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Sample records for electroluminescent devices based

  1. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  2. Hybrid electroluminescent device based on MEH-PPV and ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewidy, Dina.; Gadallah, A.-S.; Fattah, G. Abdel

    2017-02-01

    Hybird organic/inorganic electroluminescent device based on the structure of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/ZnO/ZnO submicrorods/Al has been manufactured. Spin coating has been used to deposit both PEDOT:PSS and MEH-PPV. Two-step process has been used to synthesis ZnO submicrorods, namely, spin coating and chemical bath deposition. Changing the dimensions of the ZnO submicrorods in this layer structure has been investigated to improve the performance of the organic/inorganic electroluminescence device. Such layer structure provides electroluminescence with narrow emission bands due to a high gain with this structure. X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscope images show that ZnO submicrorods have hexagon structure. Current-voltage curve for the structure has been reported. Electroluminescence curves (electroluminescence intensity versus wavelength) at different bias voltages have been presented and these results show narrowing in full width at half maximum in the spectra at high current density compared to photoluminescence excitation. The narrowing in the spectrum has been explained.

  3. Electroluminescent devices based on cross-linked polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozano, Luisa D.; Carter, Kenneth R.; Lee, Victor Y.; Miller, Robert D.; DiPietro, Richard; Scott, J. Campbell

    2003-09-01

    We report the electrical and optical properties of two-component blends of electron and hole transporting materials in single and bilayer structures for organic light emitting diode (OLED) applications. The materials considered were a blue-emitting bipolar transporting polyfluorene, poly(9,9-di-n-hexylfluorene) (DHF), and a hole-transporting material, poly-[4-nhexyltriphenylamine] (HTPA). We compare the steady state OLED performance, transport, and optical properties of devices and describe morphology studies of the polymer films based on cross-linkable (x) blends with the analogous non-cross-linkable blends. The cross-linkable blends exhibit highest efficiency at low concentrations of the hole transporting material. At these concentrations the single layer OLEDs reach efficiencies greater than 0.1%, and are higher than for single layer x-DHF or the binary non-cross-linkable blend by more than an order of magnitude. Bilayer structures with homogeneous x-HTPA as hole transport layer show efficiencies between 0.08% and 0.96%, depending on the blend concentration in the emitting layer and on the top contact. We interpret these results in terms of the relative degree of phase segregation in the cross-linked networks versus the non-cross-linkable blends.

  4. Mechanisms of efficiency enhancement in the doped electroluminescent devices based on a europium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Hongjie; Shi, Weidong; Deng, Ruiping; Li, Zhefeng; Yu, Jiangbo; Guo, Zhiyong

    2008-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the dependence of electroluminescence (EL) efficiency on carrier distribution in the light-emitting layer (EML) of the device based on Eu(TTA)3phen (TTA=thenoyltrifluoroacetone, phen=1,10-phenanthroline) doped 4,4'-N,N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) system. We found that EL efficiency increases monotonously with increasing hole injection even when holes are the majority carriers. This phenomenon was attributed to the accumulation of holes in EML, which improves the balance of holes and electrons on Eu(TTA)3phen molecules, thus enhancing the EL efficiency. To further improve the balance of holes and electrons on Eu(TTA)3phen molecules, the injection of electron was gently decreased by modulating the thickness of Al and LiF layers. Interestingly, EL efficiency increases gradually to a maximum and then decreases rapidly with decreasing electron injection. As a result, the device with 80 nm Al and 1.2 nm LiF obtained the maximal current efficiency of 9.53 cd/A, power efficiency of 5.35 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 5.15%. Our experimental results demonstrated that the balance of holes and electrons on dye molecules is the precondition for the doped device to obtain high EL efficiency, when carrier trapping is the dominant EL mechanism.

  5. Fabrication of a white electroluminescent device based on bilayered yellow and blue quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Heon; Kang, Hee-Don; Park, Byoungnam; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Jang, Ho Seong; Do, Young Rag; Yang, Heesun

    2015-03-12

    Until now most work on colloidal quantum dot-light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) has been focused on the improvement of the electroluminescent (EL) performance of monochromatic devices, and multi-colored white QLEDs comprising more than one type of QD emitter have been rarely investigated. To demonstrate a white EL as a result of color mixing between blue and yellow, herein a unique combination of two dissimilar QDs of blue- CdZnS/ZnS plus a yellow-emitting Cu-In-S (CIS)/ZnS is used for the formation of the emitting layer (EML) of a multilayered QLED. First, the QLED consisting of a single EML randomly mixed with two QDs is fabricated, however, its EL is dominated by blue emission with the contribution of yellow emission substantially weaker. Thus, another EML configuration is devised in the form of a QD bilayer with two stacking sequences of CdZnS/ZnS//CIS/ZnS QD and vice versa. The QLED with the former stacking sequence shows an overwhelming contribution of blue EL, similar to the mixed QD EML-based device. Upon applying the oppositely stacked QD bilayer of CIS/ZnS//CdZnS/ZnS, however, a bicolored white EL can be successfully achieved by means of the effective extension of the radiative excitonic recombination zone throughout both QD EML regions. Such QD EML configuration-dependent EL results, which are discussed primarily using the proposed device energy level diagram, strongly suggest that the positional design of individual QD emitters is a critical factor for the realization of multicolored, white emissive devices.

  6. Transient electroluminescence under double rectangular voltage pulses in light-emitting devices based on Evans blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Pal, A. J.

    2000-05-01

    Transient electroluminescence (EL) characteristics of light emitting devices fabricated with Evans blue have been studied. A sequence of two rectangular voltage pulses separated by a time delay has been applied. The voltage amplitude and the separation between the pulses have been varied, and EL intensity has been measured. These studies have helped us to understand the behaviour of the space charges accumulated at the interfaces of the active layer with two electrodes. The variation of EL intensity during the second pulse for different separation times gives information regarding the relaxation process of accumulated charges in the device. The EL under a square-wave ac voltage further supports the role of accumulated charge in device operation.

  7. Fabrication of a white electroluminescent device based on bilayered yellow and blue quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Heon; Kang, Hee-Don; Park, Byoungnam; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Jang, Ho Seong; Do, Young Rag; Yang, Heesun

    2015-03-01

    Until now most work on colloidal quantum dot-light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) has been focused on the improvement of the electroluminescent (EL) performance of monochromatic devices, and multi-colored white QLEDs comprising more than one type of QD emitter have been rarely investigated. To demonstrate a white EL as a result of color mixing between blue and yellow, herein a unique combination of two dissimilar QDs of blue- CdZnS/ZnS plus a yellow-emitting Cu-In-S (CIS)/ZnS is used for the formation of the emitting layer (EML) of a multilayered QLED. First, the QLED consisting of a single EML randomly mixed with two QDs is fabricated, however, its EL is dominated by blue emission with the contribution of yellow emission substantially weaker. Thus, another EML configuration is devised in the form of a QD bilayer with two stacking sequences of CdZnS/ZnS//CIS/ZnS QD and vice versa. The QLED with the former stacking sequence shows an overwhelming contribution of blue EL, similar to the mixed QD EML-based device. Upon applying the oppositely stacked QD bilayer of CIS/ZnS//CdZnS/ZnS, however, a bicolored white EL can be successfully achieved by means of the effective extension of the radiative excitonic recombination zone throughout both QD EML regions. Such QD EML configuration-dependent EL results, which are discussed primarily using the proposed device energy level diagram, strongly suggest that the positional design of individual QD emitters is a critical factor for the realization of multicolored, white emissive devices.Until now most work on colloidal quantum dot-light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) has been focused on the improvement of the electroluminescent (EL) performance of monochromatic devices, and multi-colored white QLEDs comprising more than one type of QD emitter have been rarely investigated. To demonstrate a white EL as a result of color mixing between blue and yellow, herein a unique combination of two dissimilar QDs of blue- CdZnS/ZnS plus a yellow-emitting Cu

  8. Highly Stretchable and Waterproof Electroluminescence Device Based on Superstable Stretchable Transparent Electrode.

    PubMed

    You, Banseok; Kim, Youngmin; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Jong-Woong

    2017-02-15

    Realization of devices with enhanced stretchability and waterproof properties will significantly expand the reach of electronics. To this end, we herein fabricate an elastic transparent conductor that comprises silver nanowires (AgNWs) on a hydroxylated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate covered by polyurethane urea (PUU), which is fully compatible with both materials. Carboxylic acid groups of PUU was designed to form hydrogen bonds with the carbonyl groups of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) on the AgNW surface, resulting in an enhanced affinity of AgNWs for PUU. Exceptionally strong hydrogen bonds between PUU and the hydroxylated PDMS thus facilitate the achievement of water sealable, mechanically stable, and stretchable transparent electrodes. To fabricate stretchable electroluminescence (EL) devices, ZnS particles were mixed with PUU, and the mixture was coated onto the AgNWs/hydroxylated PDMS, followed by a face-to-face lamination with another identical electrode. The devices could be stretched up to 150% without a severe reduction in the emission intensity, and they survived 5000 cycles of 100% stretch-release testing. The high adhesion between PUU and PDMS even in water is responsible for the good waterproof characteristics of the EL devices. These results pave the way for realization of fully stretchable and waterproof electronic devices.

  9. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Self-quenching of excited europium ions in Eu(DBM)3bath-based organic electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C. J.; Wong, T. C.; Hung, L. S.; Lee, S. T.; Hong, Z. R.; Li, W. L.

    2001-06-01

    Luminance-current characteristics of organic electroluminescent devices based on the europium complex of europium(dibenzoylmethanato)3 (bathophenanthroline) (Eu(DBM)3bath) have been investigated. Transient measurements were carried out to study the decay process of excited Eu3+ ions. A comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculation shows that biexcitonic quenching among the excited Eu3+ ions is an important channel in their decay process, and this quenching process is a primary cause for our observation of a rapid decrease in quantum efficiency with increasing current density. Extending the recombination zone is found to be beneficial to reducing this defective effect. The mechanism of the quenching process is also discussed.

  10. Infrared and visible emission from organic electroluminescent devices based on praseodymium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ziruo; Liang, Chunjun; Li, Ruigang; Zang, Faxin; Fan, Di; Li, Wenlian; Hung, L. S.; Lee, S. T.

    2001-09-01

    Praseodymium(dibenzoylmethanato)3(bathophenanthroline) [Pr(DBM)3bath] was employed as an emitting and electron transport layer, and N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1, 1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) as a hole transport layer in organic electroluminescent (EL) devices. Bilayer device TPD/Pr(DBM)3bath and trilayer devices TPD/TPD:Pr(DBM)3bath/Pr(DBM)3bath with a different ratio of TPD to the Pr-complex were fabricated. Emission bands at 608 nm (1D2→3H6), 890 nm (1D2→3F2), 1015 nm (1D2→3F3), 1065 nm (1D2→3F4) and 1550 nm (1D2→1G4) originating from the internal f-f transitions of a Pr3+ ion were observed from EL devices using both bilayer and trilayer structures. Decreasing the ratio of TPD to the Pr-complex, the emission of the 1D2→3H6 transition was promoted and that from the exciplex suppressed, which was explained in terms of energy transfer from the ligand to the central ion.

  11. Progress and Prospects in Stretchable Electroluminescent Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See

    2017-03-01

    Stretchable electroluminescent (EL) devices are a new form of mechanically deformable electronics that are gaining increasing interests and believed to be one of the essential technologies for next generation lighting and display applications. Apart from the simple bending capability in flexible EL devices, the stretchable EL devices are required to withstand larger mechanical deformations and accommodate stretching strain beyond 10%. The excellent mechanical conformability in these devices enables their applications in rigorous mechanical conditions such as flexing, twisting, stretching, and folding.The stretchable EL devices can be conformably wrapped onto arbitrary curvilinear surface and respond seamlessly to the external or internal forces, leading to unprecedented applications that cannot be addressed with conventional technologies. For example, they are in demand for wide applications in biomedical-related devices or sensors and soft interactive display systems, including activating devices for photosensitive drug, imaging apparatus for internal tissues, electronic skins, interactive input and output devices, robotics, and volumetric displays. With increasingly stringent demand on the mechanical requirements, the fabrication of stretchable EL device is encountering many challenges that are difficult to resolve. In this review, recent progresses in the stretchable EL devices are covered with a focus on the approaches that are adopted to tackle materials and process challenges in stretchable EL devices and delineate the strategies in stretchable electronics. We first introduce the emission mechanisms that have been successfully demonstrated on stretchable EL devices. Limitations and advantages of the different mechanisms for stretchable EL devices are also discussed. Representative reports are reviewed based on different structural and material strategies. Unprecedented applications that have been enabled by the stretchable EL devices are reviewed. Finally, we

  12. Transparent organic photodiodes stacked with electroluminescence devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Takahiro; Sakanoue, Kei; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2005-10-01

    Stacked devices that consisted of transparent organic photodiodes (TOPDs) and organic electroluminescence devices (OELs) were demonstrated. TOPDs were prepared by poly-(2-methoxy-5- (2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend films as an active layer and transparent Au cathode (10 nm thick). These TOPDs showed about 45 % transmittance on average in visible light region (380-780 nm) and good correlation between incident light intensity and output photocurrent. Based on these results, the stacked devices were prepared by introducing OELs on TOPDs through a SiO insulating layer. The structure of OELs was ITO/Carbon/TPD/Alq3/LiF/Al. These stacked devices work as light emitting devices and also photo diodes. Since TOPDs have transparency, OELs can illuminate a paper put on the glass substrate through TOPDs and TOPDs can receive reflective light from the paper. Although the TOPDs also absorb light from OELs directly, the output signals from TOPDs changed according to the black and white pattern of the paper. These results show that the devices act as an image sensor having light emitting layer and light receiving layer in a same area.

  13. Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction

    DOEpatents

    Shiang, Joseph John

    2007-07-17

    Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction include a light-scattering medium disposed adjacent thereto. The light-scattering medium has a light scattering anisotropy parameter g in the range from greater than zero to about 0.99, and a scatterance parameter S less than about 0.22 or greater than about 3.

  14. Intrinsic Polarization and Tunable Color of Electroluminescence from Organic Single Crystal-based Light-Emitting Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ran; Feng, Jing; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Fang, Hong-Hua; Yang, Tong; Wang, Hai-Yu; Hotta, Shu; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-01-01

    A single crystal-based organic light-emitting device (OLED) with intrinsically polarized and color-tunable electroluminescence (EL) has been demonstrated without any subsequent treatment. The polarization ratio of 5:1 for the transversal-electric (TE) and transversal-magnetic (TM) polarization at the emission peak of 575 nm, and 4.7:1 for the TM to TE polarization at the emission peak of 635 nm, respectively, have been obtained. The emitting color is tunable between yellow, yellow-green and orange by changing the polarization angle. The polarized EL and the polarization-induced color tunability can be attributed to the anisotropic microcavity formed by the BP3T crystal with uniaxial alignment of the molecules. PMID:26207723

  15. Ultraviolet electroluminescence properties from devices based on n-ZnO/i-NiO/p-Si light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Chao; Wu, Guoguang; Ma, Yan; Dong, Xin; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong

    2017-07-01

    We fabricated the Ultraviolet light-emitting diode (LED) based on n-ZnO/i-NiO/p-Si heterostructure by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The device exhibited diode-like rectifying characteristics with a turn-on voltage of 3.2 V. The NiO film with high resistance state and [200] preferred orientation acted as an electron blocking layer, which produced a larger ZnO/NiO conduction band offset of 2.93 eV than that of ZnO/Si (0.30 eV). Under forward bias, prominent ultraviolet emissions peaked around 375 nm accompanying with rather weak blue-white emissions peaked around 480 nm were observed at room temperature. Furthermore, the mechanism of the electroluminescence was tentatively discussed in terms of the band diagram of the diode.

  16. Rare Earth Complex as Electron Trapper and Energy Transfer Ladder for Efficient Red Iridium Complex Based Electroluminescent Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Li, Leijiao; Jiang, Yunlong; Cui, Rongzhen; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Xuesen; Zhang, Hongjie

    2015-07-29

    In this work, we experimentally demonstrated the new functions of trivalent rare earth complex in improving the electroluminescent (EL) performances of iridium complex by codoping trace Eu(TTA)3phen (TTA = thenoyltrifluoroacetone, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) into a light-emitting layer based on PQ2Ir(dpm) (iridium(III)bis(2-phenylquinoly-N,C(2'))dipivaloylmethane). Compared with a reference device, the codoped devices displayed higher efficiencies, slower efficiency roll-off, higher brightness, and even better color purity. Experimental results demonstrated that Eu(TTA)3phen molecules function as electron trappers due to its low-lying energy levels, which are helpful in balancing holes and electrons and in broadening recombination zone. In addition, the matched triplet energy of Eu(TTA)3phen is instrumental in facilitating energy transfer from host to emitter. Finally, highly efficient red EL devices with the highest current efficiency, power efficiency and brightness up to 58.98 cd A(-1) (external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 21%), 61.73 lm W(-1) and 100870 cd m(-2), respectively, were obtained by appropriately decreasing the doping concentration of iridium complex. At certain brightness of 1000 cd m(-2), EL current efficiency up to 51.94 cd A(-1) (EQE = 18.5%) was retained. Our investigation extends the application of rare earth complexes in EL devices and provides a chance to improve the device performances.

  17. Method for producing high energy electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Meyerson, Bernard S.; Scott, Bruce A.; Wolford, Jr., Donald J.

    1992-09-29

    A method is described for fabricating electroluminescent devices exhibiting visible electroluminescence at room temperature, where the devices include at least one doped layer of amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H). The a-Si:H layer is deposited on a substrate by homogeneous chemical vapor deposition (H-CVD) in which the substrate is held at a temperature lower than about 200.degree. C. and the a-Si:H layer is doped in-situ during deposition, the amount of hydrogen incorporated in the deposited layer being 12-50 atomic percent. The bandgap of the a-Si:H layer is between 1.6 and 2.6 eV, and in preferrable embodiments is between 2.0 and 2.6 eV. The conductivity of the a-Si:H layer is chosen in accordance with device requirements, and can be 10.sup.16 -10.sup.19 carriers/cm.sup.2. The bandgap of the a-Si:H layer depends at least in part on the temperature of the substrate on which the layer is deposited, and can be "tuned" by changing the substrate temperature.

  18. White light-emitting organic electroluminescent device based on a new orange organometallic iridium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Tien-shou; Huang, Heh-lung; Liu, Pey-ching; Tseng, Mei-Rurng; Liu, Jia-Ming

    2007-09-01

    We develop the white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with a new orange electrophosphorescent emission, and the blue electrofluorescent or electrophosphorescent sensitizer. The new orange phosphorescent sensitizer is the thieno-pyridine framework organo-iridium complexes (PO-01). The blue phosphorsensitized electrofluorescent is 4,4'-Bis(9-ethyl-3-carbazovinylene)-1,1'- biphenyl (DSA) doped into 4,4'-Bis(2,2-diphenyl-ethen-1-yl) diphenyl (DPVBi). Beside, the blue phosphorescent sensitizer is Bis(3,5-difluoro-2-(2-pyridyl)phenyl- (2-carboxypyridyl)iridium (FirPic). The Device Type I of WOLED based on the PO-01 and the DSA doped into DPVBi has an efficiency of 5.7 lm/W (10.6Cd/A) at 500 Cd/m2, a CIE coordinates of (0.33, 0.31), and a CRI of 71. However, the Device Type II of WOLED has an efficiency of 5.5 lm/W (10.3Cd/A) at 500 Cd/m2 and a CIE coordinates of (0.30, 0.42), while the FirPic replaces the DPVBi doped with DSA. The spectra of the Device Type II and I both response insensitive to drive current. Nevertheless, the Device Type I relatively achieves a balanced whit emission with CIE coordinates of (0.33, 0.33). They are good suitability to use in OLED lighting and full-color LCD backlights.

  19. Single-layer electroluminescent devices based on fluorene-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline co-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokladko-Kowar, Monika; Danel, Andrzej; Chacaga, Łukasz

    2013-11-01

    A fluorene based copolymer was synthesized for electroluminescent application. To the main chain of polymer the nitrogen heterocyclic, 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline, unit was introduced. The incorporation of this derivative tuned the emission from the blue to yellow-green one. A simple, single layered device was fabricated with the configuration ITO/PEDOT/co-poly-FLU-PQX/Ca/Mg.

  20. Design and processing of organic electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo-Guzman, Dino Alejandro

    2000-11-01

    The present dissertation compiles three aspects of my Ph.D. work on OLED device design, fabrication and characterization. The first chapter is a review of the concepts and theories describing the mechanisms of organic electroluminescence. The second chapter makes use of these concepts to articulate some basic principles for the design of efficient and stable OLEDs. The third chapter describes the main characterization and sample preparation techniques used along this dissertation. Chapter IV describes the processing of efficient organic electroluminescent EL devices with ITO/TPD/AIQ3/Mg:Ag structures. The screen printing technique of a hole transport polymeric blend was used in an unusual mode to render thin films in the order of 60-80 nm. EL devices were then fabricated on top of these sp films to provide ~0.9% quantum efficiencies, comparable to spin coating with the same structures. Various polymer:TPD and solvent combinations were studied to find the paste with the best rheological properties. The same technique was also used to deposit a patterned MEH-PPV film. Chapter V describes my research work on the wetting of TPD on ITO substrates. The wetting was monitored by following its surface morphology evolution as a function of temperature. The effect of these surface changes was then correlated to the I-V-L characteristics of devices made with these TPD films. The surface roughness was measured with tapping AFM showed island formation at temperatures as low as 50-60°C. I Also investigated the effect of the purity of materials like AlQ3 on the device EL performance, as described in Chapter VI. In order to improve the purity of these environmentally degradable complexes a new in situ purification technique was developed with excellent enhancement of the EL cell properties. The in situ purification process was then used to purify/deposit organic dyes with improved film formation and EL characteristics.

  1. Dielectric relaxation in AC powder electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Su, Haibin; Tan, Chuan Seng; Wong, Terence Kin Shun; Teo, Ronnie Jin Wah

    2017-01-01

    The dielectric properties of AC powder electroluminescent devices were measured and analyzed using complex impedance spectroscopy to determine the relaxation processes occurring within the devices. The relaxation processes identified were ascribed to the electrode polarization caused by ion accumulation at the electrode/resin interfaces, the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars effects at the (ZnS or BaTiO3) particle/resin interfaces, and the dipolar reorientation of polymer chains in the resin matrix. Each relaxation process was represented by its corresponding equivalent circuit component. Space charge polarization at the electrodes were represented by a Warburg element, a resistor, and a constant phase element. The resin matrix, ZnS/resin and BaTiO3/resin interfaces could each be modeled by a resistor and a capacitor in parallel. The simulated equivalent circuits for three different printed structures showed good fitting with their experimental impedance results.

  2. Non-Doped Deep Blue and Doped White Electroluminescence Devices Based on Phenanthroimidazole Derivative.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuo; Wu, Yukun; Hu, Shoucheng; Zhao, Yi; Fang, Daining

    2017-03-01

    A novel deep-blue emitter PhImPOTD based on phenathroimidazole was synthesized, which is incorporated by an electron-donating dibenzothiophene unit and electron-withdrawing phenanthroimidazole and diphenylphosphine oxide moieties. Furthermore, the weak π-π stacking and intermolecular aggregation render the photoluminescence quantum yield is as high as 0.34 in the solid state. Non-doped organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on PhImPOTD emitter exhibits a low turn-on voltage of 3.6 V, a favorable efficiency of 1.13 cd A(-1) and a deep blue emission with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.08). The CIE is very close to the NTSC (National Television Standards Committe) blue standard (CIE: 0.14, 0.08). PhImPOTD is also utilized as blue emitter and the host for a yellow emitter (PO-01) to fabricate white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs). This gives a forward-viewing maximum CE of 4.83 cd A(-1) and CIE coordinates of (0.32, 0.32) at the luminance of 1000 cd m(-2). Moreover, the single-carrier devices unambiguously demonstrate that typical bipolar-dominant characteristics of PhImPOTD. This work demonstrates not only that the phenanthroimidazole unit is an excellent building block to construct deep blue emission materials, but also the introduction of a diphenylphosphine oxide deprotonation substituent is an efficient tactic for harvesting deep-blue emitting devices.

  3. White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Parthasarathy, Gautam

    2006-06-20

    A light-emitting device comprises a light-emitting member, which comprises two electrodes, at least two organic electroluminescent ("EL") materials disposed between the electrodes, a charge blocking material disposed between the electrodes, and at least one photoluminescent ("PL") material. The light-emitting member emits electromagnetic ("EM") radiation having a first spectrum in response to a voltage applied across the two electrodes. The PL material absorbs a portion of the EM radiation emitted by the light-emitting member and emits EM radiation having second spectrum different than the first spectrum. Each of the organic EL materials emits EM radiation having a wavelength range selected from the group consisting of blue and red wavelength ranges.

  4. Preparation and Characterisation of Metallic Thin Films for Electroluminescent Devices Based on Porous Silicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    following report: TITLE: NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Nanostructured Films and Coatings. Series 3. High Technology - Volume 78 To order the complete...following types of PS EL devices: (i) with top 337 G.M. Chow et al. (eds.), Nanostructured Films and Coatings, 337-345. @ 2000 Kluwer Academic...processing. Metals such as gold, indium, or polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole , polyfuran and polythiophene have been deposited on PS as solid

  5. SOI back reflector for Tb-doped oxide electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Harjinder Singh; MacElwee, T. W.; Rankin, A.; Wojcik, J.; Miles, A. M.; Tarr, N. G.; Mascher, P.

    2011-08-01

    Electroluminescent devices based on light emission from Tb-doped SiO2 incorporated in a MOS capacitor structure have been formed on SOI substrates. It is shown that with appropriate choice of Si film and buried oxide thickness the SOI substrate can serve as a quarter-wave high-low-high index back reflector. Analysis predicts this back reflector can boost total light output integrated over the Tb emission spectrum by approximately 35% compared to a bulk substrate control device. Experimental devices using 100 nm thick PECVD SiO2 emitting layers doped with 1% Tb were fabricated on substrates with nominal 32 and 108 nm Si film thickness (corresponding to approximately λ/4 and 3λ/4 at the Tb emission peak). The Si films were doped to 1019 - 1020 cm-3 by As implantation. Uniform bright green electroluminescence was obtained from 250 μm square devices, demonstrating that current crowding is not an issue even with such a thin Si film. The comparison of output spectra for thick and thin Si films demonstrates that optical absorption in the heavily doped Si film does not seriously degrade the light output of the devices.

  6. Electroluminescence-detected magnetic resonance studies of Pt octaethyl porphyrin-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Shinar, J.; Jabbour, G. E.

    2005-06-01

    The electroluminescence (EL)-detected magnetic resonance (ELDMR) of 0, 1, 2.5, 6, and 20wt.% Pt octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP)-doped tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate) Al (Alq3) -based phosphorescent multilayer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) is described. In 1wt.% -doped devices, the ELDMR from the PtOEP and Alq3 emission are both very similar to that of undoped devices. They exhibit a positive (EL-enhancing) spin- (1)/(2) polaron resonance at 10⩽T⩽50K , whose magnitude ΔIEL/IEL increases with current and weakens with increasing T , and a negative (EL-quenching) resonance at 50K⩽T , which grows with T . At 295K , ∣ΔIEL/IEL∣ decreases with current. The enhancing resonance is attributed to the magnetic-resonance reduction of singlet exciton (SE) quenching by a reduced population of polarons and host triplet excitons (TEs). The reduction in the TE and polaron populations is, in turn, due to the spin-dependent annihilation of host TEs by polarons, which is enhanced under magnetic resonance conditions. Since the polaron and host TE populations are much greater than the SE population, the polaron-host TE interaction is identified as one of the major interactions which govern the dynamics of the excited states in OLEDs. The quenching resonance is attributed to magnetic resonance enhancement of formation of dianions at the organic/cathode interface, which increases the charge density at that interface, and consequently the rate of field-induced host SE dissociation. Both the enhancing and quenching resonances weaken as the PtOEP concentration increases; at 6wt.% , the enhancing resonance is undetectable and the quenching resonance is very weak (∣ΔIEL/IEL∣˜2×10-5) . The results can be explained by assuming that the ELDMR of the guest emission is due to the effect of magnetic resonance conditions on the host SEs. A rate equation model is established to explain the evolution of the ELDMR with dye concentration. Since the foregoing quenching mechanisms are

  7. Theoretical and material studies on thin-film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    Electroluminescent materials and device technology were assessed. The evaluation strongly suggests the need for a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of both materials and device structures, particularly in the following areas: carrier generation and multiplication; radiative and nonradiative processes of luminescent centers; device modeling; new device concepts; and single crystal materials growth and characterization. Modeling of transport properties of hot electrons in ZnSe and the generation of device concepts were initiated.

  8. Optimization of the electroluminescence from SiNx-based light-emitting devices by modulating the size and morphology of silver nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Li, Dongsheng; Jin, Lu; Ren, Changrui; Yang, Deren; Que, Duanlin

    2013-01-28

    A maximal enhancement of ~6.5 times of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) for SiNx-based light-emitting devices (LEDs) is achieved by magnetron sputtering a silver nanostructures layer onto the active matrix. The enhancement of EQE is affected by the dimension and morphology of silver nanostructures, which can be controlled by the sputtering time and the post treatment of rapid thermal annealing. The optimal size of silver nanostructures is about 100 nm in diameter by comparing the integrated electroluminescence intensity under the same input power. The optimization of EQE for SiNx-based LEDs is discussed by considering the contributions of the enhancement of light-extraction efficiency induced by the surface roughening of the front electrode, internal quantum efficiency due to the coupling between excitons and localized surface plasmons, and carrier injection efficiency. Our work may provide an alternative approach for the fabrication of Si-based light sources with promising luminescence efficiency.

  9. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for

  10. Electroluminescent devices formed using semiconductor nanocrystals as an electron transport media and method of making such electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Colvin, Vickie

    1996-01-01

    An electroluminescent device is described, as well as a method of making same, wherein the device is characterized by a semiconductor nanocrystal electron transport layer capable of emitting visible light in response to a voltage applied to the device. The wavelength of the light emitted by the device may be changed by changing either the size or the type of semiconductor nanocrystals used in forming the electron transport layer. In a preferred embodiment the device is further characterized by the capability of emitting visible light of varying wavelengths in response to changes in the voltage applied to the device. The device comprises a hole processing structure capable of injecting and transporting holes, and usually comprising a hole injecting layer and a hole transporting layer; an electron transport layer in contact with the hole processing structure and comprising one or more layers of semiconductor nanocrystals; and an electron injecting layer in contact with the electron transport layer for injecting electrons into the electron transport layer. The capability of emitting visible light of various wavelengths is principally based on the variations in voltage applied thereto, but the type of semiconductor nanocrystals used and the size of the semiconductor nanocrystals in the layers of semiconductor nanometer crystals may also play a role in color change, in combination with the change in voltage.

  11. Electroluminescent behaviors in multilayer thin-film electroluminescent devices using 9,10-bisstyrylanthracene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminaka, Ei-Ichiro; Tsutsui, Tetsuo; Saito, Shogo

    1994-02-01

    Using nine 9,10-bisstyrylanthracene derivatives (BSA's) with different substituents as emission layer materials, multilayer electroluminescent (EL) devices were fabricated. Among nine BSA's, three BSA's were found to exhibit high EL performance. Four types of devices, a single-layer device with a BSA emission layer, two types of two-layer devices in which BSA emission layers were combined with a triphenylamine dimer as a hole transport layer or an oxadiazole derivative as an electron transport layer, and a three-layer device, were fabricated using the three BSA's. The relationships between the device structures and EL performances of these devices were studied. Ionization potential values in vacuum-deposited films of BSA's were measured. It was found that the introduction of an electron withdrawing group increased electron injection/transport capability, and that of electron donating groups increased hole injection/transport capability. The relative EL efficiencies of various devices were discussed in terms of the electronic nature of BSA's.

  12. Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device.

    PubMed

    Kido, J; Kimura, M; Nagai, K

    1995-03-03

    Organic electroluminescent devices are light-emitting diodes in which the active materials consist entirely of organic materials. Here, the fabrication of a white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device made from vacuum-deposited organic thin films is reported. In this device, three emitter layers with different carrier transport properties, each emitting blue, green, or red light, are used to generate white light. Bright white light, over 2000 candelas per square meter, nearly as bright as a fluorescent lamp, was successfully obtained at low drive voltages such as 15 to 16 volts. The applications of such a device include paper-thin light sources, which are particularly useful for places that require lightweight illumination devices, such as in aircraft and space shuttles. Other uses are a backlight for liquid crystal display as well as full color displays, achieved by combining the emitters with micropatterned color filters.

  13. A multilayer organic electroluminescent device using an organic dye salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xueyuan; Gu, Yongdi; Zhang, Jiayu; Cui, Yiping

    2005-01-01

    Organic electroluminescent devices have received considerable attention due to their application in flat-panel displays. To achieve full-color displays, it is necessary to obtain organic layers emitting red, green, and blue light, but it is still a challenge to obtain efficient and stable organic layer emitting red light so far. Recently, we found that an organic salt, trans-4-[p-[N-ethyl-N-(hydroxyethyl)amino]styryl]-N-methylphridinium tetraphenylborate (ASPT), exhibits efficient red-light emission. In this paper, we report a multilayer electrolumicescent device incorporating a hole-transport layer, an ASPT layer, and an electron-transport layer. The dependence of the carrier transport and the luminescence on the device structure is investigated in detail. Compared to the monolayer device, the balance between hole and electron injections is significantly improved for the multilayer device, and thus the electroluminescent efficiency and intensity are enhanced.

  14. Theoretical and material studies on thin-film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A highly efficient DC electroluminescent display is presented. A variably spaced superlattice structure is used to produce high energy injection of electrons into a ZnSe:Mn active layer in which impact excitation of the Mn centers can occur. The device is predicted to operate at an applied external bias on order of magnitude less than the best DC electroluminescent device to date. The device is predicted to have comparable brightness, since it operates in the saturation regime. The improved efficiency stems from avoiding significant energy loss to phonons. The electrons sequentially tunnel through a multilayer ZnSe/CaSrF2 stack under bias and emerge into the active layer at an energy equal to the conduction band bending. The injection energy is chosen to coincide with the impact excitation energy of the Mn centers. Different device designs are presented and their performance is predicted.

  15. Optical sensors and multisensor arrays containing thin film electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Aylott, Jonathan W.; Chen-Esterlit, Zoe; Friedl, Jon H.; Kopelman, Raoul; Savvateev, Vadim N.; Shinar, Joseph

    2001-12-18

    Optical sensor, probe and array devices for detecting chemical biological, and physical analytes. The devices include an analyte-sensitive layer optically coupled to a thin film electroluminescent layer which activates the analyte-sensitive layer to provide an optical response. The optical response varies depending upon the presence of an analyte and is detected by a photodetector and analyzed to determine the properties of the analyte.

  16. Multicolor electroluminescent devices using doped ZnS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoor, K.; Vadera, S. R.; Kumar, N.; Kutty, T. R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Alternate-current electroluminescent (ac EL) devices based on doped ZnS nanocrystals emitting blue, green, and orange-red colors are reported. ZnS nanocrystals doped with Cu+-Al3+ and Cu+-Al3+-Mn2+ combinations were synthesized by wet chemical method at room temperature. The ZnS:Cu+, Al3+ nanocrystals show blue (462 nm) and green (530 nm) EL emissions depending upon the presence and absence of sulphur vacancies, respectively. The orange EL emission (590 nm) is realized from ZnS:Cu+, Al3+, Mn2+ nanoparticles by way of nonradiative energy transfer from AlZn-CuZn pairs to MnZn. The EL devices show low turn-on voltage of ˜10 V ac @100 Hz. The mechanism of ac EL in ZnS nanocrystals has been explained wherein the excitation is attributed to the electric-field-assisted injection of electron-hole pairs from the surface regions into the interiors and their subsequent recombination therein causes emission.

  17. In-flight gas phase passivation of silicon nanocrystals for novel inorganic-silicon nanocrystal based electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liptak, Richard William

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) have become a heavily researched material over the past several years. Researchers envision that this material can be used in many diverse applications such as electronic devices, non-toxic biological tags, optical devices such as LEDs, lasers or displays, thermoelectrics, and photovoltaic (PV) applications. For many of these proposed applications one needs to properly control the NC size and the surface chemistry via passivation. Current passivation techniques allow for the creation of highly efficient SiNC optical emitters, however the emission of these NCs are fixed in the red-NIR range. To resolve this issue several novel in-flight passivation techniques were investigated. A novel dual-plasma setup which allows for the in-flight passivation of SiNCs through a thermal or LPCVD based nitridation process was developed first. FTIR and XPS analysis were used to study the surface chemistry on of the nitride passivated NCs while TEM was used to investigate whether or not a "shell" was grown on the surface. PL measurements and thermal stability tests were performed on the nitride passivated NCs to gain a further understanding of the stability (in both air as well as other ambients) of the NCs and their surface chemistry. Tunable full color emission from SiNCs was developed for the dual-plasma reactor utilizing CF4 as both an etching and passivating source. F radicals generated in the etching plasma remove Si from the surface of the NC, while at the same time CF2 radicals lead to the formation of a fluorocarbon passivation layer on the NC surface. By controlling the parameters of the reactor (CF4 flow rate, power), the NC size and thus its color can be controlled. Red to green luminescence was observed from SiNCs and is believed to be due to the quantum confinement effect. The blue emission observed from the NCs is appears to be related to oxide related surface states. Despite the defects, high QY was observed from these CF4-etched NCs. The

  18. Electroluminescent device having improved light output

    DOEpatents

    Tyan,; Yuan-Sheng, [Webster, NY; Preuss, Donald R [Rochester, NY; Farruggia, Giuseppe [Webster, NY; Kesel, Raymond A [Avon, NY; Cushman, Thomas R [Rochester, NY

    2011-03-22

    An OLED device including a transparent substrate having a first surface and a second surface, a transparent electrode layer disposed over the first surface of the substrate, a short reduction layer disposed over the transparent electrode layer, an organic light-emitting element disposed over the short reduction layer and including at least one light-emitting layer and a charge injection layer disposed over the light emitting layer, a reflective electrode layer disposed over the charge injection layer and a light extraction enhancement structure disposed over the first or second surface of the substrate; wherein the short reduction layer is a transparent film having a through-thickness resistivity of 10.sup.-9 to 10.sup.2 ohm-cm.sup.2; wherein the reflective electrode layer includes Ag or Ag alloy containing more than 80% of Ag; and the total device size is larger than 10 times the substrate thickness.

  19. Optical properties of inorganic electroluminescent devices with nanostripe electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Shin-ichi

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the luminescence (emission) characteristics of a laminated dispersion-type inorganic electroluminescent (EL) device with a nanostripe electrode made of thin Al film, instead of a conventional indium-tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrode, on the emission side of the device. The transmittance of the Al nanostripe electrode, with 60-nm line-and-space widths, was 45%. We compared an inorganic EL device positioned between two thin films of Al and the inorganic EL device with the Al nanostripe electrode using electric field simulations and actual experiments. We were able to apply the same electric field intensity to the phosphor layer in the conventional structure and to the new structure. Therefore, with an Al nanostripe electrode on one side of the EL device, it is possible to fabricate an ITO-free display.

  20. Ab initio study of phosphorescent emitters based on rare-earth complexes with organic ligands for organic electroluminescent devices.

    PubMed

    Freidzon, Alexandra Ya; Scherbinin, Andrei V; Bagaturyants, Alexander A; Alfimov, Michael V

    2011-05-12

    An ab initio approach is developed for calculation of low-lying excited states in Ln(3+) complexes with organic ligands. The energies of the ground and excited states are calculated using the XMCQDPT2/CASSCF approximation; the 4f electrons of the Ln(3+) ion are included in the core, and the effects of the core electrons are described by scalar quasirelativistic 4f-in-core pseudopotentials. The geometries of the complexes in the ground and triplet excited states are fully optimized at the CASSCF level, and the resulting excited states have been found to be localized on one of the ligands. The efficiency of ligand-to-lanthanide energy transfer is assessed based on the relative energies of the triplet excited states localized on the organic ligands with respect to the receiving and emitting levels of the Ln(3+) ion. It is shown that ligand relaxation in the excited state should be properly taken into account in order to adequately describe energy transfer in the complexes. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of antenna ligands for lanthanide complexes used as phosphorescent emitters in organic light-emitting devices can be reasonably predicted using the procedure suggested in this work. Hence, the best antenna ligands can be selected in silico based on theoretical calculations of ligand-localized excited energy levels.

  1. White electroluminescence of n-ZnO:Al/p-diamond heterostructure devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Can; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Li-Jun; Pan, Xiu-Fang; Li, Song-Kun; Jing, Long-Wei

    2013-08-01

    An n-ZnO:Al/p-boron-doped diamond heterostructure electroluminescent device is produced, and a rectifying behavior can be observed. The electroluminescence spectrum at room temperature exhibits two visible bands centred at 450 nm-485 nm (blue emission) and 570 nm-640 nm (yellow emission). Light emission with a luminance of 15 cd/m2 is observed from the electroluminescent device at a forward applied voltage of 85 V, which is distinguished from white light by the naked eye.

  2. Theoretical and material studies of thin-film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) devices are studied for a possible means of achieving a high resolution, light weight, compact video display panel for computer terminals or television screens. The performance of TFEL devices depends upon the probability of an electron impact exciting a luminescent center which in turn depends upon the density of centers present in the semiconductor layer, the possibility of an electron achieving the impact excitation threshold energy, and the collision cross section itself. Efficiency of such a device is presently very poor. It can best be improved by increasing the number of hot electrons capable of impact exciting a center. Hot electron distributions and a method for increasing the efficiency and brightness of TFEL devices (with the additional advantage of low voltage direct current operation) are investigated.

  3. Mechanically flexible organic electroluminescent device with directional light emission

    DOEpatents

    Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Schaepkens, Marc

    2005-05-10

    A mechanically flexible and environmentally stable organic electroluminescent ("EL") device with directional light emission comprises an organic EL member disposed on a flexible substrate, a surface of which is coated with a multilayer barrier coating which includes at least one sublayer of a substantially transparent organic polymer and at least one sublayer of a substantially transparent inorganic material. The device includes a reflective metal layer disposed on the organic EL member opposite to the substrate. The reflective metal layer provides an increased external quantum efficiency of the device. The reflective metal layer and the multilayer barrier coating form a seal around the organic EL member to reduce the degradation of the device due to environmental elements.

  4. Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M. A.; O'Brien, D. F.; You, Y.; Shoustikov, A.; Sibley, S.; Thompson, M. E.; Forrest, S. R.

    1998-09-01

    The efficiency of electroluminescent organic light-emitting devices, can be improved by the introduction of a fluorescent dye. Energy transfer from the host to the dye occurs via excitons, but only the singlet spin states induce fluorescent emission; these represent a small fraction (about 25%) of the total excited-state population (the remainder are triplet states). Phosphorescent dyes, however, offer a means of achieving improved light-emission efficiencies, as emission may result from both singlet and triplet states. Here we report high-efficiency (≳90%) energy transfer from both singlet and triplet states, in a host material doped with the phosphorescent dye 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphine platinum(II) (PtOEP). Our doped electroluminescent devices generate saturated red emission with peak external and internal quantum efficiencies of 4% and 23%, respectively. The luminescent efficiencies attainable with phosphorescent dyes may lead to new applications for organic materials. Moreover, our work establishes the utility of PtOEP as a probe of triplet behaviour and energy transfer in organic solid-state systems.

  5. Materials for Powder-Based AC-Electroluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Bredol, Michael; Schulze Dieckhoff, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    At present, thick film (powder based) alternating current electroluminescence (AC-EL) is the only technology available for the fabrication of large area, laterally structured and coloured light sources by simple printing techniques. Substrates for printing may be based on flexible polymers or glass, so the final devices can take up a huge variety of shapes. After an introduction of the underlying physics and chemistry, the review highlights the technical progress behind this development, concentrating on luminescent and dielectric materials used. Limitations of the available materials as well as room for further improvement are also discussed.

  6. Red, green, blue and white organic electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Chuan-Cheng; Lu, Huei-Tzong; Yokoyama, Meiso

    2005-06-01

    Full-color capability is an essential feature in organic electroluminescent (OEL) devices for flat panel display. This work presents novel designs for red, green, blue and white OEL devices. Indium tin oxide (ITO) was used as a glass substrate and N, N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)- N, N'-diphenyl-1,1-biphenyl-4-4'-diamine (NPB) as a hole transport layer (HTL). Bathocuproine (BCP) was used as a hole-blocking layer (HBL), DCM2, as a red fluorescent dye, was doped into the BCP layer. Tris-(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminum (Alq 3) was used in the electron transport layer (ETL), and aluminum (Al) was used as a cathode in OEL devices with the configuration ITO/NPB (30 nm)/BCP:DCM2 ( x%, 30 nm)/Alq 3 (40 nm)/Al. A green OEL device is obtained by employing this structure without a BCP:DCM2 ( x %) layer; a blue OEL device is obtained by using a BCP layer without the DCM2 dopant. The red OEL device is obtained by doping 10% DCM2 in the BCP layer. The white OEL device is produced by doping 1% DCM2 in the BCP layer. The CIE x and y coordinates of the white OEL device are 0.32 and 0.32, respectively.

  7. A novel electroluminescent device based on a reduced graphene oxide wrapped phosphor (ZnS:Cu,Al) and hexagonal-boron nitride for high-performance luminescence.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Singh, Satbir; Kedawat, Garima; Kanika; Kumar, Pawan; Gangwar, Amit Kumar; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Marti, Angel A; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, P M

    2017-04-06

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has recently emerged as a very promising family of exotic carbon material with augmented performance in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Herein, we report an efficient and novel inorganic electroluminescent device geometry, where a new phosphor composite, reduced graphene oxide wrapped ZnS:Cu,Al, acts as an active emitting layer and an exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as a dielectric layer. The roles of rGO in the active layer as a conductive support and local electric field enhancing agent are attributed to its wrinkles being unraveled compared with other carbon exotic nano-forms such as carbon nanotubes, graphite, charcoal and activated carbon, which significantly improves the brightness of the device (∼50 cd m(-2) for 0.50 wt% rGO/ZnS:Cu,Al at 10 kHz and 110 V with an external quantum efficiency of ∼6.3% ± 0.1% and current efficiency of ∼0.81 ± 0.09 cd A(-1)). This new and facile strategy to construct the luminescent devices could be a paradigm shift towards cost effective, highly stable in air (for several days) and energy efficient next generation display devices.

  8. Highly Efficient, Color-Reproducible Full-Color Electroluminescent Devices Based on Red/Green/Blue Quantum Dot-Mixed Multilayer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Heon; Han, Chang-Yeol; Kang, Hee-Don; Ko, Heejoo; Lee, Changho; Lee, Jonghyuk; Myoung, NoSoung; Yim, Sang-Youp; Yang, Heesun

    2015-11-24

    Over the past few years the performance of colloidal quantum dot-light-emitting diode (QLED) has been progressively improved. However, most of QLED work has been fulfilled in the form of monochromatic device, while full-color-enabling white QLED still remains nearly unexplored. Using red, green, and blue quantum dots (QDs), herein, we fabricate bichromatic and trichromatic QLEDs through sequential solution-processed deposition of poly(9-vinlycarbazole) (PVK) hole transport layer, two or three types of QDs-mixed multilayer, and ZnO nanoparticle electron transport layer. The relative electroluminescent (EL) spectral ratios of constituent QDs in the above multicolored devices are found to inevitably vary with applied bias, leading to the common observation of an increasing contribution of a higher-band gap QD EL over low-band gap one at a higher voltage. The white EL from a trichromatic device is resolved into its primary colors through combining with color filters, producing an exceptional color gamut of 126% relative to National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) color space that a state-of-the-art full-color organic LED counterpart cannot attain. Our trichromatic white QLED also displays the record-high EL performance such as the peak values of 23,352 cd/m(2) in luminance, 21.8 cd/A in current efficiency, and 10.9% in external quantum efficiency.

  9. Investigation of thioglycerol stabilized ZnS quantum dots in electroluminescent device performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ethiraj, Anita Sagadevan; Rhen, Dani; Kang, Dae Joon; Lee, D. H.; Kulkarni, S. K.

    2016-05-06

    The present work is focused on the investigation of thioglycerol (TG) stabilized Zinc Sulfide Quantum dots (ZnS QDs) in the hybrid electroluminescence (EL) device. Optical absorption spectroscopy clearly indicates the formation of narrow size distributed ZnS in the quantum confinement regime. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Photoluminescence (PL), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) data supports the same. The hybrid EL device with structure of ITO (indium tin oxide)//PEDOT:PSS ((poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate)//HTL (α NPD- N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1,1′-phenyl)-4,4′-diamine// PVK:ZnS QDs//ETL(PBD- 2-tert-butylphenyl- 5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole)//LiF:Al (Device 1) was fabricated. Reference device without the ZnS QDs were also prepared (Device 2). The results show that the ZnS QDs based device exhibited bright electroluminescence emission of 24 cd/m{sup 2} at a driving voltage of 16 Volts under the forward bias conditions as compared to the reference device without the ZnS QDs, which showed 6 cd/m{sup 2} at ∼22 Volts.

  10. Investigation of thioglycerol stabilized ZnS quantum dots in electroluminescent device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ethiraj, Anita Sagadevan; Rhen, Dani; Lee, D. H.; Kang, Dae Joon; Kulkarni, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The present work is focused on the investigation of thioglycerol (TG) stabilized Zinc Sulfide Quantum dots (ZnS QDs) in the hybrid electroluminescence (EL) device. Optical absorption spectroscopy clearly indicates the formation of narrow size distributed ZnS in the quantum confinement regime. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Photoluminescence (PL), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) data supports the same. The hybrid EL device with structure of ITO (indium tin oxide)//PEDOT:PSS ((poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate)//HTL (α NPD- N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1,1'-phenyl)-4,4'-diamine// PVK:ZnS QDs//ETL(PBD- 2-tert-butylphenyl- 5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole)//LiF:Al (Device 1) was fabricated. Reference device without the ZnS QDs were also prepared (Device 2). The results show that the ZnS QDs based device exhibited bright electroluminescence emission of 24 cd/m2 at a driving voltage of 16 Volts under the forward bias conditions as compared to the reference device without the ZnS QDs, which showed 6 cd/m2 at ˜22 Volts.

  11. Heck coupling of haloaromatics with octavinylsilsesquioxane: solution processable nanocomposites for application in electroluminescent devices.

    PubMed

    Sellinger, Alan; Tamaki, Ryo; Laine, Richard M; Ueno, Kazunori; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Williams, Evan; Jabbour, Ghassan E

    2005-08-07

    A new solution processable nanocomposite material has been prepared via the Heck coupling of octavinylsilsesquioxane with a selected bromoaromatic hole transport compound. Resultant electroluminescent devices show an 18% improvement in external quantum efficiencies over their small molecule analogues.

  12. Efficient, Color-Tunable Electroluminescent Devices from Doped Polymers and Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. C.; Sturm, J. C.; Tian, J.; Register, R. A.; Dana, E. P.; Thompson, M. E.

    1998-03-01

    We have prepared electroluminescent materials with a wide color tunability and fabricated them into relatively efficient (>1% front-facing emission) light-emitting devices. The materials are based on poly(N-vinylcarbazole), PVK, a good hole conductor; the efficiency is obtained by adding substantial levels of electron-transporting oxadiazoles or quinolates. Color tunability (from blue to green to red) is achieved by doping with fluorescent molecules, both small-molecule laser dyes and a polymer, poly(3-phn-butylpyridylvinylene). In photoluminescence (PL), very efficient transfer of energy to the smaller-gap dopants occurs even at doping levels on the order of 1wt%. However, the predominant mechanism of electroluminescence (EL) at low doping levels appears to be the formation of excitons at the dopant emission centers, rather than transfer from the PVK matrix. Luminances of 100 cd/m^2 (television brightness) can be obtained at driving voltages below 10V, and the devices can produce luminances of 5000 cd/m^2 (comparable to fluorescent lamps). We have also demonstrated the integration of red, green, and blue devices onto a single substrate, thus forming the basic element of a full-color display.

  13. Electroluminescence of carbon ‘quantum' dots - From materials to devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veca, L. Monica; Diac, Andreea; Mihalache, Iuliana; Wang, Ping; LeCroy, Gregory E.; Pavelescu, Emil Mihai; Gavrila, Raluca; Vasile, Eugeniu; Terec, Anamaria; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Carbon ‘quantum' dots or carbon dots have emerged as a new class of luminescent nanomaterials. While photoluminescence properties of carbon dots had targeted optical imaging and related usage, their unique excited state redox processes responsible for the luminescence emissions may find potentially significant optoelectronic applications. In this regard, we investigated the electroluminescence properties of the carbon dots integrated into multilayer light emitting diode devices. The devices emitted white light with a slight blue color, visible to naked eyes, thus validating the expectation that carbon dots may potentially serve as a new platform for electroluminescent nanomaterials.

  14. Low temperature transient response and electroluminescence characteristics of OLEDs based on Alq3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chao; Guan, Min; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yiyang; Liu, Shuangjie; Zeng, Yiping

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on Alq3 are fabricated. In order to make clear the transport mechanism of carriers in organic light-emitting devices at low temperature, detailed electroluminescence transient response and the current-voltage-luminescence (I-V-L) characteristics under different temperatures in those OLEDs are investigated. It founds that the acceleration of brightness increases with increasing temperature is maximum when the temperature is 200 K and it is mainly affected by the electron transport layer (Alq3). The MoO3 injection layer and the electroluminescent layer have great influence on the delay time when the temperature is 200 K. Once the temperature is greater than 250 K, the delay time is mainly affected by the MoO3 injection layer. On the contrary, the fall time is mainly affected by the electroluminescent material. The Vf is the average growth rate of fall time when the temperature increases 1 K which represents the accumulation rate of carriers. The difference between Vf caused by the MoO3 injection layer is 0.52 us/K and caused by the electroluminescent material Ir(ppy)3 is 0.73 us/K.

  15. Device Optimization and Transient Electroluminescence Studies of Organic light Emitting Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lijuan Zou

    2003-08-05

    Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are among the most promising for flat panel display technologies. They are light, bright, flexible, and cost effective. And while they are emerging in commercial product, their low power efficiency and long-term degradation are still challenging. The aim of this work was to investigate their device physics and improve their performance. Violet and blue OLEDs were studied. The devices were prepared by thermal vapor deposition in high vacuum. The combinatorial method was employed in device preparation. Both continuous wave and transient electroluminescence (EL) were studied. A new efficient and intense UV-violet light emitting device was developed. At a current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, the optimal radiance R could reach 0.38 mW/cm{sup 2}, and the quantum efficiency was 1.25%. using the delayed EL technique, electron mobilities in DPVBi and CBP were determined to be {approx} 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/Vs and {approx} 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively. Overshoot effects in the transient El of blue light emitting devices were also observed and studied. This effect was attributed to the charge accumulation at the organic/organic and organic/cathode interfaces.

  16. Organic thin film electroluminescent devices with ZnO:Al as the anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zugang, Liu; Weiming, Zhao; Rongbin, Ji; Zhilin, Zhang; Xueyin, Jiang; Minzhao, Xue; Bin, Fang

    1996-04-01

    Some organic thin film electroluminescent (EL) devices with aluminium-doped zinc oxide as the hole-injecting electrode have now been manufactured. Their EL spectra and J - V and B - V characteristics have been studied in detail. The work function and ionization potential of the materials composing the devices have been measured and their energy models given. The EL performance properties have been explained well.

  17. Guest concentration, bias current, and temperature-dependent sign inversion of magneto-electroluminescence in thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Junquan; Jia, Weiyao; Chen, Yingbing; Liu, Dongyu; Hu, Yeqian; Xiong, Zuhong

    2017-01-01

    Non-emissive triplet excited states in devices that undergo thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) can be up-converted to singlet excited states via reverse intersystem crossing (RISC), which leads to an enhanced electroluminescence efficiency. Exciton-based fluorescence devices always exhibit a positive magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) because intersystem crossing (ISC) can be suppressed effectively by an external magnetic field. Conversely, TADF devices should exhibit a negative MEL because RISC is suppressed by the external magnetic field. Intriguingly, we observed a positive MEL in TADF devices. Moreover, the sign of the MEL was either positive or negative, and depended on experimental conditions, including doping concentration, current density and temperature. The MEL observed from our TADF devices demonstrated that ISC in the host material and RISC in the guest material coexisted. These competing processes were affected by the experimental conditions, which led to the sign change of the MEL. This work gives important insight into the energy transfer processes and the evolution of excited states in TADF devices. PMID:28295056

  18. Guest concentration, bias current, and temperature-dependent sign inversion of magneto-electroluminescence in thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Junquan; Jia, Weiyao; Chen, Yingbing; Liu, Dongyu; Hu, Yeqian; Xiong, Zuhong

    2017-03-01

    Non-emissive triplet excited states in devices that undergo thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) can be up-converted to singlet excited states via reverse intersystem crossing (RISC), which leads to an enhanced electroluminescence efficiency. Exciton-based fluorescence devices always exhibit a positive magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) because intersystem crossing (ISC) can be suppressed effectively by an external magnetic field. Conversely, TADF devices should exhibit a negative MEL because RISC is suppressed by the external magnetic field. Intriguingly, we observed a positive MEL in TADF devices. Moreover, the sign of the MEL was either positive or negative, and depended on experimental conditions, including doping concentration, current density and temperature. The MEL observed from our TADF devices demonstrated that ISC in the host material and RISC in the guest material coexisted. These competing processes were affected by the experimental conditions, which led to the sign change of the MEL. This work gives important insight into the energy transfer processes and the evolution of excited states in TADF devices.

  19. Organic electroluminescent devices and method for improving energy efficiency and optical stability thereof

    DOEpatents

    Heller, Christian Maria

    2004-04-27

    An organic electroluminescent device ("OELD") has a controllable brightness, an improved energy efficiency, and stable optical output at low brightness. The OELD is activated with a series of voltage pulses, each of which has a maximum voltage value that corresponds to the maximum power efficiency when the OELD is activated. The frequency of the pulses, or the duty cycle, or both are chosen to provide the desired average brightness.

  20. Theoretical and material studies on thin-film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical study of resonant tunneling in multilayered heterostructures is presented based on an exact solution of the Schroedinger equation under the application of a constant electric field. By use of the transfer matrix approach, the transmissivity of the structure is determined as a function of the incident electron energy. The approach presented is easily extended to many layer structures where it is more accurate than other existing transfer matrix or WKB models. The transmission resonances are compared to the bound state energies calculated for a finite square well under bias using either an asymmetric square well model or the exact solution of an infinite square well under the application of an electric field. The results show good agreement with other existing models as well as with the bound state energies. The calculations were then applied to a new superlattice structure, the variablly spaced superlattice energy filter, (VSSEP) which is designed such that under bias the spatial quantization levels fully align. Based on these calculations, a new class of resonant tunneling superlattice devices can be designed.

  1. Electroluminescent devices using a layered organic-inorganic perovskite structure as emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelle, Michael; Bruetting, Wolfgang; Schwoerer, Markus; Yahiro, Masayuki; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2001-02-01

    Self-organizing layered perovskite compounds like (formula available in paper) naturally form a dielectric quantum-well structure in which semiconducting PbI4 layers and organic (C6H5C2H4NH3) layers are alternately piled up. Due to their low- dimensional semiconductor nature they exhibit a strong absorption and sharp photoluminescence from the exciton band. In electroluminescent devices pure green emission peaking at 520 nm with a very narrow half-width of about 10 nm has been reported. As the organic-inorganic layered structure has promising properties for EL-devices, we investigated two- and three layer structures using this perovskite as emitter material in combination with additional hole and electron injection layers. To get more insight into electrical properties and electroluminescence- mechanisms of this material, temperature dependent current- voltage-luminance characteristics have been measured, showing an increasing onset-voltage for current flow from 2.6 V at room temperature to about 8.8 V at 80 K. Electroluminescence is detected at temperatures below 150 K with onset voltages of about 13 V. At liquid nitrogen temperature efficiencies of (formula available in paper) are obtained.

  2. Tunable magneto-conductance and magneto-electroluminescence in polymer light-emitting electrochemical planar devices

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, R.; Mayhew, N. T.; Nguyen, T. D.

    2013-12-09

    We report studies of magneto-conductance (MC) and magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) in polymer light-emitting electrochemical planar devices using “super-yellow” poly-(phenylene vinylene). We observed consistent negative MC while MEL becomes positive when electroluminescence quantum efficiency (ELQE) increases. At an optimal ELQE, the MC has a much narrower width than the MEL, indicating that the MC and MEL do not share a common origin. However, MC reverses and has the same width as MEL when exposed to a threshold laser power. We show that the e-h pair model can explain the positive MEL and MC while the negative MC can be explained by the bipolaron model.

  3. Fluorene-fluorenone copolymer: Stable and efficient yellow-emitting material for electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panozzo, S.; Vial, J.-C.; Kervella, Y.; Stéphan, O.

    2002-10-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a new fluorene copolymer exhibiting bright yellow luminescence. In order to ensure a complete π-stacking of the active layer, a 9-fluorenone monomeric unit (FOne) has been used as comonomer in conjunction with the more classical 9,9-di-n-nonylfluorene unit. As expected with fluorene-based materials, when excited at 370 nm, the corresponding dilute copolymer solution photoluminescence spectra exhibit a main peak centered at 450 nm in the blue part of the visible spectrum. However, in the solid state, immediate structural reorganization of the layer occurs, leading to a red-shifted emission (bright yellow emission) centered at 550 nm. The origin of the emitted light has been attributed to excimers and/or aggregates based on short FOne segments and involves mainly exciton transfer between nonaggregated fluorene segments and aggregated ones. It is noteworthy that organic light-emitting devices based on these new materials exhibit no spectral evolution upon device operation. However, although stacking leads generally to a detrimental quenching of the luminescence in the solid state, as for regular poly(alkyl-fluorene), the luminescence efficiency of the fluorene-fluorenone copolymer remains suitable for device preparation. High material stability is attributed to an efficient and fast structural reorganization of the active layer, triggered by the small proportion of fluorenone. High electroluminescence efficiency, when compared to aggregated regular poly(alkyl-fluorene), results from an improved electron injection, a better carrier transport, and the conjunction of an efficient energy transfer from fluorene segments to excimers and/or aggregates with the implication of spin triplet, which is often lacking when using regular semiconducting polymers.

  4. In Situ Solid-State Generation of (BN)2 -Pyrenes and Electroluminescent Devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suning; Yang, Deng-Tao; Lu, Jiasheng; Shimogawa, Hiroyuki; Gong, Shaolong; Wang, Xiang; Mellerup, Soren K; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Chang, Yi-Lu; Yang, Chuluo; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2015-12-07

    New BN-heterocyclic compounds have been found to undergo double arene photoelimination, forming rare yellow fluorescent BN-pyrenes that contain two BN units. Most significant is the discovery that the double arene elimination can also be driven by excitons generated electrically within electroluminescent (EL) devices, enabling the in situ solid-state conversion of BN-heterocycles to BN-pyrenes and the use of BN-pyrenes as emitters for EL devices. The in situ exciton-driven elimination (EDE) phenomenon has also been observed for other BN-heterocycles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Determining the Origin of Half-bandgap-voltage Electroluminescence in Bifunctional Rubrene/C60 Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiusong; Jia, Weiyao; Chen, Lixiang; Yuan, De; Zou, Yue; Xiong, Zuhong

    2016-05-01

    Lowering the driving voltage of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is an important approach to reduce their energy consumption. We have fabricated a series of bifunctional devices (OLEDs and photovoltaics) using rubrene and fullerene (C60) as the active layer, in which the electroluminescence threshold voltage(~1.1 V) was half the value of the bandgap of rubrene. Magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) response of planner heterojunction diodes exhibited a small increase in response to a low magnetic field strength (<20 mT) however, a very large decay was observed at a high magnetic field strength (>20 mT). When a hole-transport layer with a low mobility was included in these devices, the MEL response reversed in shape, and simultaneously, the EL threshold voltage became larger than the bandgap voltage. When bulk heterojunction device was examined, the amplitude of MEL curves presented an anomalous voltage-dependence. Following an analysis of the MEL responses of these devices, we proposed that the EL of half-bandgap-voltage device originated from bimolecular triplet-triplet annihilation in the rubrene film, rather than from singlet excitons that formed via an interface auger recombination. This work provides critical insight into the mechanisms of OLED emission and will help advance the applications of bifunctional devices.

  6. Observation of degradation processes of Al electrodes in organic electroluminescence devices by electroluminescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, L. M.; Han, E. M.; Niidome, Y.; Fujihira, M.; Kanno, T.; Yoshida, S.; Maeda, A.; Ikushima, A. J.

    1994-11-01

    Degradation of top electrodes is one of the most important factors to determine the lifetimes of organic electroluminescence (EL) devices. An organic EL device (indium thin oxide (ITO/N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (TPD)/tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline)aluminum (Al q(sub 3))/Al) was prepared and a morphological change of the Al top electrode was observed during and/or after applying voltage by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The change in the electrode surface, i.e., the increase in surface roughness was observed during the current flow. The degradation process started from faint dark core parts and propagated into disks with different rates depending on the magnitude of applied voltage. Degraded sites of the Al electrode, which were analyzed as aluminum oxide by Auger electron spectroscopy, protruded into the air on the organic layers. In SEM images of a life-end electrode, discontinuities due to crevasse formation in the organic layers sandwiched by the ITO base and the metal top electrodes were observed in many places. These results confirm that one of the most crucial factors of the degradation process was deformation of metal and organic layers due to heat, gas evolution, and oxidation caused by applied voltage.

  7. Highly efficient electroluminescence from a heterostructure device combined with emissive layered-perovskite and an electron-transporting organic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Toshiaki; Taira, Takahiro; Era, Masanao; Tsutsui, Tetsuo; Saito, Shugu

    1996-05-01

    Two Pbl-based layer perovskite compounds, which possess cyclohexenylethylamine or phenylbutylamine as an organic ammonium layer, were newly found to exhibit efficient exciton emission due to their self-organized quantum well structure where a lead halide semiconducting layer and an organic ammonium dielectric layer are alternately piled up. We prepared heterostructure electroluminescent devices using the combination of the emissive layered perovskite and an electron-transporting oxadiazole. When the heterostructure devices were driven at 110 K, greenish emission, which corresponded well to the exciton emission, was observed. In the device using the perovskite with an organic layer of cyclohexenythylamine, a high luminance exceeding 4000 cd m -2 and high external EL quantum efficiency of 2.8% were attained at a current density of 50 mA cm -2 at an applied voltage of 24 V.

  8. Electroluminescence efficiencies of erbium in silicon-based hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Cueff, Sébastien E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr; Manel Ramírez, Joan; Berencén, Yonder; Garrido, Blas; Kurvits, Jonathan A.; Zia, Rashid; Rizk, Richard; Labbé, Christophe E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr

    2013-11-04

    We report on room-temperature 1.5 μm electroluminescence from trivalent erbium (Er{sup 3+}) ions embedded in three different CMOS-compatible silicon-based hosts: SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and SiN{sub x}. We show that although the insertion of either nitrogen or excess silicon helps enhance electrical conduction and reduce the onset voltage for electroluminescence, it drastically decreases the external quantum efficiency of Er{sup 3+} ions from 2% in SiO{sub 2} to 0.001% and 0.0004% in SiN{sub x} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, respectively. Furthermore, we present strong evidence that hot carrier injection is significantly more efficient than defect-assisted conduction for the electrical excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions. These results suggest strategies to optimize the engineering of on-chip electrically excited silicon-based nanophotonic light sources.

  9. Solution-Processable Silicon Phthalocyanines in Electroluminescent and Photovoltaic Devices

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Phthalocyanines and their main group and metal complexes are important classes of organic semiconductor materials but are usually highly insoluble and so frequently need to be processed by vacuum deposition in devices. We report two highly soluble silicon phthalocyanine (SiPc) diester compounds and demonstrate their potential as organic semiconductor materials. Near-infrared (λEL = 698–709 nm) solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated and exhibited external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of up to 1.4%. Binary bulk heterojunction solar cells employing P3HT or PTB7 as the donor and the SiPc as the acceptor provided power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 2.7% under simulated solar illumination. Our results show that soluble SiPcs are promising materials for organic electronics. PMID:26990151

  10. Solution-Processable Silicon Phthalocyanines in Electroluminescent and Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Zysman-Colman, Eli; Ghosh, Sanjay S; Xie, Guohua; Varghese, Shinto; Chowdhury, Mithun; Sharma, Nidhi; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2016-04-13

    Phthalocyanines and their main group and metal complexes are important classes of organic semiconductor materials but are usually highly insoluble and so frequently need to be processed by vacuum deposition in devices. We report two highly soluble silicon phthalocyanine (SiPc) diester compounds and demonstrate their potential as organic semiconductor materials. Near-infrared (λ(EL) = 698-709 nm) solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated and exhibited external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of up to 1.4%. Binary bulk heterojunction solar cells employing P3HT or PTB7 as the donor and the SiPc as the acceptor provided power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 2.7% under simulated solar illumination. Our results show that soluble SiPcs are promising materials for organic electronics.

  11. Reduced operating voltage of organic electroluminescent devices by plasma treatment of the indium tin oxide anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuber, F.; Staudigel, J.; Stössel, M.; Simmerer, J.; Winnacker, A.

    1999-06-01

    The impact of oxygen plasma treatment of indium tin oxide anodes on performance and durability of vapor-deposited organic electroluminescent devices is shown. Investigations focused on the long-term stability using driving conditions suitable for passive matrix driven displays. Reliability studies of solvent only cleaned samples indicate the presence of a predominating degradation process at the interface between indium tin oxide and the hole injection layer which results in a drastic rise of the operating voltage. This voltage increase could be reduced to 0.31 mV/h by oxygen plasma treatment. As hole injection layer copper phthalocyanine is compared with a star-shaped amine derivative.

  12. Exciplex electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra of the new organic materials based on zinc complexes of sulphanylamino-substituted ligands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the electroluminescence spectra of the electroluminescent devices based on the new zinc complexes of amino-substituted benzothiazoles and quinolines containing the C-N-M-N chains in their chelate cycles. The spectra exhibit strong exciplex bands in the green to yellow region 540 to 590 nm due to interaction of the excited states of zinc complexes and triaryl molecules of the hole-transporting layer. For some devices, the intrinsic luminescence band of 460 nm in the blue region is also observed along with the exciplex band giving rise to an almost white color of the device emission. The exciplex band can be eliminated if the material of the hole-transporting layer is not a triarylamine derivative. We have also found the exciplex emission in the photoluminescence spectra of the films containing blends of zinc complex and triphenylamine material. PMID:22471942

  13. [The role of BCP in electroluminescence of multilayer organic light-emitting devices].

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhao-Ru; Yang, Sheng-Yi; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Meng, Ling-Chuan

    2009-03-01

    As a hole-blocking layer, 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) is usually used in blue and white light electroluminescent devices. The ability of blocking holes of BCP layer depends on its thickness, and basically holes can tunnel through thin BCP layer. In order to know the role of BCP layer in electroluminescence (EL) of multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), in the present paper, the authors designed a multilayer OLED ITO/NPB/BCP/Alq3 : DCJTB/Alq3/Al and investigated the influence of thickness of BCP on the EL spectra of multilayer OLEDs at different applied voltages. The experimental data show that thin BCP layer can block holes partially and tune the energy transfer between different emissive layers, and in this way, it is easy to obtain white emission, but its EL spectra will change with the applied voltages. The EL spectra of multilayer device will remain relatively stable when BCP layer is thick enough, and the holes can hardly tunnel through when the thickness of BCP layer is more than 15 nm. Furthermore, the stability of EL spectra of the multilayer OLED at different applied voltages was discussed.

  14. Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Can Hui; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Chen, Yong Mei; Suo, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    A new type of electroluminescent device achieves giant stretchability by integrating electronic and ionic components. The device uses phosphor powders as electroluminescent materials, and hydrogels as stretchable and transparent ionic conductors. Subject to cyclic voltage, the phosphor powders luminesce, but the ionic conductors do not electrolyze. The device produces constant luminance when stretched up to an area strain of 1500%.

  15. Electroluminescence mechanisms in organic light emitting devices employing a europium chelate doped in a wide energy gap bipolar conducting host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Chihaya; Baldo, Marc A.; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2000-06-01

    The mechanism for energy transfer leading to electroluminescence (EL) of a lanthanide complex, Eu(TTA)3phen (TTA=thenoyltrifluoroacetone,phen=1,10-phenanthroline), doped into 4,4'-N,N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP) host is investigated. With the device structure of anode/hole transport layer/Eu(TTA)3phen(1%):CPB/electron transport layer/cathode, we achieve a maximum external EL quantum efficiency (η) of 1.4% at a current density of 0.4 mA/cm2. Saturated red Eu3+ emission based on 5Dx-7Fx transitions is centered at a wavelength of 612 nm with a full width at half maximum of 3 nm. From analysis of the electroluminescent and photoluminescent spectra, and the current density-voltage characteristics, we conclude that direct trapping of holes and electrons and subsequent formation of the excitons occurs on the dopant, leading to high quantum efficiencies at low current densities. With increasing current between 1 and 100 mA/cm2, however, a significant decrease of η along with an increase in CBP host emission is observed. We demonstrate that the decrease in η at high current densities can be explained by triplet-triplet annihilation.

  16. Electroluminescence of Zinc Complexes in Various OLED Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odod, A. V.; Nikonova, E. N.; Nikonov, S. Yu.; Kopylova, T. N.; Kaplunov, M. G.; Krasnikova, S. S.; Nikitenko, S. L.; Yakushchenko, I. K.

    2017-05-01

    Results of spectral-luminescent and electroluminescent studies of organic semiconductor zinc complexes in light-emitting diode devices are presented. A displacement of the electroluminescence band maximum toward longer wavelengths with structure complication is shown. Devices based on zinc metal organic complexes have low threshold voltage (from 2.5 V) and brightness above 100 cd/m2.

  17. Light-emitting device with organic electroluminescent material and photoluminescent materials

    DOEpatents

    McNulty, Thomas Francis; Duggal, Anil Raj; Turner, Larry Gene; Shiang, Joseph John

    2005-06-07

    A light-emitting device comprises a light-emitting member, which comprises two electrodes and an organic electroluminescent material disposed between the electrodes, and at least one organic photoluminescent ("PL") material. The light-emitting member emits light having a first spectrum in response to a voltage applied across the two electrodes. The organic PL material absorbs a portion of the light emitted by the light-emitting member and emits light having second spectrum different than the first spectrum. The light-emitting device can include an inorganic PL material that absorbs another portion of the light emitted from the light-emitting member and emits light having a third spectrum different than both the first and the second spectra.

  18. The pure white light emission from three-layer electroluminescent device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhijian; Ogino, Kenji; Miyata, Seizo; Lu, Youmei; Watanabe, Toshiyuki

    2002-04-01

    We have synthesized a red fluorescent dye of 4-dicyanomethylene- 2,6-di-(4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde)-γ-pyran (DCDM), and fabricated electroluminescent devices of glass/indium-tin oxide/N,N'-diphenyl-N, N'-(3-methyphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD), doped with different concentration of DCDM and 2.5wt.% of 9-cyanoanthracene (CNA), 50 nm/2,9-dimethy-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP), 40 nm/tris-(8-hydroxyquiniline) aluminium (Alq3), 5 nm/Ag : Mg, 500 nm/Ag cap, 100 nm. The Commission International de 1' Eclairage (CIE) colour coordinates traverses along a straight line in the CIE chromaticity diagram with the concentration of DCDM. By adjusting the concentration of the fluorescent dyes, the pure white light emission was obtained at the CIE coordinates of x = 0.34 and y = 0.35.

  19. Homogeneous Synthesis and Electroluminescence Device of Highly Luminescent CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Song; Yang, Yanchun; Kang, Xiaojiao; Wang, Lan; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng

    2017-03-06

    Highly luminescent CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) are homogeneously synthesized by mixing toluene solutions of PbBr2 and cesium oleate at room temperature in open air. We found that PbBr2 can be easily dissolved in nonpolar toluene in the presence of tetraoctylammonium bromide, which allows us to homogeneously prepare CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots and prevents the use of harmful polar organic solvents, such as N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Additionally, this method can be extended to synthesize highly luminescent CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite quantum dots. An electroluminescence device with a maximal luminance of 110 cd/m(2) has been fabricated by using high-quality CsPbBr3 PNCs as the emitting layer.

  20. The Effect of the Oxygen Plasma Treatment for ITO and ZnO Nanorods on the Electroluminescence of ZnO Nanorod/MEH-PPV Heterostructure Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Su-Ling; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Gao, Song; Yang, Yi-Fan; Xu, Zheng

    2013-03-01

    Series devices of ITO/ZnO/ZnO nanorods/MEH-PPV/Al have been fabricated. ITO and ZnO nanorods of some devices are treated by O2 plasma. The electroluminescence of different devices is detected under different biases. UV electroluminescence of ZnO nanorods at 380nm is observed in all the devices. The intensity of 380nm increases when both ITO and ZnO nanorods are treated. The turn-on voltage of the treated device is lower than that of the non-treated device, and the EL power is enhanced. When the thickness of MEH-PPV is sufficiently thin, only 380 nm electroluminescence, besides a weak defect emission at 760 nm, is detected. The enhancement mechanism of the electroluminescence of the treated devices is discussed.

  1. Incorporation of electroluminescence and electrochemiluminescence in one organic light-emitting device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Changgua; Chuai, Yutao; Lao, Chunfeng; Huang, Lan; Zou, Dechun; Lee, Do Nam; Kim, Byeong Hyo

    2005-08-01

    The incorporation of electroluminescence and electrochemiluminescence in one light-emitting device with the configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/[Ru(bpy)2(dimbpy)](PF6)2/Alq3(30nm)/NPB(45nm)/Ag(60nm) is investigated. When the ITO and Ag electrodes are negatively and positively biased respectively, the color of the emission changes from green to light yellow-white within 100 s. So there is only one recombination zone in the bulk of the Alq3 at the initial stage of the operation, followed by the formation of another recombination zone in the bulk of the [Ru(bpy)2(dimbpy)](PF6)2. This directly indicates the existence of unipolar injection (electron injection) process in the ruthenium complex layer. The external quantum efficiency of the device is 1.4% compared with 0.45% of the ITO /[Ru(bpy)2(dimbpy)](PF6)2/Ag device, improved by twofold. Furthermore, this hybrid device provides a feasible way to control the emission of a wide spectrum of colors including red, green, yellow, and white.

  2. Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers and Their Application in Electroluminescent Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Yuefei; Ma, Biwu; Segalman, Rachel A.

    2008-11-18

    The formation of alternating electron transporting and hole transporting 15 nm lamellae within the active layer of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is demonstrated to improve device performance. A new multifunctional bipolar rod-coil block copolymer containing a poly(alkoxy phenylenevinylene) (PPV) rod-shaped block as the hole transporting and emitting material and a poly(vinyloxadiazole) coil-shaped electron transporting block is synthesized. This new block copolymer is the active material of a self-assembling multicomponent electroluminescent device that can be deposited in a single step. In the thin film, grazing incidence X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the layers form grains which are oriented bimodally: parallel and perpendicular from the anode. In this mixed orientation, the device demonstrates better performance than those with either pure PPV or a blend of the two analogous homopolymers as the active materials, i.e., higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) and brightness. This improved device performance is mainly attributed to the bipolar functionality and microphase separation of the block copolymer, which provide highly efficient hole and electron recombination at the nanodomain interfaces.

  3. Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers And Their Application in Electroluminescent Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Y.; Ma, B.; Segalman, R.A.

    2009-05-26

    The formation of alternating electron transporting and hole transporting 15 nm lamellae within the active layer of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is demonstrated to improve device performance. A new multifunctional bipolar rod-coil block copolymer containing a poly(alkoxy phenylenevinylene) (PPV) rod-shaped block as the hole transporting and emitting material and a poly(vinyloxadiazole) coil-shaped electron transporting block is synthesized. This new block copolymer is the active material of a self-assembling multicomponent electroluminescent device that can be deposited in a single step. In the thin film, grazing incidence X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the layers form grains which are oriented bimodally: parallel and perpendicular from the anode. In this mixed orientation, the device demonstrates better performance than those with either pure PPV or a blend of the two analogous homopolymers as the active materials, i.e., higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) and brightness. This improved device performance is mainly attributed to the bipolar functionality and microphase separation of the block copolymer, which provide highly efficient hole and electron recombination at the nanodomain interfaces.

  4. Electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with erbium-doped CeO{sub 2} films on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Wang, Canxing; Gao, Yuhan; Ma, Xiangyang Yang, Deren

    2015-04-06

    We report on erbium (Er)-related electroluminescence (EL) in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) from metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with Er-doped CeO{sub 2} (CeO{sub 2}:Er) films on silicon. The onset voltage of such EL under either forward or reverse bias is smaller than 10 V. Moreover, the EL quenching can be avoidable for the CeO{sub 2}:Er-based MOS devices. Analysis on the current-voltage characteristic of the device indicates that the electron transportation at the EL-enabling voltages under either forward or reverse bias is dominated by trap-assisted tunneling mechanism. Namely, electrons in n{sup +}-Si/ITO can tunnel into the conduction band of CeO{sub 2} host via defect states at sufficiently high forward/reverse bias voltages. Then, a fraction of such electrons are accelerated by electric field to become hot electrons, which impact-excite the Er{sup 3+} ions, thus leading to characteristic emissions. It is believed that this work has laid the foundation for developing viable silicon-based emitters using CeO{sub 2}:Er films.

  5. Green electroluminescence from a Tb-doped AlN thin-film device on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, F.; Carius, R.; Alam, A.; Heuken, M.; Buchal, Ch.

    2002-09-01

    Green photoluminescence and electroluminescence (EL) from Tb implanted AlN films have been observed at room temperature. The AlN films of 180 nm thickness were grown on n-type Si(111) by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. X-ray diffraction shows that the AlN is polycrystalline. The AlN films were doped by ion implantation of Tb to a peak concentration of 1 at. %. A postimplantation annealing step was required to obtain optically active Tb ions. A dc EL device was fabricated using a transparent ZnO:Al top electrode. The strong room-temperature green light emission was observable with the naked eye. It was obtained with a drive current density of 2-70 mA/cm2 at a drive voltage of 70-100 V. The emission lines between 490 and 650 nm originate from Tb3+ transitions from the 5D4 level to ground state multiplets. The observed luminescence lifetimes are approximately 0.5 ms.

  6. Space charge effects on the electroluminescence efficiency and stability of organic light-emitting devices with mixed emitting layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yichun; Aziz, Hany

    2009-08-01

    In organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), the decay rate of triplet state population in the electron/hole recombination zone is found to be highly sensitive to space charge densities, providing an avenue for inferring variations in their formation. In OLEDs containing mixtures of N ,N'-Bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (AlQ3) in the emitting layer, optimizing the NPB/AlQ3 is found to reduce hole space charges, and leads to an increase in electroluminescence stability. Conversely, electroluminescence efficiency is found to be only weakly dependent on the mixture composition, suggesting that hole space charges are not effective quenchers of AlQ3 singlet excitons in mixed emitting layer OLEDs.

  7. Quantum-dot-based white lighting planar source through downconversion by blue electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Heon; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jang, Ho Seong; Do, Young Rag; Yang, Heesun

    2014-03-01

    We report the unprecedented fabrication of a planar white lighting quantum dot light-emitting diode (QD-LED) through integrating a CdZnS QD-based blue electroluminescence (EL) device with a free-standing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) composite film embedded with orange-emitting Cu-In-S (CIS) green-greenish yellow-emitting Cu-In-Ga-S (CIGS) QDs. The hybrid device successfully generates bicolored white emission that comprises blue EL and downconverted QD photoluminescence. The hybrid QD-LEDs loaded with the composite film embedded with one type of QDs exhibit a limited white spectral coverage, consequently producing low values (<65) in color rendering index (CRI). Thus, the QD-PMMA film consisting of a blend of green CIGS and orange CIS QD downconverters is applied for obtaining a higher-CRI white light through the spectral extension, resulting in a much improved CRI of 75-77. Various EL performances of the hybrid planar white device versus the reference blue QD-LED are also characterized in details.

  8. Tunable, narrow, and enhanced electroluminescent emission from porous-silicon-reflector-based organic microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, X. J.; Tan, X. W.; Wang, Z.; Liu, G. Y.; Xiong, Z. H.

    2006-10-01

    Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes (MC-OLEDs) based on porous silicon distributed Bragg reflectors (PS-DBRs) have been realized, and improved structural, optical, and electrical properties have been observed. In the device, a multilayer OLED functions as the central active element, sandwiched between a top silver film and a bottom PS-DBR formed by electrochemical etching of a p++-Si substrate. Field-emission scanning-electron-microscopy cross-sectional images show that there exist nanoscale layered structures and flat interfaces inside the cavity. Widths of green and red electroluminescent (EL) peaks emitted from the MC-OLEDs are 8 and 12nm, respectively, greatly reduced in comparison with 85 and 70nm measured from noncavity structures. The narrowed EL emission from the MC-OLEDs is directional and in single mode, with off-resonant optical modes highly suppressed, which is mainly due to the good optical properties of PS-DBR with high reflectivity in a wide smooth stop band. Further increases in the green and red EL intensities by factors of about 6 and 4, respectively, are achievable. The improvement is physically attributable to the spatial redistribution of the photon density of states in the cavities. In addition, current-brightness-voltage properties and lifetime-related parameters of the devices are discussed. Such device structure and emission patterns of the MC-OLEDs should be useful in silicon compatible optical interconnects and light-emitting diode array printing.

  9. High performance organic integrated device with ultraviolet photodetective and electroluminescent properties consisting of a charge-transfer-featured naphthalimide derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hanyu; Wang, Xu; Yu, Junsheng E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn; Zhou, Jie; Lu, Zhiyun E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn

    2014-08-11

    A high performance organic integrated device (OID) with ultraviolet photodetective and electroluminescent (EL) properties was fabricated by using a charge-transfer-featured naphthalimide derivative of 6-(3,5-bis-[9-(4-t-butylphenyl)-9H-carbazol-3-yl]-phenoxy)-2- (4-t-butylphenyl)-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione (CzPhONI) as the active layer. The results showed that the OID had a high detectivity of 1.5 × 10{sup 11} Jones at −3 V under the UV-350 nm illumination with an intensity of 0.6 mW/cm{sup 2}, and yielded an exciplex EL light emission with a maximum brightness of 1437 cd/m{sup 2}. Based on the energy band diagram, both the charge transfer feature of CzPhONI and matched energy level alignment were responsible for the dual ultraviolet photodetective and EL functions of OID.

  10. Mechanism of hot electron electroluminescence in GaN-based transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazzini, Tommaso; Sun, Huarui; Sarti, Francesco; Pomeroy, James W.; Hodges, Chris; Gurioli, Massimo; Vinattieri, Anna; Uren, Michael J.; Kuball, Martin

    2016-11-01

    The nature of hot electron electroluminescence (EL) in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors is studied and attributed to Bremsstrahlung. The spectral distribution has been corrected, for the first time, for interference effects due to the multilayered device structure, and this was shown to be crucial for the correct interpretation of the data, avoiding artefacts in the spectrum and misinterpretation of the results. An analytical expression for the spectral distribution of emitted light is derived assuming Bremsstrahlung as the only origin and compared to the simplified exponential model for the high energy tail commonly used for electron temperature extraction: the electron temperature obtained results about 20% lower compared to the approximated exponential model. Comparison of EL intensity for devices from different wafers illustrated the dependence of EL intensity on the material quality. The polarization of electroluminescence also confirms Bremsstrahlung as the dominant origin of the light emitted, ruling out other possible main mechanisms.

  11. Electroluminescence of quantum-dash-based quantum cascade laser structures

    SciTech Connect

    Liverini, V.; Bismuto, A.; Nevou, L.; Beck, M.; Faist, J.

    2011-12-23

    We developed two mid-infrared quantum cascade structures based on InAs quantum dashes. The dashes were embedded either in AlInGaAs lattice-matched to InP or in tensile-strained AlInAs. The devices emit between 7 and 11 {mu}m and are a step forward in the development of quantum cascade lasers based on 3-D confined active regions.

  12. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: A New Conducting Polymer Electrode for Organic Electroluminescence Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Shu; Peng, Jing-Cu

    2008-08-01

    Conducting polymer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is studied for the high performance electrode of organic electroluminescence devices. A method to prepare the electrode consisting of a SiC thin film and PDMS is investigated. By using ultra thin SiC films with different thicknesses, the organic electroluminescence devices are obtained in an ultra vacuum system with the model device PDMS/SiC/PPV/Alq3, where PPV is poly para-phenylene vinylene and Alq3 is tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium. The capacitance-voltage (C - V), capacitance-frequency (C - F), current-voltage (I - V), radiation intensity-voltage (R - V) and luminance efficiency-voltage (E - V) measurements are systematically studied to investigate the conductivity, Fermi alignment and devices properties in organic semiconductors. Scanning Kelvin probe measurement shows that the work function ofPDMS/SiC anode with a 2.5-nm SiC over layer can be increased by as much as 0.28 eV, compared to the conventional ITO anode. The result is attributed to the charge transfer effect and ohmic contacts at the interface.

  13. Electroluminescence emission patterns of organic light-emitting transistors based on crystallized fluorene-type polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajii, Hirotake; Ohtomo, Takahiro; Ohmori, Yutaka

    2017-03-01

    The electroluminescence (EL) emission patterns of organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs) based on crystallized poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (F8), poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-dithienyl-benzothiadiazole) (F8TBT) films are investigated. For the single-layer devices and the mixed-layer device without an F8/F8BT interface, only line-shaped EL emission patterns are observed between source/drain (S/D) electrodes. For an F8BT (F8TBT)/F8 heterostructure device, a localized electric field is generated by the positive (negative) charges of the accumulated holes (electrons) in the F8 upper layer, which allow the injection of electrons (holes) in the F8BT (F8TBT) lower layer at a lower (higher) gate voltage. The F8/F8BT device exhibits unique light emission properties with a surface like EL emission pattern between S/D electrodes at a lower gate voltage. The interfacial structure is important for forming field-effect transistor channels along different organic layers to obtain a surface like emission between S/D electrodes. For the F8TBT/F8 OLET, the hole carrier transport mainly occurs at the F8TBT lower layer, and line-shaped EL emission patterns are observed in the vicinity of the source electrode upon varying the gate voltages owing to the worse carrier balance between the F8TBT lower layer and the F8 upper layer.

  14. Electroluminescence- and electrically-detected magnetic resonance studies of spin one-half-polaron and singlet-exciton dynamics in multilayer small molecular organic light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Shinar, Joseph

    2002-02-01

    The electroluminescence (EL)- and electrically-detected magnetic resonance (ELDMR and EDMR, respectively) of tris- (8-hydroxyquinoline) Al (Alq3)]/[buffer]/Al-based organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) are described. Positive spin ½ ELDMR and EDMR observed at T<60K are similar to the typical photoluminescence-detected magnetic resonance of (pi) -conjugated polymers, and consequently attributed to enhanced polaron recombination and consequent reduction of singlet exciton quenching by trapped and free polarons. A negative spin ½ EL- and current-quenching (negative) resonance is observed at T>=60 K. Its amplitude increases with T, and it is much stronger in devices with an AlOx buffer layer than in those with a CsF buffer. Its behavior is consistent with magnetic resonance enhancement of the spin-dependent formation of dianions at the organic/cathode interface.

  15. Intense green-yellow electroluminescence from Tb+-implanted silicon-rich silicon nitride/oxide light emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berencén, Y.; Wutzler, R.; Rebohle, L.; Hiller, D.; Ramírez, J. M.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Skorupa, W.; Garrido, B.

    2013-09-01

    High optical power density of 0.5 mW/cm2, external quantum efficiency of 0.1%, and population inversion of 7% are reported from Tb+-implanted silicon-rich silicon nitride/oxide light emitting devices. Electrical and electroluminescence mechanisms in these devices were investigated. The excitation cross section for the 543 nm Tb3+ emission was estimated under electrical pumping, resulting in a value of 8.2 × 10-14 cm2, which is one order of magnitude larger than one reported for Tb3+:SiO2 light emitting devices. These results demonstrate the potentiality of Tb+-implanted silicon nitride material for the development of integrated light sources compatible with Si technology.

  16. Electroluminescence from a diamond device with ion-beam-micromachined buried graphitic electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forneris, J.; Battiato, A.; Gatto Monticone, D.; Picollo, F.; Amato, G.; Boarino, L.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Enrico, E.; Genovese, M.; Moreva, E.; Traina, P.; Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G.; Olivero, P.

    2015-04-01

    Focused MeV ion microbeams are suitable tools for the direct writing of conductive graphitic channels buried in an insulating diamond bulk, as demonstrated in previous works with the fabrication of multi-electrode ionizing radiation detectors and cellular biosensors. In this work we investigate the suitability of the fabrication method for the electrical excitation of color centers in diamond. Differently from photoluminescence, electroluminescence requires an electrical current flowing through the diamond sub-gap states for the excitation of the color centers. With this purpose, buried graphitic electrodes with a spacing of 10 μm were fabricated in the bulk of a detector-grade CVD single-crystal diamond sample using a scanning 1.8 MeV He+ micro-beam. The current flowing in the gap region between the electrodes upon the application of a 450 V bias voltage was exploited as the excitation pump for the electroluminescence of different types of color centers localized in the above-mentioned gap. The bright light emission was spatially mapped using a confocal optical microscopy setup. The spectral analysis of electroluminescence revealed the emission from neutrally-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV0, λZPL = 575 nm), as well as from cluster crystal dislocations (A-band, λ = 400-500 nm). Moreover, an electroluminescence signal with appealing spectral features (sharp emission at room temperature, low phonon sidebands) from He-related defects was detected (λZPL = 536.3 nm, λZPL = 560.5 nm); a low and broad peak around λ = 740 nm was also observed and tentatively ascribed to Si-V or GR1 centers. These results pose interesting future perspectives for the fabrication of electrically-stimulated single-photon emitters in diamond for applications in quantum optics and quantum cryptography.

  17. Synthesis, photophysical and electroluminescent properties of novel iridium (III) complexes based on 5-methyl-2-phenylbenzo[d]oxazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Chi, Hai-Jun; Dong, Yan; Xiao, Guo-Yong; Lei, Peng; Zhang, Dong-Yu; Cui, Zheng

    2013-12-01

    A new series of phosphorescent iridium (III) complexes based on 5-methyl-2-phenylbenzo[d]oxazole derivatives as main ligands, i.e. bis(5-methyl-2- phenylbenzo[d]oxazole-N,C2‧)iridium(acetylacetonate) [(mpbo)2Ir(acac)], bis(2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-methylbenzo[d]oxazole-N,C2‧)iridium(acetylacetonate) [(fmbo)2Ir(acac)] and bis(5-methyl-2-p-tolylbenzo[d]oxazole-N,C2‧) iridium(acetylacetonate) [(mtbo)2Ir(acac)], were synthesized for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and their photophysical, electroluminescent properties were investigated. All complexes have high thermal stability and emit intense phosphorescence from green to yellow at room temperature with high quantum efficiencies and relatively short lifetimes. The OLED based on (fmbo)2Ir(acac) as dopant emitter showed very high luminance of 26,004 cd m-2 and luminance efficiency of 18.5 cd A-1. The evidences indicated that this series of iridium (III) complexes were potential candidates for applications in organic electroluminescent devices.

  18. Ultraviolet-visible electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with CeO{sub 2} films on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Wang, Canxing; Li, Dongsheng; Ma, Xiangyang Yang, Deren

    2015-03-15

    We report on ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) electroluminescence (EL) from metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with the CeO{sub 2} films annealed at low temperatures. At the same injection current, the UV-Vis EL from the MOS device with the 550 °C-annealed CeO{sub 2} film is much stronger than that from the counterpart with the 450 °C-annealed CeO{sub 2} film. This is due to that the 550 °C-annealed CeO{sub 2} film contains more Ce{sup 3+} ions and oxygen vacancies. It is tentatively proposed that the recombination of the electrons in multiple oxygen-vacancy–related energy levels with the holes in Ce 4f{sup 1} energy band pertaining to Ce{sup 3+} ions leads to the UV-Vis EL.

  19. Near-field measurement of ZnS:Mn nanocrystal and bulk thin-film electroluminescent devices.

    PubMed

    Grmela, L; Macku, R; Tomanek, P

    2008-02-01

    A near-field study of the electro-optical phenomena and aging characteristics of nanostructured and bulk ZnS:Mn alternating-current thin-film electro-optical devices is presented. ZnS:Mn nanocrystals embedded in the glass matrices as well as ZnS:Mn thin-film phosphors contain four different concentrations of Mn (from 0.05 to 1.0 mol%). The activator impurity in the phosphor influences the spectral properties and, to a large extent, the temporal properties of optical emission and an aging process of the devices. Therefore, a local photoluminescence and electroluminescence investigation using a scanning near-field optical microscope technique is provided and the aging characteristics of ZnS:Mn nanocrystal structure also presented.

  20. Electroluminescence-based quality characterization of quantum wells for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprasertpong, Kasidit; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Delamarre, Amaury; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Guillemoles, Jean-François; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2017-04-01

    Material quality is a critical factor which determines the performance, particularly the open-circuit voltage, of multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cells. In this study, we report an electroluminescence-based characterization technique for evaluating luminescence efficiency and Shockley-Read-Hall recombination lifetime in MQW structures as a measure of the material quality. As a demonstration, various structures of InGaAs/GaAsP MQWs inserted in GaAs solar cells are investigated. The complete compensation of strain and the insertion of GaAs interlayers between heterointerfaces result in significant improvement of electroluminescence homogeneity, external luminescence efficiency, and lifetime, agreeing well with the tendency of the open-circuit voltage. We show that this characterization technique can detect even subtle degradations, which are not easily detectable by other typical techniques, such as in-situ reflection, X-ray diffraction, and spectral and transient photoluminescence, but still have a significant impact on the performance of solar cells.

  1. Microstructure and atomic effects on the electroluminescent efficiency of SrS:Ce thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, W. L.; Seager, C. H.; Sun, S.-S.; Naman, A.; Holloway, P. H.; Jones, K. S.; Soininen, E.

    1997-11-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction data show that rapid thermal anneals of SrS:Ce thin films enhance grain size and reduce crystalline defects. Electron paramagnetic resonance results suggest that these anneals lead to less variance in the crystal field environments at the nearly cubic Ce3+ sites along with the formation of another type of Ce3+ site believed to involve a nearby Sr vacancy. We suggest that the association of Ce3+ sites with VSr shifts the electroluminescence towards larger wavelengths as the symmetry of the activator site is lowered.

  2. Preparation, characterization and electroluminescence studies of ZnO nanorods for optoelectronic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anju; Vishwakarma, H. L.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, ZnO nanorods were achieved by a simple chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) at room temperature. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) result indicates that the synthesized undoped ZnO nanorods have wurtzite hexagonal structure without any impurities. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods were (101). XRD analysis revealed that the nanorods having the crystallite size 49 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image confirmed the size and shape of these nanorods. The diameter of nanorods has been found that 1.52 µm to 1.61 µm and the length of about 4.89 µm. It has also been found that at room temperature Ultra Violet Visible (UV-VIS) absorption band is around 355 nm (blue shifted as compared to bulk). Electroluminescence (EL) studies show that emission of light is possible at very small threshold voltage and increases rapidly with increasing applied voltage. It is seen that smaller ZnO nanoparticles give higher electroluminescence brightness starting at lower threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  3. Preparation, characterization and electroluminescence studies of ZnO nanorods for optoelectronic device applications

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anju; Vishwakarma, H. L.

    2015-07-31

    In this work, ZnO nanorods were achieved by a simple chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) at room temperature. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) result indicates that the synthesized undoped ZnO nanorods have wurtzite hexagonal structure without any impurities. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods were (101). XRD analysis revealed that the nanorods having the crystallite size 49 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image confirmed the size and shape of these nanorods. The diameter of nanorods has been found that 1.52 µm to 1.61 µm and the length of about 4.89 µm. It has also been found that at room temperature Ultra Violet Visible (UV-VIS) absorption band is around 355 nm (blue shifted as compared to bulk). Electroluminescence (EL) studies show that emission of light is possible at very small threshold voltage and increases rapidly with increasing applied voltage. It is seen that smaller ZnO nanoparticles give higher electroluminescence brightness starting at lower threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  4. Hole-exciton interaction induced high field decay of magneto-electroluminescence in Alq{sub 3}-based organic light-emitting diodes at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Tingting; Holford, D. F.; Gu, Hang; Kreouzis, T.; Zhang, Sijie E-mail: w.gillin@qmul.ac.uk; Gillin, W. P. E-mail: w.gillin@qmul.ac.uk

    2016-01-11

    The magnetic field effects on the electroluminescence of aluminium tris-(8-hydroxyqinoline) (Alq{sub 3}) based organic light emitting diodes have been investigated by varying the electron/hole ratio in the emissive layer. Experimental results reveal that a negative high field effect in the magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) can be found in devices with very low triplet exciton concentration at room temperature. This suggests triplet-triplet annihilation cannot be used to explain the negative high field MEL in the Alq{sub 3} system. Our results suggest that hole-exciton interaction may be the origin of the negative high field MEL and also, in parallel with this interaction, there is also the more common positive high field process occurring which has been tentatively attributed to electron-exciton interactions. The competition between these different processes decides the final shape of the MEL at high fields.

  5. Simultaneous enhancement of photo- and electroluminescence in white organic light-emitting devices by localized surface plasmons of silver nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jingting; Zhu, Wenqing; Shi, Guanjie; Zhai, Guangsheng; Qian, Bingjie; Li, Jun

    2017-02-01

    White organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) with enhanced current efficiency and negligible color shifting equipped with an internal color conversion layer (CCL) were fabricated. They were attained by embedding a single layer of silver nanoclusters (SNCs) between the CCL and light-emitting layer (EML). The simultaneous enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) of the CCL and electroluminescence (EL) of the EML were realized by controlling the thickness and size of the SNCs to match the localized surface plasmon resonance spectrum with the PL spectrum of the CCL and the EL spectrum of the EML. The WOLED with optimal SNCs demonstrated a 25.81% enhancement in current efficiency at 60 mA cm‑2 and good color stability over the entire range of current density.

  6. X-Band Electroluminescence (EL)- and Electrically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ELDMR and EDMR) Studies of 8-tris(hydroxy quinoline) Al (Alq3)-Based Organic Light-Emitting Devices (OLEDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Uhlhorn, Brian L.; Shinar, Joseph

    2000-03-01

    The 9.44 GHz X-band ELDMR and EDMR of [indium tin oxide (ITO)]/[triphenyl diamine (TPD)]/Alq_3/X/Al OLEDs, where the buffer layer X = Al_2O3 or CsF, is described. At room temperature, the OLEDs exhibit EL- and current (I)-quenching (i.e., negative) resonances with a full width at half maximum of 29 G at g = 2.0. With X = Al_2O3 the resonance amplitudes are ΔI_EL/I_EL = 1.4x10-3 and ΔI/I = 4x10-4; with X = CsF, they are 4x10-4 and 3x10-5, respectively, i.e., much weaker. In addition, the resonances weaken as the devices degrades in air. These results indicate that spin-dependent processes at the Alq_3/cathode interface affect carrier injection and the EL. This scenario contrasts that invoked by earlier studies on PPV-based OLEDs, in which the resonances were attributed to bulk processes.^1,2 *Ames Laboratory is operated by Iowa State University for the US Department of Energy under Contract W-7405-Eng-82. ^1L. S. Swanson et al., Phys. Rev. B 46, 15072 (1992). ^2N. C. Greenham et al., Phys. Rev. B 53, 13528 (1996).

  7. Novel Amorphous Red Electroluminescence Material Based on Pyranylidene Indene-1,3-Dione Derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vembris, A.; Porozovs, M.; Muzikante, I.; Latvels, J.; Sarakovskis, A.; Kokars, V.; Zarins, E.

    2010-03-01

    The organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a promising device for future technologies, like flat panel displays and novel light sources. So far the OLED structures have mostly been made by thermal evaporation in vacuum. An alternative approach is to use small molecules which form solid state with glassy structure from solutions. Such compounds can be used in the ink-jet printing technologies and result in reducing the OLED prices. In this paper, we present an original red fluorescent organic compound 2-(2-(4-(bis(2-(trityloxy)ethyl)amino)styryl)-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione (ZWK1), with the maximum of the photoluminescence spectrum for solid state at 657 nm. The structure of the electroluminescent device was ITO/PEDOT: PSS (40 nm)/ZWK1 (120 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm). The electroluminescence spectra correspond to the CIE coordinates x = 0.65 and y = 0.34 with the maximum at 667 nm. The power and luminance efficiency at the luminance of 100 cd/m2 is 0.43 lm/W and 1.97 cd/A, respectively.

  8. Reduction of molecular aggregation and its application to the high-performance blue perylene-doped organic electroluminescent device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, B. X.; Gao, Z. Q.; Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. T.; Kwong, H. L.; Wong, N. B.

    1999-12-01

    A nonplanar derivative of perylene, 2,5,8,11-tetra-tertbutylperylene (TBPe), was synthesized via the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction. Electroluminescent (EL) devices were made using TBPe or perylene as a dopant in bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinolato)(para-phenylphenolato)aluminum(III) and their EL performance was compared. Similar to the device doped with the parent perylene molecule, the device doped with TBPe also emitted strongly in the blue. As the concentration of TBPe increased from 1% to 5%, the color coordinates in CIE 1931 chromaticity of the TBPe-doped device changed only slightly from (0.168,0.273) to (0.175,0.273), whereas the perylene-doped device exhibited a much larger shift from (0.165,0.196) to (0.178,0.252). The constancy of EL color and efficiency with respect to TBPe dopant concentration is attributable to diminishing molecular aggregation in the nonplanar perylene derivative, TBPe, due to the steric hindrance of the tert-butyl groups.

  9. Observation of near infrared and enhanced visible emissions from electroluminescent devices with organo samarium(III) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, B.; Li, W. L.; Hong, Z. R.; Zang, F. X.; Wei, H. Z.; Wang, D. Y.; Li, M. T.; Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. T.

    2006-11-01

    Samarium (dibenzoylmethanato)3 bathophenanthroline (Sm(DBM)3 bath) was employed as an emitting and electron transport layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and narrow electroluminescent (EL) emissions of a Sm3+ ion were observed in the visible and near infrared (NIR) region, differing from those of the same devices with Eu3+- or Tb3+-complex EL devices with the same structure. The EL emissions of the Sm3+-devices originate from transitions from 4G5/2 to the lower respective levels of Sm3+ ions. A maximum luminance of 490 cd m-2 at 15 V and an EL efficiency of 0.6% at 0.17 mA cm-2 were obtained in the visible region, and the improved efficiency should be attributed to introducing a transitional layer between the N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) film and the Sm(DBM)3 bath film and the avoidance of interfacial exciplex emission in devices. Sharp emissions of Sm3+ ions in the NIR region were also observed under a lower threshold value less than 4.5 V.

  10. White-light emitting thin film electroluminescent devices with stacked SrS:Ce/CaS:Eu active layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Yoshimasa A.; Fuyama, Moriaki; Onisawa, Ken-ichi; Tamura, Katsumi; Ando, Masahiko

    1989-12-01

    By stacking blue-green emitting SrS:Ce and red-emitting CaS:Eu active layers, white-light emitting electroluminescent (EL) devices were fabricated. Luminance improvement and EL characteristics of SrS:Ce and CaS:Eu EL devices were discussed. The electrooptical characteristics of white-light emitting EL devices with stacked SrS:Ce/CaS:Eu active layers were presented. Color changed from blue-green to white by changing the voltage or frequency. Finally, feasibility of multicolor EL devices by using the fabricated white-light emitting EL devices with color filters were discussed. UFpg5523,5527 UFid992922JAP UFttIn situ ac magnetic susceptibility of gadolinium thin films UFauF. H. SalasSUPa),b) and M. Mirabal-GarciaaSUPc) UFloInstitut fuur Atom- und Festkourperphysik, Freie Universitaut Berlin, D-1000 Berlin 33, ufquadFederal Republic of Germany UFsd(Received 27 April 1989; accepted for publication 3 August 1989) UFabWe report measurements of the ac magnetic susceptibility on Gd(0001)/W(110) thin films grown in ultrahigh vacuum. The measurements were made by using a pickup coil, in which the geometry and the number of turns were optimized. We applied an alternating magnetic field of about 2 Grms at frequencies of 180 and 340 Hz. The growth mode and the deposition rate of the Gd films were determined by performing conventional Auger electron spectroscopy during film growth. In films with thickness larger than 10 nm our technique is sensitive up to 1016 atoms/Grms , which allowed us to study the critical behavior of the magnetic susceptibility as the Curie temperature is approached from above, TT+C . A sharp maximum, which may be related to the Hopkinson effect, is observed at a temperature TH 289 K.

  11. Conversion process of the dominant electroluminescence mechanism in a molecularly doped organic light-emitting device with only electron trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Hongjie; Deng, Ruiping; Li, Zhefeng; Yu, Jiangbo; Guo, Zhiyong

    2007-09-01

    In this work, the detailed conversion process of the dominant electroluminescence (EL) mechanism in a device with Eu(TTA)3phen (TTA =thenoyltrifluoroacetone, phen =1,10-phenanthroline) doped CBP (4,4'-N,N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl) film as the emitting layer was investigated by analyzing the evolution of carrier distribution on dye and host molecules with increasing voltage. Firstly, it was confirmed that only electrons can be trapped in Eu(TTA)3phen doped CBP. As a result, holes and electrons would be situated on CBP and Eu(TTA)3phen molecules, respectively, and thus creates an unbalanced carrier distribution on both dye and host molecules. With the help of EL and photoluminescence spectra, the distribution of holes and electrons on both Eu(TTA)3phen and CBP molecules was demonstrated to change gradually with increasing voltage. Therefore, the dominant EL mechanism in this device changes gradually from carrier trapping at relatively low voltage to Förster energy transfer at relatively high voltage.

  12. Large Size Color-tunable Electroluminescence from Cationic Iridium Complexes-based Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qunying; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang; Shan, Guogang; Su, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processable light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) with simple device architecture have become an attractive candidate for application in next generation lighting and flat-panel displays. Herein, single layer LECs employing two cationic Ir(III) complexes showing highly efficient blue-green and yellow electroluminescence with peak current efficiency of 31.6 cd A−1 and 40.6 cd A−1, respectively, have been reported. By using both complexes in the device, color-tunable LECs with a single spectral peak in the wavelength range from 499 to 570 nm were obtained by varying their rations. In addition, the fabrication of efficient LECs was demonstrated based on low cost doctor-blade coating technique, which was compatible with the roll to roll fabrication process for the large size production. In this work, for the first time, 4 inch LEC devices by doctor-blade coating were fabricated, which exhibit the efficiencies of 23.4 cd A−1 and 25.4 cd A−1 for the blue-green and yellow emission, respectively. The exciting results indicated that highly efficient LECs with controllable color could be realized and find practical application in large size lighting and displays. PMID:27278527

  13. Large Size Color-tunable Electroluminescence from Cationic Iridium Complexes-based Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qunying; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang; Shan, Guogang; Su, Zhongmin

    2016-06-01

    Solution-processable light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) with simple device architecture have become an attractive candidate for application in next generation lighting and flat-panel displays. Herein, single layer LECs employing two cationic Ir(III) complexes showing highly efficient blue-green and yellow electroluminescence with peak current efficiency of 31.6 cd A‑1 and 40.6 cd A‑1, respectively, have been reported. By using both complexes in the device, color-tunable LECs with a single spectral peak in the wavelength range from 499 to 570 nm were obtained by varying their rations. In addition, the fabrication of efficient LECs was demonstrated based on low cost doctor-blade coating technique, which was compatible with the roll to roll fabrication process for the large size production. In this work, for the first time, 4 inch LEC devices by doctor-blade coating were fabricated, which exhibit the efficiencies of 23.4 cd A‑1 and 25.4 cd A‑1 for the blue-green and yellow emission, respectively. The exciting results indicated that highly efficient LECs with controllable color could be realized and find practical application in large size lighting and displays.

  14. Thick film electroluminescent lamps on ZnS, Cu base and their application in safety systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciez, Michal; Porada, Zbigniew W.

    2004-08-01

    The paper presents known for above 60 years phenomenon of intrinsic electroluminescence and its practical use in modern light sources called light emitting capacitors or electroluminescent lamps. Applying polymer thick film technology the authors have realized multilayer electroluminescent structures (Destriau cells). The influence of various constructional factors and exploitational conditions (supplying voltage, temperature) on luminance level of structures was determined. The test results achieved are presented in the diagrams and tables. A few examples of applications of electroluminescent lamps in emergency and warning systems are reported.

  15. Color-tunable electroluminescence from Eu-doped TiO(2)/p(+)-Si heterostructured devices: engineering of energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chen; Lv, Chunyan; Wang, Canxing; Sha, Yiping; Li, Dongsheng; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2015-02-09

    We report on color-tunable electroluminescence (EL) from TiO(2):Eu/p(+)-Si heterostructured devices using different TiO(2):Eu films in terms of Eu content and annealing temperature. It is found that the Eu-related emissions are activated by the energy transferred from TiO(2) host via oxygen vacancies, at the price of weakened oxygen-vacancy-related emissions. Both the higher Eu content and the higher annealing temperature for TiO(2):Eu films facilitate the aforementioned energy transfer. In this context, the dominant EL from the TiO(2):Eu/p(+)-Si heterostructured devices can be transformed from oxygen-vacancy-related emissions into Eu-related emissions with increasing Eu-content and annealing temperature for TiO(2):Eu films, exhibiting different colors of emanated light. We believe that this work sheds light on developing silicon-based red emitters using the Eu-doped oxide semiconductor films.

  16. Improved efficiency for green and red emitting electroluminescent devices using the same cohost composed of 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene and tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianzhuo; Li, Wenlian; Chu, Bei; Yang, Dongfang; Zhang, Guang; Liu, Huihui; Chen, Yiren; Su, Zisheng; Wang, Junbo; Wu, Shuanghong

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate highly efficient green and red fluorescence dyes-doped electroluminescent devices using cohost strategy. The cohost system is composed of tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Alq) and 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN). The maximum current efficiencies are increased by 54% and 104% for green and red devices by optimizing the ratio between ADN and Alq in the cohost compared to the conventional Alq single-host devices, respectively. We attribute the improvement of efficiencies to balanced hole and electron injection into the emitting layer, the enlarged width of recombination region and the multiple emission processes.

  17. Electroluminescence of ZnO nanocrystal in sputtered ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiun-Ting; Lai, Wei-Chih; Chen, Chi-Heng; Yang, Ya-Yu; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Lai, Li-Wen

    2011-06-06

    We have demonstrated the electroluminescence (EL) of Ga:ZnO/i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite/p-GaN n-i-p heterostructure light-emitting devices (LEDs). ZnO nano-clusters with sizes distributing from 2 to 7nm were found inside the co-sputtered i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite layer under the observation of high-resolution transparent electron microscope. A clear UV EL at 376 nm from i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite in these p-i-n heterostructure LEDs was observed under the forward current of 9 mA. The EL emission peak at 376 and 427nm of the Ga:ZnO/i-ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite/p-GaN n-i-p heterostructure LEDs were attributed to the radiative recombination from the ZnO clusters and the Mg acceptor levels in the p-GaN layer, respectively.

  18. Pyrimidine-based twisted donor-acceptor delayed fluorescence molecules: a new universal platform for highly efficient blue electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Park, In Seob; Komiyama, Hideaki; Yasuda, Takuma

    2017-02-01

    Deep-blue emitters that can harvest both singlet and triplet excited states to give high electron-to-photon conversion efficiencies are highly desired for applications in full-color displays and white lighting devices based on organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) molecules based on highly twisted donor-acceptor (D-A) configurations are promising emitting dopants for the construction of efficient deep-blue OLEDs. In this study, a simple and versatile D-A system combining acridan-based donors and pyrimidine-based acceptors has been developed as a new platform for high-efficiency deep-blue TADF emitters. The designed pre-twisted acridan-pyrimidine D-A molecules exhibit small singlet-triplet energy splitting and high photoluminescence quantum yields, functioning as efficient deep-blue TADF emitters. The OLEDs utilizing these TADF emitters display bright blue electroluminescence with external quantum efficiencies of up to 20.4%, maximum current efficiencies of 41.7 cd A(-1), maximum power efficiencies of 37.2 lm W(-1), and color coordinates of (0.16, 0.23). The design strategy featuring such acridan-pyrimidine D-A motifs can offer great prospects for further developing high-performance deep-blue TADF emitters and TADF-OLEDs.

  19. Nanostructured Sublayers for Improved Light Extraction of Top-Emitting and Transparent Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    fabrication of top-emitting red, green, and blue OLEDs with various light emitting and hole transport layer thicknesses. (b) The layered structures of...the top-emitting red, green, and blue devices. (c) The materials used as hole transport layers, light emitting hosts, and dopants. Figure 4...transmittance of dielectric mirror with structure of TiO2 54nm /SiO2 90nm / TiO2 54nm /Glass Figure 12. Light emitting spectra of green microcavity

  20. Low-voltage organic electroluminescence device with an ultrathin, hybrid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heithecker, Dirk; Kammoun, Anis; Dobbertin, Thomas; Riedl, Thomas; Becker, Eike; Metzdorf, Dirk; Schneider, Daniel; Johannes, Hans-Hermann; Kowalsky, Wolfgang

    2003-06-01

    We have prepared organic light-emitting diodes with a narrow recombination zone confined by an organic double-heterojunction structure using both polymer and small molecules (a hybrid structure). In these light-emitting diodes, we used very thin small molecule layers, down to a total thickness of 40 nm, to achieve an exponential forward characteristic. These layers were evaporated on a highly conductive layer of PEDT:PSS for a high-yield process and for good charge injection at the anode. Although no doping processes were applied during device fabrication, either at the injecting electrodes or in the Alq3 layer, the diodes attained high brightness at very low voltage, for instance, 10.000 cd/m2 at voltage of 4.7 V.

  1. Organic Electroluminescent Sensor for Pressure Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Yu; Ueno, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Egami, Yasuhiro; Niimi, Tomohide

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed a novel concept of a pressure sensor called electroluminescent pressure sensor (ELPS) based on oxygen quenching of electroluminescence. The sensor was fabricated as an organic light-emitting device (OLED) with phosphorescent dyes whose phosphorescence can be quenched by oxygen molecules, and with a polymer electrode which permeates oxygen molecules. The sensor was a single-layer OLED with Platinum (II) octaethylporphine (PtOEP) doped into poly(vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as an oxygen sensitive emissive layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as an oxygen permeating polymer anode. The pressure sensitivity of the fabricated ELPS sample was equivalent to that of the sensor excited by an illumination light source. Moreover, the pressure sensitivity of the sensor is equivalent to that of conventional pressure-sensitive paint (PSP), which is an optical pressure sensor based on photoluminescence. PMID:23202027

  2. Organic electroluminescent sensor for pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yu; Ueno, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Egami, Yasuhiro; Niimi, Tomohide

    2012-10-16

    We have proposed a novel concept of a pressure sensor called electroluminescent pressure sensor (ELPS) based on oxygen quenching of electroluminescence. The sensor was fabricated as an organic light-emitting device (OLED) with phosphorescent dyes whose phosphorescence can be quenched by oxygenmolecules, and with a polymer electrode which permeates oxygen molecules. The sensor was a single-layer OLED with Platinum (II) octaethylporphine (PtOEP) doped into poly(vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as an oxygen sensitive emissive layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as an oxygen permeating polymer anode. The pressure sensitivity of the fabricated ELPS sample was equivalent to that of the sensor excited by an illumination light source. Moreover, the pressure sensitivity of the sensor is equivalent to that of conventional pressure-sensitive paint (PSP), which is an optical pressure sensor based on photoluminescence.

  3. Stabilization of Bluish-Green Luminescent Ce3+ Centers by Rb Doping in SrS:Ce Thin Film Electroluminescent Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukada, Haruki; Sasakura, Asuka; Sugio, Yukihiko; Kimura, Takahiro; Ohmi, Koutoku; Tanaka, Shosaku; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2002-08-01

    It is revealed that the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of bluish-green luminescent Ce3+ centers can be stabilized by Rb doping in SrS:Ce thin film EL devices prepared by an electron-beam evaporation method. It is also found that Rb doping results in reduction of the current spike of EL devices, indicating suppression of Ce3+-VSr complex center formation. For the transparent SrS:Ce,Rb device, even without postdeposition annealing, the bluish-green EL corresponding to the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.18, 0.34) was obtained with a luminance of 190 cd/m2 under 1 kHz pulse drive at 40 V above the threshold voltage. The luminance of the SrS:Ce,Rb EL device was improved to 220 cd/m2 by annealing at 650°C while maintaining almost the same CIE color coordinates.

  4. Large magneto-conductance and magneto-electroluminescence in exciplex-based organic light-emitting diodes at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yongzhou; Lei, Yanlian; Zhang, Qiaoming; Chen, Lixiang; Song, Qunliang; Xiong, Zuhong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we report on large magneto-conductance (MC) over 60% and magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) as high as 112% at room temperature in an exciplex-based organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with efficient reverse intersystem crossing (ISC). The large MC and MEL are individually confirmed by the current density-voltage characteristics and the electroluminescence spectra under various magnetic fields. We proposed that this type of magnetic field effect (MFE) is governed by the field-modulated reverse ISC between the singlet and triplet exciplex. The temperature-dependent MFEs reveal that the small activation energy of reverse ISC accounts for the large MFEs in the present exciplex-based OLEDs.

  5. Effect of solution combusted TiO2 nanopowder within commercial BaTiO3 dielectric layer on the photoelectric properties for AC powder electroluminescence devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung; Choi, Gil Rak; Kim, Youn Cheol; Lee, Jae Chun; Lee, Ju Hyeon

    2013-05-01

    A unique synthesis method was developed, which is called solution combustion method (SCM). TiO2 nanopowder was synthesized by this method. This SCM TiO2 nanopowder (-35 nm) was added to the dielectric layer of AC powder electroluminescence (EL) device. The dielectric layer was made of commercial BaTiO3 powder (-1.2 microm) and binding polymer. 0, 5, 10 and 15 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added to the dielectric layer during fabrication of AC powder EL device respectively. Dielectric constant of these four kinds of dielectric layers was measured. The brightness and current density of AC powder EL device were also measured. When 10 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added, dielectric constant and brightness were increased by 30% and 101% respectively. Furthermore, the current density was decreased by 71%. This means that the brightness was double and the power consumption was one third.

  6. Correlating electroluminescence characterization and physics-based models of InGaN/GaN LEDs: Pitfalls and open issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calciati, Marco; Goano, Michele; Bertazzi, Francesco; Vallone, Marco; Zhou, Xiangyu; Ghione, Giovanni; Meneghini, Matteo; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Zanoni, Enrico; Bellotti, Enrico; Verzellesi, Giovanni; Zhu, Dandan; Humphreys, Colin

    2014-06-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) characterization of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), coupled with numerical device models of different sophistication, is routinely adopted not only to establish correlations between device efficiency and structural features, but also to make inferences about the loss mechanisms responsible for LED efficiency droop at high driving currents. The limits of this investigative approach are discussed here in a case study based on a comprehensive set of current- and temperature-dependent EL data from blue LEDs with low and high densities of threading dislocations (TDs). First, the effects limiting the applicability of simpler (closed-form and/or one-dimensional) classes of models are addressed, like lateral current crowding, vertical carrier distribution nonuniformity, and interband transition broadening. Then, the major sources of uncertainty affecting state-of-the-art numerical device simulation are reviewed and discussed, including (i) the approximations in the transport description through the multi-quantum-well active region, (ii) the alternative valence band parametrizations proposed to calculate the spontaneous emission rate, (iii) the difficulties in defining the Auger coefficients due to inadequacies in the microscopic quantum well description and the possible presence of extra, non-Auger high-current-density recombination mechanisms and/or Auger-induced leakage. In the case of the present LED structures, the application of three-dimensional numerical-simulation-based analysis to the EL data leads to an explanation of efficiency droop in terms of TD-related and Auger-like nonradiative losses, with a C coefficient in the 10-30 cm6/s range at room temperature, close to the larger theoretical calculations reported so far. However, a study of the combined effects of structural and model uncertainties suggests that the C values thus determined could be overestimated by about an order of magnitude. This preliminary attempt at

  7. Correlating electroluminescence characterization and physics-based models of InGaN/GaN LEDs: Pitfalls and open issues

    SciTech Connect

    Calciati, Marco; Vallone, Marco; Zhou, Xiangyu; Ghione, Giovanni; Goano, Michele Bertazzi, Francesco; Meneghini, Matteo; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Zanoni, Enrico; Verzellesi, Giovanni; Zhu, Dandan; Humphreys, Colin

    2014-06-15

    Electroluminescence (EL) characterization of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), coupled with numerical device models of different sophistication, is routinely adopted not only to establish correlations between device efficiency and structural features, but also to make inferences about the loss mechanisms responsible for LED efficiency droop at high driving currents. The limits of this investigative approach are discussed here in a case study based on a comprehensive set of current- and temperature-dependent EL data from blue LEDs with low and high densities of threading dislocations (TDs). First, the effects limiting the applicability of simpler (closed-form and/or one-dimensional) classes of models are addressed, like lateral current crowding, vertical carrier distribution nonuniformity, and interband transition broadening. Then, the major sources of uncertainty affecting state-of-the-art numerical device simulation are reviewed and discussed, including (i) the approximations in the transport description through the multi-quantum-well active region, (ii) the alternative valence band parametrizations proposed to calculate the spontaneous emission rate, (iii) the difficulties in defining the Auger coefficients due to inadequacies in the microscopic quantum well description and the possible presence of extra, non-Auger high-current-density recombination mechanisms and/or Auger-induced leakage. In the case of the present LED structures, the application of three-dimensional numerical-simulation-based analysis to the EL data leads to an explanation of efficiency droop in terms of TD-related and Auger-like nonradiative losses, with a C coefficient in the 10{sup −30} cm{sup 6}/s range at room temperature, close to the larger theoretical calculations reported so far. However, a study of the combined effects of structural and model uncertainties suggests that the C values thus determined could be overestimated by about an order of magnitude. This preliminary

  8. Ultraviolet-light-emitting AlN:Gd thin-film electroluminescence device using an energy transfer from Gd3+ ions to N2 molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyama, Toshihiko; Ota, Jun; Adachi, Daisuke; Niioka, Yasumasa; Lee, Dong-Hun; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2009-04-01

    An ultraviolet (UV)-light-emitting AlN:Gd thin-film electroluminescence device (TFELD) was demonstrated for application to flat-panel lighting. AlN:Gd thin films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering at 200 °C and applied to an ac-voltage-driven TFELD with a double-insulating structure as an emission layer. UV-light emission was observed over a threshold voltage of 270 V for a 5 kHz sinusoidal ac voltage. Electroluminescence (EL) spectra were compared with photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectra of AlN:Gd originating from Gd3+ P6j→S87/2 transitions and with an emission spectrum of the second positive system (C3Πu→B3Πg) of N2 molecules. As a result, an energy transfer from Gd3+ P6j→S87/2 to N2 C3Πu→B3Πg is discussed as a likely mechanism for the UV EL. Finally, a preliminary result, associated with the conversion from UV light into blue-green light via a phosphor, is demonstrated for the color tunability of the TFELD.

  9. Photo- and electroluminescent properties of zinc(II) complexes with tetradentate Schiff bases, derivatives of salicylic aldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashchenko, A. A.; Lepnev, L. S.; Vitukhnovskii, A. G.; Kotova, O. V.; Eliseeva, S. V.; Kuz'mina, N. P.

    2010-03-01

    It is studied how the introduction of various substituents into the composition of organic ligands affects the photoluminescence spectra of new zinc(II) complexes with tetradentate Schiff bases H2L (derivatives of salicylic aldehyde (H2SAL1, H2SAL2) and o-vanillin (H2MO1, H2MO2) with ethylenediamine and o-phenylenediamine) in the form of bulk solids and thin films. It is demonstrated that the emission spectra of bulk solid complexes without o-phenylenediamine bridges (ZnSAL1 and ZnMO1) contain additional long-wavelength bands compared to the spectra of corresponding thin films. In the case of films obtained from [ZnSAL1]2 dimer complexes, the long-wavelength band is dominant. At the same time, the photoluminescence spectra of ZnSAL2 and ZnMO2 complexes with o-phenylenediamine bridges are similar in the case of solid samples and thin films. The electroluminescent properties of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the ITO/α-NPD/ZnL/Ca:Al structure are studied. The bathochromic shift of the electroluminescence peaks of OLEDs with respect to the photoluminescence spectra of bulk solid samples and thin films is probably related to the formation of exciplexes at the α-NPD/ZnL interface. The electroluminescence spectra of OLEDs based on [ZnSAL1]2 show a hypsochromic shift of the emission maximum, which can be caused by a shift of the recombination region into the α-NPD layer.

  10. High-efficiency blue electroluminescence based on coumarin derivative 3-(4-(anthracen-10-yl)phenyl)-benzo[5,6]coumarin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Chai, Haifang; Yu, Tianzhi; Zhao, Yuling; Fan, Duowang

    2012-11-01

    The electroluminescent (EL) properties of a new coumarin derivative, 3-(4-(anthracen-10-yl)phenyl)-benzo[5,6]coumarin (APBC), were investigated. The results show that the EL devices comprised of vacuum vapor-deposited films using the derivative as dopant exhibited blue emission that is identical to the photoluminescence of the thin film. The electroluminescence device of ITO/2-TNATA (5 nm)/NPB (40 nm)/CBP : APBC (1.0 wt%, 30 nm)/PBD (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) gives a maximum luminous efficiency of 2.3 cd/A at the current density of 20 mA/cm(2), and maximum luminance of 5169 cd/m(2) at 16 V. The external quantum efficiency of the device is 1.85 %.

  11. Magnetically modulated electroluminescence from hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhiyong; Baniya, Sangita; Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2016-03-01

    We report room temperature magnetically modulated electroluminescence from a hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diode (h-OLED), in which an inorganic magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with large room temperature magnetoresistance is coupled to an N,N,N ',N '-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzidine (MeO-TPD): tris-[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB) [D-A] based OLED that shows thermally activated delayed luminescence. The exciplex-based OLED provides two spin-mixing channels: upper energy channel of polaron pairs and lower energy channel of exciplexes. In operation, the large resistance mismatch between the MTJ and OLED components is suppressed due to the non-linear I-V characteristic of the OLED. This leads to enhanced giant magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) at room temperature. We measured MEL of ~ 75% at ambient conditions. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  12. Electroluminescent layers based on ZnS:Cu deposited into matrices of porous anodic Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeev, R. G.; Petukhov, D. I.; Chukavin, A. I.; Bel'tyukov, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    It is suggested to use a new nanocomposite material—nanostructures of copper-doped zinc sulfide in a matrix of porous aluminum oxide—as a light-emitting layer of electroluminescent sources of light. The material was deposited by thermal evaporation in a vacuum. The microstructure of the layers, impurity distribution in the electroluminescent-phosphor layer, and electroluminescence spectra at various copper concentrations in ZnS:Cu were studied.

  13. Observation of red electroluminescence from an Eu2O3/p +-Si device and improved performance by introducing a Tb2O3 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xue; Wang, Shenwei; Mu, Guangyao; Wan, Guangmiao; Huang, Miaoling; Yi, Lixin

    2017-03-01

    We report red electroluminescence (EL) from an Eu2O3/p +-Si device with Eu2O3 film annealed in oxygen ambient at 700 °C. The red EL is ascribed to the characteristic emissions of Eu3+ ions in Eu2O3 film and the luminescence mechanism is discussed in detail. In order to optimize the device performance, Eu2O3/Tb2O3 multiple films were deposited on Si wafer, and the result showed EL intensity of the device was obviously enhanced and the turn-on voltage was reduced to about 10 V. Moreover, intensity ratio I(5D0–7F2)/I(5D0–7F1) was also significantly increased with the hypersensitive transition 5D0–7F2 as the most prominent group at about 611 nm. The improved performance was attributed to the added Tb2O3 film that it can be served as the hole-injection layer to afford extra holes injected into the Eu2O3 layer.

  14. Evidence for band-to-band impact ionization in evaporated ZnS:Mn alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, W. M.; Pennathur, S.; Pham, L.; Wager, J. F.; Goodnick, S. M.; Douglas, A. A.

    1995-03-01

    Evidence is presented that the normal operation of evaporated ZnS:Mn alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) devices involves electron-hole pair generation by band-to-band impact ionization. Four observations are offered to support this assertion. These observations involve: (i) empirical field-clamping trends, (ii) experimental and simulated trends in charge transfer characteristics, (iii) experimental attempts to assess the interface distribution using a field-control circuit, and (iv) Monte Carlo simulation trends. Furthermore, the absence of overshoot in measured capacitance-voltage and internal charge-phosphor field curves indicates that a majority of the holes created by impact ionization are trapped at or near the phosphor/insulator interface. The multiplication factor (i.e., the total number of electrons transferred across the phosphor divided by the number of electrons injected from the phosphor/insulator cathode interface) is estimated, from device physics simulation of experimental trends, to be of the order 4-8 for evaporated ZnS:Mn ACTFEL devices operating under normal conditions.

  15. A novel violet/blue light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Wang, Shenwei; Mu, Guangyao; Yin, Xue; Ou, Kai; Yi, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Rare-earth silicates are highly efficient materials for silicon-based light sources. Here we report a novel light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7. Intense violet/blue electroluminescence was observed, with a turn-on voltage of about 13 V. The violet/blue emission is attributed to 4f–5d transitions of the Ce3+ ions in Ce2Si2O7, which are formed by interfacial reaction of CeO2 and Si. Electroluminescence and photoluminescence mechanisms of the Ce2Si2O7 light-emitting device are also discussed. PMID:26564241

  16. A novel violet/blue light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Wang, Shenwei; Mu, Guangyao; Yin, Xue; Ou, Kai; Yi, Lixin

    2015-11-01

    Rare-earth silicates are highly efficient materials for silicon-based light sources. Here we report a novel light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7. Intense violet/blue electroluminescence was observed, with a turn-on voltage of about 13 V. The violet/blue emission is attributed to 4f-5d transitions of the Ce3+ ions in Ce2Si2O7, which are formed by interfacial reaction of CeO2 and Si. Electroluminescence and photoluminescence mechanisms of the Ce2Si2O7 light-emitting device are also discussed.

  17. 1.4 μm band electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes based on thulium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, F. X.; Hong, Z. R.; Li, W. L.; Li, M. T.; Sun, X. Y.

    2004-04-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) electroluminescence (EL) devices have been fabricated employing thulium complexes as emitting materials. The EL emissions at 1.4 and 0.8 μm were observed from the devices of tris-(dibenzoylmethanato)-mono-(bathophenanthroline or 1,10-phenonthroline) thulium [Tm(DBM)3bath or Tm(DBM)3phen] at room temperature and assigned to 3F4-3H4 and 3F4-3H6 transitions of Tm3+ ions, respectively. By comparison with the NIR emissions of four Tm complexes with different ligands, it was found that the first ligand played a more important role for the Tm3+ ion emissions rather than the second one. In order to meet the requirement of optical communication, both Tm(DBM)3bath and erbium [Er] (DBM)3bath were incorporated into EL devices so that a broadened EL emission band ranging from 1.4 to 1.6 μm was obtained, showing the potential application of Tm complexes for optical communication systems.

  18. Multicolor and near-infrared electroluminescence from the light-emitting devices with rare-earth doped TiO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Chen; Gao, Zhifei; Wang, Canxing; Li, Dongsheng; Ma, Xiangyang Yang, Deren; Lv, Chunyan

    2015-09-28

    We report on multicolor and near-infrared electroluminescence (EL) from the devices using rare-earth doped TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2}:RE) films as light-emitting layers, which are ascribed to the impact excitation of RE{sup 3+} ions, with the EL onset voltages below 10 V. The devices are in the structure of ITO/TiO{sub 2}:RE/SiO{sub 2}/Si, in which the SiO{sub 2} layer is ∼10 nm thick and RE includes Eu, Er, Tm, Nd, and so on. With sufficiently high positive voltage applied on the ITO electrode, the conduction electrons in Si can tunnel into the conduction band of SiO{sub 2} layer via the trap-assisted tunneling mechanism, gaining the potential energy ∼4 eV higher than the conduction band edge of TiO{sub 2}. Therefore, as the electrons in the SiO{sub 2} layer drift into the TiO{sub 2}:RE layer, they become hot electrons. Such hot electrons impact-excite the RE{sup 3+} ions incorporated into the TiO{sub 2} host, leading to the characteristic emissions.

  19. Polarization characteristics of electroluminescence and net modal gain in highly stacked InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, Masaya; Andachi, Takaya; Kaizu, Toshiyuki; Harada, Yukihiro; Kita, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We studied the polarization anisotropy of electroluminescence (EL) and net modal gain characteristics of laser device structures containing 40 stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) layers. The electronic coupling between the closely stacked QDs enhanced the transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization component owing to the heavy- and light-hole mixing. Thereby, the [110]-waveguide devices exhibited a laser oscillation of not only the transverse-electric (TE) but also the TM component. Laser oscillation occurred at 1137 nm from the first excited state for the 300-μm-long cavity, while it occurred at 1167 nm from the ground state for the 1000-μm-long cavity. The polarization anisotropy of the EL intensity strongly depended on the injection current density. The polarized EL intensity was almost isotropic at low injection current density. As the injection current density was increased, the TE component was gradually enhanced, which resulted in a markedly TE-dominant anisotropy above the threshold current density for laser oscillation. The net modal gains evaluated using the Hakki-Paoli method also exhibited a TE-enhanced characteristic with increasing injection current density. As the EL spectra of the TE component have an inhomogeneous broadening narrower than that of the TM component, the TE-mode intensity is likely to be enhanced by the concentration of the injected carriers.

  20. Blue to red electroluminescence emission from organic light-emitting diodes based on π-conjugated organic semiconductor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharbati, Mohammad Taghi; Panahi, Farhad; Nekoei, Abdo-Reza; Emami, Farzin; Niknam, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Blue to red organic light-emitting diodes based on a series of newly synthesized distyrylbenzenes have been demonstrated. Their optical properties have been theoretically and experimentally studied in order to inquire into the substitution effects (such as electron-donating, electron-withdrawing, and steric hindrance) on the emission color. Density functional theory at B3LYP/6-311+G(d) level of calculation was employed to obtain the molecular structures and highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital surfaces. Electroluminescence emission range of compounds could be tuned by changing the strength of the acceptor component and using push-pull and nonplanarity effects from 483 (blue) to 600 (red) nm.

  1. Correlation between charge transport and electroluminescence properties of Si-rich oxide/nitride/oxide-based light emitting capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berencén, Y.; Ramírez, J. M.; Jambois, O.; Domínguez, C.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Garrido, B.

    2012-08-01

    The electrical and electroluminescence (EL) properties at room and high temperatures of oxide/nitride/oxide (ONO)-based light emitting capacitors are studied. The ONO multidielectric layer is enriched with silicon by means of ion implantation. The exceeding silicon distribution follows a Gaussian profile with a maximum of 19%, centered close to the lower oxide/nitride interface. The electrical measurements performed at room and high temperatures allowed to unambiguously identify variable range hopping (VRH) as the dominant electrical conduction mechanism at low voltages, whereas at moderate and high voltages, a hybrid conduction formed by means of variable range hopping and space charge-limited current enhanced by Poole-Frenkel effect predominates. The EL spectra at different temperatures are also recorded, and the correlation between charge transport mechanisms and EL properties is discussed.

  2. Correlation between electroluminescence and charge trapping in multi-color Eu implanted Si-based light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, A. N.; Tyagulskyy, I. P.; Tyagulskiy, S. I.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.; Biskupek, J.; Kaiser, U.

    2009-05-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) spectra, charge trapping during operation of EL devices and clustering of rare earth oxides in SiO 2 have been investigated in Eu implanted SiO 2-Si structures which demonstrate luminescence associated with the light-emitting transitions in Eu 2+ and Eu 3+. Strong electron trapping in all studied regions of the injected charge (from 1×10 14 to 1×10 18 e/cm 2) during operation of the light-emitting devices has been found that it considerably differed from the oxides implanted by other rare earth impurities (Ce, Tb, Gd, Er, Tm). It has been shown that the observed strong electron trapping and the low EL intensity in the Eu implanted structures were associated with enhanced clustering of the Eu oxides. The mechanism of electron trapping in the SiO 2 containing a large cluster concentration is discussed, and flash lamp annealing is proposed to decrease the nanocluster size and to enhance the EL intensity.

  3. Synthesis, photophysical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of a novel iridium(III) complex based on 2-phenylbenzo[d]oxazole derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Yu, Xiao-Ting; Chi, Hai-Jun; Dong, Yan; Xiao, Guo-Yong; Lei, Peng; Zhang, Dong-Yu; Cui, Zheng

    2013-12-01

    A new phosphorescent iridium (III) complex based on 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5-methylbenzo[d]oxazole as main ligand, i.e. bis(2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5-methylbenzo[d]oxazole-N,C2‧)iridium(acetylacetonate) [(tmbo)2Ir(acac)], was synthesized for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and its photophysical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties were investigated. The complex displayed strong phosphorescence emission, high decomposition temperature, short phosphorescent lifetime and reversible redox electrochemical behavior. The OLEDs based on (tmbo)2Ir(acac) as dopant emitter exhibited maximum luminance efficiency of 26.1 cd A-1 and high luminance of 16,445 cd m-2. Interestingly, highly doped device based on (tmbo)2Ir(acac) showed high efficiency with negligible roll-off under a wide range of driving current density, which was mainly attributed to the effect of bulky steric hindrance of multi-methyl groups on this complex and its short phosphorescent lifetime.

  4. Synthesis, photophysical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of a novel iridium(III) complex based on 2-phenylbenzo[d]oxazole derivative.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Yu, Xiao-Ting; Chi, Hai-Jun; Dong, Yan; Xiao, Guo-Yong; Lei, Peng; Zhang, Dong-Yu; Cui, Zheng

    2013-12-01

    A new phosphorescent iridium (III) complex based on 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5-methylbenzo[d]oxazole as main ligand, i.e. bis(2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5-methylbenzo[d]oxazole-N,C(2'))iridium(acetylacetonate) [(tmbo)2Ir(acac)], was synthesized for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and its photophysical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties were investigated. The complex displayed strong phosphorescence emission, high decomposition temperature, short phosphorescent lifetime and reversible redox electrochemical behavior. The OLEDs based on (tmbo)2Ir(acac) as dopant emitter exhibited maximum luminance efficiency of 26.1cdA(-1) and high luminance of 16,445 cd m(-2). Interestingly, highly doped device based on (tmbo)2Ir(acac) showed high efficiency with negligible roll-off under a wide range of driving current density, which was mainly attributed to the effect of bulky steric hindrance of multi-methyl groups on this complex and its short phosphorescent lifetime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tervalent conducting polymers with tailor-made work functions: preparation, characterization, and applications as cathodes in electroluminescent devices.

    PubMed

    Bloom, C J; Elliott, C M; Schroeder, P G; France, C B; Parkinson, B A

    2001-09-26

    A series of conducting polymers have been prepared through thermal polymerization of transition-metal diimine complexes. The as-polymerized material is electrochemically converted into its formally zerovalent form. Due to the proximity of the half-wave potentials of the formal 1+/0 and 0/1- couples, there is substantial disproportionation of the redox sites at room temperature, resulting in a conductive tervalent mixed-valent material. The redox processes that give rise to this mixed-valent material are predominantly ligand-based, and therefore are highly sensitive to substitution on the ligand periphery. Solution redox chemistry of the monomer can be used to accurately predict the work function of the corresponding zerovalent conducting polymer, which has been verified by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Many of these materials have especially low work functions (<3.6 eV) making them appropriate materials to use as cathode materials in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). Working examples of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III)-based OLEDs have been fabricated using one of these polymers as a cathode.

  6. Circularly Polarized Phosphorescent Electroluminescence with a High Dissymmetry Factor from PHOLEDs Based on a Platinahelicene.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Jochen R; Wang, Xuhua; Yang, Ying; Campbell, Alasdair J; Fuchter, Matthew J

    2016-08-10

    Circularly polarized (CP) light is of interest in areas such as quantum optical computing, optical spintronics, biomedicine, and high efficiency displays. Direct emission of CP light from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) has been a focus of research as it has the immediate application of increasing efficiency and simplifying device architecture in OLED based displays. High dissymmetry (gEL) factor values have been reported for devices employing fluorescent polymers, but these CP-OLEDs are limited in their ultimate efficiencies by the type of emissive electronic transitions involved. In contrast, phosphorescent OLEDs (PHOLEDs) can emit light from triplet excited states and can therefore achieve very high efficiencies. However, CP-PHOLEDs are significantly understudied, and the two previous reports suffered from very low brightness or gEL values. Here, we use a platinahelicene complex to construct a CP-PHOLED that achieves both a display level brightness and a high gEL factor. The dissymmetry of CP emission reached with this proof-of-concept single-layer helicene-based device is sufficient to provide real-world benefits over nonpolarized emission and paves the way toward chiral metal complex-based CP-PHOLED displays.

  7. Efficient Deep-Blue Electroluminescence Based on Phenanthroimidazole-Dibenzothiophene Derivatives with Different Oxidation States of the Sulfur Atom.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangyang; Shan, Tong; Bai, Qing; Ma, Hongwei; He, Xin; Lu, Ping

    2017-03-02

    Developing efficient deep-blue materials is a long-term research focus in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, we report two deep-blue molecules, PITO and PISF, which share similar chemical structures but exhibit different photophysical and device properties. These two molecules consist of phenanthroimidazole and dibenzothiophene analogs. The distinction of their chemical structures lies in the different oxidation states of the S atom. For PITO, the S atom is oxidized and the resulting structure dibenzothiophene S,S-dioxide becomes electron deficient. Therefore, PITO displays remarkable solvatochromism, implying a charge-transfer (CT) excited state formed between the donor (D) phenanthroimidazole and acceptor (A) dibenzothiophene S,S-dioxide. For PISF, it is constituted of phenanthroimidazole and dibenzothiophene in which the S atom is not oxidized. PISF displays locally excited (LE) emission with little solvatochromism. Compared with PISF, the D-A molecule PITO with an electron-deficient group shows a much lower LUMO energy level, which is in favor of electron injection in device. In addition, PITO exhibits more balanced carrier transport. However, PISF is capable of emitting in the shorter wavelength region, which is beneficial to obtain better color purity. The doped electroluminescence (EL) device of the D-A molecule PITO manifests deep-blue emission with CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.08) and maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 4.67 %. The doped EL device of the LE molecule PISF, however, reveals an even bluer emission with CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.06) and a maximum EQE of 4.08 %.

  8. Electric-field-induced strong enhancement of electroluminescence in multilayer molybdenum disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dehui; Cheng, Rui; Zhou, Hailong; Wang, Chen; Yin, Anxiang; Chen, Yu; Weiss, Nathan O.; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-01-01

    The layered transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted considerable interest for their unique electronic and optical properties. While the monolayer MoS2 exhibits a direct bandgap, the multilayer MoS2 is an indirect bandgap semiconductor and generally optically inactive. Here we report electric-field-induced strong electroluminescence in multilayer MoS2. We show that GaN–Al2O3–MoS2 and GaN–Al2O3–MoS2–Al2O3-graphene vertical heterojunctions can be created with excellent rectification behaviour. Electroluminescence studies demonstrate prominent direct bandgap excitonic emission in multilayer MoS2 over the entire vertical junction area. Importantly, the electroluminescence efficiency observed in multilayer MoS2 is comparable to or higher than that in monolayers. This strong electroluminescence can be attributed to electric-field-induced carrier redistribution from the lowest energy points (indirect bandgap) to higher energy points (direct bandgap) in k-space. The electric-field-induced electroluminescence is general for other layered materials including WSe2 and can open up a new pathway towards transition metal dichalcogenide-based optoelectronic devices. PMID:26130491

  9. Electroluminescent Displays Made With Alternative Dopants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Metals and metal fluorides deposited in ZnS to form color phosphors. Single-layer, thin-film electroluminescent display device contains ZnS host layer doped to form green, red, and blue phosphors. Luminescence in chosen colors at chosen intersections between rows and columns produced by application of voltages to appropriate row-and-column pairs of conductors.

  10. Changes induced in a ZnS:Cr-based electroluminescent waveguide structure by intrinsic near-infrared laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasenko, N. A. Oleksenko, P. F.; Mukhlyo, M. A.; Veligura, L. I.

    2013-08-15

    The causes of changes that occur in a thin-film electroluminescent metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal waveguide structure based on ZnS:Cr (Cr concentration of {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) upon lasing ({lambda} Almost-Equal-To 2.6 {mu}m) and that induce lasing cessation are studied. It is established that lasing ceases because of light-scattering inhomogeneities formed in the structure and, hence, optical losses enhance. The origin of the inhomogeneities and the causes of their formation are clarified by studying the surface topology and the crystal structure of constituent layers of the samples before and after lasing. The studies are performed by means of atomic force microscopy and X-ray radiography. It is shown that a substantial increase in the sizes of grains on the surface of the structure is the manifestation of changes induced in the ZnS:Cr film by recrystallization. Recrystallization is initiated by local heating by absorbed laser radiation in existing Cr clusters and quickened by a strong electric field (>1 MV cm{sup -1}). The changes observed in the ZnS:Cr film are as follows: the textured growth of ZnS crystallites, an increase in the content of Cr clusters, and the appearance of some CrS and a rather high ZnO content. Some ways for improving the stability of lasing in the ZnS:Cr-based waveguide structures are proposed.

  11. Characterization of GaN-based metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors by comparing electroluminescence, photoionization, and cathodoluminescence spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armani, N.; Grillo, V.; Salviati, G.; Manfredi, M.; Pavesi, M.; Chini, A.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.

    2002-09-01

    We report on a methodological comparison between photocurrent (PC), electroluminescence (EL), and cathodoluminescence (CL) investigations on GaN metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The purpose of this work is to show the effectiveness and the complementarity of these experimental techniques and to investigate the presence and nature of electron traps which limit the performances of the devices. PC measurements reveal four distinct energy levels, located at 1.75, 2.32, 2.67, and 3.15 eV, responsible for current collapse. The 1.75 eV level has also been observed in low temperature EL curves. The 2.32 and 2.67 eV levels, on the basis of the comparison with CL and EL results, can be correlated with the so-called "yellow band," located at 2.2 eV. The origin of 1.75 and 3.15 eV levels is at present unknown, however a nonradiative nature has been attributed to the 3.15 eV level, due to the absence of this signature in both CL and EL spectra. The luminescence measurements also reveal the presence of the donor-acceptor pair emission at 3.27 eV and the near-band-edge transition at 3.45 eV. EL measurements show a series of emission peaks in the energy range between 1 and 1.4 eV, while the CL spectra reveal a broadband at 2.8 eV, which arises mainly from the semi-insulating layer. This result has been obtained by increasing the energy of the CL electron beam, allowing us to investigate both the conduction channel and the layers underneath it.

  12. Magnetic field enhanced electroluminescence in organic light emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baniya, Sangita; Basel, Tek; Sun, Dali; McLaughlin, Ryan; Vardeny, Zeev Valy

    2016-03-01

    A useful process for light harvesting from injected electron-hole pairs in organic light emitting diodes (OLED) is the transfer from triplet excitons (T) to singlet excitons (S) via reverse intersystem crossing (RISC). This process adds a delayed electro-luminescence (EL) emission component that is known as thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). We have studied electron donor (D)/acceptor(A) blends that form an exciplex manifold in which the energy difference, ΔEST between the lowest singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) levels is relatively small (<100 meV), and thus allows RISC at ambient temperature. We found that the EL emission in OLED based on the exciplex blend is enhanced up to 40% by applying a relatively weak magnetic field of 50 mT at ambient. Moreover the MEL response is activated with activation energy similar that of the EL emission. This suggests that the large magneto-EL originates from an additional spin-mixing channel between singlet and triplet states of the generated exciplexes, which is due to TADF. We will report on the MEL dependencies on the temperature, bias voltage, and D-A materials for optimum OLED performance. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  13. Method for Aluminum Oxide Thin Films Prepared through Low Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition for Encapsulating Organic Electroluminescent Devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Ying; Liu, Yun-Fei; Duan, Yu; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Lu, Yi-Nan

    2015-02-10

    Preparation of dense alumina (Al₂O₃) thin film through atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides a pathway to achieve the encapsulation of organic light emitting devices (OLED). Unlike traditional ALD which is usually executed at higher reaction n temperatures that may affect the performance of OLED, this application discusses the development on preparation of ALD thin film at a low temperature. One concern of ALD is the suppressing effect of ambient temperature on uniformity of thin film. To mitigate this issue, the pumping time in each reaction cycle was increased during the preparation process, which removed reaction byproducts and inhibited the formation of vacancies. As a result, the obtained thin film had both high uniformity and density properties, which provided an excellent encapsulation performance. The results from microstructure morphology analysis, water vapor transmission rate, and lifetime test showed that the difference in uniformity between thin films prepared at low temperatures, with increased pumping time, and high temperatures was small and there was no obvious influence of increased pumping time on light emitting performance. Meanwhile, the permeability for water vapor of the thin film prepared at a low temperature was found to reach as low as 1.5 × 10(-4) g/(m²·day) under ambient conditions of 25 °C and 60% relative humidity, indicating a potential extension in the lifetime for the OLED.

  14. Method for Aluminum Oxide Thin Films Prepared through Low Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition for Encapsulating Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Ying; Liu, Yun-Fei; Duan, Yu; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Lu, Yi-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of dense alumina (Al2O3) thin film through atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides a pathway to achieve the encapsulation of organic light emitting devices (OLED). Unlike traditional ALD which is usually executed at higher reaction n temperatures that may affect the performance of OLED, this application discusses the development on preparation of ALD thin film at a low temperature. One concern of ALD is the suppressing effect of ambient temperature on uniformity of thin film. To mitigate this issue, the pumping time in each reaction cycle was increased during the preparation process, which removed reaction byproducts and inhibited the formation of vacancies. As a result, the obtained thin film had both high uniformity and density properties, which provided an excellent encapsulation performance. The results from microstructure morphology analysis, water vapor transmission rate, and lifetime test showed that the difference in uniformity between thin films prepared at low temperatures, with increased pumping time, and high temperatures was small and there was no obvious influence of increased pumping time on light emitting performance. Meanwhile, the permeability for water vapor of the thin film prepared at a low temperature was found to reach as low as 1.5 × 10−4 g/(m2·day) under ambient conditions of 25 °C and 60% relative humidity, indicating a potential extension in the lifetime for the OLED. PMID:28787960

  15. Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Walters, Robert J; Bourianoff, George I; Atwater, Harry A

    2005-02-01

    There is currently worldwide interest in developing silicon-based active optical components in order to leverage the infrastructure of silicon microelectronics technology for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Light emission in bulk silicon-based devices is constrained in wavelength to infrared emission, and in efficiency by the indirect bandgap of silicon. One promising strategy for overcoming these challenges is to make use of quantum-confined excitonic emission in silicon nanocrystals. A critical challenge for silicon nanocrystal devices based on nanocrystals embedded in silicon dioxide has been the development of a method for efficient electrical carrier injection. We report here a scheme for electrically pumping dense silicon nanocrystal arrays by a field-effect electroluminescence mechanism. In this excitation process, electrons and holes are both injected from the same semiconductor channel across a tunnelling barrier in a sequential programming process, in contrast to simultaneous carrier injection in conventional pn-junction light-emitting-diode structures. Light emission is strongly correlated with the injection of a second carrier into a nanocrystal that has been previously programmed with a charge of the opposite sign.

  16. Highly efficient phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on Re(CO)3Cl-bathophenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang; Si, Zhenjun; Liu, Chunbo; Li, Chuannan; Zhao, Feifei; Duan, Yu; Chen, Ping; Liu, Shiyong; Li, Bin

    2007-05-01

    Highly efficient orange organic electroluminescent devices based on Re(CO)3Cl-bathophenanthroline have been fabricated. A device with 9 wt% shows the highest efficiencies of 13.8 cd A-1 (luminance efficiency), 8.69 lm W-1 (power efficiency) and 5.24% (external quantum efficiency). Maximum luminance over 4000 cd m-2 is obtained. By discussing the mechanisms, it is believed that trapping contributes mostly to these relatively much higher efficiencies.

  17. Multicolor light-emitting devices with Tb2O3 on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Wang, Shenwei; Mu, Guangyao; Yin, Xue; Yi, Lixin

    2017-02-01

    Great efforts have been devoted to achieving efficient Si-based light-emitting devices. Here we report new light-emitting devices fabricated with Tb2O3 on Si substrates. Intense green electroluminescence was observed, with a turn-on voltage of about 8 V. The green emission is attributed to the characteristic transitions of Tb3+ ions in Tb2O3. The electroluminescence mechanisms of the Tb2O3 light-emitting devices are discussed. In addition, visible and near infrared electroluminescence was observed in rare-earth (Eu3+, Sm3+ and Yb3+) doped Tb2O3 light-emitting devices.

  18. Multicolor light-emitting devices with Tb2O3 on silicon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Wang, Shenwei; Mu, Guangyao; Yin, Xue; Yi, Lixin

    2017-01-01

    Great efforts have been devoted to achieving efficient Si-based light-emitting devices. Here we report new light-emitting devices fabricated with Tb2O3 on Si substrates. Intense green electroluminescence was observed, with a turn-on voltage of about 8 V. The green emission is attributed to the characteristic transitions of Tb3+ ions in Tb2O3. The electroluminescence mechanisms of the Tb2O3 light-emitting devices are discussed. In addition, visible and near infrared electroluminescence was observed in rare-earth (Eu3+, Sm3+ and Yb3+) doped Tb2O3 light-emitting devices. PMID:28220809

  19. Electrodeposited, Transverse Nanowire Electroluminescent Junctions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shaopeng; Xu, Qiang; Dutta, Rajen K; Le Thai, Mya; Li, Xiaowei; Penner, Reginald M

    2016-09-27

    The preparation by electrodeposition of transverse nanowire electroluminescent junctions (tn-ELJs) is described, and the electroluminescence (EL) properties of these devices are characterized. The lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition process is first used to prepare long (millimeters), linear, nanocrystalline CdSe nanowires on glass. The thickness of these nanowires along the emission axis is 60 nm, and the width, wCdSe, along the electrical axis is adjustable from 100 to 450 nm. Ten pairs of nickel-gold electrical contacts are then positioned along the axis of this nanowire using lithographically directed electrodeposition. The resulting linear array of nickel-CdSe-gold junctions produces EL with an external quantum efficiency, EQE, and threshold voltage, Vth, that depend sensitively on wCdSe. EQE increases with increasing electric field and also with increasing wCdSe, and Vth also increases with wCdSe and, therefore, the electrical resistance of the tn-ELJs. Vth down to 1.8(±0.2) V (for wCdSe ≈ 100 nm) and EQE of 5.5(±0.5) × 10(-5) (for wCdSe ≈ 450 nm) are obtained. tn-ELJs produce a broad EL emission envelope, spanning the wavelength range from 600 to 960 nm.

  20. Electroluminescence of organic light emitting diodes with a thick hole transport layer composed of a triphenylamine based polymer doped with an antimonium compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamori, Asuka; Adachi, Chihaya; Koyama, Toshiki; Taniguchi, Yoshio

    1999-10-01

    We investigated the electroluminescence (EL) performance of organic light emitting diodes having a thick doped hole transport layer [(DHTL):650 nm-1.5 μm]. The basic cell structure is an anode/DHTL/hole transport layer [(HTL):50-60 nm]/emitter layer [(EML):50-60 nm]/cathode. We examined various combinations of host polymers and guest molecules as a component of DHTL in this device structure. During the course of the materials' search, we found that the best combination of a hole transport polycarbonate polymer (PC-TPD-DEG) and a tris (4-bromophenyl) aminium hexachroloantimonate (TBAHA) as a dopant enabled us to form a uniform thick DHTL (typically 650 nm-1.5 μm thick), which resulted in excellent EL performance. The thick DHTL not only showed considerable reduction in cell resistance compared with a conventional anode/DHTL (without doping)/HTL/EML/cathode device with the same thicknesses of the organic layers, but also greatly contributed to the enhancement of the device stability, particularly to pinhole problems that can occur with conventional 100-nm-thick thin devices. Furthermore, the interposed HTL between DHTL and EML was confirmed to function not only as a HTL but also as electron and exciton blocking layers. Without the HTL, the EL quantum efficiency (ΦEL) was low, because of the serious exciton energy transfer and/or electron migration from EML to DHTL where the PC-TPD-DEG:TBAHA complex layer had absorption at around 485 nm based on a charge transfer complex between them. We could increase it by interposing a thin transparent N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'bis(3-methyl phenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine or 4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl-amino] biphenyl (α-NPD) layer between DHTL and EML, while keeping the driving voltage low. With the DHTL (650 nm, 10 wt % of TBAHA) showed a luminance of 4004 cd/m2 at 10.0 V and 220 mA/cm2, of which the performance was comparable with that of typical thin film devices. Furthermore, we could expand the DHTL thickness up to 1.5

  1. Efficient electroluminescence from new lanthanide (Eu3+, Sm3+) complexes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiangbo; Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Hongjie; Zheng, Youxuan; Li, Huanrong; Deng, Ruiping; Peng, Zeping; Li, Zhefeng

    2005-03-07

    The syntheses, structures, and electroluminescent properties are described for two new lanthanide complexes Ln(HFNH)3phen [HFNH = 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptafluoro-1-(2-naphthyl)hexane-1,3-dione; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; Ln = Eu3+ (1), Sm3+ (2)]. Both complexes exhibit bright photoluminescence at room temperature (RT) due to the characteristic emission of Eu3+ and Sm3+ ion. Several devices using the two complexes as emitters were fabricated. The performances of these devices are among the best reported for devices using europium complex and samarium complex as emitters. The device based on 1 with the structure ITO/TPD (50 nm)/1:CBP (10%, 40 nm)/BCP (20 nm)/AlQ (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm) exhibits the maximum brightness of 957 cd/m2, current efficiency of 4.14 cd/A, and power efficiency of 2.28 lm/W with a pure red Eu3+ ion emission. Especially, at the high brightness of 200 cd/m2, the device of 1 still has a high current efficiency of 2.15 cd/A. The device of 2 with a three-layer structure of ITO/TPD (50 nm)/2 (50 nm)/BCP (20 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm) gives the maximum brightness of 42 cd/m2, current efficiency of 0.18 cd/A. By the comparison of the electroluminescent properties of devices based on Eu(TTA3phen (TTA = 2-thenoyltrifluoroacteonate) and 1, we conclude that the polyfluoration on the alkyl group of the ligand and the introduction of the long conjugate naphthyl group into the ligand improve the efficiency of 1-doped devices, especially at high current densities.

  2. Enhancement of electroluminescence in zirconium poly carboxylic acid-based light emitting diodes by bathophenanthroline ligand.

    PubMed

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Nasouti, Fahimeh; Sousaraei, Ahmad; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Khabbazi, Amir

    2013-06-28

    The reactions of a zirconium salt with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate (btec), bathophenanthroline (Bphen) and thiocyanate ions were synthesized and studied by changing the mole ratio, the order of reactant and their pH. It is found that the coordination mode of btec acid depends on the control of reaction conditions. Monodentate, bidentate and bridging modes were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy. The structures of Zr(btec) and Zr(btec)(Bphen) complexes were also characterized by UV-Vis, CHN, ICP-AES, (1)H NMR and cyclic voltammetry. The role of Bphen ligand in the photopysical properties of Zr(btec)(Bphen) complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. The photoluminescence (PL) emission of nine Zr(btec) complexes that have two peaks, a sharp and intense band for the first peak from 320 to 430 nm in comparison to the second peak with a less intensity and broadened in the regions of 650-780 nm. PL spectra of twelve Zr(btec)(Bphen) complexes also showed bands at 450, 550, 625 nm. LED devices with Zr complex as emitter layer and the structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK:PBD/zirconium complex/Al emitted a broad band centered at 550 and 650 originating from the Zr complexes. The EL spectra of Zr(btec) and Zr(btec)(Bphen) complexes indicated a long red shift rather than PVK:PBD blend. We believe that the electroplex occurring at PVK-Zr complexes interface is responsible for the green-red emission in the EL of the device. These observations suggest an important role for the Bphen ligand to improve EL performance.

  3. Electrical properties of III-Nitride LEDs: Recombination-based injection model and theoretical limits to electrical efficiency and electroluminescent cooling

    SciTech Connect

    David, Aurelien Hurni, Christophe A.; Young, Nathan G.; Craven, Michael D.

    2016-08-22

    The current-voltage characteristic and ideality factor of III-Nitride quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on bulk GaN substrates are investigated. At operating temperature, these electrical properties exhibit a simple behavior. A model in which only active-region recombinations have a contribution to the LED current is found to account for experimental results. The limit of LED electrical efficiency is discussed based on the model and on thermodynamic arguments, and implications for electroluminescent cooling are examined.

  4. Electrical properties of III-Nitride LEDs: Recombination-based injection model and theoretical limits to electrical efficiency and electroluminescent cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Aurelien; Hurni, Christophe A.; Young, Nathan G.; Craven, Michael D.

    2016-08-01

    The current-voltage characteristic and ideality factor of III-Nitride quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on bulk GaN substrates are investigated. At operating temperature, these electrical properties exhibit a simple behavior. A model in which only active-region recombinations have a contribution to the LED current is found to account for experimental results. The limit of LED electrical efficiency is discussed based on the model and on thermodynamic arguments, and implications for electroluminescent cooling are examined.

  5. Visible electroluminescence in spark-processed silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Nigel Dexter

    Spark-processing is a novel technique that transforms silicon into a material with unique optical and magnetic properties. In this work, the electroluminescence (EL) from spark-processed silicon (sp-Si) has been studied and characterized. The devices studied have a MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) type structure. The EL spectrum is broad, and has a threshold wavelength that extends beyond 350 nm, and peaks at around 650 and 730 nm. The threshold voltage for the EL process is typically in the 5--8 V range. Irrespective of whether the base silicon is n or p-type, EL is observed only under the condition of electron injection into the spark-processed layer. The processing conditions that result in the highest EL intensity have been established. Specifically, the processing parameters that results in the highest device currents and EL intensity are 7--8 kV, 10 mA, 12--13 kHz, around 750 mbar and 10 seconds of spark voltage, current, frequency, pressure and time respectively. It has been also been found that processing in air results in higher EL intensities, compared to processing in ultra-high purity nitrogen or oxygen. These conditions are believed to result in the optimal composition and thickness of the near surface SiOx layers, thought to be the optically active region in sp-Si EL devices. These processing conditions are also believed to result in a surface morphology that facilitates the best coverage by the semitransparent metal film, through which the electroluminescence is emitted. When a tungsten wire is used as the anode for spark-processing, the pattern of emission is a circular band of light. This band consists of small light-emitting spots, separated by non-emitting regions. It is shown that by modifying the anode arrangement, significant improvements to the pattern of emission and EL intensity can be achieved. These improvements are proposed to be due to enhanced coverage by the semitransparent metal film. Based on the results of the EL characterization

  6. Novel optoelectronic devices based on single semiconductor nanowires (nanobelts).

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu; Dai, Lun; Gan, Lin; Meng, Hu; Dai, Yu; Guo, Xuefeng; Qin, Guogang

    2012-04-13

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) or nanobelts (NBs) have attracted more and more attention due to their potential application in novel optoelectronic devices. In this review, we present our recent work on novel NB photodetectors, where a three-terminal metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) device structure was exploited. In contrast to the common two-terminal NB (NW) photodetectors, the MESFET-based photodetector can make a balance among overall performance parameters, which is desired for practical device applications. We also present our recent work on graphene nanoribbon/semiconductor NW (SNW) heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Herein, by taking advantage of both graphene and SNWs, we have fabricated, for the first time, the graphene-based nano-LEDs. This achievement opens a new avenue for developing graphene-based nano-electroluminescence devices. Moreover, the novel graphene/SNW hybrid devices can also find use in other applications, such as high-sensitivity sensor and transparent flexible devices in the future.

  7. [Photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of a new rare earth terbium complex].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Xi-qing; Lin, Peng; Xiong, De-pin; Huang, Shi-hua; Yu, Tian-zhi

    2004-06-01

    Pure green and narrowbandwidth emission from an organic electroluminescent device was presented by using arare earth terbium (III) complex as the emissive layer. The structure of the device was ITO/PVK/Tb/PBD/LiF/Al. It was proved that this new kind of rare earth complex has excellent photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties. The electroluminescent spectrum of the device was very similar to that of the terbium (III) complex film. The electroluminescent mechanism of the device was proposed by measuring and analyzing the spectra and electroluminescent property of the device. It is proposed that the excited carriers of PVK and PBD were captured by Tb3+ and light was emitted when the electrons and holes recombined at Tb3+.

  8. Electroluminescence Imaging Of Space Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, C. G.

    2011-10-01

    Space solar power is one of the few applications where large area III-V devices are used. Therefore there is great potential for a spatially resolved technique in the inspection, failure investigation and characterization of these devices. Mechanical defects can be identified by electroluminescence imaging unambiguously. The impact of a cell crack on the current distribution in the cell is modeled and the electroluminescence signature of a cell crack is derived. Another qualitative application is failure investigation of cells that suffer degradation, for example in environmental testing. Series resistance problems can be visualized and the location of an environmental attack can be pinpointed on a μm length scale. Finally under the appropriate simplifications, even a quantitative cell characterization can be attempted. Maps of the open circuit voltage and the current at the operating voltage identify shunts quantitatively.

  9. Silicon nanowire hot electron electroluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Plessis, Monuko; Joubert, Trudi-Heleen

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the avalanche electroluminescence characteristics of pn junctions formed in silicon nanowires fabricated in a silicon-on-insula*tor (SOI) technology. Since carriers are confined to the nanowires, it is possible to study the effect of electric field strength on device performance while the current density and carrier concentrations are kept constant. This is achieved by varying the nanowire length while keeping the bias current constant, eventually driving the pn junction into the reach-through bias condition. It is observed that photon emission for photon energies higher than 1.2 eV increases when the nanowire length is reduced, while photon emission with energies less than 1.2 eV decreases. The higher electric field in the nanowire at shorter nanowire lengths enhances the high-energy photon emission and attenuates the low energy photon emission.

  10. White-blue electroluminescence from a Si quantum dot hybrid light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Yunzi; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Saitow, Ken-ichi

    2015-05-18

    A silicon (Si) quantum dot (QD)-based hybrid inorganic/organic light-emitting diode (LED) was fabricated via solution processing. This device exhibited white-blue electroluminescence at a low applied voltage of 6 V, with 78% of the effective emission obtained from the Si QDs. This hybrid LED produced current and optical power densities 280 and 350 times greater than those previously reported for such device. The superior performance of this hybrid device was obtained by both the prepared Si QDs and the optimized layer structure and thereby improving carrier migration through the hybrid LED and carrier recombination in the homogeneous Si QD layer.

  11. ZnCdMgSe-Based Semiconductors for Intersubband Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tamargo, Maria C.

    2008-11-13

    This paper presents a review of recent results on the application of ZnCdMgSe-based wide bandgap II-VI compounds to intersubband devices such as quantum cascade lasers and quantum well infrared photodetectors operating in the mid-infrared region. The conduction band offset of ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum well structures was determined from contactless electroreflectance measurements to be as high as 1.12 eV. FT-IR was used to measure intersubband absorption in multi-quantum well structures in the mid-IR range. Electroluminescence at 4.8 {mu}m was observed from a quantum cascade emitter structure made from these materials. Preliminary results are also presented on self assembled quantum dots of CdSe on ZnCdMgSe, and novel quantum well structures with metastable binary MgSe barriers.

  12. Sphere-supported thin film electroluminescent technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yingwei

    A new Sphere-Supported Thin Film Electroluminescent (SSTFEL) technology is developed based on a novel device structure containing numerous spherical BaTiO3 particles embedded in a polypropylene matrix with top and bottom area exposed. A TFEL phosphor stack deposited on the top area of the spherical BaTiO3 particles emits light through the same mechanism as conventional flat TFEL devices. Flexibility is realized by the polypropylene matrix. SSTFEL technology provides the first flexible and rollable light-emitting devices based on the TFEL mechanism. Besides the superior flexibility, SSTFEL technology enables high post-annealing temperature for the phosphor up to approximately 1200°C, which permits a wide range of TFEL phosphors to be exploited. After sintering at a temperature higher than 920°C, the spray-dried cubic BaTiO3 spheres have tetragonal phase. The relative dielectric constant of the BaTiO3 spheres depends on the grain size that is mainly controlled by the sintering temperature. Software simulation and experimental measurements indicate that the relative dielectric constant of the BaTiO 3 spheres reaches above 4000 after sintering at 1170° for 2 hours. Assuming angle alpha varying from 0° (top of the BaTiO3 sphere) to 180° (bottom of the BaTiO3 sphere), the phosphor stack sputtered on a BaTiO3 sphere has a nearly uniform thickness with a variation less than +/-2.5% when alpha is between 0° and 25°. When alpha increases from 25° to 45°, the thickness of the phosphor stack gradually decreases up to 12.5%. Software simulation shows that the electric field in the central plane of the phosphor stack increases 18% from the pole to the edge of the light-emitting cap on the BaTiO3 sphere. Experimental results reveal that, instead of the variation in electric field, the nature of the surface of the BaTiO3 spheres before the sputtering process primarily influences the electroluminescent properties of the SSTFEL devices. A new Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO

  13. [Progress of organometallic complexes and their application to organic electroluminescent materials].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; An, Zhong-Wei; Chai, Sheng-Yong

    2004-08-01

    Organic electroluminescent (EL) material is one of most prospective display materials in flat panel display. Organometallic complexes, which have five or six member ring structures, with high stability, high melting point and high fluorescence quantum efficiency, are widely applied in organic EL devices. The recent progress in organometallic complexes is summarized in terms of the electroluminescence of ligands and metal atoms.

  14. Photoemission-based microelectronic devices

    PubMed Central

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Tyler J.; Tao, Andrea R.; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of modern microelectronic devices rely on carriers within semiconductors due to their integrability. Therefore, the performance of these devices is limited due to natural semiconductor properties such as band gap and electron velocity. Replacing the semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices with a gas or vacuum channel may scale their speed, wavelength and power beyond what is available today. However, liberating electrons into gas/vacuum in a practical microelectronic device is quite challenging. It often requires heating, applying high voltages, or using lasers with short wavelengths or high powers. Here, we show that the interaction between an engineered resonant surface and a low-power infrared laser can cause enough photoemission via electron tunnelling to implement feasible microelectronic devices such as transistors, switches and modulators. The proposed photoemission-based devices benefit from the advantages of gas-plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving the integrability of semiconductor-based devices. PMID:27811946

  15. Photoemission-based microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Tyler J.; Tao, Andrea R.; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2016-11-01

    The vast majority of modern microelectronic devices rely on carriers within semiconductors due to their integrability. Therefore, the performance of these devices is limited due to natural semiconductor properties such as band gap and electron velocity. Replacing the semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices with a gas or vacuum channel may scale their speed, wavelength and power beyond what is available today. However, liberating electrons into gas/vacuum in a practical microelectronic device is quite challenging. It often requires heating, applying high voltages, or using lasers with short wavelengths or high powers. Here, we show that the interaction between an engineered resonant surface and a low-power infrared laser can cause enough photoemission via electron tunnelling to implement feasible microelectronic devices such as transistors, switches and modulators. The proposed photoemission-based devices benefit from the advantages of gas-plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving the integrability of semiconductor-based devices.

  16. Transistor and memory devices based on novel organic and biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Jia-Hung

    Organic semiconductor devices have aroused considerable interest because of the enormous potential in many technological applications. Organic electroluminescent devices have been extensively applied in display technology. Rapid progress has also been made in transistor and memory devices. This thesis considers aspects of the transistor based on novel organic single crystals and memory devices using hybrid nanocomposites comprising polymeric/inorganic nanoparticles, and biomolecule/quantum dots. Organic single crystals represent highly ordered structures with much less imperfections compared to amorphous thin films for probing the intrinsic charge transport in transistor devices. We demonstrate that free-standing, thin organic single crystals with natural flexing ability can be fabricated as flexible transistors. We study the surface properties of the organic crystals to determine a nearly perfect surface leading to high performance transistors. The flexible transistors can maintain high performance under reversible bending conditions. Because of the high quality crystal technique, we further develop applications on organic complementary circuits and organic single crystal photovoltaics. In the second part, two aspects of memory devices are studied. We examine the charge transfer process between conjugated polymers and metal nanoparticles. This charge transfer process is essential for the conductance switching in nanoseconds to induce the memory effect. Under the reduction condition, the charge transfer process is eliminated as well as the memory effect, raising the importance of coupling between conjugated systems and nanoparticle accepters. The other aspect of memory devices focuses on the interaction of virus biomolecules with quantum dots or metal nanoparticles in the devices. We investigate the impact of memory function on the hybrid bio-inorganic system. We perform an experimental analysis of the charge storage activation energy in tobacco mosaic virus with

  17. Current and Temperature Dependences of Electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Takashi; Yamada, Motokazu; Nakamura, Shuji

    1998-11-01

    Current and temperature dependences of the electroluminescence of InGaN UV/blue/green single-quantum-well (SQW)-structure light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were studied. The emission mechanism of InGaN SQW-structure LEDs with emission peak wavelengths longer than 375 nm is dominated by carrier recombination at large localized energy states caused by In composition fluctuation in the InGaN well layer. When the emission peak wavelength becomes shorter than 375 nm, the conventional band-to-band emission mechanism becomes dominant due to poor carrier localization resulting from small In composition fluctuations. In addition, the quantum-confined Stark effect due to the piezoelectric field becomes dominant, which causes a low output power of the UV LEDs.

  18. Relaxation of parameters of thin-film electroluminescent ZnS:Mn-based structures when turned off

    SciTech Connect

    Gurin, N. T. Sabitov, O. Yu.

    2008-06-15

    Results of experimental study of decay of the current flowing through a thin-film electroluminescent MISIM structure indicate a bimolecular process of electron capture by the surface states of the anode interface. A two-stage model of the process is suggested. At the first stage, the impact Auger capture of hot electrons takes place. At the second stage, upon varying the field direction, the holes of the valence band generated due to tunnel emission from deep centers drift to this interface, where they recombine with electrons of deepest occupied surface states. The electron lifetime and rate of the surface capture of electrons as well as their dependences on excitation parameters are determined. The behavior of the time dependence of the instant internal quantum yield at the decay portion is interpreted.

  19. Mid-infrared electro-luminescence and absorption from AlGaN/GaN-based multi-quantum well inter-subband structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Bour, David P.; Kirste, Lutz

    2014-06-16

    We present electro-modulated absorption and electro-luminescence measurements on chirped AlGaN/GaN-based multi-quantum well inter-subband structures grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. The absorption signal is a TM-polarized, 70 meV wide feature centred at 230 meV. At medium injection current, a 58 meV wide luminescence peak corresponding to an inter-subband transition at 1450 cm{sup −1} (180 meV) is observed. Under high injection current, we measured a 4 meV wide structure peaking at 92.5 meV in the luminescence spectrum. The energy location of this peak is exactly at the longitudinal optical phonon of GaN.

  20. Analysis of power supply circuits for electroluminescent panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    The electroluminescent panel is a light emitting device that requires for normal operations alternative voltages with peak to peak amplitudes in 100V… 300V range and frequencies in 100Hz … 2 kHz range. Its advantages, when compared with standard light sources like incandescent lamps, gas-discharge lamps or light emitting diodes (LEDs), are lower power consumption, flexible substrate and uniform light without observable luminous points. One disadvantage of electroluminescent panels is the complex power supply required to drive them, but the continuous improvement in passive and active integrated devices for switched mode power supplies will eventually solve this issue. The present paper studies different topologies for these power supplies and the effect of the electric parameters like the amplitude, frequency, waveform of the supplying voltage on the light emission and on power consumption for electroluminescent panels with different size and colors.

  1. Organic electroluminescent structures for new generation of display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Oleg N.; Kaplunov, Michail G.; Efimov, Oleg N.; Stakharny, Sergey A.

    2007-05-01

    Brief history, modern state and development trends of organic electroluminescent structures technology (so-called OLED technology) are reviewed including research activities in this field in Russia. It's noted that OLED technology is one of the most promising newly emerging display technologies. Due to advantages of these devices (low power consumption, potential flexibility, wide color range) it is particularly well suited for small area display applications (micro displays) such as cell phones, virtual imaging systems, portable electronics. Experimental results for homemade blue light emitting OLED structures and hermetically sealed numeric displays are presented including photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL ) current-voltage and brightness characteristics. It is noted that visible electroluminescence is observed at ultra low current level of nearly 1 μA, luminous efficiency exceeding 1 lm/W thus being nearly the same as for super bright inorganic inGaN/IGaN LEDs. Special attention is paid for destabilizing factors (temperature and degradation phenomena) influence on device characteristics.

  2. Graphene-based conformal devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Ju; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Hyunmin; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2014-08-26

    Despite recent progress in bendable and stretchable thin-film transistors using novel designs and materials, the development of conformal devices remains limited by the insufficient flexibility of devices. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of graphene-based conformal and stretchable devices such as transistor and tactile sensor on a substrate with a convoluted surface by scaling down the device thickness. The 70 nm thick graphene-based conformal devices displayed a much lower bending stiffness than reported previously. The demonstrated devices provided excellent conformal coverage over an uneven animal hide surface without the need for an adhesive. In addition, the ultrathin graphene devices formed on the three-dimensionally curved animal hide exhibited stable electrical characteristics, even under repetitive bending and twisting. The advanced performance and flexibility demonstrated here show promise for the development and adoption of wearable electronics in a wide range of future applications.

  3. Double side electroluminescence from p-NiO/n-ZnO nanowire heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.-Y.; Chen, Y.-T.; Chen, C.-T.; Chen, Y.-L.; Chen, Y.-F.; Lee, C.-Y.; Lin, C.-F.

    2009-09-28

    Double side light emission devices based on p-NiO/n-ZnO nanowire heterojunctions have been fabricated on indium tin oxide substrate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering combined with hydrothermal process. According to the energy band alignment, the detected broad visible and narrow ultraviolet electroluminescence arise from defect and band edge transitions in ZnO nanowires, respectively. The unique property of the double side emission is due to the nature of the large band gap of NiO film. It provides a good opportunity for the emission of a light emitting device with different colors on the top and back sides, simultaneously.

  4. Probing triplet-triplet annihilation zone and determining triplet exciton diffusion length by using delayed electroluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yichun; Aziz, Hany

    2010-05-01

    The literature shows that triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) can provide a substantial contribution to the electroluminescence (EL) of fluorescent organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). In this study, we utilized delayed EL measurements to probe the TTA emission zone of archetypical 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3) based OLEDs. The results demonstrate that the TTA emission zone of these devices is much larger than the prompt emission zone of singlet states that are formed in the electron-hole recombination. The larger TTA emission zone is attributed to the longer diffusion length of the Alq3 triplet states (60 nm) than that of Alq3 singlet states (20 nm).

  5. Room-temperature electroluminescence from two-dimensional lead halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Renzhi; Yi, Chang; Ge, Rui; Zou, Wei; Cheng, Lu; Wang, Nana; Wang, Jianpu; Huang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Room-temperature electroluminescence (EL) is demonstrated from a light-emitting diode (LED) based on two-dimensional lead halide perovskites, (C6H5NH3)2PbI4. The device has a multilayer structure of ITO/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate)/(C6H5CH2NH3)2PbI4/Bathophenanthroline/Al. The EL emission peaks at 526 nm with a narrow full width at half maximum of 15 nm, which origins from perovskite exciton emission. The LED device exhibits a maximum luminance of ˜9 cd m-2 at a bias of 5 V.

  6. Highly efficient and color-tuning electrophosphorescent devices based on CuI complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Guangbo; Su, Zisheng; Li, Wenlian; Chu, Bei; Li, Mingtao; Hu, Zhizhi; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2006-09-01

    Highly efficient electrophosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices based on a CuI complex, [Cu(DPEphos)(Dicnq)]BF4 (DPEphos =bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether and Dicnq =6,7-Dicyanodipyrido[2,2-d:2',3'-f] quinoxaline), doped into 4,4'-N,N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl is demonstrated. The performances of these devices fabricated by vacuum vapor deposition technique are among the best reported for devices incorporating CuI complexes as emitters. A low turn-on voltage of 4V, a maximum current efficiency up to 11.3cd/A, and a peak brightness of 2322cd/m2 were achieved, respectively. The phosphorescent operating mechanism of organic light-emitting devices based on CuI complex was discussed. Electroluminescent colors can be tuned ranging from green-yellow to orange-red region, and its band tail at longer wavelength can cover near infrared.

  7. Asphaltene based photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Chianelli, Russell R.; Castillo, Karina; Gupta, Vipin; Qudah, Ali M.; Torres, Brenda; Abujnah, Rajib E.

    2016-03-22

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making the same, are disclosed herein. The cell comprises a photovoltaic device that comprises a first electrically conductive layer comprising a photo-sensitized electrode; at least one photoelectrochemical layer comprising metal-oxide particles, an electrolyte solution comprising at least one asphaltene fraction, wherein the metal-oxide particles are optionally dispersed in a surfactant; and a second electrically conductive layer comprising a counter-electrode, wherein the second electrically conductive layer comprises one or more conductive elements comprising carbon, graphite, soot, carbon allotropes or any combinations thereof.

  8. 2-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole-based four-coordinate boron-containing materials with highly efficient deep-blue photoluminescence and electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Houyu; Jiao, Chuanjun; Ye, Kaiqi; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Jingying; Wang, Yue

    2015-03-16

    Two novel four-coordinate boron-containing emitters 1 and 2 with deep-blue emissions were synthesized by refluxing a 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole ligand with triphenylborane or bromodibenzoborole. The boron chelation produced a new π-conjugated skeleton, which rendered the synthesized boron materials with intense fluorescence, good thermal stability, and high carrier mobility. Both compounds displayed deep-blue emissions in solutions with very high fluorescence quantum yields (over 0.70). More importantly, the samples showed identical fluorescence in the solution and solid states, and the efficiency was maintained at a high level (approximately 0.50) because of the bulky substituents between the boron atom and the benzimidazole unit, which can effectively separate the flat luminescent units. In addition, neat thin films composed of 1 or 2 exhibited high electron and hole mobility in the same order of magnitude 10(-4), as determined by time-of-flight. The fabricated electroluminescent devices that employed 1 or 2 as emitting materials showed high-performance deep-blue emissions with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (X = 0.15, Y = 0.09) and (X = 0.16, Y = 0.08), respectively. Thus, the synthesized boron-containing materials are ideal candidates for fabricating high-performance deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

  9. Blue/pink/purple electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices fabricated by spin-coating of [tantalum:(gadolinium/praseodymium)] and (praseodymium:cerium) organic compounds on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohzone, Takashi; Matsuda, Toshihiro; Fukuoka, Ryouhei; Hattori, Fumihiro; Iwata, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    Blue/pink/purple electroluminescence (EL) from metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with an indium tin oxide (ITO)/[Gd/(Ta + Gd/Pr)/(Pr + Ce)-Si-O] insulator layer/n+-Si substrate surface is reported. The insulator layers were fabricated from organic liquid sources of Gd or (Ta + Gd/Pr)/(Pr + Ce) mixtures, which were spin-coated on the n+-Si substrate and annealed at 950 °C for 30 min in air. The EL emission could be observed by the naked eye in the dark in the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnel current regions. Peak wavelengths in the measured EL spectra were independent of the positive current. The EL intensity ratio of ultraviolet (UV) to the visible range varied with the composition ratio of the (Ta + Gd) liquids, and an optimum Ta to Gd ratio existed for the strongest blue emission, which could be attributed to the Ta-related oxide/silicate. The pink EL of the device fabricated with the (\\text{Ta}:\\text{Pr} = 6:4) mixture ratio can be explained by EL emission peaks related to the Pr3+ ions. The purple EL observed from the (\\text{Pr}:\\text{Ce} = 6:4) device corresponds to the strong and broad emission profile near the 357 nm peak, which cannot be assigned to Ce3+ ions. The results suggest that the EL can be attributed to the double-layer oxides with different compositions in the MOS devices. The upper layer consists of various Ta-, Gd-, Pr-, and Ce-related oxides and their silicates, while the lower SiO x -rich layer contributes to the FN current due to the high electric field, and thus the various EL colors.

  10. Electroluminescence from ZnO-nanofilm/Si-micropillar heterostructure arrays.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu Fei; Su, Wei; Zhang, Chang Xing; Wu, Zheng Long; Tang, Ying; Sun, Xiao Qi; Xu, Hai Jun

    2012-10-22

    ZnO-nanofilm/Si-micropillar p-n nanoheterostructure arrays were prepared by growing n-type ZnO onto a p-type nanoporous Si pillar array. Its current-voltage characteristics of nanoheterostructure showed good rectifying behavior with onset voltage of ~1.5 V, forward current density of ~28.7 mA/cm(2) at 2.5 V, leakage current density of ~0.15 mA/cm(2) and rectifying ratio of ~121 at ± 2.5 V. The electron transport across nanohetreostructure obeys the trap-charge-limit current model. Moreover, strong white light electroluminescence from ZnO-nanofilm/Si-micropillar light-emitting diode (LED) has been achieved, which could open up possibilities to build new ZnO/Si-based highly efficient solid-state lighting devices.

  11. [Electroluminescence character of novel unsymmetry substituted phthalocyanines].

    PubMed

    Xia, Dao-cheng; Li, Wan-cheng; Han, Shuang; Cheng, Chuan-hui; Li, Quan-quan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhu

    2010-09-01

    The authors for the first time fabricated OLEDs employing novel phthalocynines: 2(3)-(p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(1), 2(3),16(17)-di(p-tert-butyl-phenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(2) and 2(3), 9(10), 16(17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(3) as light emitting layer, and their electroluminescence character was studied. The final structures of three-layer OLEDs based on copper 2(3)-(p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine (1) and 2(3), 9(10), 16(17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(3) were ITO/NPB(40 nm)/Pc(30 nm)/AlQ(43.5 nm)/LiF (0.5 nm)/Al(120 nm). The structure of three-layer OLED based on 2(3), 9(10), 16(17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine (3) was ITO/NPB(30 nm)/Pc(30 nm) /BCP(20 nm)/A1Q(30 nm)/LiF (0. 5 nm)/Al(120 nm). Room-temperature electroluminescence was observed at about 869 nmand 1 062 nm for 2(3)-(p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(1); room-temperature electroluminescence of 2(3),16(17) -di(p-tert-butyl-phenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(2) was found at about 1050 nm and 1110 nm; and room-temperature electroluminescence of 2(3), 9(10), 16( 17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(3) was studied at about 1095 and 1204 nm. The emission wavelengths and the half bandwidths were quite different for the phthalocyanine, which may be due to the differences in the number of substituted and the molecular aggregations in vacuum sublimed films. The difference in Stokes shift relaxation was also induced by the molecular aggregations.

  12. Interfused semiconductor nanocrystals: brilliant blue photoluminescence and electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Jun, Shinae; Jang, Eunjoo

    2005-09-28

    We describe a method for producing blue light-emitting interfused CdSe//ZnS (QE up to 60%) nanocrystals and report the good performance of an electroluminescent device which uses them (external quantum efficiency approximately 1.5 cd A(-1)).

  13. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T.; Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P.; Cook, S.D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  14. Photo- and electroluminescence properties of lanthanide tungstate-doped porous anodic aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staninski, Krzysztof; Piskuła, Zbigniew; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata

    2017-02-01

    A new cathode material for the potential use in light-emitting devices, based on porous anodic alumina (PAA), aluminum and ITO layers has been synthesized. Porous alumina samples with ordered pore arrays were prepared electrochemically from high purity Al sheet in H2SO4 and H3PO4. To be able to apply the matrix obtained in the electroluminescence cell, the thickness of the barrier layer of aluminum oxide was decreased by slow reduction of the anodization voltage to zero. The luminescence and electroluminescence (EL) properties of the Al2O3 matrix admixtured with Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions as well as europium and terbium tungstates, were determined. The particles of inorganic luminophore were synthesized on the walls of the matrix cylindrical nanopores in the two-step process of immersion in solutions of TbCl3 or EuCl3 and Na2WO4. The effect of the nanopores diameter and the thickness of the porous Al2O3 layer on the intensity and relative yield of electroluminescence was analyzed, the best results were obtained for 80-90 μm PAA layers with 140 nm nanopores.

  15. Mechanisms of visible electroluminescence in diode structures on the basis of porous silicon: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, N. G.; Yan, D. T.

    2017-06-01

    The main mechanisms of the visible electroluminescence (EL) of porous silicon are reviewed. Characteristics of photoluminescence and EL of diode structures based on porous silicon are compared. Metals having a smaller value of the electron work function (3.6 eV, Mg) than do Al and Au are proposed as the material for making contacts in such diode structures to increase the efficiency of their EL in the visible region of the spectrum. The main problems and prospects of light-emitting devices based on porous silicon are formulated.

  16. Streamline-based microfluidic device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a streamline-based device and a method for using the device for continuous separation of particles including cells in biological fluids. The device includes a main microchannel and an array of side microchannels disposed on a substrate. The main microchannel has a plurality of stagnation points with a predetermined geometric design, for example, each of the stagnation points has a predetermined distance from the upstream edge of each of the side microchannels. The particles are separated and collected in the side microchannels.

  17. Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Enhances the Brightness of Perovskite Nanocrystal-Based Green Light-Emitting Devices.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Lin, Hong; Kershaw, Stephen V; Susha, Andrei S; Choy, Wallace C H; Rogach, Andrey L

    2016-11-03

    The beneficial role of the insulating material polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) as a solution additive or an additional hole-blocking layer to enhance the performance of electroluminescent green light-emitting devices (LEDs) based on CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals is demonstrated. POSS improves the surface coverage and the morphological features of the films deposited either from supernatant or suspension of perovskite nanocrystals. The external quantum efficiency and the luminance efficiency of LEDs with an additional POSS layer reach 0.35% and 1.20 cd/A, respectively, constituting a more than 17-fold enhancement to the reference devices without POSS; the LED peak luminance reaches 2983 cd/m(2), and the device stability is improved. The POSS acts as a hole-blocking layer between the perovskite nanocrystals and TPBi, keeping both electrons and holes located within the active layer for an efficient recombination.

  18. Enhancing the electroluminescence efficiency of Si NC/SiO2 superlattice-based light-emitting diodes through hydrogen ion beam treatment.

    PubMed

    Fu, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Hui-Ju; Wu, Hsuan-Ta; Chen, Shao-Ping; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2016-04-07

    This paper presents a novel method for enhancing the electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of ten-period silicon-rich oxide (SRO)/SiO2 superlattice-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A hydrogen ion beam (HIB) was used to irradiate each SRO layer of the superlattices to increase the interfacial roughness on the nanoscale and the density of the Si nanocrystals (Si NCs). Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling was the major mechanism for injecting the carriers into the Si NCs. The barrier height of the F-N tunneling was lowered by forming a nano-roughened interface and the nonradiative Pb centers were passivated through the HIB treatment. Additionally, the reflectance of the LEDs was lowered because of the nano-roughened interface. These factors considerably increased the slope efficiency of EL and the maximum output power of the LEDs. The lighting efficiency increased by an order of magnitude, and the turn-on voltage decreased considerably. This study established an efficient approach for obtaining bright Si NC/SiO2 superlattice-based LEDs.

  19. Enhancing the electroluminescence efficiency of Si NC/SiO2 superlattice-based light-emitting diodes through hydrogen ion beam treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Hui-Ju; Wu, Hsuan-Ta; Chen, Shao-Ping; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method for enhancing the electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of ten-period silicon-rich oxide (SRO)/SiO2 superlattice-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A hydrogen ion beam (HIB) was used to irradiate each SRO layer of the superlattices to increase the interfacial roughness on the nanoscale and the density of the Si nanocrystals (Si NCs). Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling was the major mechanism for injecting the carriers into the Si NCs. The barrier height of the F-N tunneling was lowered by forming a nano-roughened interface and the nonradiative Pb centers were passivated through the HIB treatment. Additionally, the reflectance of the LEDs was lowered because of the nano-roughened interface. These factors considerably increased the slope efficiency of EL and the maximum output power of the LEDs. The lighting efficiency increased by an order of magnitude, and the turn-on voltage decreased considerably. This study established an efficient approach for obtaining bright Si NC/SiO2 superlattice-based LEDs.

  20. Electrical and Optical Characterization of Nanowire based Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayvazian, Talin

    This research project is focused on a new strategy for the creation of nanowire based semiconductor devices. The main goal is to understand and optimize the electrical and optical properties of two types of nanoscale devices; in first type lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition (LPNE) method has been utilized to fabricate nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET) and second type involved the development of light emitting semiconductor nanowire arrays (NWLED). Field effect transistors (NWFETs) have been prepared from arrays of polycrystalline cadmium selenide (pc-CdSe) nanowires using a back gate configuration. pc-CdSe nanowires were fabricated using the lithographically patterned nanowire electrode- position (LPNE) process on SiO2 /Si substrates. After electrodeposition, pc-CdSe nanowires were thermally annealed at 300 °C x 4 h either with or without exposure to CdCl 2 in methanol a grain growth promoter. The influence of CdCl2 treatment was to increase the mean grain diameter as determined by X-ray diffraction pattern and to convert the crystal structure from cubic to wurtzite. Transfer characteristics showed an increase of the field effect mobility (mu eff) by an order of magnitude and increase of the Ion/I off ratio by a factor of 3-4. Light emitting devices (NW-LED) based on lithographically patterned pc-CdSe nanowire arrays have been investigated. Electroluminescence (EL) spectra of CdSe nanowires under various biases exhibited broad emission spectra centered at 750 nm close to the band gap of CdSe (1.7eV). To enhance the intensity of the emitted light and the external quantum efficiency (EQE), the distance between the contacts were reduced from 5 mum to less than 1 mum which increased the efficiency by an order of magnitude. Also, increasing the annealing temperature of nanowires from 300 °C x4 h to 450 This research project is focused on a new strategy for the creation of nanowire based semiconductor devices. The main goal is to understand

  1. FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

    2015-05-14

    FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device.

  2. Graphene based flexible electrochromic devices

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Emre O.; Balcı, Osman; Kocabas, Coskun

    2014-01-01

    Graphene emerges as a viable material for optoelectronics because of its broad optical response and gate-tunable properties. For practical applications, however, single layer graphene has performance limits due to its small optical absorption defined by fundamental constants. Here, we demonstrated a new class of flexible electrochromic devices using multilayer graphene (MLG) which simultaneously offers all key requirements for practical applications; high-contrast optical modulation over a broad spectrum, good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility. Our method relies on electro-modulation of interband transition of MLG via intercalation of ions into the graphene layers. The electrical and optical characterizations reveal the key features of the intercalation process which yields broadband optical modulation up to 55 per cent in the visible and near-infrared. We illustrate the promises of the method by fabricating reflective/transmissive electrochromic devices and multi-pixel display devices. Simplicity of the device architecture and its compatibility with the roll-to-roll fabrication processes, would find wide range of applications including smart windows and display devices. We anticipate that this work provides a significant step in realization of graphene based optoelectronics. PMID:25270391

  3. Graphene based flexible electrochromic devices.

    PubMed

    Polat, Emre O; Balcı, Osman; Kocabas, Coskun

    2014-10-01

    Graphene emerges as a viable material for optoelectronics because of its broad optical response and gate-tunable properties. For practical applications, however, single layer graphene has performance limits due to its small optical absorption defined by fundamental constants. Here, we demonstrated a new class of flexible electrochromic devices using multilayer graphene (MLG) which simultaneously offers all key requirements for practical applications; high-contrast optical modulation over a broad spectrum, good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility. Our method relies on electro-modulation of interband transition of MLG via intercalation of ions into the graphene layers. The electrical and optical characterizations reveal the key features of the intercalation process which yields broadband optical modulation up to 55 per cent in the visible and near-infrared. We illustrate the promises of the method by fabricating reflective/transmissive electrochromic devices and multi-pixel display devices. Simplicity of the device architecture and its compatibility with the roll-to-roll fabrication processes, would find wide range of applications including smart windows and display devices. We anticipate that this work provides a significant step in realization of graphene based optoelectronics.

  4. Photolithographically patternable electroluminescent liquid crystalline materials for full-colour organic light emitting displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlashon, Andrew J.; Whitehead, Katherine S.; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; Zhang, Weimin; Campbell, Alasdair J.

    2006-02-01

    Displays based on polymer light emitting diodes are attractive due to their emissive nature, their wide viewing angles and the ability of electroluminescent conjugated polymers to be solution processable at room temperature and pressure. It is difficult, however, to deposit separate red, green and blue (RGB) pixels and to maximize performance by making the devices multi-layered. Here we present recent results on a semiconducting conjugated reactive-mesogen OLED material which is solution processable, can be potentially cured and patterned by photolithography and used in multi-layer devices. This material consists of a conjugated pentathiophene core with reactive endgroups. Spectroscopy, calorimetry and microscopy show that it forms crystalline, aggregate, liquid-crystalline and isotropic phases at a range of different temperatures. The material is deposited by spincoating from solution. Low density doping with a cationic photointiator and exposure to a specific UV wavelength to avoid damage to the conjugated core leads to cross-linking into an insoluble network. Current-voltage-luminousity and spectral measurements in standard OLED device structures show the effect of cross-linking on the transport and injection properties of the material. Quenching of fluorescence and electroluminescence is discussed. Insertion of lower-energy gap, fluorescent small molecules can potentially be used to tune the emission to any desired colour but material limitations to this technique due to dopant removal during the washing procedure were observed.

  5. High Triplet Energy Level Achieved by Tuning the Arrangement of Building Blocks in Phosphorescent Polymer Backbones for Furnishing High Electroluminescent Performances in Both Blue and White Organic Light-Emitting Devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boao; Dang, Feifan; Tian, Zhuanzhuan; Feng, Zhao; Jin, Deyuan; Dang, Wanping; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Guijiang; Wu, Zhaoxin

    2017-05-17

    A high triplet energy level (ET) of ca. 2.83 eV has been achieved in a novel polymer backbone through tuning the arrangement of two kinds of building blocks, showing enhanced hole injection/transporting capacity. Based on this new polymer backbone with high ET, both blue and white phosphorescent polymers were successfully developed with a trade-off between high ET and enhanced charge-carrier transporting ability. In addition, their photophysical features, electrochemical behaviors, and electroluminescent (EL) properties have been characterized in detail. Benefitting from the advantages associated with the novel polymer backbone, the blue phosphorescent polymers show top-ranking EL performances with a maximum luminance efficiency (ηL) of 15.22 cd A(-1), corresponding to a power efficiency (ηP) of 12.64 lm W(-1), and external quantum efficiency (ηext) of 6.22% and the stable Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.19, 0.38). Furthermore, blue-orange (B-O) complementary-colored white phosphorescent polymers based on this novel polymer backbone were also obtained showing encouraging EL efficiencies of 12.34 cd A(-1), 9.59 lm W(-1), and 4.10% in the optimized WOLED together with exceptionally stable CIE coordinates of (Δx = 0.014, Δy = 0.010) in a wide driving voltage range from 4 to 16 V. All of these attractive EL results achieved by these novel phosphorescent polymers show the great potential of this new polymer backbone in developing highly efficient phosphorescent polymers.

  6. Wavelength-Tunable Electroluminescent Light Sources from Individual Ga-Doped ZnO Microwires.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingming; He, Gaohang; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Zheng, Lingxia; Shan, Chongxin; Shen, Dezhen; Fang, Xiaosheng

    2017-03-07

    Electrically driven wavelength-tunable light emission from biased individual Ga-doped ZnO microwires (ZnO:Ga MWs) is demonstrated. Single crystalline ZnO:Ga MWs with different Ga-doping concentrations have been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition method. Strong electrically driven light emission from individual ZnO:Ga MW based devices is realized with tunable colors, and the emission region is localized toward the center of the wires. Increasing Ga-doping concentration in the MWs can lead to the redshift of electroluminescent emissions in the visible range. Interestingly, owing to the lack of rectification characteristics, relevant electrical measurement results show that the alternating current-driven light emission functions excellently on the ZnO:Ga MWs. Consequently, individual ZnO:Ga MWs, which can be analogous to incandescent sources, offer unique possibilities for future electroluminescence light sources. This typical multicolor emitter can be used to rival and complement other conventional semiconductor devices in displays and lighting.

  7. Growth and characterization of silicon-based optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filios, Adam A.

    layers sandwiched between monolayers of oxygen. The key for its fabrication is that epitaxial growth of silicon may be continued beyond the interruption with exposure to oxygen. Prepared by an Ultra High Vacuum (UHV), Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) technique, the multilayer device is extremely stable and robust, and can be readily integrated with conventional silicon VLSI processing. In addition, it exhibits bright, room temperature, visible photoluminescent and electroluminescent emission, at least as strong as that of porous silicon. With its efficient light emission, robustness and stability, the c-Si/O superlattice may hold the promise of a truly integrated silicon-based optoelectronic device.

  8. Zinc Oxide Based Photonics Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-09

    project are to develop critical technlogies required for ZnO-based photonic device; high-quality ZnO film growth, p/n-doping processes, etching...measured hole mobility values in the range from 1 to 50 cm2/V-sec. These results are shown in a recent publication [Y.R. Ryu et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83...effect measurements showed such undoped ZnO films to be intrinsic n-type, with electron concentration values in the low 1017 cm-3 range, and mobility

  9. Blue-green emitting cationic iridium complexes with 1,3,4-oxadiazole cyclometallating ligands: synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties, theoretical investigation and electroluminescent devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; He, Lei; Duan, Lian; Yan, Jun; Tang, Ruiren; Pan, Chunyue; Song, Xiangzhi

    2015-09-28

    Two cationic iridium complexes, namely [Ir(dph-oxd)2(bpy)]PF6 (1) and [Ir(dph-oxd)2(pzpy)]PF6 (2), using 2,5-diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (dph-oxd) as the cyclometallating ligand and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) or 2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine (pzpy) as the ancillary ligands, have been synthesized, and their photophysical and electrochemical properties have been comprehensively investigated. In solution, both complexes emit efficient blue-green light. For complex 1, the light emission in a neat film is remarkably red-shifted; in solid state, it gives an intriguing piezochromic phenomenon. Compared with archetype [Ir(ppy)2(bpy)]PF6 (ppy is 2-phenylpyridine), complex 1 shows a largely stabilized HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) level, induced by the electron-deficient 1,3,4-oxadiazole (oxd) heterocycle of dph-oxd, which results in an enlarged energy gap and blue-shifted emission. Compared with complex 1, complex 2 shows an enhanced LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) level, caused by the electron-rich pzpy ancillary ligand, but they exhibit similar emission energy in solution. For both complexes, theoretical calculations reveal that their blue-green emission in solution arises primarily from the (3)π-π* states centered on dph-oxd; moreover, complex 1 bears close-lying (3)π-π* and (3)CT (charge-transfer) states, underlying its remarkably red-shifted emission in the neat film and unique piezochromic behavior in the solid state. Solid state light emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) based on complexes 1 and 2 give efficient yellow and green-blue light, with peak current efficiencies of 18.3 and 5.2 cd A(-1), respectively. It is demonstrated that oxd-type cyclometallating ligands are promising as an avenue to stabilize the HOMOs and tune emission properties of cationic iridium complexes to a large extent.

  10. Bolometric Device Based on Fluxoid Quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonetti, Joseph A.; Kenyon, Matthew E.; Leduc, Henry G.; Day, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependence of fluxoid quantization in a superconducting loop. The sensitivity of the device is expected to surpass that of other superconducting- based bolometric devices, such as superconducting transition-edge sensors and superconducting nanowire devices. Just as important, the proposed device has advantages in sample fabrication.

  11. High Contrast Electroluminescent Numeric Readout Device.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Seal Design ... ............ .. 22 10 Package Component Parts ........... 24 11 Frit Sealed Subassembly .............. .... 25 12 Sealed Package...layer ceramic with vertically conducting vias can be tooled to provide two or three layer circuitry as well as the vertical interconnects and seal area...to the display. This method of laminating layers of unfired but screened ceramic tape to form a multi-layer composite is now routinely applied in

  12. Ag-Decorated Localized Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Ultraviolet Electroluminescence from ZnO Quantum Dot-Based/GaN Heterojunction Diodes by Optimizing MgO Interlayer Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Renli; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of localized surface plasmon (LSP)-enhanced n-ZnO quantum dot (QD)/MgO/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by embedding Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) into the ZnO/MgO interface. The maximum enhancement ration of the Ag-NP-decorated LEDs in electroluminescence (EL) is 4.3-fold by optimizing MgO electron-blocking layer thickness. The EL origination was investigated qualitatively in terms of photoluminescence (PL) results. Through analysis of the energy band structure of device and carrier transport mechanisms, it suggests that the EL enhancement is attributed to the increased rate of spontaneous emission and improved internal quantum efficiency induced by exciton-LSP coupling.

  13. Polymer and small molecule based hybrid light source

    DOEpatents

    Choong, Vi-En; Choulis, Stelios; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Mathai, Mathew; So, Franky

    2010-03-16

    An organic electroluminescent device, includes: a substrate; a hole-injecting electrode (anode) coated over the substrate; a hole injection layer coated over the anode; a hole transporting layer coated over the hole injection layer; a polymer based light emitting layer, coated over the hole transporting layer; a small molecule based light emitting layer, thermally evaporated over the polymer based light emitting layer; and an electron-injecting electrode (cathode) deposited over the electroluminescent polymer layer.

  14. Variably spaced superlattice energy filter, a new device design concept for high-energy electron injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A new variably spaced superlattice energy filter is proposed which provides high-energy injection of electrons into a bulk semiconductor layer based on resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum well levels which are brought into alignment by an applied bias. Applications of this concept to a variety of optoelectronic devices and to thin-film electroluminescent devices and photodetectors are discussed.

  15. Variably spaced superlattice energy filter, a new device design concept for high-energy electron injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A new variably spaced superlattice energy filter is proposed which provides high-energy injection of electrons into a bulk semiconductor layer based on resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum well levels which are brought into alignment by an applied bias. Applications of this concept to a variety of optoelectronic devices and to thin-film electroluminescent devices and photodetectors are discussed.

  16. Cotton-based Diagnostic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Wang, Hsi-Kai; Chang, Chia-Ling; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2014-01-01

    A good diagnostic procedure avoids wasting medical resources, is easy to use, resists contamination, and provides accurate information quickly to allow for rapid follow-up therapies. We developed a novel diagnostic procedure using a “cotton-based diagnostic device” capable of real-time detection, i.e., in vitro diagnostics (IVD), which avoids reagent contamination problems common to existing biomedical devices and achieves the abovementioned goals of economy, efficiency, ease of use, and speed. Our research reinforces the advantages of an easy-to-use, highly accurate diagnostic device created from an inexpensive and readily available U.S. FDA-approved material (i.e., cotton as flow channel and chromatography paper as reaction zone) that adopts a standard calibration curve method in a buffer system (i.e., nitrite, BSA, urobilinogen and uric acid assays) to accurately obtain semi-quantitative information and limit the cross-contamination common to multiple-use tools. Our system, which specifically targets urinalysis diagnostics and employs a multiple biomarker approach, requires no electricity, no professional training, and is exceptionally portable for use in remote or home settings. This could be particularly useful in less industrialized areas. PMID:25393975

  17. Interband cascade light emitting devices based on type-II quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui Q.; Lin, C.H.; Murry, S.J.

    1997-06-01

    The authors discuss physical processes in the newly developed type-II interband cascade light emitting devices, and review their recent progress in the demonstration of the first type-II interband cascade lasers and the observation of interband cascade electroluminescence up to room temperature in a broad mid-infrared wavelength region (extended to 9 {mu}m).

  18. Electroluminescent, polycrystalline cadmium selenide nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Ayvazian, Talin; van der Veer, Wytze E; Xing, Wendong; Yan, Wenbo; Penner, Reginald M

    2013-10-22

    Electroluminescence (EL) from nanocrystalline CdSe (nc-CdSe) nanowire arrays is reported. The n-type, nc-CdSe nanowires, 400-450 nm in width and 60 nm in thickness, were synthesized using lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition, and metal-semiconductor-metal (M-S-M) devices were prepared by the evaporation of two gold contacts spaced by either 0.6 or 5 μm. These M-S-M devices showed symmetrical current voltage curves characterized by currents that increased exponentially with applied voltage bias. As the applied biased was increased, an increasing number of nanowires within the array "turned on", culminating in EL emission from 30 to 50% of these nanowires at applied voltages of 25-30 V. The spectrum of the emitted light was broad and centered at 770 nm, close to the 1.74 eV (712 nm) band gap of CdSe. EL light emission occurred with an external quantum efficiency of 4 × 10(-6) for devices with a 0.60 μm gap between the gold contacts and 0.5 × 10(-6) for a 5 μm gap-values similar to those reported for M-S-M devices constructed from single-crystalline CdSe nanowires. Kelvin probe force microscopy of 5 μm nc-CdSe nanowire arrays showed pronounced electric fields at the gold electrical contacts, coinciding with the location of strongest EL light emission in these devices. This electric field is implicated in the Poole-Frenkel minority carrier emission and recombination mechanism proposed to account for EL light emission in most of the devices that were investigated.

  19. Organic solution-processible electroluminescent molecular glasses for non-doped standard red OLEDs with electrically stable chromaticity

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Xiaoman; Zuo, Weiwei; Liu, Yingliang Zhang, Zhenru; Zeng, Cen; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The D–A–D electroluminescent molecular glasses are synthesized. • Non-doped red electroluminescent film is fabricated by spin-coating. • Red OLED shows stable wavelength, luminous efficiency and chromaticity. • CIE1931 coordinate is in accord with standard red light in PAL system. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting molecular glasses (OEMGs) are synthesized through the introduction of nonplanar donor and branched aliphatic chain into electroluminescent emitters. The target OEMGs are characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, IR, UV–vis and fluorescent spectra as well as elemental analysis, TG and DSC. The results indicated that the optical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of OEMGs are adjusted successfully by the replacement of electron-donating group. The non-doped OLED device with a standard red electroluminescent emission is achieved by spin-coating the THF solution of OEMG with a triphenylamine moiety. This non-doped red OLED device takes on an electrically stable electroluminescent performance, including the stable maximum electroluminescent wavelength of 640 nm, the stable luminous efficiency of 2.4 cd/A and the stable CIE1931 coordinate of (x, y) = (0.64, 0.35), which is basically in accord with the CIE1931 coordinate (x, y) = (0.64, 0.33) of standard red light in PAL system.

  20. Electroluminescence en avalanche des jonctions p-n a base de silicium et d'arseniure de gallium, et effet d'irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboujja, Sidi

    2000-10-01

    Dans ce travail de these nous etudions l'electroluminescence (EL) des jonctions a base de silicium (Si) et d'arseniures de gallium (GaAs), polarisees en avalanche. Dans le cas des jonctions p-n a base de Si (semi-conducteur a gap indirect), la polarisation en direct est accompagnee d'une emission de lumiere dans l'infrarouge. Cette emission est due a la recombinaison des electrons-trous a travers le gap indirect appelee recombinaison interbande. La polarisation en avalanche est accompagnee d'une emission de lumiere dans le visible. Cette emission fait l'objet de controverses depuis sa decouverte en 1955. Il n'y a pas encore un accord definitif sur son origine. Une des causes du desaccord est la forme spectrale du signal qui apparaIt non reproductible. Souvent les spectres sont presentes sans correction par la reponse du systeme de detection. La plupart des modeles proposes pour expliquer cette emission en avalanche se basent sur les transitions entre la bande de conduction et la bande de valence appeles modeles interbandes. Pour verifier sa validite, nous avons expose les jonctions aux irradiations dans le but d'introduire des defauts dans la bande interdite et nous avons fait varier la temperature afin de changer le gap et la population des porteurs. Nous avons observe que l'EL dans le mode de polarisation directe chute suite aux irradiations et a la baisse de temperature, comme prevu. Mais l'EL en avalanche est insensible a ces deux perturbations. Par consequent nous avons rejete le mecanisme de recombinaison interbande. Pour expliquer l'emission en avalanche nous proposons des transitions entre d'autres niveaux excites appeles sous-bandes de conduction. La mesure de duree de vie qui s'est revelee courte suggere des transitions directes entre sous-bandes de conduction. La confrontation de la structure de bandes d'energie et l'experience nous a permis d'attribuer cette emission en avalanche a des transitions entre les sous-bandes de conduction Gamma1 et Gamma '1

  1. Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambois, O.; Berencen, Y.; Hijazi, K.; Wojdak, M.; Kenyon, A. J.; Gourbilleau, F.; Rizk, R.; Garrido, B.

    2009-09-01

    We have studied the current transport and electroluminescence properties of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices in which the oxide layer, which is codoped with silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions, is made by magnetron sputtering. Electrical measurements have allowed us to identify a Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. We observe an important contribution of the Si nanoclusters to the conduction in silicon oxide films, and no evidence of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The results suggest that the electroluminescence of the erbium ions in these layers is generated by energy transfer from the Si nanoparticles. Finally, we report an electroluminescence power efficiency above 10-3%.

  2. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  3. Multiple functional UV devices based on III-Nitride quantum wells for biological warfare agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Savage, Susan; Persson, Sirpa; Noharet, Bertrand; Junique, Stéphane; Andersson, Jan Y.; Liuolia, Vytautas; Marcinkevicius, Saulius

    2009-02-01

    We have demonstrated surface normal detecting/filtering/emitting multiple functional ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices based on InGaN/GaN, InGaN/AlGaN and AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with operation wavelengths ranging from 270 nm to 450 nm. Utilizing MQW structure as device active layer offers a flexibility to tune its long cut-off wavelength in a wide UV range from solar-blind to visible by adjusting the well width, well composition and barrier height. Similarly, its short cut-off wavelength can be adjusted by using a GaN or AlGaN block layer on a sapphire substrate when the device is illuminated from its backside, which further provides an optical filtering effect. When a current injects into the device under forward bias the device acts as an UV light emitter, whereas the device performs as a typical photodetector under reverse biases. With applying an alternating external bias the device might be used as electroabsorption modulator due to quantum confined Stark effect. In present work fabricated devices have been characterized by transmission/absorption spectra, photoresponsivity, electroluminescence, and photoluminescence measurements under various forward and reverse biases. The piezoelectric effect, alloy broadening and Stokes shift between the emission and absorption spectra in different InGaN- and AlGaN-based QW structures have been investigated and compared. Possibilities of monolithic or hybrid integration using such multiple functional devices for biological warfare agents sensing application have also be discussed.

  4. Resistive Switching Memory Devices Based on Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Meng, Fanben; Zhu, Bowen; Leow, Wan Ru; Liu, Yaqing; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-12-09

    Resistive switching memory constitutes a prospective candidate for next-generation data storage devices. Meanwhile, naturally occurring biomaterials are promising building blocks for a new generation of environmentally friendly, biocompatible, and biodegradable electronic devices. Recent progress in using proteins to construct resistive switching memory devices is highlighted. The protein materials selection, device engineering, and mechanism of such protein-based resistive switching memory are discussed in detail. Finally, the critical challenges associated with protein-based resistive switching memory devices are presented, as well as insights into the future development of resistive switching memory based on natural biomaterials.

  5. Bright Multicolor Bandgap Fluorescent Carbon Quantum Dots for Electroluminescent Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fanglong; Wang, Zhibin; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Yunchao; Tan, Zhan'ao; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe

    2017-01-01

    Multicolor bandgap fluorescent carbon quantum dots (MCBF-CQDs) from blue to red with quantum yield up to 75% are synthesized using a solvothermal method. For the first time, monochrome electroluminescent light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with MCBF-CQDs directly as an active emission layer are fabricated. The maximum luminance of blue LEDs reaches 136 cd m(-2) , which is the best performance for CQD-based monochrome electroluminescent LEDs.

  6. Efficient electroluminescent cooling with a light-emitting diode coupled to a photovoltaic cell (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Tianyao P.; Chen, Kaifeng; Santhanam, Parthiban; Fan, Shanhui; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2017-02-01

    The new breakthrough in photovoltaics, exemplified by the slogan "A great solar cell has to be a great light-emitting diode (LED)", has led to all the major new solar cell records, while also leading to extraordinary LED efficiency. As an LED becomes very efficient in converting its electrical input into light, the device cools as it operates because the photons carry away entropy as well as energy. If these photons are absorbed in a photovoltaic (PV) cell, the generated electricity can be used to provide part of the electrical input that drives the LED. Indeed, the LED/PV cell combination forms a new type of heat engine with light as the working fluid. The electroluminescent refrigerator requires only a small amount of external electricity to provide cooling, leading to a high coefficient of performance. We present the theoretical performance of such a refrigerator, in which the cool side (LED) is radiatively coupled to the hot side (PV) across a vacuum gap. The coefficient of performance is maximized by using a highly luminescent material, such as GaAs, together with device structures that optimize extraction of the luminescence. We consider both a macroscopic vacuum gap and a sub-wavelength gap; the latter allows for evanescent coupling of photons between the devices, potentially providing a further enhancement to the efficiency of light extraction. Using device assumptions based on the current record-efficiency solar cells, we show that electroluminescent cooling can, in certain regimes of cooling power, achieve a higher coefficient of performance than thermoelectric cooling.

  7. Devices based on controlled magnetic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluzman, P. L.; Milovzorov, V. P.; Iudin, V. V.

    The book is concerned with the theory and optimal design of multifunctional magnetic elements with a controlled transfer ratio and devices based on them. In particular, attention is given to the classification of devices based on controlled magnetic elements and the functional properties of their base structures; devices based on magnetic elements with feedback and external signal control; analysis of single-component controlled magnetic elements with a constant magnetic conductor cross section; and parametric synthesis of optimal functional transducers. The discussion also covers the synthesis of frequency multipliers based on magnetic synthesizers of multiextremal functions; stability and accuracy of controlled magnetic elements and devices based on them; and some applications of devices based on controlled magnetic elements.

  8. Improved electroluminescence in organic light emitting diodes by thermal annealing of indium tin oxide anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasi, Gnyaneshwar; Ramarajan, R.; Thangappan, R.; Jayavel, R.; Thangaraju, K.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate the improved electroluminescence (EL) in OLEDs by using annealed ITO anode at different temperatures under the normal ambient. SEM studies show the smooth surface morphology of ITO film upto 300°C and it turned wrinkle kind of structure at 400°C. The hole-only device (HOD) based on ITO annealed at 300°C exhibits the higher hole-current density when compared to pristine ITO based device and it is drastically decreased for 400°C. The higher EL emission intensity was observed for OLEDs using ITO annealed at 300°C and it is drastically decreased for 400°C annealed ITO based device. These results show that the annealing of ITO anode upto 300°C improves the hole-injection in OLEDs, balancing the charge carriers and improving the device performance, whereas the change in surface properties of ITO anode annealed at 400°C in turn alters the ITO/TPD interface leading to the charge imbalance, resulting in the decreased device performances.

  9. Blue-red electroluminescence from hybrid Eu:phosphors/ZnO-nanowires/p-GaN LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, B.; Pauporte, T.; Lupan, O.; Devis, L.; Gacoin, T.

    2014-03-01

    Nanowire (NW) based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have drawn great research interest due to many advantages compared to thin film based devices. Marked improved performances are expected from nanostructured active layers for light emission. Semiconducting oxide nanowires can act as direct waveguides and favor emitted light extraction without use of lens and reflectors in LEDs. Moreover, the use of ZnO wires avoids the presence of grain boundaries and then the emission efficiency is boosted by the absence of non-radiative recombinations at the joint defects. In this context, europium (Eu):Chelate/ZnO:Mg-nanowires/p-GaN light-emitting-diode (LED) structures have been fabricated showing near-UV/violet electroluminescence and red emission from trivalent europium. Fabricated LED structures exhibit UV-blue light at about 380 nm coming from the n-(ZnO:Mg)/p-GaN and a sharp red emission at ˜611 nm related to the intra-4f transition of Eu ions. It is found that in the case of the ZnO:Mg, the emission wavelength is slightly shifted to smaller wavelength to be well adapted to the trivalent europium excitation band. Radiative energy transfer is achieved through strong overlap between the emission wavelength from n-(ZnO:Mg)/p- GaN heterojunction and chelate ligand intensive absorption band. Indeed the Eu:chelate/(ZnO:Mg)-nanowires/p-GaN structure appears well adapted to UV/blue and red dual emission. Our results shows that the design of LEDs based on the chelate ligands are important issue to enhance the performance of electroluminescence devices based on ZnO nanowire arrays/p-GaN heterojunction and rare-earth metal complexes.

  10. RANDOM ACCESS CONTROL OF ELECTROLUMINESCENT ELEMENTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) switches were devised to control the luminous emittance of electroluminescent cells in a solid-state display. The technique...purpose of this contract was to establish the feasibility of utilizing the hysteretic effect in cadmium selenide to provide switching and storage to an...array of electroluminescent cells by investigating the cadmium selenide material, by studying panel structure, and by investigating the addressing of

  11. In Situ Electroluminescence Color Tuning by Thermal Deprotonation Suitable for Thermal Sensors and Anti-fraud Labels.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Umberto; Cariati, Elena; Lucenti, Elena; Pasini, Mariacecilia; Galeotti, Francesco; Botta, Chiara

    2017-08-18

    A novel and versatile approach to tune photoluminescence and electroluminescence by in situ controlled thermal deprotonation is presented. This methodology, based on a single organic π-conjugated material (pyrene derivative), allows the manufacturing of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) prototypes by solution methods with controlled tunable emission ranging from the orange (protonated form of the dye) to the blue (pristine or deprotonated form). While several protonation/deprotonation cycles can be performed on thin films, for the devices only one cycle is possible so that their use as anti-fraud labels can be envisaged. OLEDs exhibit daylight visible brightness of 150 cd m(-2) and device lifetime exceeding 30 hours of continuous operation. Thanks to the simplicity of both material design and device fabrication our approach opens new perspectives in the wide field of thermal sensors for customer care or risk perception. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Quantifying Solar Cell Cracks in Photovoltaic Modules by Electroluminescence Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso; Glick, Stephen; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-06-14

    This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module's electroluminescence intensity distribution, applied at module and cell level. These concepts are demonstrated on a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module that was subjected to several rounds of mechanical loading and humidity-freeze cycling, causing increasing levels of solar cell cracks. The proposed method can be used as a diagnostic tool to rate cell damage or quality of modules after transportation. Moreover, the method can be automated and used in quality control for module manufacturers, installers, or as a diagnostic tool by plant operators and diagnostic service providers.

  13. Electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, D. J.; Lynch, S. A.; Bates, R.; Ikonic, Z.; Kelsall, R. W.; Harrison, P.; Norris, D. J.; Liew, S. L.; Cullis, A. G.; Murzyn, P.; Pidgeon, C.; Arnone, D. D.; Robbins, D. J.

    2003-03-01

    Intersubband electroluminescence results are presented from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters at 3.2 THz and at temperatures up to 150 K. The effect of adding doping into the active quantum wells was studied in addition to reduced barrier widths from previous measurements. While the current through the sample is increased by the addition of doping, the emitted power is reduced through additional free carrier absorption and Coulombic scattering. Free electron laser measurements confirm the intersubband transitions in the quantum wells of the cascade devices and produce non-radiative lifetimes of ∼20 ps between 4 and 150 K.

  14. Visible and near infrared emitting thin film electroluminescent gallium nitride doped with rare earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Han

    Visible and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting thin-film electroluminescent gallium nitride (GaN) doped with rare earth (RE) elements was studied. The rare-earth-doped GaN thin films were prepared by radio frequency (RF) planar magnetron co-sputtering of separate targets consisting of a GaN compound target and a metallic rare earth target in a pure nitrogen atmosphere. The luminescence of rare-earth-doped GaN was shown to be a strong function of its structure and properties, and growth parameters affected the structure and properties of the GaN host films. A phase transition from the thermodynamically stable wurtzite to the metastable zinc-blende structure at room temperature in GaN host films was observed upon increasing the impact energy of the bombarding species, thereby increasing the compressive stress in the GaN film. The switch from wurtzite to zinc-blende GaN occurred at a compressive internal stress of ˜1 GPa. The internal compressive stress above this threshold value apparently stabilizes the zinc-blende GaN phase at room temperature. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the impact by hyperthermal species yielded a highly condensed fibrous GaN microstructure with a smooth surface morphology due to annihilation of porosity by knock-on and bombardment-induced adatom mobility. X-ray diffraction and texture analyses showed that the GaN films deposited at a low pressure had a predominant cubic phase with a preferred crystallographic orientation of the [111] direction perpendicular to the surface of the film. X-ray rocking curve data revealed that cubic GaN films grown with a lower growth rate exhibited a more highly [111]-textured structure. Alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) devices were fabricated based on GaN doped with rare earth (RE) elements. Visible electroluminescent light emission peaks at 475 (blue), 530 (green), and 614 nm (red) were demonstrated at room temperature

  15. Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-16

    World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I-V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I-V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the "balance sheets" of tandem solar cells.

  16. Photo- and electroluminescence of mixed-ligand Eu(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, N. S.; Meshkova, S. B.; Degtyarenko, K. M.; Kopylova, T. N.; Topilova, Z. M.; Gadirov, R. M.; Samsonova, L. G.

    2012-05-01

    Spectral and luminescent properties of mixed-ligand Eu(III) complexes were studied in solutions and in polyvinylcarbazole (PVC) thin films. Trends in their variations were found depending on the complex structure and excitation mode. The electroluminescence was observed in ITO/PEDOT/Eu complex:PVC/CaMg/Al devices. Their current-voltage and voltage-brightness characteristics were investigated.

  17. Electroluminescence emission of crystalline germanium nanoclusters deposited with laser assistance at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsin-Ying; Lee, Ching-Ting; Tsai, Tai-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    With CO2 laser assistance, crystalline Ge nanocluster-embedded Ge films were deposited at low temperature using a conventional plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. Raman spectrum showed a wavenumber peak at 290 cm(-1) which corresponded to the crystalline Ge nanoclusters in the Ge film deposited with CO2 laser assistance. Crystalline Ge nanoclusters embedded in Ge matrices were observed from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and electron diffraction pattern. The electroluminescent devices constructed with multilayered Ge nanoclusters-embedded Ge films were fabricated. The experimental results demonstrated that the electroluminescence emission originated from the radiative recombination of the electron-hole pairs in the Ge nanoclusters.

  18. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from copper doped zinc sulphide nanocrystals/polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Que, Wenxiu; Zhou, Y.; Lam, Y. L.; Chan, Y. C.; Kam, C. H.; Liu, B.; Gan, L. M.; Chew, C. H.; Xu, G. Q.; Chua, S. J.; Xu, S. J.; Mendis, F. V. C.

    1998-11-01

    Cu-doped ZnS nanocrystals were prepared in an inverse microemulsion at room temperature as well as under a hydrothermal condition. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the diameter of the Cu-doped ZnS nanocrystals particles was about 9 nm. These particles showed a strong photoluminescence intensity and a broad emission band from 490 to 530 nm. The half-width of emission was about 60 nm. Cu-doped ZnS nanocrystals/polymethylmethacrylate composite as a light-emitting layer was used to fabricate a single layer structure electroluminescent device which had low turn on voltage (less than 5 V). The green light of electroluminescence was observed at room temperature. The electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra were nearly identical at room temperature.

  19. Carbon Nanotubes Based Quantum Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Jian-Ping

    1999-01-01

    This document represents the final report for the NASA cooperative agreement which studied the application of carbon nanotubes. The accomplishments are reviewed: (1) Wrote a review article on carbon nanotubes and its potentials for applications in nanoscale quantum devices. (2) Extensive studies on the effects of structure deformation on nanotube electronic structure and energy band gaps. (3) Calculated the vibrational spectrum of nanotube rope and the effect of pressure. and (4) Investigate the properties of Li intercalated nanotube ropes and explore their potential for energy storage materials and battery applications. These studies have lead to four publications and seven abstracts in international conferences.

  20. Carbon Nanotubes Based Quantum Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Jian-Ping

    1999-01-01

    This document represents the final report for the NASA cooperative agreement which studied the application of carbon nanotubes. The accomplishments are reviewed: (1) Wrote a review article on carbon nanotubes and its potentials for applications in nanoscale quantum devices. (2) Extensive studies on the effects of structure deformation on nanotube electronic structure and energy band gaps. (3) Calculated the vibrational spectrum of nanotube rope and the effect of pressure. and (4) Investigate the properties of Li intercalated nanotube ropes and explore their potential for energy storage materials and battery applications. These studies have lead to four publications and seven abstracts in international conferences.

  1. Adaptive Device Context Based Mobile Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Haitao; Lin, Jinjiao; Song, Yanwei; Liu, Fasheng

    2011-01-01

    Mobile learning is e-learning delivered through mobile computing devices, which represents the next stage of computer-aided, multi-media based learning. Therefore, mobile learning is transforming the way of traditional education. However, as most current e-learning systems and their contents are not suitable for mobile devices, an approach for…

  2. Adaptive Device Context Based Mobile Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Haitao; Lin, Jinjiao; Song, Yanwei; Liu, Fasheng

    2011-01-01

    Mobile learning is e-learning delivered through mobile computing devices, which represents the next stage of computer-aided, multi-media based learning. Therefore, mobile learning is transforming the way of traditional education. However, as most current e-learning systems and their contents are not suitable for mobile devices, an approach for…

  3. White light from an electroluminescent diode made from poly(3(4-octylphenyl)-2,2min -bithiophene) and an oxadiazole derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berggren, M.; Gustafsson, G.; Inganas, O.; Andersson, M. R.; Hjertberg, T.; Wennerstrom, O.

    1994-12-01

    We report on an electroluminescent diode emitting red, green, and blue light simultaneously. The device is based on a thin polymer layer, poly(3-(4-octylphenyl)-2,2 min-bithiophene) and a thick molecular layer, 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tertbutyl-phenyl)1,3,5-oxadiazole. The quantum efficiency for light conversion is 0.3% and the turn-on voltage for light emission is 7 V. In this arcitcle we present electric and spectroscopic characterizations. A mechanism for the light emission, based on electron and hole recombination between the two organic layers, is proposed.

  4. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    PubMed

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  5. Polymer-based electrocaloric cooling devices

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Qiming; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Li, Xinyu; Gorny, Lee; Cheng, Jiping; Neese, Bret P; Chu, Baojin

    2014-10-28

    Cooling devices (i.e., refrigerators or heat pumps) based on polymers which exhibit a temperature change upon application or removal of an electrical field or voltage, (e.g., fluoropolymers or crosslinked fluoropolymers that exhibit electrocaloric effect).

  6. Estimation of exciton reverse transfer for variable spectra and high efficiency in interlayer-based organic light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengqiang; Zhao, Juan; Huang, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng

    2016-12-01

    Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with three different exciton adjusting interlayers (EALs), which are inserted between two complementary blue and yellow emitting layers, are fabricated to demonstrate the relationship between the EAL and device performance. The results show that the variations of type and thickness of EAL have different adjusting capability and distribution control on excitons. However, we also find that the reverse Dexter transfer of triplet exciton from the light-emitting layer to the EAL is an energy loss path, which detrimentally affects electroluminescent (EL) spectral performance and device efficiency in different EAL-based devices. Based on exciton distribution and integration, an estimation of exciton reverse transfer is developed through a triplet energy level barrier to simulate the exciton behavior. Meanwhile, the estimation results also demonstrate the relationship between the EAL and device efficiency by a parameter of exciton reverse transfer probability. The estimation of exciton reverse transfer discloses a crucial role of the EALs in the interlayer-based OLEDs to achieve variable EL spectra and high efficiency.

  7. Magnetic skyrmion-based synaptic devices.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yangqi; Kang, Wang; Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2017-02-24

    Magnetic skyrmions are promising candidates for next-generation information carriers, owing to their small size, topological stability, and ultralow depinning current density. A wide variety of skyrmionic device concepts and prototypes have recently been proposed, highlighting their potential applications. Furthermore, the intrinsic properties of skyrmions enable new functionalities that may be inaccessible to conventional electronic devices. Here, we report on a skyrmion-based artificial synapse device for neuromorphic systems. The synaptic weight of the proposed device can be strengthened/weakened by positive/negative stimuli, mimicking the potentiation/depression process of a biological synapse. Both short-term plasticity and long-term potentiation functionalities have been demonstrated with micromagnetic simulations. This proposal suggests new possibilities for synaptic devices in neuromorphic systems with adaptive learning function.

  8. Magnetic skyrmion-based synaptic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yangqi; Kang, Wang; Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are promising candidates for next-generation information carriers, owing to their small size, topological stability, and ultralow depinning current density. A wide variety of skyrmionic device concepts and prototypes have recently been proposed, highlighting their potential applications. Furthermore, the intrinsic properties of skyrmions enable new functionalities that may be inaccessible to conventional electronic devices. Here, we report on a skyrmion-based artificial synapse device for neuromorphic systems. The synaptic weight of the proposed device can be strengthened/weakened by positive/negative stimuli, mimicking the potentiation/depression process of a biological synapse. Both short-term plasticity and long-term potentiation functionalities have been demonstrated with micromagnetic simulations. This proposal suggests new possibilities for synaptic devices in neuromorphic systems with adaptive learning function.

  9. Analysis of the electroluminescence features of silicon metal-insulator-semiconductor structures as a tool for diagnostics of the injection properties of a dielectric layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illarionov, Yu. Yu.; Vexler, M. I.; Isakov, D.; Fedorov, V. V.; Sing, Yew Kwang

    2013-10-01

    A technique for diagnostics of the injection properties of thin dielectric layers based on analysis of the data on silicon electroluminescence in a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure is proposed. The possibility of applying this technique to control the electron injection energy (in particular, when the barrier parameters are poorly known) is demonstrated by the example of samples with CaF2 and HfO2/SiO2. The results obtained are important for application of the insulators under study in microelectronic devices.

  10. Near-UV InGaN/GaN-based dual-operation quantum optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Tuncay; Sari, Emre; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2007-05-01

    We present a novel dual-operation InGaN/GaN based quantum optoelectronic device (QOD) that operates as a quantum electroabsorption modulator in reverse bias and as a light emitter in forward bias in the spectral range of near-ultraviolet (UV). Here we report the design, epitaxial growth, fabrication, and characterization of such QODs that incorporate ~2-3 nm thick InGaN/GaN quantum structures for operation between 380 nm and 400 nm. In reverse bias, our QODs show an optical absorption coefficient change of ~14000 cm -1 with a reverse bias of 9 V (corresponding to ~40 cm -1 absorption coefficient change for 1 V/μm field swing) at 385 nm, reported for the first time for InGaN/GaN quantum structures in the near-UV range. In forward bias, though, our QODs exhibit optical electroluminescence spectrum centered around 383 nm with a full width at half maximum of 20 nm and photoluminescence spectrum centered around 370 nm with a full width at half maximum of 12 nm. This dual operation makes such quantum optoelectronic devices find a wide range of optoelectronics applications both as an electroabsorption modulator and a light emitting diode (LED).

  11. Logic Devices Based on Spin Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behin-Aein, Behtash

    2011-03-01

    The need to find low power alternatives to digital electronics circuits has led to increasing interest in alternative switching schemes like the magnetic quantum cellular automata that store information in nanomagnets which communicate through their magnetic fields. A recent proposal called all spin logic (ASL) proposes to communicate between nanomagnets using spin currents which are spatially localized and can be conveniently routed. In this talk we present a model for ASL devices that is based on established physics and is benchmarked against available experimental data. We investigate switching energy- delay of ASL devices and provide frameworks that allow simple comparisons with charge based devices like CMOS and can help to determine possible use of ASL in future logic implementation. Expected scaling of switching energy-delay of ASL devices as magnets are downscaled while retaining their stability against thermal fluctuations will be presented. This work was supported by Nanoelectronics Research Initiative (NRI) and Network for Computational Nanotechnology (NCN).

  12. Quasi-Fermi level splitting evaluation based on electroluminescence analysis in multiple quantum-well solar cells for investigating cell performance under concentrated light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tomoyuki; Toprasertpong, Kasidit; Delamarre, Amaury; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Paire, Myriam; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    Insertion of InGaAs/GaAsP strain-balanced multiple quantum wells (MQWs) into i-regions of GaAs p-i-n solar cells show several advantages against GaAs bulk p-i-n solar cells. Particularly under high-concentration sunlight condition, enhancement of the open-circuit voltage with increasing concentration ratio in thin-barrier MQW cells has been reported to be more apparent than that in GaAs bulk cells. However, investigation of the MQW cell mechanisms in terms of I-V characteristics under high-concentration sunlight suffers from the increase in cell temperature and series resistance. In order to investigate the mechanism of the steep enhancement of open-circuit voltage in MQW cells under high-concentration sunlight without affected by temperature, the quasi-Fermi level splitting was evaluated by analyzing electroluminescence (EL) from a cell. Since a cell under current injection with a density Jinjhas similar excess carrier density to a cell under concentrated sunlight with an equivalent short-circuit current Jsc = Jinj, EL measurement with varied Jinj can approximately evaluate a cell performance under a variety of concentration ratio. In addition to the evaluation of quasi-Fermi level splitting, the external luminescence efficiency was also investigated with the EL measurement. The MQW cells showed higher external luminescence efficiency than the GaAs reference cells especially under high-concentration condition. The results suggest that since the MQW region can trap and confine carriers, the localized excess carriers inside the cells make radiative recombination more dominant.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of ZnO:Al/Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9/Y2O3:Eu Structures for Ferroelectric-Electroluminescent Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Koji; Inagaki, Hiroyuki; Takatsuka, Yushi; Hoko, Koichi; Otani, Yusuke; Tokunaga, Yoshiaki

    2009-09-01

    ZnO:Al (AZO)/Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 (SBT)/Pt and AZO/SBT/Y2O3:Eu/Pt structures were fabricated, and their crystallinity, ferroelectric, and electroluminescent (EL) properties were investigated for the first time. The AZO/SBT/Pt structures showed a typical hysteresis loop, in which their double remnant polarization was approximately 5.3 µC/cm2. The polycrystalline SBT/Y2O3:Eu structures were grown on a Pt-coated substrate, in which ferroelectric phases were formed on an Y2O3:Eu film with cubic crystals. The electrical and EL properties of the AZO/SBT/Y2O3:Eu/Pt structures were measured, and then EL emission peaks associated with the 5D0-7F1 (λ=601 nm) and 5D0-7F2 (λ=617 nm) transitions of Eu3+ were observed. The EL emission pattern of the AZO/SBT/Y2O3:Eu/Pt structure was different from the PL emission pattern of the Y2O3:Eu film. Furthermore, polarization-voltage characteristics with counterclockwise hysteresis loops and an asymmetric behavior of current-voltage characteristics were observed in the fabricated AZO/SBT/Y2O3/Pt:Eu structures.

  14. Phonon-assisted transient electroluminescence in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Tzu-Huan; Chu-Su, Yu; Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2014-06-30

    The phonon-replica infrared emission is observed at room temperature from indirect band gap Si light-emitting diode under forward bias. With increasing injection current density, the broadened electroluminescence spectrum and band gap reduction are observed due to joule heating. The spectral-resolved temporal response of electroluminescence reveals the competitiveness between single (TO) and dual (TO + TA) phonon-assisted indirect band gap transitions. As compared to infrared emission with TO phonon-replica, the retarder of radiative recombination at long wavelength region (∼1.2 μm) indicates lower transition probability of dual phonon-replica before thermal equivalent.

  15. Devices based on surface plasmon interference filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Devices based on surface plasmon filters having at least one metal-dielectric interface to support surface plasmon waves. A multi-layer-coupled surface plasmon notch filter is provided to have more than two symmetric metal-dielectric interfaces coupled with one another to produce a transmission spectral window with desired spectral profile and bandwidth. Such notch filters can form various color filtering devices for color flat panel displays.

  16. Paper-based CRP Monitoring Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Tseng, Chung-Yuh; Lai, Po-Liang; Hsu, Min-Yen; Chu, Shueh-Yao; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-12-01

    Here, we discuss the development of a paper-based diagnostic device that is inexpensive, portable, easy-to-use, robust, and capable of running simultaneous tests to monitor a relevant inflammatory protein for clinical diagnoses i.e. C-reactive protein (CRP). In this study, we first attempted to make a paper-based diagnostic device via the wax printing method, a process that was used in previous studies. This device has two distinct advantages: 1) reduced manufacturing and assay costs and operation duration via using wax printing method to define hydrophobic boundaries (for fluidic devices or general POC devices); and, 2) the hydrophilicity of filter paper, which is used to purify and chromatographically correct interference caused by whole blood components with a tiny amount of blood sample (only 5 μL). Diagnosis was based on serum stain length retained inside the paper channels of our device. This is a balanced function between surface tension and chromatographic force following immune reactions (CRP assays) with a paper-embedded biomarker.

  17. Paper-based CRP Monitoring Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Tseng, Chung-Yuh; Lai, Po-Liang; Hsu, Min-Yen; Chu, Shueh-Yao; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-01-01

    Here, we discuss the development of a paper-based diagnostic device that is inexpensive, portable, easy-to-use, robust, and capable of running simultaneous tests to monitor a relevant inflammatory protein for clinical diagnoses i.e. C-reactive protein (CRP). In this study, we first attempted to make a paper-based diagnostic device via the wax printing method, a process that was used in previous studies. This device has two distinct advantages: 1) reduced manufacturing and assay costs and operation duration via using wax printing method to define hydrophobic boundaries (for fluidic devices or general POC devices); and, 2) the hydrophilicity of filter paper, which is used to purify and chromatographically correct interference caused by whole blood components with a tiny amount of blood sample (only 5 μL). Diagnosis was based on serum stain length retained inside the paper channels of our device. This is a balanced function between surface tension and chromatographic force following immune reactions (CRP assays) with a paper-embedded biomarker. PMID:27910861

  18. Value-based purchasing of medical devices.

    PubMed

    Obremskey, William T; Dail, Teresa; Jahangir, A Alex

    2012-04-01

    Health care in the United States is known for its continued innovation and production of new devices and techniques. While the intention of these devices is to improve the delivery and outcome of patient care, they do not always achieve this goal. As new technologies enter the market, hospitals and physicians must determine which of these new devices to incorporate into practice, and it is important these devices bring value to patient care. We provide a model of a physician-engaged process to decrease cost and increase review of physician preference items. We describe the challenges, implementation, and outcomes of cost reduction and product stabilization of a value-based process for purchasing medical devices at a major academic medical center. We implemented a physician-driven committee that standardized and utilized evidence-based, clinically sound, and financially responsible methods for introducing or consolidating new supplies, devices, and technology for patient care. This committee worked with institutional finance and administrative leaders to accomplish its goals. Utilizing this physician-driven committee, we provided access to new products, standardized some products, decreased costs of physician preference items 11% to 26% across service lines, and achieved savings of greater than $8 million per year. The implementation of a facility-based technology assessment committee that critically evaluates new technology can decrease hospital costs on implants and standardize some product lines.

  19. Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials and Devices Symposium Held in San Francisco, California on 6-9 April 1999. Volume 561

    DTIC Science & Technology

    electroluminescent materials and devices for displays. The symposium highlighted developments in materials chemistry and physics relevant to such devices and struck a balance between basic science and technology.

  20. Far-infrared electroluminescence characteristics of an InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell under forward DC bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenbo, Xiao; Xingdao, He; Yiqing, Gao; Zhimin, Zhang; Jiangtao, Liu

    2012-06-01

    The far-infrared electroluminescence characteristics of an InGaP/InGaAs/Ge solar cell are investigated under forward DC bias at room temperature in dark conditions. An electroluminescence viewgraph shows the clear device structures, and the electroluminescence intensity is shown to increases exponentially with bias voltage and linearly with bias current. The results can be interpreted using an equivalent circuit of a single ideal diode model for triple-junction solar cells. The good fit between the measured and calculated data proves the above conclusions. This work is of guiding significance for current solar cell testing and research.

  1. Nucleic acid based molecular devices.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Yamuna; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2011-03-28

    In biology, nucleic acids are carriers of molecular information: DNA's base sequence stores and imparts genetic instructions, while RNA's sequence plays the role of a messenger and a regulator of gene expression. As biopolymers, nucleic acids also have exciting physicochemical properties, which can be rationally influenced by the base sequence in myriad ways. Consequently, in recent years nucleic acids have also become important building blocks for bottom-up nanotechnology: as molecules for the self-assembly of molecular nanostructures and also as a material for building machinelike nanodevices. In this Review we will cover the most important developments in this growing field of nucleic acid nanodevices. We also provide an overview of the biochemical and biophysical background of this field and the major "historical" influences that shaped its development. Particular emphasis is laid on DNA molecular motors, molecular robotics, molecular information processing, and applications of nucleic acid nanodevices in biology. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Ferromagnet/semiconductor based spintronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Dipankar

    Spintronics is an emerging field which is great interest for its potential to provide high-speed and low-power novel devices and eventually replace and/or complement conventional silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. Spin-based optoelectronic devices provide improved laser performance and polarized light sources for secure communication. Spintronics has therefore received a lot of interest with the potential for conventional and novel applications. Spintronics has been investigated both in all-metal and semiconductor based platforms. Spin-based ferromagnet/semiconductor heterojunction devices are particularly attractive compared to all-metal spintronic devices due to the versatility and the long electron spin coherence time in semiconductors. Here we have investigated semiconductor based spintronic devices for logic, memory and communication applications. We have demonstrated electrical injection and detection of spin in a MnAs/GaAs lateral spin valve. A peak magnetoresistance of 3.6% at 10 K and 1.1% at 125 K have been measured in these devices. Spin polarization in semiconductors is usually very small and difficult to detect. We have therefore theoretically designed and experimentally demonstrated a spin-current amplifier to alleviate this problem. A spin polarization of 100% has been measured at 150 K in these devices. We have emphasized the importance of finite sizes of ferromagnetic contact pads in terms of two-dimensional spin-diffusion in lateral spintronic devices, which enhances spin-polarization. We have discovered a new phenomenon observing electrically driven spin-dynamics of paramagnetic impurities. We have demonstrated a spin-capacitor using this novel phenomenon. In this study we have also demonstrated a spin-polarized quantum dot spin-laser which is a fundamental spin-based optoelectronic device. An output circular polarization of 8% and threshold current reduction of 14% have been measured at 200 K. We have also demonstrated

  3. Strongly enhanced field-dependent single-molecule electroluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Hee; Gonzalez, Jose I.; Dickson, Robert M.

    2002-08-01

    Individual, strongly electroluminescent Agn molecules (n = 28 atoms) have been electrically written within otherwise nonemissive silver oxide films. Exhibiting characteristic single-molecule behavior, these individual room-temperature molecules exhibit extreme electroluminescence enhancements (>104 vs. bulk and dc excitation on a per molecule basis) when excited with specific ac frequencies. Occurring through field extraction of electrons with subsequent reinjection and radiative recombination, single-molecule electroluminescence is enhanced by a general mechanism that avoids slow bulk material response. Thus, while we detail strong electroluminescence from single, highly fluorescent Agn molecules, this mechanism also yields strong ac-excited electroluminescence from similarly prepared, but otherwise nonemissive, individual Cu nanoclusters.

  4. Legibility of electroluminescent instrument panels investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Lean, M. V.; Miller, G. E.

    1966-01-01

    Legibility studies of several EL /electroluminescent/ displays correlate reading time and accuracy with number size, stroke/width ratio, indicia size, pointer width, contrast, ambient illumination, and color background and and contrast. Human factor criteria established on non-EL displays may not apply to EL displays.

  5. Development of gallium aluminum phosphide electroluminescent diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicotka, R. J.; Lorenz, M. R.; Nethercot, A. H.; Pettit, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Work done on the development of gallium aluminum phosphide alloys for electroluminescent light sources is described. The preparation of this wide band gap semiconductor alloy, its physical properties (particularly the band structure, the electrical characteristics, and the light emitting properties) and work done on the fabrication of diode structures from these alloys are broadly covered.

  6. Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, J. D.; Senaratne, C. L.; Sims, P.; Aoki, T.; Menéndez, J.; Kouvetakis, J.

    2015-03-01

    The emission properties of GeSn heterostructure pin diodes have been investigated. The devices contain thick (400-600 nm) Ge1-ySny i-layers spanning a broad compositional range below and above the crossover Sn concentration yc where the Ge1-ySny alloy becomes a direct-gap material. These results are made possible by an optimized device architecture containing a single defected interface thereby mitigating the deleterious effects of mismatch-induced defects. The observed emission intensities as a function of composition show the contributions from two separate trends: an increase in direct gap emission as the Sn concentration is increased, as expected from the reduction and eventual reversal of the separation between the direct and indirect edges, and a parallel increase in non-radiative recombination when the mismatch strains between the structure components is partially relaxed by the generation of misfit dislocations. An estimation of recombination times based on the observed electroluminescence intensities is found to be strongly correlated with the reverse-bias dark current measured in the same devices.

  7. Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J. D.; Menéndez, J.; Senaratne, C. L.; Sims, P.; Kouvetakis, J.; Aoki, T.

    2015-03-02

    The emission properties of GeSn heterostructure pin diodes have been investigated. The devices contain thick (400–600 nm) Ge{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y} i-layers spanning a broad compositional range below and above the crossover Sn concentration y{sub c} where the Ge{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y} alloy becomes a direct-gap material. These results are made possible by an optimized device architecture containing a single defected interface thereby mitigating the deleterious effects of mismatch-induced defects. The observed emission intensities as a function of composition show the contributions from two separate trends: an increase in direct gap emission as the Sn concentration is increased, as expected from the reduction and eventual reversal of the separation between the direct and indirect edges, and a parallel increase in non-radiative recombination when the mismatch strains between the structure components is partially relaxed by the generation of misfit dislocations. An estimation of recombination times based on the observed electroluminescence intensities is found to be strongly correlated with the reverse-bias dark current measured in the same devices.

  8. Electroluminescence et radiation thermique dans les nanotubes de carbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Elyse

    We present here a spectroscopic study of the light emission properties of different nanotube devices with the aim to clarify the different mechanisms leading to the light emission. The first study consists of taking measurements from a thick (˜ 450 nm) macroscopic suspended carbon nanotube film connected between two electrodes. A significant increase of the temperature is expected when voltage is applied since thermal dissipation by the substrate is suppressed for this configuration. In imaging mode, we observed that infrared light is emitted from the entire area of the film instead of being localized. This observation demonstrates that the light emission arise from thermal emission. Spectra measured on this device all present a smooth response, characteristic of that of a blackbody. As expected for a pure thermal source, the results fit well the Planck formula. Because the Planck formula is temperature dependant, it became possible to extract a lower limit of the temperature of the film as a function of voltage. The temperature increases more or less from 350K to 600K when the voltage increases from 0.1V to 1.6V. The second study is made using a sub-monolayer network of carbon nanotubes interconnected together to form a semiconducting layer. The large number of tube-tube junctions in the networks limits the current and prevents the temperature to rise significantly at higher bias. The intimate contact between the network and the substrate also prevent the temperature of the film to increase significantly due to a good thermalizaton. Hence, electroluminescence from excitonic recombination is expected to be dominant over heat radiation for this type of devices. First, spatial resolution measurements on long channel network devices shows that the light-emitting zone is always located near the minority charge injector contact. This result demonstrates that light emission arises from electroluminescence in network from a bipolar current. Thermal emission can therefore

  9. III-antimonide/nitride based semiconductors for optoelectronic materials and device studies : LDRD 26518 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Steven Ross; Hargett, Terry W.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth; Modine, Normand Arthur; Klem, John Frederick; Jones, Eric Daniel; Cich, Michael Joseph; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Peake, Gregory Merwin

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to investigate III-antimonide/nitride based materials for unique semiconductor properties and applications. Previous to this study, lack of basic information concerning these alloys restricted their use in semiconductor devices. Long wavelength emission on GaAs substrates is of critical importance to telecommunication applications for cost reduction and integration into microsystems. Currently InGaAsN, on a GaAs substrate, is being commercially pursued for the important 1.3 micrometer dispersion minima of silica-glass optical fiber; due, in large part, to previous research at Sandia National Laboratories. However, InGaAsN has not shown great promise for 1.55 micrometer emission which is the low-loss window of single mode optical fiber used in transatlantic fiber. Other important applications for the antimonide/nitride based materials include the base junction of an HBT to reduce the operating voltage which is important for wireless communication links, and for improving the efficiency of a multijunction solar cell. We have undertaken the first comprehensive theoretical, experimental and device study of this material with promising results. Theoretical modeling has identified GaAsSbN to be a similar or potentially superior candidate to InGaAsN for long wavelength emission on GaAs. We have confirmed these predictions by producing emission out to 1.66 micrometers and have achieved edge emitting and VCSEL electroluminescence at 1.3 micrometers. We have also done the first study of the transport properties of this material including mobility, electron/hole mass, and exciton reduced mass. This study has increased the understanding of the III-antimonide/nitride materials enough to warrant consideration for all of the target device applications.

  10. OLED devices with internal outcoupling

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jr., Jie Jerry; Sista, Srinivas Prasad; Shi, Xiaolei; Zhao, Ri-An; Chichak, Kelly Scott; Youmans, Jeffrey Michael; Janora, Kevin Henry; Turner, Larry Gene

    2016-12-06

    Optoelectronic devices with enhanced internal outcoupling include a substrate, an anode, a cathode, an electroluminescent layer, and an electron transporting layer comprising inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in an organic matrix.

  11. Force based displacement measurement in micromechanical devices

    SciTech Connect

    O {close_quote}Shea, S. J.; Ng, C. K.; Tan, Y. Y.; Xu, Y.; Tay, E. H.; Chua, B. L.; Tien, N. C.; Tang, X. S.; Chen, W. T.

    2001-06-18

    We demonstrate how force detection methods based on atomic force microscopy can be used to measure displacement in micromechanical devices. We show the operation of a simple microfabricated accelerometer, the proof mass of which incorporates a tip which can be moved towards an opposing surface. Both noncontact operation using long range electrostatic forces and tapping mode operation are demonstrated. The displacement sensitivity of the present device using feedback to control the tip-surface separation is approximately 1 nm. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Neuroelectronic device based on nanocoax arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Jeffrey R.; Lundberg, Jaclyn N.; Varela, Juan A.; Burns, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.; Christianson, John P.; Naughton, Michael J.

    2015-03-01

    We report on development of a nanocoax-based neuroelectronic array. The device has been used in real time to noninvasively couple to a ganglion sac located along the main nerve cord of the leech Hirudo medicinalis. This allowed for extracellular recording of synaptic activity in the form of spontaneous synapse firing in pre- and post-synaptic somata, with the next target being recording of local field potentials from rat hippocampal cells. We also discuss an alteration of the architecture to facilitate optical integration of the nanoarray, toward utilizing the so-modified device to elicit / inhibit action potentials in optogenetically-modified cells.

  13. Terahertz optoelectronic devices based on intersubband transitions in III-nitride semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudradjat, Faisal Firmansyah

    The terahertz (THz) spectral region, commonly defined as the frequency (wavelength) range between 0.3 and 10 THz (1 mm and 30 µm) has many important applications in the industrial, biomedical, and military sectors. However, due to a lack of practical semiconductor materials with adequately small bandgap energy, the development of THz light sources and photodetectors has so far been limited. In recent years, devices based on intersubband transitions between discrete energy states in quantum heterostructures have been under intense research and development to address this issue. Of particular promise in the THz range are quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) and quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), which utilize intersubband transitions in specially designed quantum well (QW) structures to emit light and generate photocurrent, respectively. This research work has focused on the development of THz light sources and photodetectors using intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN QWs, whose basic materials properties allow for improved spectral coverage and high-temperature operation compared to existing semiconductor devices. To design the active region of QCLs and QWIPs based on inter-conduction-subband transitions in these materials, the necessary numerical tools have first been developed. Sequential tunneling, the key electronic transport mechanism of intersubband light emitters, has then been demonstrated in GaN/AlGaN QC structures. Furthermore, we have measured promising THz electroluminescence spectra from the same devices through the use of lock-in step-scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In the area of photodetectors, we have developed a novel double-step QW design in order to overcome the material limitations presented by the intrinsic internal electric fields of GaN/AlGaN QWs. With this design approach, we have experimentally demonstrated the operation of a far infrared QWIP with a peak detection wavelength of 23 µm (13 THz frequency), which is the

  14. Analysis of degradation mechanisms in AlInN/GaN HEMTs by electroluminescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthet, F.; Petitdidier, S.; Guhel, Y.; Trolet, J. L.; Mary, P.; Vivier, A.; Gaquière, C.; Boudart, B.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of a severe on-state stress on the IDS (VDS, VGS) characteristics of AlInN/GaN devices is analyzed by electroluminescence technique performed at room temperature. In fact, the devices operate in bias conditions that allow measuring the bell- shaped gate current. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a bell-shaped gate current centered at a positive VGS and measured at room temperature has been shown for an AlInN/GaN transistor. We have also highlighted that electroluminescence spectra are related to the superposition of intraband radiative electron transitions, Fabry-Perot oscillations, and emission bands induced by recombination of electrons due to electron traps. In these conditions, it is not so easy to extract energies levels of electron traps existing in unstressed and stressed AlInN/GaN HEMTs from electroluminescence spectra. Thus, we have also shown that the electrical degradations induced by on-state stress are mainly related to the trapping of hot electron by deep pre-existing electron traps in the devices. Moreover, we have highlighted the existence of two electron traps activated at 1.6 and 1.8 eV in the devices.

  15. Cellphone-based devices for bioanalytical sciences

    PubMed Central

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Mudanyali, Onur; Schneider, E.Marion; Zengerle, Roland; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a rapidly growing trend toward the use of cellphone-based devices (CBDs) in bioanalytical sciences. For example, they have been used for digital microscopy, cytometry, read-out of immunoassays and lateral flow tests, electrochemical and surface plasmon resonance based bio-sensing, colorimetric detection and healthcare monitoring, among others. Cellphone can be considered as one of the most prospective devices for the development of next-generation point-of-care (POC) diagnostics platforms, enabling mobile healthcare delivery and personalized medicine. With more than 6.5 billion cellphone subscribers worldwide and approximately 1.6 billion new devices being sold each year, cellphone technology is also creating new business and research opportunities. Many cellphone-based devices, such as those targeted for diabetic management, weight management, monitoring of blood pressure and pulse rate, have already become commercially-available in recent years. In addition to such monitoring platforms, several other CBDs are also being introduced, targeting e.g., microscopic imaging and sensing applications for medical diagnostics using novel computational algorithms and components already embedded on cellphones. This manuscript aims to review these recent developments in CBDs for bioanalytical sciences along with some of the challenges involved and the future opportunities. PMID:24287630

  16. Cellphone-based devices for bioanalytical sciences.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Mudanyali, Onur; Schneider, E Marion; Zengerle, Roland; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade, there has been a rapidly growing trend toward the use of cellphone-based devices (CBDs) in bioanalytical sciences. For example, they have been used for digital microscopy, cytometry, read-out of immunoassays and lateral flow tests, electrochemical and surface plasmon resonance based bio-sensing, colorimetric detection and healthcare monitoring, among others. Cellphone can be considered as one of the most prospective devices for the development of next-generation point-of-care (POC) diagnostics platforms, enabling mobile healthcare delivery and personalized medicine. With more than 6.5 billion cellphone subscribers worldwide and approximately 1.6 billion new devices being sold each year, cellphone technology is also creating new business and research opportunities. Many cellphone-based devices, such as those targeted for diabetic management, weight management, monitoring of blood pressure and pulse rate, have already become commercially-available in recent years. In addition to such monitoring platforms, several other CBDs are also being introduced, targeting e.g., microscopic imaging and sensing applications for medical diagnostics using novel computational algorithms and components already embedded on cellphones. This report aims to review these recent developments in CBDs for bioanalytical sciences along with some of the challenges involved and the future opportunities.

  17. AC field-induced polymer electroluminescence with single wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jinwoo; Choi, Yeon Sik; Kang, Seok Ju; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lee, Tae-Woo; Park, Cheolmin

    2011-03-09

    We developed a high-performance field-induced polymer electroluminescence (FPEL) device consisting of four stacked layers: a top metal electrode/thin solution-processed nanocomposite film of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and a fluorescent polymer/insulator/transparent bottom electrode working under an alternating current (AC) electric field. A small amount of SWNTs that were highly dispersed in the fluorescent polymer matrix by a conjugate block copolymer dispersant significantly enhanced EL, and we were able to realize an SWNT-FPEL device with a light emission of approximately 350 cd/m(2) at an applied voltage of ±25 V and an AC frequency of 300 kHz. The brightness of the SWNT-FPEL device is much greater than those of other AC-based organic or even inorganic ELs that generally require at least a few hundred volts. Light is emitted from our SWNT-FPEL device because of the sequential injection of field-induced holes and then electron carriers through ambipolar carbon nanotubes under an AC field, followed by exciton formation in the conjugated organic layer. Field-induced bipolar charge injection provides great material design freedom for our devices; the energy level does not have to be aligned between the electrode and the emission layer, and the balance of the carrier injected and transported can be altered in contrast to that in conventional organic light-emitting diodes, leading to an extremely cost-effective and unified device architecture that is applicable to all red-green-blue fluorescent polymers.

  18. Spatially resolved determination of the dark saturation current of silicon solar cells from electroluminescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatthaar, Markus; Giesecke, Johannes; Kasemann, Martin; Haunschild, Jonas; The, Manuel; Warta, Wilhem; Rein, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    We present a novel method to determine spatially resolved the dark saturation current of standard silicon solar cells. For this two electroluminescence images are taken at two different voltages. From these two images, first the spatial voltage distribution can be calculated. Second by applying the Laplacian to the voltage image from Ohm's law and the continuity equation, the current through the device at a certain position can be determined. Knowing the local current through the device, the local voltage, and the emitter sheet resistance allows to determine the local dark saturation current. The clue of this method is to cope with the noise by using an appropriate noise reduction algorithm. By simulating electroluminescence images with realistic noise and known dark saturation current we demonstrate the applicability of the method with our noise reduction algorithm. Experimentally we compare our method with spectral response light beam induced current on multicrystalline solar cell.

  19. The equivalent circuit model on the room temperature electroluminescence from forward biased pin silicon diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Mao, Lu-hong; Li, Shanguo; Guo, Wei-lian; Zhang, Shi-lin; Liang, Hui-lai

    2008-01-01

    As the length scale of the devices decreases, electrons will spend increasingly more of their time in the connections between components; this interconnectivity problem could restrict further increases in computer chip processing power and speed. Considerable effort is therefore being expended on the development of efficient silicon light-emitting devices compatible with silicon based integrated circuit technology. Here, we describe the electrical and optical properties of Silicon positive intrinsic negative (pin) structure diode that operates at room temperature. The voltage-current and electroluminescence (EL) property are measured at room temperature for a silicon pin diode under forward biased current. The optical spectral response of the system at 700nm indicates that the emitting light source has low optical loss in Silicon. So the LED is suitable for Silicon optoelectronic interconnection system.[1][2] The rate-equation model for free carriers on light-emitting pin structure and the equivalent circuit model based on it have been presented. We have developed a way to calculate the model parameters by comparison with experimental results. This parameter extraction way can be fully accomplished automatically by using MATHCAD program and the equivalent circuit model is simulated by using HSPICE program respectively. The results of both experiment and simulation results are good agreement with each other.

  20. Photo- and electroluminescent properties europium complexes using bistriazole ligands

    PubMed Central

    Gusev, Alexey N.; Shul’gin, Victor F.; Nishimenko, Galina; Hasegawa, Miki; Linert, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Luminescent properties of two heteroleptic dibenzoylmethanate europium(III) complexes with 1,3-bis(5-pyridin-2-yl-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)propane (H2L1) and 1,4-bis(5-pyridin-2-yl-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)butane (H2L2) as ancillary ligands are described. The two double-layer-type electroluminescent cells with the structures: (1) ITO/NPB(40 nm)/Eu(DBM)2HL1 (40 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) and (2) ITO/NPB(40 nm)/Eu(DBM)2HL2 (40 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) emit red light originating from the europium complexes. The device 2 gives the maximum brightness of 455 cd/m2 at 19.2 V. PMID:23459422

  1. Improving the diversity of manufacturing electroluminescent flat panel displays

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, T.S.; Samuels, J.A.; Smith, D.C.

    1995-09-01

    Crystalline calcium thiogallate with a cerium dopant has been deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at temperatures below 600{degrees}C on a low cost glass substrate. An EL luminance of 1.05 fL was observed 40 volts above threshold at 60 Hz. This is more than an order of magnitude improvement over earlier crystalline-as-deposited thiogallate materials. These results pave the way for the use of MOCVD as a potential method for processing full color thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) flat panel displays. The formation of the CaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Ce phosphor requires precise control over a number of deposition parameters including flow rates, substrate temperature, and reactor pressure. The influence of these parameters will be discussed in terms of structure, uniformity, and TFEL device performance.

  2. Carbon Based Transistors and Nanoelectronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhi, Nima

    Carbon based materials (carbon nanotube and graphene) has been extensively researched during the past decade as one of the promising materials to be used in high performance device technology. In long term it is thought that they may replace digital and/or analog electronic devices, due to their size, near-ballistic transport, and high stability. However, a more realistic point of insertion into market may be the printed nanoelectronic circuits and sensors. These applications include printed circuits for flexible electronics and displays, large-scale bendable electrical contacts, bio-membranes and bio sensors, RFID tags, etc. In order to obtain high performance thin film transistors (as the basic building block of electronic circuits) one should be able to manufacture dense arrays of all semiconducting nanotubes. Besides, graphene synthesize and transfer technology is in its infancy and there is plenty of room to improve the current techniques. To realize the performance of nanotube and graphene films in such systems, we need to economically fabricate large-scale devices based on these materials. Following that the performance control over such devices should also be considered for future design variations for broad range of applications. Here we have first investigated carbon nanotube ink as the base material for our devices. The primary ink used consisted of both metallic and semiconducting nanotubes which resulted in networks suitable for moderate-resistivity electrical connections (such as interconnects) and rfmatching circuits. Next, purified all-semiconducting nanotube ink was used to fabricate waferscale, high performance (high mobility, and high on/off ratio) thin film transistors for printed electronic applications. The parameters affecting device performance were studied in detail to establish a roadmap for the future of purified nanotube ink printed thin film transistors. The trade of between mobility and on/off ratio of such devices was studied and the

  3. Electroluminescence and Spectral Shift of CdS Nanoparticles on Si Wafer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    emitting active layer is simply fabricated by the spin - coating technique. Electroluminescence (EL) can be easily achieved by quantum tunneling of...percolatior, solutions for spin - coating purpose were produced by dissolving the nanoparicles in ethanol with a concentration of 1% (w/v). Fabrication of...diffusing easier. Conclusions The CdS nanoparticles prepared by chemical method are ready for spin - coating and EL device fabrication. The observed a

  4. Quantum Dots for Wide Color Gamut Displays from Photoluminescence to Electroluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yongyin; Song, Zhicheng; Jiang, Xiaofang; Yin, Xia; Fang, Long; Gao, Jing; Su, Yehua; Zhao, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Monodisperse quantum dots (QDs) were prepared by low-temperature process. The remarkable narrow emission peak of the QDs helps the liquid crystal displays (LCD) and electroluminescence displays (QD light-emitting diode, QLED) to generate wide color gamut performance. The range of the color gamut for QD light-converting device (QLCD) is controlled by both the QDs and color filters (CFs) in LCD, and for QLED, the optimized color gamut is dominated by QD materials.

  5. Quantum Dots for Wide Color Gamut Displays from Photoluminescence to Electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yongyin; Song, Zhicheng; Jiang, Xiaofang; Yin, Xia; Fang, Long; Gao, Jing; Su, Yehua; Zhao, Fei

    2017-12-01

    Monodisperse quantum dots (QDs) were prepared by low-temperature process. The remarkable narrow emission peak of the QDs helps the liquid crystal displays (LCD) and electroluminescence displays (QD light-emitting diode, QLED) to generate wide color gamut performance. The range of the color gamut for QD light-converting device (QLCD) is controlled by both the QDs and color filters (CFs) in LCD, and for QLED, the optimized color gamut is dominated by QD materials.

  6. Carbon-nanotube-based photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Shinji

    2007-11-01

    We recently proposed and demonstrated a saturable absorber (SA) incorporating carbon nanotube (CNT). CNT-based SA offers several key advantages such as: ultra-fast recovery time, polarization insensitivity, high optical damage threshold, mechanical and environmental robustness, chemical stability, and the ability to operate at wide range of wavelength bands. Using the CNT-based SA, we have realized femtosecond fiber pulsed lasers at various wavelengths, as well as the very short-cavity fiber laser having high repetition rate. Besides the saturable absorption, CNT has been shown to have high third-order nonlinearity, which is also attractive for realization of compact and integrated functional photonic devices, such as all-optical switches and wavelength converters. In this paper, we first present photonic properties of CNTs, and review our studies on CNT-based mode-locked fiber lasers. We also refer to fabrication methods of CNT-based photonic devices. We show our recent research progresses on novel photonic devices using evanescent coupling between optical field and CNT.

  7. Nonvolatile memory devices based on self-assembled nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jang-Sik

    2013-06-01

    Nonvolatile memory devices are one of the most important components in modern electronic devices. Many efforts have been made to fabricate high-density, low-cost, nonvolatile solid-state memory devices for use in portable/mobile electronic devices such as laptop computers, tablet devices, smart phones, etc. Among the many available nonvolatile memory devices, flash memory devices are of great interest to the electronics industry owing to their simple device structure, enabling high-density memory applications. Flash memory devices in which nanoparticles or nanocrystals are used as the charge-trapping elements have advantages over conventional flash memory devices because the charge-trapping layer and memory performance of the former can be readily optimized. Active research has recently been conducted to fabricate and characterize self-assembled-nanocrystal-based nonvolatile memory devices. We reviewed various strategies for fabricating nanocrystal-based nonvolatile memory devices and discussed the programmable memory properties and the device reliability characteristics of nanocrystal-based memory devices to possibly apply nanocrystal-based memory devices to those used in portable/mobile electronic devices. Finally, novel device applications such as printed/flexible/transparent electronic devices were explored based on nanocrystal-based memory devices.

  8. An observation of direct-gap electroluminescence in GaAs structures with Ge quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Dikareva, N. V.; Dubinov, A. A.; Zvonkov, B. N.; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Nekorkin, S. M.

    2015-02-15

    A light-emitting diode structure based on GaAs with eight narrow Ge quantum wells is grown by laser sputtering. An electroluminescence line polarized predominately in the plane parallel to the constituent layers of the structure is revealed. The line corresponds to the direct optical transitions in momentum space in the Ge quantum wells.

  9. Blue electroluminescence from AlN nanowhiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokhmintsev, A. S.; Weinstein, I. A.; Chaikin, D. V.; Fedorov, M. D.; Afonin, Yu. D.

    2015-04-01

    AlN nanowhiskers with an average diameter of 68 nm, for which a chemical analysis showed an Al: N ratio of about 1: 0.8 and a high content of oxygen and carbon impurities, have been synthesized. The electroluminescent properties of the nanostructures have been studied at room temperature in the spectral range of 4.0-1.77 eV (310-700 nm) at varied voltage (75-200 V) and frequency (0.5-10.0 kHz) of the exciting harmonic signal. It is shown that the electroluminescence recorded in the blue spectral range is constituted by bands peaked at E max ≈ 2.53 and 2.75 eV and half-widths ω ≈ 0.39 and 0.30 eV, respectively, which may be associated with electron-optical transitions involving impurity-vacancy centers in the anion and cation sublattices of AlN.

  10. Multicolor Electrochromic Devices Based on Molecular Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Stec, Grant J; Lauchner, Adam; Cui, Yao; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2017-03-28

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, the hydrogen-terminated, sub-nanometer-scale version of graphene, support plasmon resonances with the addition or removal of a single electron. Typically colorless when neutral, they are transformed into vivid optical absorbers in either their positively or negatively charged states. Here, we demonstrate a low-voltage, multistate electrochromic device based on PAH plasmon resonances that can be reversibly switched between nearly colorless (0 V), olive (+4 V), and royal blue (-3.5 V). The device exhibits highly efficient color change compared to electrochromic polymers and metal oxides, lower power consumption than liquid crystals, and is shown to reversibly switch for at least 100 cycles. We also demonstrate the additive property of molecular plasmon resonances in a single-layer device to display a reversible, transmissive-to-black device. This work illuminates the potential of PAH molecular plasmonics for the development of color displays and large-area color-changing applications due to their processability and ultralow power consumption.

  11. Fiber Bragg grating based arterial localization device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Li, Weijie; Razavi, Mehdi; Song, Gangbing

    2017-06-01

    A critical first step to many surgical procedures is locating and gaining access to a patients vascular system. Vascular access allows the deployment of other surgical instruments and also the monitoring of many physiological parameters. Current methods to locate blood vessels are predominantly based on the landmark technique coupled with ultrasound, fluoroscopy, or Doppler. However, even with experience and technological assistance, locating the required blood vessel is not always an easy task, especially with patients that present atypical anatomy or suffer from conditions such as weak pulsation or obesity that make vascular localization difficult. With recent advances in fiber optic sensors, there is an opportunity to develop a new tool that can make vascular localization safer and easier. In this work, the authors present a new fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based vascular access device that specializes in arterial localization. The device estimates the location towards a local artery based on the bending of a needle inserted near the tissue surrounding the artery. Experimental results obtained from an artificial circulatory loop and a mock artery show the device works best for lower angles of needle insertion and can provide an approximately 40° range of estimation towards the location of a pulsating source (e.g. an artery).

  12. Perovskite-based photodetectors: materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Kim, Dong Ha

    2017-08-29

    While the field of perovskite-based optoelectronics has mostly been dominated by photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, and transistors, semiconducting properties peculiar to perovskites make them interesting candidates for innovative and disruptive applications in light signal detection. Perovskites combine effective light absorption in the broadband range with good photo-generation yield and high charge carrier mobility, a combination that provides promising potential for exploiting sensitive and fast photodetectors that are targeted for image sensing, optical communication, environmental monitoring or chemical/biological detection. Currently, organic-inorganic hybrid and all-inorganic halide perovskites with controlled morphologies of polycrystalline thin films, nano-particles/wires/sheets, and bulk single crystals have shown key figure-of-merit features in terms of their responsivity, detectivity, noise equivalent power, linear dynamic range, and response speed. The sensing region has been covered from ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) to gamma photons based on two- or three-terminal device architectures. Diverse photoactive materials and devices with superior optoelectronic performances have stimulated attention from researchers in multidisciplinary areas. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the recent progress of perovskite-based photodetectors focusing on versatile compositions, structures, and morphologies of constituent materials, and diverse device architectures toward the superior performance metrics. Combining the advantages of both organic semiconductors (facile solution processability) and inorganic semiconductors (high charge carrier mobility), perovskites are expected to replace commercial silicon for future photodetection applications.

  13. Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of anthracene derivatives containing electron-withdrawing oxide moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jhin-yeong; Na, Eun Jae; Park, Soo Na; Lee, Seok Jae; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Blue fluorescent material is important for application in full-color displays. • We have synthesized emitters based on anthracene connected with oxide moieties. • 1C shows a highly efficient blue EL emission due to electron-injection property. - Abstract: A series of new blue-emitting materials: (4-(10-(naphthalen-2-yl)anthracen-9-yl)phenyl)(phenyl)methanone (1); 9-(naphthalen-2-yl)-10-(4-((diphenyl)phosphine oxide)phenyl)anthracene (2); 9-(naphthalen-2-yl)-10-(4-(phenylsulfonyl)phenyl)anthracene (3) were designed and synthesized via Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. Multilayer OLEDs were fabricated in the following sequence: ITO (180 nm)/NPB (50 nm)/blue materials 1–3 (30 nm)/TPBi (15 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al (100 nm). All devices showed the efficient blue EL emissions. In particular, the device using 1 as an emitter exhibited efficient blue electroluminescent properties with a maximum luminous, power, external quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates of 0.36 cd/A, 0.90 lm/W, 0.55% at 20 mA/cm{sup 2} and (x = 0.16, y = 0.20) at 10.0 V, respectively.

  14. Pure circular polarization electroluminescence at room temperature with spin-polarized light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Nozomi; Nishibayashi, Kazuhiro; Munekata, Hiro

    2017-02-21

    We report the room-temperature electroluminescence (EL) with nearly pure circular polarization (CP) from GaAs-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes (spin-LEDs). External magnetic fields are not used during device operation. There are two small schemes in the tested spin-LEDs: first, the stripe-laser-like structure that helps intensify the EL light at the cleaved side walls below the spin injector Fe slab, and second, the crystalline AlO x spin-tunnel barrier that ensures electrically stable device operation. The purity of CP is depressively low in the low current density (J) region, whereas it increases steeply and reaches close to the pure CP when J > 100 A/cm(2) There, either right- or left-handed CP component is significantly suppressed depending on the direction of magnetization of the spin injector. Spin-dependent reabsorption, spin-induced birefringence, and optical spin-axis conversion are suggested to account for the observed experimental results.

  15. Pure circular polarization electroluminescence at room temperature with spin-polarized light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Nishibayashi, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    We report the room-temperature electroluminescence (EL) with nearly pure circular polarization (CP) from GaAs-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes (spin-LEDs). External magnetic fields are not used during device operation. There are two small schemes in the tested spin-LEDs: first, the stripe-laser-like structure that helps intensify the EL light at the cleaved side walls below the spin injector Fe slab, and second, the crystalline AlOx spin-tunnel barrier that ensures electrically stable device operation. The purity of CP is depressively low in the low current density (J) region, whereas it increases steeply and reaches close to the pure CP when J > 100 A/cm2. There, either right- or left-handed CP component is significantly suppressed depending on the direction of magnetization of the spin injector. Spin-dependent reabsorption, spin-induced birefringence, and optical spin-axis conversion are suggested to account for the observed experimental results. PMID:28174272

  16. Electrorheological Fluid Based Force Feedback Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeiffer, Charles; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Dolgin, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Parallel to the efforts to develop fully autonomous robots, it is increasingly being realized that there are applications where it is essential to have a fully controlled robot and "feel" its operating conditions, i.e. telepresence. This trend is a result of the increasing efforts to address tasks where humans can perform significantly better but, due to associated hazards, distance, physical limitations and other causes, only robots can be employed to perform these tasks. Such robots need to be assisted by a human that remotely controls the operation. To address the goal of operating robots as human surrogates, the authors launched a study of mechanisms that provide mechanical feedback. For this purpose, electrorheological fluids (ERF) are being investigated for the potential application as miniature haptic devices. This family of electroactive fluids has the property of changing the viscosity during electrical stimulation. Consequently, ERF can be used to produce force feedback haptic devices for tele-operated control of medical and space robotic systems. Forces applied at the robot end-effector due to a compliant environment are reflected to the user using an ERF device where a change in the system viscosity will occur proportionally to the transmitted force. Analytical model and control algorithms are being developed taking into account the non-linearities of these type of devices. This paper will describe the concept and the developed mechanism of ERF based force feedback. The test process and the physical properties of this device will be described and the results of preliminary tests will be presented.

  17. Electrorheological Fluid Based Force Feedback Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeiffer, Charles; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Dolgin, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Parallel to the efforts to develop fully autonomous robots, it is increasingly being realized that there are applications where it is essential to have a fully controlled robot and "feel" its operating conditions, i.e. telepresence. This trend is a result of the increasing efforts to address tasks where humans can perform significantly better but, due to associated hazards, distance, physical limitations and other causes, only robots can be employed to perform these tasks. Such robots need to be assisted by a human that remotely controls the operation. To address the goal of operating robots as human surrogates, the authors launched a study of mechanisms that provide mechanical feedback. For this purpose, electrorheological fluids (ERF) are being investigated for the potential application as miniature haptic devices. This family of electroactive fluids has the property of changing the viscosity during electrical stimulation. Consequently, ERF can be used to produce force feedback haptic devices for tele-operated control of medical and space robotic systems. Forces applied at the robot end-effector due to a compliant environment are reflected to the user using an ERF device where a change in the system viscosity will occur proportionally to the transmitted force. Analytical model and control algorithms are being developed taking into account the non-linearities of these type of devices. This paper will describe the concept and the developed mechanism of ERF based force feedback. The test process and the physical properties of this device will be described and the results of preliminary tests will be presented.

  18. Sharp Red Organic Light-Emitting Devices with Enhanced Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour, Ghassan; Wang, Jia-Fu; Kippelen, Bernard; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    1999-12-01

    The fabrication of efficient and bright red light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on Eu-complex, having narrow spectral width, is achieved by enhancing the electron injection process through the use of LiF/Mg cathode. Devices with external quantum efficiency exceeding 1% and light output higher than 320 cd/m2 are presented. While the external quantum efficiency at 100 cd/m2 is comparable, the luminous efficiency is 2.6 times higher than that of the recent state-of-the-art devices based on the phosphorescent dye PtOEP.

  19. Highly efficient non-doped orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on a novel iridium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yige; Wang, Xu; Li, Ming; Yu, Junsheng; Lu, Zhiyun

    2014-09-01

    The non-doped orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting device (PHOLED) based on a newly synthesized iridium complex, bis[2-(biphenyl-4-yl)benzothiazole-N,C2']iridium(III)(acetylacetonate) [(4Phbt)2Ir(acac)] has been demonstrated. The non-doped device with (4Phbt)2Ir(acac) as the emissive layer achieved ideal turn-on voltage (<4 V) and superior power efficiency (5 lm/W) as well as luminance efficiency (6 cd/A), respectively. Our device performance indicates that (4Phbt)2Ir(acac) possesses excellent self-quenching-resistant property. The potential of this property is originated from the introduction of bulky and twisted aromatic substituents in ligands, which break the molecular planarity and obstruct the molecular packing. Besides, the high electroluminescence efficiency is also attributed to that the energy level alignment between (4Phbt)2Ir(acac) and adjacent charge-transporting materials forms a well-like structure, which confines exciton effectively in emissive layer.

  20. Gated Ion Channel-Based Biosensor Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Separovic, Frances; Cornell, Bruce A.

    A biosensor device based on the ion channel gramicidin A (gA) incorporated into a bilayer membrane is described. This generic immunosensing device utilizes gA coupled to an antibody and assembled in a lipid membrane. The membrane is chemically tethered to a gold electrode, which reports on changes in the ionic conduction of the lipid bilayer. Binding of a target molecule in the bathing solution to the antibody causes the gramicidin channels to switch from predominantly conducting dimers to predominantly nonconducting monomers. Conventional a.c. impedance spectroscopy between the gold and a counter electrode in the bathing solution is used to measure changes in the ionic conductivity of the membrane. This approach permits the quantitative detection of a range of target species, including bacteria, proteins, toxins, DNA sequences, and drug molecules.

  1. Stretchable polymer-based electronic device

    DOEpatents

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Davidson, James Courtney; Wilson, Thomas S.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Benett, William J.; Tovar, Armando R.

    2008-02-26

    A stretchable electronic circuit or electronic device and a polymer-based process to produce a circuit or electronic device containing a stretchable conducting circuit. The stretchable electronic apparatus has a central longitudinal axis and the apparatus is stretchable in a longitudinal direction generally aligned with the central longitudinal axis. The apparatus comprises a stretchable polymer body and at least one circuit line operatively connected to the stretchable polymer body. The circuit line extends in the longitudinal direction and has a longitudinal component that extends in the longitudinal direction and has an offset component that is at an angle to the longitudinal direction. The longitudinal component and the offset component allow the apparatus to stretch in the longitudinal direction while maintaining the integrity of the circuit line.

  2. Glow discharge based device for solving mazes

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, Alexander E. Mironenko, Maxim S.; Selemir, Victor D.; Maksimov, Artem N.; Pylayev, Nikolay A.

    2014-09-15

    A glow discharge based device for solving mazes has been designed and tested. The device consists of a gas discharge chamber and maze-transformer of radial-azimuth type. It allows changing of the maze pattern in a short period of time (within several minutes). The device has been tested with low pressure air. Once switched on, a glow discharge has been shown to find the shortest way through the maze from the very first attempt, even if there is a section with potential barrier for electrons on the way. It has been found that ionization waves (striations) can be excited in the maze along the length of the plasma channel. The dependancy of discharge voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. A reduction in discharge voltage with one or two potential barriers present has been found and explained. The dependency of the magnitude of discharge ignition voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. The reduction of the ignition voltage with the presence of one or two potential barriers has been observed and explained.

  3. Glow discharge based device for solving mazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinov, Alexander E.; Maksimov, Artem N.; Mironenko, Maxim S.; Pylayev, Nikolay A.; Selemir, Victor D.

    2014-09-01

    A glow discharge based device for solving mazes has been designed and tested. The device consists of a gas discharge chamber and maze-transformer of radial-azimuth type. It allows changing of the maze pattern in a short period of time (within several minutes). The device has been tested with low pressure air. Once switched on, a glow discharge has been shown to find the shortest way through the maze from the very first attempt, even if there is a section with potential barrier for electrons on the way. It has been found that ionization waves (striations) can be excited in the maze along the length of the plasma channel. The dependancy of discharge voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. A reduction in discharge voltage with one or two potential barriers present has been found and explained. The dependency of the magnitude of discharge ignition voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. The reduction of the ignition voltage with the presence of one or two potential barriers has been observed and explained.

  4. Evaluation of the absolute photoluminescence quantum yields of molecularly doped organic composite films and the electroluminescence efficiencies of molecular light-emitting devices containing oligoheterocycles as efficient emission centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushto, Gary P.; Hill, Ian G.; Mitschke, Ullrich; Baeuerle, Peter; Kafafi, Zakya H.

    2001-02-01

    The absolute photoluminescence quantum yields ((Phi) PL) of three end-capped oligothiophene derivatives dispersed in N,N'-((alpha) -naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl ((alpha) -NPD) have been evaluated and the most efficient of the emitters was used as a dopant in molecular organic LEDs. Composite films of 2,5-bis [5-(4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thien-2-yl) thien-2-yl]-furan (EC5FUR); 2,5-bis [5-(4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thien-2-yl) thien-2-yl]-oxazole (EC5OXZ) and 2,5-bis [5-(4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[b]thien-2-yl)thien-2-yl]-1,3,4- oxadiazole (EC5OXD) doped into (alpha) -NPD were found to have (Phi) PL values of 78, 62 and 28%, respectively. MOLED devices were fabricated using an EC5FUR/(alpha) -NPD composite as the emitting layer and the external quantum efficiencies ((eta) EL) of these devices were evaluated. The results of the device characterization show that the inclusion of EC5FUR in the NPD hole transport layer increases the device (eta) EL to 1.45% at a current density of 10 mA/cm2. In addition, the concentration dependence of the (eta) EL on the EC5FUR dopant in certain device structures when considered in conjunction with the current results of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopic experiments suggests that this dopant species may be acting as both a hole and electron trap in the (alpha) -NPD host.

  5. Low-voltage polariton electroluminescence from an ultrastrongly coupled organic light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbin, Christopher R.; Maier, Stefan A.; Kéna-Cohen, Stéphane

    2014-06-09

    We demonstrate electroluminescence from Frenkel molecular excitons ultrastrongly coupled to photons of a metal-clad microcavity containing a 2,7-bis[9,9-di(4-methylphenyl)-fluoren-2-yl]-9,9-di(4-methylphenyl)fluorene emissive layer. Thin layers of molybdenum oxide and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline are used as hole and electron injection layers, respectively. The fabricated devices exhibit an electroluminescence threshold of 3.1 V, a value that is below the bare exciton energy. This result is found to be independent of detuning and consistent with a two-step process for polariton formation. Moreover, we investigate the quantum efficiency of carrier to polariton to photon conversion and obtain an external quantum efficiency of 0.1% for the fabricated structures, an improvement of 5 orders of magnitude over previous reports.

  6. Growth and characterization of nonpolar and semipolar group-III nitrides-based heterostructures and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Arpan

    Conventional state-of-the-art wurtzite nitrides based light-emitters, grown along the polar c-direction, are characterized by the presence of polarization-induced electrostatic fields in the quantum wells. These built-in fields are detrimental to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Growth of light-emitters along nonpolar and semipolar directions is an effective means to circumvent the adverse effects of polarization. This dissertation focuses on the growth and characterization of nonpolar and semipolar (Al, Ga, In)N based heterostructures and devices. Two nonpolar planes, a- and m-, and two semipolar planes, (10 11) and (1013), have been investigated in this thesis. Initially, the growth of n-type and p-type nonpolar a-plane GaN was optimized to yield cladding layers of the highest possible conductivity in the devices. Various interesting observations, e.g. low acceptor activation energy, anisotropic conductivity, etc, were made during the course of this study. In order to achieve defect reduction in planar a-plane GaN films, in-situ SiNx interlayers were used as nano-mask. The effect of SiNx interlayer on the structural and optical properties of the overgrown GaN layer was investigated. Growth of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells (MQWs) along nonpolar and semipolar planes was investigated and their structural and optical properties were studied. The effect of defects on the emission properties of the MQWs has been addressed. Optical measurements revealed the absence of polarization in the MQWs. Based on the MQW optimization, light-emitting diodes were grown on nonpolar and semipolar templates and their electrical and optical properties were studied. Electroluminescence measurement confirmed the absence of built-in electric fields in the quantum well. We demonstrated the first nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting diodes with milliwatt-range output power. DC output power as high as 0.6 mW at 20 mA and pulsed output power as high as 23.5 mW at 1 A were

  7. Nanodot-based organic memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengchun

    2006-04-01

    In this study, resistor-type, diode-type, and transistor-type organic memory devices were investigated, aiming at the low-cost plastic integrated circuit applications. A series of solution-processing techniques including spin-coating, inkjet printing, and self-assembly were employed to fabricate these devices. The organic resistive memory device is based on a novel molecular complex film composed of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and a soluble methanofullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). It has an Al/molecules/Al sandwich structure. The molecular layer was formed by spin-coating technique instead of expensive vacuum deposition method. The current-voltage characteristics show that the device switches from the initial 'low' conduction state to 'high' conduction state upon application of external electric field at room temperature and return to 'low' conduction state when a high current pulse is applied. The on/off ratio is over 106. Each state has been found to remain stable for more than five months, even after the external electric field is removed. The PCBM nanodots wrapped by TCNQ molecules can form potential wells for charge trapping, and are believed to be responsible for the memory effects. A rewritable diode memory device was achieved in an improved configuration, i.e., ITO-PEDOT:PSS-PCBM/TCNQ-Al, where a semiconductor polymer PEDOT:PSS is used to form p+-N heterojunction with PCBM/TCNQ. It exhibits a diode characteristic (low conductive) before switching to a high-conductive Poole-Frenkel regime upon applying a positive external bias to ITO. The on/off ratio at +1.0 V is up to 105. Simulation results from Taurus-Medici are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results and the proposed charge storage model. The transistor-type memory device is fabricated on a heavily doped n-type silicon (n+-Si) substrate with a 100 nm thick thermally-grown oxide layer. The n+-Si serves as the gate electrode, while the oxide layer

  8. EDITORIAL: Frontiers in semiconductor-based devices Frontiers in semiconductor-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Sanjay; Phillips, Jamie; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Ma, Jack; Sabarinanthan, Jayshri; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne; Xu, Jian; Zhou, Weidong

    2009-12-01

    This special cluster of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics reports proceedings from the Frontiers in Semiconductor-Based Devices Symposium, held in honor of the 60th birthday of Professor Pallab Bhattacharya by his former doctoral students. The symposium took place at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor on 6-7 December 2009. Pallab Bhattacharya has served on the faculty of the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor for 25 years. During this time, he has made pioneering contributions to semiconductor epitaxy, characterization of strained heterostructures, self-organized quantum dots, quantum-dot optoelectronic devices, and integrated optoelectronics. Professor Bhattacharya has been recognized for his accomplishments by membership of the National Academy of Engineering, by chaired professorships (Charles M Vest Distinguished University Professor and James R Mellor Professor of Engineering), and by selection as a Fellow of the IEEE, among numerous other honors and awards. Professor Bhattacharya has also made remarkable contributions in education, including authorship of the textbook Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices (Prentice Hall, 2nd edition) and the production of 60 PhD students (and counting). In fact, this development of critical human resources is one of the biggest impacts of Professor Bhattacharya's career. His guidance and dedication have shaped the varied professional paths of his students, many of whom currently enjoy successful careers in academia, industry, and government around the world. This special cluster acknowledges the importance of Professor Bhattacharya's influence as all of the contributions are from his former doctoral students. The symposium reflects the significant impact of Professor Bhattacharya's research in that the topics span diverse, critical research areas, including: semiconductor lasers and modulators, nanoscale quantum structure-based devices, flexible CMOS-based

  9. Self-Host Blue Dendrimer Comprised of Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Core and Bipolar Dendrons for Efficient Solution-Processable Nondoped Electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Ban, Xinxin; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Kaiyong; Lin, Baoping; Sun, Yueming

    2017-03-01

    A self-host thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) dendrimer POCz-DPS for solution-processed nondoped blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was designed and synthesized, in which the bipolar phosphine oxide carbazole moiety was introduced by alkyl chain to ensure balanced charge transfer. The investigation of physical properties showed that the bipolar dendrons not only improve the morphological stability but also restrain the concentration quenching effect of the TADF emissive core. The spin-coated OLEDs featuring POCz-DPS as the host-free blue emitter achieved the highest external quantum efficiency (7.3%) and color purity compared with those of doped or nondoped devices based on the parent molecule DMOC-DPS, which indicates that incorporating the merits of encapsulation and bipolar dendron is an effective way to improve the electroluminescent performance of the TADF emitter used for a solution-processed nondoped device.

  10. Optoelectronic characteristics of inorganic/organic hybrid device based on poly(N-vinylcarbazole)/ cadmium selenide thin films.

    PubMed

    Tang, Aiwei; Teng, Feng; Hou, Yanbing; Xiong, Sha; Feng, Bin; Qian, Lei; Wang, Yongsheng

    2008-03-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid light-emitting diodes were easily fabricated with a thin film containing water-soluble cadmium selenide nanocrystals and poly(N-vinylcarbazole) as an emitting layer by a spin-coating method. The cadmium selenide nanocrystals were synthesized in aqueous solution with L-cysteine hydrochloride as the stabilizer and were transferred from the aqueous solution into chloroform by a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. A broad emission spanning the whole visible wavelength range was obtained from the inorganic/organic hybrid devices whether poly(N-vinylcarbazole) was present in the devices or not, and the electroluminescence intensity of the devices increased as the applied voltages increased. However, an obvious blue-shift of the wavelength was observed with the increasing applied voltages in the device with poly(N-vinylcarbazole). Accordingly, the emission color of the device made with poly(N-vinylcarbazole) could be tuned from white to blue by varying the applied voltages, but the emission color of the device made without poly(N-vinylcarbazole) was almost constrained in the white region. This can be attributed to a limited contribution of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emission to the electroluminescence spectra under the higher applied voltage. By comparing the electroluminescence intensity and the current-voltage characteristics of the devices made with and without poly(N-vinylcarbazole), the performance of the device with poly(N-vinylcarbazole) was improved greatly, which indicated that poly(N-vinylcarbazole) played an important role in the carrier injection and transportation in the device with poly(N-vinylcarbazole).

  11. Magnetic resonance studies of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum-based organic light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Kim, C. H.; Lane, P. A.; Shinar, J.

    2004-04-01

    The electroluminescence (EL)-, electrical current density (J)-, and photoluminescence (PL)- detected magnetic resonance (ELDMR, EDMR, and PLDMR, respectively) of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)-based organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and Alq3 films is described. At low temperatures, a positive spin-1/2 resonance is observed, i.e., the changes in J, the EL intensity IEL, and the PL intensity IPL are positive (ΔJ/J, ΔIEL/IEL, and ΔIPL/IPL>0). ΔJ/J and ΔIEL/IEL are insensitive to the nature of the Alq3/cathode interface. They weaken with increasing T and become unobservable above 60 K. ΔIPL/IPL also decreases with T, but is still observable at 250 K. Since the resonances all have the same g value, similar linewidths, and a similar dependence on T and the excitation level (J or the laser power), they are all attributed to the same mechanism. That mechanism is either the reduction of singlet exciton (SE) quenching by a reduced population of polarons in the bulk of the Alq3 layer (“the quenching mechanism”), or the enhanced formation of SEs from singlet polaron pairs at the expense of triplet excitons (TEs) (“the delayed PL mechanism”). However, the latter mechanism implies that the yield of SEs in Alq3-based OLEDs is greater than 25%. Due to evidence to the contrary, and other evidence which is inconsistent with the delayed PL mechanism, we conclude that the positive spin-1/2 resonance is due to the quenching mechanism. At T≈60 K, another spin-1/2 resonance, which reduces both J and IEL (but is unobservable in the PL), emerges and grows with increasing T. This negative EDMR and ELDMR is sensitive to the buffer layer between Alq3 and the cathode, and is attributed to the magnetic resonance enhancement of the spin-dependent formation of negative spinless bipolarons from spin-1/2 negative polarons at the organic/cathode interface. The increased trapping of injected electrons at the interface reduces J and consequently IEL. However, at 295 K

  12. Electrically Driven Ultraviolet Lasing From ZnO Nano/Microwire Based Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashar, Sunayna Binte

    Electrically driven optoelectronic devices based on ZnO nano/microstructures have been presented in this dissertation. First, an electrically pumped Sb-doped ZnO nanowire/Ga-doped ZnO p-n homojunction random laser is demonstrated. Catalyst-free Sb-doped ZnO nanowires were grown on a Ga-doped ZnO thin film on a Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition. The morphology of the as-grown titled nanowires was observed by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated the incorporation of Sb dopants. Shallow acceptor states of Sb-doped nanowires were confirmed by photoluminescence measurements. Current-voltage measurements of ZnO nanowire structures assembled from p- and n-type materials showed a typical p-n diode characteristic with a threshold voltage of about 7.5 V. Very good photoresponse was observed in the UV region operated at 0 V and different reverse biases. Random lasing behavior with a low-threshold current of around 10 mA was demonstrated at room temperature. The output power was 170 nW at 30 mA. In chapter 4, Au/ZnO microwire Schottky diode lasers are discussed. The devices exhibit typical Schottky diode I-V behavior with a turn-on voltage of about 0.72 V. The hexagonal ZnO microwires act as whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing microcavities. Under forward bias, a three-microwire device exhibits WGM ultraviolet lasing spectra with a quality factor of about 1287. Output power of the laser has been measured at various injection currents, indicating threshold behavior with a threshold current of about 59 mA. Due to limited hole injection in the operation of Schottky diode, the lasing is a result of an excitonic recombination within the WGM cavity. Finally, in Chapter 5, an electrically pumped ultraviolet random laser based on an Au-ZnO nanowire Schottky junction on top of a SiO 2/SiNx distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) has been fabricated. Electrical characterization shows typical Schottky diode current-voltage characteristics

  13. Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I–V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I–V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the “balance sheets” of tandem solar cells. PMID:25592484

  14. Near-infrared roll-off-free electroluminescence from highly stable diketopyrrolopyrrole light emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Sassi, Mauro; Buccheri, Nunzio; Rooney, Myles; Botta, Chiara; Bruni, Francesco; Giovanella, Umberto; Brovelli, Sergio; Beverina, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating in the near-infrared spectral region are gaining growing relevance for emerging photonic technologies, such as lab-on-chip platforms for medical diagnostics, flexible self-medicated pads for photodynamic therapy, night vision and plastic-based telecommunications. The achievement of efficient near-infrared electroluminescence from solution-processed OLEDs is, however, an open challenge due to the low photoluminescence efficiency of most narrow-energy-gap organic emitters. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-boron complexes are promising candidates to overcome this limitation as they feature extremely high photoluminescence quantum yield in the near-infrared region and high chemical stability. Here, by incorporating suitably functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives emitting at ~760 nm in an active matrix of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) and without using complex light out-coupling or encapsulation strategies, we obtain all-solution-processed NIR-OLEDs with external quantum efficiency as high as 0.5%. Importantly, our test-bed devices show no efficiency roll-off even for high current densities and high operational stability, retaining over 50% of the initial radiant emittance for over 50 hours of continuous operation at 10 mA/cm2, which emphasizes the great applicative potential of the proposed strategy. PMID:27677240

  15. Size-dependent electroluminescence from Si quantum dots embedded in amorphous SiC matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Yunjun; Li, Shuxin; Xu, Jun; Song, Chao; Jiang, Xiaofan; Li, Wei; Chen, Kunji; Wang, Qimin; Zuo, Yuhua

    2011-09-01

    Si quantum dots (QDs) were formed by thermal annealing the hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide films (a-SiCx:H) with different C/Si ratio x, which were controlled by using a different gas ratio R of methane to silane during the deposition process. By adjusting x and post annealing temperature, the QD size can be changed from 1.4 to 4.2 nm accordingly, which was verified by the Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy images. Size-dependent electroluminescence (EL) was observed, and the EL intensity was higher for the sample containing small-sized Si QDs due to the quantum confinement effect (QCE). The EL peak energy as a function of the Si QDs size was in good agreement with a modified effective mass approximation (EMA) model. The calculated finite barrier potential of the Si QDs embedded in SiC matrix is 0.4 and 0.8 eV for conduction and valence band, respectively. Moreover, the current-voltage properties and the linear relationship between the integrated EL intensity and injection current indicate that the carrier transport is dominated by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and the EL mechanism is originated from the bipolar recombination of electron-hole pairs at Si QDs. Our results demonstrate Si QDs embedded in amorphous SiC matrix has the potential application in Si-based light emitting devices and the third-generation solar cells.

  16. Electroluminescence and Photoluminescence from a Fluorescent Cobalt Porphyrin Grafted on Graphene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janghouri, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    A new graphene oxide-cobalt porphyrin (GO-CoTPP) hybrid material has been used as an emissive layer in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with fundamental structure of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS, 45 nm)/polyvinylcarbazole (PVK):2-(4-biphenyl)-5-(4- t-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD):GO-CoTPP (70 nm)/1,3,5-tris( N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-benzene (TPBI, 20 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. A red electroluminescence (EL) was obtained from thin-film PVK:PBD:CoTPP at 70 nm thickness. When CoTPP was covalently grafted on graphene oxide (GO) sheets, near-white EL was obtained. The white emission, which was composed of bluish green and red, is attributed to electroplex formation at the GO-CoTPP/PBD interface. Such electroplex emission between electrons and holes is a reason for the low turn-on voltage of the GO-CoTPP-based OLED. Maximum luminance efficiency of 1.43 cd/A with Commission International de l'Eclairage coordinates of 0.33 and 0.40 was achieved at current of 0.02 mA and voltage of 14 V.

  17. Electroluminescence and Photoluminescence from a Fluorescent Cobalt Porphyrin Grafted on Graphene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janghouri, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    A new graphene oxide-cobalt porphyrin (GO-CoTPP) hybrid material has been used as an emissive layer in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with fundamental structure of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS, 45 nm)/polyvinylcarbazole (PVK):2-(4-biphenyl)-5-(4-t-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD):GO-CoTPP (70 nm)/1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-benzene (TPBI, 20 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. A red electroluminescence (EL) was obtained from thin-film PVK:PBD:CoTPP at 70 nm thickness. When CoTPP was covalently grafted on graphene oxide (GO) sheets, near-white EL was obtained. The white emission, which was composed of bluish green and red, is attributed to electroplex formation at the GO-CoTPP/PBD interface. Such electroplex emission between electrons and holes is a reason for the low turn-on voltage of the GO-CoTPP-based OLED. Maximum luminance efficiency of 1.43 cd/A with Commission International de l'Eclairage coordinates of 0.33 and 0.40 was achieved at current of 0.02 mA and voltage of 14 V.

  18. Near-infrared roll-off-free electroluminescence from highly stable diketopyrrolopyrrole light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, Mauro; Buccheri, Nunzio; Rooney, Myles; Botta, Chiara; Bruni, Francesco; Giovanella, Umberto; Brovelli, Sergio; Beverina, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating in the near-infrared spectral region are gaining growing relevance for emerging photonic technologies, such as lab-on-chip platforms for medical diagnostics, flexible self-medicated pads for photodynamic therapy, night vision and plastic-based telecommunications. The achievement of efficient near-infrared electroluminescence from solution-processed OLEDs is, however, an open challenge due to the low photoluminescence efficiency of most narrow-energy-gap organic emitters. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-boron complexes are promising candidates to overcome this limitation as they feature extremely high photoluminescence quantum yield in the near-infrared region and high chemical stability. Here, by incorporating suitably functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives emitting at ~760 nm in an active matrix of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) and without using complex light out-coupling or encapsulation strategies, we obtain all-solution-processed NIR-OLEDs with external quantum efficiency as high as 0.5%. Importantly, our test-bed devices show no efficiency roll-off even for high current densities and high operational stability, retaining over 50% of the initial radiant emittance for over 50 hours of continuous operation at 10 mA/cm2, which emphasizes the great applicative potential of the proposed strategy.

  19. Kinetics of transient electroluminescence in organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Manju; Kumar, Pankaj; Chand, Suresh; Brahme, Nameeta; Kher, R. S.; Khokhar, M. S. K.

    2008-08-01

    Mathematical simulation on the rise and decay kinetics of transient electroluminescence (EL) in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is presented. The transient EL is studied with respect to a step voltage pulse. While rising, for lower values of time, the EL intensity shows a quadratic dependence on (t - tdel), where tdel is the time delay observed in the onset of EL, and finally attains saturation at a sufficiently large time. When the applied voltage is switched off, the initial EL decay shows an exponential dependence on (t - tdec), where tdec is the time when the voltage is switched off. The simulated results are compared with the transient EL performance of a bilayer OLED based on small molecular bis(2-methyl 8-hydroxyquinoline)(triphenyl siloxy) aluminium (SAlq). Transient EL studies have been carried out at different voltage pulse amplitudes. The simulated results show good agreement with experimental data. Using these simulated results the lifetime of the excitons in SAlq has also been calculated.

  20. Circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence and electroluminescence of iridium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tian-Yi; Jing, Yi-Ming; Liu, Xuan; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Lin; Tang, Zhiyong; Zheng, You-Xuan; Zuo, Jing-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Nearly all the neutral iridium complexes widely used as dopants in PhOLEDs are racemic mixtures; however, this study observed that these complexes can be separated into stable optically active Λ and ∆ isomers and that their chirality is an intrinsic property. The circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence (CPPPL) signals of Λ/Δ isomers are perfect mirror images with opposite polarisation and equal intensity exhibiting a “handedness” for the polarisation. For the first time, we applied the Λ/Δ iridium isomers as emitters in OLEDs, and the circularly polarised phosphorescent electroluminescence (CPPEL) spectra reveal completely positive or negative broad peaks consistent with the CPPPL spectra. The results demonstrate that the Λ/Δ isomers have potential application for 3D OLEDs because they can exhibit high efficiency and luminance, and 3D display technology based on circularly polarised light is the most comfortable for the eyes.

  1. Terahertz polarimetry based on metamaterial devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Grace D.; Wraback, Michael; Strikwerda, Andrew; Fan, Kebin; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Polarimetry is a well-developed technique in radar based applications and stand-off spectroscopic analysis at optical frequencies. Extension to terahertz (THz) frequencies could provide a breakthrough in spectroscopic methods since the THz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum provides unique spectral signatures of chemicals and biological molecules, useful for filling gaps in detection and identification. Distinct advantages to a THz polarimeter include enhanced image-contrast based on differences in scattering of horizontally and vertically polarized radiation, and measurements of the dielectric response, and thereby absorption, of materials in reflection in real-time without the need of a reference measurement. To implement a prototype THz polarimeter, we have developed low profile, high efficiency metamaterial-based polarization control components at THz frequencies. Static metamaterial-based half- and quarter-wave plates operating at 0.35 THz frequencies were modeled and fabricated, and characterized using a MHz resolution, continuous-wave spectrometer operating in the 0.09 to 1.2 THz range to verify the design parameters such as operational frequency and bandwidth, insertion loss, and phase shift. The operation frequency was chosen to be in an atmospheric window (between water absorption lines) but can be designed to function at any frequency. Additional advantages of metamaterial devices include their compact size, flexibility, and fabrication ease over large areas using standard microfabrication processing. Wave plates in both the transmission and reflection mode were modeled, tested, and compared. Data analysis using Jones matrix theory showed good agreement between experimental data and simulation.

  2. Electroluminescence from nonpolar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diode on r-sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Jun; Dai, Jiangnan; Wu, Feng; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Cheng; Long, Hanling; Liang, Renli; Zhao, Chong; Chen, Changqing; Tang, Zhiwu; Cheng, Hailing; He, Yunbin; Li, Mingkai

    2017-03-01

    Nonpolar a-plane n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been prepared on r-sapphire substrate using metal organic chemical vapor deposition and a pulsed laser deposition method. The dominant electroluminescence emission at 390 nm from the interband transition in n-ZnO layer under a forward bias was observed. Interestingly, electroluminescence with emission at 385 nm based on an avalanche mechanism was also achieved under reverse bias. The mechanisms of both the electroluminescence and I–V characteristics are discussed in detail by considering the avalanche effect. It is demonstrated that the crystalline quality of n-ZnO, not the p-AlGaN, is what affects the performance of the nonpolar ZnO based avalanche LED.

  3. Spectral focusing of broadband silver electroluminescence in nanoscopic FRET-LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchert, Robin P.; Steiner, Florian; Plechinger, Gerd; Hofmann, Felix J.; Caspers, Ines; Kirschner, Johanna; Nagler, Philipp; Chernikov, Alexey; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias; Vogelsang, Jan; Bange, Sebastian; Lupton, John M.

    2017-07-01

    Few inventions have shaped the world like the incandescent bulb. Edison used thermal radiation from ohmically heated conductors, but some noble metals also exhibit 'cold' electroluminescence in percolation films, tunnel diodes, electromigrated nanoparticle aggregates, optical antennas or scanning tunnelling microscopy. The origin of this radiation, which is spectrally broad and depends on applied bias, is controversial given the low radiative yields of electronic transitions. Nanoparticle electroluminescence is particularly intriguing because it involves localized surface-plasmon resonances with large dipole moments. Such plasmons enable very efficient non-radiative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) coupling to proximal resonant dipole transitions. Here, we demonstrate nanoscopic FRET-light-emitting diodes which exploit the opposite process, energy transfer from silver nanoparticles to exfoliated monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides. In diffraction-limited hotspots showing pronounced photon bunching, broadband silver electroluminescence is focused into the narrow excitonic resonance of the atomically thin overlayer. Such devices may offer alternatives to conventional nano-light-emitting diodes in on-chip optical interconnects.

  4. Enhancement of electroluminescence from embedded Si quantum dots/SiO2multilayers film by localized-surface-plasmon and surface roughening

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wang, Shaolei; Hu, Mingyue; He, Sufeng; Ge, Pengpeng; Wang, Jing; Guo, Yan Yan; Zhaowei, Liu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prepared a novel structure to enhance the electroluminescence intensity from Si quantum dots/SiO2multilayers. An amorphous Si/SiO2 multilayer film was fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on a Pt nanoparticle (NP)-coated Si nanopillar array substrate. By thermal annealing, an embedded Si quantum dot (QDs)/SiO2 multilayer film was obtained. The result shows that electroluminescence intensity was significantly enhanced. And, the turn-on voltage of the luminescent device was reduced to 3 V. The enhancement of the light emission is due to the resonance coupling between the localized-surface-plasmon (LSP) of Pt NPs and the band-gap emission of Si QDs/SiO2 multilayers. The other factors were the improved absorption of excitation light and the increase of light extraction ratio by surface roughening structures. These excellent characteristics are promising for silicon-based light-emitting applications. PMID:26138830

  5. Nanosized optoelectronic devices based on photoactivated proteins.

    PubMed

    Dimonte, Alice; Frache, Stefano; Erokhin, Victor; Piccinini, Gianluca; Demarchi, Danilo; Milano, Francesco; Micheli, Giovanni De; Carrara, Sandro

    2012-11-12

    Molecular nanoelectronics is attracting much attention, because of the possibility to add functionalities to silicon-based electronics by means of intrinsically nanoscale biological or organic materials. The contact point between active molecules and electrodes must present, besides nanoscale size, a very low resistance. To realize Metal-Molecule-Metal junctions it is, thus, mandatory to be able to control the formation of useful nanometric contacts. The distance between the electrodes has to be of the same size of the molecule being put in between. Nanogaps technology is a perfect fit to fulfill this requirement. In this work, nanogaps between gold electrodes have been used to develop optoelectronic devices based on photoactive proteins. Reaction Centers (RC) and Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) have been inserted in nanogaps by drop casting. Electrical characterizations of the obtained structures were performed. It has been demonstrated that these nanodevices working principle is based on charge separation and photovoltage response. The former is induced by the application of a proper voltage on the RC, while the latter comes from the activation of BR by light of appropriate wavelengths.

  6. A Laboratory-Based Course in Display Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarik, J.; Akinwande, A. I.; Kymissis, I.

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-based class in flat-panel display technology is presented. The course introduces fundamental concepts of display systems and reinforces these concepts through the fabrication of three display devices--an inorganic electroluminescent seven-segment display, a dot-matrix organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display, and a dot-matrix…

  7. A Laboratory-Based Course in Display Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarik, J.; Akinwande, A. I.; Kymissis, I.

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-based class in flat-panel display technology is presented. The course introduces fundamental concepts of display systems and reinforces these concepts through the fabrication of three display devices--an inorganic electroluminescent seven-segment display, a dot-matrix organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display, and a dot-matrix…

  8. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110}<100> oriented substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110}<100> textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  9. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  10. Intense deep blue exciplex electroluminescence from NPB/TPBi:PPh3O-based OLEDs and their intrinsic degradation mechanisms (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinar, Joseph; Hippola, Chamika; Danilovic, Dusan; Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Petrich, Jacob W.; Shinar, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    We describe intense and efficient deep blue (430 - 440 nm) exciplex emission from NPB/TPBi:PPh3O OLEDs where the luminous efficiency approaches 4 Cd/A and the maximal brightness exceeds 22,000 Cd/m2. Time resolved PL measurements confirm the exciplex emission from NPB:TPBi, as studied earlier by Monkman and coworkers [Adv. Mater. 25, 1455 (2013)]. However, the inclusion of PPh3O improves the OLED performance significantly. The effect of PPh3O on the EL and PL will be discussed. The NPB/TPBi:PPh3O-based OLEDs were also studied by optically and electrically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR and EDMR, respectively). In particular, the amplitude of the negative (EL- and current-quenching) spin 1/2 resonance, previously attributed to enhanced formation of strongly EL-quenching positive bipolarons, increases as the OLEDs degrade in a dry nitrogen atmosphere. This degradation mechanism is discussed in relation to degradation induced by hot polarons that are energized by exciton annihilation.

  11. Magnetic skyrmion-based artificial neuron device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sai; Kang, Wang; Huang, Yangqi; Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2017-08-01

    Neuromorphic computing, inspired by the biological nervous system, has attracted considerable attention. Intensive research has been conducted in this field for developing artificial synapses and neurons, attempting to mimic the behaviors of biological synapses and neurons, which are two basic elements of a human brain. Recently, magnetic skyrmions have been investigated as promising candidates in neuromorphic computing design owing to their topologically protected particle-like behaviors, nanoscale size and low driving current density. In one of our previous studies, a skyrmion-based artificial synapse was proposed, with which both short-term plasticity and long-term potentiation functions have been demonstrated. In this work, we further report on a skyrmion-based artificial neuron by exploiting the tunable current-driven skyrmion motion dynamics, mimicking the leaky-integrate-fire function of a biological neuron. With a simple single-device implementation, this proposed artificial neuron may enable us to build a dense and energy-efficient spiking neuromorphic computing system.

  12. Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of a novel electroluminescence material of bis-2-(4-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)benzo[d]oxazole (DPB).

    PubMed

    Hoanh, Trinh Dac; Kim, Ik-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Eun; Shin, Hoon-Kyu; Kwon, Young-Soo; Chang, Sang-Mok; Lee, Burm-Jong

    2014-08-01

    A new light-emissive material, bis-2-(4-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)benzo[d]oxazole (DPB), has been synthesized and characterized by FT-NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis and elemental analysis. DPB has the band gap of 4.3 eV between HOMO and LUMO levels. The photoluminescence (PL) of DPB was measured at 410 nm from the chloroform solution. The electroluminescent (EL) devices with structures of ITO/NPB/DPB/LiF/Al and ITO/NPB/DPB/Alq3/LiF/Al were constructed and showed maximum emission at 540 nm. The device using DPB as emitting material showed the luminance of 1000 cd/m2 at 11 V. The CIE chromaticity of the device showed near the region of white color emission.

  13. Light emitting ceramic device

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Paul; Edwards, Doreen D.; Walker, Jr., William John; Slack, Lyle H.; Brown, Wayne Douglas; Osborne, Cathy; Norton, Michael; Begley, Richard

    2010-05-18

    A light-emitting ceramic based panel, hereafter termed "electroceramescent" panel, is herein claimed. The electroceramescent panel is formed on a substrate providing mechanical support as well as serving as the base electrode for the device. One or more semiconductive ceramic layers directly overlay the substrate, and electrical conductivity and ionic diffusion are controlled. Light emitting regions overlay the semiconductive ceramic layers, and said regions consist sequentially of a layer of a ceramic insulation layer and an electroluminescent layer, comprised of doped phosphors or the equivalent. One or more conductive top electrode layers having optically transmissive areas overlay the light emitting regions, and a multi-layered top barrier cover comprising one or more optically transmissive non-combustible insulation layers overlay said top electrode regions.

  14. Diode-laser-based therapy device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udrea, Mircea V.; Nica, Adriana S.; Florian, Mariana; Poenaru, Daniela; Udrea, Gabriela; Lungeanu, Mihaela; Sporea, Dan G.; Vasiliu, Virgil V.; Vieru, Roxana

    2004-10-01

    A new therapy laser device is presented. The device consists of a central unit and different types of laser probes. The laser probe model SL7-650 delivers seven red (650 nm), 5 mW diode lasers convergent beams. The beams converge at about 30 cm in front of the laser probe and the irradiated area might be varied by simple displacement of the laser probe with respect to the target. The laser probe SL1-808 emits single infrared laser beam up to 500 mW. The efficiency of the use of this device in physiotherapy, and rheumatology, has been put into evidence after years of testing. Dermatology and microsurgery are users of infrared powerful laser probes. The device has successfully passed technical and clinical tests in order to be certified. The laser device design and some medical results are given.

  15. Electroluminescence of carbazole-substituted polyacetylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Run G.; Wang, Yunzhang; Zou, Xiaoming; Fahlam, Mats; Zheng, Qianbing; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Masuda, Toshio; Epstein, Arthur J.

    1998-12-01

    We present photo- and electro-luminescence, and hole mobility measurements of carbazole (Cz) substituted polyacetylene (PA-Cz) and poly(diphenylacetylene) (PDPA-Cz). The photoluminescence (PL) of the interband transition in PA-Cz thin film is quenched. PDPA-Cz shows a green-yellow emission with a PL efficiency about 30 percent of the interband transition. The hole mobility of PDPA-Cz is determined to be approximately 10 7 cm2/Vs and the ionization energy is 5.3 eV. PDPA-Cz forms robust thin films and is thermally stable up to 470 degrees C. For a structure of ITO/PDPA-Cz/Alq(tris(8-quinolinolato) aluminum)/MgAg EL quantum efficiency over 1 percent is achieved.

  16. Transient electroluminescence spikes in small molecular organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui; Gan, Zhengqing; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    We present a comprehensive study of transient nanosecond electroluminescence (EL) spikes that exceed the dc level and microseconds-long EL tails following a bias pulse in guest-host small molecular organic light-emitting diodes (SMOLEDs), including relatively efficient devices, which elucidates carrier and exciton dynamics in such devices. The transient EL is strongly dependent, among other parameters, on device materials and structure. At low temperatures, all measured devices, with the exception of Pt octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-doped tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al (Alq3) SMOLEDs, exhibit the spikes at ˜70-300 ns. At room temperature (RT), however, only those with a hole injection barrier, carrier-trapping guest-host emitting layer, and no strong electron-transporting and hole-blocking layer [such as 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen)] exhibit strong spikes. These narrow and appear earlier under postpulse reverse bias. To further elucidate the origin of the spikes, we monitored their dependence on the pulsed bias width and voltage, the doped layer thickness, and its location within the OLED structure. The characteristics of the microseconds-long tails were also evaluated through the effect of the postpulse voltage. A model based on the recombination of correlated charge pairs (CCPs) and on charge detrapping is presented; the model agrees well with the experimental data. The results suggest that reduced electric-field-induced dissociative quenching of singlet excitons is responsible for the spikes’ amplitude exceeding the on-pulse dc EL level. The long tails are attributed to recombination of charges detrapped from a distribution of shallow, mostly host, sites, reminiscent of the detrapping and recombination processes that yield the thermally stimulated luminescence of such materials. The comprehensive transient EL measurements in guest-host devices demonstrate the generality of the strong spike phenomenon in devices with charge trapping in the emitting guest

  17. Cosmetic devices based on active transdermal technologies.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jessica A; Banga, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Active transdermal technology, commonly associated with drug delivery, has been used in recent years by the cosmetic industry for the aesthetic restoration of skin and delivery of cosmetic agents. In this article, we provide an overview of the skin's structure, various skin types, skin's self-repair mechanisms that are stimulated from the usage of cosmetic devices and discuss cosmetic applications. Summaries of the most common active transdermal technologies such as microneedles, iontophoresis, sonophoresis, lasers and microdermabrasion will be provided, in relation to the marketed cosmetic devices available that incorporate these technologies. Lastly, we cover combinations of active technologies that allow for more enhanced cosmetic results, and the current limitations of cosmetic devices.

  18. Antimony Based III-V Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    CA Wang

    2004-06-09

    Antimony-based III-V thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells are attractive converters for systems with low radiator temperature around 1100 to 1700 K, since these cells potentially can be spectrally matched to the thermal source. Cells under development include GaSb and the lattice-matched GaInAsSb/GaSb and InPAsSb/InAs quaternary systems. GaSb cell technology is the most mature, owing in part to the relative ease in preparation of the binary alloy compared to quaternary GaInAsSb and InPAsSb alloys. Device performance of 0.7-eV GaSb cells exceeds 90% of the practical limit. GaInAsSb TPV cells have been the primary focus of recent research, and cells with energy gap E{sub g} ranging from {approx}0.6 to 0.49 eV have been demonstrated. Quantum efficiency and fill factor approach theoretical limits. Open-circuit voltage factor is as high as 87% of the practical limit for the higher-E{sub g} cells, but degrades to below 80% with decreasing E{sub g} of the alloy, which might be due to Auger recombination. InPAsSb cells are the least studied, and a cell with E{sub g} = 0.45-eV has extended spectral response out to 4.3 {micro}m. This paper briefly reviews the main contributions that have been made for antimonide-based TPV cells, and suggests additional studies for further performance enhancements.

  19. Further studies of proportional electroluminescence in two-phase argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, A.; Buzulutskov, A.; Dolgov, A.; Frolov, E.; Nosov, V.; Oleynikov, V.; Shekhtman, L.; Shemyakina, E.; Sokolov, A.

    2017-05-01

    A study of proportional electroluminescence in two-phase argon is relevant in the field of noble-gas liquid detectors for dark matter search and low-energy neutrino experiments. In this work, we continued to study proportional electroluminescence (EL) in two-phase argon doped with a minor (9 ppm) admixture of nitrogen, in the VUV, UV and visible spectral ranges. We confirmed the effect of enhancement of the EL yield, as well as the presence of a non-VUV component in addition to that of VUV, in proportional electroluminescence in two-phase Ar. On the other hand, the contribution of the non-VUV component determined here within the model of N2 emission in the UV, turned out to be insufficient to explain the enhancement of the EL yield. Hence, the problem of proportional electroluminescence in two-phase Ar remains unresolved.

  20. Toward biomaterial-based implantable photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humar, Matjaž; Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; Choi, Myunghwan; Yetisen, Ali K.; Cho, Sangyeon; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Optical technologies are essential for the rapid and efficient delivery of health care to patients. Efforts have begun to implement these technologies in miniature devices that are implantable in patients for continuous or chronic uses. In this review, we discuss guidelines for biomaterials suitable for use in vivo. Basic optical functions such as focusing, reflection, and diffraction have been realized with biopolymers. Biocompatible optical fibers can deliver sensing or therapeutic-inducing light into tissues and enable optical communications with implanted photonic devices. Wirelessly powered, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and miniature lasers made of biocompatible materials may offer new approaches in optical sensing and therapy. Advances in biotechnologies, such as optogenetics, enable more sophisticated photonic devices with a high level of integration with neurological or physiological circuits. With further innovations and translational development, implantable photonic devices offer a pathway to improve health monitoring, diagnostics, and light-activated therapies.

  1. Synaptic devices based on purely electronic memristors

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Ruobing; Li, Jun; Zhuge, Fei E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Zhu, Liqiang; Liang, Lingyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Gao, Junhua; Cao, Hongtao E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Fu, Bing; Li, Kang

    2016-01-04

    Memristive devices have been widely employed to emulate biological synaptic behavior. In these cases, the memristive switching generally originates from electrical field induced ion migration or Joule heating induced phase change. In this letter, the Ti/ZnO/Pt structure was found to show memristive switching ascribed to a carrier trapping/detrapping of the trap sites (e.g., oxygen vacancies or zinc interstitials) in ZnO. The carrier trapping/detrapping level can be controllably adjusted by regulating the current compliance level or voltage amplitude. Multi-level conductance states can, therefore, be realized in such memristive device. The spike-timing-dependent plasticity, an important Hebbian learning rule, has been implemented in this type of synaptic device. Compared with filamentary-type memristive devices, purely electronic memristors have potential to reduce their energy consumption and work more stably and reliably, since no structural distortion occurs.

  2. Toward flexible polymer and paper-based energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, Leif; Nyström, Gustav; Mihranyan, Albert; Strømme, Maria

    2011-09-01

    All-polymer and paper-based energy storage devices have significant inherent advantages in comparison with many currently employed batteries and supercapacitors regarding environmental friendliness, flexibility, cost and versatility. The research within this field is currently undergoing an exciting development as new polymers, composites and paper-based devices are being developed. In this report, we review recent progress concerning the development of flexible energy storage devices based on electronically conducting polymers and cellulose containing composites with particular emphasis on paper-based batteries and supercapacitors. We discuss recent progress in the development of the most commonly used electronically conducting polymers used in flexible device prototypes, the advantages and disadvantages of this type of energy storage devices, as well as the two main approaches used in the manufacturing of paper-based charge storage devices.

  3. Photomechanical modification of ZnS microcrystal to enhance electroluminescence by ultrashort-pulse laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabesaka, Kyohei; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2017-02-01

    A ZnS microcrystal was treated with an ultrashort-pulse laser and applied to an inorganic electroluminescence (EL) phosphor. We found that the emission intensity of the EL phosphor was increased by laser-induced photomechanical modification. The pulse duration dependence of the emission enhancement and structural analysis by scanning electron microscopy indicated that the structural modification was induced inside the ZnS microcrystal, although a mechanical grinding would induce the structural modification mainly on the crystal surface. The results suggested a new way of enhancing the emission of inorganic EL devices.

  4. Non-Uniformities in Thin-Film Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells Using Electroluminescence and Photoluminescence: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zaunbrecher, K.; Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Sites, J.

    2011-07-01

    It is the purpose of this research to develop specific imaging techniques that have the potential to be fast, in-line tools for quality control in thin-film CdTe solar cells. Electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) are two techniques that are currently under investigation on CdTe small area devices made at Colorado State University. It is our hope to significantly advance the understanding of EL and PL measurements as applied to CdTe. Qualitative analysis of defects and non-uniformities is underway on CdTe using EL, PL, and other imaging techniques.

  5. Experimental observation of electroluminescence enhancement on green LEDs mediated by surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Geol; Choi, Ki-Young; Kim, Jin-Ha; Song, Seok Ho

    2014-08-25

    We experimentally demonstrate the 1.5-fold enhancement of the electroluminescence (EL) of surface-plasmon (SP)-mediated green LEDs. On the p-clad surface of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well LEDs, a 2-dimensional, second-order grating structure is textured and coated with an Ag electrode. With this setup, a larger EL enhancement factor is obtained at a higher injected current, which suggests that SP-LEDs can be a possible solution to efficiency droop, which is one of the main problems in developing high-power LEDs. Details regarding the implementation of our device are discussed.

  6. Synthesis, crystal structures and photo- and electro-luminescence of copper(I) complexes containing electron-transporting diaryl-1,3,4-oxadiazole.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianzhi; Liu, Peng; Chai, Haifang; Kang, Jundan; Zhao, Yuling; Zhang, Hui; Fan, Duowang

    2014-05-01

    Two mononuclear Cu(I) complexes based on 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazolyl derivative ligand containing electron-transporting 1,3,4-oxadiazole group (L), [Cu(L)(PPh(3))2](BF(4)) and [Cu(L)(DPEphos)](BF(4)), where L = 1-(4-(5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)benzyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)benzimidazole and DPEphos = bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether, have been successfully synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structure analyses of the ligand L and the complex [Cu(L)(PPh(3))2](BF(4)) were described. The photophysical properties of the complexes were examined by using UV-vis, photoluminescence spectroscopic analysis. The doped light-emitting devices using the Cu(I) complexes as dopants were fabricated. With no electron transporting layers employed in the devices, yellow electroluminescence from Cu(I) complexes were observed. The devices based on the complex [Cu(L)(DPEphos)](BF4) possess better performance as compared with the devices fabricated by the complex [Cu(L)(PPh(3))2](BF(4)). The devices with the structure of ITO/MoO(3) (2 nm)/NPB (40 nm)/CBP:[Cu(L)(DPEphos)](BF(4)) (8 wt%, 30 nm)/BCP (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (150 nm) exhibit a maximum efficiency of 3.04 cd/A and a maximum brightness of 4,758 cd/m(2).

  7. Improvement of electroluminescence performance by integration of ZnO nanowires and single-crystalline films on ZnO/GaN heterojunction

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yuantao Cui, Xijun; Wu, Bin; Zhuang, Shiwei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong; Yang, Xiaotian

    2014-03-31

    Heterojunction light-emitting diodes based on n-ZnO nanowires/ZnO single-crystalline films/p-GaN structure have been demonstrated for an improved electroluminescence performance. A highly efficient ultraviolet emission was observed under forward bias. Compared with conventional n-ZnO/p-GaN structure, high internal quantum efficiency and light extraction efficiency were simultaneously considered in the proposed diode. In addition, the diode can work continuously for ∼10 h with only a slight degradation in harsh environments, indicating its good reliability and application prospect in the future. This route opens possibilities for the development of advanced nanoscale devices in which the advantages of ZnO single-crystalline films and nanostructures can be integrated together.

  8. Model-based engineering for medical-device software.

    PubMed

    Ray, Arnab; Jetley, Raoul; Jones, Paul L; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits of adopting model-based design techniques for engineering medical device software. By using a patient-controlled analgesic (PCA) infusion pump as a candidate medical device, the authors show how using models to capture design information allows for i) fast and efficient construction of executable device prototypes ii) creation of a standard, reusable baseline software architecture for a particular device family, iii) formal verification of the design against safety requirements, and iv) creation of a safety framework that reduces verification costs for future versions of the device software. 1.

  9. Printable Graphene-based Thermoelectric Device with High Temperature Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tian; Chen, Yanan; Drew, Dennis; Hu, Liangbing; NanomaterialsEmerging Devices Collaboration

    Thermoelectric devices are of particular interest due to their capability to convert heat into electrical power. We demonstrate the use of a Graphene-based thermoelectric device that can generate output voltages of hundreds of millivolts with an illuminating Graphene strip as the blackbody source. Our proposed device is superior for thermoelectric conversion mainly due to its high temperature capability that yields a maximum Carnot efficiency limit of 90% (referenced to room temperature) and a high Seebeck coefficient. Our device is also macroscopic with good mechanical strength and stabilized performance, making it attractive for large scale and reliable thermoelectric devices.

  10. Theoretical and material studies on thin-film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Goldman, J. A.; Brennan, K.

    1988-01-01

    During this report period work was performed on the modeling of High Field Electronic Transport in Bulk ZnS and ZnSe, and also on the surface cleaning of Si for MBE growth. Some MBE growth runs have also been performed in the Varian GEN II System. A brief outline of the experimental work is given. A complete summary will be done at the end of the next reporting period at the completion of the investigation. The theoretical studies are included.

  11. Theoretical and material studies on thin-film electroluminescent devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Benz, R., II

    1987-01-01

    The effect of surface nucleation processes on the quality of ZnS layers grown on (001) GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. Reflection high energy electron diffraction indicated that nucleation at high temperatures produced more planar surfaces than nucleation at low temperatures, but the crystalline quality as accessed by x ray double crystal diffractometry is relatively independent of nucleation temperature. A critical factor in layer quality was the initial roughness of the GaAs surfaces.

  12. Device considerations for development of conductance-based biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kangho; Nair, Pradeep R.; Scott, Adina; Alam, Muhammad A.; Janes, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Design and fabrication of electronic biosensors based on field-effect-transistor (FET) devices require understanding of interactions between semiconductor surfaces and organic biomolecules. From this perspective, we review practical considerations for electronic biosensors with emphasis on molecular passivation effects on FET device characteristics upon immobilization of organic molecules and an electrostatic model for FET-based biosensors. PMID:24753627

  13. Animation Based Learning of Electronic Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gero, Aharon; Zoabi, Wishah; Sabag, Nissim

    2014-01-01

    Two-year college teachers face great difficulty when they teach the principle of operation of the bipolar junction transistor--a subject which forms the basis for electronics studies. The difficulty arises from both the complexity of the device and by the lack of adequate scientific background among the students. We, therefore, developed a unique…

  14. Electrochromic devices based on lithium insertion

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2006-05-09

    Electrochromic devices having as an active electrode materials comprising Sb, Bi, Si, Ge, Sn, Te, N, P, As, Ga, In, Al, C, Pb, I and chalcogenides are disclosed. The addition of other metals, i.e. Ag and Cu to the active electrode further enhances performance.

  15. Electron Devices Based on Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosun, Mahmut

    Integrated circuits consists of building blocks called transistors. A transistor is a switch that enables logic operations to perform computing. Since the invention of the first integrated circuit, transistors have been scaled down in their dimensions to increase the density of transistors per unit area to enable more functionality. Transistor scaling is continued by introducing novel device structures and materials at each technology node. Due to the challenges such as short channel effects and the power consumption issues, novel materials are investigated as a candidate for next generation transistors. In this thesis, 2-dimensinal layered semiconductors, namely transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are studied to assess their electronic material properties as a candidate channel material for next generation electronic devices. Chapter one, introduces the challenges in the state of the art MOSFET devices. Then the motivation for the use of TMDCs in MOSFETs is explained. In chapter two, doping of the TMDCs is studied to be able to probe the intrinsic electronic properties of the devices fabricated using these materials. Contact resistance can be decreased by doping and TMDC MOSFETs with near-ideal performance metrics are demonstrated. In chapter three the CMOS integration of the devices using TMDCs are examined. Logic operations are conducted by fabricating WSe 2 n-FETs and p-FETs on the same flake. Then vertical 3-dimensional integration of n-FETs and p-FETs are demonstrated using the same gate. These transistors are connected as a CMOS inverter and logic operations are performed. Chapter four presents the band structure engineering study using TMDCs. Mono-multilayer MoS2 junctions are found to have a type-I heterojunction. Optoelectronic properties of this junction are investigated and the junction is shown to have a photoresponse that dominates the photoresponse coming from the contacts. In chapter five, the tunneling devices using TMDCs are studied. Dual

  16. OLED devices with internal outcoupling

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jie Jerry; Sista, Srinivas Prasad; Shi, Xiaolei; Zhao, Ri-An; Chichak, Kelly Scott; Youmans, Jeffrey Michael; Janora, Kevin Henry; Turner, Larry Gene

    2015-03-03

    Optoelectronic devices that have enhanced internal outcoupling are disclosed. The devices include a substrate, an anode, a cathode, an electroluminescent layer, and a hole injecting layer. The hole injecting layer includes inorganic nanoparticles that have a bimodal particle size distribution and which are dispersed in an organic matrix.

  17. Electroluminescence from indirect band gap semiconductor ReS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Lezama, Ignacio; Aditya Reddy, Bojja; Ubrig, Nicolas; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2016-12-01

    It has been recently claimed that bulk crystals of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) ReS2 are direct band gap semiconductors, which would make this material an ideal candidate, among all TMDs, for the realization of efficient opto-electronic devices. The situation is however unclear, because even more recently an indirect transition in the PL spectra of this material has been detected, whose energy is smaller than the supposed direct gap. To address this issue we exploit the properties of ionic liquid gated field-effect transistors (FETs) to investigate the gap structure of bulk ReS2. Using these devices, whose high quality is demonstrated by a record high electron FET mobility of 1100 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 4 K, we can induce hole transport at the surface of the material and determine quantitatively the smallest band gap present in the material, irrespective of its direct or indirect nature. The value of the band gap is found to be 1.41 eV, smaller than the 1.5 eV direct optical transition but in good agreement with the energy of the indirect optical transition, providing an independent confirmation that bulk ReS2 is an indirect band gap semiconductor. Nevertheless, contrary to the case of more commonly studied semiconducting TMDs (e.g., MoS2, WS2, etc) in their bulk form, we also find that ReS2 FETs fabricated on bulk crystals do exhibit electroluminescence when driven in the ambipolar injection regime, likely because the difference between direct and indirect gap is only 100 meV. We conclude that ReS2 does deserve more in-depth investigations in relation to possible opto-electronic applications.

  18. Device- and semi-device-independent random numbers based on noninequality paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Wei; Pawłowski, Marcin; Rahaman, Ramij; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we propose device-independent true random number expansion protocols based on noninequality paradoxes such as Hardy's and Cabello's nonlocality arguments, thus highlighting the noninequality paradox as an important resource for device-independent quantum-information processing, in particular for generating true randomness. As a byproduct, we find that the nonlocal bound of the Cabello argument with arbitrary dimension is the same as the one achieved in the qubits system. More interestingly, we propose a dimension witness paradox based on the Cabello argument which can be used for constructing a semi-device-independent true random number expansion protocol.

  19. A mechanism of charge transport in electroluminescent structures consisting of porous silicon and single-crystal silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Evtukh, A. A. Kaganovich, E. B.; Manoilov, E. G.; Semenenko, N. A.

    2006-02-15

    Electroluminescent structures that emit in the visible region of the spectrum and are based on porous silicon (por-Si) formed on the p-Si substrate electrolytically using an internal current source are fabricated. The photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties, as well as the current-and capacitance-voltage characteristics of the structures are studied. Electroluminescence is observed only if the forward bias voltage is applied to the structure; the electroluminescence mechanism is based on the injection and is related to the radiative recombination of electrons and holes in quantum-dimensional Si nanocrystals. The injection of holes is controlled by the condition of their accumulation in the space-charge region of p-Si and by a comparatively low concentration of electronic states at the por-Si/p-Si interface. The charge transport in por-Si is caused by the direct tunneling of charge carriers between the quantum-mechanical levels, which is ensured by an appreciable number of quantum-dimensional Si nanocrystals. The leakage currents are low as a result of a small variance in the sizes of Si nanocrystals and the absence of comparatively large nanocrystals.

  20. Developing resonant tunneling devices based on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Eric; Tiwari, Sandip; Stewart, Derek

    2009-03-01

    We present an ab-initio study of the electronic properties of patterned graphene structures as candidate resonant tunneling devices. We consider graphene nanoribbons that have been modified with one or more narrow constrictions or patterned with periodic nanoscale antidotes[1]. Specifically, we focus on semi-metallic armchair nanoribbons with narrow semiconducting regions and semi-metallic zigzag nanoribbons patterned with antidots. Using a first-principles density functional theory (DFT) approach, we investigate the induced band-gap opening and transmission coefficients. We examine how varying the lengths of the constrictions, changing the separation between dots and their sizes affect transport properties. We will also discuss I-V characteristics of these graphene structures and evaluate the possibility of a negative differential resistance in these devices. [1] T. G. Pedersen et al., Physical Review Letters, 100 136804 (2008)

  1. Optoelectronic Devices Based on Novel Semiconductor Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-14

    Force. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Terahertz devices, spectrometers, and systems; nanostructures and nanodevices 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...Y. J. Ding and I. B. Zotova, "Coherent and tunable terahertz oscillators, generators, and amplifiers," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. & Mats. 11, 75-97...GaSe crystal," Opt. Left. 27, 1454-1456 (2002). 2. W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, "Continuously tunable and coherent terahertz radiation by means of phase

  2. An ultrasonic orthopaedic surgical device based on a cymbal transducer.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Fernando; Feeney, Andrew; Wallace, Robert; Simpson, Hamish; Lucas, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    An ultrasonic orthopaedic surgical device is presented, where the ultrasonic actuation relies on a modification of the classical cymbal transducer. All current devices consist of a Langevin ultrasonic transducer with a tuned cutting blade attached, where resonance is required to provide sufficient vibrational amplitude to cut bone. However, this requirement restricts the geometry and offers little opportunity to propose miniaturised devices or complex blades. The class V flextensional cymbal transducer is proposed here as the basis for a new design, where the cymbal delivers the required vibrational amplitude, and the design of the attached cutting insert can be tailored for the required cut. Consequently, the device can be optimised to deliver an accurate and precise cutting capability. A prototype device is presented, based on the cymbal configuration and designed to operate at 25.5kHz with a displacement amplitude of 30μm at 300V. Measurements of vibrational and impedance responses elucidate the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the device. Subsequent cutting tests on rat femur demonstrate device performance consistent with a commercial Langevin-based ultrasonic device and show that cutting is achieved using less electrical power and a lower piezoceramic volume. Histological analysis exhibits a higher proportion of live cells in the region around the cut site for the cymbal device than for a powered sagittal or a manual saw, demonstrating the potential for the ultrasonic device to result in faster healing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electroluminescence property improvement by adjusting quantum wells' position relative to p-doped region in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.; Zhao, D. G.; Jiang, D. S.; Long, H.; Li, M.; Yang, J.; Zhu, J. J.; Liu, Z. S.; Li, X. J.; Liu, W.; Li, X.; Liang, F.; Liu, J. P.; Zhang, B. S.; Yang, H.

    2017-03-01

    The hole distribution and electroluminescence property improvement by adjusting the relative position between quantum wells and p-doped region in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well structures are experimentally and theoretically investigated. Five designed samples with different barrier layer parameters of multiple-quantum-well structure are grown by MOCVD and then fabricated into devices. The electroluminescence properties of these samples are measured and compared. It is found that the output electroluminescence intensity of samples is enhanced if the position of quantum wells shifts towards p-side, while the output power is reduced if their position is shifted towards the n-side. The theoretical calculation of characteristics of these devices using the simulation program APSYS agrees well with the experimental data, illustrating that the effect of relative position between p-doped region and quantum wells on the improvement of hole distribution and electroluminescence performance is significant, especially for InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well devices operated under high injection condition.

  4. Performance of Electroluminescent Flats for Precision Light Curve Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avril, Ryan L.; Oberst, T. E.

    2014-01-01

    We measure of the quality of flat field frames (flats) taken using an electroluminescent (EL) panel versus both dome and sky flats for purposes of calibrating visual CCD images. Classic dome and sky flats can both suffer from overall gradients and local irregularities. EL panel flats have recently grown in popularity as a third alternative, based partly on their potential to be free of such defects. We assess the flats based on their contributions to the RMS noise of long-duration light curves constructed via differential aperture photometry. The noise levels explored range from ~ 1 - few mmag, as needed for the ground-based detection of transiting planets. The target and reference stars are deliberately permitted to drift across the CCD in order to probe pixel-to-pixel variations. Both the filter and focus are varied during the tests - the former to probe color variation in the flats, and the latter because defocusing tends to average out pixel-to-pixel variations that the flats are intended to remove. All tests were performed at the Westminster College Observatory (WCO), which belongs to the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT)-North follow-up network.

  5. Synthesis and spectroscopic study of highly fluorescent β-enaminone based boron complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, Haribhau S.; Gadilohar, Balu L.; Shankarling, Ganapati S.

    2015-07-01

    The newly synthesized 1, 1, 2-trimethyl-1H benzo[e]indoline based β-enaminone boron complexes exhibited the intense fluorescence (Fmax = 522-547 nm) in solution as well as in solid state (Fmax = 570-586 nm). These complexes exhibited large stoke shift, excellent thermal and photo stability when compared to the boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) colorants. Optimized geometry and orbital distribution in ground states were computed by employing density functional theory (DFT). The cyclic voltammetry study revealed the better electron transport ability of these molecules than current electroluminescent materials like tris(8-hydroxyquinoli-nato)-aluminium (Alq3) and BODIPY, which can find application in electroluminescent devices.

  6. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence characteristics of CaSiN2:Eu phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soon S.; Lim, Sungkyoo; Sun, Sey-Shing; Wager, John F.

    1997-11-01

    Photoluminescenc eand electroluminescence of CaSiN2:Eu materials were investigted to develop a new phosphor for thin film electroluminescence (TFEL) device applications. Ca3N2 and Si3N4 powders were mixed to form CaSiN2 hostmaterials and Eu was added as the luminescent center. The mixed powermatrials were cold pressed under the pressure of 1 Kg/cm2 to make pellets, and fired at 1400 degrees Celsius for 2 hours under N2H2 envrionemtn. Th ex-ry diffraction(CRD) patterns of synthesizd materals wer well matched with CaSiN2 of joint committee for powder diffraction standards (JCPDS) csrad. When illuminated by ultravilet rays, th enew phosphors emitted very bright red ligh of peak wav lenegth centered at 620 nm. Th TFEL devices with CaSiN2:Eu phosphor layser swre grown by sputter depositonof CaSiN2:Eu target. Red light emission was observed when the peak amplitude of the applied voltge exceeded 116 V.l The luminance was shown to increase sharply withth increase of the applied voltage. The maximum luminance was 1.62 Cd/m2 at the applied peak voltage of 276 V. The red emission from CaSiN2:Eu TFEL device seems to result from electronic transition of Eu3+ ions.The emission spectra of TFEl devices matchwell withth ephotoluminescence spectra of CaSiN2:Ey powders. The new devices structure and fabrication processes for the iimprovement of emission intenityof CaSiN2:Eu TFEl devices ar under investigation.

  7. Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers.

    PubMed

    Willander, M; Nur, O; Zhao, Q X; Yang, L L; Lorenz, M; Cao, B Q; Zúñiga Pérez, J; Czekalla, C; Zimmermann, G; Grundmann, M; Bakin, A; Behrends, A; Al-Suleiman, M; El-Shaer, A; Che Mofor, A; Postels, B; Waag, A; Boukos, N; Travlos, A; Kwack, H S; Guinard, J; Le Si Dang, D

    2009-08-19

    Zinc oxide (ZnO), with its excellent luminescent properties and the ease of growth of its nanostructures, holds promise for the development of photonic devices. The recent advances in growth of ZnO nanorods are discussed. Results from both low temperature and high temperature growth approaches are presented. The techniques which are presented include metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), vapour phase epitaxy (VPE), pulse laser deposition (PLD), vapour-liquid-solid (VLS), aqueous chemical growth (ACG) and finally the electrodeposition technique as an example of a selective growth approach. Results from structural as well as optical properties of a variety of ZnO nanorods are shown and analysed using different techniques, including high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL), for both room temperature and for low temperature performance. These results indicate that the grown ZnO nanorods possess reproducible and interesting optical properties. Results on obtaining p-type doping in ZnO micro- and nanorods are also demonstrated using PLD. Three independent indications were found for p-type conducting, phosphorus-doped ZnO nanorods: first, acceptor-related CL peaks, second, opposite transfer characteristics of back-gate field effect transistors using undoped and phosphorus doped wire channels, and finally, rectifying I-V characteristics of ZnO:P nanowire/ZnO:Ga p-n junctions. Then light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on n-ZnO nanorods combined with different technologies (hybrid technologies) are suggested and the recent electrical, as well as electro-optical, characteristics of these LEDs are shown and discussed. The hybrid LEDs reviewed and discussed here are mainly presented for two groups: those based on n-ZnO nanorods and p-type crystalline substrates, and those based on n-ZnO nanorods and p-type amorphous substrates. Promising electroluminescence

  8. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence of a tripodal compound containing 7-diethylamino-coumarin moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tianzhi; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yuling; Zhang, Hui; Meng, Jing; Fan, Duowang; Dong, Wenkui

    2008-12-01

    A novel tripodal compound, tris[2-(7-diethylamino-coumarin-3-carboxamide)ethyl]amine (Tren-C), was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared and 1H-NMR spectra. The photoluminescent (PL) and electroluminescent properties of Tren-C were investigated. Tren-C exhibits different colour emissions in solid states and solutions. The electroluminescence devices comprising vacuum vapour-deposited films using the compound as a dopant were fabricated, showing blue emissions that are identical to its PL spectrum in chloroform solutions. With the device structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)/4, 4', 4''-tris-N-naphthyl-N-phenylamino-triphenylamine (2-TNATA) (5 nm)/N, N'-bis-(naphthyl)-N, N'-diphenyl-1, 1'-biphenyl-4, 4'-diamine (NPB) (40 nm)/4, 4'-bis(9-carbazolyl) biphenyl (CBP) : Tren-C (0.5 wt%, 30 nm)/2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole (Bu-PBD) (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm), a maximum external quantum efficiency of 2.85%, a maximum luminous efficiency of 3.85 cd A-1 and a maximum luminance of 1450 cd m-2 are realized.

  9. Polymer ring resonator based devices prepared by DLW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandura, D.; Pudis, D.; Gaso, P.; Goraus, M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the fabrication method of waveguide structures and devices as ring resonators for different waveguide applications based on polymer material is presented. The structures were designed in computer-aided design (CAD) software and two-photon polymerization lithography system was used for preparation of desired devices. Morphological properties of prepared devices were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal microscope. Finally, we performed measurement of optical spectrum characteristics in telecommunication wavelengths range. The results corresponds to calculated parameters. Final polymer devices are promising for lab on a chip and sensing applications due to unique elastic and chemical properties.

  10. Measurement of the hematocrit using paper-based microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Berry, Samuel B; Fernandes, Syrena C; Rajaratnam, Anjali; DeChiara, Nicholas S; Mace, Charles R

    2016-10-07

    The quantification of blood cells provides critical information about a patient's health status. Sophisticated analytical equipment, such as hematology analyzers, have been developed to perform these measurements, but limited-resource settings often lack the infrastructure required to purchase, operate, and maintain instrumentation. To address these practical challenges, paper-based microfluidic devices have emerged as a platform to develop diagnostic assays specifically for use at the point-of-care. To date, paper-based microfluidic devices have been used broadly in diagnostic assays that apply immunoassay, clinical chemistry, and electrochemistry techniques. The analysis of cells, however, has been largely overlooked. In this communication, we demonstrate a paper-based microfluidic device that enables the controlled transport of red blood cells (RBCs) and the measurement of the hematocrit-the ratio of RBC packed cell volume to total volume of whole blood. The properties of paper, device treatment, and device geometry affect the overall extent and reproducibility of transport of RBCs. Ultimately, we developed an inexpensive (US$0.03 per device) thermometer-styled device where the distance traveled by RBCs is proportional to the hematocrit. These results provide a foundation for the design of paper-based microfluidic devices that enable the separation and detection of cells in limited-resource settings.

  11. [Improved color purity of green OLED device based on Au thin film].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Fei; Zhao, Su-Ling; Xu, Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Au was used as anode in some kind of organic electroluminescent devices. Sometimes transparent Au electrodes are required, which means that the thickness of Au electrode should be as thin as possible. Therefore, two metals together forming an electrode become a choice. In the present paper, translucent Au/Al layer was inserted to anode side, and OLED device with the structure of ITO/Al (16 nm)/Au (10 nm)/TPD (30 nm)/AlQ (30 nm)/LiF (0.5 nm)/Al was prepared. There is a spectral narrowing phenomenon on the device ITO/TPD (30 nm)/AlQ (30 nm)/LiF (0. 5 nm)/Al, and through analysis and experiment it was found that this phenomenon comes from selective permeability to light of Au thin film rather than the microcavity effect. The device maintains wide viewing angle, without the angular dependence. And the color purity of device with Au thin film is improved.

  12. Paper‐Based Electrodes for Flexible Energy Storage Devices

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bin; Zhang, Jing; Kou, Tianyi; Song, Yu; Liu, Tianyu

    2017-01-01

    Paper‐based materials are emerging as a new category of advanced electrodes for flexible energy storage devices, including supercapacitors, Li‐ion batteries, Li‐S batteries, Li‐oxygen batteries. This review summarizes recent advances in the synthesis of paper‐based electrodes, including paper‐supported electrodes and paper‐like electrodes. Their structural features, electrochemical performances and implementation as electrodes for flexible energy storage devices including supercapacitors and batteries are highlighted and compared. Finally, we also discuss the challenges and opportunity of paper‐based electrodes and energy storage devices. PMID:28725532

  13. Pure white OLED based on an organic small molecule: 2,6-Di(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    2,6-Di(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridine (DBIP) was synthesized. The single-crystal structure of DBIP was resolved. DBIP-based OLED was fabricated. The electroluminescence for the device corresponds to a pure white emission. In addition, thermal stability, UV-vis, photoluminescence and electrochemical behaviors of DBIP were investigated as well.

  14. Electroluminescence Studies on Longwavelength Indium Arsenide Quantum Dot Microcavities Grown on Gallium Arsenide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONG WAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE THESIS John C...11-46 ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONGWAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE THESIS...58 1 ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONGWAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE I

  15. Empirically based device modeling of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Adrien; Lu, Shaofeng; Howard, Ian A.; Facchetti, Antonio; Arias, Ana Claudia

    2013-10-01

    An empirically based, open source, optoelectronic model is constructed to accurately simulate organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Bulk heterojunction OPV devices based on a new low band gap dithienothiophene- diketopyrrolopyrrole donor polymer (P(TBT-DPP)) are blended with PC70BM and processed under various conditions, with efficiencies up to 4.7%. The mobilities of electrons and holes, bimolecular recombination coefficients, exciton quenching efficiencies in donor and acceptor domains and optical constants of these devices are measured and input into the simulator to yield photocurrent with less than 7% error. The results from this model not only show carrier activity in the active layer but also elucidate new routes of device optimization by varying donor-acceptor composition as a function of position. Sets of high and low performance devices are investigated and compared side-by-side.

  16. Product-based Safety Certification for Medical Devices Embedded Software.

    PubMed

    Neto, José Augusto; Figueiredo Damásio, Jemerson; Monthaler, Paul; Morais, Misael

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide medical device embedded software certification practices are currently focused on manufacturing best practices. In Brazil, the national regulatory agency does not hold a local certification process for software-intensive medical devices and admits international certification (e.g. FDA and CE) from local and international industry to operate in the Brazilian health care market. We present here a product-based certification process as a candidate process to support the Brazilian regulatory agency ANVISA in medical device software regulation. Center of Strategic Technology for Healthcare (NUTES) medical device embedded software certification is based on a solid safety quality model and has been tested with reasonable success against the Class I risk device Generic Infusion Pump (GIP).

  17. Energy-Based Devices in Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Handler, Marc Z; Bloom, Bradley S; Goldberg, David J

    2016-05-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatologic complaint with a multifactorial cause. Traditionally, antibiotics and retinoids have been used to manage the condition; patient compliance has been an ongoing issue. A variety of energy-based devices have been reported to be effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris. To review and summarize the current literature specific to treatment of acne vulgaris with energy-based devices. A review of the current literature of energy-based devices used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Although limited randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acne have been performed, significant clinical improvement of acne vulgaris, especially of inflammatory lesions, has been demonstrated with a variety of energy-based devices. Newer approaches may lead to even better results.

  18. Enhanced performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and OLED-based photoluminescent sensing platforms by novel microstructures and device architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have advanced dramatically since they exhibit great promise in various applications such as displays, solid-state lighting, and (bio)chemical sensing. In this dissertation, multiple approaches were employed to enhance the performance of OLEDs and OLED-based sensing platforms. Comprehensive investigations were conducted on electroluminescence (EL) spikes and tails in charge trapping guest-host OLEDs and their influence on OLED-based sensor performance. Novel microstructures and device architectures were developed to construct OLED sources with spectrally selective and enhanced emission. The peak emission wavelength of the multicolor microcavity devices with MoO3 as the HIL/spacer was tunable from 493 to 639 nm. The controlled microporous structures formed by polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) was able to enhance the forward light extraction of the OLED by up to ˜60%. The combination of the PtOEP:PS:PEG sensing film coupled with the multicolor microcavity OLEDs and the appropriate OPD, and the possibility to combine time- and intensity-domain analyses have shed light on the opportunities to realize simple, compact, potentially disposable sensors for the detection of O2, pH and other (bio)chemical analytes and parameters.

  19. Silicon photonic devices based on binary blazed gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiping; Yu, Li

    2013-09-01

    Optical technology is poised to revolutionize short-reach communication systems, and the leading technology is silicon photonics. Silicon photonic devices have attracted more and more attention and have been increasingly studied in recent years. Grating, which functions as a building block for many passive and active devices, is widely used in silicon photonics. This review presents some silicon photonic devices based on binary blazed gratings, such as grating couplers, beam splitters, polarization beam splitters, broadband reflectors, and narrow filters, that demonstrate much better performance than those based on uniform gratings, owing to the novel characteristics of binary blazed gratings.

  20. Reduced graphene oxide based flexible organic charge trap memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Adila; Song, Ji-Min; Jung Lee, Mi; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2012-12-01

    A nonvolatile organic transistor memory device was developed using layer-by-layer assembly of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and solution-processed, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as the charge trapping layer on flexible substrates. Reduction of graphene oxide and successful adsorption of the rGO on APTES-covered substrates were confirmed. The organic memory devices based on rGO exhibited reliable programmable memory operations, confirmed by program/erase operations, data retention, and endurance properties. These methods can potentially play a significant role in the fabrication of next-generation flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on graphene materials.

  1. A flexible microcontroller-based data acquisition device.

    PubMed

    Hercog, Darko; Gergič, Bojan

    2014-06-02

    This paper presents a low-cost microcontroller-based data acquisition device. The key component of the presented solution is a configurable microcontroller-based device with an integrated USB transceiver and a 12-bit analogue-to-digital converter (ADC). The presented embedded DAQ device contains a preloaded program (firmware) that enables easy acquisition and generation of analogue and digital signals and data transfer between the device and the application running on a PC via USB bus. This device has been developed as a USB human interface device (HID). This USB class is natively supported by most of the operating systems and therefore any installation of additional USB drivers is unnecessary. The input/output peripheral of the presented device is not static but rather flexible, and could be easily configured to customised needs without changing the firmware. When using the developed configuration utility, a majority of chip pins can be configured as analogue input, digital input/output, PWM output or one of the SPI lines. In addition, LabVIEW drivers have been developed for this device. When using the developed drivers, data acquisition and signal processing algorithms as well as graphical user interface (GUI), can easily be developed using a well-known, industry proven, block oriented LabVIEW programming environment.

  2. A Flexible Microcontroller-Based Data Acquisition Device

    PubMed Central

    Hercog, Darko; Gergič, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost microcontroller-based data acquisition device. The key component of the presented solution is a configurable microcontroller-based device with an integrated USB transceiver and a 12-bit analogue-to-digital converter (ADC). The presented embedded DAQ device contains a preloaded program (firmware) that enables easy acquisition and generation of analogue and digital signals and data transfer between the device and the application running on a PC via USB bus. This device has been developed as a USB human interface device (HID). This USB class is natively supported by most of the operating systems and therefore any installation of additional USB drivers is unnecessary. The input/output peripheral of the presented device is not static but rather flexible, and could be easily configured to customised needs without changing the firmware. When using the developed configuration utility, a majority of chip pins can be configured as analogue input, digital input/output, PWM output or one of the SPI lines. In addition, LabVIEW drivers have been developed for this device. When using the developed drivers, data acquisition and signal processing algorithms as well as graphical user interface (GUI), can easily be developed using a well-known, industry proven, block oriented LabVIEW programming environment. PMID:24892494

  3. CPV solar receiver ageing tests: The enhanced electroluminescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabille, Loïc; Mangeant, Christophe; Baudrit, Mathieu

    2013-09-01

    For two years now, CEA INES is involved in the development of insulated metal substrates (IMS) for CPV receivers. In an effort for establishing the reliability of such a new design compared to state-of-the-art direct bonded copper (DBC) design, accelerated ageing test have been carried out. During these tests, several characterization tools were used including current voltage measurements, X-ray tomography and electroluminescence. A new method for the characterization of thermal inhomogeneities has been developed, the so-called Enhanced Electroluminescence (EEL) which is described in this paper.

  4. Cardiac Device Implant Skin Closure with a Novel Adjustable, Coaptive Tape-Based Device.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Gautam G; Schricker, Amir A; Salcedo, Jonathan; Hebsur, Shrinivas; Hsu, Jonathan; Feld, Gregory; Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a unique zip-type adjustable coaptive tape-based skin closure device to traditional subcuticular sutures in three domains: time, cosmesis, and wound closure-related outcomes in cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) procedures. A total of 40 patients were enrolled in a prospective randomized controlled trial to assess time to wound closure, as well as cosmesis and wound closure-related outcomes. The adjustable coaptive tape-based skin closure device had shorter overall closure time (78 ± 6.6 seconds vs 216 ± 21.5 seconds; P < 0.001) and mean closure time per centimeter (18.0 ± 2.0 s/cm vs 50.1 ± 6.7 s/cm; P < 0.001) versus sutures, with less intersurgeon and interpatient variability with the use of adjustable coaptive device versus sutures (P < 0.001). There was no difference between groups in postoperative pain or scar cosmesis during the follow-up period. Neither group had any closure-related adverse events. The adjustable coaptive tape-based skin closure device demonstrated shorter closure times with less variability when compared to sutures. It is a safe and acceptable alternative to sutures for skin closure following CIED implantation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hybrid device based on GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Min Jeong; Gwon, Dong-Oh; Lee, Chan-Mi; Lee, Gang Seok; Jeon, In-Jun; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yi, Sam Nyung; Ha, Dong Han

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A hybrid device was demonstrated by using MEH-PPV, PEDOT:PSS, and GaN nanoneedles. • I–V curve of the hybrid device showed its rectification behaviour, similar to a diode. • EL peak originated by the different potential barriers at MEH-PPV and GaN interface. - Abstract: A hybrid device that combines the properties of organic and inorganic semiconductors was fabricated and studied. It incorporated poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as organic polymers and GaN nanoneedles as an inorganic semiconductor. Layers of the two polymers were spin coated on to the GaN nanoneedles. The one peak in the electroluminescence spectrum originated from the MEH-PPV layer owing to the different potential barriers of electrons and holes at its interface with the GaN nanoneedles. However, the photoluminescence spectrum showed peaks due to both GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV. Such hybrid structures, suitably developed, might be able to improve the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  6. Strong yellow electroluminescence from manganese-silicon-implanted silicon-dioxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Sergey; Ovchinnikov, Victor F.; Haerkoenen, Jaakko; Sinkkonen, Juha A.

    2001-05-01

    Room temperature (RT) electroluminescence (EL) was obtained for the first time from Mn enriched Si/SiO2 structure. Si+ or Ar+ stimulated knock-on implantation through 20 nm Mn film with the subsequent annealing was used for EL device fabrication. Devices exhibit bright emission band at the 2.06 eV. The position does neither depend on implanted ion dose nor annealing procedure. EL is visible by naked eye even at current density as low as 1.5x10-6 Acm-2. Continuous wave external quantum efficiency 1.1x10-3 and power efficiency 1.5x10-5 have been achieved.

  7. Transient electroluminescence dynamics in small molecular organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Z; Liu, R; Shinar, R; Shinar, J

    2010-09-14

    Intriguing electroluminescence (EL) spikes, following a voltage pulse applied to small molecular OLEDs, are discussed, elucidating carrier and exciton quenching dynamics and their relation to device structure. At low temperatures, all devices exhibit spikes at {approx} 70-300 ns and {mu}s-long tails. At 295 K only those with a hole injection barrier, carrier-trapping guest-host emitting layer, and no strong hole-blocking layer exhibit the spikes. They narrow and appear earlier under post-pulse reverse bias. The spikes and tails are in agreement with a revised model of recombination of correlated charge pairs (CCPs) and initially unpaired charges. Decreased post-pulse field-induced dissociative quenching of singlet excitons and CCPs, and possibly increased post-pulse current of holes that 'turn back' toward the recombination zone after having drifted beyond it are suspected to cause the spikes amplitude, which exceeds the dc EL.

  8. Tunable Near-Infrared Luminescence in Tin Halide Perovskite Devices.

    PubMed

    Lai, May L; Tay, Timothy Y S; Sadhanala, Aditya; Dutton, Siân E; Li, Guangru; Friend, Richard H; Tan, Zhi-Kuang

    2016-07-21

    Infrared emitters are reasonably rare in solution-processed materials. Recently, research into hybrid organo-lead halide perovskite, originally popular in photovoltaics,1-3 has gained traction in light-emitting diodes (LED) due to their low-cost solution processing and good performance.4-9 The lead-based electroluminescent materials show strong colorful emission in the visible region, but lack emissive variants further in the infrared. The concerns with the toxicity of lead may, additionally, limit their wide-scale applications. Here, we demonstrate tunable near-infrared electroluminescence from a lead-free organo-tin halide perovskite, using an ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3Sn(Br1-xIx)3/F8/Ca/Ag device architecture. In our tin iodide (CH3NH3SnI3) LEDs, we achieved a 945 nm near-infrared emission with a radiance of 3.4 W sr(-1) m(-2) and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 0.72%, comparable with earlier lead-based devices. Increasing the bromide content in these tin perovskite devices widens the semiconductor bandgap and leads to shorter wavelength emissions, tunable down to 667 nm. These near-infrared LEDs could find useful applications in a range of optical communication, sensing and medical device applications.

  9. Substrate structures for InP-based devices

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Sheldon, Peter

    1990-01-01

    A substrate structure for an InP-based semiconductor device having an InP based film is disclosed. The substrate structure includes a substrate region having a lightweight bulk substrate and an upper GaAs layer. An interconnecting region is disposed between the substrate region and the InP-based device. The interconnecting region includes a compositionally graded intermediate layer substantially lattice-matched at one end to the GaAs layer and substantially lattice-matched at the opposite end to the InP-based film. The interconnecting region further includes a dislocation mechanism disposed between the GaAs layer and the InP-based film in cooperation with the graded intermediate layer, the buffer mechanism blocking and inhibiting propagation of threading dislocations between the substrate region, and the InP-based device.

  10. Medical Device Integration Model Based on the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hao, Aiyu; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    At present, hospitals in our country have basically established the HIS system, which manages registration, treatment, and charge, among many others, of patients. During treatment, patients need to use medical devices repeatedly to acquire all sorts of inspection data. Currently, the output data of the medical devices are often manually input into information system, which is easy to get wrong or easy to cause mismatches between inspection reports and patients. For some small hospitals of which information construction is still relatively weak, the information generated by the devices is still presented in the form of paper reports. When doctors or patients want to have access to the data at a given time again, they can only look at the paper files. Data integration between medical devices has long been a difficult problem for the medical information system, because the data from medical devices are lack of mandatory unified global standards and have outstanding heterogeneity of devices. In order to protect their own interests, manufacturers use special protocols, etc., thus causing medical decices to still be the "lonely island" of hospital information system. Besides, unfocused application of the data will lead to failure to achieve a reasonable distribution of medical resources. With the deepening of IT construction in hospitals, medical information systems will be bound to develop towards mobile applications, intelligent analysis, and interconnection and interworking, on the premise that there is an effective medical device integration (MDI) technology. To this end, this paper presents a MDI model based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Through abstract classification, this model is able to extract the common characteristics of the devices, resolve the heterogeneous differences between them, and employ a unified protocol to integrate data between devices. And by the IoT technology, it realizes interconnection network of devices and conducts associate matching

  11. Medical Device Integration Model Based on the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Aiyu; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    At present, hospitals in our country have basically established the HIS system, which manages registration, treatment, and charge, among many others, of patients. During treatment, patients need to use medical devices repeatedly to acquire all sorts of inspection data. Currently, the output data of the medical devices are often manually input into information system, which is easy to get wrong or easy to cause mismatches between inspection reports and patients. For some small hospitals of which information construction is still relatively weak, the information generated by the devices is still presented in the form of paper reports. When doctors or patients want to have access to the data at a given time again, they can only look at the paper files. Data integration between medical devices has long been a difficult problem for the medical information system, because the data from medical devices are lack of mandatory unified global standards and have outstanding heterogeneity of devices. In order to protect their own interests, manufacturers use special protocols, etc., thus causing medical decices to still be the "lonely island" of hospital information system. Besides, unfocused application of the data will lead to failure to achieve a reasonable distribution of medical resources. With the deepening of IT construction in hospitals, medical information systems will be bound to develop towards mobile applications, intelligent analysis, and interconnection and interworking, on the premise that there is an effective medical device integration (MDI) technology. To this end, this paper presents a MDI model based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Through abstract classification, this model is able to extract the common characteristics of the devices, resolve the heterogeneous differences between them, and employ a unified protocol to integrate data between devices. And by the IoT technology, it realizes interconnection network of devices and conducts associate matching

  12. Improved color purity and electroluminescent efficiency obtained by modulating thicknesses and evaporation rates of hole block and electron transport layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liang; Deng, Ruiping; Feng, Jing; Li, Xiaona; Li, Xiyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a series of electroluminescent (EL) devices based on trivalent europium (Eu3+) complex Eu(TTA)3phen (TTA = thenoyltrifluoroacetone, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were fabricated by selecting 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) as hole block and electron transport materials, respectively. Interestingly, we found the transport of electrons decreases gradually with increasing thicknesses and evaporation rates of BCP and Alq3 layers. Analyzing carrier distribution and EL spectra, we conclude that appropriately modulating the thicknesses and evaporation rates is an efficient way to decrease the accumulation of electrons in HBL, thus suppressing the EL of hole block material. On the other hand, decreasing the transport of electrons can also facilitate the balance of holes and electrons on Eu(TTA)3phen molecules, thus further enhancing the EL efficiency. As a result, pure Eu3+ emission with the efficiency as high as 8.49 cd/A was realized by controlling the thicknesses and evaporation rates of BCP and Alq3 layers to be 30 nm and 0.10 nm/s, 40 nm and 0.10 nm/s, respectively.

  13. A rhythm-based authentication scheme for smart media devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Dong; Jeong, Young-Sik; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, ubiquitous computing has been rapidly emerged in our lives and extensive studies have been conducted in a variety of areas related to smart devices, such as tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, smart refrigerators, and smart media devices, as a measure for realizing the ubiquitous computing. In particular, smartphones have significantly evolved from the traditional feature phones. Increasingly higher-end smartphone models that can perform a range of functions are now available. Smart devices have become widely popular since they provide high efficiency and great convenience for not only private daily activities but also business endeavors. Rapid advancements have been achieved in smart device technologies to improve the end users' convenience. Consequently, many people increasingly rely on smart devices to store their valuable and important data. With this increasing dependence, an important aspect that must be addressed is security issues. Leaking of private information or sensitive business data due to loss or theft of smart devices could result in exorbitant damage. To mitigate these security threats, basic embedded locking features are provided in smart devices. However, these locking features are vulnerable. In this paper, an original security-locking scheme using a rhythm-based locking system (RLS) is proposed to overcome the existing security problems of smart devices. RLS is a user-authenticated system that addresses vulnerability issues in the existing locking features and provides secure confidentiality in addition to convenience.

  14. A Rhythm-Based Authentication Scheme for Smart Media Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Dong; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, ubiquitous computing has been rapidly emerged in our lives and extensive studies have been conducted in a variety of areas related to smart devices, such as tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, smart refrigerators, and smart media devices, as a measure for realizing the ubiquitous computing. In particular, smartphones have significantly evolved from the traditional feature phones. Increasingly higher-end smartphone models that can perform a range of functions are now available. Smart devices have become widely popular since they provide high efficiency and great convenience for not only private daily activities but also business endeavors. Rapid advancements have been achieved in smart device technologies to improve the end users' convenience. Consequently, many people increasingly rely on smart devices to store their valuable and important data. With this increasing dependence, an important aspect that must be addressed is security issues. Leaking of private information or sensitive business data due to loss or theft of smart devices could result in exorbitant damage. To mitigate these security threats, basic embedded locking features are provided in smart devices. However, these locking features are vulnerable. In this paper, an original security-locking scheme using a rhythm-based locking system (RLS) is proposed to overcome the existing security problems of smart devices. RLS is a user-authenticated system that addresses vulnerability issues in the existing locking features and provides secure confidentiality in addition to convenience. PMID:25110743

  15. A point acoustic device based on aluminum nanowires.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qian-Yi; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Tian, He; Xue, Qing-Tang; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Tao, Lu-Qi; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Zhang, Xue-Yue; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-03-14

    A point Electrical Thermal Acoustic (ETA) device based on aluminum nanowire contacts is designed and fabricated. Interdigitated structural aluminum nanowires are released from the substrate by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching (ICP-RIE). By releasing the interdigitated structure, the nanowires contact each other at approximately 1 mm above the wafer, forming a Point Contact Structure (PCS). It is found that the PCS acoustic device realizes high efficiency when a biased AC signal is applied. The PCS acoustic device reaches a sound pressure level as high as 67 dB at a distance of 1 cm with 74 mW AC input. The power spectrum is flat, ranging from 2 kHz to 20 kHz with a less than ±3 dB fluctuation. The highest normalized Sound Pressure Level (SPL) of the point contact structure acoustic device is 18 dB higher than the suspended aluminum wire acoustic device. Comparisons between the PCS acoustic device and the Suspended Aluminum Nanowire (SAN) acoustic device illustrate that the PCS acoustic device has a flatter power spectrum within the 20 kHz range, and enhances the SPL at a lower frequency. Enhancing the response at lower frequencies is extremely useful, which may enable earphone and loudspeaker applications within the frequency range of the human ear with the help of pulse density modulation.

  16. Isotachophoretic preconcenetration on paper-based microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Babak Y; Connelly, Kelly T; Posner, Jonathan D

    2014-06-17

    Paper substrates have been widely used to construct point-of-care lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) diagnostic devices. Paper based microfluidic devices are robust and relatively simple to operate, compared to channel microfluidic devices, which is perhaps their greatest advantage and the reason they have reached a high level of commercial success. However, paper devices may not be well suited for integrated sample preparation, such as sample extraction and preconcentration, which is required in complex samples with low analyte concentrations. In this study, we investigate integration of isotachophoresis (ITP), an electrokinetic preconcentration and extraction technique, onto nitrocellulose-based paper microfluidic devices with the goal to improve the limit of detection of LFIA. ITP has been largely used in traditional capillary based microfluidic devices as a pretreatment method to preconcentrate and separate a variety of ionic compounds. Our findings show that ITP on nitrocellulose is capable of up to a 900 fold increase in initial sample concentration and up to 60% extraction from 100 μL samples and more than 80% extraction from smaller sample volumes. Paper based ITP is challenged by Joule heating and evaporation because it is open to the environment. We achieved high preconcentration by mitigating evaporation induced dispersion using novel cross-shaped device structures that keep the paper hydrated. We show that ITP on the nitrocellulose membrane can be powered and run several times by a small button battery suggesting that it could be integrated to a portable point-of-care diagnostic device. These results highlight the potential of ITP to increase the sensitivity of paper based LFIA under conditions where small analyte concentrations are present in complex biological samples.

  17. Green Phosphorescence and Electroluminescence of Sulfur Pentafluoride-Functionalized Cationic Iridium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Shavaleev, Nail M; Xie, Guohua; Varghese, Shinto; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Momblona, Cristina; Ortí, Enrique; Bolink, Henk J; Samuel, Ifor D W; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2015-06-15

    We report on four cationic iridium(III) complexes [Ir(C^N)2(dtBubpy)](PF6) that have sulfur pentafluoride-modified 1-phenylpyrazole and 2-phenylpyridine cyclometalating (C^N) ligands (dtBubpy = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridyl). Three of the complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. In cyclic voltammetry, the complexes undergo reversible oxidation of iridium(III) and irreversible reduction of the SF5 group. They emit bright green phosphorescence in acetonitrile solution and in thin films at room temperature, with emission maxima in the range of 482-519 nm and photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 79%. The electron-withdrawing sulfur pentafluoride group on the cyclometalating ligands increases the oxidation potential and the redox gap and blue-shifts the phosphorescence of the iridium complexes more so than the commonly employed fluoro and trifluoromethyl groups. The irreversible reduction of the SF5 group may be a problem in organic electronics; for example, the complexes do not exhibit electroluminescence in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LEECs). Nevertheless, the complexes exhibit green to yellow-green electroluminescence in doped multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with emission maxima ranging from 501 nm to 520 nm and with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to 1.7% in solution-processed devices.

  18. Diffractive devices based on blue phase liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Huang, Shuaijia; Su, Yikai

    2016-09-01

    Blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has been attractive for display and photonic applications for its sub-millisecond response time, no need for surface alignment, and an optically isotropic dark state. Because of these advantages, diffractive devices based on blue phase liquid crystals have great potential for wide applications. In this work, we present several BPLC diffractive devices. The operation principles, fabrication and experimental measurements will be discussed in details for two BPLC gratings realized by holographic method and a BPLC Fresnel lens using a spatial light modulator projector. All of these devices exhibit several attractive features such as sub-millisecond response, relatively high spatial resolution and polarization-independence.

  19. Magneto-optical switching devices based on Si resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Kazuki; Okada, Kazuya; Amemiya, Yoshiteru; Yokoyama, Shin

    2016-04-01

    The magneto-optical switching devices based on Si ring and Si photonic crystal resonators have been fabricated using a Bi3Fe5O12 (BIG) film deposited by the metal organic decomposition (MOD) method. The quality of the obtained BIG film was evaluated by X-ray diffraction and the magneto-optical Kerr effect and relatively good results were obtained. The light modulations of both devices were ≦20% at a wavelength of ˜1.5 µm. The operation mechanisms of both devices are explained by the Cotton-Mouton effect where the magnetic field direction is perpendicular to the light propagation direction.

  20. Electrocaloric devices based on thin-film heat switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Richard I.; Malloy, Kevin J.

    2009-09-01

    We describe a new approach to refrigeration, heat pumping, and electrical generation that allows one to exploit the attractive properties of thin films of electrocaloric materials. Layers of electrocaloric material coupled with thin-film heat switches can work as either refrigerators and heat pumps or electrical generators, depending on the phasing of the applied voltages and heat switching. With heat switches based on thin layers of liquid crystals, the efficiency of electrocaloric thin-film devices can be at least as high as that of current thermoelectric devices. Advanced heat switches that may use carbon nanotubes would enable thin-film refrigerators and generators to outperform conventional vapor-compression devices.

  1. Absorbance Based Light Emitting Diode Optical Sensors and Sensing Devices.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Martina; Diamond, Dermot

    2008-04-07

    The ever increasing demand for in situ monitoring of health, environment and security has created a need for reliable, miniaturised sensing devices. To achieve this, appropriate analytical devices are required that possess operating characteristics of reliability, low power consumption, low cost, autonomous operation capability and compatibility with wireless communications systems. The use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources is one strategy, which has been successfully applied in chemical sensing. This paper summarises the development and advancement of LED based chemical sensors and sensing devices in terms of their configuration and application, with the focus on transmittance and reflectance absorptiometric measurements.

  2. Absorbance Based Light Emitting Diode Optical Sensors and Sensing Devices

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Martina; Diamond, Dermot

    2008-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for in situ monitoring of health, environment and security has created a need for reliable, miniaturised sensing devices. To achieve this, appropriate analytical devices are required that possess operating characteristics of reliability, low power consumption, low cost, autonomous operation capability and compatibility with wireless communications systems. The use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources is one strategy, which has been successfully applied in chemical sensing. This paper summarises the development and advancement of LED based chemical sensors and sensing devices in terms of their configuration and application, with the focus on transmittance and reflectance absorptiometric measurements. PMID:27879829

  3. Evaluation of Vacuum-based Sampling Devices for Collection ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report The existing surface sampling strategy for a biological incident involving B. anthracis spores requires the use of various methods depending on the surface type. This project comparatively evaluated the vacuum sock and two additional vacuum-based collection devices (37 mm filter cassette and 3M™ Trace Evidence Filter) for their sampling efficacy. The 37 mm filter cassette was evaluated with mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filters or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters installed, each was considered a unique device. These data were generated so appropriate sampling devices could be selected following a B. anthracis incident. Bacillus atrophaeus was used a surrogate.

  4. Flexible graphene sound device based on laser reduced graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Lu-Qi; Sun, Hao; Liu, Ying; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-09-01

    Existing thermoacoustic devices are based on a complicated fabrication process, which extremely limits their practical applications. In this paper, we realize a flexible graphene sound device based on laser reduced graphene. The graphene oxide is converted into graphene by a 450 nm laser with a one-step process. The performance of the graphene sound device is affected by the laser power, the scanning speed, and the substrate thickness. The experimental results match well with the theoretical results. Besides, the sound device has the advantages of excellent flexibility, broad frequency spectrum (0-40 kHz), fast fabrication process, and low cost, which will become a promising alternative in the flexible electronic systems in the future.

  5. Electrochemical model of the polyaniline based organic memristive device

    SciTech Connect

    Demin, V. A. E-mail: victor.erokhin@fis.unipr.it; Erokhin, V. V. E-mail: victor.erokhin@fis.unipr.it; Kashkarov, P. K.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2014-08-14

    The electrochemical organic memristive device with polyaniline active layer is a stand-alone device designed and realized for reproduction of some synapse properties in the innovative electronic circuits, including the neuromorphic networks capable for learning. In this work, a new theoretical model of the polyaniline memristive is presented. The developed model of organic memristive functioning was based on the detailed consideration of possible electrochemical processes occuring in the active zone of this device. Results of the calculation have demonstrated not only the qualitative explanation of the characteristics observed in the experiment but also the quantitative similarities of the resultant current values. It is shown how the memristive could behave at zero potential difference relative to the reference electrode. This improved model can establish a basis for the design and prediction of properties of more complicated circuits and systems (including stochastic ones) based on the organic memristive devices.

  6. Integrated fuses for OLED lighting device

    DOEpatents

    Pschenitzka, Florian

    2007-07-10

    An embodiment of the present invention pertains to an electroluminescent lighting device for area illumination. The lighting device is fault tolerant due, in part, to the patterning of one or both of the electrodes into strips, and each of one or more of these strips has a fuse formed on it. The fuses are integrated on the substrate. By using the integrated fuses, the number of external contacts that are used is minimized. The fuse material is deposited using one of the deposition techniques that is used to deposit the thin layers of the electroluminescent lighting device.

  7. Molecular-Based Devices and Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-23

    nano-cavities (50nm x 50nm) etched into the Si3N4 layer at the center of the electrode. Subsequently, molecules are self - assembled onto the bottom...various types of self assembled monolayers (SAMs) arranged in vertical configuration (Fig 2) . Each floor consists of different type of molecular layer...modified ferrocene film (Figure 2 compound 1) , and a the protein Azurin (Az). The Fc-based SAM can be used as a candidate for the bottom layer as we have

  8. Microwave based civil structure inspection device

    SciTech Connect

    Sohns, C.W.; Bible, D.W.

    1994-06-01

    A microwave based ``wall probe`` has been developed which is capable of nondestructive evaluation of architectural structures. By using microwaves in the 8 to 12 GHz range this probing instrument can detect subsurface characteristics through concrete, brick, wood or other building materials to depths in excess of 12 inches. The instrument interrogates a structure from a single side by transmitting a microwave signal into the surface at some angle of incidence and receiving the reflected signal some distance away on the same side of the structure. The transmitted signal is partially reflected at each internal boundary of different dielectric constant, giving a composite reflection which contains information from each internal layer. The reflected composite signal is compared in phase and amplitude to the transmitted signal and that reading is considered the ``signature`` of the structure under test. Computer algorithms analyze the signature for recognizable features and nonstandard construction.

  9. Ambient Sound-Based Collaborative Localization of Indeterministic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Kamminga, Jacob; Le, Duc; Havinga, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Localization is essential in wireless sensor networks. To our knowledge, no prior work has utilized low-cost devices for collaborative localization based on only ambient sound, without the support of local infrastructure. The reason may be the fact that most low-cost devices are indeterministic and suffer from uncertain input latencies. This uncertainty makes accurate localization challenging. Therefore, we present a collaborative localization algorithm (Cooperative Localization on Android with ambient Sound Sources (CLASS)) that simultaneously localizes the position of indeterministic devices and ambient sound sources without local infrastructure. The CLASS algorithm deals with the uncertainty by splitting the devices into subsets so that outliers can be removed from the time difference of arrival values and localization results. Since Android is indeterministic, we select Android devices to evaluate our approach. The algorithm is evaluated with an outdoor experiment and achieves a mean Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 2.18 m with a standard deviation of 0.22 m. Estimated directions towards the sound sources have a mean RMSE of 17.5° and a standard deviation of 2.3°. These results show that it is feasible to simultaneously achieve a relative positioning of both devices and sound sources with sufficient accuracy, even when using non-deterministic devices and platforms, such as Android. PMID:27649176

  10. MOF-based electronic and opto-electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Stavila, V; Talin, A A; Allendorf, M D

    2014-08-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of hybrid materials with unique optical and electronic properties arising from rational self-assembly of the organic linkers and metal ions/clusters, yielding myriads of possible structural motifs. The combination of order and chemical tunability, coupled with good environmental stability of MOFs, are prompting many research groups to explore the possibility of incorporating these materials as active components in devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, radiation detectors, and chemical sensors. Although this field is only in its incipiency, many new fundamental insights relevant to integrating MOFs with such devices have already been gained. In this review, we focus our attention on the basic requirements and structural elements needed to fabricate MOF-based devices and summarize the current state of MOF research in the area of electronic, opto-electronic and sensor devices. We summarize various approaches to designing active MOFs, creation of hybrid material systems combining MOFs with other materials, and assembly and integration of MOFs with device hardware. Critical directions of future research are identified, with emphasis on achieving the desired MOF functionality in a device and establishing the structure-property relationships to identify and rationalize the factors that impact device performance.

  11. Highly efficient polymer phosphorescent light-emitting devices based on a new polyfluorene derivative as host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bao-Zheng; Liu, Jie; Wu, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Bin; Wen, Shang-Sheng; Yang, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Several highly efficient iridium-complex polymer light-emitting devices (PLEDs) are fabricated, with a newly synthesized blue conjugated polymer, poly[(9,9-bis(4-(2-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl)-fluorene)-co-(3,7-dibenziothiene-S,S-dioxide15)] (PPF-3,7SO15), chosen as host. High luminous efficiencies of 7.4 cd·A-1 and 27.4 cd·A-1 are achieved in red and green PLEDs, respectively, by optimizing the doping concentrations of red phosphorescent dye iridium bis(1-phenylisoquinoline) (acetylacetonate) (Ir(piq)) and green phosphorescent dye iridium tris(2-(4-tolyl)pyridinato-N, C2') (Ir(mppy)3). Furthermore, highly efficient white PLEDs (WPLEDs) with the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.35, 0.38) are successfully produced by carefully controlling the doping concentration of the iridium complex. The obtained WPLEDs show maximal efficiencies of 14.4 cd·A-1 and 10.1 lm·W-1, which are comparable to those of incandescent bulbs. Moreover, the electroluminescent spectrum of the white device with an initial luminance of about 1000 cd·m-2 is stable, subject to constant applied current stress, indicating that good device stability can be obtained in this system.

  12. Electroluminescence enhancement in polymer light-emitting diodes through hole injection layer insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng; Tong, Guo-Ping; George, Thomas F.

    2009-10-01

    After a hole injection layer is inserted into a polymer light-emitting diode (PLED), the positive polaron is easily injected into the polymer layer. An applied electrical field drives the positive polaron to approach and collide with the nonemissive triplet exciton. The collision between the positive polaron and neutral triplet exciton induces the exciton to emit light. Based on this physical picture, the maximum quantum efficiency of the PLEDs, 61.6%, is consistent with the experimental result of 60%. With the help of an external magnetic field, a structure of PLEDs with high electroluminescent efficiency is designed.

  13. Quantum-chemical investigation of the structure and electronic absorption spectra of electroluminescent zinc complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, B. F.; Baryshnikov, G. V.; Korop, A. A.; Minaeva, V. A.; Kaplunov, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Using the quantum chemical methods of the density functional theory and of the electron density topological analysis, we have studied the structure of two recently synthesized electroluminescent zinc complexes, one with aminoquinoline ligands and the other with a Schiff base (N,O-donor). The energies and intensities of vertical excitations for the molecules under study have been calculated in terms of the PM3 semiempirical approximation taking into account the configurational interaction between singly excited singlet excited states. Good agreement between calculation results and experimental data on the electron density topological characteristics and on the visible and UV absorption spectra has been obtained.

  14. Terahertz biochip based on optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ja-Yu; Chen, Li-Jin; Kao, Tzeng-Fu; Chang, Hsu-Hao; Liu, An-Shyi; Yu, Yi-Chun; Wu, Ruey-Beei; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Pan, Ci-Ling; Tsai, Ming-Cheng; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2005-10-01

    The accurate detection of minute amounts of chemical and biological substances has been a major goal in bioanalytical technology throughout the twentieth century. Fluorescence dye labeling detection remains the effective analysis method, but it modifies the surroundings of molecules and lowering the precision of detection. An alternative label free detecting tool with little disturbance of target molecules is highly desired. Theoretical calculations and experiments have demonstrated that many biomolecules have intrinsic resonance due to vibration or rotation level transitions, allowing terahertz (THz)-probing technique as a potential tool for the label-free and noninvasive detection of biomolecules. In this paper, we first ever combined the THz optoelectronic technique with biochip technology to realize THz biosensing. By transferring the edge-coupled photonic transmitter into a thin glass substrate and by integrating with a polyethylene based biochip channel, near field THz detection of the biomolecules is demonstrated. By directly acquiring the absorption micro-spectrum in the THz range, different boiomecules can then be identified according to their THz fingerprints. For preliminary studies, the capability to identity different illicit drug powders is successfully demonstrated. This novel biochip sensing system has the advantages including label-free detection, high selectivity, high sensitivity, ease for sample preparation, and ease to parallel integrate with other biochip functionality modules. Our demonstrated detection capability allows specifying various illicit drug powders with weight of nano-gram, which also enables rapid identification with minute amounts of other important molecules including DNA, biochemical agents in terrorism warfare, explosives, viruses, and toxics.

  15. Fiber-based devices for DWDM optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Claire; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Yisi; Pan, Jing-Jong; Zhou, Fengqing; Dong, Liang; He, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Photonic devices with low insertion loss are important in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems. Currently most of these devices, such as variable optical attenuators (VOA), switches, filters, and dispersion compensators, etc., involve bulk (or micro-optic) components that require conversions between fibers and free-space optical elements leading to high insertion loss. Recently, we have proposed, analyzed, and demonstrated several fiber based devices for DWDM optical communication systems. Here we present an in-line fiber VOA, a 2x2 switchable wavelength add/drop filter, and high performance dispersion compensators. The VOA is built with a side-polished fiber covered with a liquid crystal overlay. By varying the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules using an applied electric field, the loss of the device can be controlled. The 2x2 wavelength switch is designed by recording electrically switchable holographic gratings in a layer of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) sandwiched between two side-polished fibers. The dispersion compensators are based on high precision fiber Bragg gratings (FBG). A unique method for writing FBGs with arbitrary phase and amplitude distributions is demonstrated. All of these devices are analyzed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Both theoretical and experimental results will be presented and discussed. These devices are suitable for DWDM optical information transmission and network management.

  16. Photoluminescent (PL) or electroluminescent (EL) quantum dots for display, lighting, and photomedicine (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yajie

    2017-02-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have gone through a long journey before finding their ways into the display field. This talk will briefly touch on the history before trying to answer several key questions related to QDs applications in display: What are QDs? How are they made? What properties do they have and Why? How can these properties be used to improve color and efficiency of display, in either photoluminescence (PL) or electroluminescence (EL) mode? And what are the remaining challenges for QDs wide adoption in display industry? Lastly, some most recent progresses in our UCF lab at both PL and EL fronts will be highlighted. For PL, a cadmium-free perovskite-polymer composite films with exceptionally narrow emission green peaks (FWHM 20 nm) and good water and thermal stability will be reported. Together with red quantum dots or PFS/KSF phosphors as down-converters for blue LEDs, a white-light source with 95% Rec. 2020 color gamut was demonstrated [1]. For EL, red quantum dot light emitting devices (QLEDs) with record luminance of 165,000 Cd/m2 has been obtained at a current density of 1000 mA/cm2 with a low driving voltage of 5.8 V and CIE coordinates of (0.69, 0.31). [2] The potential of using these QLEDs for light sources for integrated sensing platform [3] or high efficiency, high color quality hybrid white OLED [4] will be discussed. [1] Y. N. Wang, J. He, H. Chen, J. S. Chen, R. D. Zhu, P. Ma, A. Towers, Y. Lin, A. J. Gesquiere, S. T. Wu, Y. J. Dong. Ultrastable, Highly Luminescent Organic-Inorganic Perovskite - Polymer Composite Films, Advanced Materials, accepted, (2016). [2] Y. J. Dong, J.M. Caruge, Z. Q. Zhou, C. Hamilton, Z. Popovic, J. Ho, M. Stevenson, G. Liu, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, and J. Steckel Ultra-bright, Highly Efficient, Low Roll-off Inverted Quantum-Dot Light Emitting Devices (QLEDs). SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 46, 270-273 (2015). [3] J. He, H. Chen, S. T. Wu, and Y. J. Dong, Integrated Sensing Platform Based on Quantum

  17. Developments in polymer materials for electroluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Heinrich; Buesing, Arne; Falcou, Aurelie; Heun, Susanne; Kluge, Edgar; Parham, Amir; Stoessel, Philipp; Spreitzer, Hubert; Treacher, Kevin; Vestweber, Horst

    2002-02-01

    In the last few years industrial research into materials fulfilling the needs of the fledgling OLED display industry have intensified considerably. At Covion we have developed a range of polymers based on phenyl-PPV derivatives which are now being commercially exploited in the first polymer LED applications. These materials have been developed systematically with the demanding requirements of the devices (e.g., high efficiency and lifetime) and the industrial applicability (e.g. processibility, reproducibility and reliability of supply) in mind. However due to market forces, such as the introduction of 3rd generation mobile communication technology, there will be an immediate demand for materials for full color OLED displays. In this paper we will report on progress in the development of Red, Green and Blue (RGB) materials at Covion. The requirements for the different colors vary depending on band gap (amongst others) and therefore the challenges for each color are different. The experience gained in understanding the important structure-property relationships in the phenyl-PPVs has been used to develop these new RGB materials.

  18. Noise and its reduction in graphene based nanopore devices.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashvani; Park, Kyeong-Beom; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Ki-Bum

    2013-12-13

    Ionic current fluctuations in graphene nanopore devices are a ubiquitous phenomenon and are responsible for degraded spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we descriptively investigate the impact of different substrate materials (Si and quartz) and membrane thicknesses on noise characteristics of graphene nanopore devices. To mitigate the membrane fluctuations and pin-hole defects, a SiNx membrane is transferred onto the substrate and a pore of approximately 70 nm in diameter is perforated prior to the graphene transfer. Comprehensive noise study reveals that the few layer graphene transferred onto the quartz substrate possesses low noise level and higher signal to noise ratio as compared to single layer graphene, without deteriorating the spatial resolution. The findings here point to improvement of graphene based nanopore devices for exciting opportunities in future single-molecule genomic screening devices.

  19. High Density Memory Based on Quantum Device Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWagt, Paul; Frazier, Gary; Tang, Hao

    1995-01-01

    We explore the feasibility of ultra-high density memory based on quantum devices. Starting from overall constraints on chip area, power consumption, access speed, and noise margin, we deduce boundaries on single cell parameters such as required operating voltage and standby current. Next, the possible role of quantum devices is examined. Since the most mature quantum device, the resonant tunneling diode (RTD) can easily be integrated vertically, it naturally leads to the issue of 3D integrated memory. We propose a novel method of addressing vertically integrated bistable two-terminal devices, such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) and Esaki diodes, that avoids individual physical contacts. The new concept has been demonstrated experimentally in memory cells of field effect transistors (FET's) and stacked RTD's.

  20. Magnetophoretic-based microfluidic device for DNA Concentration.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sangjo; Shim, Jiwook; Taylor, William R; Kosari, Farhad; Vasmatzis, George; Ahlquist, David A; Bashir, Rashid

    2016-04-01

    Nucleic acids serve as biomarkers of disease and it is highly desirable to develop approaches to extract small number of such genomic extracts from human bodily fluids. Magnetic particles-based nucleic acid extraction is widely used for concentration of small amount of samples and is followed by DNA amplification in specific assays. However, approaches to integrate such magnetic particles based capture with micro and nanofluidic based assays are still lacking. In this report, we demonstrate a magnetophoretic-based approach for target-specific DNA extraction and concentration within a microfluidic device. This device features a large chamber for reducing flow velocity and an array of μ-magnets for enhancing magnetic flux density. With this strategy, the device is able to collect up to 95 % of the magnetic particles from the fluidic flow and to concentrate these magnetic particles in a collection region. Then an enzymatic reaction is used to detach the DNA from the magnetic particles within the microfluidic device, making the DNA available for subsequent analysis. Concentrations of over 1000-fold for 90 bp dsDNA molecules is demonstrated. This strategy can bridge the gap between detection of low concentration analytes from clinical samples and a range of micro and nanofluidic sensors and devices including nanopores, nano-cantilevers, and nanowires.

  1. Text-Displaying Colorimetric Paper-Based Analytical Device.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kentaro; Suzuki, Koji; Citterio, Daniel

    2017-08-25

    This paper describes a paper-based analytical device allowing the direct semiquantitative interpretation of the result of a chemical assay in the form of "text". The combined use of a classical colorimetric indicator system and an additional inert colorant enables a versatile text-displaying detection mechanism on a paper device. For proof-of-concept, urinary protein has been selected as a model analytical target. The whole text-displaying paper device has been developed based on printing techniques including wax printing, inkjet printing, and 3D printing. The results of user tests performed with protein (human serum albumin) samples in aqueous standard solutions and human urine demonstrated that the accuracy was comparable for the elaborated paper device (74.7% for standard samples and 66.7% for urine) and a conventional colorimetric urine dipstick (67.2% for standard samples and 65.3% for urine). Storage stability as long as at least 117 days has been confirmed based on software-assisted quantitative color analysis. The developed text-displaying approach is proposed as an alternative simple detection motif for paper-based analytical devices.

  2. {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100>, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100> oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  3. Silicon Nanowire-Based Devices for Gas-Phase Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Anping; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R.; de Smet, Louis C.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2001, SiNW-based sensor devices have attracted considerable interest as a general platform for ultra-sensitive, electrical detection of biological and chemical species. Most studies focus on detecting, sensing and monitoring analytes in aqueous solution, but the number of studies on sensing gases and vapors using SiNW-based devices is increasing. This review gives an overview of selected research papers related to the application of electrical SiNW-based devices in the gas phase that have been reported over the past 10 years. Special attention is given to surface modification strategies and the sensing principles involved. In addition, future steps and technological challenges in this field are addressed. PMID:24368699

  4. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of graphene nanoribbon-based devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Md Sharafat Huynh, Duc Hau; Nguyen, Phuong Duc; Jiang, Liming; Nguyen, Thanh Cong; Al-Dirini, Feras; Hossain, Faruque M.; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2016-03-28

    There have been numerous theoretical studies on exciting thermoelectric properties of graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs); however, most of these studies are mainly based on simulations. In this work, we measure and characterize the thermoelectric properties of GNRs and compare the results with theoretical predictions. Our experimental results verify that nano-structuring and patterning graphene into nano-ribbons significantly enhance its thermoelectric power, confirming previous predictions. Although patterning results in lower conductance (G), the overall power factor (S{sup 2}G) increases for nanoribbons. We demonstrate that edge roughness plays an important role in achieving such an enhanced performance and support it through first principles simulations. We show that uncontrolled edge roughness, which is considered detrimental in GNR-based electronic devices, leads to enhanced thermoelectric performance of GNR-based thermoelectric devices. The result validates previously reported theoretical studies of GNRs and demonstrates the potential of GNRs for the realization of highly efficient thermoelectric devices.

  5. Flexible non-volatile memory devices based on organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosseddu, Piero; Casula, Giulia; Lai, Stefano; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2015-09-01

    The possibility of developing fully organic electronic circuits is critically dependent on the ability to realize a full set of electronic functionalities based on organic devices. In order to complete the scene, a fundamental element is still missing, i.e. reliable data storage. Over the past few years, a considerable effort has been spent on the development and optimization of organic polymer based memory elements. Among several possible solutions, transistor-based memories and resistive switching-based memories are attracting a great interest in the scientific community. In this paper, a route for the fabrication of organic semiconductor-based memory devices with performances beyond the state of the art is reported. Both the families of organic memories will be considered. A flexible resistive memory based on a novel combination of materials is presented. In particular, high retention time in ambient conditions are reported. Complementary, a low voltage transistor-based memory is presented. Low voltage operation is allowed by an hybrid, nano-sized dielectric, which is also responsible for the memory effect in the device. Thanks to the possibility of reproducibly fabricating such device on ultra-thin substrates, high mechanical stability is reported.

  6. Improved electroluminescence with reversed bilayers of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokiya, Shohei; Sasaki, Fumio; Hotta, Shu; Yanagi, Hisao

    2016-03-01

    Organic electroluminescence (EL) devices were fabricated with bilayered thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) derivatives: p-type 5,5‧-bis(4-biphenylyl)-2,2‧-bithiophene (BP2T) and n-type 5,5‧-bis(4‧-cyanobiphenyl-4-yl)-2,2‧-bithiophene (BP2T-CN). Two types of EL device, Al:Li/BP2T-CN/BP2T/ITO (device A) and Au/BP2T/BP2T-CN/ITO (device B), were investigated using vapor-deposited films of BP2T and BP2T-CN by changing the order of deposition onto the indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/glass substrate. The EL performance was significantly improved for device B in which the two molecules had a lying orientation suitable for efficient carrier injection and transport as well as surface emission. In device A, on the other hand, the standing BP2T orientation resulted in much lower current density and EL intensity.

  7. Encapsulation methods for organic electrical devices

    DOEpatents

    Blum, Yigal D.; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijian

    2013-06-18

    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device encapsulated by alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The encapsulation methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  8. Computational insights into the photophysical and electroluminescence properties of homoleptic fac-Ir(C^N)3 complexes employing different phenyl-derivative-featuring phenylimidazole-based ligands for promising phosphors in OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieqiong; Wang, Li; Sun, Kenan; Zhang, Jinglai

    2016-02-21

    The electronic structures and photophysical properties of three homoleptic iridium(iii) complexes IrL3 with C^N ligands, including 2a (L = 1-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-2-phenyl-1H-imidazole), 5a (L = 1-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-phenyl-1H-imidazole), and 6a (L = 1-(3,5-diisopropylbiphenyl-4-yl)-2-phenyl-1H-imidazole), are investigated by means of the density functional method. Furthermore, seven new complexes are theoretically designed, including 1a (L = 1,2-diphenyl-1H-imidazole), 3a (L = 1-(2,6-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-phenyl-1H-imidazol), 4a (L = 2-(2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)isophthalaldehyde), 1b (L = 2-(biphenyl-3-yl)-1H-imidazole), 2b (L = 2-(2',6'-diisopropylbiphenyl-3-yl)-1H-imidazole), 3b (L = 2-(2',6'-dimethoxybiphenyl-3-yl)-1H-imidazole), and 4b (L = 3'-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)biphenyl-2,6-dicarbaldehyde), to explore the influence of different substituents and different substituted positions on the electronic structures, phosphorescence properties, and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) performance. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap is greatly decreased by introduction of the -CHO group into the phenyl ring (4a and 4b see -sketched structures for all the investigated Ir(iii) complexes). As a result, their absorption and emission spectra present red-shifting leading them to be potential red-emitting phosphors. Other complexes are all blue-emitting materials, indicating that the effect of the substituted position on the emitting color is negligible. However, the addition of the substituent on the para-position of the phenyl ring in the phenylimidazole ligand would increase the quantum yield and electroluminescence (EL) performance compared with that on the imidazole ring.

  9. A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kinam; Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Taek; Cho, Seong-Ho; Chung, Hyun-Jong

    2011-11-16

    As silicon-based electronics approach the limit of improvements to performance and capacity through dimensional scaling, attention in the semiconductor field has turned to graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. Its high mobility of charge carriers (electrons and holes) could lead to its use in the next generation of high-performance devices. Graphene is unlikely to replace silicon completely, however, because of the poor on/off current ratio resulting from its zero bandgap. But it could be used to improve silicon-based devices, in particular in high-speed electronics and optical modulators. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  10. Acoustic wave based MEMS devices for biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Voiculescu, Ioana; Nordin, Anis Nurashikin

    2012-03-15

    This paper presents a review of acoustic-wave based MEMS devices that offer a promising technology platform for the development of sensitive, portable, real-time biosensors. MEMS fabrication of acoustic wave based biosensors enables device miniaturization, power consumption reduction and integration with electronic circuits. For biological applications, the biosensors are integrated in a microfluidic system and the sensing area is coated with a biospecific layer. When a bioanalyte interacts with the sensing layer, mass and viscosity variations of the biospecific layer can be detected by monitoring changes in the acoustic wave properties such as velocity, attenuation, resonant frequency and delay time. Few types of acoustic wave devices could be integrated in microfluidic systems without significant degradation of the quality factor. The acoustic wave based MEMS devices reported in the literature as biosensors and presented in this review are film bulk acoustic wave resonators (FBAR), surface acoustic waves (SAW) resonators and SAW delay lines. Different approaches to the realization of FBARs, SAW resonators and SAW delay lines for various biochemical applications are presented. Methods of integration of the acoustic wave MEMS devices in the microfluidic systems and functionalization strategies will be also discussed.

  11. Polymer-based resistive memory materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Peng; Liu, Shu-Juan; Gong, Tao; Zhao, Qiang; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Due to the advantages of good scalability, flexibility, low cost, ease of processing, 3D-stacking capability, and large capacity for data storage, polymer-based resistive memories have been a promising alternative or supplementary devices to conventional inorganic semiconductor-based memory technology, and attracted significant scientific interest as a new and promising research field. In this review, we first introduced the general characteristics of the device structures and fabrication, memory effects, switching mechanisms, and effects of electrodes on memory properties associated with polymer-based resistive memory devices. Subsequently, the research progress concerning the use of single polymers or polymer composites as active materials for resistive memory devices has been summarized and discussed. In particular, we consider a rational approach to their design and discuss how to realize the excellent memory devices and understand the memory mechanisms. Finally, the current challenges and several possible future research directions in this field have also been discussed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A point acoustic device based on aluminum nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qian-Yi; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Tian, He; Xue, Qing-Tang; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Tao, Lu-Qi; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Zhang, Xue-Yue; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-03-01

    A point Electrical Thermal Acoustic (ETA) device based on aluminum nanowire contacts is designed and fabricated. Interdigitated structural aluminum nanowires are released from the substrate by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching (ICP-RIE). By releasing the interdigitated structure, the nanowires contact each other at approximately 1 mm above the wafer, forming a Point Contact Structure (PCS). It is found that the PCS acoustic device realizes high efficiency when a biased AC signal is applied. The PCS acoustic device reaches a sound pressure level as high as 67 dB at a distance of 1 cm with 74 mW AC input. The power spectrum is flat, ranging from 2 kHz to 20 kHz with a less than +/-3 dB fluctuation. The highest normalized Sound Pressure Level (SPL) of the point contact structure acoustic device is 18 dB higher than the suspended aluminum wire acoustic device. Comparisons between the PCS acoustic device and the Suspended Aluminum Nanowire (SAN) acoustic device illustrate that the PCS acoustic device has a flatter power spectrum within the 20 kHz range, and enhances the SPL at a lower frequency. Enhancing the response at lower frequencies is extremely useful, which may enable earphone and loudspeaker applications within the frequency range of the human ear with the help of pulse density modulation.A point Electrical Thermal Acoustic (ETA) device based on aluminum nanowire contacts is designed and fabricated. Interdigitated structural aluminum nanowires are released from the substrate by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching (ICP-RIE). By releasing the interdigitated structure, the nanowires contact each other at approximately 1 mm above the wafer, forming a Point Contact Structure (PCS). It is found that the PCS acoustic device realizes high efficiency when a biased AC signal is applied. The PCS acoustic device reaches a sound pressure level as high as 67 dB at a distance of 1 cm with 74 mW AC input. The power spectrum is flat, ranging from 2 k

  13. Switchable Solar Window Devices Based on Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Joseph; Ma, Dakang; Munday, Jeremy

    Windows are an interesting target for photovoltaics due to the potential for large area of deployment and because glass is already a ubiquitous component of solar cell devices. Many demonstrations of solar windows in recent years have used photovoltaic devices which are semitransparent in the visible region. Much research has focused on enhancing device absorption in the UV and IR ranges as a means to circumvent the basic tradeoff between efficiency and transparency to visible light. Use of switchable solar window is a less investigated alternative approach; these windows utilize the visible spectrum but can toggle between high transparency and high efficiency as needed. We present a novel switchable solar window device based on Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (PDLC). By applying an electric field to the PDLC layer, the device can be switched from an opaque, light diffusing, efficient photovoltaic cell to a clear, transparent window. In the off state (i.e. scattering state), these devices have the added benefits of increased reflectivity for reduced lighting and cooling costs and haze for privacy. Further, we demonstrate that these windows have the potential for self-powering due to the very low power required to maintain the on, or high transparency, state. Support From: University of Maryland and Maryland Nano-center and its Fablab.

  14. Fixed Junction Photovoltaic Devices Based On Polymerizable Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limanek, Austin; Leger, Janelle, , Dr.

    Recently, polymer-based photovoltaic devices (PPVs) have received significant attention as a possible affordable, large area and flexible solar energy technology. In particular, research on chemically fixed p-i-n junctions in polymer photovoltaic devices has shown promising results. These devices are composed of ionic monomers in a polymer matrix sandwiched between two electrodes. When a potential is applied, the ionic monomers migrate towards their corresponding electrodes, enabling electrochemical doping of the polymer. This leads to the formation of bonds between the polymer and ionic monomers, resulting in the formation of a chemically fixed p-i-n junction. However, early devices suffered from long charging times and low overall response. This has been attributed to the low phase compatibility between the ionic monomers and the polymer. It has been shown for light-emitting electrochemical cells, replacing the ionic monomers with polymerizable ionic liquids (PILs) mitigates these challenges. We will present the use of PILs as the dopant in fixed junction PPV devices. Preliminary devices demonstrate significantly improved performance, decreased charging times, and high open circuit voltages. This research supported by the National Science Foundation DMR-1057209.

  15. Game theory-based mode cooperative selection mechanism for device-to-device visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuxin; Huang, Zhitong; Li, Wei; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-03-01

    Various patterns of device-to-device (D2D) communication, from Bluetooth to Wi-Fi Direct, are emerging due to the increasing requirements of information sharing between mobile terminals. This paper presents an innovative pattern named device-to-device visible light communication (D2D-VLC) to alleviate the growing traffic problem. However, the occlusion problem is a difficulty in D2D-VLC. This paper proposes a game theory-based solution in which the best-response dynamics and best-response strategies are used to realize a mode-cooperative selection mechanism. This mechanism uses system capacity as the utility function to optimize system performance and selects the optimal communication mode for each active user from three candidate modes. Moreover, the simulation and experimental results show that the mechanism can attain a significant improvement in terms of effectiveness and energy saving compared with the cases where the users communicate via only the fixed transceivers (light-emitting diode and photo diode) or via only D2D.

  16. Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) Based Microfluidic Devices for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Muhammad Waseem; Tayyaba, Shahzadi; Afzulpurkar, Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) based microfluidic devices have gained popularity in biomedicine field over the last few years. In this paper, a comprehensive overview of microfluidic devices such as micropumps and microneedles has been presented for biomedical applications. The aim of this paper is to present the major features and issues related to micropumps and microneedles, e.g., working principles, actuation methods, fabrication techniques, construction, performance parameters, failure analysis, testing, safety issues, applications, commercialization issues and future prospects. Based on the actuation mechanisms, the micropumps are classified into two main types, i.e., mechanical and non-mechanical micropumps. Microneedles can be categorized according to their structure, fabrication process, material, overall shape, tip shape, size, array density and application. The presented literature review on micropumps and microneedles will provide comprehensive information for researchers working on design and development of microfluidic devices for biomedical applications. PMID:21747700

  17. Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) Based Microfluidic Devices for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Waseem; Tayyaba, Shahzadi; Afzulpurkar, Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) based microfluidic devices have gained popularity in biomedicine field over the last few years. In this paper, a comprehensive overview of microfluidic devices such as micropumps and microneedles has been presented for biomedical applications. The aim of this paper is to present the major features and issues related to micropumps and microneedles, e.g., working principles, actuation methods, fabrication techniques, construction, performance parameters, failure analysis, testing, safety issues, applications, commercialization issues and future prospects. Based on the actuation mechanisms, the micropumps are classified into two main types, i.e., mechanical and non-mechanical micropumps. Microneedles can be categorized according to their structure, fabrication process, material, overall shape, tip shape, size, array density and application. The presented literature review on micropumps and microneedles will provide comprehensive information for researchers working on design and development of microfluidic devices for biomedical applications.

  18. Mini array of quantum Hall devices based on epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, S.; Lebedeva, N.; Hämäläinen, J.; Iisakka, I.; Immonen, P.; Manninen, A. J.; Satrapinski, A.

    2016-05-01

    Series connection of four quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices based on epitaxial graphene films was studied for realization of a quantum resistance standard with an up-scaled value. The tested devices showed quantum Hall plateaux RH,2 at a filling factor v = 2 starting from a relatively low magnetic field (between 4 T and 5 T) when the temperature was 1.5 K. The precision measurements of quantized Hall resistance of four QHE devices connected by triple series connections and external bonding wires were done at B = 7 T and T = 1.5 K using a commercial precision resistance bridge with 50 μA current through the QHE device. The results showed that the deviation of the quantized Hall resistance of the series connection of four graphene-based QHE devices from the expected value of 4×RH,2 = 2 h/e2 was smaller than the relative standard uncertainty of the measurement (<1 × 10-7) limited by the used resistance bridge.

  19. Mini array of quantum Hall devices based on epitaxial graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, S.; Lebedeva, N.; Hämäläinen, J.; Iisakka, I.; Immonen, P.; Manninen, A. J.; Satrapinski, A.

    2016-05-07

    Series connection of four quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices based on epitaxial graphene films was studied for realization of a quantum resistance standard with an up-scaled value. The tested devices showed quantum Hall plateaux R{sub H,2} at a filling factor v = 2 starting from a relatively low magnetic field (between 4 T and 5 T) when the temperature was 1.5 K. The precision measurements of quantized Hall resistance of four QHE devices connected by triple series connections and external bonding wires were done at B = 7 T and T = 1.5 K using a commercial precision resistance bridge with 50 μA current through the QHE device. The results showed that the deviation of the quantized Hall resistance of the series connection of four graphene-based QHE devices from the expected value of 4×R{sub H,2} = 2 h/e{sup 2} was smaller than the relative standard uncertainty of the measurement (<1 × 10{sup −7}) limited by the used resistance bridge.

  20. Far-infrared (THz) electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Stephen A.; Paul, Douglas J.; Bates, Robert; Norris, David J.; Cullis, Anthony G.; Ikonic, Zoran; Kelsall, Robert W.; Harrison, Paul; Arnone, Donald D.; Pidgeon, Carl R.

    2003-03-01

    There is strong interest in the development of sources that emit radiation in the far infrared (1-10 THz) frequency range for applications which include early detection of skin cancer, dental imaging, telecommunications, security scanning, gas sensing, astronomy, molecular spectroscopy, and the possible detection of biological weapons. While a number of THz sources are available, there are at present no compact, efficient, cheap and practical high-power solid-state sources such as light emitting diodes or lasers. Silicon is an excellent candidate for such a THz source since the lack of polar optical phonon scattering makes it an inherently low loss material at these frequencies. Furthermore, since over 97% of all microelectronics is presently silicon based, the realisation of a silicon based emitter/laser could potentially allow integration with conventional silicon-based microelectronics. In this paper THz electroluminescence from a Si/SiGe quantum cascade structure operating significantly above liquid helium temperatures is demonstrated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was performed using step scan spectrometer with a liquid helium cooled Si-bolometer for detection. Spectra are presented demonstrating intersubband electroluminescence at a number of different frequencies. These spectral features agree very well with the theoretically calculated intersubband transitions predicted for the structure.

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of photo- and electroluminescence of divinyldiphenyl and divinylphenanthrene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonova, L. G.; Valiev, R. R.; Degtyarenko, K. M.; Sunchugashev, D. A.; Kukhta, I. N.; Kukhta, A. V.; Kopylova, T. N.

    2017-02-01

    Electronic absorption and luminescence spectra of four new compounds of divinyldiphenyl and divinylphenanthrene derivatives are investigated experimentally in tetrahydrofuran solutions and thin films obtained by thermal vacuum deposition and by spin coating of these substances embedded into polyvinylcarbazole matrix. Molecular geometry optimizations and electronic spectra have been calculated in the framework of XMC-QDPT2/6-31G (d, p) and TDDFT/B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) levels of theory. We have fabricated and studied OLED devices with the structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/NPD/L/Ca/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK + L/Ca, where L is the luminophore. It is demonstrated that the photo-and electroluminescence spectra of divinyldiphenyl are not identical and undergo strong changes depending on the method of sample preparation.

  2. Electroluminescence from individual air-suspended carbon nanotubes within split-gate structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashide, N.; Uda, T.; Yoshida, M.; Ishii, A.; Kato, Y. K.

    Electrically induced light emission from chirality-identified single-walled carbon nanotubes are investigated by utilizing split-gate field-effect devices fabricated on silicon-on-insulator substrates. We begin by etching trenches through the top silicon layer into the buried oxide, and the silicon layer is thermally oxidized for use as local gates. We partially remove the oxide and form gate electrodes, then contacts for nanotubes are deposited on both sides of the trench. Catalyst particles are placed on the contacts, and nanotubes are grown over the trench by chemical vapor deposition. We use photoluminescence microscopy to locate the nanotubes and perform excitation spectroscopy to identify their chirality. Gate-induced photoluminescence quenching is used to confirm carrier doping, and electroluminescence intensity is investigated as a function of the split-gate and bias voltages. Work supported by JSPS (KAKENHI 24340066, 26610080), MEXT (Photon Frontier Network Program, Nanotechnology Platform), Canon Foundation, and Asahi Glass Foundation.

  3. Ultraviolet Electroluminescence and Blue-Green Phosphorescence using an Organic Diphosphine Oxide Charge Transporting Layer.

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, Paul E.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Sapochak, Linda S.; Djurovich, Peter I.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2006-05-01

    We report electroluminescence with a peak wavelength at 338 nm from a simple bilayer organic light emitting device (OLED) made using 4,4’-bis(diphenylphosphine oxide) biphenyl (PO1). In an OLED geometry, the material is preferentially electron transporting. Doping the PO1 layer with iridium(III)bis(4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N, C2’)picolinate (FIrpic) gives rise to electrophosphorescence with a peak external quantum efficiency of 7.8% at 0.09 mA/cm2 and 5.8% at 13 mA/cm2. The latter current density is obtained at 6.3 V applied forward bias. This represents a new class of wide-bandgap charge transporting organic materials which may prove useful as host materials for blue electrophosphoresent OLEDs.

  4. Electron mobility of rare earth complexes measured by transient electroluminescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, F. X.; Lengyel, O.; Li, Wenlian; Hong, Z. R.; Liu, Ze; Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. T.

    2006-09-01

    Electron mobility of gadolinium/europium (dibenzoylmethanato) 3(bathophenanthroline) (Gd/Eu(DBM) 3 bath) was measured by transient electroluminescence (EL) method. Although electron mobility of the two complexes were expected to be same, the value of mobility (1.2 × 10 -4 cm 2/Vs at electric field of 1 MV/cm) of Eu(DBM) 3 bath complex was bigger than that (8 × 10 -5 cm 2/Vs at electric field of 1 MV/cm) of Gd(DBM) 3 bath complex. It was found to be related to the different luminescent mechanisms of active materials and recombination zones in the devices. According to this, penetration length of hole injected into electron transport layer of Eu(DBM) 3 bath was estimated.

  5. Nano-Bio Electronic Devices Based on DNA Bases and Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, R.; Maruccio, G.; Bramanti, A.; Visconti, P.; Biasco, A.; Arima, V.; D'Amico, S.; Cingolani, R.

    A key challenge of the current research in nanoelectronics is the realization of biomolecular devices. The biomolecules have specific functionalies that can be exploited for the implementation of electronic and optoelectronic devices. Different nanotechnological strategies have been pursued to implement the biomolecular devices, following a bottom-up or a topdown approach depending on the used biomolecule and on its functionality. In this paper we present our results on the implementation of nano-biomolecular devices based on modified DNA nucleosides and metalloproteins.

  6. Functionalized organic semiconductor molecules to enhance charge carrier injection in electroluminescent cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, Eyyup; Kara, Duygu Akin; Karakaya, Caner; Yigit, Mesude Zeliha; Havare, Ali Kemal; Can, Mustafa; Tozlu, Cem; Demic, Serafettin; Kus, Mahmut; Aboulouard, Abdelkhalk

    2017-07-01

    Organic semiconductor (OSC) materials as a charge carrier interface play an important role to improve the device performance of organic electroluminescent cells. In this study, 4,4″-bis(diphenyl amino)-1,1':3‧,1″-terphenyl-5'-carboxylic acid (TPA) and 4,4″-di-9H-carbazol-9-yl-1,1':3‧,1″-terphenyl-5'-carboxylic acid (CAR) has been designed and synthesized to modify indium tin oxide (ITO) layer as interface. Bare ITO and PEDOT:PSS coated on ITO was used as reference anode electrodes for comparison. Furthermore, PEDOT:PSS coated over CAR/ITO and TPA/ITO to observe stability of OSC molecules and to completely cover the ITO surface. Electrical, optical and surface characterizations were performed for each device. Almost all modified devices showed around 36% decrease at the turn on voltage with respect to bare ITO. The current density of bare ITO, ITO/CAR and ITO/TPA were measured as 288, 1525 and 1869 A/m2, respectively. By increasing current density, luminance of modified devices showed much better performance with respect to unmodified devices.

  7. Sub-bandgap Voltage Electroluminescence and Magneto-oscillations in a WSe2 Light-Emitting van der Waals Heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Binder, Johannes; Withers, Freddie; Molas, Maciej R; Faugeras, Clement; Nogajewski, Karol; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kozikov, Aleksey; Geim, Andre K; Novoselov, Kostya S; Potemski, Marek

    2017-03-08

    We report on experimental investigations of an electrically driven WSe2 based light-emitting van der Waals heterostructure. We observe a threshold voltage for electroluminescence significantly lower than the corresponding single particle band gap of monolayer WSe2. This observation can be interpreted by considering the Coulomb interaction and a tunneling process involving excitons, well beyond the picture of independent charge carriers. An applied magnetic field reveals pronounced magneto-oscillations in the electroluminescence of the free exciton emission intensity with a 1/B periodicity. This effect is ascribed to a modulation of the tunneling probability resulting from the Landau quantization in the graphene electrodes. A sharp feature in the differential conductance indicates that the Fermi level is pinned and allows for an estimation of the acceptor binding energy.

  8. Electroluminescence from InGaN quantum dots in a fully monolithic GaN/AlInN cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartsch, Heiko; Tessarek, Christian; Aschenbrenner, Timo; Figge, Stephan; Kruse, Carsten; Schowalter, Marco; Rosenauer, Andreas; Hommel, Detlef

    2011-04-01

    We present for the first time electroluminescence from InGaN quantum dots inside a monolithic nitride based cavity. The structure consists of a 40-fold bottom GaN/Al 0.82In 0.18N distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), a single InGaN quantum dot layer inside a 5λ n-type (bottom) and p-type (top) doped GaN cavity and a 10-fold GaN/Al 0.82In 0.18N top DBR. Structural properties have been investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Optical reflectivity measurements are in good agreement with calculations which predict a peak reflectivity of 92% and a quality factor of 220. Electroluminescence shows a pronounced emission at the spectral position of the cavity mode near 500 nm.

  9. Negative differential resistance in C60-based electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaohong; Lu, Wenchang; Abtew, Tesfaye A; Meunier, Vincent; Bernholc, Jerry

    2010-12-28

    Unlike single-C(60)-based devices, molecular assemblies based on two or more appropriately connected C(60) molecules have the potential to exhibit negative differential resistance (NDR). In this work, we evaluate electron transport properties of molecular devices built from two C(60) molecules connected by an alkane chain, using a nonequilibrium Green function technique implemented within the framework of density functional theory. We find that electronic conduction in these systems is mediated by the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) of C(60), as in the case of a single-C(60)-based device. However, as the positions of the LUMOs are pinned to the chemical potentials of their respective electrodes, their relative alignment shifts with applied bias and leads to a NDR at a very low bias. Furthermore, the position and magnitude of the NDR can be tuned by chemical modification of the C(60) molecules. The role of the attached molecules is to shift the LUMO position and break the symmetry between the forward and reverse currents. The NDR feature can also be controlled by changing the length of the alkane linker. The flexibility and richness of C(60)-based molecular electronics components point to a potentially promising route for the design of molecular devices and chemical sensors.

  10. Broadband illusion optical devices based on conformal mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhan; Xu, Lin; Xu, Ya-Dong; Chen, Huan-Yang

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple method of illusion optics based on conformal mappings. By carefully developing designs with specific conformal mappings, one can make an object look like another with a significantly different shape. In addition, the illusion optical devices can work in a broadband of frequencies.

  11. Mineralization of monodispersed CdS nanoparticles on polyelectrolyte superstructure forming an electroluminescent "necklace-of-beads".

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Vivek; Saraf, Ravi F

    2006-10-10

    We report a nonmicellar method to synthesize monodisperse semiconducting nanoparticles templated on polymer chains dissolved in solution at high yield. The monodispersity is achieved due to the beaded necklace morphology of the polyelectrolyte chains in solution where the beads are nanometer-scale nodules in the polymer chain. The resultant structure is a nanoparticles studded necklace where the particles are imbedded in the beads. Multiple cycles of synthesis on the polymer template yield nanoparticles of identical size, resulting in a nanocomposite with high particle fraction. The resultant nanocomposite has beaded-fibrilar morphology with imbedded nanoparticles and can be solution-casted to make electroluminescent thin film device.

  12. Field-Based Experiential Learning Using Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilley, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies such as GPS and cellular triangulation allow location-specific content to be delivered by mobile devices, but no mechanism currently exists to associate content shared between locations in a way that guarantees the delivery of coherent and non-redundant information at every location. Thus, experiential learning via mobile devices must currently take place along a predefined path, as in the case of a self-guided tour. I developed a mobile-device-based system that allows a person to move through a space along a path of their choosing, while receiving information in a way that guarantees delivery of appropriate background and location-specific information without producing redundancy of content between locations. This is accomplished by coupling content to knowledge-concept tags that are noted as fulfilled when users take prescribed actions. Similarly, the presentation of the content is related to the fulfillment of these knowledge-concept tags through logic statements that control the presentation. Content delivery is triggered by mobile-device geolocation including GPS/cellular navigation, and sensing of low-power Bluetooth proximity beacons. Together, these features implement a process that guarantees a coherent, non-redundant educational experience throughout a space, regardless of a learner's chosen path. The app that runs on the mobile device works in tandem with a server-side database and file-serving system that can be configured through a web-based GUI, and so content creators can easily populate and configure content with the system. Once the database has been updated, the new content is immediately available to the mobile devices when they arrive at the location at which content is required. Such a system serves as a platform for the development of field-based geoscience educational experiences, in which students can organically learn about core concepts at particular locations while individually exploring a space.

  13. Safety of energy based devices for hemostasis in thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Wu, Che-Wei; Kim, Hoon-Yub; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Renbin; Randolph, Gregory W; Anuwong, Angkoon

    2016-10-01

    Energy based devices (EBD) have been developed, implemented and increasingly applied in thyroid surgery because they can provide a combined dissection and haemostatic effect. In particular, advantages of EBD have been described in terms of efficacious haemostasis, reduction of procedure-associated time, reduced incision length, less operative blood loss and transfusion need, decreased postoperative drain, pain and hospital stay. In addition, EBD are essential for endoscopic procedures. On the contrary, a potential drawback is the increased health care costs. This paper reviews relevant medical literature published on the safety of new devices for achieving hemostasis and dissection around the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN).

  14. Si-photonics based passive device packaging and module performance.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeong Hwan; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Chao; Lo, Guo Qiang

    2011-09-12

    We report a fully packaged silicon passive waveguide device designed for a tunable filter based on a ring-resonator. Polarization diversity circuits prevent polarization dependant issues in the silicon ring-resonator. For the device packaging, the YAG laser welding technique has been used for pigtailing both of the input and output fibers. Post welding misalignment was compensated by mechanical fine tuning using the seesaw effect via power monitoring. Packaging loss less than 1.5 dB with respect to chip measurement has been achieved using 10 µm-curvature radius lensed fibers. In addition, the packaging process and the module performance are presented.

  15. Electrocaloric devices based on thini-film heat switches

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Richard I; Malloy, Kevin J

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new approach to refrigeration and electrical generation that exploits the attractive properties of thin films of electrocaloric materials. Layers of electrocaloric material coupled with thin-film heat switches can work as either refrigerators or electrical generators, depending on the phasing of the applied voltages and heat switching. With heat switches based on thin layers of liquid crystals, the efficiency of these thin-film heat engines can be at least as high as that of current thermoelectric devices. Advanced heat switches would enable thin-film heat engines to outperform conventional vaporcompression devices.

  16. Cell-Based Biosensors: Electrical Sensing in Microfluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Kiilerich-Pedersen, Katrine; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2012-01-01

    Cell-based biosensors provide new horizons for medical diagnostics by adopting complex recognition elements such as mammalian cells in microfluidic devices that are simple, cost efficient and disposable. This combination renders possible a new range of applications in the fields of diagnostics and personalized medicine. The review looks at the most recent developments in cell-based biosensing microfluidic systems with electrical and electrochemical transduction, and relevance to medical diagnostics. PMID:26859401

  17. Measurement-device-independent entanglement-based quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Zhenqiang; Li, Zuohan; Lian, Shibin; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan

    2016-05-01

    We present a quantum key distribution protocol in a model in which the legitimate users gather statistics as in the measurement-device-independent entanglement witness to certify the sources and the measurement devices. We show that the task of measurement-device-independent quantum communication can be accomplished based on monogamy of entanglement, and it is fairly loss tolerate including source and detector flaws. We derive a tight bound for collective attacks on the Holevo information between the authorized parties and the eavesdropper. Then with this bound, the final secret key rate with the source flaws can be obtained. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over 144 km can be made secure using only standard threshold detectors.

  18. A triple quantum dot based nano-electromechanical memory device

    SciTech Connect

    Pozner, R.; Lifshitz, E.; Peskin, U.

    2015-09-14

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are free-standing nano-structures with chemically tunable electronic properties. This tunability offers intriguing possibilities for nano-electromechanical devices. In this work, we consider a nano-electromechanical nonvolatile memory (NVM) device incorporating a triple quantum dot (TQD) cluster. The device operation is based on a bias induced motion of a floating quantum dot (FQD) located between two bound quantum dots (BQDs). The mechanical motion is used for switching between two stable states, “ON” and “OFF” states, where ligand-mediated effective interdot forces between the BQDs and the FQD serve to hold the FQD in each stable position under zero bias. Considering realistic microscopic parameters, our quantum-classical theoretical treatment of the TQD reveals the characteristics of the NVM.

  19. Dual pitch plasmonic devices for polarization enhanced colour based sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langley, D.; Balaur, E.; Sadatnajafi, C.; Abbey, B.

    2016-12-01

    Plasmonic devices provide a unique sensitivity to changes in the permittivity of the immediate, near-surface environment. In this work we explore the use of dual pitch plasmonic devices combined with microfluidics for polarization enhanced colour sensing of a chemicals' refractive index. We demonstrate that the use of cross-shaped apertures can produce polarization tunable color based sensing in the optical regime and show that the spectral variations as a function of the incident polarization can be decomposed into contributions from the two orthogonal modes that characterize the dual pitch plasmonic device. Finally we demonstrate that the use of the full colour spectrum in the visible range in combination with polarization control enables sensing `by-eye' of refractive index changes below 1 × 10-3 RIU.

  20. Second Law based definition of passivity/activity of devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundqvist, Kyle M.; Ferry, David K.; Kish, Laszlo B.

    2017-10-01

    Recently, our efforts to clarify the old question, if a memristor is a passive or active device [1], triggered debates between engineers, who have had advanced definitions of passivity/activity of devices, and physicists with significantly different views about this seemingly simple question. This debate triggered our efforts to test the well-known engineering concepts about passivity/activity in a deeper way, challenging them by statistical physics. It is shown that the advanced engineering definition of passivity/activity of devices is self-contradictory when a thermodynamical system executing Johnson-Nyquist noise is present. A new, statistical physical, self-consistent definition based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics is introduced. It is also shown that, in a system with uniform temperature distribution, any rectifier circuitry that can rectify thermal noise must contain an active circuit element, according to both the engineering and statistical physical definitions.

  1. Quantum key distribution based on quantum dimension and independent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol based on only a two-dimensional Hilbert space encoding a quantum system and independent devices between the equipment for state preparation and measurement. Our protocol is inspired by the fully device-independent quantum key distribution (FDI-QKD) protocol and the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol. Our protocol only requires the state to be prepared in the two-dimensional Hilbert space, which weakens the state preparation assumption in the original MDI-QKD protocol. More interestingly, our protocol can overcome the detection loophole problem in the FDI-QKD protocol, which greatly limits the application of FDI-QKD. Hence our protocol can be implemented with practical optical components.

  2. Optical system designs based on bi-directional sensor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Constanze; Gawronski, Ute; Perske, Franziska; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Small and compact optical system designs are needed in nearly all application scenarios of optical projection and imaging systems, e.g. automotive, metrology, medical or multimedia. Most active optical systems are based on separated imaging (e.g. camera unit) and image generating units (e.g. projection unit). This fact limits the geometrical miniaturization of the system. We present compact optical system designs using the new technology of bi-directional sensor devices. These devices combine light emitting and light detecting elements on one single chip. The application of such innovative opto-electronic devices - so-called bi-directional OLED microdisplays (BiMiDs) - offer a huge potential for miniaturization with a simultaneous increase of performance due to a new integration step. For these new bi-directional sensor devices new optical design concepts for simultaneous and sequential emission and detection are necessary. Because the simultaneous emission and detection can disturb the functionality of the optical system. New concepts has to be applied. A first concept is an exemplary 3-D metrology system applying fringe projection. A second concept is a pico-projection system with an integrated camera function. For both concepts the system configurations and the optical design are discussed. Due to the application of the bi-directional sensor device ultra-compact systems are presented.

  3. Study of traps in polydiacetylene based devices using TSC technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, C.; Huang, C. H.; Zemmouri, M.; Le Rendu, P.; Nguyen, T. P.

    2006-12-01

    Trap parameters in poly(1-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-2-(4-pentylcyclohexylphenyl)acetylene) (PDPA-2F) based devices have been investigated by using the thermally stimulated current (TSC) technique. The device structure is ITO-PEDOT-(PDPA-2F)-M, where M stands for the cathode metal (Al, Ca/Al, and Au). The results reveal at least three TSC peaks in devices denoted as peaks A, B and C. Comparing trap parameters in ITO-PEDOT-(PDPA-2F)-Au hole-only device and ITO-PEDOT-(PDPA-2F)-Ca Al (Al) bipolar devices, we assigned A and B trap types to hole-like traps and C type traps to electron-like traps. The trap densities are in the range of 1015 1017 cm-3 and the trap levels are 0.12 eV (A type traps), 0.36 eV (B type traps), and 0.25 eV (C type traps). This paper has been presented at “ECHOS06”, Paris, 28 30 juin 2006.

  4. Performance Estimation of Silicon-Based Self-Cooling Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Shinji; Sabi, Yuichi; Kawahara, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    2013-05-01

    Since self-cooling devices were first proposed, several materials have been tested for their suitability to be used in them. A self-cooling device requires a high Seebeck coefficient, a low electrical resistivity, and a high thermal conductivity. Here, we report experimental results for single-crystal silicon doped with boron. Samples were fabricated with carrier densities in the range of 2.0×1015 to 1.6×1019 cm-3, and their Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity were measured. Silicon with a carrier density of 1.6×1019 cm-3 has a power factor of 4.8×10-3 W/(K2.m) at room temperature. The cooling capability of a self-cooling device was estimated using a one-dimensional model. The results suggest that a self-cooling device based on silicon with a high carrier density can have a higher heat removal performance than a conventional silicon power device of the same size.

  5. Small Dosimeter based on Timepix device for International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turecek, D.; Pinsky, L.; Jakubek, J.; Vykydal, Z.; Stoffle, N.; Pospisil, S.

    2011-12-01

    The radiation environment in space is different, more complex and more intense than on Earth. Conventional devices and detection methods used nowadays do not allow to discriminate single particle types and the energy of the single particles. The Timepix detector is a position sensitive pixelated detector developed at CERN in a frame of the Medipix collaboration that provides capability to visualize tracks and measure energy of single particles. This information can be used for sorting the particles into different categories. It is possible to distinguish light charged particles such as electrons or heavy charged particles such as ions. Moreover, the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) for charged particles can be determined. Each category is assigned a quality factor corresponding to the energy a particle would deposit in the human tissue. By summing the dose of all particles an estimate of the dose rate can be calculated. For space dosimetry purposes a miniature device with the Timepix detector and a custom made integrated USB based readout interface has been constructed. The entire device has dimensions of a USB flash memory stick. The whole compact device is connected to a control PC and is operated continuously. The PC runs a software that controls data acquisition, adjusts the acquisition time adaptively according to the particle rate, analyzes the particle tracks, evaluates the deposited energy and the LET and visualizes in a simple display the estimated dose rate. The performance of the device will be tested during a mission on International Space Station planned towards the beginning of year 2012.

  6. Control over multifunctionality in optoelectronic device based on organic phototransistor.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Biswanath; Mukherjee, Moumita; Choi, Youngill; Pyo, Seungmoon

    2010-06-01

    Highly stable, reproducible, photosensitive organic field-effect transistors based on an n-type organic material, copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine, and two different polymeric gate dielectrics has been reported and their performances have been compared by evaluating the surface/interface properties. The devices produced a maximum photocurrent gain (I(light)/I(dark)) of 79 at V(G) = 7 V and showed the potentiality as multifunctional optoelectronic switching applications depending upon the external pulses. The switching time of the transistor upon irradiation of light pulse, i.e., the photoswitching time of the device, was measured to be approximately 10 ms. On the basis of optical or combination of optical and electrical pulses, the electronic/optoelectronic properties of the device can be tuned efficiently. The multifunctions achieved by the single device can ensure very promising material for high density RAM and other optoelectronic applications. Furthermore, as the device geometry in the present work is not limited to rigid substrate only, it will lead to the development of flexible organic optoelectronic switch compatible with plastic substrates.

  7. An implantable thermoresponsive drug delivery system based on Peltier device.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongbing; Gorelov, Alexander V; Aldabbagh, Fawaz; Carroll, William M; Rochev, Yury

    2013-04-15

    Locally dropping the temperature in vivo is the main obstacle to the clinical use of a thermoresponsive drug delivery system. In this paper, a Peltier electronic element is incorporated with a thermoresponsive thin film based drug delivery system to form a new drug delivery device which can regulate the release of rhodamine B in a water environment at 37 °C. Various current signals are used to control the temperature of the cold side of the Peltier device and the volume of water on top of the Peltier device affects the change in temperature. The pulsatile on-demand release profile of the model drug is obtained by turning the current signal on and off. The work has shown that the 2600 mAh power source is enough to power this device for 1.3 h. Furthermore, the excessive heat will not cause thermal damage in the body as it will be dissipated by the thermoregulation of the human body. Therefore, this simple novel device can be implanted and should work well in vivo.

  8. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetse, Marc M.; Rensing, Peter A.; Sharpe, Ruben B. A.; van Heck, Gert T.; Allard, Bart A. M.; Meulendijks, Nicole N. M. M.; Kruijt, Peter G. M.; Tijdink, Marcel W. W. J.; De Zwart, René M.; Houben, René J.; Enting, Erik; van Veen, Sjaak J. J. F.; Schoo, Herman F. M.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e.g. integrated in food product packaging), flexible or bendable sensors in wearables, large area/distributed sensors, and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyze signals, process and store data, and interact over a network. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/performance ratios, especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. The organic devices, light emitting diodes, photodiodes and selective medium chip, are integrated with classic electronic components. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. The emphasis is given to the sensor principle, the design, fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices.

  9. Empirically based device modeling of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Adrien; Lu, Shaofeng; Howard, Ian A.; Facchetti, Antonio; Arias, Ana Claudia

    2013-04-01

    We develop an empirically based optoelectronic model to accurately simulate the photocurrent in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices with novel materials including bulk heterojunction OPV devices based on a new low band gap dithienothiophene-DPP donor polymer, P(TBT-DPP), blended with PC70BM at various donor-acceptor weight ratios and solvent compositions. Our devices exhibit power conversion efficiencies ranging from 1.8% to 4.7% at AM 1.5G. Electron and hole mobilities are determined using space-charge limited current measurements. Bimolecular recombination coefficients are both analytically calculated using slowest-carrier limited Langevin recombination and measured using an electro-optical pump-probe technique. Exciton quenching efficiencies in the donor and acceptor domains are determined from photoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition, dielectric and optical constants are experimentally determined. The photocurrent and its bias-dependence that we simulate using the optoelectronic model we develop, which takes into account these physically measured parameters, shows less than 7% error with respect to the experimental photocurrent (when both experimentally and semi-analytically determined recombination coefficient is used). Free carrier generation and recombination rates of the photocurrent are modeled as a function of the position in the active layer at various applied biases. These results show that while free carrier generation is maximized in the center of the device, free carrier recombination is most dominant near the electrodes even in high performance devices. Such knowledge of carrier activity is essential for the optimization of the active layer by enhancing light trapping and minimizing recombination. Our simulation program is intended to be freely distributed for use in laboratories fabricating OPV devices.

  10. Multimode fixed legend liquid crystal and electroluminescent display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, D. G.; Krueger, H. H.; Theis, D.

    1985-04-01

    A novel arrangement of color-capable multi-legend displays is described. The electrodes are patterned to carry a continuous fixed message in positive or negative contrast. Color is obtained either by dyes in guest-host type liquid crystal displays or by using a combination with thin film electroluminescent backlights. The main advantages is in its use in the future for keyboards where the keys can be used in a touch-sensitive interactive display mode.

  11. In plane optical sensor based on organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetse, Marc; Rensing, Peter; van Heck, Gert; Sharpe, Ruben; Allard, Bart; Wieringa, Fokko; Kruijt, Peter; Meulendijks, Nicole; Jansen, Henk; Schoo, Herman

    2008-08-01

    Sensors based on organic electronic devices are emerging in a wide range of application areas. Here we present a sensor platform using organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and organic photodiodes (OPD) as active components. By means of lamination and interconnection technology the functional foils with OLED and OPD arrays form an in-plane optical sensor platform (IPOS). This platform can be extended with a wireless data and signal processing unit yielding a sensor node. The focus of our research is to engage the node in a healthcare application, in which a bandage is able to monitor the vital signs of a person, a so-called Smart Bandage. One of the principles that is described here is based on measuring the absorption modulation of blood volume induced by the pulse (photoplethysmography). The information from such a bandage could be used to monitor wound healing by measuring the perfusion in the skin. The OLED and OPD devices are manufactured on separate foils and glass substrates by means of printing and coating technologies. Furthermore, the modular approach allows for the application of the optical sensing unit in a variety of other fields including chemical sensing. This, ultimately enables the measurement of a large variety of physiological parameters using the same bandage and the same basic sensor architecture. Here we discuss the build-up of our device in general terms. Specific characteristics of the used OLEDs and OPDs are shown and finally we demonstrate the functionality by simultaneously recorded photoplethysmograms of our device and a clinical pulseoximeter.

  12. High power applications for GaN-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trew, R. J.; Shin, M. W.; Gatto, V.

    1997-10-01

    The microwave performance potential of electronic devices fabricated from GaN-based semiconductors is described. The investigation makes use of theoretical simulations and the results are compared to experimental measurements. Excellent agreement between the simulated and measured data is obtained. It is demonstrated that devices fabricated from these semiconductors make possible microwave power amplifiers with superior RF power performance, particularly at elevated temperature, compared to comparable components fabricated from GaAs MESFET's. In particular, room temperature RF output power on the order of 4-5 W mm -1 of gate periphery with power-added efficiency approaching the ideal values for class A and B operation is available. These devices are likely to find application in power amplifiers for base stations transmitters for cellular telephone systems, HDTV transmitters, power modules for phased-array radars, and other applications. The devices are particularly attractive for applications that require high RF output power and operation at elevated temperature since cooling requirements can be minimized or eliminated.

  13. Carbazole-based polymers for organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaoli; Grimsdale, Andrew C

    2010-07-01

    Polymers based upon 2,7-disubstituted carbazole have recently become of great interest as electron-donating materials in organic photovoltaic devices. In this tutorial review the synthesis of such polymers and their relative performances in such devices are surveyed. In particular structure-property relationships are investigated and the potential for the rational design of materials for high efficiency solar cells is discussed. In the case of the 2,7-carbazole homopolymer it has been found that electron acceptors other than fullerenes produce higher energy conversion efficiencies. To get around possible problems with the build-up of charge density at the 3- and 6-positions and to improve the solar light harvesting ability of the polymers by reducing the bandgap, ladder- and step-ladder type 2,7-carbazole polymers have been synthesised. The fully ladderised polymers gave very poor results in devices, but efficiencies of over 1% have been obtained from a step-ladder polymer with a diindenocarbazole monomer unit. Donor-acceptor copolymers containing 2,7-carbazole donors and various electron-accepting comonomer units have been prepared. An efficiency of 6% has been reported from a device using such a copolymer and by suitable choice of the acceptor comonomer, polymers can be designed with potential theoretical power conversion efficiencies of 10%. While such efficiencies remain to be obtained, the results to date certainly suggest that carbazole-based polymers and copolymers are among the most promising materials yet proposed for obtaining high efficiency organic solar cells.

  14. Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Jagielski, Jakub; Yakunin, Sergii; Rice, Peter; Chiu, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingchao; Nedelcu, Georgian; Kim, Yeongin; Lin, Shangchao; Santos, Elton J G; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Shih, Chih-Jen

    2016-10-03

    Solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites are emerging as one of the most promising candidates for low-cost light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, due to a small exciton binding energy, it is not yet possible to achieve an efficient electroluminescence within the blue wavelength region at room temperature, as is necessary for full-spectrum light sources. Here, we demonstrate efficient blue LEDs based on the colloidal, quantum-confined 2D perovskites, with precisely controlled stacking down to one-unit-cell thickness (n = 1). A variety of low-k organic host compounds are used to disperse the 2D perovskites, effectively creating a matrix of the dielectric quantum wells, which significantly boosts the exciton binding energy by the dielectric confinement effect. Through the Förster resonance energy transfer, the excitons down-convert and recombine radiatively in the 2D perovskites. We report room-temperature pure green (n = 7-10), sky blue (n = 5), pure blue (n = 3), and deep blue (n = 1) electroluminescence, with record-high external quantum efficiencies in the green-to-blue wavelength region.

  15. Internet-Based Device-Assisted Remote Monitoring of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Pron, G; Ieraci, L; Kaulback, K

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) report was to conduct a systematic review of the available published evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of Internet-based device-assisted remote monitoring systems (RMSs) for therapeutic cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) such as pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The MAS evidence-based review was performed to support public financing decisions. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of fatalities in developed countries. In the United States almost half a million people die of SCD annually, resulting in more deaths than stroke, lung cancer, breast cancer, and AIDS combined. In Canada each year more than 40,000 people die from a cardiovascular related cause; approximately half of these deaths are attributable to SCD. Most cases of SCD occur in the general population typically in those without a known history of heart disease. Most SCDs are caused by cardiac arrhythmia, an abnormal heart rhythm caused by malfunctions of the heart’s electrical system. Up to half of patients with significant heart failure (HF) also have advanced conduction abnormalities. Cardiac arrhythmias are managed by a variety of drugs, ablative procedures, and therapeutic CIEDs. The range of CIEDs includes pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. Bradycardia is the main indication for PMs and individuals at high risk for SCD are often treated by ICDs. Heart failure (HF) is also a significant health problem and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in those over 65 years of age. Patients with moderate to severe HF may also have cardiac arrhythmias, although the cause may be related more to heart pump or haemodynamic failure. The presence of HF, however

  16. A new JPEG-based steganographic algorithm for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agaian, Sos S.; Cherukuri, Ravindranath C.; Schneider, Erik C.; White, Gregory B.

    2006-05-01

    Currently, cellular phones constitute a significant portion of the global telecommunications market. Modern cellular phones offer sophisticated features such as Internet access, on-board cameras, and expandable memory which provide these devices with excellent multimedia capabilities. Because of the high volume of cellular traffic, as well as the ability of these devices to transmit nearly all forms of data. The need for an increased level of security in wireless communications is becoming a growing concern. Steganography could provide a solution to this important problem. In this article, we present a new algorithm for JPEG-compressed images which is applicable to mobile platforms. This algorithm embeds sensitive information into quantized discrete cosine transform coefficients obtained from the cover JPEG. These coefficients are rearranged based on certain statistical properties and the inherent processing and memory constraints of mobile devices. Based on the energy variation and block characteristics of the cover image, the sensitive data is hidden by using a switching embedding technique proposed in this article. The proposed system offers high capacity while simultaneously withstanding visual and statistical attacks. Based on simulation results, the proposed method demonstrates an improved retention of first-order statistics when compared to existing JPEG-based steganographic algorithms, while maintaining a capacity which is comparable to F5 for certain cover images.

  17. Novel device-based interventional strategies for advanced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Vanderheyden, Marc; Bartunek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    While heart failure is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, our tools to provide ultimate treatment solutions are still limited. Recent developments in new devices are designed to fill this therapeutic gap. The scope of this review is to focus on two particular targets, namely (1) left ventricular geometric restoration and (2) atrial depressurization. (1) Reduction of the wall stress by shrinking the ventricular cavity has been traditionally attempted surgically. Recently, the Parachute device (CardioKinetix Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA) has been introduced to restore ventricular geometry and cardiac mechanics. The intervention aims to partition distal dysfunctional segments that are non-contributory to the ventricular mechanics and forward cardiac output. (2) Diastolic heart failure is characterized by abnormal relaxation and chamber stiffness. The main therapeutic goal achieved should be the reduction of afterload and diastolic pressure load. Recently, new catheter-based approaches were proposed to reduce left atrial pressure and ventricular decompression: the InterAtrial Shunt Device (IASD™) (Corvia Medical Inc., Tewksbury, MA, USA) and the V-Wave Shunt (V-Wave Ltd, Or Akiva, Israel). Both are designed to create a controlled atrial septal defect in symptomatic patients with heart failure. While the assist devices are aimed at end-stage heart failure, emerging device-based percutaneous or minimal invasive techniques comprise a wide spectrum of innovative concepts that target ventricular remodeling, cardiac contractility or neuro-humoral modulation. The clinical adoption is in the early stages of the initial feasibility and safety studies, and clinical evidence needs to be gathered in appropriately designed clinical trials. PMID:26966444

  18. Chemically modified graphene based supercapacitors for flexible and miniature devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debasis; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-09-01

    Rapid progress in the portable and flexible electronic devises has stimulated supercapacitor research towards the design and fabrication of high performance flexible devices. Recent research efforts for flexible supercapacitor electrode materials are highly focusing on graphene and chemically modified graphene owing to the unique properties, including large surface area, high electrical and thermal conductivity, excellent mechanical flexibility, and outstanding chemical stability. This invited review article highlights current status of the flexible electrode material research based on chemically modified graphene for supercapacitor application. A variety of electrode architectures prepared from chemically modified graphene are summarized in terms of their structural dimensions. Novel prototypes for the supercapacitor aiming at flexible miniature devices, i.e. microsupercapacitor with high energy and power density are highlighted. Future challenges relevant to graphene-based flexible supercapacitors are also suggested. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Electrochromic device based on electrospun WO{sub 3} nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Dulgerbaki, Cigdem; Maslakci, Neslihan Nohut; Komur, Ali Ihsan; Oksuz, Aysegul Uygun

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • WO{sub 3} electrochromic nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning technique. • WO{sub 3} nanofibers switched reversibly from transparent to blue color. • Electrochromic device was assembled using ionic liquid based gel electrolyte. • Significant optical modulation and excellent cycling stability were achieved for ECD. - Abstract: The tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) nanofibers were grown directly onto an ITO-coated glass via an electrospinning method for electrochromic applications. The electrochromic properties of WO{sub 3} nanofibers were investigated in the presence of different electrolytes including a series of ionic liquids and classic LiClO{sub 4}-PC system. A significant optical modulation of 20.82% at 760 nm, reversible coloration with efficiency of 64.58 cm{sup 2}/C and excellent cycling stability were achieved for the nanofiber electrochromic device (ECD) with ionic liquid based gel electrolyte.

  20. The use of silk-based devices for fracture fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Gabriel S.; Leisk, Gary G.; Lo, Tim J.; Moreau, Jodie E.; Haas, Dylan S.; Papenburg, Bernke J.; Golden, Ethan B.; Partlow, Benjamin P.; Fox, Sharon E.; Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Lin, Samuel J.; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-03-01

    Metallic fixation systems are currently the gold standard for fracture fixation but have problems including stress shielding, palpability and temperature sensitivity. Recently, resorbable systems have gained interest because they avoid removal and may improve bone remodelling due to the lack of stress shielding. However, their use is limited to paediatric craniofacial procedures mainly due to the laborious implantation requirements. Here we prepare and characterize a new family of resorbable screws prepared from silk fibroin for craniofacial fracture repair. In vivo assessment in rat femurs shows the screws to be self-tapping, remain fixed in the bone for 4 and 8 weeks, exhibit biocompatibility and promote bone remodelling. The silk-based devices compare favourably with current poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid fixation systems, however, silk-based devices offer numerous advantages including ease of implantation, conformal fit to the repair site, sterilization by autoclaving and minimal inflammatory response.

  1. Polymer-based and Polymer-templated Nanostructured Thermoelectric Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-23

    directed growth of thin films .51-53 Further, such surfaces can also serve as templates for the wettability-driven self-assembly of liquids,39-44 micro...through the use of block copolymer lithography.82,88-91 Here we have developed thin film (< 20 µm) solar cells based on upgraded metallurgical-grade... Polymer -templated Nanostructured Thermoelectric Devices Final Report, Anish Tuteja, University of Michigan 9 Figure 3: High Efficiency Thin Upgraded

  2. Passivation of III-V Compound Semiconductor Based Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-29

    approximately 60 A/s. The AES, Rutherford Backscattering, FIIR and stress measurements were also carried out. This work was done in collaboration with Dr ...begun to collaborate with us on the project. A brief description of these projects are listed below: 8 a) HP Research Laboratory ( Drs . S. Camnitz, K. L...DC characterization of devices. b) University of California. Santa Barbara ( Drs . B. Young, L. A. Coldren and V. Malhotra): Passivation of GaAs-based

  3. Digital-micromirror-device-based confocal 4D microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellenberg, M.; Kloster, M.; Napier, J.; Peev, E.; Neu, W.

    2012-03-01

    Digital Micromirror Device based microscopy combines fast confocal 4D-microscopy along with conventional methods for light microscopy and new technological approaches to a versatile tool for the observation of in vivo processes in living biological cells and measurement of technical surfaces. Due to the use of variable size pinholes and adjustable scan patterns conditions for confocal measurement can easily be optimized to the prerequisites of the sample "on the fly".

  4. Electrochemiluminescence detection in microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenrong; Liu, Min; Zhang, Chunsun

    2016-01-15

    This work describes the first approach at combining microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs) with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection. Wax screen-printing is employed to make cloth-based microfluidic chambers which are patterned with carbon screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) to create truly disposable, simple, inexpensive sensors which can be read with a low-cost, portable charge coupled device (CCD) imaging sensing system. And, the two most commonly used ECL systems of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)/tri-n-propylamine (Ru(bpy)3(2+)/TPA) and 3-aminophthalhydrazide/hydrogen peroxide (luminol/H2O2) are applied to demonstrate the quantitative ability of the ECL μCADs. In this study, the proposed devices have successfully fulfilled the determination of TPA with a linear range from 2.5 to 2500μM with a detection limit of 1.265μM. In addition, the detection of H2O2 can be performed in the linear range of 0.05-2.0mM, with a detection limit of 0.027mM. It has been shown that the ECL emission on the wax-patterned cloth device has an acceptable sensitivity, stability and reproducibility. Finally, the applicability of cloth-based ECL is demonstrated for determination of glucose in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and artificial urine (AU) samples, with the detection limits of 0.032mM and 0.038mM, respectively. It can be foreseen, therefore, that μCADs with ECL detection could provide a new sensing platform for point-of-care testing, public health, food safety detection and environmental monitoring in remote regions, developing or developed countries.

  5. A cloud-based multimodality case file for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Balkman, Jason D; Loehfelm, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Recent improvements in Web and mobile technology, along with the widespread use of handheld devices in radiology education, provide unique opportunities for creating scalable, universally accessible, portable image-rich radiology case files. A cloud database and a Web-based application for radiologic images were developed to create a mobile case file with reasonable usability, download performance, and image quality for teaching purposes. A total of 75 radiology cases related to breast, thoracic, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neuroimaging subspecialties were included in the database. Breast imaging cases are the focus of this article, as they best demonstrate handheld display capabilities across a wide variety of modalities. This case subset also illustrates methods for adapting radiologic content to cloud platforms and mobile devices. Readers will gain practical knowledge about storage and retrieval of cloud-based imaging data, an awareness of techniques used to adapt scrollable and high-resolution imaging content for the Web, and an appreciation for optimizing images for handheld devices. The evaluation of this software demonstrates the feasibility of adapting images from most imaging modalities to mobile devices, even in cases of full-field digital mammograms, where high resolution is required to represent subtle pathologic features. The cloud platform allows cases to be added and modified in real time by using only a standard Web browser with no application-specific software. Challenges remain in developing efficient ways to generate, modify, and upload radiologic and supplementary teaching content to this cloud-based platform. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2014.

  6. Blood separation on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Songjaroen, Temsiri; Dungchai, Wijitar; Chailapakul, Orawon; Henry, Charles S; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2012-09-21

    A microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) for the separation of blood plasma from whole blood is described. The device can separate plasma from whole blood and quantify plasma proteins in a single step. The μPAD was fabricated using the wax dipping method, and the final device was composed of a blood separation membrane combined with patterned Whatman No.1 paper. Blood separation membranes, LF1, MF1, VF1 and VF2 were tested for blood separation on the μPAD. The LF1 membrane was found to be the most suitable for blood separations when fabricating the μPAD by wax dipping. For blood separation, the blood cells (both red and white) were trapped on blood separation membrane allowing pure plasma to flow to the detection zone by capillary force. The LF1-μPAD was shown to be functional with human whole blood of 24-55% hematocrit without dilution, and effectively separated blood cells from plasma within 2 min when blood volumes of between 15-22 μL were added to the device. Microscopy was used to confirm that the device isolated plasma with high purity with no blood cells or cell hemolysis in the detection zone. The efficiency of blood separation on the μPAD was studied by plasma protein detection using the bromocresol green (BCG) colorimetric assay. The results revealed that protein detection on the μPAD was not significantly different from the conventional method (p > 0.05, pair t-test). The colorimetric measurement reproducibility on the μPAD was 2.62% (n = 10) and 5.84% (n = 30) for within-day and between day precision, respectively. Our proposed blood separation on μPAD has the potential for reducing turnaround time, sample volume, sample preparation and detection processes for clinical diagnosis and point-of care testing.

  7. InSb-based quantum dot nanostructures for mid-infrared photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrington, P. J.; Repiso, E.; Lu, Q.; Fujita, H.; Marshall, A. R. J.; Zhuang, Q.; Krier, A.

    2016-09-01

    Novel InSb quantum dot (QD) nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are investigated in order to improve the performance of light sources and detectors for the technologically important mid-infrared (2-5 μm) spectral range. Unlike the InAs/GaAs system which has a similar lattice mismatch, the growth of InSb/InAs QDs by MBE is a challenging task due to Sb segregation and surfactant effects. These problems can be overcome by using an Sb-As exchange growth technique to realize uniform, dense arrays (dot density 1012 cm-2) of extremely small (mean diameter 2.5 nm) InSb submonolayer QDs in InAs. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) containing ten layers of InSb QDs exhibit bright electroluminescence peaking at 3.8 μm at room temperature. These devices show superior temperature quenching compared with bulk and quantum well (QW) LEDs due to a reduction in Auger recombination. We also report the growth of InSb QDs in InAs/AlAsSb `W' QWs grown on GaSb substrates which are designed to increase the electron-hole (e-h) wavefunction overlap to 75%. These samples exhibit very good structural quality and photoluminescence peaking near 3.0 μm at low temperatures.

  8. Paper-based analytical devices for environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Nathan A; Quinn, Casey; Cate, David M; Reilly, Thomas H; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles S

    2016-03-21

    The field of paper-based microfluidics has experienced rapid growth over the past decade. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs), originally developed for point-of-care medical diagnostics in resource-limited settings, are now being applied in new areas, such as environmental analyses. Low-cost paper sensors show great promise for on-site environmental analysis; the theme of ongoing research complements existing instrumental techniques by providing high spatial and temporal resolution for environmental monitoring. This review highlights recent applications of μPADs for environmental analysis along with technical advances that may enable μPADs to be more widely implemented in field testing.

  9. Silicon based materials for drug delivery devices and implants.

    PubMed

    Bernik, Delia L

    2007-01-01

    This patent review focuses on silicon based materials for drug delivery systems and implant devices devoted to medical applications. The article describes some representative examples of the most depictive silicon based compounds associated with drug release formulations and tissue engineering biomaterials. Ranging from inorganic to organic and hybrid inorganic-organic silicon compounds, the paper referrers to patents describing inventions which make use of the best properties of silicon dioxide, silica aerogel and xerogel, silicon bioactive materials, silicones and ormosils, pointing out the usefulness of each kind of compound within the invention embodiment.

  10. Analytical Devices Based on Direct Synthesis of DNA on Paper.

    PubMed

    Glavan, Ana C; Niu, Jia; Chen, Zhen; Güder, Firat; Cheng, Chao-Min; Liu, David; Whitesides, George M

    2016-01-05

    This paper addresses a growing need in clinical diagnostics for parallel, multiplex analysis of biomarkers from small biological samples. It describes a new procedure for assembling arrays of ssDNA and proteins on paper. This method starts with the synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides covalently linked to paper and proceeds to assemble microzones of DNA-conjugated paper into arrays capable of simultaneously capturing DNA, DNA-conjugated protein antigens, and DNA-conjugated antibodies. The synthesis of ssDNA oligonucleotides on paper is convenient and effective with 32% of the oligonucleotides cleaved and eluted from the paper substrate being full-length by HPLC for a 32-mer. These ssDNA arrays can be used to detect fluorophore-linked DNA oligonucleotides in solution, and as the basis for DNA-directed assembly of arrays of DNA-conjugated capture antibodies on paper, detect protein antigens by sandwich ELISAs. Paper-anchored ssDNA arrays with different sequences can be used to assemble paper-based devices capable of detecting DNA and antibodies in the same device and enable simple microfluidic paper-based devices.

  11. Stress-sensor device based on flexoelectric liquid crystalline membranes.

    PubMed

    Rey, Alejandro D; Servio, Phillip; Herrera Valencia, Edtson Emilio

    2014-05-19

    Membrane flexoelectricity is an electromechanical coupling process that describes membrane bending and membrane electrical polarization caused by bending under electric fields. In this paper we propose, formulate, and characterize a stress-sensor device for mechanically loaded solids, consisting of a soft flexoelectric thin membrane attached to the loaded deformed solid. Because the curvature of the deformed solid is transferred to the attached flexoelectric membrane, the electromechanical transduction of the latter produces a charge that is proportional to the stress of the solid. The model of the stress-sensor device is based on the integration of the thermodynamics of polarizable membranes with isotropic solid elasticity, leading to a transfer function that identifies the elastic, electromechanical, and geometrical parameters involved in electrical-signal generation. The model is applied to representative normal bending and then to more complex off-axis bending of elastic bars. In all cases, a common transfer function shows the generic material and its geometric contributions. The sensor sensitivity increases linearly with flexoelectricity and the membrane-solid interface, and the sensitivity decreases with increasing membrane thickness and Young's modulus of the solid. The theoretical results contribute to ongoing experimental efforts towards the development of anisotropic soft-matter-based stress-sensor devices through solid-membrane interactions and electromechanical transduction.

  12. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection

    PubMed Central

    Casilari, Eduardo; Luque, Rafael; Morón, María-José

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs) has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones) have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources) to fall detection solutions. PMID:26213928

  13. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection.

    PubMed

    Casilari, Eduardo; Luque, Rafael; Morón, María-José

    2015-07-23

    Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs) has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones) have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources) to fall detection solutions.

  14. Photonic devices based on black phosphorus and related hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitiello, M. S.; Viti, L.

    2016-08-01

    Artificial semiconductor heterostructures played a pivotal role in modern electronic and photonic technologies, providing a highly effective means for the manipulation and control of carriers, from the visible to the far-infrared, leading to the development of highly efficient devices like sources, detectors and modulators. The discovery of graphene and the related fascinating capabilities have triggered an unprecedented interest in devices based on inorganic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Amongst them, black phosphorus (BP) recently showed an extraordinary potential in a variety of applications across micro-electronics and photonics. With an energy gap between the gapless graphene and the larger gap transition metal dichalcogenides, BP can form the basis for a new generation of high-performance photonic devices that could be specifically engineered to comply with different applications, like transparent saturable absorbers, fast photocounductive switches and low noise photodetectors, exploiting its peculiar electrical, thermal and optical anisotropy. This paper will review the latest achievements in black-phosphorus-based THz photonics and discuss future perspectives of this rapidly developing research field.

  15. Silicon and polymer nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Yongqiang; Gu, Lanlan; Wang, Li; Chen, Xiaonan; Chen, Ray T.

    2006-02-01

    Photonic crystals (PhCs) provide a promising nanophotonic platform for developing novel optoelectronic devices with significantly reduced device size and power consumption. Silicon nanophotonics is anticipated to play a pivotal role in the future nano-system integration owing to the maturity of sub-micron silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. An ultra-compact silicon modulator was experimentally demonstrated based on silicon photonic crystal waveguides. Modulation operation was achieved by carrier injection into an 80-micron-long silicon PhC waveguide of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structure. The driving current to obtain a phase shift of pi across the active region was as low as 0.15 mA, owing to slow light group velocity in PhC waveguides. The modulation depth was 92%. The electrode between the two waveguide arms of the MZI structure was routed to the space outside the MZI. In real devices, this planarized routing design would be essential to integrating the silicon modulator with electrical driving circuitry on a single silicon chip. For laboratory test, this routing scheme also eliminated the need of placing a bulky pad between the two arms and gave our modulator a distinctive slim profile and a much smaller footprint. Polymeric photonic crystals were designed for superprism based laser beam steering applications, and were fabricated by nano-imprint and other techniques.

  16. Enhanced photocoagulation with catheter-based diffusing optical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Kim, Jeehyun; Oh, Jungwhan

    2012-11-01

    A novel balloon catheter-based diffusing optical device was designed and evaluated to assist in treating excessive menstrual bleeding. A synthetic fused-silica fiber was micro-machined precisely to create scattering segments on a 25 mm long fiber tip for uniform light distribution. A visible wavelength (λ=532 nm) was used to specifically target the endometrium due to the high vascularity of the uterine wall. Optical simulation presented 30% wider distribution of photons along with approximately 40% higher irradiance induced by addition of a glass cap to the diffuser tip. Incorporation of the optical diffuser with a polyurethane balloon catheter considerably enhanced coagulation depth and area (i.e., 3.5 mm and 18.9 cm2 at 1 min irradiation) in tissue in vitro. The prototype device demonstrated the coagulation necrosis of 2.8±1.2 mm (n=18) and no thermal damage to myometrium in in vivo caprine models. A prototype 5 cm long balloon catheter-assisted optical diffuser was also evaluated with a cadaveric human uterus to confirm the coagulative response of the uterine tissue as well as to identify the further design improvement and clinical applicability. The proposed catheter-based diffusing optical device can be a feasible therapeutic tool to photocoagulate endometrial cell layers in an efficient and safe manner.

  17. Influence of the molecular weight and size dispersion of the electroluminescent polymer on the performance of air-stable hybrid light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Ferrero, Eugenia; Grigorian, Souren; Ryan, James W; Cambarau, Werther; Palomares, Emilio

    2015-01-21

    The influence of the chain length and the molecular weight distribution of the electroluminescent polymer on the carrier transport properties and morphology of air stable hybrid light-emitting diodes is reported. It is found that variations between diverse as-received commercial batches play a major role in the performance of the devices, whose maximum luminance can differ up to 2 orders of magnitude. Through complementary optoelectronic, structural, and morphological characterization techniques, we provide insights into the relationship between charge dynamics and the structure of polymeric electroluminescent materials. The carrier dynamics are found to be dominated by both the polymeric chain length and the hole transport, which in turn is dependent on the concentration of trap states. Furthermore, the chain length is seen to affect the morphology of the active layer.

  18. Opto-electronic transport properties of graphene oxide based devices

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Poulomi; Ibrahim, Sk; Pal, Tanusri; Chakraborty, Koushik; Ghosh, Surajit

    2015-06-24

    Large area, solution-processed, graphene oxide (GO)nanocomposite based photo FET has been successfully fabricated. The device exhibits p-type charge transport characteristics in dark condition. Our measurements indicate that the transport characteristics are gate dependent and extremely sensitive to solar light. Photo current decay mechanism of GO is well explained and is associated with two phenomena: a) fast response process and b) slow response process. Slow response photo decay can be considered as the intrinsic phenomena which are present for both GO and reduced GO (r-GO), whereas the first response photo decay is controlled by the surface defect states. Demonstration of photo FET performance of GO thin film is a significant step forward in integrating these devices in various optoelectronic circuits.

  19. Tunable photonic devices and modules based on micro-optomechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, Yoshitada

    2001-10-01

    Photonic devices with ultra-wide and precise controllability for lightwaves are essential for constructing flexible optical networks to serve versatile multimedia applications. However, conventional monolithically fabricated photonic devices suffer from their controllability being limited by the physical characteristics. Micro-optomechatronics based on precise positional control of optical elements is a promising method of meeting the above requirements. This paper presents typical examples, which include repetition- rate tunable optical pulse sources with a micro mechanically controllable cavity length and synchro-scanned tunable disk- shaped optical fiber modules. The operations of these modules were demonstrated to confirm the validity of micro- optomechatronics as the ultimate lightwave control scheme, which will be useful for future optical telecommunications systems.

  20. Gold-based electrical interconnections for microelectronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Reber, Cathleen A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A method of making an electrical interconnection from a microelectronic device to a package, comprising ball or wedge compression bonding a gold-based conductor directly to a silicon surface, such as a polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS or IMEMS device, without using layers of aluminum or titanium disposed in-between the conductor and the silicon surface. After compression bonding, optional heating of the bond above 363 C. allows formation of a liquid gold-silicon eutectic phase containing approximately 3% (by weight) silicon, which significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial compression bond. The same process can be used for improving the bond strength of Au--Ge bonds by forming a liquid Au-12Ge eutectic phase.