites showed excellent photocatalytic stability, and the photocatalytic stability was depended on the stability of structure. At last, the photocatalytic mechanism of POPD/TiO2 nanocomposites was also proposed based on the synergetic effect between TiO2 and PoPD. PMID:28329007

  20. Self-Organized TiO₂-MnO₂ Nanotube Arrays for Efficient Photocatalytic Degradation of Toluene.

    PubMed

    Nevárez-Martínez, María C; Kobylański, Marek P; Mazierski, Paweł; Wółkiewicz, Jolanta; Trykowski, Grzegorz; Malankowska, Anna; Kozak, Magda; Espinoza-Montero, Patricio J; Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana

    2017-03-31

    Vertically oriented, self-organized TiO₂-MnO₂ nanotube arrays were successfully obtained by one-step anodic oxidation of Ti-Mn alloys in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the applied potential (30-50 V), manganese content in the alloy (5-15 wt. %) and water content in the electrolyte (2-10 vol. %) on the morphology and photocatalytic properties was investigated for the first time. The photoactivity was assessed in the toluene removal reaction under visible light, using low-powered LEDs as an irradiation source (λmax = 465 nm). Morphology analysis showed that samples consisted of auto-aligned nanotubes over the surface of the alloy, their dimensions were: diameter = 76-118 nm, length = 1.0-3.4 μm and wall thickness = 8-11 nm. It was found that the increase in the applied potential led to increase the dimensions while the increase in the content of manganese in the alloy brought to shorter nanotubes. Notably, all samples were photoactive under the influence of visible light and the highest degradation achieved after 60 min of irradiation was 43%. The excitation mechanism of TiO₂-MnO₂ NTs under visible light was presented, pointing out the importance of MnO₂ species for the generation of e(-) and h⁺.

  1. BiOCl/TiO2 heterojunction network with high energy facet exposed for highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Ni, Qian; Zeng, Dawen; Liao, Guanglan; Wen, Yanwei; Shan, Bin; Xie, Changsheng

    2017-02-01

    Benzene is known for its difficulty of degradation as well as enormous harmful intermediates released during degradation, which arouses urgent demand for highly efficient photocatalysts as solution. In this paper, we fabricated a 3D hierarchical structure of 2D single crystalline BiOCl nanosheets with high energy (001) facets exposed using 1D single-crystalline TiO2 nanorod array as supporting framework and charge transfer tunnel. Compared to releasing various intermediates by the TiO2 nanorod array during photocatalysis, the BiOCl/TiO2 heterojunction network exhibited phenomenal photocatalytic activity for fully degradation of 150 ppm gaseous benzene within 80 min, yielding stoichiometric 900 ppm CO2 with excellent repeat stability. The outstanding photocatalytic performance is ascribed to the charge separation across the BiOCl/TiO2 interface, which is evidenced by density functional theory (DFT) based calculation as well as photoluminescence and photocurrent experiments. Furthermore, the internal electric fields of BiOCl and TiO2 nanorod high-speed transferring tunnel also make contributes to the charge separation. Then the reserved holes at (001) facets of BiOCl, which is believed to be the major actives for gaseous photocatalysis, can migrate to the surface oxygen vacancies for decomposing benzene with oxygen molecules. In addition, the scavenging effect due to oxygen vacancies on (001) facet of BiOCl is also responsible for the excellent and sustainable photocatalytic activity. This work reveals an approach for novel photocatalysts by building band-aligned 3D heterojunction network with high energy facet exposed as active sites.

  2. Efficient visible-light photocatalytic degradation system assisted by conventional Pd catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanlong; He, Tao; Guo, Lingju; Yang, Yajun; Guo, Limei; Tang, Yue; Cao, Yaan

    2015-01-01

    Different approaches like doping and sensitization have been used to develop photocatalysts that can lead to high reactivity under visible-light illumination, which would allow efficient utilization of solar irradiation and even interior lighting. We demonstrated a conceptually different approach by changing reaction route via introducing the idea of conventional Pd catalysis used in cross-coupling reactions into photocatalysis. The –O–Pd–Cl surface species modified on Ni-doped TiO2 can play a role the same as that in chemical catalysis, resulting in remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. For instance, Pd/Ni-TiO2 has much higher activity than N-TiO2 (about 3 ~ 9 times for all of the 4-XP systems) upon irradiation with wavelength of 420 nm. The catalytically active Pd(0) is achieved by reduction of photogenerated electrons from Ni-TiO2. Given high efficient, stable Pd catalysts or other suitable chemical catalysts, this concept may enable realization of the practical applications of photocatalysis. PMID:25825365

  3. Humic acid degradation by the synthesized flower-like Ag/ZnO nanostructure as an efficient photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Morovati, Pouran; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Tabatabaee, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Nano-sized flower-like Ag/ZnO was synthesized by a simple method using zinc acetate and silver acetate under hydrothermal condition. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the synthesized powder. Nano flower-like Ag/ZnO was used as a photocatalyst for degradation of humic acid in aqueous solution. The disappearance of HA was analyzed by measuring the absorbance of sample at special wavelength (254 nm). The effects of various parameters such as amount of photocatalyst, pH, initial humic acid concentration and irradiation time on degradation rate were systematically investigated. Photodegradation efficiency was small when the photolysis was carried out in the absence of Ag/ZnO and it was also negligible in the absence of light. Approximately 70% of humic acid (50 mg/L) has been eliminated after 40 minutes in the presences of catalyst (catalyst dose o.6 g/L and pH =7) and UVA irradiation. While, 100% of humic acid has been eliminated with solar irradiation.

  4. Efficient adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation over BiOBr/montmorillonite composites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chengqun; Wu, Honghai; Gu, Feng Long

    2014-06-30

    BiOBr/Na-montmorillonite composites (BiOBr-Mt) were prepared under laboratory ambient conditions by using the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the Br source and template, and the as-synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, FESEM, TEM equipped with EDS, BET and UV-vis DRS techniques. Interestingly, the particle size of BiOBr can be controlled by CTAB modified Na-montmorillonite. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared was further evaluated by decomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation; the obtained results revealed that the BiOBr-Mt sample had strong photoabsorption in the visible light region. It has higher photocatalytic activity than pure BiOBr alone. There exists an efficient adsorption for RhB onto BiOBr-Mt contrast to that onto the pure BiOBr. The adsorption processes can be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model; meanwhile, the adsorption behaviors can be described by both Freundlich and Langmuir equations but the former was better. Additionally, the relevant adsorption and degradation mechanisms were explored and the possible mechanisms were presented. The photocatalytic activity has high effect both in acidic and basic conditions on the degradation reaction but in acidic condition is more favorable. After three recycles, BiOBr-Mt did not exhibit any significant loss of photocatalytic activity, confirming the photocatalyst was essentially stable.

  5. Efficient degradation of phenol using iron-montmorillonite as a Fenton catalyst: Importance of visible light irradiation and intermediates.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xipeng; Wu, Honghai; He, Guangping; Guan, Yufeng

    2017-01-05

    Iron-montmorillonite (Fe-Mt) with delaminated structures was synthesized via the introduction of iron oxides into Na-montmorillonite. Fe-Mt showed significant increases in the available iron content, surface area and pore volume, along with a slight increase in the basal spacing from d001=1.26 (Na-Mt) to 1.53nm (Fe-Mt). The Fenton process was efficient for phenol removal using Fe-Mt as a catalyst under visible light irradiation, and the process had two-stage pseudo-first order kinetics. The overall reaction had a higher degradation rate even when it was only irradiated with visible light for the first 40min period. Further investigation confirmed that the irradiation increased the presence of certain intermediates. Among them, 1,4-benzoquinone, hydroquinone, and catechol all enhanced the Fenton reaction rates. Either catechol or hydroquinone was added to the Fenton system with Fe-Mt/H2O2 with or without visible light irradiation, and they both accelerated phenol degradation because catechol and hydroquinone are capable of reductively and effectively transforming Fe(III) into Fe(II). The concentrations of dissolved total Fe increased with the increase in the oxalic acid concentration, which can strongly chelate Fe(III). Hence, iron was released from Fe-Mt, and reductive transformation played an important role in promoting the Fenton reaction process for phenol removal.

  6. Efficient whole-cell biocatalyst for Neu5Ac production by manipulating synthetic, degradation and transmembrane pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Deqiang; Zhan, Xiaobei; Wu, Jianrong; Gao, Minjie; Zhao, Zhongsheng

    2017-01-01

    To develop a strategy for producing N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which is often synthesized from exogenous N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and pyruvate, but without using pyruvate. An efficient three-module whole-cell biocatalyst strategy for Neu5Ac production by utilizing intracellular phosphoenolpyruvate was established. In module I, the synthetic pathway was constructed by coexpressing GlcNAc 2-epimerase from Anabaena sp. CH1 and Neu5Ac synthase from Campylobacter jejuni in Escherichia coli. In module II, the Neu5Ac degradation pathway of E. coli was knocked out, resulting in 2.6 ± 0.06 g Neu5Ac l(-1) after 72 h in Erlenmeyer flasks. In module III, the transmembrane mode of GlcNAc was modified by disruption of GlcNAc-specific phosphotransferase system and Neu5Ac now reached 3.7 ± 0.04 g l(-1). In scale-up catalysis with a 1 l fermenter, the final Neu5Ac yield was 7.2 ± 0.08 g l(-1). A three-module whole-cell biocatalyst strategy by manipulating synthetic, degradation and transmembrane pathways in E. coli was an economical method for Neu5Ac production.

  7. ZrO2/MoS2 heterojunction photocatalysts for efficient photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar Vattikuti, Surya Veerendra; Byon, Chan; Reddy, Chandragiri Venkata

    2016-10-01

    We report a simple solution-chemistry approach for the synthesis of ZrO2/MoS2 hybrid photocatalysts, which contain MoS2 as a cocatalyst. The material is usually obtained by a wet chemical method using ZrO(NO3)2 or (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O and C8H6S as precursors. The structural features of obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (TG-DTA), N2 adsorption-desorption, and photoluminescence (PL). The influence on the photocatalytic activity of the MoS2 cocatalyst concentration with ZrO2 nanoparticles was studied. The MZr-2 hybrid sample had the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO), which was 8.45 times higher than that of pristine ZrO2 ascribed to high specific surface area and absorbance efficiency. Recycling experiments revealed that the reusability of the MZr-2 hybrid was due to the low photocorrosive effect and good catalytic stability. PL spectra confirmed the electronic interaction between ZrO2 and MoS2. The photoinduced electrons could be easily transferred from CB of ZrO2 to the MoS2 cocatalyst, which facilitate effective charge separation and enhanced the photocatalytic degradation in the UV region. A photocatalytic mechanism is proposed. It is believed that the ZrO2/MoS2 hybrid structure has promise as a photocatalyst with low cost and high efficiency for photoreactions.

  8. Reduced sampling efficiency causes degraded Vernier hyperacuity with normal aging: Vernier acuity in position noise.

    PubMed

    Li, Roger W; Brown, Brian; Edwards, Marion H; Ngo, Charlie V; Chat, Sandy W; Levi, Dennis M

    2012-01-01

    Vernier acuity, a form of visual hyperacuity, is amongst the most precise forms of spatial vision. Under optimal conditions Vernier thresholds are much finer than the inter-photoreceptor distance. Achievement of such high precision is based substantially on cortical computations, most likely in the primary visual cortex. Using stimuli with added positional noise, we show that Vernier processing is reduced with advancing age across a wide range of noise levels. Using an ideal observer model, we are able to characterize the mechanisms underlying age-related loss, and show that the reduction in Vernier acuity can be mainly attributed to the reduction in efficiency of sampling, with no significant change in the level of internal position noise, or spatial distortion, in the visual system.

  9. Correlation between excitation of Alfven modes and degradation of ICRF heating efficiency in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, S.; Chang, Z.; Darrow, D.

    1997-05-01

    Alfven modes are excited by energetic ions in TFTR during intense minority ICRF heating. There is a clear threshold in rf power above which the modes are destabilized. The net effect of these modes is the increase of the fast ion losses, with an associated saturation of the ion tail energy and of the efficiency of the heating. Typically, several modes are excited with progressive n-numbers, with frequencies in the neighborhood of 200 kHz. Results suggest that Energetic Particle Modes (EPM), mostly unseen by the Mirnov coils, are generated near the center and are responsible for the ion losses. Stronger global TAE modes, which are destabilized by the stream of displaced fast ions, appear responsible only for minor losses.

  10. Degradation efficiencies of azo dye Acid Orange 7 by the interaction of heat, UV and anions with common oxidants: persulfate, peroxymonosulfate and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiying; Wang, Ping; Yang, Xin; Shan, Liang; Zhang, Wenyi; Shao, Xueting; Niu, Rui

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, the degradation of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) by three common peroxides (persulfate (PS), peroxymonosulfate (PMS) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))) under various activation conditions, i.e., heat (25-80 degrees C), UV light (254 nm), or anions (SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), CO(3)(2-), HCO(3)(-), HPO(4)(2-), and Cl(-)), was investigated. The order of AO7 degradation efficiencies by heat activation is PS>PMS>H(2)O(2). PS oxidation activated by heat (>50 degrees C) is an effective degradation technology, while PMS and H(2)O(2) are hardly activated. When assisted by UV, peroxides could all be activated and degrade AO7 quickly. The order is PS>H(2)O(2)>PMS. We activated peroxides, for the first time, by using some anions and compared the subsequently degradation efficiencies of AO7. It was found that PMS could be activated by some anions, but PS and H(2)O(2) cannot. The activation efficiencies of PMS by SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-) are negligible, whereas remarkable by HCO(3)(-), HPO(4)(2-), Cl(-) and CO(3)(2-). For HCO(3)(-), HPO(4)(2-) and Cl(-), the activation efficiencies become higher with the increase of anion concentration. For CO(3)(2-), however, the activation efficiency is higher at lower concentration.

  11. Luminescent Photoelectrochemical Cells. 6. Spatial Aspects of the Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence of Cadmium Selenide Electrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-06

    NO. 8 Luminescent Photoelectrochemical Cells. 6. Spatial Aspects of the Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence of Cadmium Selenide Electrodes by...Photoelectrochemistry; photoluminescence; electroluminescence; cadmium selenide electrodes 20. ABSTRACT (Continue. on reverse aide flnocosee7 and...REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Luminescent Photoelectrochemical Cells. 6.1 1 Spatial Aspects of the Photoluminescence and Elect roluminescence of Cadmium

  12. Use of plan quality degradation to evaluate tradeoffs in delivery efficiency and clinical plan metrics arising from IMRT optimizer and sequencer compromises.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Joel R; Matuszak, Martha M; Feng, Mary; Moran, Jean M; Fraass, Benedick A

    2013-07-01

    Plan degradation resulting from compromises made to enhance delivery efficiency is an important consideration for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. IMRT optimization and/or multileaf collimator (MLC) sequencing schemes can be modified to generate more efficient treatment delivery, but the effect those modifications have on plan quality is often difficult to quantify. In this work, the authors present a method for quantitative assessment of overall plan quality degradation due to tradeoffs between delivery efficiency and treatment plan quality, illustrated using comparisons between plans developed allowing different numbers of intensity levels in IMRT optimization and/or MLC sequencing for static segmental MLC IMRT plans. A plan quality degradation method to evaluate delivery efficiency and plan quality tradeoffs was developed and used to assess planning for 14 prostate and 12 head and neck patients treated with static IMRT. Plan quality was evaluated using a physician's predetermined "quality degradation" factors for relevant clinical plan metrics associated with the plan optimization strategy. Delivery efficiency and plan quality were assessed for a range of optimization and sequencing limitations. The "optimal" (baseline) plan for each case was derived using a clinical cost function with an unlimited number of intensity levels. These plans were sequenced with a clinical MLC leaf sequencer which uses >100 segments, assuring delivered intensities to be within 1% of the optimized intensity pattern. Each patient's optimal plan was also sequenced limiting the number of intensity levels (20, 10, and 5), and then separately optimized with these same numbers of intensity levels. Delivery time was measured for all plans, and direct evaluation of the tradeoffs between delivery time and plan degradation was performed. When considering tradeoffs, the optimal number of intensity levels depends on the treatment site and on the stage in the process

  13. Electroluminescence from completely horizontally oriented dye molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komino, Takeshi; Sagara, Yuta; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Oki, Yuji; Nakamura, Nozomi; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-06-01

    A complete horizontal molecular orientation of a linear-shaped thermally activated delayed fluorescent guest emitter 2,6-bis(4-(10Hphenoxazin-10-yl)phenyl)benzo[1,2-d:5,4-d'] bis(oxazole) (cis-BOX2) was obtained in a glassy host matrix by vapor deposition. The orientational order of cis-BOX2 depended on the combination of deposition temperature and the type of host matrix. Complete horizontal orientation was obtained when a thin film with cis-BOX2 doped in a 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (CBP) host matrix was fabricated at 200 K. The ultimate orientation of guest molecules originates from not only the kinetic relaxation but also the kinetic stability of the deposited guest molecules on the film surface during film growth. Utilizing the ultimate orientation, a highly efficient organic light-emitting diode with the external quantum efficiency of 33.4 ± 2.0% was realized. The thermal stability of the horizontal orientation of cis-BOX2 was governed by the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the CBP host matrix; the horizontal orientation was stable unless the film was annealed above Tg.

  14. Electroluminescence from completely horizontally oriented dye molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Komino, Takeshi; Sagara, Yuta; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Oki, Yuji; Nakamura, Nozomi; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; and others

    2016-06-13

    A complete horizontal molecular orientation of a linear-shaped thermally activated delayed fluorescent guest emitter 2,6-bis(4-(10Hphenoxazin-10-yl)phenyl)benzo[1,2-d:5,4-d′] bis(oxazole) (cis-BOX2) was obtained in a glassy host matrix by vapor deposition. The orientational order of cis-BOX2 depended on the combination of deposition temperature and the type of host matrix. Complete horizontal orientation was obtained when a thin film with cis-BOX2 doped in a 4,4′-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (CBP) host matrix was fabricated at 200 K. The ultimate orientation of guest molecules originates from not only the kinetic relaxation but also the kinetic stability of the deposited guest molecules on the film surface during film growth. Utilizing the ultimate orientation, a highly efficient organic light-emitting diode with the external quantum efficiency of 33.4 ± 2.0% was realized. The thermal stability of the horizontal orientation of cis-BOX2 was governed by the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of the CBP host matrix; the horizontal orientation was stable unless the film was annealed above T{sub g}.

  15. [Photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of a new rare earth terbium complex].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Xi-qing; Lin, Peng; Xiong, De-pin; Huang, Shi-hua; Yu, Tian-zhi

    2004-06-01

    Pure green and narrowbandwidth emission from an organic electroluminescent device was presented by using arare earth terbium (III) complex as the emissive layer. The structure of the device was ITO/PVK/Tb/PBD/LiF/Al. It was proved that this new kind of rare earth complex has excellent photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties. The electroluminescent spectrum of the device was very similar to that of the terbium (III) complex film. The electroluminescent mechanism of the device was proposed by measuring and analyzing the spectra and electroluminescent property of the device. It is proposed that the excited carriers of PVK and PBD were captured by Tb3+ and light was emitted when the electrons and holes recombined at Tb3+.

  16. Electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene films: Spectra reconstruction from elementary components and underlying mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, B.; Teyssedre, G.; Laurent, C.

    2016-01-14

    The mechanisms of electroluminescence from large band gap polymers used as insulation in electric components are still under debate. It becomes important to unravel the underlying physics of the emission because of increasing thermo-electric stress and a possible relationship between electroluminescence and field withstand. We report herein on the cathodoluminescence spectra of polyethylene and polypropylene films as a way to uncover the nature of its contributions to electroluminescence emission. It is shown that spectra from the two materials are structured around four elementary components, each of them being associated with a specific process contributing to the overall emission with different weights depending on excitation conditions and on materials. The cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of each material are reconstructed from the four spectral components and their relative contribution are discussed. It is shown that electroluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene has the same origin pointing towards generic mechanisms in both.

  17. Efficient degradation of rice straw in the reactors packed by carbon fiber textiles.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Morita, Masahiko; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Sasaki, Daisuke; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2010-07-01

    We have reported for the first time that agricultural and cellulosic waste, i.e., rice straw was directly applied to methanogenic bioreactors containing carbon fiber textiles (CFT) as supporting material. Addition of CFT to the methanogenic bioreactors enhanced the conversion of dichromate chemical oxygen demand of the substrate to methane (41%) to a greater extent than bioreactors without CFT (9%). In addition, removal of rice straw as a suspended solid was increased from 31% (in bioreactors without CFT) to 57% (in those with CFT). Methanogenic 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that the abundance of acetoclastic methanogen, genus Methanosarcina, was about 11 times higher in bioreactors with CFT (suspended fraction plus retained fraction to CFT) than in bioreactors without CFT (suspended fraction), resulting in lower concentration of acetate in bioreactors with CFT (0.4 mM) than in those without CFT (29.7 mM). On the other hand, the abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogen, genus Methanobacterium, in bioreactors with CFT was similar to those without CFT. Bacterial communities in bioreactors with CFT were different from those in bioreactors without CFT. Our results indicated that specific microbial community and cooperative relationships between microorganisms in reactors containing CFT facilitated efficient decomposition of rice straw and its conversion to methane.

  18. Kinetic analysis and energy efficiency of phenol degradation in a plasma-photocatalysis system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-juan; Chen, Xiao-yang

    2011-02-28

    Combination of two kinds of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is an effective approach to control wastewater pollution. In this research, a pulsed discharge plasma system with multi-point-to-plate electrode and an immobilized TiO(2) photocatalysis system is coupled to oxidize target pollutant in aqueous solution. Kinetic analysis (pseudo-first order kinetic constant, k) and energy efficiency (energy yield value at 50% phenol conversion, G(50)) of phenol oxidation in different reaction systems (plasma alone and plasma-photocatalysis) are reviewed to account for the synergistic mechanism of plasma and photocatalysis. The experimental results show that higher k and G(50) of phenol oxidation can be obtained in the plasma-photocatalysis system under the conditions of different gas bubbling varieties, initial solution pH and radical scavenger addition. Moreover, the investigation tested hydroxyl radical (OH) is the most important species for phenol removal in the synergistic system of plasma-photocatalysis as well as in the plasma alone system.

  19. Blue-red electroluminescence from hybrid Eu:phosphors/ZnO-nanowires/p-GaN LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, B.; Pauporte, T.; Lupan, O.; Devis, L.; Gacoin, T.

    2014-03-01

    Nanowire (NW) based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have drawn great research interest due to many advantages compared to thin film based devices. Marked improved performances are expected from nanostructured active layers for light emission. Semiconducting oxide nanowires can act as direct waveguides and favor emitted light extraction without use of lens and reflectors in LEDs. Moreover, the use of ZnO wires avoids the presence of grain boundaries and then the emission efficiency is boosted by the absence of non-radiative recombinations at the joint defects. In this context, europium (Eu):Chelate/ZnO:Mg-nanowires/p-GaN light-emitting-diode (LED) structures have been fabricated showing near-UV/violet electroluminescence and red emission from trivalent europium. Fabricated LED structures exhibit UV-blue light at about 380 nm coming from the n-(ZnO:Mg)/p-GaN and a sharp red emission at ˜611 nm related to the intra-4f transition of Eu ions. It is found that in the case of the ZnO:Mg, the emission wavelength is slightly shifted to smaller wavelength to be well adapted to the trivalent europium excitation band. Radiative energy transfer is achieved through strong overlap between the emission wavelength from n-(ZnO:Mg)/p- GaN heterojunction and chelate ligand intensive absorption band. Indeed the Eu:chelate/(ZnO:Mg)-nanowires/p-GaN structure appears well adapted to UV/blue and red dual emission. Our results shows that the design of LEDs based on the chelate ligands are important issue to enhance the performance of electroluminescence devices based on ZnO nanowire arrays/p-GaN heterojunction and rare-earth metal complexes.

  20. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-04-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps.

  1. Mechanosynthesis of a phenylenedivinylidenebisquinoline. Optical, morphological and electroluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, A. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Moggio, I.; Arias, E.; Coreño, O.; Maldonado, J. L.; Ramos-Ortíz, G.; Rodríguez, O.; Jiménez-Barrera, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    A phenylenedivinylidenebisquinoline oligomer was obtained by reacting quinaldine with 2,5-bis(octyloxy)terephtalaldehyde via the Knoevenagel reaction by mechanosynthesis. The product was characterized by 1H Homo-J-Resolved NMR, 13C NMR, FT-IR, Fluorescence, UV-Vis spectroscopy and by FAB+ mass spectrometry. X-ray diffraction studies indicate that the molecule is semicrystalline, while laser scanning confocal microscopy shows that the emission comes from the crystals. As a consequence, the morphology and accordingly the PL values in spun films can be changed by varying the spinning conditions. Intrinsic electroluminescent properties are reported using the ITO/M1AMec/Al single layer configuration.

  2. Electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, D. J.; Lynch, S. A.; Bates, R.; Ikonic, Z.; Kelsall, R. W.; Harrison, P.; Norris, D. J.; Liew, S. L.; Cullis, A. G.; Murzyn, P.; Pidgeon, C.; Arnone, D. D.; Robbins, D. J.

    2003-03-01

    Intersubband electroluminescence results are presented from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters at 3.2 THz and at temperatures up to 150 K. The effect of adding doping into the active quantum wells was studied in addition to reduced barrier widths from previous measurements. While the current through the sample is increased by the addition of doping, the emitted power is reduced through additional free carrier absorption and Coulombic scattering. Free electron laser measurements confirm the intersubband transitions in the quantum wells of the cascade devices and produce non-radiative lifetimes of ∼20 ps between 4 and 150 K.

  3. Materials for Powder-Based AC-Electroluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Bredol, Michael; Schulze Dieckhoff, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    At present, thick film (powder based) alternating current electroluminescence (AC-EL) is the only technology available for the fabrication of large area, laterally structured and coloured light sources by simple printing techniques. Substrates for printing may be based on flexible polymers or glass, so the final devices can take up a huge variety of shapes. After an introduction of the underlying physics and chemistry, the review highlights the technical progress behind this development, concentrating on luminescent and dielectric materials used. Limitations of the available materials as well as room for further improvement are also discussed.

  4. Degradable and biocompatible nanoparticles decorated with cyclic RGD peptide for efficient drug delivery to hepatoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Loyer, Pascal; Bedhouche, Wahib; Huang, Zhi Wei; Cammas-Marion, Sandrine

    2013-10-01

    Amphiphilic derivatives of poly(benzyl malate) were synthesized and characterized with the aim of being used as degradable and biocompatible building blocks for the design of functional nanoparticles (NPs). An anti-cancer model drug, doxorubicin, has been successfully encapsulated into the prepared NPs and its release profile has been evaluated in water and in culture medium. NPs bearing biotin molecules were prepared either for site-specific drug delivery via the targeting of biotin receptors overexpressed on the surface of several cancer cells, or for grafting biotinylated cyclic RGD peptide onto their surface using the strong and highly specific interactions between biotin and the streptavidin protein. We have shown that this binding did not affect dramatically the physico-chemical properties of the corresponding NPs. Cyclic RGD grafted fluorescent NPs were more efficiently uptaken by the HepaRG hepatoma cells than biotinylated fluorescent NPs. Furthermore, the targeting of HepaRG hepatoma cells with NPs bearing cyclic RGD was very efficient and much weaker for HeLa and HT29 cell lines confirming that cyclic RGD is a suitable targeting agent for liver cells. Our results also provide a new mean for rapid screening of short hepatotropic peptides in order to design NPs showing specific liver targeting properties.

  5. Use of plan quality degradation to evaluate tradeoffs in delivery efficiency and clinical plan metrics arising from IMRT optimizer and sequencer compromises

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Joel R.; Matuszak, Martha M.; Feng, Mary; Moran, Jean M.; Fraass, Benedick A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Plan degradation resulting from compromises made to enhance delivery efficiency is an important consideration for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. IMRT optimization and/or multileaf collimator (MLC) sequencing schemes can be modified to generate more efficient treatment delivery, but the effect those modifications have on plan quality is often difficult to quantify. In this work, the authors present a method for quantitative assessment of overall plan quality degradation due to tradeoffs between delivery efficiency and treatment plan quality, illustrated using comparisons between plans developed allowing different numbers of intensity levels in IMRT optimization and/or MLC sequencing for static segmental MLC IMRT plans. Methods: A plan quality degradation method to evaluate delivery efficiency and plan quality tradeoffs was developed and used to assess planning for 14 prostate and 12 head and neck patients treated with static IMRT. Plan quality was evaluated using a physician's predetermined “quality degradation” factors for relevant clinical plan metrics associated with the plan optimization strategy. Delivery efficiency and plan quality were assessed for a range of optimization and sequencing limitations. The “optimal” (baseline) plan for each case was derived using a clinical cost function with an unlimited number of intensity levels. These plans were sequenced with a clinical MLC leaf sequencer which uses >100 segments, assuring delivered intensities to be within 1% of the optimized intensity pattern. Each patient's optimal plan was also sequenced limiting the number of intensity levels (20, 10, and 5), and then separately optimized with these same numbers of intensity levels. Delivery time was measured for all plans, and direct evaluation of the tradeoffs between delivery time and plan degradation was performed. Results: When considering tradeoffs, the optimal number of intensity levels depends on the treatment

  6. Developments in polymer materials for electroluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Heinrich; Buesing, Arne; Falcou, Aurelie; Heun, Susanne; Kluge, Edgar; Parham, Amir; Stoessel, Philipp; Spreitzer, Hubert; Treacher, Kevin; Vestweber, Horst

    2002-02-01

    In the last few years industrial research into materials fulfilling the needs of the fledgling OLED display industry have intensified considerably. At Covion we have developed a range of polymers based on phenyl-PPV derivatives which are now being commercially exploited in the first polymer LED applications. These materials have been developed systematically with the demanding requirements of the devices (e.g., high efficiency and lifetime) and the industrial applicability (e.g. processibility, reproducibility and reliability of supply) in mind. However due to market forces, such as the introduction of 3rd generation mobile communication technology, there will be an immediate demand for materials for full color OLED displays. In this paper we will report on progress in the development of Red, Green and Blue (RGB) materials at Covion. The requirements for the different colors vary depending on band gap (amongst others) and therefore the challenges for each color are different. The experience gained in understanding the important structure-property relationships in the phenyl-PPVs has been used to develop these new RGB materials.

  7. Rapid, Efficient and Versatile Strategies for Functionally Sophisticated Polymers and Nanoparticles: Degradable Polyphosphoesters and Anisotropic Distribution of Chemical Functionalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiyi

    The overall emphasis of this dissertation research included two kinds of asymmetrically-functionalized nanoparticles with anisotropic distributions of chemical functionalities, three degradable polymers synthesized by organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerizations, and two polyphosphoester-based nanoparticle systems for various biomedical applications. Inspired by the many hierarchical assembly processes that afford complex materials in Nature, the construction of asymmetrically-functionalized nanoparticles with efficient surface chemistries and the directional organization of those building blocks into complex structures have attracted much attention. The first method generated a Janus-faced polymer nanoparticle that presented two orthogonally click-reactive surface chemistries, thiol and azido. This robust method involved reactive functional group transfer by templating against gold nanoparticle substrates. The second method produced nanoparticles with sandwich-like distribution of crown ether functionalities through a stepwise self-assembly process that utilized crown ether-ammonium supramolecular interactions to mediate inter-particle association and the local intra-particle phase separation of unlike hydrophobic polymers. With the goal to improve the efficiency of the production of degradable polymers with tunable chemical and physical properties, a new type of reactive polyphosphoester was synthesized bearing alkynyl groups by an organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization, the chemical availability of the alkyne groups was investigated by employing "click" type azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition and thiol-yne radical-mediated reactions. Based on this alkyne-functionalized polyphosphoester polymer and its two available "click" type reactions, two degradable nanoparticle systems were developed. To develop the first system, the well defined poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polyphosphester diblock copolymer was transformed into a multifunctional Paclitaxel drug

  8. Pattern Water Use Efficiency perspective on degradation and recovery of shrublands across Mediterranean to Arid transition zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoshany, Maxim

    2017-04-01

    Shrublands cover a total of 12.7 million km2 , a considerable part of them along semi-arid to arid transition zones. Varying patterns of shrubs, grasses and barren land along such climatic gradients express the spatial dimension of climate change and human disturbance which attracted limited attention in the eco-geomorphic literature. Questions concerning relationships between rainfall, shrublands biomass and their patterns are fundamental for the understanding of these ecosystems response to the expected changes in water availability due to global warming and the increase in human disturbance to natural ecosystems following World population growth. While processes leading to the formation of patterns had attracted considerable attention, the spatial dimension of Water Use Efficiency (WUE) which is a parameter measuring ecosystems productivity in relation to water availability is severely missing. Relative shrub cover is a primary estimator of the fraction of water utilized for shrubs growth. Edge effects must be considered as well in fragmented ecosystems in general and in hot regions in particular since soil temperature in hot regions which frequently exceed 50oC during summer months decreases photosynthesis and productivity in plants bordering bare soil. This edge effect is decreasing with the increase in shrubs' height. Pattern Water Use Efficiency describes the combined effect of shrub cover, shrub height and shrub patches edge zone proportion on water use efficiency. In my presentation I will first present mapping od PWUEs across Mediterranean to arid transition zones in the Eastern Mediterranean. Then I will present several mathematical models describing PWUE for simulated patterns, searching for the spatial parameterization providing the highest sensitivity to patterns responses to changes in habitat conditions. Such simulations would allow us to discuss several PWUE strategies for shrublands recovery under the current scenarios of climate change and human

  9. Near-infrared roll-off-free electroluminescence from highly stable diketopyrrolopyrrole light emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Sassi, Mauro; Buccheri, Nunzio; Rooney, Myles; Botta, Chiara; Bruni, Francesco; Giovanella, Umberto; Brovelli, Sergio; Beverina, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating in the near-infrared spectral region are gaining growing relevance for emerging photonic technologies, such as lab-on-chip platforms for medical diagnostics, flexible self-medicated pads for photodynamic therapy, night vision and plastic-based telecommunications. The achievement of efficient near-infrared electroluminescence from solution-processed OLEDs is, however, an open challenge due to the low photoluminescence efficiency of most narrow-energy-gap organic emitters. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-boron complexes are promising candidates to overcome this limitation as they feature extremely high photoluminescence quantum yield in the near-infrared region and high chemical stability. Here, by incorporating suitably functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives emitting at ~760 nm in an active matrix of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) and without using complex light out-coupling or encapsulation strategies, we obtain all-solution-processed NIR-OLEDs with external quantum efficiency as high as 0.5%. Importantly, our test-bed devices show no efficiency roll-off even for high current densities and high operational stability, retaining over 50% of the initial radiant emittance for over 50 hours of continuous operation at 10 mA/cm2, which emphasizes the great applicative potential of the proposed strategy. PMID:27677240

  10. Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of anthracene derivatives containing electron-withdrawing oxide moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jhin-yeong; Na, Eun Jae; Park, Soo Na; Lee, Seok Jae; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Blue fluorescent material is important for application in full-color displays. • We have synthesized emitters based on anthracene connected with oxide moieties. • 1C shows a highly efficient blue EL emission due to electron-injection property. - Abstract: A series of new blue-emitting materials: (4-(10-(naphthalen-2-yl)anthracen-9-yl)phenyl)(phenyl)methanone (1); 9-(naphthalen-2-yl)-10-(4-((diphenyl)phosphine oxide)phenyl)anthracene (2); 9-(naphthalen-2-yl)-10-(4-(phenylsulfonyl)phenyl)anthracene (3) were designed and synthesized via Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. Multilayer OLEDs were fabricated in the following sequence: ITO (180 nm)/NPB (50 nm)/blue materials 1–3 (30 nm)/TPBi (15 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al (100 nm). All devices showed the efficient blue EL emissions. In particular, the device using 1 as an emitter exhibited efficient blue electroluminescent properties with a maximum luminous, power, external quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates of 0.36 cd/A, 0.90 lm/W, 0.55% at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} and (x = 0.16, y = 0.20) at 10.0 V, respectively.

  11. Near-infrared roll-off-free electroluminescence from highly stable diketopyrrolopyrrole light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, Mauro; Buccheri, Nunzio; Rooney, Myles; Botta, Chiara; Bruni, Francesco; Giovanella, Umberto; Brovelli, Sergio; Beverina, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating in the near-infrared spectral region are gaining growing relevance for emerging photonic technologies, such as lab-on-chip platforms for medical diagnostics, flexible self-medicated pads for photodynamic therapy, night vision and plastic-based telecommunications. The achievement of efficient near-infrared electroluminescence from solution-processed OLEDs is, however, an open challenge due to the low photoluminescence efficiency of most narrow-energy-gap organic emitters. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-boron complexes are promising candidates to overcome this limitation as they feature extremely high photoluminescence quantum yield in the near-infrared region and high chemical stability. Here, by incorporating suitably functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives emitting at ~760 nm in an active matrix of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) and without using complex light out-coupling or encapsulation strategies, we obtain all-solution-processed NIR-OLEDs with external quantum efficiency as high as 0.5%. Importantly, our test-bed devices show no efficiency roll-off even for high current densities and high operational stability, retaining over 50% of the initial radiant emittance for over 50 hours of continuous operation at 10 mA/cm2, which emphasizes the great applicative potential of the proposed strategy.

  12. Efficient Degradation of Lignocellulosic Plant Biomass, without Pretreatment, by the Thermophilic Anaerobe “Anaerocellum thermophilum” DSM 6725▿

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sung-Jae; Kataeva, Irina; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Engle, Nancy L.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Doeppke, Crissa; Davis, Mark; Westpheling, Janet; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2009-01-01

    Very few cultivated microorganisms can degrade lignocellulosic biomass without chemical pretreatment. We show here that “Anaerocellum thermophilum” DSM 6725, an anaerobic bacterium that grows optimally at 75°C, efficiently utilizes various types of untreated plant biomass, as well as crystalline cellulose and xylan. These include hardwoods such as poplar, low-lignin grasses such as napier and Bermuda grasses, and high-lignin grasses such as switchgrass. The organism did not utilize only the soluble fraction of the untreated biomass, since insoluble plant biomass (as well as cellulose and xylan) obtained after washing at 75°C for 18 h also served as a growth substrate. The predominant end products from all growth substrates were hydrogen, acetate, and lactate. Glucose and cellobiose (on crystalline cellulose) and xylose and xylobiose (on xylan) also accumulated in the growth media during growth on the defined substrates but not during growth on the plant biomass. A. thermophilum DSM 6725 grew well on first- and second-spent biomass derived from poplar and switchgrass, where spent biomass is defined as the insoluble growth substrate recovered after the organism has reached late stationary phase. No evidence was found for the direct attachment of A. thermophilum DSM 6725 to the plant biomass. This organism differs from the closely related strain A. thermophilum Z-1320 in its ability to grow on xylose and pectin. Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 8903 (optimum growth temperature, 70°C), a close relative of A. thermophilum DSM 6725, grew well on switchgrass but not on poplar, indicating a significant difference in the biomass-degrading abilities of these two otherwise very similar organisms. PMID:19465524

  13. Carbon Conversion Efficiency and Limits of Productive Bacterial Degradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and Related Compounds▿

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Roland H.; Rohwerder, Thore; Harms, Hauke

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and related compounds by microorganisms was investigated in a mainly theoretical study based on the YATP concept. Experiments were conducted to derive realistic maintenance coefficients and Ks values needed to calculate substrate fluxes available for biomass production. Aerobic substrate conversion and biomass synthesis were calculated for different putative pathways. The results suggest that MTBE is an effective heterotrophic substrate that can sustain growth yields of up to 0.87 g g−1, which contradicts previous calculation results (N. Fortin et al., Environ. Microbiol. 3:407-416, 2001). Sufficient energy equivalents were generated in several of the potential assimilatory routes to incorporate carbon into biomass without the necessity to dissimilate additional substrate, efficient energy transduction provided. However, when a growth-related kinetic model was included, the limits of productive degradation became obvious. Depending on the maintenance coefficient ms and its associated biomass decay term b, growth-associated carbon conversion became strongly dependent on substrate fluxes. Due to slow degradation kinetics, the calculations predicted relatively high threshold concentrations, Smin, below which growth would not further be supported. Smin strongly depended on the maximum growth rate μmax, and b and was directly correlated with the half maximum rate-associated substrate concentration Ks, meaning that any effect impacting this parameter would also change Smin. The primary metabolic step, catalyzing the cleavage of the ether bond in MTBE, is likely to control the substrate flux in various strains. In addition, deficits in oxygen as an external factor and in reduction equivalents as a cellular variable in this reaction should further increase Ks and Smin for MTBE. PMID:17220260

  14. High-sensitivity strain visualization using electroluminescence technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Jo, Hongki

    2016-04-01

    Visualizing mechanical strain/stress changes is an emerging area in structural health monitoring. Several ways are available for strain change visualization through the color/brightness change of the materials subjected to the mechanical stresses, for example, using mechanoluminescence (ML) materials and mechanoresponsive polymers (MRP). However, these approaches were not effectively applicable for civil engineering system yet, due to insufficient sensitivity to low-level strain of typical civil structures and limitation in measuring both static and dynamic strain. In this study, design and validation for high-sensitivity strain visualization using electroluminescence technologies are presented. A high-sensitivity Wheatstone bridge, of which bridge balance is precisely controllable circuits, is used with a gain-adjustable amplifier. The monochrome electroluminescence (EL) technology is employed to convert both static and dynamic strain change into brightness/color change of the EL materials, through either brightness change mode (BCM) or color alternation mode (CAM). A prototype has been made and calibrated in lab, the linearity between strain and brightness change has been investigated.

  15. Synthesis, photophysical and electroluminescent properties of novel iridium (III) complexes based on 5-methyl-2-phenylbenzo[d]oxazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Chi, Hai-Jun; Dong, Yan; Xiao, Guo-Yong; Lei, Peng; Zhang, Dong-Yu; Cui, Zheng

    2013-12-01

    A new series of phosphorescent iridium (III) complexes based on 5-methyl-2-phenylbenzo[d]oxazole derivatives as main ligands, i.e. bis(5-methyl-2- phenylbenzo[d]oxazole-N,C2‧)iridium(acetylacetonate) [(mpbo)2Ir(acac)], bis(2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-methylbenzo[d]oxazole-N,C2‧)iridium(acetylacetonate) [(fmbo)2Ir(acac)] and bis(5-methyl-2-p-tolylbenzo[d]oxazole-N,C2‧) iridium(acetylacetonate) [(mtbo)2Ir(acac)], were synthesized for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and their photophysical, electroluminescent properties were investigated. All complexes have high thermal stability and emit intense phosphorescence from green to yellow at room temperature with high quantum efficiencies and relatively short lifetimes. The OLED based on (fmbo)2Ir(acac) as dopant emitter showed very high luminance of 26,004 cd m-2 and luminance efficiency of 18.5 cd A-1. The evidences indicated that this series of iridium (III) complexes were potential candidates for applications in organic electroluminescent devices.

  16. Electroluminescence mechanisms in organic light emitting devices employing a europium chelate doped in a wide energy gap bipolar conducting host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Chihaya; Baldo, Marc A.; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2000-06-01

    The mechanism for energy transfer leading to electroluminescence (EL) of a lanthanide complex, Eu(TTA)3phen (TTA=thenoyltrifluoroacetone,phen=1,10-phenanthroline), doped into 4,4'-N,N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) host is investigated. With the device structure of anode/hole transport layer/Eu(TTA)3phen(1%):CPB/electron transport layer/cathode, we achieve a maximum external EL quantum efficiency (η) of 1.4% at a current density of 0.4 mA/cm2. Saturated red Eu3+ emission based on 5Dx-7Fx transitions is centered at a wavelength of 612 nm with a full width at half maximum of 3 nm. From analysis of the electroluminescent and photoluminescent spectra, and the current density-voltage characteristics, we conclude that direct trapping of holes and electrons and subsequent formation of the excitons occurs on the dopant, leading to high quantum efficiencies at low current densities. With increasing current between 1 and 100 mA/cm2, however, a significant decrease of η along with an increase in CBP host emission is observed. We demonstrate that the decrease in η at high current densities can be explained by triplet-triplet annihilation.

  17. Low degradable protein supply to increase nitrogen efficiency in lactating dairy cows and reduce environmental impacts at barn level.

    PubMed

    Edouard, N; Hassouna, M; Robin, P; Faverdin, P

    2016-02-01

    Generally, <30% of dairy cattle's nitrogen intake is retained in milk. Large amounts of nitrogen are excreted in manure, especially in urine, with damaging impacts on the environment. This study explores the effect of lowering dietary degradable nitrogen supplies--while maintaining metabolisable protein--on dairy cows' performance, nitrogen use efficiency and gas emissions (NH3, N2O, CH4) at barn level with tied animals. Two dietary N concentrations (CP: 12% DM for LowN; 18% DM for HighN) were offered to two groups of three lactating dairy cows in a split-plot design over four periods of 2 weeks. Diets were formulated to provide similar metabolisable protein supply, with degradable N either in deficit or in excess (PDIN of 84 and 114 g/kg DM for LowN and HighN, respectively). Cows ingested 0.8 kg DM/day less on the LowN diet, which was also 2.5% less digestible. Milk yield and composition were not significantly affected. N exported in milk was 5% lower (LowN: 129 g N/day; HighN: 136 g N/day; P<0.001) but milk protein yield was not significantly affected (LowN: 801 g/day; HighN: 823 g/day; P=0.10). Cows logically ingested less nitrogen on the LowN diet (LowN: 415 g N/day; HighN: 626 g N/day; P<0.001) resulting in a higher N use efficiency (N milk/N intake; LowN: 0.31; HighN: 0.22; P<0.001). N excreted in urine was almost four times lower on the LowN diet (LowN: 65 g N/day; HighN: 243 g N/day; P<0.001) while urinary urea N concentration was eightfold lower (LowN: 4.6 g/l; HighN: 22.9 g/l; P<0.001). Ammonia emission (expressed in g/h in order to remove periods of the day with potential interferences with volatile molecules from feed) was also lower on the LowN diet (LowN: 1.03 g/h per cow; HighN: 1.25 g/h per cow; P<0.05). Greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4) at barn level were not significantly affected by the amount of dietary N. Offering low amounts of degradable protein with suitable metabolisable protein amounts to cattle improved nitrogen use efficiency and

  18. Mn/Ti-doped carbon xerogel for efficient catalysis of microcystin-LR degradation in the water surface discharge plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Xin, Qing; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng; Yang, Bin

    2015-11-01

    The novel catalysts of Mn/Ti-doped carbon xerogel (CX) were synthesized for efficient degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in the water surface discharge plasma reactor. The degradation efficiency of 79.7% was obtained in 6 min with 0.5 wt% Ti impregnation of CX, and it would be increased with higher amount of Ti. In particular, Mn-doped CX resulted in larger mesoporous particle diameter and higher porosity in the matrix, and thereby, the highest efficiency of 88.6% was achieved for CX-Ti-Mn. The possible degradation pathway of MC-LR was elucidated on the basis of the LC-MS analysis. It demonstrated that Adda chain was cleaved from the MC-LR cyclic peptide by OH radical attack after plasma discharge in the presence of catalysts, and the generated nontoxic products can be further easily degraded in the biological treatment. Therefore, Mn/Ti-doped carbon xerogel is promising as the catalyst for the improvement of MC-LR degradation in the water surface discharge plasma reactor.

  19. DDT degradation efficiency and ecotoxicological effects of two types of nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) in water and soil.

    PubMed

    El-Temsah, Yehia S; Sevcu, Alena; Bobcikova, Katerina; Cernik, Miroslav; Joner, Erik J

    2016-02-01

    Nano-scale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has been conceived for cost-efficient degradation of chlorinated pollutants in soil as an alternative to e.g permeable reactive barriers or excavation. Little is however known about its efficiency in degradation of the ubiquitous environmental pollutant DDT and its secondary effects on organisms. Here, two types of nZVI (type B made using precipitation with borohydride, and type T produced by gas phase reduction of iron oxides under H2) were compared for efficiency in degradation of DDT in water and in a historically (>45 years) contaminated soil (24 mg kg(-1) DDT). Further, the ecotoxicity of soil and water was tested on plants (barley and flax), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), ostracods (Heterocypris incongruens), and bacteria (Escherichia coli). Both types of nZVI effectively degraded DDT in water, but showed lower degradation of aged DDT in soil. Both types of nZVI had negative impact on the tested organisms, with nZVI-T giving least adverse effects. Negative effects were mostly due to oxidation of nZVI, resulting in O2 consumption and excess Fe(II) in water and soil.

  20. Optical properties of heavily doped GaAs nanowires and electroluminescent nanowire structures.

    PubMed

    Lysov, A; Offer, M; Gutsche, C; Regolin, I; Topaloglu, S; Geller, M; Prost, W; Tegude, F-J

    2011-02-25

    We present GaAs electroluminescent nanowire structures fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Electroluminescent structures were realized in both axial pn-junctions in single GaAs nanowires and free-standing nanowire arrays with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate, respectively. The electroluminescence emission peak from single nanowire pn-junctions at 10 K was registered at an energy of around 1.32 eV and shifted to 1.4 eV with an increasing current. The line is attributed to the recombination in the compensated region present in the nanowire due to the memory effect of the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Arrayed nanowire electroluminescent structures with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate demonstrated at 5 K a strong electroluminescence peak at 1.488 eV and two shoulder peaks at 1.455 and 1.519 eV. The main emission line was attributed to the recombination in the p-doped GaAs. The other two lines correspond to the tunneling-assisted photon emission and band-edge recombination in the abrupt junction, respectively. Electroluminescence spectra are compared with the micro-photoluminescence spectra taken along the single p-, n- and single nanowire pn-junctions to find the origin of the electroluminescence peaks, the distribution of doping species and the sharpness of the junctions.

  1. Visible light responsive Cu2MoS4 nanosheets incorporated reduced graphene oxide for efficient degradation of organic pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameshbabu, R.; Vinoth, R.; Navaneethan, M.; Harish, S.; Hayakawa, Y.; Neppolian, B.

    2017-10-01

    Visible light active copper molybdenum sulfide (Cu2MoS4) nanosheets were successfully anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using facile hydrothermal method. During the hydrothermal reaction, reduction of graphene oxide into rGO and the formation of Cu2MoS4 nanosheets were successfully obtained. The charge transfer interaction between the rGO sheets and Cu2MoS4 nanosheets extended the absorption to visible region in comparison with bare Cu2MoS4 nanosheets i.e without rGO sheets. Furthermore, the notable photoluminescence quenching observed for Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite revealed the effective role of rGO towards the significant inhibition of electron-hole pair recombination. The photocatalytic efficiencies of bare Cu2MoS4 and Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite was evaluated for the degradation of methyl orange dye under visible irradiation (λ > 420 nm). A maximum photodegradation efficiency of 99% was achieved for Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite, while only 64% photodegradation was noted for bare Cu2MoS4. The enhanced optical absorption in visible region, high surface area, and low charge carrier recombination in the presence of rGO sheets were the main reasons for the enhancement in photodegardation of MO dye. In addition, the resultant Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite was found to be reusable for five successive cycles without significant loss in its photocatalytic performance.

  2. Kinetics and energy efficiency for the degradation of 1,4-dioxane by electro-peroxone process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijiao; Bakheet, Belal; Yuan, Shi; Li, Xiang; Yu, Gang; Murayama, Seiichi; Wang, Yujue

    2015-08-30

    Degradation of 1,4-dioxane by ozonation, electrolysis, and their combined electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process was investigated. The E-peroxone process used a carbon-polytetrafluorethylene cathode to electrocatalytically convert O2 in the sparged ozone generator effluent (O2 and O3 gas mixture) to H2O2. The electro-generated H2O2 then react with sparged O3 to yield aqueous OH, which can in turn oxidize pollutants rapidly in the bulk solution. Using p-chlorobenzoic acid as OH probe, the pseudo-steady concentration of OH was determined to be ∼0.744×10(-9)mM in the E-peroxone process, which is approximately 10 and 186 times of that in ozonation and electrolysis using a Pt anode. Thanks to its higher OH concentration, the E-peroxone process eliminated 96.6% total organic carbon (TOC) from a 1,4-dioxane solution after 2h treatment with a specific energy consumption (SEC) of 0.376kWhg(-1) TOCremoved. In comparison, ozonation and electrolysis using a boron-doped diamond anode removed only ∼6.1% and 26.9% TOC with SEC of 2.43 and 0.558kWhg(-1) TOCremoved, respectively. The results indicate that the E-peroxone process can significantly improve the kinetics and energy efficiency for 1,4-dioxane mineralization as compared to the two individual processes. The E-peroxone process may thus offer a highly effective and energy-efficient alternative to treat 1,4-dioxane wastewater.

  3. Electroluminescence of hot electrons in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors under radio frequency operation

    SciTech Connect

    Brazzini, Tommaso Sun, Huarui; Uren, Michael J.; Kuball, Martin; Casbon, Michael A.; Lees, Jonathan; Tasker, Paul J.; Jung, Helmut; Blanck, Hervé

    2015-05-25

    Hot electrons in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors are studied during radio frequency (RF) and DC operation by means of electroluminescence (EL) microscopy and spectroscopy. The measured EL intensity is decreased under RF operation compared to DC at the same average current, indicating a lower hot electron density. This is explained by averaging the DC EL intensity over the measured load line used in RF measurements, giving reasonable agreement. In addition, the hot electron temperature is lower by up to 15% under RF compared to DC, again at least partially explainable by the weighted averaging along the specific load line. However, peak electron temperature under RF occurs at high V{sub DS} and low I{sub DS} where EL is insignificant suggesting that any wear-out differences between RF and DC stress of the devices will depend on the balance between hot-carrier and field driven degradation mechanisms.

  4. Facile synthesis of Au-ZnO plasmonic nanohybrids for highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriakose, Sini; Sahu, Kavita; Khan, Saif A.; Tripathi, A.; Avasthi, D. K.; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2017-02-01

    Au-ZnO plasmonic nanohybrids were synthesized by a facile two step process. In the first step, nanostructured ZnO thin films were prepared by carbothermal evaporation followed by thermal annealing in oxygen atmosphere. Deposition of ultrathin Au films onto the nanostructured ZnO thin films by sputtering combined with thermal annealing resulted in the formation of Au-ZnO plasmonic nanohybrid thin films. The structural, optical, plasmonic and photocatalytic properties of the Au-ZnO nanohybrid thin films were studied. XRD studies on the Au-ZnO hybrid thin films revealed the presence of Au and ZnO nanostructures. UV-visible absorption studies showed two peaks corresponding to the excitonic absorption of ZnO nanostructures in the UV region and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption of Au nanoparticles in the visible region. The Au-ZnO nanohybrid thin films annealed at 400 °C showed enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared to nanostructrured ZnO thin films towards sun light driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye in water. The observed enhanced photocatalytic activity of Au-ZnO plasmonic nanohybrids is attributed to the efficient suppression of the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers in ZnO due to the strong electron scavenging action of Au nanoparticles combined with the improved sun light utilization capability of Au-ZnO nanohybrids coming from the plasmonic response of Au nanoparticles decorating ZnO nanostructures.

  5. Highly efficient electrochemical degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by F-doped Ti/SnO2 electrode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Jiang, Chaojin; Yu, Gang; Zhuo, Qiongfang; Deng, Shubo; Wu, Jinhua; Zhang, Hong

    2015-12-15

    The novel F-doped Ti/SnO2 electrode prepared by SnF4 as the single-source precursor was used for electrochemical degradation of aqueous perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Higher oxidation reactivity and significantly longer service life were achieved for Ti/SnO2-F electrode than Ti/SnO2-X (X=Cl, Br, I, or Sb) electrode, which could decomposed over 99% of PFOA (50 mL of 100 mg L(-1)) within 30-min electrolysis. The property of Ti/SnO2-F electrode and its electrooxidation mechanism were investigated by XRD, SEM-EDX, EIS, LSV, and interfacial resistance measurements. We propose that the similar ionic radii of F and O as well as strong electronegativity of F caused its electrochemical stability with high oxygen evolution potential (OEP) and smooth surface to generate weakly adsorbed OH. The preparation conditions of electrode were also optimized including F doping amount, calcination temperature, and dip coating times, which revealed the formation process of electrode. Additionally, the major mineralization product, F(-), and low concentration of shorter chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were detected in solution. So the reaction pathway of PFOA electrooxidation was proposed by intermediate analysis. These results demonstrate that Ti/SnO2-F electrode is promising for highly efficient treatment of PFOA in wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sol-Gel Synthesis and Characterizations of CoMoO4 Nanoparticles: An Efficient Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Umapathy, V; Neeraja, P

    2016-03-01

    Cobalt molybdate CoMoO4 nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized using cobalt nitrate, ammonium molybdate, citric acid and ethyl cellulose by a simple sol-gel method. Structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the obtained powder were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectra and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD results indicated that the resultant powder was pure single phase crystalline with monoclinic structure. FT-IR spectra indicate the type of bonds between metals and oxygen. HR-SEM images shows that the morphology of the powder consist with well defined nanoparticles (NPs) structure. VSM results showed antiferromagnetic behavior. Photo-catalytic activity of CoMoO4 nanoparticles (NPs) was performed. The addition of TiO2 catalyst enhanced the photo-catalytic activity of CoMoO4 nanoparticles (NPs). The catalysts CoMoO4, Ti02 and mixed oxide catalyst CoMoO4-TiO2 nano- composites (NCs) were tested for the photo-catalytic degradation (PCD) of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). It was found that the PCD efficiency of CoMoO4-TiO2 NCs was higher (97.5%) than that of pure CoMoO4 (88.0%) and TiO2 (94.0%) catalysts.

  7. Efficient immobilization of mushroom tyrosinase utilizing whole cells from Agaricus bisporus and its application for degradation of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Markus; Boll, Stefan; Kossuch, Jan; Bielecki, Julia; Uhl, Stefan; Kleiner, Beatrice; Wichmann, Rolf

    2014-06-15

    A simple and efficient procedure for preparation and immobilization of tyrosinase enzyme was developed utilizing whole cells from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus, without the need for enzyme purification. Tyrosinase activity in the cell preparation remained constant during storage at 21 °C for at least six months. The cells were entrapped in chitosan and alginate matrix capsules and characterized with respect to their resulting tyrosinase activity. A modification of the alginate with colloidal silica enhanced the activity due to retention of both cells and tyrosinase from fractured cells, which otherwise leached from matrix capsules. The observed activity was similar to the activity that was obtained with immobilized isolated tyrosinase in the same material. Mushroom cells in water were susceptible to rapid inactivation, whereas the immobilized cells maintained 73% of their initial activity after 30 days of storage in water. Application in repeated batch experiments resulted in almost 100% conversion of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) for 11 days, under stirring conditions, and 50-60% conversion after 20 days, without stirring under continuous usage. The results represent the longest yet reported application of immobilized tyrosinase for degradation of BPA in environmental water samples.

  8. Resource-use efficiencies of three indigenous tree species planted in resource islands created by shrubs: implications for reforestation of subtropical degraded shrublands

    Treesearch

    Nan Liu; Qinfeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Shrub resource islands are characterized by resources accumulated shrubby areas surrounded by relative barren soils. This research aims to determine resource-use efficiency of native trees species planted on shrub resource islands, and to determine how the planted trees may influence the resource islands in degraded shrublands in South China. Shrub (Rhodomyrtus...

  9. Positive role of incorporating P-25 TiO2 to mesoporous-assembled TiO2 thin films for improving photocatalytic dye degradation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Sreethawong, Thammanoon; Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai; Yoshikawa, Susumu

    2014-09-15

    In this work, a simple and effective strategy to improve the photocatalytic dye degradation efficiency of the mesoporous-assembled TiO2 nanoparticle thin films by incorporating small contents of commercial P-25 TiO2 during the thin film preparation was developed. The mesoporous-assembled TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol-gel method with the aid of a mesopore-directing surfactant, followed by homogeneously mixing with P-25 TiO2 prior to the thin film coating on glass substrate. The mesoporous-assembled TiO2 film with 5 wt.% P-25 TiO2 incorporation and calcined at 400°C provided an improved photocatalytic Acid Black (AB) dye degradation efficiency. The increase in number of coated layers to the optimum four layers of the aforementioned film was found to further improve the degradation efficiency. The recyclability test of this 5 wt.% P-25 TiO2-incorporated mesoporous-assembled TiO2 film with four coated layers revealed that it can be reused for multiple cycles without a requirement of post-treatment while the degradation efficiency was retained.

  10. Electroluminescence et radiation thermique dans les nanotubes de carbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Elyse

    We present here a spectroscopic study of the light emission properties of different nanotube devices with the aim to clarify the different mechanisms leading to the light emission. The first study consists of taking measurements from a thick (˜ 450 nm) macroscopic suspended carbon nanotube film connected between two electrodes. A significant increase of the temperature is expected when voltage is applied since thermal dissipation by the substrate is suppressed for this configuration. In imaging mode, we observed that infrared light is emitted from the entire area of the film instead of being localized. This observation demonstrates that the light emission arise from thermal emission. Spectra measured on this device all present a smooth response, characteristic of that of a blackbody. As expected for a pure thermal source, the results fit well the Planck formula. Because the Planck formula is temperature dependant, it became possible to extract a lower limit of the temperature of the film as a function of voltage. The temperature increases more or less from 350K to 600K when the voltage increases from 0.1V to 1.6V. The second study is made using a sub-monolayer network of carbon nanotubes interconnected together to form a semiconducting layer. The large number of tube-tube junctions in the networks limits the current and prevents the temperature to rise significantly at higher bias. The intimate contact between the network and the substrate also prevent the temperature of the film to increase significantly due to a good thermalizaton. Hence, electroluminescence from excitonic recombination is expected to be dominant over heat radiation for this type of devices. First, spatial resolution measurements on long channel network devices shows that the light-emitting zone is always located near the minority charge injector contact. This result demonstrates that light emission arises from electroluminescence in network from a bipolar current. Thermal emission can therefore

  11. Permeation impact on metallization degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peike, C.; Hoffmann, S.; Hülsmann, P.; Weiß, K.-A.; Koehl, M.; Bentz, P.

    2012-10-01

    The degradation of the inorganic components in a PV module is, besides polymer degradation, one of the most important aspects of PV module aging. Especially the corrosion of the cell metallization may lead to significant decreases in PV module performance. But in which way the metallization corrosion is affected by the permeation of atmospheric gases is not understood, yet. In order to investigate this permeation impact, laminates with a systematic variation of back-sheet and encapsulation materials as well as different laminate set-ups were made. Two different kinds of encapsulation (EVA and PVB) and four different back-sheet materials (TAPT, PA and two different TPT foils) were used. Standard cells with a two and three bus bar set-up were used. The laminates were subjected to damp-heat aging tests with a relative humidity of 80% at 80°C and 90°C, respectively. The degradation was investigated by means of electroluminescence imaging, Raman spectroscopy and microscopy. Special attention was paid to the spatial distribution of corrosion effects on the cell. Furthermore, the occurrence of a typical damp-heat induced damage, apparent as a shaded area in the electroluminescence images, should be investigated. A corrosion of the grid and the ribbons could be observed. EDX measurements revealed the grid corrosion to go along with the formation of needles of lead compounds from the silver paste.

  12. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: A New Conducting Polymer Electrode for Organic Electroluminescence Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Shu; Peng, Jing-Cu

    2008-08-01

    Conducting polymer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is studied for the high performance electrode of organic electroluminescence devices. A method to prepare the electrode consisting of a SiC thin film and PDMS is investigated. By using ultra thin SiC films with different thicknesses, the organic electroluminescence devices are obtained in an ultra vacuum system with the model device PDMS/SiC/PPV/Alq3, where PPV is poly para-phenylene vinylene and Alq3 is tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium. The capacitance-voltage (C - V), capacitance-frequency (C - F), current-voltage (I - V), radiation intensity-voltage (R - V) and luminance efficiency-voltage (E - V) measurements are systematically studied to investigate the conductivity, Fermi alignment and devices properties in organic semiconductors. Scanning Kelvin probe measurement shows that the work function ofPDMS/SiC anode with a 2.5-nm SiC over layer can be increased by as much as 0.28 eV, compared to the conventional ITO anode. The result is attributed to the charge transfer effect and ohmic contacts at the interface.

  13. Guest concentration, bias current, and temperature-dependent sign inversion of magneto-electroluminescence in thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Junquan; Jia, Weiyao; Chen, Yingbing; Liu, Dongyu; Hu, Yeqian; Xiong, Zuhong

    2017-01-01

    Non-emissive triplet excited states in devices that undergo thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) can be up-converted to singlet excited states via reverse intersystem crossing (RISC), which leads to an enhanced electroluminescence efficiency. Exciton-based fluorescence devices always exhibit a positive magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) because intersystem crossing (ISC) can be suppressed effectively by an external magnetic field. Conversely, TADF devices should exhibit a negative MEL because RISC is suppressed by the external magnetic field. Intriguingly, we observed a positive MEL in TADF devices. Moreover, the sign of the MEL was either positive or negative, and depended on experimental conditions, including doping concentration, current density and temperature. The MEL observed from our TADF devices demonstrated that ISC in the host material and RISC in the guest material coexisted. These competing processes were affected by the experimental conditions, which led to the sign change of the MEL. This work gives important insight into the energy transfer processes and the evolution of excited states in TADF devices. PMID:28295056

  14. A rhenium complex with diamine ligand containing oxadiazole group and fluorine atom: Synthesis, characterization, photoluminescence and electroluminescence performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wensheng; Yang, Wan; Liu, Weisheng; Qin, Wenwu

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a diamine ligand of 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (FPYOZ), which owned both enlarged conjugation chain with electron-pulling group and fluorine atom, was synthesized. Its corresponding Re(I) complex was also synthesized and studied in detail, including single crystal analysis, electronic structure, photophysical performance, thermal stability and electrochemical property. Single crystal analysis suggested that there was a coordination ability difference between the N atom from pyridine ring and the one from oxadiazole moiety. Theoretical calculation on the complex suggested that the onset electronic transition owned a mixed character of metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer and ligand-to-ligand-charge-transfer. Upon photoexcitation of 375 nm, this complex showed a yellow emission peaking at 537 nm with excited state lifetime of 8.35 μs. Cyclic voltammetry result suggested that this complex owned HOMO and LUMO energy levels of -5.37 eV and -3.04 eV. The decomposition temperature of this complex was as high as 300 °C, as revealed by thermogravimetric analysis data. The optimal electroluminescence device using this complex as the emitting dopant showed an electroluminescence peaking at 562 nm, with a maximum luminance of 6250 cd/m2 and a maximum current efficiency of 7.3 cd/A.

  15. Guest concentration, bias current, and temperature-dependent sign inversion of magneto-electroluminescence in thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Junquan; Jia, Weiyao; Chen, Yingbing; Liu, Dongyu; Hu, Yeqian; Xiong, Zuhong

    2017-03-01

    Non-emissive triplet excited states in devices that undergo thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) can be up-converted to singlet excited states via reverse intersystem crossing (RISC), which leads to an enhanced electroluminescence efficiency. Exciton-based fluorescence devices always exhibit a positive magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) because intersystem crossing (ISC) can be suppressed effectively by an external magnetic field. Conversely, TADF devices should exhibit a negative MEL because RISC is suppressed by the external magnetic field. Intriguingly, we observed a positive MEL in TADF devices. Moreover, the sign of the MEL was either positive or negative, and depended on experimental conditions, including doping concentration, current density and temperature. The MEL observed from our TADF devices demonstrated that ISC in the host material and RISC in the guest material coexisted. These competing processes were affected by the experimental conditions, which led to the sign change of the MEL. This work gives important insight into the energy transfer processes and the evolution of excited states in TADF devices.

  16. Substituent effect on the photophysical properties, electrochemical properties and electroluminescence performance of orange-emitting iridium complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renjie; Deng, Lijun; Zhang, Ting; Li, Jiuyan

    2012-06-14

    A series of bis(2-phenylbenzothiozolato-N,C(2'))iridium(acetylacetonate) [(bt)(2)Ir(acac)] derivatives, 1-4, were synthesized. Different substituents (CF(3), F, CH(3), OCH(3)) were introduced in the benzothiazole ring to study the substituent effect on the photophysical, electrochemical properties and electroluminescent performance of the complexes, and finally to select high-performance phosphors for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). All complexes 1-4 and (bt)(2)Ir(acac) are orange-emitting with tiny spectral difference, despite the variation of the substituent. However, the phosphorescent quantum yield increases with the electron-withdrawing ability of the substituent. This is in contrast to the previous observation that the substituent in the phenyl ring bonded to the metal center of (bt)(2)Ir(acac) not only affected the luminescent quantum efficiency but also greatly tuned the emission color of the complexes. Quantum chemical calculations revealed that the substituents in this position do not make a significant contribution to both the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), which probably accounts for the fact that they do no strongly influence the bandgap and emission color of the complexes. Orange OLEDs were fabricated using 1-4 as doped emitters. The electron-withdrawing CF(3) and F groups favor improving the electroluminescence efficiency in comparison with that of the parent (bt)(2)Ir(acac), while electron-donating CH(3) and OCH(3) are not favorable for light emission. The complex 1 based OLED exhibited a maximum luminance efficiency of 54.1 cd A(-1) (a power efficiency of 24 lm W(-1) and an external quantum efficiency of 20%), which are among the best results ever reported for vacuum deposited orange OLEDs so far.

  17. Photo- and electroluminescent properties europium complexes using bistriazole ligands

    PubMed Central

    Gusev, Alexey N.; Shul’gin, Victor F.; Nishimenko, Galina; Hasegawa, Miki; Linert, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Luminescent properties of two heteroleptic dibenzoylmethanate europium(III) complexes with 1,3-bis(5-pyridin-2-yl-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)propane (H2L1) and 1,4-bis(5-pyridin-2-yl-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)butane (H2L2) as ancillary ligands are described. The two double-layer-type electroluminescent cells with the structures: (1) ITO/NPB(40 nm)/Eu(DBM)2HL1 (40 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) and (2) ITO/NPB(40 nm)/Eu(DBM)2HL2 (40 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) emit red light originating from the europium complexes. The device 2 gives the maximum brightness of 455 cd/m2 at 19.2 V. PMID:23459422

  18. Improving the diversity of manufacturing electroluminescent flat panel displays

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, T.S.; Samuels, J.A.; Smith, D.C.

    1995-09-01

    Crystalline calcium thiogallate with a cerium dopant has been deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at temperatures below 600{degrees}C on a low cost glass substrate. An EL luminance of 1.05 fL was observed 40 volts above threshold at 60 Hz. This is more than an order of magnitude improvement over earlier crystalline-as-deposited thiogallate materials. These results pave the way for the use of MOCVD as a potential method for processing full color thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) flat panel displays. The formation of the CaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Ce phosphor requires precise control over a number of deposition parameters including flow rates, substrate temperature, and reactor pressure. The influence of these parameters will be discussed in terms of structure, uniformity, and TFEL device performance.

  19. Flat-panel, full-color, electroluminescent display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, James B.

    1987-08-01

    This invention relates to a flat-panel, electroluminescent display capable of achieving full color and is particularly useful in achieving a bright display with high resolution. The invention uses red, green and blue phosphors in two layers separated by layers of insulating material and layers of electrodes that are used to excite the phosphors. In operation, the display is addressed by supplying sufficient voltage between selected electrodes. This places an electric field across the phosphor at each picture element located between the overlap of the selected electrodes causing the phosphor to emit light at this location. These and other matrix-addressed displays can be addressed line-at-a-time (row or column) fashion in rapid enough sequence to display information at standard TV frame rates.

  20. Highly stretchable electroluminescent skin for optical signaling and tactile sensing.

    PubMed

    Larson, C; Peele, B; Li, S; Robinson, S; Totaro, M; Beccai, L; Mazzolai, B; Shepherd, R

    2016-03-04

    Cephalopods such as octopuses have a combination of a stretchable skin and color-tuning organs to control both posture and color for visual communication and disguise. We present an electroluminescent material that is capable of large uniaxial stretching and surface area changes while actively emitting light. Layers of transparent hydrogel electrodes sandwich a ZnS phosphor-doped dielectric elastomer layer, creating thin rubber sheets that change illuminance and capacitance under deformation. Arrays of individually controllable pixels in thin rubber sheets were fabricated using replica molding and were subjected to stretching, folding, and rolling to demonstrate their use as stretchable displays. These sheets were then integrated into the skin of a soft robot, providing it with dynamic coloration and sensory feedback from external and internal stimuli. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Kinetics of transient electroluminescence in organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Manju; Kumar, Pankaj; Chand, Suresh; Brahme, Nameeta; Kher, R. S.; Khokhar, M. S. K.

    2008-08-01

    Mathematical simulation on the rise and decay kinetics of transient electroluminescence (EL) in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is presented. The transient EL is studied with respect to a step voltage pulse. While rising, for lower values of time, the EL intensity shows a quadratic dependence on (t - tdel), where tdel is the time delay observed in the onset of EL, and finally attains saturation at a sufficiently large time. When the applied voltage is switched off, the initial EL decay shows an exponential dependence on (t - tdec), where tdec is the time when the voltage is switched off. The simulated results are compared with the transient EL performance of a bilayer OLED based on small molecular bis(2-methyl 8-hydroxyquinoline)(triphenyl siloxy) aluminium (SAlq). Transient EL studies have been carried out at different voltage pulse amplitudes. The simulated results show good agreement with experimental data. Using these simulated results the lifetime of the excitons in SAlq has also been calculated.

  2. Single-photon electroluminescence for on-chip quantum networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentham, C.; Hallett, D.; Prtljaga, N.; Royall, B.; Vaitiekus, D.; Coles, R. J.; Clarke, E.; Fox, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Itskevich, I. E.; Wilson, L. R.

    2016-10-01

    An electrically driven single-photon source has been monolithically integrated with nano-photonic circuitry. Electroluminescent emission from a single InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) is channelled through a suspended nanobeam waveguide. The emission line has a linewidth of below 6 μeV, demonstrating the ability to have a high coherence, electrically driven, waveguide coupled QD source. The single-photon nature of the emission is verified by g ( 2 ) ( τ ) correlation measurements. Moreover, in a cross-correlation experiment, with emission collected from the two ends of the waveguide, the emission and propagation of single photons from the same QD is confirmed. This work provides the basis for the development of electrically driven on-chip single-photon sources, which can be readily coupled to waveguide filters, directional couplers, phase shifters, and other elements of quantum photonic networks.

  3. Optical properties of inorganic electroluminescent devices with nanostripe electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Shin-ichi

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the luminescence (emission) characteristics of a laminated dispersion-type inorganic electroluminescent (EL) device with a nanostripe electrode made of thin Al film, instead of a conventional indium-tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrode, on the emission side of the device. The transmittance of the Al nanostripe electrode, with 60-nm line-and-space widths, was 45%. We compared an inorganic EL device positioned between two thin films of Al and the inorganic EL device with the Al nanostripe electrode using electric field simulations and actual experiments. We were able to apply the same electric field intensity to the phosphor layer in the conventional structure and to the new structure. Therefore, with an Al nanostripe electrode on one side of the EL device, it is possible to fabricate an ITO-free display.

  4. Construction of a Rapid Feather-Degrading Bacterium by Overexpression of a Highly Efficient Alkaline Keratinase in Its Parent Strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens K11.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lian; Wang, Hui; Lv, Yi; Bai, Yingguo; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Yao, Bin

    2016-01-13

    Keratinase is essential to degrade the main feather component, keratin, and is of importance for wide industrial applications. In this study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain K11 was found to have significant feather-degrading capacity (completely degraded whole feathers within 24 h). The keratinase encoding gene, kerK, was expressed in Bacillus subtilis SCK6. The purified recombinant KerK showed optimal activity at 50 °C and pH 11.0 and degraded whole feathers within 0.5 h in the presence of DTT. The recombinant plasmids harboring kerK were extracted from B. subtilis SCK6 and transformed into B. amyloliquefaciens K11. As a result, the recombinant B. amyloliquefaciens K11 exhibited enhanced feather-degrading capacity with shortened reaction time within 12 h and increased keratinolytic activity (1500 U/mL) by 6-fold. This efficient and rapid feather-degrading character makes the recombinant strain of B. amyloliquefaciens K11 have potential for applications in feather meal preparation and waste feather disposal.

  5. The influence of operating conditions on the efficiency of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide in the degradation of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Svrcek, Jirí; Marhoul, Antonín; Kacer, Petr; Kuzma, Marek; Pánek, Libor; Cervený, Libor

    2010-10-01

    Vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) nowadays finds more and more applications especially as a bio-decontamination agent for enclosed areas. Although this oxidizing agent logically offers a potential for the degradation of hazardous chemical contaminants, the information on the utilization within this area is very limited. The main objective of this study was to examine in detail the influence of basic operational (temperature, concentration of VPHP, relative humidity, condensation) and other conditions (e.g. amount of contaminant, the effect of UV radiation) on the efficiency of the VPHP process for the degradation of the selected model substance, i.e. 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde. For this purpose, a series of different VPHP "wet" decontamination cycles (with a visible condensation) were carried out and compared. The obtained results clearly proved that VPHP could be utilized for the degradation of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde, however it was necessary to regard this process as a multi-parametric, in which all operational conditions played significant roles, while the molecular distribution of H(2)O and H(2)O(2) at first constituted the key factor for a successful degradation of contaminants on the surface. In order to achieve the highest decomposition efficiency of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde by the wet VPHP process, it appeared to be necessary to decrease the initial relative humidity in the relevant enclosed area (ideally up to 5%) before the introduction of VPHP and carry out this decontamination procedure ideally at 25°C and maintain the VPHP concentration higher than 500 ppm. Furthermore, it was found that the addition of UV radiation had a positive role on VPHP efficiency (in the best case, the degradation rate increased up to 1.5 times compared to using the sole VPHP). The monitoring of the concentration of VPHP within an enclosed facility is a good tool for the monitoring of the degradation of chemical contaminants by this agent. Copyright © 2010

  6. Structural, morphological and electroluminescence studies of Zno:Co nanophosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anju; Vishwakarma, H. L.

    2016-09-01

    The nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) doped with various concentrations of cobalt (Co) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The effect of doping concentration on structural and morphological properties has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell volume, bond length, texture coefficient, lattice constants and dislocation density are also studied. Here, we also compared the interplaner spacing and relative peak intensities from their standard values with different angles. Crystallite sizes have been calculated by Debye-Scherrer's formula whose values are decreasing with increase in cobalt content up to 3 %. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods was (101). The XRD analysis also ensures that ZnO has a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The electroluminescence (EL) cells were prepared by placing pure and cobalt-doped ZnO nanoparticles between ITO-coated conducting glass plate and aluminium foil. Alternating voltage of various frequencies was applied, and EL brightness at different voltages was measured and corresponding current was also recorded. The voltage dependence of electroluminescence (EL) brightness of the ZnO:Co shows exponential increase. The linear voltage-current characteristic indicates ohmic nature. The EL brightness at a particular voltage is found to increase by increasing Co doping, but for higher percentage of Co the EL brightness is reduced. It is also seen that Co does not influence the threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  7. Strong visible electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon carbide film

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, Chul Kim, Tae-Youb; Ahn, Chang-Geun; Kim, Bong Kyu

    2015-05-25

    We report the strong visible light emission from silicon (Si) nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in a Si carbide (SiC) film. Compared to Si NC light-emitting diode (LED) by employing the Si nitride (SiN{sub x}) film as a surrounding matrix, the turn-on voltage of the Si NC LED with the SiC film was significantly decreased by 4 V. This was attributed to a smaller barrier height for injecting the electrons into the Si NCs due to a smaller band gap of SiC film than a SiN{sub x} film. The electroluminescence spectra increases with increasing forward voltage, indicating that the electrons are efficiently injected into the Si NCs in the SiC film. The light output power shows a linear increase with increasing forward voltage. The light emission originated from the Si NCs in a SiC film was quite uniform. The power efficiency of the Si NC LED with the SiC film was 1.56 times larger than that of the Si NC LED with the SiN{sub x} film. The Si NCs in a SiC film show unique advantages and are a promising candidate for application in optical devices.

  8. Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers and Their Application in Electroluminescent Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Yuefei; Ma, Biwu; Segalman, Rachel A.

    2008-11-18

    The formation of alternating electron transporting and hole transporting 15 nm lamellae within the active layer of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is demonstrated to improve device performance. A new multifunctional bipolar rod-coil block copolymer containing a poly(alkoxy phenylenevinylene) (PPV) rod-shaped block as the hole transporting and emitting material and a poly(vinyloxadiazole) coil-shaped electron transporting block is synthesized. This new block copolymer is the active material of a self-assembling multicomponent electroluminescent device that can be deposited in a single step. In the thin film, grazing incidence X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the layers form grains which are oriented bimodally: parallel and perpendicular from the anode. In this mixed orientation, the device demonstrates better performance than those with either pure PPV or a blend of the two analogous homopolymers as the active materials, i.e., higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) and brightness. This improved device performance is mainly attributed to the bipolar functionality and microphase separation of the block copolymer, which provide highly efficient hole and electron recombination at the nanodomain interfaces.

  9. Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers And Their Application in Electroluminescent Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Y.; Ma, B.; Segalman, R.A.

    2009-05-26

    The formation of alternating electron transporting and hole transporting 15 nm lamellae within the active layer of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is demonstrated to improve device performance. A new multifunctional bipolar rod-coil block copolymer containing a poly(alkoxy phenylenevinylene) (PPV) rod-shaped block as the hole transporting and emitting material and a poly(vinyloxadiazole) coil-shaped electron transporting block is synthesized. This new block copolymer is the active material of a self-assembling multicomponent electroluminescent device that can be deposited in a single step. In the thin film, grazing incidence X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the layers form grains which are oriented bimodally: parallel and perpendicular from the anode. In this mixed orientation, the device demonstrates better performance than those with either pure PPV or a blend of the two analogous homopolymers as the active materials, i.e., higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) and brightness. This improved device performance is mainly attributed to the bipolar functionality and microphase separation of the block copolymer, which provide highly efficient hole and electron recombination at the nanodomain interfaces.

  10. Molecular-scale simulation of electroluminescence in a multilayer white organic light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Mesta, Murat; Carvelli, Marco; de Vries, Rein J; van Eersel, Harm; van der Holst, Jeroen J M; Schober, Matthias; Furno, Mauro; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl; Loebl, Peter; Coehoorn, Reinder; Bobbert, Peter A

    2013-07-01

    In multilayer white organic light-emitting diodes the electronic processes in the various layers--injection and motion of charges as well as generation, diffusion and radiative decay of excitons--should be concerted such that efficient, stable and colour-balanced electroluminescence can occur. Here we show that it is feasible to carry out Monte Carlo simulations including all of these molecular-scale processes for a hybrid multilayer organic light-emitting diode combining red and green phosphorescent layers with a blue fluorescent layer. The simulated current density and emission profile are shown to agree well with experiment. The experimental emission profile was obtained with nanometre resolution from the measured angle- and polarization-dependent emission spectra. The simulations elucidate the crucial role of exciton transfer from green to red and the efficiency loss due to excitons generated in the interlayer between the green and blue layers. The perpendicular and lateral confinement of the exciton generation to regions of molecular-scale dimensions revealed by this study demonstrate the necessity of molecular-scale instead of conventional continuum simulation.

  11. Molecular-scale simulation of electroluminescence in a multilayer white organic light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesta, Murat; Carvelli, Marco; de Vries, Rein J.; van Eersel, Harm; van der Holst, Jeroen J. M.; Schober, Matthias; Furno, Mauro; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl; Loebl, Peter; Coehoorn, Reinder; Bobbert, Peter A.

    2013-07-01

    In multilayer white organic light-emitting diodes the electronic processes in the various layers—injection and motion of charges as well as generation, diffusion and radiative decay of excitons—should be concerted such that efficient, stable and colour-balanced electroluminescence can occur. Here we show that it is feasible to carry out Monte Carlo simulations including all of these molecular-scale processes for a hybrid multilayer organic light-emitting diode combining red and green phosphorescent layers with a blue fluorescent layer. The simulated current density and emission profile are shown to agree well with experiment. The experimental emission profile was obtained with nanometre resolution from the measured angle- and polarization-dependent emission spectra. The simulations elucidate the crucial role of exciton transfer from green to red and the efficiency loss due to excitons generated in the interlayer between the green and blue layers. The perpendicular and lateral confinement of the exciton generation to regions of molecular-scale dimensions revealed by this study demonstrate the necessity of molecular-scale instead of conventional continuum simulation.

  12. Blue electroluminescence in reverse-biased ZnS(Zn,Al) diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, F. J.; Krier, A.; Zhong, G. Z.

    1985-09-01

    Diodes fabricated from ZnS crystals annealed in molten zinc containing 2% aluminium have been found to yield bright blue electroluminescence under reverse-bias at room temperature. Study of the electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectra for these diodes together with electron microprobe analysis and measurements of their current-voltage characteristics has led to an explanation of the blue electroluminescence excitation and emission mechanisms. The surface (˜ 800 μm) of the ZnS(An,Al) crystal was found to be aluminium-rich. The aluminium provided additional donors to give a low-resistivity region. This region contained ZnAl 2S 4 phases in additional to the V ZnAl complex defects that were thought to be responsible for the blue electroluminescence emission.

  13. Selection and screening of microbial consortia for efficient and ecofriendly degradation of plastic garbage collected from urban and rural areas of Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Megha, M; Kini, Meghna Niranjan; Mukund, Kamath Manali; Rizvi, Alya; Vasist, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have led to massive accumulation of plastic garbage all over India. The persistence of plastic in soil and aquatic environment has become ecological threat to the metropolitan city such as Bangalore, India. Present study investigates an ecofriendly, efficient and cost-effective approach for plastic waste management by the screening of novel microbial consortia which are capable of degrading plastic polymers. Plastic-contaminated soil and water samples were collected from six hot spots of urban and rural areas of Bangalore. The plastic-degrading bacteria were enriched, and degradation ability was determined by zone of clearance method. The percentage of polymer degradation was initially monitored by weight loss method, and the main isolates were characterized by standard microbiology protocols. These isolates were used to form microbial consortia, and the degradation efficiency of the consortia was compared with individual isolate and known strains obtained from the Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) and Gene Bank, India. One of the main enzymes responsible for polymer degradation was identified, and the biodegradation mechanism was hypothesized by bioinformatics studies. From this study, it is evident that the bacteria utilized the plastic polymer as a sole source of carbon and showed 20-50% weight reduction over a period of 120 days. The two main bacteria responsible for the degradation were microbiologically characterized to be Pseudomonas spp. These bacteria could grow optimally at 37 °C in pH 9.0 and showed 35-40% of plastic weight reduction over 120 days. These isolates were showed better degradation ability than known strains from MTCC. The current study further revealed that the microbial consortia formulated by combining Psuedomonas spp. showed 40 plastic weight reduction over a period of 90 days. Further, extracellular lipase, one of the main enzymes responsible for polymer degradation, was identified. The

  14. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies. Degradable plastic made from potato peels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Stimulated by public demand and state and federal legislation, industry has begun to develop bio- and photo- degradable plastics. so far, however, none of these degradable plastics meets all of the criteria for success - adequate physical and mechanical properties for the desired use, cost-effectiveness, and 100% degradability. Polylactic acid (PLA) plastic is one degradable plastic that shows promise. It has the desired properties and is 100% degradable. However, PLA plastic made by conventional techniques is not cost effective. Made from lactic acid, which is typically made form petroleum using a very costly synthesis process. Lactic acid can also be made from carbohydrates (starches), found in food processing wastes such as potato wastes, cheese whey, and sorghum. Conversion of starch to simple sugars, and fermentation of these sugars can produce lactic acid.

  15. Fabrication of efficient visible light activated Cu-P25-graphene ternary composite for photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zheng; Duan, Wubiao; Liu, Bo; Chen, Xidong; Yang, Feihua; Guo, Jianping

    2015-11-01

    Cu-P25-graphene nanocomposite was fabricated through hydrothermal method at relatively low temperature. The technique used is P25-graphene (PG) binary composite was firstly prepared by P25 and graphite oxide (GO), and then Cu2+ ions were impregnated into PG composite. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum respectively. As the results showed, the Cu-P25-graphene (CPG) nanocomposites possessed the extended light absorption in visible light and better charge separation capability as compared to the pure P25 and PG system. Moreover, CPG-4 (4 mM Cu(NO3)2) showed the highest degradation rate of methyl blue (MB) under the visible light, which the removal efficiency can reach 98% after 100 min. The corresponding hydrogen evolution rate of CPG-4 was 7.9 times than pure P25. It was concluded that the synergistic effects of Cu2+ ions and graphene narrowed the band gap of TiO2 and promoted charge separation, which played significant roles for the enhancement of photoactivity of CPG composite catalysts. In addition, it was observed that the photodegradation of MB followed the first order reaction kinetics. The effects of pH values of MB solution for photocatalysts had also been investigated. The result confirmed that the optimum values of pH were found to be 7. Finally, the stability test of photocatalysts was carried out and the photocatalytic mechanism was explained concretely.

  16. Simultaneous enhancement of photo- and electroluminescence in white organic light-emitting devices by localized surface plasmons of silver nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jingting; Zhu, Wenqing; Shi, Guanjie; Zhai, Guangsheng; Qian, Bingjie; Li, Jun

    2017-02-01

    White organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) with enhanced current efficiency and negligible color shifting equipped with an internal color conversion layer (CCL) were fabricated. They were attained by embedding a single layer of silver nanoclusters (SNCs) between the CCL and light-emitting layer (EML). The simultaneous enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) of the CCL and electroluminescence (EL) of the EML were realized by controlling the thickness and size of the SNCs to match the localized surface plasmon resonance spectrum with the PL spectrum of the CCL and the EL spectrum of the EML. The WOLED with optimal SNCs demonstrated a 25.81% enhancement in current efficiency at 60 mA cm‑2 and good color stability over the entire range of current density.

  17. Bright Multicolor Bandgap Fluorescent Carbon Quantum Dots for Electroluminescent Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fanglong; Wang, Zhibin; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Yunchao; Tan, Zhan'ao; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe

    2017-01-01

    Multicolor bandgap fluorescent carbon quantum dots (MCBF-CQDs) from blue to red with quantum yield up to 75% are synthesized using a solvothermal method. For the first time, monochrome electroluminescent light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with MCBF-CQDs directly as an active emission layer are fabricated. The maximum luminance of blue LEDs reaches 136 cd m(-2) , which is the best performance for CQD-based monochrome electroluminescent LEDs.

  18. Degradation by acetic acid for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Naomi; Hara, Yukiko

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of crystalline Si photovoltaic modules during damp-heat test was studied using some test modules with and without polymer film insertion by observing electrical and electroluminescence properties and by chemical analyses. Acetic acid generated by the hydrolysis decomposition of ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant is the main origin of degradation. The change in electroluminescence images is explained on the basis of the corrosion of electrodes by acetic acid. On the other hand, little change was observed at the pn junction even after damp-heat test for a long time. Therefore, carrier generation occurs even after degradation; however, such generated carriers cannot be collected owing to corrosion of electrodes. The guiding principle that module structure and module materials without saving acetic acid into the modules was obtained.

  19. Pseudomonas sp. ZXY-1, a newly isolated and highly efficient atrazine-degrading bacterium, and optimization of biodegradation using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyue; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Bai, Shunwen; Yang, Jixian; Qi, Shanshan

    2017-04-01

    Atrazine, a widely used herbicide, is increasing the agricultural production effectively, while also causing great environmental concern. Efficient atrazine-degrading bacterium is necessary to removal atrazine rapidly to keep a safe environment. In the present study, a new atrazine-degrading strain ZXY-1, identified as Pseudomonas, was isolated. This new isolated strain has a strong ability to biodegrade atrazine with a high efficiency of 9.09mg/L/hr. Temperature, pH, inoculum size and initial atrazine concentration were examined to further optimize the degradation of atrazine, and the synthetic effect of these factors were investigated by the response surface methodology. With a high quadratic polynomial mathematical model (R(2)=0.9821) being obtained, the highest biodegradation efficiency of 19.03mg/L/hr was reached compared to previous reports under the optimal conditions (30.71°C, pH7.14, 4.23% (V/V) inoculum size and 157.1mg/L initial atrazine concentration). Overall, this study provided an efficient bacterium and approach that could be potentially useful for the bioremediation of wastewater containing atrazine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. CTAB-assisted synthesis of monoclinic BiVO4 photocatalyst and its highly efficient degradation of organic dye under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wenzong; Wang, Wenzhong; Zhou, Lin; Sun, Songmei; Zhang, Ling

    2010-01-15

    A highly efficient monoclinic BiVO(4) photocatalyst (C-BVO) was synthesized by an aqueous method with the assistance of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The structure, morphology and photophysical properties of the C-BVO were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic efficiencies were evaluated by the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation, revealing that the degradation rate over the C-BVO was much higher than that over the reference BiVO(4) prepared by aqueous method and over the one prepared by solid-state reaction. The efficiency of de-ethylation and that of the cleavage of conjugated chromophore structure were investigated, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) values of the RhB were measured after the photocatalytic degradation over the C-BVO and demonstrated a 53% decrease in COD. The effects of CTAB on the synthesis of C-BVO were investigated, which revealed that CTAB not only changed the reaction process via the formation of BiOBr as an intermediate, but also facilitated the transition from BiOBr to BiVO(4). Comparison experiments were carried out and showed that the existence of impurity level makes significant contribution to the high photocatalytic efficiency of the C-BVO.

  1. Magnetic diatomite(Kieselguhr)/Fe2O3/TiO2 composite as an efficient photo-Fenton system for dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Isaltino A.; Zanatta, Lucas D.; Espimpolo, Daniela M.; da Silva, Douglas L.; Nascimento, Leandro F.; Zanardi, Fabrício B.; de Sousa Filho, Paulo C.; Serra, Osvaldo A.; Iamamoto, Yassuko

    2017-10-01

    We explored the potential use of diatomite/Fe2O3/TiO2 composites as catalysts for heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of methylene blue under neutral pH. Such system consists in magnetic solids synthesized by co-precipitation with Fe2+/Fe3+ in the presence of diatomite, followed by impregnation of TiO2. The results showed that the optimal amount of the catalyst was 2.0 g L-1, since aggregation phenomena become significant above this concentration, which decreases the photodegradation activity. The catalyst is highly efficient in the degradation of methylene blue and shows an easy recovery by an external magnetic field. This allows for an effective catalyst reuse without significant loss of activity in catalytic cycles, which is a highly interesting prospect for recyclable dye degradation systems.

  2. A new five-coordinated copper compound for efficient degradation of methyl orange and Congo red in the absence of UV-visible radiation.

    PubMed

    Han, Li-Juan; Kong, Ya-Jie; Yan, Ting-Jiang; Fan, Lu-Tong; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Hua-Jun; Zheng, He-Gen

    2016-11-22

    A new copper-based coordination compound Cu2(2,2'-bipy)2(pfbz)4 (1) (where 2,2'-bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine; pfbz = pentafluorobenzoate), was hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Compound 1 having a binuclear structure consists of two copper cations and two oxygen atoms alternately in a plane square arrangement. In the presence of very small amounts of H2O2, the catalytic properties of compound 1 for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) are excellent in the absence of UV-visible radiation. Moreover, compound 1 presents suitable properties for degradation of Congo red (CR). Our results indicated that the five-coordinated copper compound, 1, will be a promising candidate for efficient degradation of organic dyes.

  3. DHA inhibits protein degradation more efficiently than EPA by regulating the PPARγ/NFκB pathway in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Lin, Qiao-wei; Zheng, Pei-pei; Zhang, Jian-song; Huang, Fei-ruo

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the mechanism by which n-3 PUFA regulated the protein degradation in C2C12 myotubes. Compared with the BSA control, EPA at concentrations from 400 to 600 µM decreased total protein degradation (P < 0.01). However, the total protein degradation was decreased when the concentrations of DHA ranged from 300 µM to 700 µM (P < 0.01). DHA (400 µM, 24 h) more efficiently decreased the I κ B α phosphorylation and increased in the I κ B α protein level than 400 µM EPA (P < 0.01). Compared with BSA, 400 µM EPA and DHA resulted in a 47% or 68% induction of the NF κ B DNA binding activity, respectively (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, 400 µM EPA and DHA resulted in a 1.3-fold and 2.0-fold induction of the PPAR γ expression, respectively (P < 0.01). In C2C12 myotubes for PPAR γ knockdown, neither 400 µM EPA nor DHA affected the levels of p-I κ B α , total I κ B α or NF κ B DNA binding activity compared with BSA (P > 0.05). Interestingly, EPA and DHA both still decreased the total protein degradation, although PPAR γ knockdown attenuated the suppressive effects of EPA and DHA on the total protein degradation (P < 0.01). These results revealed that DHA inhibits protein degradation more efficiently than EPA by regulating the PPAR γ /NF- κ B pathway in C2C12 myotubes.

  4. Efficient on-site degradation of high concentration of spent deicing fluids: A laboratory study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, J.M.; Waltz, M.

    1997-10-01

    The on-site treatment of antifreeze compounds and aircraft deicing fluids (ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) will reduce disposal costs, decrease environmental impact, minimize the potential for additional spills/contamination and meet the goals of pollution prevention by reducing the amount of hazardous materials generated. The authors have identified bacteria that can degrade 1-10% glycol waste at room temperatures of ca. 23C. A second subculture was isolated that could degrade glycol waste at ca. 4C.

  5. Fabrication of Sc2O3-magneli phase titanium composite electrode and its application in efficient electrocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hongmei; He, Ping; Chen, Jingchao; Liu, Kaili; Lei, Hong; Dong, Faqin; Zhang, Xingquan; Li, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Sc2O3-magneli phase titanium (Sc2O3-MPT) composite electrode was successfully fabricated via a simple pressing-sintering method and used for electrocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO). It was shown that Sc2O3 was successfully composited with MPT. Compared with MPT electrode, Sc2O3-MPT composite electrode had less spherical particles and more pores. Linear scanning voltammetry indicated that Sc2O3-MPT composite electrode presented higher oxygen evolution overpotential than MPT electrode, suggesting that Sc2O3-MPT electrode was much more suitable for the degradation of MO. The electrocatalytic degradation of MO was evaluated under different parameters including current density, temperature, initial pH and electrolysis time. Under the optimal parameters (current density 10 mA cm-2, temperature 25 °C, initial pH 3 and electrolysis time 120 min), the degradation efficiency of MO on Sc2O3-MPT composite electrode reached up to 90.16%. All these results demonstrated that Sc2O3-MPT composite electrode was effective for electrocatalytic degradation of MO and had a great potential application in the treatment of dyes wastewater.

  6. TiO₂ supported over SBA-15: an efficient photocatalyst for the pesticide degradation using solar light.

    PubMed

    Phanikrishna Sharma, M V; Durga Kumari, V; Subrahmanyam, M

    2008-11-01

    Photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of pesticides are studied over TiO(2) supported mesoporous SBA-15 composite system using solar light. TiO(2) is immobilized over SBA-15 by solid sate dispersion method. The catalysts are characterized by XRD, surface area, UV-Vis diffused reflectance spectra, SEM and TEM. The detailed photocatalytic degradation studies are carried out over TiO(2), SBA-15 and different TiO(2) wt% supported SBA-15. The activity evaluation parameters such as catalyst amount, pH, and pollutant initial concentration are studied taking isoproturon as a model compound and established conditions for pesticide degradation. The optimum degradation is achieved over 10 wt% TiO(2)/SBA-15 within 30 min and the reaction is following pseudo-first order kinetics. The isoproturon mineralization is monitored with TOC reduction and it takes around 9h for disappearance. The commercial pesticide solutions containing imidacloprid and phosphamidon are also successfully degraded over these composites with the established conditions. The data indicates that 10 wt% TiO(2)/SBA-15 composite is an effective and highly active system for the pesticide degradations.

  7. Electroluminescent layers based on ZnS:Cu deposited into matrices of porous anodic Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeev, R. G.; Petukhov, D. I.; Chukavin, A. I.; Bel'tyukov, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    It is suggested to use a new nanocomposite material—nanostructures of copper-doped zinc sulfide in a matrix of porous aluminum oxide—as a light-emitting layer of electroluminescent sources of light. The material was deposited by thermal evaporation in a vacuum. The microstructure of the layers, impurity distribution in the electroluminescent-phosphor layer, and electroluminescence spectra at various copper concentrations in ZnS:Cu were studied.

  8. High-efficiency sono-solar-induced degradation of organic dye by the piezophototronic/photocatalytic coupling effect of FeS/ZnO nanoarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiao; Fu, Yongming; Hong, Deyi; Yu, Binwei; He, Haoxuan; Wang, Qiang; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2016-09-01

    Highly-efficient sono-solar-induced degradation of organic dye by the piezophototronic/photocatalytic coupling effect of FeS/ZnO nanoarrays was achieved. A steel screen was used as the substrate for supporting FeS/ZnO nanoarrays, and the nanoarrays were vertically and uniformly grown on the substrate via a wet-chemical route. Under ultrasonic and solar irradiation, FeS/ZnO nanoarrays have high sono-photocatalytic activity for degrading methylene blue in water. The photogenerated carriers can be separated by a piezoelectric field and a built-in electric field, resulting in a low recombination rate and high photocatalytic efficiency. The piezophototronic and photocatalytic effects were coupled together. The experimental/theoretical data indicate that this novel wastewater treatment can co-use mechanical and solar energy in nature, and so is a promising technology for environment improvement.

  9. Luminescent photoelectrochemical cells. 6. Spatial aspects of the photoluminescence and electroluminescence of cadmium selenide electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Streckert, H.H.; Tong, J.; Ellis, A.B.

    1982-01-27

    Samples of single-crystal, n-type CdSe emit when excited with ultraband gap excitation. The emission band (lambda/sub max/ approx. = 720 nm) is near the band gap of CdSe (approx. 1.7 eV); its energy, decay time, and temperature dependence are consistent with its description as edge emission. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra can be dependent on excitation wavelength and show evidence of self-absorption effects: PL spectra obtained with 457.9-nm excitation are broadened in the high-energy portion of the band relative to spectra obtained with more deeply penetrating 632.9-nm excitation. Measured PL efficiencies, theta/sub r/, are approx.10/sup -4/ in air at 295 K. When CdSe is used as the photoanode of photoelectrochemical cells employing aqueous polychalcogenide electrolytes, emission is quenched by the passage of photocurrent resulting from ultraband gap excitation. Electroluminescence (EL) can be observed from CdSe when the semiconductor is used as a dark cathode in aqueous, alkaline peroxydisulfate electrolyte. The EL spectrum is similar to the PL spectrum, suggesting the involvement of a common emissive excited state. Differences in the breadths of the spectra, however, indicate that, on average, EL is produced nearer to the semiconductor-electrolyte interface than PL under comparable experimental conditions. Measured EL efficiencies, theta/sub EL/, approaching 10/sup -3/ at -1.50 V vs SCE are comparable to PL efficiencies measured at this potential in hydroxide solution and provide evidence that the emissive excited state can be efficiently populated in an EL experiment; these lower-limit estimates of theta/sub EL/ and theta/sub r/ decline in passing to potentials near the onset of EL, approx.-0.9 V vs SCE. Spatial features of these comparisons are discussed.

  10. Surface Lattice Resonances for Enhanced and Directional Electroluminescence at High Current Densities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid photonic-plasmonic modes in periodic arrays of metallic nanostructures offer a promising trade-off between high-quality cavities and subdiffraction mode confinement. However, their application in electrically driven light-emitting devices is hindered by their sensitivity to the surrounding environment and to charge injecting metallic electrodes in particular. Here, we demonstrate that the planar structure of light-emitting field-effect transistor (LEFET) ensures undisturbed operation of the characteristic modes. We incorporate a square array of gold nanodisks into the charge transporting and emissive layer of a polymer LEFET in order to tailor directionality and emission efficiency via the Purcell effect and variation of the fractional local density of states in particular. Angle- and polarization-resolved spectra confirm that the enhanced electroluminescence correlates with the dispersion curves of the surface lattice resonances supported by these structures. These LEFETs reach current densities on the order of 10 kA/cm2, which may pave the way toward practical optoelectronic devices with tailored emission patterns and potentially electrically pumped plasmonic lasers. PMID:28042593

  11. Incorporation of electroluminescence and electrochemiluminescence in one organic light-emitting device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Changgua; Chuai, Yutao; Lao, Chunfeng; Huang, Lan; Zou, Dechun; Lee, Do Nam; Kim, Byeong Hyo

    2005-08-01

    The incorporation of electroluminescence and electrochemiluminescence in one light-emitting device with the configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/[Ru(bpy)2(dimbpy)](PF6)2/Alq3(30nm)/NPB(45nm)/Ag(60nm) is investigated. When the ITO and Ag electrodes are negatively and positively biased respectively, the color of the emission changes from green to light yellow-white within 100 s. So there is only one recombination zone in the bulk of the Alq3 at the initial stage of the operation, followed by the formation of another recombination zone in the bulk of the [Ru(bpy)2(dimbpy)](PF6)2. This directly indicates the existence of unipolar injection (electron injection) process in the ruthenium complex layer. The external quantum efficiency of the device is 1.4% compared with 0.45% of the ITO /[Ru(bpy)2(dimbpy)](PF6)2/Ag device, improved by twofold. Furthermore, this hybrid device provides a feasible way to control the emission of a wide spectrum of colors including red, green, yellow, and white.

  12. The equivalent circuit model on the room temperature electroluminescence from forward biased pin silicon diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Mao, Lu-hong; Li, Shanguo; Guo, Wei-lian; Zhang, Shi-lin; Liang, Hui-lai

    2008-01-01

    As the length scale of the devices decreases, electrons will spend increasingly more of their time in the connections between components; this interconnectivity problem could restrict further increases in computer chip processing power and speed. Considerable effort is therefore being expended on the development of efficient silicon light-emitting devices compatible with silicon based integrated circuit technology. Here, we describe the electrical and optical properties of Silicon positive intrinsic negative (pin) structure diode that operates at room temperature. The voltage-current and electroluminescence (EL) property are measured at room temperature for a silicon pin diode under forward biased current. The optical spectral response of the system at 700nm indicates that the emitting light source has low optical loss in Silicon. So the LED is suitable for Silicon optoelectronic interconnection system.[1][2] The rate-equation model for free carriers on light-emitting pin structure and the equivalent circuit model based on it have been presented. We have developed a way to calculate the model parameters by comparison with experimental results. This parameter extraction way can be fully accomplished automatically by using MATHCAD program and the equivalent circuit model is simulated by using HSPICE program respectively. The results of both experiment and simulation results are good agreement with each other.

  13. Near-infrared electroluminescence at room temperature from neodymium-doped gallium nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Joo Han; Holloway, Paul H.

    2004-09-06

    Strong near-infrared (NIR) electroluminescence (EL) at room temperature from neodymium (Nd)-doped gallium nitride (GaN) thin films is reported. The Nd-doped GaN films were grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron cosputtering of separate GaN and metallic Nd targets in a pure nitrogen ambient. X-ray diffraction data did not identify the presence of any secondary phases and revealed that the Nd-doped GaN films had a highly textured wurtzite crystal structure with the c-axis normal to the surface of the film. The EL devices were fabricated with a thin-film multilayered structure of Al/Nd-doped GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}/indium-tin oxide and tested at room temperate. Three distinct NIR EL emission peaks were observed from the devices at 905, 1082, and 1364 nm, arising from the radiative relaxation of the {sup 4}F{sub 3sol2} excited-state energy level to the {sup 4}I{sub 9sol2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11sol2}, and {sup 4}I{sub 13sol2} levels of the Nd{sup 3+} ion, respectively. The threshold voltage for all the three emission peaks was {approx}150 V. The external power efficiency of the fabricated EL devices was {approx}1x10{sup -5} measured at 40 V above the threshold voltage.

  14. Improved electroluminescence with reversed bilayers of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokiya, Shohei; Sasaki, Fumio; Hotta, Shu; Yanagi, Hisao

    2016-03-01

    Organic electroluminescence (EL) devices were fabricated with bilayered thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) derivatives: p-type 5,5‧-bis(4-biphenylyl)-2,2‧-bithiophene (BP2T) and n-type 5,5‧-bis(4‧-cyanobiphenyl-4-yl)-2,2‧-bithiophene (BP2T-CN). Two types of EL device, Al:Li/BP2T-CN/BP2T/ITO (device A) and Au/BP2T/BP2T-CN/ITO (device B), were investigated using vapor-deposited films of BP2T and BP2T-CN by changing the order of deposition onto the indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/glass substrate. The EL performance was significantly improved for device B in which the two molecules had a lying orientation suitable for efficient carrier injection and transport as well as surface emission. In device A, on the other hand, the standing BP2T orientation resulted in much lower current density and EL intensity.

  15. Electroluminescence and Photoluminescence from a Fluorescent Cobalt Porphyrin Grafted on Graphene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janghouri, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    A new graphene oxide-cobalt porphyrin (GO-CoTPP) hybrid material has been used as an emissive layer in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with fundamental structure of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS, 45 nm)/polyvinylcarbazole (PVK):2-(4-biphenyl)-5-(4- t-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD):GO-CoTPP (70 nm)/1,3,5-tris( N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-benzene (TPBI, 20 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. A red electroluminescence (EL) was obtained from thin-film PVK:PBD:CoTPP at 70 nm thickness. When CoTPP was covalently grafted on graphene oxide (GO) sheets, near-white EL was obtained. The white emission, which was composed of bluish green and red, is attributed to electroplex formation at the GO-CoTPP/PBD interface. Such electroplex emission between electrons and holes is a reason for the low turn-on voltage of the GO-CoTPP-based OLED. Maximum luminance efficiency of 1.43 cd/A with Commission International de l'Eclairage coordinates of 0.33 and 0.40 was achieved at current of 0.02 mA and voltage of 14 V.

  16. Surface Lattice Resonances for Enhanced and Directional Electroluminescence at High Current Densities.

    PubMed

    Zakharko, Yuriy; Held, Martin; Graf, Arko; Rödlmeier, Tobias; Eckstein, Ralph; Hernandez-Sosa, Gerardo; Hähnlein, Bernd; Pezoldt, Jörg; Zaumseil, Jana

    2016-12-21

    Hybrid photonic-plasmonic modes in periodic arrays of metallic nanostructures offer a promising trade-off between high-quality cavities and subdiffraction mode confinement. However, their application in electrically driven light-emitting devices is hindered by their sensitivity to the surrounding environment and to charge injecting metallic electrodes in particular. Here, we demonstrate that the planar structure of light-emitting field-effect transistor (LEFET) ensures undisturbed operation of the characteristic modes. We incorporate a square array of gold nanodisks into the charge transporting and emissive layer of a polymer LEFET in order to tailor directionality and emission efficiency via the Purcell effect and variation of the fractional local density of states in particular. Angle- and polarization-resolved spectra confirm that the enhanced electroluminescence correlates with the dispersion curves of the surface lattice resonances supported by these structures. These LEFETs reach current densities on the order of 10 kA/cm(2), which may pave the way toward practical optoelectronic devices with tailored emission patterns and potentially electrically pumped plasmonic lasers.

  17. Electroluminescence and Photoluminescence from a Fluorescent Cobalt Porphyrin Grafted on Graphene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janghouri, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    A new graphene oxide-cobalt porphyrin (GO-CoTPP) hybrid material has been used as an emissive layer in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with fundamental structure of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS, 45 nm)/polyvinylcarbazole (PVK):2-(4-biphenyl)-5-(4-t-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD):GO-CoTPP (70 nm)/1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-benzene (TPBI, 20 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. A red electroluminescence (EL) was obtained from thin-film PVK:PBD:CoTPP at 70 nm thickness. When CoTPP was covalently grafted on graphene oxide (GO) sheets, near-white EL was obtained. The white emission, which was composed of bluish green and red, is attributed to electroplex formation at the GO-CoTPP/PBD interface. Such electroplex emission between electrons and holes is a reason for the low turn-on voltage of the GO-CoTPP-based OLED. Maximum luminance efficiency of 1.43 cd/A with Commission International de l'Eclairage coordinates of 0.33 and 0.40 was achieved at current of 0.02 mA and voltage of 14 V.

  18. First full-color thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) display product: the FC-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, C.; Barrow, W. A.; Coovert, R.; Dickey, Eric; Flegal, T.; Fullman, M.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.; Sun, Sey-Shing; Schaus, Christian F.

    1995-04-01

    Planar has developed the first manufacturable, full color, high contrast, 320.256 line thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) display; the FC-2. Three primary tasks in developing the FC-2 were (1) blue phosphor improvement, (2) unique panel structure development for enhanced optical properties, and (3) application of high density interconnects. We review progress in the development of the cerium doped, alkaline earth thiogallate compounds for blue emission. ZnS:Mn is filtered for red emission and ZnS:Tb is used for green. The panel structure reported optimizes key performance parameters by enhancing the fill factor, frequency of operation, and power efficiency. It uses a `dual substrate' approach, placing the blue phosphor on one substrate and the red/green on the other. We describe panel fabrication processes and assembly techniques utilized. We also describe the electronic driver and addressing schemes used to maximize the brightness. The high interconnect density in this 5' diagonal display demands an improved driver interconnect scheme. Planar has developed a chip on glass (COG) process with the driver chips bonded directly to the glass substrate and wire bonded to the rows, columns, and control electronics. This approach is compared to conventional tape carrier package (TCP) and flex interconnects. Mechanical, optical and electrical panel performance specifications are reported together with some exiting areas of future development.

  19. Comparative studies of operational parameters of degradation of azo dyes in visible light by highly efficient WOx/TiO2 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Ahmed Khan Leghari; Shamaila, Sajjad; Tian, Baozhu; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Jinlong

    2010-05-15

    The multidimensional aspects of the photocatalytic activity were investigated in a systematic way by employing the dyes Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and Methyl Orange (MO) as substrates in terms of their degradation or conversion rates. 4.0% WO(x)/TiO(2) nanocomposite demonstrated the best reactivity under visible light, allowing more efficient usage of solar light. The reduced form of W decreased the band gap and inhibited electron hole recombination efficiently. This composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the operational parameters under visible light irradiation such as optimization of nanocomposites wt%, change of pH, reuse of catalyst and initial dye concentration. The kinetics of the dyes degradation was found to follow the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Decomposition or mineralization was investigated with the changes of absorption spectra, pH, degradation efficiency and TOC removal in visible irradiation systems. FT-IR spectroscopy of these adsorbed dyes on WO(x)/TiO(2) powder provided an insight to the mode of its adsorption on WO(x)/TiO(2). It was found that the dye adsorbed on WO(x)/TiO(2) underwent a series of oxidation steps which lead to decolorization and formation of a number of intermediates mainly aromatic and aliphatic acids. These intermediates were quantified by GC/GC-MS.

  20. Investigation Into Efficiency of a Novel Glycol Chitosan-Bestatin Conjugate to Protect Thymopoietin Oligopeptides From Enzymatic Degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Feng, Jiao; Cui, Lili; Zhang, Yuebin; Li, Wenzhao; Li, Chunlei; Shi, Nianqiu; Chen, Yan; Kong, Wei

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a novel glycol chitosan (GCS)-bestatin conjugate was synthesized and evaluated to demonstrate its efficacy in protecting thymopoietin oligopeptides from aminopeptidase-mediated degradation. Moreover, the mechanism and relative susceptibility of three thymopoietin oligopeptides, thymocartin (TP4), thymopentin (TP5), and thymotrinan (TP3), to enzymatic degradation were investigated and compared at the molecular level. Initial investigations indicated that formation of the GCS-bestatin conjugate, with a substitution degree of 7.0% (moles of bestatin per mole of glycol glucosamine unit), could significantly protect all 3 peptides from aminopeptidase-mediated degradation in a concentration-dependent manner. The space hindrance and loss of one pair of hydrogen bonds, resulting from the covalent conjugation of chitosan with bestatin, did not affect the specific interaction between bestatin and aminopeptidase. Moreover, TP4 displayed a higher degradation clearance compared with those of TP5 and TP3 under the same experimental conditions. The varying levels of susceptibility of these 3 peptides to aminopeptidase (TP4 > TP5 > TP3) were closely related to differences in their binding energies to enzyme, which mainly involved Van der Waals forces and electrostatic interactions, as supported by the results of molecular dynamics simulations. These results suggest that GCS-bestatin conjugate might be useful in the delivery of thymopoietin oligopeptides by mucosal routes, and that TP3 and TP5 are better alternatives to TP4 for delivery because of their robust resistance against enzymatic degradation.

  1. Impact of hydrodynamics on pollutant degradation and energy efficiency of VUV/UV and H2O2/UV oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Mehdi; Mohseni, Madjid

    2015-12-01

    The Vacuum-UV/UV process, an incipient catalyst/chemical-free advanced oxidation process (AOP), is potentially a cost-effective solution for the removal of harmful micropollutants from water. Utilizing a novel mechanistic numerical model, this work aimed to establish a thorough understanding of the degradation mechanisms in the VUV/UV process operating under continuous flow conditions, when compared with the widely applied H2O2/UV AOP. Of particular interest was the examination of the impact of flow characteristics (hydrodynamics) on the degradation efficacy of a target micropollutant during the VUV/UV and H2O2/UV AOPs. While hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation was the dominant degradation pathway in both processes, the degradation efficacy of the VUV/UV process showed much stronger correlation with the extent of mixing in the photoreactor. Under a uniform flow regime, the degradation efficiency of the target pollutant achieved by the H2O2/UV process with 2- and 5 ppm H2O2 was greater than that provided by the VUV/UV process. Nonetheless, introduction of mixing and circulation zones to the VUV/UV reactor resulted in superior performance compared with the H2O2/UV AOP. Based on the electrical energy-per-order (EEO) analysis, incorporation of circulation zones resulted in a reduction of up to 50% in the overall energy cost of the VUV/UV AOP, while the corresponding reduction for the 5-ppm H2O2/UV system was less than 5%. Furthermore, the extent of OH scavenging of natural organic matter (NOM) on energy efficiency of the VUV/UV and H2O2/UV AOPs under continuous flow conditions was assessed using the EEO analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Screening of a Highly Efficient Quinoline-degrading Strain and Its Enhanced Biotreatment on Coking Waste Water].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Li, Wen-ying

    2015-04-01

    A bacterial strain, which could utilize quinoline as the sole carbon, nitrogen and energy source, was isolated from the activated sludge in a coking wastewater treatment plant. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strain was identified as Acidovorax sp. Taken into consideration of both the growth and the quinoline degradation of the strain, the optimized degradation conditions were acquired as following: 10% inoculum, pH value of 8.0-10.0, 35 degrees C and 150 r x min(-1). The process of its growth was simulated by Haldane kinetic model under different initial quinoline concentrations, the fitted curve had a good correlation with test measured values. Furthermore, coking wastewater was bioaugmented by the mixed strains of DQS-01 and D2 with enhanced process in a moving bed biofilm reactor, and the COD degradation rate was 87.4% within 72 h.

  3. Remarkable improvement in electroluminescence benefited from appropriate electron injection and transporting in ultraviolet organic light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Fengjiao; Mo, Bingjie; Liu, Liming; Wang, Honghang; Bin Wei; Xu, Jiwen; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2016-08-01

    Suitable thickness of LiF and 4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline with slightly weakened electron injection and transporting is proposed to match the intractable hole injection capacity in ultraviolet organic light-emitting diode (UV OLED). By using this strategy, the device performance is remarkably improved. With 4,4‧-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) and 3-(4-biphenyl)-4-phenyl-5-tert-butylphenyl-1,2,4-triazole (TAZ) as emitters, the UV OLED shows maximum radiance of 5.8 mW/cm2 and external quantum efficiency of 2.1% with emission peak of ~380 nm predominantly from TAZ and noticeable shoulder emission of ~410 nm from CBP. The retarded electron injection and transporting contribute to optimizing hole-electron recombination zone and balance within the emitting layers, which accounts for the improved electroluminescent intensity. The detailed mechanism is further clarified with impedance spectroscopy.

  4. Direct band gap electroluminescence from bulk germanium at room temperature using an asymmetric fin type metal/germanium/metal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dong Maekura, Takayuki; Kamezawa, Sho; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Nakashima, Hiroshi

    2015-02-16

    We demonstrated direct band gap (DBG) electroluminescence (EL) at room temperature from n-type bulk germanium (Ge) using a fin type asymmetric lateral metal/Ge/metal structure with TiN/Ge and HfGe/Ge contacts, which was fabricated using a low temperature (<400 °C) process. Small electron and hole barrier heights were obtained for TiN/Ge and HfGe/Ge contacts, respectively. DBG EL spectrum peaked at 1.55 μm was clearly observed even at a small current density of 2.2 μA/μm. Superlinear increase in EL intensity was also observed with increasing current density, due to superlinear increase in population of elections in direct conduction band. The efficiency of hole injection was also clarified.

  5. Intense green-yellow electroluminescence from Tb+-implanted silicon-rich silicon nitride/oxide light emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berencén, Y.; Wutzler, R.; Rebohle, L.; Hiller, D.; Ramírez, J. M.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Skorupa, W.; Garrido, B.

    2013-09-01

    High optical power density of 0.5 mW/cm2, external quantum efficiency of 0.1%, and population inversion of 7% are reported from Tb+-implanted silicon-rich silicon nitride/oxide light emitting devices. Electrical and electroluminescence mechanisms in these devices were investigated. The excitation cross section for the 543 nm Tb3+ emission was estimated under electrical pumping, resulting in a value of 8.2 × 10-14 cm2, which is one order of magnitude larger than one reported for Tb3+:SiO2 light emitting devices. These results demonstrate the potentiality of Tb+-implanted silicon nitride material for the development of integrated light sources compatible with Si technology.

  6. In-situ mapping of electroluminescent enhancement of light-emitting diodes grown on patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jung-Chieh; Lee, Chung-Hao; Huang, Yi-Hsuan; Yang, Henglong

    2017-02-01

    The mechanism for enhancing extraction efficiency of light emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) was observed by the in-situ lateral electroluminescence (EL) mapping using optical microscopy equipped with a laser energy profiler. The observed spatial intensity distribution of epilayers, varying from epilayer to epilayer on the lateral surface of the PSS LED chip, revealed that the perimeter scattering on the convex facets of PSSs converges the propagation of emitted light with random directionality into a spot near the top surface of the buffer layer. Moreover, this in-situ sidewall mapping implied that the enhancement of light extraction of the PSS LED is due to reducing the total internal reflection effect, resulting from the spot located closer to the LED/air interface. Simulated results and EL images of convex patterns on the PSS surface were consistent with sidewall surface-based observations.

  7. Determining the degradation efficiency and mechanisms of ethyl violet using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The discharge of wastewater that contains high concentrations of reactive dyes is a well-known problem associated with dyestuff activities. In recent years, semiconductor photocatalysis has become more and more attractive and important since it has a great potential to contribute to such environmental problems. One of the most important aspects of environmental photocatalysis is in the selection of semiconductor materials like ZnO and TiO2, which are close to being two of the ideal photocatalysts in several respects. For example, they are relatively inexpensive, and they provide photo-generated holes with high oxidizing power due to their wide band gap energy. In this work, nanostructural ZnO film on the Zn foil of the Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide-Zinc Cell was fabricated to degrade EV dye. The major innovation of this paper is to obtain the degradation mechanism of ethyl violet dyes resulting from the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS analyses. Results The fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on zinc foils with a simple solution-based corrosion strategy and the synthesis, characterization, application, and implication of Zn would be reported in this study. Other objectives of this research are to identify the reaction intermediates and to understand the detailed degradation mechanism of EV dye, as model compound of triphenylmethane dye, with active Zn metal, by HPLC-ESI-MS and GC-MS. Conclusions ZnO nanostructure/Zn-foils had an excellent potential for future applications on the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye in the environmental remediation. The intermediates of the degradation process were separated and characterized by the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS, and twenty-six intermediates were characterized in this study. Based on the variation of the amount of intermediates, possible degradation pathways for the decolorization of dyes are also proposed and discussed. PMID:22748361

  8. Efficient and rapid degradation of Congo red dye with TiO2 based nano-photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Himanshu; Alemu, Hailemichael

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of Congo red (CR) dye with TiO2 based nano-photocatalyst (NPC) loaded with Nd3+ and Er3+ ions is reported. The chemical route of synthesis through co-precipitation/hydrolysis (CPH) was employed to produce NPCs with general composition TiO2[R2O3]x, {x = 0.1, 0.2; R □ Nd, Er} and particle size within 12 - 16 nm. Photocatalytic degradation under visible light was measured in terms of the percent degradation of CR in 180 min ({C}180\\prime), time taken to degrade to half of the initial CR concentration (t1/2) and apparent rate constant (kobs). For both doping types, values of {C}180\\prime close to 100% were obtained with x = 0.2 NPCs, indicating complete removal of the dye. For the same NPCs, very high values of kobs were found; 2.91 × 10-2 min-1 and 2.36 × 10-2 min-1, for Nd3+ and Er3+ loaded NPCs, respectively, suggesting very rapid degradation. Other NPCs with x = 0.1, also showed reasonably good and fast degradation of CR. The observations may be attributed to the small particle size of the NPCs. Moreover, from the DRS results it is observed that the addition of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions apparently introduces intermediate energy levels within the band gap of TiO2. Such new levels seem to support photocatalysis because they act as electron traps leading to effective suppression of the undesired e-/h+ recombination. To some meaningful extent they also facilitate the absorption of visible irradiations required in the process.

  9. Matrix-assisted resonant infrared pulsed laser ablation of electroluminescent dendrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Pagan, Ricardo Daniel

    The deposition techniques for polymer thin films in organic light emitting diodes are limited to wet methods since molecular pyrolysis prevents the use of dry vacuum thermal evaporation methods. Wet methods have critical limitations such as poor thickness control, drying patterns and re-dissolution of previous layers. In this work, a novel approach, Matrix-Assisted Resonant Infrared Pulsed Laser Ablation (RIM-PLA) has been studied as an alternative deposition method for electroluminescent polymer films. RIM-PLA was successfully used for the deposition of two model dendrimers: fluorescent and phosphorescent Ir-cored. A free-electron laser was tuned to resonance frequencies for the vibrational modes of two solid matrix solvents: chloroform (C-H stretch; C-H bending) and toluene (C-H stretch; C=C stretch). The temperature-dependent absorption coefficients for each resonance mode were measured. Targets made from flash-frozen, low-concentration solutions of the dendrimers were irradiated at each frequency while varying fluence and exposure times. The molecular structure integrity of the targets was characterized. The deposited films were characterized to assess structure fidelity, roughness and topography, and luminance. All RIM-PLA deposited films were compared with spin-coated films. The ablation characteristics for each mode were found to be dependent on the solvent and not the dendrimer. Calculations from a temperature-rise model show that FEL pulsed-irradiation results in heating rates on the order of 108--109 K/s, resulting in metastable condensed targets. Thermodynamic and kinetic relations were used to calculate the relevance of three ablation mechanisms: normal vaporization, normal boiling and phase explosion. The latter mechanism has a critical threshold (> 0.8 Tc) for each solvent, and proceeds through spinodal decay followed by rapid homogeneous nucleation of vapor bubbles within the focal volume. For both chloroform modes, the primary ablation mechanism was

  10. Red, green, blue and white organic electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Chuan-Cheng; Lu, Huei-Tzong; Yokoyama, Meiso

    2005-06-01

    Full-color capability is an essential feature in organic electroluminescent (OEL) devices for flat panel display. This work presents novel designs for red, green, blue and white OEL devices. Indium tin oxide (ITO) was used as a glass substrate and N, N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)- N, N'-diphenyl-1,1-biphenyl-4-4'-diamine (NPB) as a hole transport layer (HTL). Bathocuproine (BCP) was used as a hole-blocking layer (HBL), DCM2, as a red fluorescent dye, was doped into the BCP layer. Tris-(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminum (Alq 3) was used in the electron transport layer (ETL), and aluminum (Al) was used as a cathode in OEL devices with the configuration ITO/NPB (30 nm)/BCP:DCM2 ( x%, 30 nm)/Alq 3 (40 nm)/Al. A green OEL device is obtained by employing this structure without a BCP:DCM2 ( x %) layer; a blue OEL device is obtained by using a BCP layer without the DCM2 dopant. The red OEL device is obtained by doping 10% DCM2 in the BCP layer. The white OEL device is produced by doping 1% DCM2 in the BCP layer. The CIE x and y coordinates of the white OEL device are 0.32 and 0.32, respectively.

  11. Performance of Electroluminescent Flats for Precision Light Curve Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avril, Ryan L.; Oberst, T. E.

    2014-01-01

    We measure of the quality of flat field frames (flats) taken using an electroluminescent (EL) panel versus both dome and sky flats for purposes of calibrating visual CCD images. Classic dome and sky flats can both suffer from overall gradients and local irregularities. EL panel flats have recently grown in popularity as a third alternative, based partly on their potential to be free of such defects. We assess the flats based on their contributions to the RMS noise of long-duration light curves constructed via differential aperture photometry. The noise levels explored range from ~ 1 - few mmag, as needed for the ground-based detection of transiting planets. The target and reference stars are deliberately permitted to drift across the CCD in order to probe pixel-to-pixel variations. Both the filter and focus are varied during the tests - the former to probe color variation in the flats, and the latter because defocusing tends to average out pixel-to-pixel variations that the flats are intended to remove. All tests were performed at the Westminster College Observatory (WCO), which belongs to the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT)-North follow-up network.

  12. Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials Elicited by Organic Electroluminescence Screen

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Funada, Hideaki; Minoda, Haruka

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED) screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs). Method. Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA) screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan) screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years). Results. The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. Conclusion. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account. PMID:25197652

  13. Pattern visual evoked potentials elicited by organic electroluminescence screen.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Funada, Hideaki; Sasaki, Kakeru; Minoda, Haruka; Iwata, Takeshi; Mizota, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED) screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs). Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA) screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan) screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years). The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.

  14. Multicolor electroluminescent devices using doped ZnS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoor, K.; Vadera, S. R.; Kumar, N.; Kutty, T. R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Alternate-current electroluminescent (ac EL) devices based on doped ZnS nanocrystals emitting blue, green, and orange-red colors are reported. ZnS nanocrystals doped with Cu+-Al3+ and Cu+-Al3+-Mn2+ combinations were synthesized by wet chemical method at room temperature. The ZnS:Cu+, Al3+ nanocrystals show blue (462 nm) and green (530 nm) EL emissions depending upon the presence and absence of sulphur vacancies, respectively. The orange EL emission (590 nm) is realized from ZnS:Cu+, Al3+, Mn2+ nanoparticles by way of nonradiative energy transfer from AlZn-CuZn pairs to MnZn. The EL devices show low turn-on voltage of ˜10 V ac @100 Hz. The mechanism of ac EL in ZnS nanocrystals has been explained wherein the excitation is attributed to the electric-field-assisted injection of electron-hole pairs from the surface regions into the interiors and their subsequent recombination therein causes emission.

  15. White light from an electroluminescent diode made from poly(3(4-octylphenyl)-2,2min -bithiophene) and an oxadiazole derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berggren, M.; Gustafsson, G.; Inganas, O.; Andersson, M. R.; Hjertberg, T.; Wennerstrom, O.

    1994-12-01

    We report on an electroluminescent diode emitting red, green, and blue light simultaneously. The device is based on a thin polymer layer, poly(3-(4-octylphenyl)-2,2 min-bithiophene) and a thick molecular layer, 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tertbutyl-phenyl)1,3,5-oxadiazole. The quantum efficiency for light conversion is 0.3% and the turn-on voltage for light emission is 7 V. In this arcitcle we present electric and spectroscopic characterizations. A mechanism for the light emission, based on electron and hole recombination between the two organic layers, is proposed.

  16. Synthesis, photophysics, electrochemistry, thermal stability and electroluminescent performances of a new europium complex with bis(β-diketone) ligand containing carbazole group.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Liang, Quan-Bin; Wu, Hong-Bin

    2016-09-07

    We synthesized a new europium complex [Eu(ecbpd)3 (Phen)] with bis(β-diketone) ligand containing a carbazole group, in which ecbpd and Phen are dehydro-3,3'-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazole-3,6-diyl)bis(1-phenylpropane-1,3-dione) and 1,10-phenanthroline, respectively. Its UV/vis and photoluminescent spectra, quantum yield, luminescence lifetime, electrochemistry, thermal stability and electroluminescent performances were studied. This europium complex showed low efficiency luminescence, which is probably due to the mismatching energy levels of its ligand and Eu(3)(+) , as well as the double Eu(3)(+) core resonance.

  17. A novel method developed for estimating mineralization efficiencies and its application in PC and PEC degradations of large molecule biological compounds with unknown chemical formula.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiying; Liu, Xiaolu; An, Taicheng; Wong, Po Keung; Zhao, Huijun

    2016-05-15

    A new method to estimate the photocatalytic (PC) and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) mineralization efficiencies of large molecule biological compounds with unknown chemical formula in water was firstly developed and experimentally validated. The method employed chemical oxidation under the standard dichromate chemical oxygen demand (COD) conditions to obtain QCOD values of model compounds with unknown chemical formula. The measured QCOD values were used as the reference to replace QCOD values of model compounds for calculation of the mineralization efficiencies (in %) by assuming the obtained QCOD values are the measure of the theoretical charge required for the complete mineralization of organic pollutants. Total organic carbon (TOC) was also employed as a reference to confirm the mineralization capacity of dichromate chemical oxidation. The developed method was applied to determine the degradation extent of model compounds, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), lecithin and bacterial DNA, by PC and PEC. Incomplete PC mineralization of all large molecule biological compounds was observed, especially for BSA. But the introduction of electrochemical technique into a PC oxidation process could profoundly improve the mineralization efficiencies of model compounds. PEC mineralization efficiencies of bacterial DNA was the highest, while that of lecithin was the lowest. Overall, PEC degradation method was found to be much effective than PC method for all large molecule biological compounds investigated, with PEC/PC mineralization ratios followed an order of BSA > lecithin > DNA.

  18. Efficient degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by a bacterial consortium and shifts in the aboriginal microorganism community during the bioremediation of contaminated-soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Lv, Tongyang; Liu, Wanjun; Zang, Hailian; Cheng, Yi; Li, Dapeng

    2017-05-01

    Excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to soil contamination and limited crop rotation; therefore, tactics to decrease and eliminate residual chlorimuron-ethyl in the environment have attracted increasing attention. In this study, two chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterial strains (Rhodococcus sp. D310-1; Enterobacter sp. D310-5) were used to ferment and prepare a chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterial consortium. To improve the degradation efficiency of the bacterial consortium, the cultivation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The maximum biodegradation rate (87.42%) was obtained under optimal conditions (carbon concentration, 9.21gL(-1); temperature, 26.15°C; pH, 6.95). The rate of chlorimuron-ethyl degradation by the bacterial consortium in the chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil was monitored and reached 80.02% at the end of a 60-d incubation period. Illumina MiSeq sequencing results showed that microbial diversity was high, and 33 phyla were identified in the analyzed samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were present in relatively high abundances in the samples. The bacterial consortium made a positive impact on the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil and somewhat altered the composition of the bacterial community in the chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil. These findings provide highly valuable information on the production of bacterial consortium for the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl and other sulfonylurea-herbicide-contaminated soil.

  19. Degradation of microcystin-LR by highly efficient AgBr/Ag3PO4/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalyst under simulated solar light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Utsumi, Motoo; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhang, Zhenya; Feng, Chuanping; Sugiura, Norio; Cheng, Jay Jiayang

    2015-01-01

    A novel photocatalyst AgBr/Ag3PO4/TiO2 was developed by a simple facile in situ deposition method and used for degradation of mirocystin-LR. TiO2 (P25) as a cost effective chemical was used to improve the stability of AgBr/Ag3PO4 under simulated solar light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity tests for this heterojunction were conducted under simulated solar light irradiation using methyl orange as targeted pollutant. The results indicated that the optimal Ag to Ti molar ratio for the photocatalytic activity of the resulting heterojunction AgBr/Ag3PO4/TiO2 was 1.5 (named as 1.5 BrPTi), which possessed higher photocatalytic capacity than AgBr/Ag3PO4. The 1.5 BrPTi heterojunction was also more stable than AgBr/Ag3PO4 in photocatalysis. This highly efficient and relatively stable photocatalyst was further tested for degradation of the hepatotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The results suggested that MC-LR was much more easily degraded by 1.5 BrPTi than by AgBr/Ag3PO4. The quenching effects of different scavengers proved that reactive h+ and •OH played important roles for MC-LR degradation.

  20. Degradation of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol by an isolated high-efficiency bacterium strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-lei; Fang, Zhen-wei; Xu, De-qiang; Xiao, Yi-ping; Zhao, Jian-fu; Qiang, Zhi-min

    2005-01-01

    An aerobic bacterium strain, F-3-4, capable of effectively degrading 2, 6-ditert-butylphenol (2, 6-DTBP), was isolated and screened out from an acrylic fiber wastewater and the biofilm in the wastewater treatment facilities. This strain was identified as Alcaligenes sp. through morphological, physiological and biochemical examinations. After cultivation, the strain was enhanced by 26.3% in its degradation capacity for 2,6-DTBP. Results indicated that the strain was able to utilize 2,6-DTBP, lysine, lactamine, citrate, n-utenedioic acid and malic acid as the sole carbon and energy source, alkalinize acetamide, asparagine, L-histidine, acetate, citrate and propionate, but failed to utilize glucose, D-fructose, D-seminose, D-xylose, serine and phenylalanine as the sole carbon and energy source. The optimal growth conditions were determined to be: temperature 37 degrees C, pH 7.0, inoculum size 0.1% and shaker rotary speed 250 r/min. Under the optimal conditions, the degradation kinetics of 2,6-DTBP with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L was studied. Results indicated that 62.4% of 2,6-DTBP was removed after 11 d. The degradation kinetics could be expressed by Eckenfelder equation with a half life of 9.38 d. In addition, the initial concentration of 2,6-DTBP played an important role on the degradation ability of the strain. The maximum initial concentration of 2,6-DTBP was determined to be 200 mg/L. Above this level, the strain was overloaded and exhibited significant inhibition.

  1. Nanocrystalline ZnO doped lanthanide oxide: An efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of diesel pollutant in seawater under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaocai; Ji, Qiuyi; Zhang, Jian; Nie, Zhiwei; Liu, Jinghua; Wang, Liping

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a ZnO doped Er2O3 photocatalyst is employed to degrade diesel pollutant in seawater under visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by a precipitation method and was characterized by SEM and XRD analysis. The experimental results proved that the nanocrystalline photocatalysts were highly active in the visible region. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of diesel was analysed by various experimental parameters namely dosage, doping ratio, initial concentration of diesel, pH value, concentration of H2O2 and illumination time. The degradation of diesel pollution in seawater was optimized by orthogonal experiment. According to the results, the removal rate of diesel is less than 30 % without any catalysts (only evaporation). The best effect exists when the dose of catalysts was 0.6 g/L, doping ratio of catalysts was 10%, initial concentration of diesel was 0.2 g/L, pH value was 8, concentration of H2O2 was 10 mg/L, illumination time was 1 h. The removal rate of diesel can reach 99.38 %. This study would make ZnO utilize sunlight more efficiently and accelerate the practical application of photocatalytic technology in organic pollutants treatment region.

  2. Improvement of ethanol productivity and energy efficiency by degradation of inhibitors using recombinant Zymomonas mobilis (pHW20a-fdh).

    PubMed

    Dong, Hong-Wei; Fan, Li-Qiang; Luo, Zichen; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Ryu, Dewey D Y; Bao, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Toxic compounds, such as formic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) generated during pretreatment of corn stover (CS) at high temperature and low pH, inhibit growth of Zymomonas mobilis and lower the conversion efficiency of CS to biofuel and other products. The inhibition of toxic compounds is considered as one of the major technical barriers in the lignocellulose bioconversion. In order to detoxify and/or degrade these toxic compounds by the model ethanologenic strain Z. mobilis itself in situ the fermentation medium, we constructed a recombinant Z. mobilis ZM4 (pHW20a-fdh) strain that is capable of degrading toxic inhibitor, formate. This is accomplished by cloning heterologous formate dehydrogenase gene (fdh) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and by coupling this reaction of NADH regeneration reaction system with furfural and HMF degradation in the recombinant Z. mobilis strain. The NADH regeneration reaction also improved both the energy efficiency and cell physiological activity of the recombinant organism, which were definitely confirmed by the improved cell growth, ethanol yield, and ethanol productivity during fermentation with CS hydrolysate.

  3. Hybrid electroluminescent device based on MEH-PPV and ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewidy, Dina.; Gadallah, A.-S.; Fattah, G. Abdel

    2017-02-01

    Hybird organic/inorganic electroluminescent device based on the structure of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/ZnO/ZnO submicrorods/Al has been manufactured. Spin coating has been used to deposit both PEDOT:PSS and MEH-PPV. Two-step process has been used to synthesis ZnO submicrorods, namely, spin coating and chemical bath deposition. Changing the dimensions of the ZnO submicrorods in this layer structure has been investigated to improve the performance of the organic/inorganic electroluminescence device. Such layer structure provides electroluminescence with narrow emission bands due to a high gain with this structure. X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscope images show that ZnO submicrorods have hexagon structure. Current-voltage curve for the structure has been reported. Electroluminescence curves (electroluminescence intensity versus wavelength) at different bias voltages have been presented and these results show narrowing in full width at half maximum in the spectra at high current density compared to photoluminescence excitation. The narrowing in the spectrum has been explained.

  4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy approach for measurements of photoluminescence and electroluminescence in mid-infrared.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y G; Gu, Y; Wang, K; Fang, X; Li, A Z; Liu, K H

    2012-05-01

    An improved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy approach adapting to photoluminescence and electroluminescence measurements in mid-infrared has been developed, in which diode-pumped solid-state excitation lasers were adopted for photoluminescence excitation. In this approach, three different Fourier transform infrared modes of rapid scan, double modulation, and step scan were software switchable without changing the hardware or connections. The advantages and limitations of each mode were analyzed in detail. Using this approach a group of III-V and II-VI samples from near-infrared extending to mid-infrared with photoluminescence intensities in a wider range have been characterized at room temperature to demonstrate the validity and overall performances of the system. The weaker electroluminescence of quantum cascade lasers in mid-infrared band was also surveyed at different resolutions. Results show that for samples with relatively strong photoluminescence or electroluminescence out off the background, rapid scan mode is the most preferable. For weaker photoluminescence or electroluminescence overlapped with background, double modulation is the most effective mode. To get a better signal noise ratio when weaker photoluminescence or electroluminescence signal has been observed in double modulation mode, switching to step scan mode should be an advisable option despite the long data acquiring time and limited resolution.

  5. Electroluminescence Observation of Microcrack Growth Behavior of Crystalline Silicon Solar Modules Fabricated by Hot-Air Soldering Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Keh-Moh; Lee, Yang-Hsien; Wang, Li-Kuo; Chen, Li-Wei; Yang, Sian-Yi; Chen, Yi-Chia; Liu, De-Chih; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Wu, Zhen-Cheng; Chen, Chien-Pin

    In this study, the quality degradation of Si-based photovoltaic (PV) modules during the aging process was observed by using electroluminescent (EL) technology and was verified by the IV curve measurements in order to find out the occurring timing of damages on solar cells. Furthermore, the influences of solder materials and soldering temperatures on the performance of the PV modules were also studied. Experiment results show that, high soldering temperatures which induce high thermal stress can easily lead to the power loss of the PV modules. Besides, the mechanical properties of the solar cells itself can also affect the degradation rate of the PV modules. On PV modules soldered with SnPb (SP) solder, more than 80% of cell damages occurred during the soldering and encapsulation processes. When SnAgPb (SAP) solder was used, a small part of the cell damages didn't emerge until the initial stage of the thermal cycling test (TC.) This phenomenon is attributed to the reduction of residual stress between the ribbon and the silver paste because of the good wettability of SAP solder.

  6. Electroluminescent devices formed using semiconductor nanocrystals as an electron transport media and method of making such electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Colvin, Vickie

    1996-01-01

    An electroluminescent device is described, as well as a method of making same, wherein the device is characterized by a semiconductor nanocrystal electron transport layer capable of emitting visible light in response to a voltage applied to the device. The wavelength of the light emitted by the device may be changed by changing either the size or the type of semiconductor nanocrystals used in forming the electron transport layer. In a preferred embodiment the device is further characterized by the capability of emitting visible light of varying wavelengths in response to changes in the voltage applied to the device. The device comprises a hole processing structure capable of injecting and transporting holes, and usually comprising a hole injecting layer and a hole transporting layer; an electron transport layer in contact with the hole processing structure and comprising one or more layers of semiconductor nanocrystals; and an electron injecting layer in contact with the electron transport layer for injecting electrons into the electron transport layer. The capability of emitting visible light of various wavelengths is principally based on the variations in voltage applied thereto, but the type of semiconductor nanocrystals used and the size of the semiconductor nanocrystals in the layers of semiconductor nanometer crystals may also play a role in color change, in combination with the change in voltage.

  7. Optimization of the electroluminescence from SiNx-based light-emitting devices by modulating the size and morphology of silver nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Li, Dongsheng; Jin, Lu; Ren, Changrui; Yang, Deren; Que, Duanlin

    2013-01-28

    A maximal enhancement of ~6.5 times of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) for SiNx-based light-emitting devices (LEDs) is achieved by magnetron sputtering a silver nanostructures layer onto the active matrix. The enhancement of EQE is affected by the dimension and morphology of silver nanostructures, which can be controlled by the sputtering time and the post treatment of rapid thermal annealing. The optimal size of silver nanostructures is about 100 nm in diameter by comparing the integrated electroluminescence intensity under the same input power. The optimization of EQE for SiNx-based LEDs is discussed by considering the contributions of the enhancement of light-extraction efficiency induced by the surface roughening of the front electrode, internal quantum efficiency due to the coupling between excitons and localized surface plasmons, and carrier injection efficiency. Our work may provide an alternative approach for the fabrication of Si-based light sources with promising luminescence efficiency.

  8. Rational design of hyperbranched 3D heteroarrays of SrS/CdS: synthesis, characterization and evaluation of photocatalytic properties for efficient hydrogen generation and organic dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ziyauddin; Chetia, Tridip Ranjan; Qureshi, Mohammad

    2012-06-07

    Hyperbranched 3D SrS/CdS nanostructures were synthesized using a one pot hydrothermal method. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis showed the formation of flower-like structure and the crystalline phase was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The prepared 3D SrS/CdS exhibited improved photocatalytic activity for water splitting leading to H(2) generation (AQY 10%) and nearly complete degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye. The dye degradation followed first order kinetics and the apparent reaction rate constant (k(app)) was 0.136 min(-1). The present 3D SrS/CdS structure promise to be efficient photocatalysts due to (i) the facile intersystem charge transfer resulting from their band alignment (ii) enhanced specific surface area and (iii) crystallinity.

  9. Methods and apparatus of spatially resolved electroluminescence of operating organic light-emitting diodes using conductive atomic force microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersam, Mark C. (Inventor); Pingree, Liam S. C. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) technique which can concurrently monitor topography, charge transport, and electroluminescence with nanometer spatial resolution. This cAFM approach is particularly well suited for probing the electroluminescent response characteristics of operating organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) over short length scales.

  10. Bifunctional star-burst amorphous molecular materials for OLEDs: achieving highly efficient solid-state luminescence and carrier transport induced by spontaneous molecular orientation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Yun; Yasuda, Takuma; Yang, Yu Seok; Adachi, Chihaya

    2013-05-21

    Bifunctional star-burst amorphous molecular materials displaying both efficient solid-state luminescence and high hole-transport properties are developed in this study. A high external electroluminescence quantum efficiency up to 5.9% is attained in OLEDs employing the developed amorphous materials. It is revealed that the spontaneous horizontal orientation of these light-emitting molecules in their molecular-condensed states leads to a remarkable enhancement of the electroluminescence efficiencies and carrier-transport properties.

  11. Efficient APC/C substrate degradation in cells undergoing mitotic exit depends on K11 ubiquitin linkages

    PubMed Central

    Min, Mingwei; Mevissen, Tycho E. T.; De Luca, Maria; Komander, David; Lindon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) directs programmed destruction of key cellular regulators via posttranslational modification of its targets with polyubiquitin chains. These commonly contain Lys-48 (K48)–directed ubiquitin linkages, but chains containing atypical Lys-11 (K11) linkages also target substrates to the proteasome—for example, to regulate cell cycle progression. The ubiquitin ligase called the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) controls mitotic exit. In higher eukaryotes, the APC/C works with the E2 enzyme UBE2S to assemble K11 linkages in cells released from mitotic arrest, and these are proposed to constitute an improved proteolytic signal during exit from mitosis. We tested this idea by correlating quantitative measures of in vivo K11-specific ubiquitination of individual substrates, including Aurora kinases, with their degradation kinetics tracked at the single-cell level. All anaphase substrates tested by this methodology are stabilized by depletion of K11 linkages via UBE2S knockdown, even if the same substrates are significantly modified with K48-linked polyubiquitin. Specific examination of substrates depending on the APC/C coactivator Cdh1 for their degradation revealed Cdh1-dependent enrichment of K11 chains on these substrates, whereas other ubiquitin linkages on the same substrates added during mitotic exit were Cdh1-independent. Therefore we show that K11 linkages provide the APC/C with a means to regulate the rate of substrate degradation in a coactivator-specified manner. PMID:26446837

  12. The interplay of Hrd3 and the molecular chaperone system ensures efficient degradation of malfolded secretory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mehnert, Martin; Sommermeyer, Franziska; Berger, Maren; Kumar Lakshmipathy, Sathish; Gauss, Robert; Aebi, Markus; Jarosch, Ernst; Sommer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Misfolded proteins of the secretory pathway are extracted from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), polyubiquitylated by a protein complex termed the Hmg-CoA reductase degradation ligase (HRD-ligase), and degraded by cytosolic 26S proteasomes. This process is termed ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). We previously showed that the membrane protein Der1, which is a subunit of the HRD-ligase, is involved in the export of aberrant polypeptides from the ER. Unexpectedly, we also uncovered a close spatial proximity of Der1 and the substrate receptor Hrd3 in the ER lumen. We report here on a mutant Hrd3KR that is selectively defective for ERAD of soluble proteins. Hrd3KR displays subtle structural changes that affect its positioning toward Der1. Furthermore, increased quantities of the ER-resident Hsp70-type chaperone Kar2 and the Hsp40-type cochaperone Scj1 bind to Hrd3KR. Of note, deletion of SCJ1 impairs ERAD of model substrates and causes the accumulation of client proteins at Hrd3. Our data imply a function of Scj1 in the removal of malfolded proteins from the receptor Hrd3, which facilitates their delivery to downstream-acting components like Der1. PMID:25428985

  13. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from copper doped zinc sulphide nanocrystals/polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Que, Wenxiu; Zhou, Y.; Lam, Y. L.; Chan, Y. C.; Kam, C. H.; Liu, B.; Gan, L. M.; Chew, C. H.; Xu, G. Q.; Chua, S. J.; Xu, S. J.; Mendis, F. V. C.

    1998-11-01

    Cu-doped ZnS nanocrystals were prepared in an inverse microemulsion at room temperature as well as under a hydrothermal condition. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the diameter of the Cu-doped ZnS nanocrystals particles was about 9 nm. These particles showed a strong photoluminescence intensity and a broad emission band from 490 to 530 nm. The half-width of emission was about 60 nm. Cu-doped ZnS nanocrystals/polymethylmethacrylate composite as a light-emitting layer was used to fabricate a single layer structure electroluminescent device which had low turn on voltage (less than 5 V). The green light of electroluminescence was observed at room temperature. The electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra were nearly identical at room temperature.

  14. Tunneling electron induced molecular electroluminescence from individual porphyrin J-aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Qiushi; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yang E-mail: zcdong@ustc.edu.cn; Zhang, Yao; Liao, Yuan; Dong, Zhenchao E-mail: zcdong@ustc.edu.cn

    2015-07-27

    We investigate molecular electroluminescence from individual tubular porphyrin J-aggregates on Au(111) by tunneling electron excitations in an ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (STM). High-resolution STM images suggest a spiral tubular structure for the porphyrin J-aggregate with highly ordered “brickwork”-like arrangements. Such aggregated nanotube is found to behave like a self-decoupled molecular architecture and shows red-shifted electroluminescence characteristics of J-aggregates originated from the delocalized excitons. The positions of the emission peaks are found to shift slightly depending on the excitation sites, which, together with the changes in the observed spectral profiles with vibronic progressions, suggest a limited exciton coherence number within several molecules. The J-aggregate electroluminescence is also found unipolar, occurring only at negative sample voltages, which is presumably related to the junction asymmetry in the context of molecular excitations via the carrier injection mechanism.

  15. Large Size Color-tunable Electroluminescence from Cationic Iridium Complexes-based Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qunying; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang; Shan, Guogang; Su, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processable light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) with simple device architecture have become an attractive candidate for application in next generation lighting and flat-panel displays. Herein, single layer LECs employing two cationic Ir(III) complexes showing highly efficient blue-green and yellow electroluminescence with peak current efficiency of 31.6 cd A−1 and 40.6 cd A−1, respectively, have been reported. By using both complexes in the device, color-tunable LECs with a single spectral peak in the wavelength range from 499 to 570 nm were obtained by varying their rations. In addition, the fabrication of efficient LECs was demonstrated based on low cost doctor-blade coating technique, which was compatible with the roll to roll fabrication process for the large size production. In this work, for the first time, 4 inch LEC devices by doctor-blade coating were fabricated, which exhibit the efficiencies of 23.4 cd A−1 and 25.4 cd A−1 for the blue-green and yellow emission, respectively. The exciting results indicated that highly efficient LECs with controllable color could be realized and find practical application in large size lighting and displays. PMID:27278527

  16. Large Size Color-tunable Electroluminescence from Cationic Iridium Complexes-based Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qunying; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang; Shan, Guogang; Su, Zhongmin

    2016-06-01

    Solution-processable light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) with simple device architecture have become an attractive candidate for application in next generation lighting and flat-panel displays. Herein, single layer LECs employing two cationic Ir(III) complexes showing highly efficient blue-green and yellow electroluminescence with peak current efficiency of 31.6 cd A‑1 and 40.6 cd A‑1, respectively, have been reported. By using both complexes in the device, color-tunable LECs with a single spectral peak in the wavelength range from 499 to 570 nm were obtained by varying their rations. In addition, the fabrication of efficient LECs was demonstrated based on low cost doctor-blade coating technique, which was compatible with the roll to roll fabrication process for the large size production. In this work, for the first time, 4 inch LEC devices by doctor-blade coating were fabricated, which exhibit the efficiencies of 23.4 cd A‑1 and 25.4 cd A‑1 for the blue-green and yellow emission, respectively. The exciting results indicated that highly efficient LECs with controllable color could be realized and find practical application in large size lighting and displays.

  17. A meta-analysis of the effects of dietary protein concentration and degradability on milk protein yield and milk N efficiency in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Huhtanen, P; Hristov, A N

    2009-07-01

    Data sets from North American (NA, 739 diets) and North European (NE, 998 diets) feeding trials with dairy cows were evaluated to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) intake and ruminal degradability on milk protein yield (MPY) and efficiency of N utilization for milk protein synthesis (MNE; milk N / N intake) in dairy cows. The NA diets were based on corn silage, alfalfa silage and hay, corn and barley grains, and soybean meal. The NE diets were based on grass silage, barley and oats grains, and soybean and rapeseed meals. Diets were evaluated for rumen-degradable and undegradable protein (RDP and RUP, respectively) concentrations according to NRC (2001). A mixed model regression analysis with random study effect was used to evaluate relationships between dietary CP concentration and degradability and MPY and MNE. In both data sets, CP intake alone predicted MPY reasonably well. Addition of CP degradability to the models slightly improved prediction. Models based on metabolizable protein (MP) intake predicted MPY better than the CP or the CP-CP degradability models. The best prediction models were based on total digestible nutrients (TDN) and CP intakes. Similar to the MPY models, inclusion of CP degradability in the CP (intake or concentration) models only slightly improved prediction of MNE in both data sets. Concentration of dietary CP was a better predictor of MNE than CP intake. Compared with the CP models, prediction of MNE was improved by inclusion of TDN intake or concentration. Milk yield alone was a poor predictor of MNE. The models developed from one data set were validated using the other data set. The MNE models based on TDN and CP intake performed well as indicated by small mean and slope bias. This meta-analysis demonstrated that CP concentration is the most important dietary factor influencing MNE. Ruminal CP degradability as predicted by NRC (2001) does not appear to be a significant factor in predicting MPY or MNE. Data also

  18. Electroluminescence of carbon ‘quantum' dots - From materials to devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veca, L. Monica; Diac, Andreea; Mihalache, Iuliana; Wang, Ping; LeCroy, Gregory E.; Pavelescu, Emil Mihai; Gavrila, Raluca; Vasile, Eugeniu; Terec, Anamaria; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Carbon ‘quantum' dots or carbon dots have emerged as a new class of luminescent nanomaterials. While photoluminescence properties of carbon dots had targeted optical imaging and related usage, their unique excited state redox processes responsible for the luminescence emissions may find potentially significant optoelectronic applications. In this regard, we investigated the electroluminescence properties of the carbon dots integrated into multilayer light emitting diode devices. The devices emitted white light with a slight blue color, visible to naked eyes, thus validating the expectation that carbon dots may potentially serve as a new platform for electroluminescent nanomaterials.

  19. Electroluminescence emission of crystalline germanium nanoclusters deposited with laser assistance at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsin-Ying; Lee, Ching-Ting; Tsai, Tai-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    With CO2 laser assistance, crystalline Ge nanocluster-embedded Ge films were deposited at low temperature using a conventional plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. Raman spectrum showed a wavenumber peak at 290 cm(-1) which corresponded to the crystalline Ge nanoclusters in the Ge film deposited with CO2 laser assistance. Crystalline Ge nanoclusters embedded in Ge matrices were observed from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and electron diffraction pattern. The electroluminescent devices constructed with multilayered Ge nanoclusters-embedded Ge films were fabricated. The experimental results demonstrated that the electroluminescence emission originated from the radiative recombination of the electron-hole pairs in the Ge nanoclusters.

  20. An IBM-Compatible 640 X 200 Electroluminescent (EL) Display Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullick, Paul; Schmachtenberg, Richard; Laakso, Carl

    1986-05-01

    An electroluminescent flat-panel display has been developed and recently introduced that fills any of the needs of the portable computer market. The display is very thin, yet rugged enough for the rigors of portability. It is highly integrated, and very reliable. It has the crisp and clear display image that is typical of high quality electroluminescent displays. The unit has a pixel matrix organization and pixel dimensions that are not only asthetically and ergonomically pleasing, but also make the display compatible with the most widely used software packages run on today's personal computers (Figure 1).

  1. A novel method of synthesis of small band gap SnS nanorods and its efficient photocatalytic dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipika; Dutta, Raj Kumar

    2015-11-01

    A facile one pot method has been developed for synthesis of stable (ξ=-37.5 mV), orthorhombic structured SnS nanorods capped with mercaptoacetic acid by precipitation method. The SnS nanorods were measured to be about 45 nm long with a diameter of 20 nm, as studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The band gap of the MAA capped SnS nanorods was 1.81 eV, measured by diffused reflectance spectroscopy and was larger than the bulk SnS. The relative positions of highest valence band and lowest conduction band were determined from theoretical band structure calculation as 1.58 eV and -0.23 eV, respectively. The UV-Visible-NIR fluorescence emission spectrum of the SnS nanorods revealed intense emission peak at 1000 nm (1.239 eV) and weaker peaks at 935 nm, 1080 nm, 1160 nm which is likely to be due to Sn(2+) vacancies. The as-synthesized SnS nanorods exhibited more than 95% sunlight induced photocatalytic degradation of trypan blue in 4 h, following first order kinetics with high rate of degradation (k) (0.0124 min(-1)). The observed dye degradation is attributable to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), confirmed from terephthalic acid assay. The ROS generation has been explained on the basis of interaction between photoexcited electrons from conduction band with molecular oxygen adhered to the surface of nanorods owing to favourable redox potentials of O2/O2(-) (-0.20 eV) in normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) scale.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of zinc doped nano TiO2 for efficient photocatalytic degradation of Eriochrome Black T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, Pooja; Sharma, Manoj; Singh, Kulvir; Pandey, O. P.

    2013-06-01

    Sol-gel method was used to synthesize undoped and zinc doped TiO2 with varied dopant concentrations using titanium tetraisopropoxide and zinc acetate as precursors. The synthesized catalyst samples were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance (DRS). The photocatalytic activity was determined by means of degradation of azo dye Eriochrome Black T. The results revealed that Zn doped TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited better results as compared to undoped TiO2 nanoparticles. Zn doped TiO2 (0.7mol %) nanoparticles exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity.

  3. Self-assembly graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots anchored on TiO2 nanotube arrays: An efficient heterojunction for pollutants degradation under solar light.

    PubMed

    Su, Jingyang; Zhu, Lin; Geng, Ping; Chen, Guohua

    2016-10-05

    In this study, an efficient heterojunction was constructed by anchoring graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots onto TiO2 nanotube arrays through hydrothermal reaction strategy. The prepared graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots, which were prepared by solid-thermal reaction and sequential dialysis process, act as a sensitizer to enhance light absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the charge transfer and separation in the formed heterojunction were significantly improved compared with pristine TiO2. The prepared heterojunction was used as a photoanode, exhibiting much improved photoelectrochemical capability and excellent photo-stability under solar light illumination. The photoelectrocatalytic activities of prepared heterojunction were demonstrated by degradation of RhB and phenol in aqueous solution. The kinetic constants of RhB and phenol degradation using prepared photoelectrode are 2.4 times and 4.9 times higher than those of pristine TiO2, respectively. Moreover, hydroxyl radicals are demonstrated to be dominant active radicals during the pollutants degradation.

  4. Self-degrading niosomes for encapsulation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs: An efficient carrier for cancer multi-drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Varsha; Anandhakumar, Sundaramurthy; Sasidharan, Manickam

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we have examined the encapsulation and release of hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs in self-degrading niosomes as a unique method for anticancer therapy. Niosomes were prepared by amphiphilic self-assembly of Tween 80 and cholesterol through film hydration method. Encapsulation studies with two active molecules curcumin and doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox) showed that curcumin is supposed to accumulate in the shell whereas Dox accumulates in the inner aqueous core of the niosome. Confocal studies indicated that nile red adsorbs preferentially to the head group of the Tween 80 and forms two separate layers in the shell. It was also seen that the niosomes undergo self-degradation in PBS through a sequential process, forming interconnected pores followed by complete collapse after 1week. The release profile shows two phases: i) initial Dox release in the first two days, followed by ii) curcumin release over 7days. Enhanced (synergistic) cytotoxicity was observed for dual-drug loaded niosomes against HeLa cell lines. Thus these niosomes are shown to offer a promising delivery system for hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs collectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ce-Fe-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as an efficient catalyst for sulfamethazine degradation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhong; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-09-01

    A heterogeneous Fenton catalyst Ce(0)-Fe(0)-reduced graphene oxide (Ce-Fe-RGO) was synthesized with chemical reduction methods and used for degradation of sulfamethazine. The introduction of Ce and graphene increased the dispersibility of iron particles which was confirmed by SEM and TEM. The results of VSM analysis showed good magnetism of Ce-Fe-RGO. The catalyst performance was compared with other kinds of catalysts (Fe(0) and Ce(0)-Fe(0)) for degradation of sulfamethazine. The results showed that Ce(0)-Fe-RGO had good catalytic performance and adsorption. X-ray diffraction showed the change of iron oxide on catalyst surface after use. The total sulfur (TS), total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon (TOC), and intermediates, such as small organic molecular and anion ions, were analyzed by IC under different pH conditions. Finally, the possible catalytic mechanism was tentatively proposed based on inhibitor experimental results and XPS characterization. The main active species was hydroxyl radical on catalyst surface and the transition between Ce(3+) and Ce(4+) which enhanced the reduction from Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) and formation of ·OH and ·O2 (-).

  6. Newly isolated Penicillium oxalicum A592-4B secretes enzymes that degrade milled rice straw with high efficiency.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Akihisa; Kurane, Ryuichiro; Matsuura, Akira; Nagai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    An enzyme producing micro-organism, which can directly saccharify rice straw that has only been crushed without undergoing the current acid or alkaline pretreatment, was found. From the homology with the ITS, 28S rDNA sequence, the strain named A592-4B was identified as Penicillium oxalicum. Activities of the A592-4B enzymes and commercial enzyme preparations were compared by Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and Genencore GC220. In the present experimental condition, activity of A592-4B enzymes was 2.6 times higher than that of CTec2 for degrading milled rice straw. Furthermore, even when a quarter amount of A592-4B enzyme was applied to the rice straw, the conversion rate was still higher than that by CTec2. By utilizing A592-4B enzymes, improved lignocellulose degradation yields can be achieved without pre-treatment of the substrates; thus, contributing to cost reduction as well as reducing environmental burden.

  7. Laccase-syringaldehyde-mediated degradation of trace organic contaminants in an enzymatic membrane reactor: Removal efficiency and effluent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Luong N; van de Merwe, Jason P; Hai, Faisal I; Leusch, Frederic D L; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Roddick, Felicity; Magram, Saleh F; Nghiem, Long D

    2016-01-01

    Redox-mediators such as syringaldehyde (SA) can improve laccase-catalyzed degradation of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) but may increase effluent toxicity. The degradation performance of 14 phenolic and 17 non-phenolic TrOCs by a continuous flow enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) at different TrOC and SA loadings was assessed. A specific emphasis was placed on the investigation of the toxicity of the enzyme (laccase), SA, TrOCs and the treated effluent. Batch tests demonstrated significant individual and interactive toxicity of the laccase and SA preparations. Reduced removal of resistant TrOCs by the EMR was observed for dosages over 50μg/L. SA addition at a concentration of 10μM significantly improved TrOC removal, but no removal improvement was observed at the elevated SA concentrations of 50 and 100μM. The treated effluent showed significant toxicity at SA concentrations beyond 10μM, providing further evidence that higher dosage of SA must be avoided.

  8. Preparation and characterization of Cu{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2}: Efficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yuehua Liang Dahui; Liu Manle; Liu Dingzhong

    2008-12-01

    A series of copper-deposited titania were prepared by photoreduction method under irradiation with a 125-W high-pressure mercury lamp. From XPS and AES results, the deposited-copper formed Ti-O-Cu bond on the surface of TiO{sub 2}, and the Cu species on the surface of copper-deposited TiO{sub 2} can be identified as Cu(I). The photocatalytic degradation activity of methylene blue for the Cu{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2} series increased with increasing Cu{sub 2}O-deposited content, and then decreased. The highest photocatalytic degradation activity of methylene blue was obtained for 0.16% Cu{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2}. When copper-deposited content reached to 0.32%, the photocatalytic activity was lower than that of pure TiO{sub 2}. It is shown that Cu{sub 2}O on the surface of TiO{sub 2} can trap electrons from the TiO{sub 2} conduction band, and the electrons trapped on the Cu{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2} site are subsequently transferred to the surrounding adsorbed O{sub 2}, thereby avoiding electron-hole recombination, and enhancing the photocatalytic activity. Excess copper loading may screen the photocatalyst from the UV source, so the photocatalytic activity diminishes with increasing Cu{sub 2}O.

  9. Highly ordered Ti-SBA-15: Efficient H{sub 2} adsorbent and photocatalyst for eco-toxic dye degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Swapan K.; Bhunia, Manas K.; Bhaumik, Asim

    2010-06-15

    Highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous titanium silicate Ti-SBA-15 materials (space group p6mm) have been synthesized hydrothermally in acidic medium employing amphiphilic tri-block copolymer, Pluronic F127 as structure directing agent. Samples are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, FT IR spectroscopy, UV-visible diffuse reflectance measurements, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption and TG-DTA analysis. XRD and TEM results suggested the presence of highly ordered mesophase with hexagonal pore arrangements. BET surface area for Ti-SBA-15 (924 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) is considerably higher than the pure silica SBA-15 (611 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) prepared following the same synthetic route. UV-visible and FT-IR studies suggested the incorporation of mostly tetrahedral titanium (IV) species, along with some six-coordinated sites in the silicate network. This material shows very good H{sub 2} adsorption capacity at higher pressure and excellent catalytic activity in the photocatalytic degradation of ecologically abundant dye methylene blue. - Graphical abstract: Highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous Ti-SBA-15 materials are synthesized hydrothermally, which show high H{sub 2} adsorption capacity and excellent activity in the photocatalytic degradation of ecologically abundant dye methylene blue.

  10. Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Complexes Bearing Fluorinated Aromatic Sulfonyl Group with Nearly Unity Phosphorescent Quantum Yields and Outstanding Electroluminescent Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Yu, Yue; Yang, Xiaolong; Yan, Xiaogang; Zhang, Huiming; Xu, Xianbin; Zhou, Guijiang; Wu, Zhaoxin; Ren, Yixia; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2015-11-11

    A series of heteroleptic functional Ir(III) complexes bearing different fluorinated aromatic sulfonyl groups has been synthesized. Their photophysical features, electrochemical behaviors, and electroluminescent (EL) properties have been characterized in detail. These complexes emit intense yellow phosphorescence with exceptionally high quantum yields (ΦP > 0.9) at room temperature, and the emission maxima of these complexes can be finely tuned depending upon the number of the fluorine substituents on the pendant phenyl ring of the sulfonyl group. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties and electron injection/transporting (EI/ET) abilities of these Ir(III) phosphors can also be effectively tuned by the fluorinated aromatic sulfonyl group to furnish some desired characters for enhancing the EL performance. Hence, the maximum luminance efficiency (ηL) of 81.2 cd A(-1), corresponding to power efficiency (ηP) of 64.5 lm W(-1) and external quantum efficiency (ηext) of 19.3%, has been achieved, indicating the great potential of these novel phosphors in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Furthermore, a clear picture has been drawn for the relationship between their optoelectronic properties and chemical structures. These results should provide important information for developing highly efficient phosphors.

  11. Uneven AlGaN multiple quantum well for deep-ultraviolet LEDs grown on macrosteps and impact on electroluminescence spectral output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Michiko; Pernot, Cyril; Nagasawa, Yosuke; Hirano, Akira; Ippommatsu, Masamichi; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2017-06-01

    AlGaN-based LEDs (λ < 300 nm) fabricated on n-AlGaN templates with a threading dislocation density larger than 5 × 108/cm2, which were grown on (0001) sapphire with a 1.0° miscut relative to the m-plane, showed external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 3.5, 3.9, 6.1, and 6.0% at 266, 271, 283, and 298 nm, respectively. These EQE values reveal significantly high internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs). This performance was obtained using an uneven multiple quantum well (MQW) grown on the AlGaN template with macrosteps having height larger than the well thickness. The electroluminescence spectra of the fabricated LEDs using this MQW structure shifts to a longer wavelength compared with those on sapphire with a miscut angle of 0.3° relative to the m-plane. Furthermore, the LEDs with this MQW show no deleterious effect on the lifetime, broader electroluminescence spectral widths, and higher output powers when using sapphire with a miscut of 1.0°.

  12. Terminal PEGylated DNA–Gold Nanoparticle Conjugates Offering High Resistance to Nuclease Degradation and Efficient Intracellular Delivery of DNA Binding Agents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, polyvalent DNA–gold nanoparticle (DNA–GNP) conjugate has been demonstrated as an efficient, universal nanocarrier for drug and gene delivery with high uptake by over 50 different types of primary and cancer cell lines. A barrier limiting its in vivo effectiveness is limited resistance to nuclease degradation and nonspecific interaction with blood serum contents. Herein we show that terminal PEGylation of the complementary DNA strand hybridized to a polyvalent DNA–GNP conjugate can eliminate nonspecific adsorption of serum proteins and greatly increases its resistance against DNase I-based degradation. The PEGylated DNA–GNP conjugate still retains a high cell uptake property, making it an attractive intracellular delivery nanocarrier for DNA binding reagents. We show that it can be used for successful intracellular delivery of doxorubicin, a widely used clinical cancer chemotherapeutic drug. Moreover, it can be used for efficient delivery of some cell-membrane-impermeable reagents such as propidium iodide (a DNA intercalating fluorescent dye currently limited to the use of staining dead cells only) and a diruthenium complex (a DNA groove binder), for successful staining of live cells. PMID:26237203

  13. Novel AgI-decorated β-Bi₂O₃ nanosheet heterostructured Z-scheme photocatalysts for efficient degradation of organic pollutants with enhanced performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengyuan; Jiang, Deli; Xing, Chaosheng; Chen, Linlin; Chen, Min; He, Minqiang

    2015-07-07

    The low photocatalytic activity of single semiconductor photocatalysts mainly originates from their fast recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Constructing nanosheet-based composite photocatalysts is an effective way to enhance the charge separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. In this work, AgI-decorated β-Bi2O3 nanosheet heterostructured photocatalysts were prepared by a facile method. The as-obtained AgI/β-Bi2O3 heterostructures exhibited enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) in aqueous solution. The optimum photocatalytic activity of 20%-AgI/β-Bi2O3 for the degradation of MO was about 4.1 and 6.2 times higher than that of AgI and β-Bi2O3. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of AgI/β-Bi2O3 heterostructures could be ascribed to the formation of a Z-scheme system, which results in the efficient space separation of photo-induced charge carriers.

  14. Bifunctional Anti-Huntingtin Proteasome-Directed Intrabodies Mediate Efficient Degradation of Mutant Huntingtin Exon 1 Protein Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Butler, David C.; Messer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a trinucleotide (CAG)n repeat expansion in the coding sequence of the huntingtin gene, and an expanded polyglutamine (>37Q) tract in the protein. This results in misfolding and accumulation of huntingtin protein (htt), formation of neuronal intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions, and neuronal dysfunction/degeneration. Single-chain Fv antibodies (scFvs), expressed as intrabodies that bind htt and prevent aggregation, show promise as immunotherapeutics for HD. Intrastriatal delivery of anti-N-terminal htt scFv-C4 using an adeno-associated virus vector (AAV2/1) significantly reduces the size and number of aggregates in HDR6/1 transgenic mice; however, this protective effect diminishes with age and time after injection. We therefore explored enhancing intrabody efficacy via fusions to heterologous functional domains. Proteins containing a PEST motif are often targeted for proteasomal degradation and generally have a short half life. In ST14A cells, fusion of the C-terminal PEST region of mouse ornithine decarboxylase (mODC) to scFv-C4 reduces htt exon 1 protein fragments with 72 glutamine repeats (httex1-72Q) by ∼80–90% when compared to scFv-C4 alone. Proteasomal targeting was verified by either scrambling the mODC-PEST motif, or via proteasomal inhibition with epoxomicin. For these constructs, the proteasomal degradation of the scFv intrabody proteins themselves was reduced<25% by the addition of the mODC-PEST motif, with or without antigens. The remaining intrabody levels were amply sufficient to target N-terminal httex1-72Q protein fragment turnover. Critically, scFv-C4-PEST prevents aggregation and toxicity of httex1-72Q fragments at significantly lower doses than scFv-C4. Fusion of the mODC-PEST motif to intrabodies is a valuable general approach to specifically target toxic antigens to the proteasome for degradation. PMID:22216210

  15. Crude oil degradation efficiency of a recombinant Acinetobacter baumannii strain and its survival in crude oil-contaminated soil microcosm.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sanjeet; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Lal, Banwari

    2004-06-15

    A hydrocarbon degrading Acinetobacter baumannii S30 strain, isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil, was inserted with the lux gene from the luciferase gene cassette luxCDABE. Soil microcosms were designed to study the degradation efficacy for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of crude oil by lux-tagged A. baumannii S30 pJES. Bioaugmentation of a TPH-contaminated microcosm with A baumannii S30 pJES showed that TPH levels were reduced from 89.3 to 53.9 g/kg soil in 90 days. Biodegradation of TPH by A baumannii S30 pJES was also monitored in shake flask conditions, which showed a reduction of initial TPH levels by over 50% at the end of 120 h. A lux-PCR-based approach along with the standard dilution plating with selective antibiotics was successfully utilized to monitor the survivability of the lux-tagged strain A. baumannii S30 pJES in soil microcosms and stability of the lux insert in the host strain A. baumannii S30. The selective plating technique indicated the population of A. baumannii S30 pJES to be 6.5+/-0.13 x 10(8) CFU/g at day zero (just after bioaugmentation) and 2.09+/-0.08 x 10(8) CFU/g of soil after 90 days of incubation. lux-PCR confirmed the stability of the insert in all the randomly selected colonies of A. baumannii strains from the antibiotic plates. The lux insert was stable after 50 generations in Luria Bertini broth and storage at -70 degrees C as glycerol stocks for over a year. These results revealed that the lux insert was stable and lux-tagged A. baumannii S30 strain could survive in a TPH-contaminated soil microcosm and could degrade TPH in the soil microcosm conditions. It can be used as an effective marker to monitor the survival of augmented strains at a bioremediation site.

  16. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SEMICONDUCTOR INJECTION LASERS SELCO-87: Determination of the quantum efficiency of InGaAsP/InP double heterostructures from spontaneous emission measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinländer, B.; Anton, A.; Heilmann, R.; Oelgart, G.; Gottschalch, V.

    1988-11-01

    A method was developed for determination of the suitability of epitaxial InGaAsP/InP double heterostructures in fabrication of ridge-waveguide lasers. The method is based on determination of the quantum efficiency of electroluminescence.

  17. Iron oxychloride (FeOCl): an efficient Fenton-like catalyst for producing hydroxyl radicals in degradation of organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-jing; Xu, Xi-meng; Xu, Jing; Han, Yi-fan

    2013-10-30

    An iron oxychloride (FeOCl) catalyst was developed for oxidative degradation of persistent organic compounds in aqueous solutions. Exceptionally high activity for the production of hydroxyl radical (OH·) by H2O2 decomposition was achieved, being 2-4 orders of magnitudes greater than that over other Fe-based heterogeneous catalysts. The relationship of catalyst structure and performance has been established by using multitechniques, such as XRD, HRTEM, and EPR. The unique structural configuration of iron atoms and the reducible electronic properties of FeOCl are responsible for the excellent activity. This study paves the way toward the rational design of relevant catalysts for applications, such as wastewater treatment, soil remediation, and other emerging environmental problems.

  18. Mass spectrometric monitoring of the degradation and elimination efficiency for hardly eliminable and hardly biodegradable polar compounds by membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H Fr

    2002-01-01

    Wastewaters containing or spiked with polar compounds--alkylphenolethoxylates (APEOs) and drugs--were treated in membrane-assisted and conventional biological pilot plants to eliminate these pollutants. Elimination resulting in metabolization or ultimate degradation was pursued by substance-specific analysis applying atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in combination with mass and tandem mass spectrometric detection (MS and MS-MS) either in the flow injection (FIA) or liquid chromatographic separation (LC) mode. APEOs were diminished by successive cleavage of polyether chain links resulting in short chain APEOs or alkylphenols (AP), if the biocoenosis was adapted to the compounds. Lipid regulating agents (LRA) were either eliminated completely (etofibrate), metabolized to fenofibratic acid (fenofibrate) or diminished to a minimal extent (bezafibrate). Compared to the membrane microfiltration process the conventional activated sludge process was less successful in both APEO and LRA elimination.

  19. Design of binary SnO2-CuO nanocomposite for efficient photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aniket; Rout, Lipeeka; Achary, L. Satish Kumar; Mohanty, Anurag; Marpally, Jyoshna; Chand, Pradyumna Kumar; Dash, Priyabrat

    2016-04-01

    Semiconductor mediated photocatalysis has got enormous consideration as it has shown immense potential in addressing the overall energy and environmental issues. To overcome the earlier drawbacks concerning quick charge recombination and limited visible-light absorption of semiconductor photocatalysts, numerous methods have been produced in the past couple of decades and the most broadly utilized one is to develop the photocatalytic heterojunctions. In our work, a series of SnO2-CuO nanocomposites of different compositions were synthesized by a combustion method and have been investigated in detail by various characterization techniques, such as wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results revealed that the crystal structure and optical properties of the nanocomposites were almost same for all the compositions. FE-SEM images showed that the shape of SnO2-CuO was spherical in nature and the 1: 1 Sn/Cu sample had a well-proportioned morphology. The malachite green dye was used for the photocatalytic studies in a photoreactor and monitored with a UV-visible spectrometer for different composition ratio of metal (Sn: Cu) such as 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, 1:0.5 and 0.5:1. The 1:1 ratio nanocomposite showed excellent photocatalytic degradation of 96 % compared to pure SnO2 and CuO. The mechanism of degradation and charge separation ability of the nanocomposite are also explored using photocurrent measurement study.

  20. The effect of polysaccharide-degrading wine yeast transformants on the efficiency of wine processing and wine flavour.

    PubMed

    Louw, C; La Grange, D; Pretorius, I S; van Rensburg, P

    2006-10-01

    Commercial polysaccharase preparations are applied to winemaking to improve wine processing and quality. Expression of polysaccharase-encoding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae allows for the recombinant strains to degrade polysaccharides that traditional commercial yeast strains cannot. In this study, we constructed recombinant wine yeast strains that were able to degrade the problem-causing grape polysaccharides, glucan and xylan, by separately integrating the Trichoderma reesei XYN2 xylanase gene construct and the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens END1 glucanase gene cassette into the genome of the commercial wine yeast strain S. cerevisiae VIN13. These genes were also combined in S. cerevisiae VIN13 under the control of different promoters. The strains that were constructed were compared under winemaking conditions with each other and with a recombinant wine yeast strain expressing the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene cassette (END1) from B. fibrisolvens and the endo-beta-1,4-xylanase gene cassette (XYN4) from Aspergillus niger, a recombinant strain expressing the pectate lyase gene cassette (PEL5) from Erwinia chrysanthemi and the polygalacturonase-encoding gene cassette (PEH1) from Erwinia carotovora. Wine was made with the recombinant strains using different grape cultivars. Fermentations with the recombinant VIN13 strains resulted in significant increases in free-flow wine when Ruby Cabernet must was fermented. After 6 months of bottle ageing significant differences in colour intensity and colour stability could be detected in Pinot Noir and Ruby Cabernet wines fermented with different recombinant strains. After this period the volatile composition of Muscat d'Alexandria, Ruby Cabernet and Pinot Noir wines fermented with different recombinant strains also showed significant differences. The Pinot Noir wines were also sensorial evaluated and the tasting panel preferred the wines fermented with the recombinant strains.

  1. Wide band gap Ga2O3 as efficient UV-C photocatalyst for gas-phase degradation applications.

    PubMed

    Jędrzejczyk, Marcin; Zbudniewek, Klaudia; Rynkowski, Jacek; Keller, Valérie; Grams, Jacek; Ruppert, Agnieszka M; Keller, Nicolas

    2017-09-29

    α, β, γ, and δ polymorphs of 4.6-4.8 eV wide band gap Ga2O3 photocatalysts were prepared via a soft chemistry route. Their photocatalytic activity under 254 nm UV-C light in the degradation of gaseous toluene was strongly depending on the polymorph phase. α- and β-Ga2O3 photocatalysts enabled achieving high and stable conversions of toluene with selectivities to CO2 within the 50-90% range, by contrast to conventional TiO2 photocatalysts that fully deactivate very rapidly on stream in similar operating conditions with rather no CO2 production, no matter whether UV-A or UV-C light was used. The highest performances were achieved on the high specific surface area β-Ga2O3 photocatalyst synthesized by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) as porogen before precipitation, with stable toluene conversion and mineralization rate into CO2 strongly overcoming those obtained on commercial β-Ga2O3. They were attributed to favorable physicochemical properties in terms of high specific surface area, small mean crystallite size, good crystallinity, high pore volume with large size mesopore distribution and appropriate surface acidity, and to the possible existence of a double local internal field within Ga(3+) units. In the degradation of hydrogen sulfide, PEG-derived β-Ga2O3 takes advantage from its high specific surface area for storing sulfate, and thus for increasing its resistance to deactivation and the duration at total sulfur removal when compared to other β-Ga2O3 photocatalysts. So, we illustrated the interest of using high surface area β-Ga2O3 in environmental photocatalysis for gas-phase depollution applications.

  2. Design of binary SnO{sub 2}-CuO nanocomposite for efficient photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Aniket; Rout, Lipeeka; Achary, L. Satish Kumar; Mohanty, Anurag; Marpally, Jyoshna; Chand, Pradyumna Kumar; Dash, Priyabrat

    2016-04-13

    Semiconductor mediated photocatalysis has got enormous consideration as it has shown immense potential in addressing the overall energy and environmental issues. To overcome the earlier drawbacks concerning quick charge recombination and limited visible-light absorption of semiconductor photocatalysts, numerous methods have been produced in the past couple of decades and the most broadly utilized one is to develop the photocatalytic heterojunctions. In our work, a series of SnO{sub 2}-CuO nanocomposites of different compositions were synthesized by a combustion method and have been investigated in detail by various characterization techniques, such as wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results revealed that the crystal structure and optical properties of the nanocomposites were almost same for all the compositions. FE-SEM images showed that the shape of SnO{sub 2}-CuO was spherical in nature and the 1: 1 Sn/Cu sample had a well-proportioned morphology. The malachite green dye was used for the photocatalytic studies in a photoreactor and monitored with a UV-visible spectrometer for different composition ratio of metal (Sn: Cu) such as 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, 1:0.5 and 0.5:1. The 1:1 ratio nanocomposite showed excellent photocatalytic degradation of 96 % compared to pure SnO{sub 2} and CuO. The mechanism of degradation and charge separation ability of the nanocomposite are also explored using photocurrent measurement study.

  3. Sn-doped ZnO nanopetal networks for efficient photocatalytic degradation of dye and gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Sonik; Verma, Neha; Bedi, R. K.

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, tremendous increase in environmental issue is an alarming threat to the ecosystem. This paper reports, rapid synthesis and characterization for tin doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by simple combustion method and doctor blade technique. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by several techniques in terms of their morphological, structural, compositional, optical, photocatalytic and gas sensing properties. These detailed characterization confirmed that all the synthesized nanoparticles are well crystalline and having good optoelectronic properties. Herein, different concentrations of Sn (0.5 at. wt%, 1.0 at. wt%, 2.0 at. wt%, 3.0 at. wt%) were used as dopants (SZ1-SZ4). The morphology of synthesized technique confirmed that the petal-shaped nanoparticles has high surface area and are well crystalline. In order to develop smart and functional nano-device, the prepared powder was coated on glass substrate by doctor blade technique and fabricated device was sensed for ethanol and acetone gas at different operating temperatures (300-500̊C). It is noteworthy that morphology of the nanoparticles of the sensitive layer is maintained after different concentration of Sn. High sensitivity is the main cause of high surface area and tin doping. PL intensity near 598 nm of SZ3 is greater than other Sn-doped ZnO which indicates more oxygen vacancies of SZ3 is responsible for enhanced gas sensitivity and photocatalytic activity. The sensing performance showed 5% volume of ethanol and acetone and gases could be detected with sensitivity of 86.80% and 84.40% respectively. The mechanism for the improvement in the sensing properties can be explained with the surface adsorption theory. Sn-ZnO was used as photocatalyst for degradation of DR-31 dye. Optimum concentration of prepared nanoparticles (2.0 at. wt%) exhibits complete degradation of dye only in 60 min under UV irradiation.

  4. Novel integrated electrodialysis/electro-oxidation process for the efficient degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Raschitor, A; Llanos, J; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2017-09-01

    This work presents a novel approach of wastewater treatment technology that consists of a combined electrodialysis/electro-oxidation process, specially designed to allow increasing the efficiency in the oxidation of ionic organic pollutants contained in diluted waste. Respect to conventional electrolysis, the pollutant is simultaneously concentrated and oxidized, enhancing the performance of the cell due to the higher concentration achieved in the nearness of the anode. A proof of concept is tested with the ionic pesticide 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and results show that the efficiency of this new technology overcomes that electrolysis by more than double, regardless the supporting electrolyte used (either NaCl or Na2SO4). Moreover, the removal rate of 2,4-D when using NaCl was found to be more efficient, due to the best performance of the electrode material selected (DSA(®)) towards the formation of oxidants in chloride supporting electrolyte. These results open the way for overcoming the efficiency limitations of electrochemical treatment processes for the treatment of solutions with low concentrated ionic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds by Au-TiO2/sepiolite composites as the highly efficient catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongfang

    2014-12-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange (MO) and Congo red (CR) as typical model organic contaminants was investigated in aqueous solution within a cooperating Au/TiO2/sepiolite heterostructure system under UV light irradiation. The Au/TiO2/sepiolite composites with a single-crystalline (anatase) framework was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using titanium tetrachloride as a TiO2 precursor and depositing metal Au on the surface of TiO2 nanostructures via a facile chemical reduction process. The crystal structure, surface area, light adsorption and the photoinduced charge separation rate of the photocatalyst prepared were characterized in detail. As compared with the pristine TiO2, the Au/TiO2/sepiolite hybrid material exhibited good photocatalytic efficiency (90%) for the UV-light photooxidation of methyl orange, which is four-fold of that of reference TiO2. In addition, Au/TiO2/sepiolite hybrid material also shows a good photodegradation performance toward Congo red removal. The highly efficient photocatalytic activity is associated with the strong adsorption ability of sepiolite for aromatic dye molecules, fast photogenerated charge separation due to the formation of Schottky junction between TiO2 and metallic Au. This work suggests that the combination of the excellent adsorption properties of sepiolite and the efficient separation effect of noble metallic nanoparticles provides a versatile strategy for the synthesis of novel and highly efficient photocatalysts.

  6. An observation of direct-gap electroluminescence in GaAs structures with Ge quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Dikareva, N. V.; Dubinov, A. A.; Zvonkov, B. N.; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Nekorkin, S. M.

    2015-02-15

    A light-emitting diode structure based on GaAs with eight narrow Ge quantum wells is grown by laser sputtering. An electroluminescence line polarized predominately in the plane parallel to the constituent layers of the structure is revealed. The line corresponds to the direct optical transitions in momentum space in the Ge quantum wells.

  7. Temperature Dependence of D.C. and Pulsed Electroluminescence in Anthracene Crystals,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    appears. The spectral distribution of the electroluminescence is independent of the second electrode material, though differences in the time dependence ...shown in the different current and temperature dependence of the intensity of the major vibrational progression of the emission. Included argon

  8. Photo- and electroluminescence of mixed-ligand Eu(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, N. S.; Meshkova, S. B.; Degtyarenko, K. M.; Kopylova, T. N.; Topilova, Z. M.; Gadirov, R. M.; Samsonova, L. G.

    2012-05-01

    Spectral and luminescent properties of mixed-ligand Eu(III) complexes were studied in solutions and in polyvinylcarbazole (PVC) thin films. Trends in their variations were found depending on the complex structure and excitation mode. The electroluminescence was observed in ITO/PEDOT/Eu complex:PVC/CaMg/Al devices. Their current-voltage and voltage-brightness characteristics were investigated.

  9. Low temperature transient response and electroluminescence characteristics of OLEDs based on Alq3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chao; Guan, Min; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yiyang; Liu, Shuangjie; Zeng, Yiping

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on Alq3 are fabricated. In order to make clear the transport mechanism of carriers in organic light-emitting devices at low temperature, detailed electroluminescence transient response and the current-voltage-luminescence (I-V-L) characteristics under different temperatures in those OLEDs are investigated. It founds that the acceleration of brightness increases with increasing temperature is maximum when the temperature is 200 K and it is mainly affected by the electron transport layer (Alq3). The MoO3 injection layer and the electroluminescent layer have great influence on the delay time when the temperature is 200 K. Once the temperature is greater than 250 K, the delay time is mainly affected by the MoO3 injection layer. On the contrary, the fall time is mainly affected by the electroluminescent material. The Vf is the average growth rate of fall time when the temperature increases 1 K which represents the accumulation rate of carriers. The difference between Vf caused by the MoO3 injection layer is 0.52 us/K and caused by the electroluminescent material Ir(ppy)3 is 0.73 us/K.

  10. Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO: An efficient visible-light-sensitized composite with its application in photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Mingliang; Xu, Chunxiang; Chen, Shifu; Fu, Xianliang

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The free OH radicals generated in the VB of ZnO play the primary role in the visible-light photocatalytic degradation of RhB in Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO system. The accumulated electrons in the CB of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} can be transferred to O{sub 2} adsorbed on the surface of the composite semiconductors and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} yields. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reacts with electrons in succession to produce active ·OH to some extent. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Efficient visible-light-sensitized Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO composites were successfully prepared. ► Effect of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} content on the catalytic activity of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO is studied in detail. ► Rate constant of RhB degradation over Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}(3.0 wt.%)/ZnO is 3 times that of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. ► The active species in RhB degradation are examined by adding a series of scavengers. ► Visible light degradation mechanism of RhB over Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO is systematically studied. -- Abstract: The efficient visible-light-sensitized Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO composites with various weight percents of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} were prepared by a facile ball milling method. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, DRS, SEM, EDS, XPS, and BET specific area. The ·OH radicals produced during the photocatalytic reaction was detected by the TA–PL technique. The photocatalytic property of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/ZnO was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. Significantly, the results revealed that the photocatalytic activity of the composites was much higher than that of pure Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and ZnO. The rate constant of RhB degradation over Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}(3.0 wt.%)/ZnO is 3 times that of single-phase Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The optimal percentage of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in the composite is 3.0 wt.%. It is proposed that the ·OH radicals produced in the valence band of ZnO play the leading role in the photocatalytic degradation of

  11. The energy transfer mechanism of a photoexcited and electroluminescent organic hybrid thin film of blue, green, and red laser dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiling; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Yanqiong; Chen, Guo; Cai, Miao; Wei, Bin

    2015-04-01

    Though optically pumped lasing has been realized for years, electrically pumped lasing has not yet been achieved in organic semiconductor devices. In order to make a better understanding of the laser mechanisms of the organic materials, we prepared organic thin films consisting of three efficient laser dyes of a blue emitter, 4″,4″'-N,N-diphenylamine-4,4'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl (BN), a green emitter, 1,4-bis[2-[4-[N,N-di(p-tolyl)amino] phenyl]vinyl]benzene (DSB), and a red emitter, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidy-l-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) with different doping concentrations for the first time to investigate the cascade energy transfer process. The energy transfer schemes in the co-doped thin films in photoluminescence and electroluminescence have been investigated. The results indicated that the DSB molecules acted as a bridge to deliver energy more effectively from the host (BN) to the guest (DCJTB). Meanwhile, the maximum current efficiency ( C E) and power efficiency ( P E) of the organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with the emitting layer of lower doping concentration were 13.5 cd/A and 14.1 lm/W, respectively.

  12. Copper-promoted circumneutral activation of H2O2 by magnetic CuFe2O4 spinel nanoparticles: Mechanism, stoichiometric efficiency, and pathway of degrading sulfanilamide.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong; Liao, Changzhong; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the heterogeneous degradation of sulfanilamide by external energy-free Fenton-like reactions, magnetic CuFe2O4 spinel nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and used as catalysts for activation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The physicochemical properties of the CuFe2O4 NPs were characterized with several techniques, including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetometry. In the catalytic experiments, CuFe2O4 NPs/H2O2 oxidation showed the best degradation performance in the circumneutral conditions that resulted from the presence of Cu(II) on the surface of the CuFe2O4 NPs. The surface area-normalized pseudo-first-order rate constants were calculated as 2.60 × 10(-2) L m(-1) min(-1), 2.58 × 10(-3) L m(-1) min(-1), 1.92 × 10(-3) L m(-1) min(-1), and 7.30 × 10(-4) L m(-1) min(-1) for CuO, CuFe2O4 NPs, Fe3O4, and α-Fe2O3 catalysts, respectively. Thus, solid state Cu(II) was more reactive and efficient than Fe(III) in the circumneutral activation of H2O2; this finding was further supported by the results regarding the stoichiometric efficiency of H2O2. The effects of experimental parameters such as the oxidant dosage and catalyst loading were investigated. The mechanism for H2O2 activation on the spinel surface was explored and could be explained by the solid redox cycles of Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Cu(II)/Cu(I). Based on the products detected, a degradation pathway via the CS bond cleavage is proposed for the degradation of sulfanilamide. The findings of this study suggest that copper can be used as a doping metal to improve the reactivity and expand the effective pH range of iron oxides.

  13. Rational design of hyperbranched 3D heteroarrays of SrS/CdS: synthesis, characterization and evaluation of photocatalytic properties for efficient hydrogen generation and organic dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ziyauddin; Chetia, Tridip Ranjan; Qureshi, Mohammad

    2012-05-01

    Hyperbranched 3D SrS/CdS nanostructures were synthesized using a one pot hydrothermal method. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis showed the formation of flower-like structure and the crystalline phase was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The prepared 3D SrS/CdS exhibited improved photocatalytic activity for water splitting leading to H2 generation (AQY 10%) and nearly complete degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye. The dye degradation followed first order kinetics and the apparent reaction rate constant (kapp) was 0.136 min-1. The present 3D SrS/CdS structure promise to be efficient photocatalysts due to (i) the facile intersystem charge transfer resulting from their band alignment (ii) enhanced specific surface area and (iii) crystallinity.Hyperbranched 3D SrS/CdS nanostructures were synthesized using a one pot hydrothermal method. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis showed the formation of flower-like structure and the crystalline phase was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The prepared 3D SrS/CdS exhibited improved photocatalytic activity for water splitting leading to H2 generation (AQY 10%) and nearly complete degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye. The dye degradation followed first order kinetics and the apparent reaction rate constant (kapp) was 0.136 min-1. The present 3D SrS/CdS structure promise to be efficient photocatalysts due to (i) the facile intersystem charge transfer resulting from their band alignment (ii) enhanced specific surface area and (iii) crystallinity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Schematic experimental setup for photocatalytic hydrogen generation, TEM of CdS NWs and SrS NPs, FESEM images of 3D SrS/CdS, Low resolution TEM images for 3D SrS/CdS, EDX and SAED, SEM of SrS/CdS at different ratios, progress of hydrogen production at different time interval, different UV

  14. Self-assembly of ultrathin Cu2MoS4 nanobelts for highly efficient visible light-driven degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Chen, Wenxing; Lin, Yunxiang; Chen, Haiping; Haleem, Yasir A.; Wu, Chuanqiang; Ye, Fei; Wang, Tianxing; Song, Li

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate ultrathin self-assembled Cu2MoS4 nanobelts synthesized by using Cu2O as the starting sacrificial template via a hydrothermal method. The nanobelts exhibit strong light absorption over a broad wavelength spectrum, suggesting their potential application as photocatalysts. The photocatalytic activity of nanobelts is evaluated by the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) dye under visible light irradiation. Notably, the nanobelts can completely degrade 100 mL of 15 mg mL-1 MO in 20 minutes with excellent recycling and structural stability, suggesting their excellent photocatalytic performance. In comparison with a sheet-like sample, the high efficiency of the self-assembled Cu2MoS4 nanobelts is attributed to a high surface area and a unique band gap, agreeing with the nitrogen adsorption analysis and photoluminescence spectra. This study offers a self-assembled synthetic route to create new multifunctional nanoarchitectures composed of atomic layers, and thus may open a window for greatly extending potential applications in water pollution treatment, photocatalytic water-splitting, solar cells and other related fields.We demonstrate ultrathin self-assembled Cu2MoS4 nanobelts synthesized by using Cu2O as the starting sacrificial template via a hydrothermal method. The nanobelts exhibit strong light absorption over a broad wavelength spectrum, suggesting their potential application as photocatalysts. The photocatalytic activity of nanobelts is evaluated by the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) dye under visible light irradiation. Notably, the nanobelts can completely degrade 100 mL of 15 mg mL-1 MO in 20 minutes with excellent recycling and structural stability, suggesting their excellent photocatalytic performance. In comparison with a sheet-like sample, the high efficiency of the self-assembled Cu2MoS4 nanobelts is attributed to a high surface area and a unique band gap, agreeing with the nitrogen adsorption analysis and photoluminescence spectra. This study

  15. Photoluminescent (PL) or electroluminescent (EL) quantum dots for display, lighting, and photomedicine (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yajie

    2017-02-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have gone through a long journey before finding their ways into the display field. This talk will briefly touch on the history before trying to answer several key questions related to QDs applications in display: What are QDs? How are they made? What properties do they have and Why? How can these properties be used to improve color and efficiency of display, in either photoluminescence (PL) or electroluminescence (EL) mode? And what are the remaining challenges for QDs wide adoption in display industry? Lastly, some most recent progresses in our UCF lab at both PL and EL fronts will be highlighted. For PL, a cadmium-free perovskite-polymer composite films with exceptionally narrow emission green peaks (FWHM 20 nm) and good water and thermal stability will be reported. Together with red quantum dots or PFS/KSF phosphors as down-converters for blue LEDs, a white-light source with 95% Rec. 2020 color gamut was demonstrated [1]. For EL, red quantum dot light emitting devices (QLEDs) with record luminance of 165,000 Cd/m2 has been obtained at a current density of 1000 mA/cm2 with a low driving voltage of 5.8 V and CIE coordinates of (0.69, 0.31). [2] The potential of using these QLEDs for light sources for integrated sensing platform [3] or high efficiency, high color quality hybrid white OLED [4] will be discussed. [1] Y. N. Wang, J. He, H. Chen, J. S. Chen, R. D. Zhu, P. Ma, A. Towers, Y. Lin, A. J. Gesquiere, S. T. Wu, Y. J. Dong. Ultrastable, Highly Luminescent Organic-Inorganic Perovskite - Polymer Composite Films, Advanced Materials, accepted, (2016). [2] Y. J. Dong, J.M. Caruge, Z. Q. Zhou, C. Hamilton, Z. Popovic, J. Ho, M. Stevenson, G. Liu, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, and J. Steckel Ultra-bright, Highly Efficient, Low Roll-off Inverted Quantum-Dot Light Emitting Devices (QLEDs). SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 46, 270-273 (2015). [3] J. He, H. Chen, S. T. Wu, and Y. J. Dong, Integrated Sensing Platform Based on Quantum

  16. Hierarchically structured TiO2/PAN nanofibrous membranes for high-efficiency air filtration and toluene degradation.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiafei; Yang, Guohong; Cheng, Cuilian; Huang, Chen; Xu, He; Ke, Qinfei

    2017-12-01

    Hierarchically structured, nanoparticle-on-nanofiber composite membranes were successfully prepared by electrospray of titanium dioxide (TiO2) suspensions and electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution simultaneously. The results showed that the TiO2 nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the surface of PAN nanofibers to construct hierarchical nanostructures, which could not only endow the composite membrane with high photocatalytic activity but also further improve the filter efficiency of the composite membrane. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activities and filter efficiencies of composite membranes could be further tuned by controlling the TiO2/PAN mass ratios. Our study indicated that the combination of TiO2 nanoparticles and PAN nanofibers via simultaneous electrospinning-spray offers a new strategy to construct advanced multifunctional TiO2/PAN membranes with hierarchical nanostructures, which could not only perform well in decomposing toluene but also remove particulate matter in air effectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of pressurized aeration on organic degradation efficiency and bacterial community structure of activated sludge treating saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Bing; Xu, Rui-Xiao; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Zhou, Ying; Xie, Biao

    2016-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of moderate pressure on organic matter removal efficiency and microbial population of activated sludge treating saline wastewater. The activated sludge was cultivated with a gradual increase of salt concentrations under gage pressure of 0.3MPa for 71days. Microbial diversities of activated sludge sampled in different stages of domestication were investigated by Illumina sequencing technology. Results showed that pressurized aeration could improve the treatment efficiency and the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of activated sludge, especially at high salinity (35, 50gNaClL(-1)). Bacterial richness and community diversity of activated sludge in the pressurized reactor were significantly higher than those in the control reactor. Microbial population structures were quite different between the two reactors. More species originating from fresh wastewater biological treatment process would survive and remain in pressurized activated sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. One-Pot Route towards Active TiO₂ Doped Hierarchically Porous Cellulose: Highly Efficient Photocatalysts for Methylene Blue Degradation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Wang, Kunpeng; Shu, Yu; Zou, Fangdong; Zhang, Boxing; Sun, Guangwu; Uyama, Hiroshi; Wang, Xinhou

    2017-03-31

    In this study, novel photocatalyst monolith materials were successfully fabricated by a non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) technique. By adding a certain amount of ethyl acetate (as non-solvent) into a cellulose/LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) solution, and successively adding titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanoparticles (NPs), cellulose/TiO₂ composite monoliths with hierarchically porous structures were easily formed. The obtained composite monoliths possessed mesopores, and two kinds of macropores. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Ultraviolet-visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis) measurements were adopted to characterize the cellulose/TiO₂ composite monolith. The cellulose/TiO₂ composite monoliths showed high efficiency of photocatalytic activity in the decomposition of methylene blue dye, which was decomposed up to 99% within 60 min under UV light. Moreover, the composite monoliths could retain 90% of the photodegradation efficiency after 10 cycles. The novel NIPS technique has great potential for fabricating recyclable photocatalysts with highly efficiency.

  19. Bifunctional-nanotemplate assisted synthesis of nanoporous SrTiO₃ photocatalysts toward efficient degradation of organic pollutant.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Shuxin; Li, Peng; Xu, Hua; Tong, Hua; Liu, Lequan; Ye, Jinhua

    2014-12-24

    Nanoporous SrTiO3 photocatalysts were fabricated via a novel technique, the nanotemplate assisted sol-gel hydrothermal reaction. In the alkaline-environment hydrothermal reaction, the SiO2 nanotemplate not only served as pore generator but also worked on adjusting the local reaction environment around the SrTiO3 nanocrystals. This contributed to a continuous modulation between the surface area and the crystallinity of the photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activities of the nanoporous SrTiO3 samples were evaluated by the degradation of gaseous isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Due to an optimal equilibrium between surface area and crystallinity, a SrTiO3 sample synthesized via adding 40% template (STO-SiO2-40%) showed the highest activity, which achieves 40 and 8 times of enhancement of CO2 evolution in comparison with the sample prepared without template and a commercial nano-SrTiO3, respectively. The photodegradation mechanism of IPA over this sample was also investigated in detail. This synthetic technique is also available to prepare the other nanoporous titanates, such as doped SrTiO3 samples and alkali-metal titanates.

  20. Fe-based MOFs for efficient adsorption and degradation of acid orange 7 in aqueous solution via persulfate activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianghui; Guo, Weilin; Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Ruiqin; Liu, Hua

    2016-04-01

    Fe-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) including MIL-101(Fe), MIL-100(Fe), MIL-53(Fe), and MIL-88B(Fe) prepared via a facile solvothermal process were introduced as both adsorbents and catalysts to generate powerful radicals from persulfate for acid orange 7 (AO7) removal in aqueous solution. Various catalysts were described and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectra. Because of the high specific surface area of the materials, we studied the adsorption isotherms of the four MILs by the fitting of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Meanwhile, the catalytic activities in persulfate oxidation system were investigated. The results showed that the sequence of the materials ability in the combination of adsorption and degradation was MIL-101(Fe) > MIL-100(Fe) > MIL-53(Fe) > MIL-88B(Fe), which had a close connection with the activity of metal ion in active site of the catalysts and their different cages in size. Moreover, the reactive species in MILs/persulfate system were identified as sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals. The reaction mechanism for persulfate activation over MILs was also studied.

  1. Nano-Titania Photocatalyst Loaded on W-MCM-41 Support and Its Highly Efficient Degradation of Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, H.; Saravanan, R.; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2011-07-01

    Most of the azo dyes produced in textile, printing, paper manufacturing, pulp processing and pharmaceutical industries contain different organic contaminants. These dyes can enter the body through ingestion and the high content in living systems can prove to be carcinogenic. Therefore photocatalytic degradation of such toxic organic compounds in water, in the presence of semiconductor powders has received much attention over the last two decades. Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide, TiO2, is a well studied and commonly used material for photocatalytic applications. However, the control of particle size, monodispersity, large catalytic surface for sufficient adsorption of organic pollutants, recovery and recycle of TiO2 nanoparticles are challenging tasks. Hence in the present study, titania was introduced into the nanopores (2-10 nm size) of MCM-41 to produce stable nanoparticles of uniform size and shape. Further, in order to lengthen the life time of the excited electrons/holes during photoreaction, tungsten atoms were incorporated in to the MCM-41 silica matrix in addition to titania loading.

  2. Convenient synthesis of peony-like FeWO4 with super adsorbent properties for efficient degradation of organic dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xixi; Xie, Guomeng; Liu, Xin; Wu, Yi; Qin, Lizhao; Li, Qing

    2017-07-01

    Uniform peony-like FeWO4 (average diameter 430 nm) was synthesized by using a convenient solvothermal route in the presence of ethylene glycol and β-cyclodextrin. Using some research techniques, it was verified that the product is phase-pure and well-crystalline peony-like FeWO4, which was made up of many small nanosheets with a thickness of about 10 nm. The specific surface area and the band gap energy of the peony-like FeWO4 were 67.836 m2 g-1 and 1.87 eV, respectively. The product showed an extremely fast adsorbent speed and an excellent adsorbtion capacity for organic dyes. In particular, for methylene blue (MB), the adsorption capacities of the peony-like FeWO4 reached as high as 69.4 mg g-1 in only 5 min. The pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm model showed good fit with the adsorption data. According to the Langmuir isotherm model, the maximum adsorption capacity was 79.18 mg g-1 for MB. In addition, in the presence of H2O2, the peony-like FeWO4 showed good catalytic performance such that 98% of MB was degraded in only 32 min.

  3. Bismuth oxyiodide incorporated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite material as an efficient photocatalyst for visible light assisted degradation of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoth, R.; Babu, S. Ganesh; Ramachandran, R.; Neppolian, B.

    2017-10-01

    Herein, Bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) - reduced graphene oxide (rGO) photocatalysts were prepared via simple hydrothermal method. The BiOI-rGO photocatalyst exhibited high crystallinity with tetragonal phase of BiOI. In addition, the electronic interaction between rGO sheet and BiOI reduced the band-gap value from 1.86 eV of bare BiOI to 1.51 eV of BiOI-rGO (6 wt%) photocatalyst. More interestingly, the rGO showed a strong influence on tailoring the morphology of BiOI to different nanostructures with different rGO loading (wt%), which further reflected differences in the photocatalytic activity. A significant quenching in the photoluminescence intensity of rGO supported BiOI photocatalyst confirmed the effective suppression of electron-hole pair recombination. The optimized rGO (4 wt%) loaded BiOI photocatalyst significantly improved the photocatalytic activity (∼85%) towards the degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye compared to that of pristine BiOI (∼29%). Thus, around three folds enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of BiOI-rGO (4 wt%) catalyst was mainly attributed to ultrafast separation of electron-hole pairs and rapid transportation of carriers by rGO support. The superior photocatalytic activity demonstrated by this newly synthesized BiOI-rGO photocatalyst makes it's a potential candidate for environmental remediation process.

  4. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants by magnetically recoverable nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalysts under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hamzezadeh-Nakhjavani, Sahar; Tavakoli, Omid; Akhlaghi, Seyed Parham; Salehi, Zeinab; Esmailnejad-Ahranjani, Parvaneh; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2015-12-01

    Preparation of novel nanocomposite particles (NCPs) with high visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity and possessing recovery potential after advanced oxidation process (AOP) is much desired. In this study, pure anatase phase titania (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) as well as three types of NCPs including nitrogen-doped titania (TiO2-N), titania-coated magnetic silica (Fe3O4 cluster@SiO2@TiO2 (FST)), and a novel magnetically recoverable TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalyst containing nitrogen element (Fe3O4 cluster@SiO2@TiO2-N (FST-N)) were successfully synthesized via a sol-gel process. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples was further investigated and compared with each other by degradation of phenol, as a model for the organic pollutants, in deionized (DI) water under visible light irradiation. The TiO2-N (55 ± 1.5%) and FST-N (46 ± 1.5%) samples exhibited efficient photocatalytic activity in terms of phenol degradation under visible light irradiation, while undoped samples were almost inactive under same operating conditions. Moreover, the effects of key operational parameters, the optimum sample calcination temperature, and reusability of FST-N NCPs were evaluated. Under optimum conditions (calcination temperature of 400 °C and near-neutral reaction medium), the obtained results revealed efficient degradation of phenol for FST-N NCPs under visible light irradiation (46 ± 1.5%), high yield magnetic separation and efficient reusability of FST-N NCPs (88.88% of its initial value) over 10 times reuse.

  5. Comparison of halide impacts on the efficiency of contaminant degradation by sulfate and hydroxyl radical-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Pignatello, Joseph J; Ma, Jun; Mitch, William A

    2014-02-18

    The effect of halides on organic contaminant destruction efficiency was compared for UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) AOP treatments of saline waters; benzoic acid, 3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid, and cyclohexanecarboxylic acid were used as models for aromatic, alkene, and alkane constituents of naphthenic acids in oil-field waters. In model freshwater, contaminant degradation was higher by UV/S2O8(2-) because of the higher quantum efficiency for S2O8(2-) than H2O2 photolysis. The conversion of (•)OH and SO4(•-) radicals to less reactive halogen radicals in the presence of seawater halides reduced the degradation efficiency of benzoic acid and cyclohexanecarboxylic acid. The UV/S2O8(2-) AOP was more affected by Cl(-) than the UV/H2O2 AOP because oxidation of Cl(-) is more favorable by SO4(•-) than (•)OH at pH 7. Degradation of 3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid, was not affected by halides, likely because of the high reactivity of halogen radicals with alkenes. Despite its relatively low concentration in saline waters compared to Cl(-), Br(-) was particularly important. Br(-) promoted halogen radical formation for both AOPs resulting in ClBr(•-), Br2(•-), and CO3(•-) concentrations orders of magnitude higher than (•)OH and SO4(•-) concentrations and reducing differences in halide impacts between the two AOPs. Kinetic modeling of the UV/H2O2 AOP indicated a synergism between Br(-) and Cl(-), with Br(-) scavenging of (•)OH leading to BrOH(•-), and further reactions of Cl(-) with this and other brominated radicals promoting halogen radical concentrations. In contaminant mixtures, the conversion of (•)OH and SO4(•-) radicals to more selective CO3(•-) and halogen radicals favored attack on highly reactive reaction centers represented by the alkene group of 3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid and the aromatic group of the model compound, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, at the expense of less reactive reaction centers such as aromatic rings and alkane groups

  6. Characterization and modeling of radiation damages via internal radiative efficiency in multi-junction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kim, Changsu; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Chen, Shaoqiang; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko; Akiyama, Hidefumi

    2016-03-01

    In order to understand the radiation effects in space-used multi-junction solar cells, we characterized degradations of internal radiative efficiency (ηint i ) in respective subcells in InGaP/GaAs double-junction solar cells after 1-MeV electron irradiations with different electrons fluences (Φ) via absolute electroluminescence (EL) measurements, because ηint i purely represents material-quality change due to radiation damage, independently from cell structures. We analyzed the degradation of ηint i under different Φ and found that the data of ηint i versus Φ in moderate and high Φ regions are very similar and almost independent of subcell materials, while the difference in beginning-of-life qualities of InGaP and GaAs materials causes dominant difference in sub-cell sensitivity to the low radiation damages. Finally, a simple model was proposed to explain the mechanism in degradation of ηint i, and also well explained the degradation behavior in open-circuit voltage for these multi-junction solar cells.

  7. How endogenous plant cell-wall degradation mechanisms can help achieve higher efficiency in saccharification of biomass.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eveline Q P; De Souza, Amanda P; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-07-01

    Cell-wall recalcitrance to hydrolysis still represents one of the major bottlenecks for second-generation bioethanol production. This occurs despite the development of pre-treatments, the prospect of new enzymes, and the production of transgenic plants with less-recalcitrant cell walls. Recalcitrance, which is the intrinsic resistance to breakdown imposed by polymer assembly, is the result of inherent limitations in its three domains. These consist of: (i) porosity, associated with a pectin matrix impairing trafficking through the wall; (ii) the glycomic code, which refers to the fine-structural emergent complexity of cell-wall polymers that are unique to cells, tissues, and species; and (iii) cellulose crystallinity, which refers to the organization in micro- and/or macrofibrils. One way to circumvent recalcitrance could be by following cell-wall hydrolysis strategies underlying plant endogenous mechanisms that are optimized to precisely modify cell walls in planta. Thus, the cell-wall degradation that occurs during fruit ripening, abscission, storage cell-wall mobilization, and aerenchyma formation are reviewed in order to highlight how plants deal with recalcitrance and which are the routes to couple prospective enzymes and cocktail designs with cell-wall features. The manipulation of key enzyme levels in planta can help achieving biologically pre-treated walls (i.e. less recalcitrant) before plants are harvested for bioethanol production. This may be helpful in decreasing the costs associated with producing bioethanol from biomass. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Integrated ternary nanocomposite of TiO2/NiO/reduced graphene oxide as a visible light photocatalyst for efficient degradation of o-chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajit; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated a novel approach for the synthesis of an integrated ternary nanocomposite which could act as a good photo-catalyst under visible light irradiation for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous environments. The photo-catalyst included nickel oxide (NiO) as a dopant, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as a good carbon basal support for enhancement of the photo-catalytic activity of TiO2. Under irradiation with visible light, the ternary nanocomposite (TiO2/NiO-RGO) system generates e(-)/h(+) pairs, and then reacts with H2O and O2(-) molecules to produce oxy-radicals which can be used for the mineralization of o-chlorophenol from aqueous solution. The characteristic of all photo-catalysts were investigated by UV-Vis analysis, with surface area and pore size measurements by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), crystallinity by X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and morphology by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The functional groups were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy before and after o-chlorophenol degradation. TiO2/NiO-RGO was capable of achieving 88.4% photo-degradation of 100 mg/L o-chlorophenol (100 mL) within 8 h with addition of 0.01% H2O2 under visible light irradiation at pH 6.5. The photo-degradation followed a pseudo-first-order reaction. The TiO2/NiO-RGO nanocomposite retained its high removal efficiency, even after four photo-catalytic cycles.

  9. A Patatin-Like Protein Associated with the Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Granules of Haloferax mediterranei Acts as an Efficient Depolymerase in the Degradation of Native PHA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guiming; Hou, Jing; Cai, Shuangfeng; Zhao, Dahe; Cai, Lei; Han, Jing; Zhou, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The key enzymes and pathways involved in polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis in haloarchaea have been identified in recent years, but the haloarchaeal enzymes for PHA degradation remain unknown. In this study, a patatin-like PHA depolymerase, PhaZh1, was determined to be located on the PHA granules in the haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei. PhaZh1 hydrolyzed the native PHA (nPHA) [including native polyhydroxybutyrate (nPHB) and native poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (nPHBV) in this study] granules in vitro with 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) monomer as the primary product. The site-directed mutagenesis of PhaZh1 indicated that Gly16, Ser47 (in a classical lipase box, G-X-S47-X-G), and Asp195 of this depolymerase were essential for its activity in nPHA granule hydrolysis. Notably, phaZh1 and bdhA (encoding putative 3HB dehydrogenase) form a gene cluster (HFX_6463 to _6464) in H. mediterranei. The 3HB monomer generated from nPHA degradation by PhaZh1 could be further converted into acetoacetate by BdhA, indicating that PhaZh1-BdhA may constitute the first part of a PHA degradation pathway in vivo. Interestingly, although PhaZh1 showed efficient activity and was most likely the key enzyme in nPHA granule hydrolysis in vitro, the knockout of phaZh1 had no significant effect on the intracellular PHA mobilization, implying the existence of an alternative PHA mobilization pathway(s) that functions effectively within the cells of H. mediterranei. Therefore, identification of this patatin-like depolymerase of haloarchaea may provide a new strategy for producing the high-value-added chiral compound (R)-3HB and may also shed light on the PHA mobilization in haloarchaea. PMID:25710370

  10. A patatin-like protein associated with the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules of Haloferax mediterranei acts as an efficient depolymerase in the degradation of native PHA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiming; Hou, Jing; Cai, Shuangfeng; Zhao, Dahe; Cai, Lei; Han, Jing; Zhou, Jian; Xiang, Hua

    2015-05-01

    The key enzymes and pathways involved in polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis in haloarchaea have been identified in recent years, but the haloarchaeal enzymes for PHA degradation remain unknown. In this study, a patatin-like PHA depolymerase, PhaZh1, was determined to be located on the PHA granules in the haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei. PhaZh1 hydrolyzed the native PHA (nPHA) [including native polyhydroxybutyrate (nPHB) and native poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (nPHBV) in this study] granules in vitro with 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) monomer as the primary product. The site-directed mutagenesis of PhaZh1 indicated that Gly16, Ser47 (in a classical lipase box, G-X-S47-X-G), and Asp195 of this depolymerase were essential for its activity in nPHA granule hydrolysis. Notably, phaZh1 and bdhA (encoding putative 3HB dehydrogenase) form a gene cluster (HFX_6463 to _6464) in H. mediterranei. The 3HB monomer generated from nPHA degradation by PhaZh1 could be further converted into acetoacetate by BdhA, indicating that PhaZh1-BdhA may constitute the first part of a PHA degradation pathway in vivo. Interestingly, although PhaZh1 showed efficient activity and was most likely the key enzyme in nPHA granule hydrolysis in vitro, the knockout of phaZh1 had no significant effect on the intracellular PHA mobilization, implying the existence of an alternative PHA mobilization pathway(s) that functions effectively within the cells of H. mediterranei. Therefore, identification of this patatin-like depolymerase of haloarchaea may provide a new strategy for producing the high-value-added chiral compound (R)-3HB and may also shed light on the PHA mobilization in haloarchaea. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Efficient methanogenic degradation of alcohol ethoxylates and microbial community acclimation in treatment of municipal wastewater using a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yulun; Niu, Qigui; Kato, Hiroyuki; Sugo, Toshiki; Tian, Xike; Li, Yu-You

    2017-02-01

    The effect of alcohol ethoxylates on the treatment of municipal wastewater by a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor was investigated by a 400days operation including the treatment efficiency, methanogenic activity of sludge and microbial community structure. The results indicated that alcohol ethoxylates (5.0-200mg/L) was efficiently degraded and converted into methane due to the similar COD removal 95.5-98.8% and rising biogas production rate (2.30-4.25L/d) compared with control (96.8% and 2.55L/d). The microbes in sludge could copy with the presence of alcohol ethoxylates in wastewater by releasing more SMP and EPS, which caused a higher membrane fouling rate. Moreover, via long term acclimation, the specific methanogenic activity of sludge was greatly enhanced due to the changes of microbial community structure. Hence, the sludge self-acclimation to alcohol ethoxylates was responsible to the efficient methane recovery in treatment of municipal wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Room Temperature Electroluminescence from Tensile-Strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge Multiple Quantum Wells on a Ge Virtual Substrate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guangyang; Chen, Ningli; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Zhiwei; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jianyuan; Xu, Jianfang; Chen, Songyan; Li, Cheng

    2016-09-27

    Direct band electroluminescence (EL) from tensile-strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on a Ge virtual substrate (VS) at room temperature is reported herein. Due to the competitive result of quantum confinement Stark effect and bandgap narrowing induced by tensile strain in Ge wells, electroluminescence from Γ1-HH1 transition in 12-nm Ge wells was observed at around 1550 nm. As injection current density increases, additional emission shoulders from Γ2-HH2 transition in Ge wells and Ge VS appeared at around 1300-1400 nm and 1600-1700 nm, respectively. The peak energy of EL shifted to the lower energy side superquadratically with an increase of injection current density as a result of the Joule heating effect. During the elevation of environmental temperature, EL intensity increased due to a reduction of energy between L and Γ valleys of Ge. Empirical fitting of the relationship between the integrated intensity of EL (L) and injection current density (J) with L~J(m) shows that the m factor increased with injection current density, suggesting higher light emitting efficiency of the diode at larger injection current densities, which can be attributed to larger carrier occupations in the Γ valley and the heavy hole (HH) valance band at higher temperatures.

  13. Photo- and electroluminescent properties of bithiophene disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazoles and their application as active components in organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grykien, Remigiusz; Luszczynska, Beata; Glowacki, Ireneusz; Kurach, Ewa; Rybakiewicz, Renata; Kotwica, Kamil; Zagorska, Malgorzata; Pron, Adam; Tassini, Paolo; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Mauro, Anna De Girolamo Del; Fasolino, Tommaso; Rega, Romina; Pandolfi, Giuseppe; Minarini, Carla; Aprano, Salvatore

    2014-11-01

    Photo- and electroluminescence of five bithiophene disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazoles, constituting a new class of solution processable materials for organic opto-electronics, were studied. It was found that the introduction of alkyl solubilizing substituents bathochromically shifted the photo- and electroluminescence bands. The most pronounced effect was observed for the substitution at the Cα position which changed the emitting light color from bluish to green. All five derivatives were tested in host/guest type organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with either poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) or poly(N-vinylcarbazole) + 2-tert-butylphenyl-5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PVK + PBD) matrices. The latter matrix turned out especially well suited for these guest molecules yielding devices of varying color coordinates. The best luminance (750 cd/m2) was measured for 2,5-bis(5‧-octyl-2,2‧-bithiophene-5-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole with the luminous efficiency exceeding 0.4 cd/A.

  14. Room Temperature Electroluminescence from Tensile-Strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge Multiple Quantum Wells on a Ge Virtual Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Guangyang; Chen, Ningli; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Zhiwei; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jianyuan; Xu, Jianfang; Chen, Songyan; Li, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Direct band electroluminescence (EL) from tensile-strained Si0.13Ge0.87/Ge multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on a Ge virtual substrate (VS) at room temperature is reported herein. Due to the competitive result of quantum confinement Stark effect and bandgap narrowing induced by tensile strain in Ge wells, electroluminescence from Γ1-HH1 transition in 12-nm Ge wells was observed at around 1550 nm. As injection current density increases, additional emission shoulders from Γ2-HH2 transition in Ge wells and Ge VS appeared at around 1300–1400 nm and 1600–1700 nm, respectively. The peak energy of EL shifted to the lower energy side superquadratically with an increase of injection current density as a result of the Joule heating effect. During the elevation of environmental temperature, EL intensity increased due to a reduction of energy between L and Γ valleys of Ge. Empirical fitting of the relationship between the integrated intensity of EL (L) and injection current density (J) with L~Jm shows that the m factor increased with injection current density, suggesting higher light emitting efficiency of the diode at larger injection current densities, which can be attributed to larger carrier occupations in the Γ valley and the heavy hole (HH) valance band at higher temperatures. PMID:28773923

  15. Highly efficient electro-generation of hydrogen peroxide using NCNT/NF/CNT air diffusion electrode for electro-Fenton degradation of p-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Tang, Q; Wang, D; Yao, D M; Yang, C W; Sun, Y C

    2016-01-01

    To promote the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in electro-Fenton system, a new air diffusion electrode (ADE) was put forward in the present work using N-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NCNT) as the catalyst layer, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) as the diffusion layer, and nickel foam (NF) as the supporting material, respectively. The catalyst layer in ADE was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Then the performances of H2O2 accumulation and p-nitrophenol (p-NP) degradation with the electrode (NCNT/NF/CNT ADE) were investigated. The experimental results showed that H2O2 accumulation on the NCNT/NF/CNT ADE was greatly improved by the presence of N doping, and H2O2 accumulation concentration could reach 307 mg L(-1) after 120 min at the current intensity of 100 mA. Moreover, the NCNT/NF/CNT ADE presented more effective performance on p-NP degradation than the CNT/NF/CNT ADE or the NF ADE. p-NP of initial 50 mg L(-1) could be almost completely removed after 30 min, and the total organic carbon removal efficiency reached 62.61% after 120 min when 0.4 mM Fe(2+) was added into the system. The repeatability test suggested that the stability of the NCNT/NF/CNT ADE was very good.

  16. Design of a novel Cu₂O/TiO₂/carbon aerogel electrode and its efficient electrosorption-assisted visible light photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yabo; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhao, Guohua; Tian, Hongyi; Shi, Huijie; Zhou, Tianchen

    2012-08-01

    Cu(2)O/TiO(2) heterojunction photocatalyst is built on carbon aerogel (CA) substrate with good adsorption properties by sol impregnation and seed-mediated synthesis approach. The Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA electrode has excellent electrosorptive and high efficient photocatalytic properties. Its morphology and surface chemical composition are characterized with SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra show that the optical absorption edge for Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA appears at 636 nm. Under visible-light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation, the photocurrent density increment on Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA is 60 times of that on Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/FTO. The electrochemical characteristic is investigated with electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS). The Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA electrode is further applied in the electrosorptive photodegradation of the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) wastewater. The result shows that the removal ratio of 2,4,6-TCP in 5.5 h on Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA is 96.3% and the TOC removal is 91.3%. The intermediates generated in the degradation process are analyzed by GC-MS and HPLC. The possible mechanism of visible light photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-TCP on Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA is also studied.

  17. Propham mineralization in aqueous medium by anodic oxidation using boron-doped diamond anode: influence of experimental parameters on degradation kinetics and mineralization efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Ali; Sahin, Yücel; Koparal, A Savaş; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2008-06-01

    This study aims the removal of a carbamate herbicide, propham, from aqueous solution by direct electrochemical advanced oxidation process using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. This electrode produces large quantities of hydroxyl radicals from oxidation of water, which leads to the oxidative degradation of propham up to its total mineralization. Effect of operational parameters such as current, temperature, pH and supporting electrolyte on the degradation and mineralization rate was studied. The applied current and temperature exert a prominent effect on the total organic carbon (TOC) removal rate of the solutions. The mineralization of propham can be performed at any pH value between 3 and 11 without any loss in oxidation efficiency. The propham decay and its overall mineralization reaction follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The apparent rate constant value of propham oxidation was determined as 4.8 x 10(-4)s(-1) at 100 mA and 35 degrees C in the presence of 50mM Na(2)SO(4) in acidic media (pH: 3). A general mineralization sequence was proposed considering the identified oxidation intermediates.

  18. Different types of degradable vectors from low-molecular-weight polycation-functionalized poly(aspartic acid) for efficient gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Dou, X B; Hu, Y; Zhao, N N; Xu, F J

    2014-03-01

    Poly(aspartic acid) (PAsp) has been employed as the potential backbone for the preparation of efficient gene carriers, due to its low cytotoxicity, good biodegradability and excellent biocompatibility. In this work, the degradable linear or star-shaped PBLA was first prepared via ring-opining polymerization of β-benzyl-L-aspartate N-carboxy anhydride (BLA-NCA) initiated by ethylenediamine (ED) or ED-functionalized cyclodextrin cores. Then, PBLA was functionalized via aminolysis reaction with low-molecular-weight poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) with one terminal primary amine group (PDMAEMA-NH2), followed by addition of excess ED or ethanolamine (EA) to complete the aminolysis process. The obtained different types of cationic PAsp-based vectors including linear or star PAsp-PDM-NH2 and PAsp-PDM-OH exhibited good condensation capability and degradability, benefiting gene delivery process. In comparison with gold standard polyethylenimine (PEI, ∼ 25 kDa), the cationic PAsp-based vectors, particularly star-shaped ones, exhibited much better transfection performances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasonic-assisted one-pot preparation of ZnO/Ag3VO4 nanocomposites for efficiently degradation of organic pollutants under visible-light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiantazh, Fariba; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2015-11-01

    We report a facile ultrasonic-assisted one-pot method for preparation of ZnO/Ag3VO4 nanocomposites with different mole fractions of silver vanadate. The preparation method has considerable merits such as short preparation time, large-scale, and one-pot strategy. The resultant samples were fairly characterized by means of XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, UV-vis DRS, FT-IR, and PL techniques. Visible-light activity of the resultant samples was investigated by degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue (MB), and methyl orange (MO). Among the prepared nanocomposites, the ZnO/Ag3VO4 nanocomposite with 0.073 mole fraction of Ag3VO4 exhibited the best activity and excessive amount of Ag3VO4 resulted in decrease of the activity. Photocatalytic activity of this nanocomposite under visible-light irradiation is about 21, 56, and 2.8-fold higher than that of the ZnO sample in degradation of RhB, MB, and MO, respectively. The highly enhanced activity of the nanocomposite was attributed to greater generation of electron-hole pairs, due to photosensitizing role of Ag3VO4 under visible-light irradiation, and efficiently separation of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs, due to formation of n-n heterojunction between the counterparts. Furthermore, it was revealed that the photocatalytic activity largely depends on ultrasonic irradiation time, calcination temperature, and scavengers of the reactive species.

  20. A highly efficient immobilized ZnO/Zn photoanode for degradation of azo dye Reactive Green 19 in a photocatalytic fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin-Li; Ho, Li-Ngee; Ong, Soon-An; Wong, Yee-Shian; Voon, Chun-Hong; Khalik, Wan Fadhilah; Yusoff, Nik Athirah; Nordin, Noradiba

    2017-01-01

    Photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) is a potential wastewater treatment technology that can generate electricity from the conversion of chemical energy of organic pollutants. An immobilized ZnO/Zn fabricated by sonication and heat attachment method was applied as the photoanode and Pt/C plate was used as the cathode of the PFC in this study. Factors that affect the decolorization efficiency and electricity generation of the PFC such as different initial dye concentrations and pH were investigated. Results revealed that the degradation of Reactive Green 19 (RG19) was enhanced in a closed circuit PFC compared with that of a opened circuit PFC. Almost 100% decolorization could be achieved in 8 h when 250 mL of 30 mg L(-1) of RG19 was treated in a PFC without any supporting electrolyte. The highest short circuit current of 0.0427 mA cm(-2) and maximum power density of 0.0102 mW cm(-2) was obtained by PFC using 30 mg L(-1) of RG19. The correlation between dye degradation, conductivity and voltage output were also investigated and discussed.