Science.gov

Sample records for electromagnetic field effects

  1. Electromagnetic Field Effects in Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasker, D. G.; Whitley, V. H.; Lee, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Two series of experiments were performed to determine the effects of 1-T magnetic fields on explosive initiation and growth in the modified gap test and on the propagation of explosively generated plasma into air. The results have implications for the control of reactions in explosives and for the use of electromagnetic particle velocity gauges.

  2. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    PubMed

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  3. [Combined biological effect of electromagnetic fields and chemical substances (toxic)].

    PubMed

    Kamedula, M; Kamedula, T

    1996-01-01

    The authors present results of own measurements and examinations as well as the literature data on the occurrence and effect of direct, low and high frequency electromagnetic fields and chemicals. In real working conditions and in experimental conditions, the following relations can be observed: 1) concomitant occurrence of electromagnetic fields and chemicals, e.g. processes of electrolysis, inductive and dielectric heating; 2) experimental studies of combined effect of electromagnetic fields and chemicals on e.g. cancer development: 3) drug effect modified by electromagnetic fields; 4) effect of chemicals produced in materials under the influence of electromagnetic fields. There are only a few publications on medical examinations of workers exposed simultaneously to electromagnetic fields and chemicals. However, even in those reported studies, an attempt to distinguish changes in the health state due to electromagnetic fields, and due to chemicals has field. The studies of the effect of electromagnetic fields which modify the effect of carcinogenic substances have not yielded unequivocal results. Electromagnetic fields may modify significantly the effect of some psychotropic and hormonal drugs. Under the influence of pyrolisis, induced by thermal effect of electromagnetic fields, toxic substances or substances with harmful biological effect may occur in some materials.

  4. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Pratt, William J.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2010-10-13

    In this progress report, we describe the preliminary experiments conducted with three fish and one invertebrate species to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. During fiscal year 2010, experiments were conducted with coho salmon (Onchrohychus kisutch), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). The work described supports Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.1.3.1: Electromagnetic Fields.

  5. [Computational radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry in evaluation of biological effects].

    PubMed

    Perov, S Iu; Kudryashov, Iu B; Rubtsova, N B

    2012-01-01

    Given growing computational resources, radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry is becoming more vital in the study of biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. The study analyzes numerical methods which are used in theoretical dosimetry to assess the exposure level and specific absorption rate distribution. The advances of theoretical dosimetry are shown. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods are analyzed in respect to electromagnetic field biological effects. The finite-difference time-domain method was implemented in detail; also evaluated were possible uncertainties of complex biological structure simulation for bioelectromagnetic investigations.

  6. Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields: A Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) disturb cell homeostasis at very low intensities by influencing discrete intracellular magnetic fields. The article reviews current research about the health effects of EMF, examining historical implications, childhood studies, adult studies, and popular press reports, and…

  7. Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields: A Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) disturb cell homeostasis at very low intensities by influencing discrete intracellular magnetic fields. The article reviews current research about the health effects of EMF, examining historical implications, childhood studies, adult studies, and popular press reports, and…

  8. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on food sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Monro, Jean A; Puri, Basant K

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the involvement of the immune system in the etiology of food sensitivity, and because pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is associated with beneficial immunologic changes, it was hypothesized that pulsed electromagnetic fields may have a beneficial effect on food sensitivity. A small pilot study was carried out in patients suffering from food sensitivity, with the antigen leukocyte antibody test being employed to index the degree of food sensitivity in terms of the number of foods to which each patient reacted. It was found that a 1-week course of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy, consisting of one hour's treatment per day, resulted in a reduction in the mean number of reactive foods of 10.75 (p < 0.05). On the basis of these results, a larger study is warranted.

  9. QED effective action in magnetic field backgrounds and electromagnetic duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Pyo

    2011-09-01

    In the in-out formalism we advance a method of the inverse scattering matrix for calculating effective actions in pure magnetic field backgrounds. The one-loop effective actions are found in a localized magnetic field of Sauter type and approximately in a general magnetic field by applying the uniform semiclassical approximation. The effective actions exhibit the electromagnetic duality between a constant electric field and a constant magnetic field and between E(x)=Esech2(x/L) and B(x)=Bsech2(x/L).

  10. Understanding possible electromagnetic counterparts to loud gravitational wave events: Binary black hole effects on electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin

    2010-04-15

    In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.

  11. Electromagnetic Field Effects in Semiconductor Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, George S.

    1996-01-01

    This proposed two-year research project was to involve development of an analytical model, a numerical algorithm for its integration, and a software for the analysis of a solidification process under the influence of electric and magnetic fields in microgravity. Due to the complexity of the analytical model that was developed and its boundary conditions, only a preliminary version of the numerical algorithm was developed while the development of the software package was not completed.

  12. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Xenophon K; Giotis, Christos; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Verginadis, Ioannis I; Simos, Yannis V; Peschos, Dimitrios; Evangelou, Angelos M

    2011-12-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) has been treated with various types of electromagnetic radiation methods such as transurethral needle ablation (TUNA), interstitial laser therapy (ILC), holmium laser resection (HoLRP). In the present study, the effects of a noninvasive method based on the exposure of patients with BPH to a pulsative EM Field at radiofrequencies have been investigated. Twenty patients with BPH, aging 68-78 years old (y.o), were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group (10 patients, 74.0 ± 5.7 y.o) treated with the α-blocker Alfusosin, 10 mg/24 h for at least 4 weeks, and the electromagnetic group (10 patients, 73.7 ± 6.3 y.o) exposed for 2 weeks in a very short wave duration, pulsed electromagnetic field at radiofrequencies generated by an ion magnetic inductor, for 30 min daily, 5 consecutive days per week. Patients of both groups were evaluated before and after drug and EMF treatment by values of total PSA and prostatic PSA fraction, acid phosphate, U/S estimation of prostate volume and urine residue, urodynamic estimation of urine flow rate, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). There was a statistically significant decrease before and after treatment of IPSS (P < 0.02), U/S prostate volume (P < 0.05), and urine residue (P < 0.05), as well as of mean urine flow rate (P < 0.05) in patients of the electromagnetic group, in contrast to the treatment group who had only improved IPSS (P < 0.05). There was also a significant improvement in clinical symptoms in patients of the electromagnetic group. Follow-up of the patients of this group for one year revealed that results obtained by EMFs treatment are still remaining. Pulsed electromagnetic field at radiofrequencies may benefit patients with benign prostate hyperplasia treated by a non-invasive method.

  13. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields and recently updated safety guidelines for strong static magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to artificial and naturally occurring magnetic fields that originate from many different sources. We review recent studies that examine the biological effects of and medical applications involving electromagnetic fields, review the properties of static and pulsed electromagnetic fields that affect biological systems, describe the use of a pulsed electromagnetic field in combination with an anticancer agent as an example of a medical application that incorporates an electromagnetic field, and discuss the recently updated safety guidelines for static electromagnetic fields. The most notable modifications to the 2009 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are the increased exposure limits, especially for those who work with or near electromagnetic fields (occupational exposure limits). The recommended increases in exposure were determined using recent scientific evidence obtained from animal and human studies. Several studies since the 1994 publication of the guidelines have examined the effects on humans after exposure to high static electromagnetic fields (up to 9.4 tesla), but additional research is needed to ascertain further the safety of strong electromagnetic fields.

  14. Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.

    PubMed

    Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M

    2013-06-01

    There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0 Hz-300 GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear.

  15. Immunorehabilitating effect of ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic fields in immunocompromised animals.

    PubMed

    Pershin, S B; Bobkova, A S; Derevnina, N A; Sidorov, V D

    2013-06-01

    We observed immunorehabilitation effects of ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic fields (microwaves) in immunocompromised animals. It was shown that microwave irradiation of the thyroid gland area could abolish actinomycin D- and colchicine-induced immunosuppression and did not affect immunosuppression caused by 5-fluorouracil. These findings suggest that changes in the hormonal profile of the organism during microwave exposure can stimulate the processes of transcription and mitotic activity of lymphoid cells.

  16. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Osteoporosis Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaowei, Yang; Liming, Wang; Guan, Z. C.; Yaou, Zhang; Xiangpeng, Wang

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the preventive effects and long term effects of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs), generated by circular coils and pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulators, on osteoporosis in bilaterally ovariectomized rats. In preventive experiment, thirty three-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three different groups: sham (SHAM), ovariectomy (OVX), PEMFs stimulation (PEMFs). All rats were subjected to bilaterally ovariectomy except those in SHAM group. The PEMFs group was exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields with frequency 15 Hz, peak magnetic induction density 2.2mT and exposure time 2 hours per day. The bone mineral density (BMD) of vertebra and left femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at eighth week, twelfth week and sixteenth week after surgery. In long term effects experiment, forty four rats were randomly divided into sham (14 rats, SHAM), ovariectomy group (10 rats, OVX), 15Hz PEMFs group(10 rats, 15Hz) and 30Hz PEMFs group(10 rats, 30Hz) at twenty-sixth week after surgery. Rats in PEMFs groups were stimulated sixteen weeks. In preventive experiment, the Corrected BMD of vertebra and femur was significantly higher than that of OVX group after 16 weeks (P<0.001, P<0.001 respectively). In long term effects experiment, the vertebral BMD of 15Hz PEMFs group and 30Hz PEMFs group was significantly higher than that of OVX groups (P<0.01, P<0.05 respectively). The experimental results demonstrated that extremely low intensity, low frequency, single pulsed electromagnetic fields significantly slowed down the loss of corrected vertebral and femoral BMD in bilaterally ovariectomized rats and suggest that PEMFs may be beneficial in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  17. [New mechanisms of biological effects of electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Buchachenko, A L; Kuznetsov, D A; Berdinskiĭ, V L

    2006-01-01

    The production of ATP in mitochondria depends on the magnesium nuclear spin and magnetic moment of a Mg2+ ion in creatine kinase and ATPase. This suggests that enzymatic synthesis of ATP is an ion-radical process and thus depends on the external magnetic field (magnetobiology originates from this fact) and microwave fields, which control the spin states of ion-radical pairs and affect the ATP synthesis. The chemical mechanism of ATP synthesis and the origin of biological effects of electromagnetic (microwave) fields are discussed.

  18. Acoustic effect of an electromagnetic pulsed UHF field

    SciTech Connect

    Kapyrin, Yu.V.; Moiseev, V.I.; Petrenko, V.V.

    1988-06-01

    During the course of studies on the Fakel linear accelerator it was found that the metal structures of the electrodynamic components of the accelerator are subjected to ultrasonic vibrations, the intensity and spectral composition of which depend on the operating regimes of its high-frequency system and on the conditions of resonance energy exchange between the electromagnetic field and the particle beam. From the results of calculations and measurements, the authors of this paper propose, without ruling out the contribution of other sources, that the ultrasonic signals observed in the irises and regular square waveguides of an accelerator can be attributed to the A ponderomotive effect of powerful pulses of the high-frequency electromagnetic field.

  19. Offshore windmills and the effects of electromagnetic fields on fish.

    PubMed

    Ohman, Marcus C; Sigray, Peter; Westerberg, Håkan

    2007-12-01

    With the large scale developments of offshore windpower the number of underwater electric cables is increasing with various technologies applied. A wind farm is associated with different types of cables used for intraturbine, array-to-transformer, and transformer-to-shore transmissions. As the electric currents in submarine cables induce electromagnetic fields there is a concern of how they may influence fishes. Studies have shown that there are fish species that are magneto-sensitive using geomagnetic field information for the purpose of orientation. This implies that if the geomagnetic field is locally altered it could influence spatial patterns in fish. There are also physiological aspects to consider, especially for species that are less inclined to move as the exposure could be persistent in a particular area. Even though studies have shown that magnetic fields could affect fish, there is at present limited evidence that fish are influenced by the electromagnetic fields that underwater cables from windmills generate. Studies on European eel in the Baltic Sea have indicated some minor effects. In this article we give an overview on the type of submarine cables that are used for electric transmissions in the sea. We also describe the character of the magnetic fields they induce. The effects of magnetic fields on fish are reviewed and how this may relate to the cables used for offshore wind power is discussed.

  20. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Sage, Cindy

    2008-02-01

    During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential health risks from power-frequency fields (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF) and from radiofrequency/microwave radiation emissions (RF) from wireless communications. Non-thermal (low-intensity) biological effects have not been considered for regulation of microwave exposure, although numerous scientific reports indicate such effects. The BioInitiative Report is based on an international research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects. The BioInitiative Report concluded that a reasonable suspicion of risk exists based on clear evidence of bioeffects at environmentally relevant levels, which, with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. Regarding ELF a new lower public safety limit for habitable space adjacent to all new or upgraded power lines and for all other new constructions should be applied. A new lower limit should also be used for existing habitable space for children and/or women who are pregnant. A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6 W/Kg and 2 W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to

  1. Synergistic health effects between chemical pollutants and electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ledoigt, Gérard; Sta, Chaima; Goujon, Eric; Souguir, Dalila; El Ferjani, Ezzeddine

    2015-01-01

    Humans and ecosystems are exposed to highly variable and unknown cocktail of chemicals and radiations. Although individual chemicals are typically present at low concentrations, they can interact with each other resulting in additive or potentially synergistic mixture effects. This was also observed with products obtained by radiation actions such as sunlight or electromagnetic fields that can change the effects of chemicals, such as pesticides, and metal trace elements on health. Concomitant presence of various pesticides and their transformation products adds further complexity to chemical risk assessment since chronic inflammation is a key step for cancer promotion. Degradation of a parent molecule can produce several by-products which can trigger various toxic effects with different impacts on health and environment. For instance, the cocktail of sunlight irradiated sulcotrione pesticide has a greater cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than parent molecule, sulcotrione, and questions about the impact of photochemical process on environment. Adjuvants were shown to modify the biological features of pesticides. Addition of other elements, metals or biological products, can differently enhance cell toxicity of pesticides or electromagnetic radiations suggesting a synergy in living organisms. Electromagnetic fields spreading, pesticide by-products and mixtures monitoring become greater for environmental contamination evaluations.

  2. Plasma effects in electromagnetic field interaction with biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R. P.; Batra, Karuna; Excell, Peter S.

    2011-02-01

    Theoretical analysis is presented of the nonlinear behavior of charge carriers in biological tissue under the influence of varying low-intensity electromagnetic (EM) field. The interaction occurs because of the nonlinear force arising due to the gradient of the EM field intensity acting on free electrons in the conduction band of proteins in metabolically active biological cell membrane receptors leading to a redistribution of charge carriers. Field dependence of the resulting dielectric constant is investigated by a suitable modification to include an additional electronic contribution term to the three-term Debye model. The exogenous EM field propagating in this nonlinear cellular medium satisfies the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and can be affected significantly. Resulting field effect can be substantially augmented and effective rectification/demodulation can occur. Possible implications of this modification on biological processes in white and grey matter are discussed.

  3. What Are Electromagnetic Fields?

    MedlinePlus

    ... sources of electromagnetic fields Besides natural sources the electromagnetic spectrum also includes fields generated by human-made sources: ... ability to break bonds between molecules. In the electromagnetic spectrum, gamma rays given off by radioactive materials, cosmic ...

  4. Healing of Chronic Wounds through Systemic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo, L.; Trigos, I.; García-Cantú, R.; Godina-Nava, J. J.; Serrano, G.

    2002-08-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) were configured to interact with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). These ELF were applied in the arm to five patients with chronic wounds resistant to medical and surgical treatment. Wound healing began in all patients during the first two weeks after ELF exposure permiting their previously unresponsive chronic wounds to function as internal controls. All lesions were cured or healed >70% in less than four months. Systemic effects were explained by ELF activation of PBMC and their transportation through the blood to the affected site. This therapy is effective in selected patients with chronic wounds.

  5. Biological effects of prolonged exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields in rats: III. 50 Hz electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Zecca, L; Mantegazza, C; Margonato, V; Cerretelli, P; Caniatti, M; Piva, F; Dondi, D; Hagino, N

    1998-01-01

    Groups of adult male Sprague Dawley rats (64 rats each) were exposed for 8 months to electromagnetic fields (EMF) of two different field strength combinations: 5microT - 1kV/m and 100microT - 5kV/m. A third group was sham exposed. Field exposure was 8 hrs/day for 5 days/week. Blood samples were collected for hematology determinations before the onset of exposure and at 12 week intervals. At sacrifice, liver, heart, mesenteric lymph nodes, bone marrow, and testes were collected for morphology and histology assessments, while the pineal gland and brain were collected for biochemical determinations. At both field strength combinations, no pathological changes were observed in animal growth rate, in morphology and histology of the collected tissue specimens (liver, heart, mesenteric lymph nodes, testes, bone marrow), and in serum chemistry. An increase in norepinephrine levels occurred in the pineal gland of rats exposed to the higher field strength. The major changes in the brain involved the opioid system in frontal cortex, parietal cortex, and hippocampus. From the present findings it may be hypothesized that EMF may cause alteration of some brain functions.

  6. Could Radiotherapy Effectiveness Be Enhanced by Electromagnetic Field Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Artacho-Cordón; del Mar, Salinas-Asensio María; Irene, Calvente; Sandra, Ríos-Arrabal; Josefa, León; Elisa, Román-Marinetto; Nicolás, Olea; Isabel, Núñez María

    2013-01-01

    One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs), known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of genotoxicity, might control tumor recruitment and, thus, provide therapeutic benefits. Scientific evidence shows that the effects of ionizing radiation on cellular compartments and functions are strengthened by EMF. Although little is known about the potential role of EMFs in radiotherapy (RT), the radiosensitizing effect of EMFs described in the literature could support their use to improve radiation effectiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that EMF exposure might enhance the ionizing radiation effect on tumor cells, improving the effects of RT. The aim of this paper is to review reports of the effects of EMFs in biological systems and their potential therapeutic benefits in radiotherapy. PMID:23867611

  7. [Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on mammalian spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Susa, Martina; Pavicić, Ivan

    2007-12-01

    This article reviews studies about the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic (RF EM) fields on male reproductive system and reproductive health in mammals. According to current data, there are almost 4 million active mobile phone lines in Croatia while this number has risen to 2 billion in the world. Increased use of mobile technology raises scientific and public concern about possible hazardous effects of RF fields on human health. The effects of radiofrequencies on reproductive health and consequences for the offspring are still mainly unknown. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies indicated that RF fields could interact with charged intracellular macromolecular structures. Results of several laboratory studies on animal models showed how the RF fields could affect the mammalian reproductive system and sperm cells. Inasmuch as, in normal physiological conditions spermatogenesis is a balanced process of division, maturation and storage of cells, it is particularly vulnerable to the chemical and physical environmental stimuli. Especially sensitive could be the cytoskeleton, composed of charged proteins; actin, intermedial filaments and microtubules. Cytoskeleton is a functional and structural part of the cell that has important role in the sperm motility, and is actively involved in the morphologic changes that occur during mammalian spermiogenesis.

  8. Assessment of the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr... Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) (From 1 June 2002 to 31 May 2003 for 12 months) Nikolai Konstantinovich Chemeris...International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), Moscow. 2 ISTC 2350 Assessment of the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

  9. Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Jin

    2012-01-01

    The safety of human exposure to an ever-increasing number and diversity of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources both at work and at home has become a public health issue. To date, many in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that EMF exposure can alter cellular homeostasis, endocrine function, reproductive function, and fetal development in animal systems. Reproductive parameters reported to be altered by EMF exposure include male germ cell death, the estrous cycle, reproductive endocrine hormones, reproductive organ weights, sperm motility, early embryonic development, and pregnancy success. At the cellular level, an increase in free radicals and [Ca2+]i may mediate the effect of EMFs and lead to cell growth inhibition, protein misfolding, and DNA breaks. The effect of EMF exposure on reproductive function differs according to frequency and wave, strength (energy), and duration of exposure. In the present review, the effects of EMFs on reproductive function are summarized according to the types of EMF, wave type, strength, and duration of exposure at cellular and organism levels. PMID:22563544

  10. [Electromagnetic fields hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Sobiczewska, Elzbieta; Szmigielski, Stanisław

    2009-01-01

    The development of industry, particularly of new technologies in communication systems, gives rise to the number and diversty of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources in the environment. These sources, including power-frequent, radiofrequent and microwaves, make human life richer, safer and easier. But at the same time, there is growing concern about possible health risks connected with EMF exposure. An increasing number of persons have recently reported on a variety of health problems induced, in their opinion, by exposure to EMF. It is important to note that EMF levels to which these individuals are exposed are generally well below the recommended exposure limits and are certainly far below those known to produce any adverse effects. These persons call themselves "electromagnetic hypersensitivity individuals" And complain about experiencing various types of non-specific symptoms, including dermatological, neurological and vegetative. In the present paper, the problem of electromagnetic hypersensitivity phenomenon is discussed based on the recently published literature.

  11. Effects of noise and electromagnetic fields on reproductive outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, R E; Aldrich, T E; Easterly, C E

    1989-01-01

    Much public health research has been directed to studies of cancer risks due to chemical agents. Recently, increasing attention has been given to adverse reproductive outcomes as another, shorter-term biologic indicator of public health impact. Further, several low-level ubiquitous physical agents have been implicated recently as possibly affecting human health. These physical factors (noise and electromagnetic fields) represent difficult topics for research with epidemiologic study methods. This paper provides a brief review of the published data related to the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and exposure to noise or electromagnetic fields. The discussion includes ideas for possible biologic mechanisms, considerations for exposure assessment, and suggestions for epidemiologic research. PMID:2667980

  12. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Siyi; He, Hongchen; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Haiming; Gao, Chengfei; Yu, Xijie; He, Chengqi

    2017-09-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) is considered to be a well-defined subject that has caused high morbidity and mortality. In elderly women diagnosed with PMOP, low bone mass and fragile bone strength have been proven to significantly increase risk of fragility fractures. Currently, various anabolic and anti-resorptive therapies have been employed in an attempt to retain healthy bone mass and strength. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs), first applied in treating patients with delayed fracture healing and nonunions, may turn out to be another potential and effective therapy for PMOP. PEMFs can enhance osteoblastogenesis and inhibit osteoclastogenesis, thus contributing to an increase in bone mass and strength. However, accurate mechanisms of the positive effects of PEMFs on PMOP remain to be further elucidated. This review attempts to summarize recent advances of PEMFs in treating PMOP based on clinical trials, and animal and cellular studies. Possible mechanisms are also introduced, and the future possibility of application of PEMFs on PMOP are further explored and discussed. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:406-424, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effect of cyclophosphamide and electromagnetic fields on mouse bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Cadossi, R.; Zucchini, P.; Emilia, G.; Torelli, G. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that the exposure to low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMF) of mice X-ray irradiated resulted in an increased damage to the bone marrow. The series of experiments here reported were designed to investigate the effect of PEMF exposure after intraperitoneum injection of 200mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY). Control mice were CY injected only; experimental mice were CY injected and then exposed to PEMF. Exposure to PEMF (24 hours/day) increased the rate of decline of white blood cells in peripheral blood. Spleen weight was statistically higher among control mice than among mice exposed to PEMF at day 6, 8 and 10 after CY injection. Spleen autoradiography proved to be higher among PEMF exposed mice than among controls at day 8 and 9 after CY injection. The grafting efficiency of the bone marrow obtained from control mice was higher than the grafting efficiency of the bone marrow recovered from mice exposed to PEMF. All these data indicate that the exposure to PEMF increases the cytotoxic effect of CY.

  14. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on bacterial membrane.

    PubMed

    Oncul, Sule; Cuce, Esra M; Aksu, Burak; Inhan Garip, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    The effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on bacteria has attracted attention due to its potential for beneficial uses. This research aimed to determine the effect of ELF-EMF on bacterial membrane namely the membrane potential, surface potential, hydrophobicity, respiratory activity and growth. Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli were subjected to ELF-EMF, 50 Hz, 1 mT for 2 h. Membrane potential was determined by fluorescence spectroscopy with or without EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) with DisC3(5) (3,3-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide), zeta potential measurements were performed by electrophoretic mobility, hydrophobicity of the membrane was measured with MATH (Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons) test, respiratory activity was determined with CTC (5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride), colony forming unit (CFU) and DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dihydrochloride) was used for growth determinations. ELF-EMF caused changes in physicochemical properties of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Hyperpolarization was seen in S. aureus and EDTA-treated E. coli. Surface potential showed a positive shift in S. aureus contrariwise to the negative shift seen in EDTA-untreated E. coli. Respiratory activity increased in both bacteria. A slight decrease in growth was observed. These results show that ELF-EMF affects the crucial physicochemical processes in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria which need further research.

  15. Systemic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields in Patients with Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo-Dorantes, L.; Valle, L.; Uruchurtu, E.; Medel, A.; García-Mayen, F.; Serrano-Luna, G.

    2003-09-01

    Healing of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with inflammatory response, which promotes healing and scar formation. Activation of a local inflammatory response in patients with sequel of AMI could have an important role to enhance angiogenesis and regeneration of hibernating myocardial tissue. Chronic arterial leg ulcers have a similar etiology, and healing has been promoted by exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF). We report the evolution of three AMI patients with sequel of AMI that were exposed to ELF.

  16. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  17. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  18. Effects of Bluetooth device electromagnetic field on hearing: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, R; Prepageran, N; Prepagaran, N; Rahmat, O; Zulkiflee, A B; Hufaida, K S

    2012-04-01

    The Bluetooth wireless headset has been promoted as a 'hands-free' device with a low emission of electromagnetic radiation. To evaluate potential changes in hearing function as a consequence of using Bluetooth devices, by assessing changes in pure tone audiography and distortion production otoacoustic emissions. Prospective study. Thirty adult volunteers were exposed to a Bluetooth headset device (1) on 'standby' setting for 6 hours and (2) at full power for 10 minutes. Post-exposure hearing was evaluated using pure tone audiography and distortion production otoacoustic emission testing. There were no statistically significant changes in hearing, as measured above, following either exposure type. Exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by a Bluetooth headset, as described above, did not decrease hearing thresholds or alter distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

  19. Effects of electromagnetic fields on fecundity in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W F; Giarola, A J; Bradley, J W; Shrekenhamer, A

    1975-02-28

    Egg production was reduced when young laying hens were kept in contact with metal cages while being continuously exposed to the following cw fields: a vhf field at a frequency of 260 MHz, with an incident power that decreased from 100 to 4mW during the experiment; a uhf field at a frequency of 915 MHz, with an incident power of 800 mW during the first 2.5 weeks, zero during the following week, and 200 mW for the remainder of the experiment; a uhf field at 2.435 GHz, with an incident power of 800 mW; an elf electric field at a frequency of 60 Hz, with a calculated value of field strength of 1600 V/m; an elf magnetic field at 60 Hz, with a value of magnetic flux density of 1.4G. With the exception of the hens exposed to the uhf field at 915 MHz, all other treated groups laid significantly less eggs than the controls (p smaller than or equal to 0.01). This reduction (similar 15% less than the controls) began with the first 4-week production period. The egg production curves for the hens exposed to the vhf field at 260 MHz and to the uhf field at 2.435 GHz were approximately the same beginning with the sixth week of production, and they maintained comparable production levels for the remainder of the experiment. An 8% total drop in production also was experienced in the group of birds exposed to the 915-MHz field, which pulsed because of equipment failure. Egg production rate curves for the birds in the elf electric and magnetic fields were substantially different from those exhibited by birds in the other electromagnetic fields. The birds in the E-field regained a production level comparable to the controls after 11 weeks production, whereas those in the B-field dropped to 31% production, which was approximately 40% poorer than the controls by the twelfth week of production. Fertility of cocks and hens was not affected by continuous low-power vhf and uhf near-zone electromagnetic exposure or elf electric or magnetic field treatment. Fertility was exceptionally good

  20. The regenerative effects of electromagnetic field on spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ross, Christina L; Syed, Ishaq; Smith, Thomas L; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is typically the result of direct mechanical impact to the spine, leading to fracture and/or dislocation of the vertebrae along with damage to the surrounding soft tissues. Injury to the spinal cord results in disruption of axonal transmission of signals. This primary trauma causes secondary injuries that produce immunological responses such as neuroinflammation, which perpetuates neurodegeneration and cytotoxicity within the injured spinal cord. To date there is no FDA-approved pharmacological agent to prevent the development of secondary SCI and induce regenerative processes aimed at healing the spinal cord and restoring neurological function. An alternative method to electrically activate spinal circuits is the application of a noninvasive electromagnetic field (EMF) over intact vertebrae. The EMF method of modulating molecular signaling of inflammatory cells emitted in the extra-low frequency range of <100 Hz, and field strengths of <5 mT, has been reported to decrease inflammatory markers in macrophages, and increase endogenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation and differentiation rates. EMF has been reported to promote osteogenesis by improving the effects of osteogenic media, and increasing the proliferation of osteoblasts, while inhibiting osteoclast formation and increasing bone matrix in vitro. EMF has also been shown to increase chondrogenic markers and collagen and induce neural differentiation, while increasing cell viability by over 50%. As advances are made in stem cell technologies, stabilizing the cell line after differentiation is crucial to SCI repair. Once cell-seeded scaffolds are implanted, EMF may be applied outside the wound for potential continued adjunct treatment during recovery.

  1. The effects of exposure to electromagnetic field on rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Kiray, Amac; Tayefi, Hamid; Kiray, Muge; Bagriyanik, Husnu Alper; Pekcetin, Cetin; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Ozogul, Candan

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) causes increased adverse effects on biological systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EMF on heart tissue by biochemical and histomorphological evaluations in EMF-exposed adult rats. In this study, 28 male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used. The rats were divided into two groups: sham group (n = 14) and EMF group (n = 14). Rats in sham group were exposed to same conditions as the EMF group except the exposure to EMF. Rats in EMF group were exposed to a 50-Hz EMF of 3 mT for 4 h/day and 7 days/week for 2 months. After 2 months of exposure, rats were killed; the hearts were excised and evaluated. Determination of oxidative stress parameters was performed spectrophotometrically. To detect apoptotic cells, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed. In EMF-exposed group, levels of lipid peroxidation significantly increased and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased compared with sham group. The number of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 immunoreactivity increased in EMF-exposed rats compared with sham. Under electron microscopy, there were mitochondrial degeneration, reduction in myofibrils, dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and perinuclear vacuolization in EMF-exposed rats. In conclusion, the results show that the exposure to EMF causes oxidative stress, apoptosis and morphologic damage in myocardium of adult rats. The results of our study indicate that EMF-related changes in rat myocardium could be the result of increased oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether the exposure to EMF can induce adverse effects on myocardium.

  2. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Keczan, E; Keri, G; Banhegyi, G; Stiller, I

    2016-10-01

    The maintenance of protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is crucial in cell life. Disruption of proteostasis results in ER stress that activates the unfolded protein response (UPR); a signalling network assigned to manage the accumulated misfolded or unfolded proteins. Prolonged or unresolved ER stress leads to apoptotic cell death that can be the basis of many serious diseases. Our aim was to study the effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), an alternative, non-invasive therapeutic method on ER stressed cell lines. First, the effect of PEMF treatment on the expression of ER stress markers was tested in three different cell lines. PEMF had no remarkable effect on ER stress protein levels in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) and human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. However, the expression of BiP, Grp94 and CHOP were increased in HeLa cells upon PEMF exposure. Therefore, HepG2 cell line was selected for further experiments. Cells were stressed by tunicamycin and exposed to PEMF. Grp94, PDI, CHOP and PARP expression as markers of stress were monitored by Western blot and cell viability was also investigated. Tunicamycin treatment, as expected, increased the expression of Grp94, PDI, CHOP and inactivated PARP. Analysis of protein expression showed that PEMF was able to decrease the elevated level of ER chaperons Grp94, PDI and the apoptosis marker CHOP. The truncated, inactive form of PARP was also decreased. Accordingly, cell viability was also improved by PEMF exposure. These results indicate that PEMF is able to moderate ER stress induced by tunicamycin in HepG2 cells. However, our results clearly draw attention to that different cell lines may vary in the response to PEMF treatment.

  3. Impact of the strong electromagnetic field on the QCD effective potential for homogeneous Abelian gluon field configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Galilo, Bogdan V.; Nedelko, Sergei N.

    2011-11-01

    The one-loop quark contribution to the QCD effective potential for the homogeneous Abelian gluon field in the presence of an external strong electromagnetic field is evaluated. The structure of extrema of the potential as a function of the angles between chromoelectric, chromomagnetic, and electromagnetic fields is analyzed. In this setup, the electromagnetic field is considered as an external one while the gluon field represents domain structured nonperturbative gluon configurations related to the QCD vacuum in the confinement phase. Two particularly interesting gluon configurations, (anti-)self-dual and crossed orthogonal chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields, are discussed specifically. Within this simplified framework it is shown that the strong electromagnetic fields can play a catalyzing role for a deconfinement transition. At the qualitative level, the present consideration can be seen as a highly simplified study of an impact of the electromagnetic fields generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions on the strongly interacting hadronic matter.

  4. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field frequencies on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fei; Hou, Tianyong; Zhang, Zehua; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xu, Jianzhong

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different frequencies of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Third-generation human mesenchymal stem cells were irradiated with different frequencies of pulsed electromagnetic fields, including 5, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 Hz, with a field intensity of 1.1 mT, for 30 minutes per day for 21 days. Changes in human mesenchymal stem cell morphology were observed using phase contrast microscopy. Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin expression were also determined to evaluate human mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation.Different effects were observed on human mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast induction following exposure to different pulsed electromagnetic field frequencies. Levels of human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation increased when the pulsed electromagnetic field frequency was increased from 5 hz to 50 hz, but the effect was weaker when the pulsed electromagnetic field frequency was increased from 50 Hz to 150 hz. The most significant effect on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation was observed at of 50 hz.The results of the current study show that pulsed electromagnetic field frequency is an important factor with regard to the induction of human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Furthermore, a pulsed electromagnetic field frequency of 50 Hz was the most effective at inducing human mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast differentiation in vitro.

  5. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  6. [Mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects induced by radiofrequency electromagnetic field of mobile phone].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-jian; He, Ji-liang

    2008-01-01

    The extensive use of mobile phones causes increasing public concern on health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Conflicting results are found in publications on the mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects of RF electromagnetic fields. The overwhelming findings do not support the assumption that RF exposure may induce mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic effects. However, health effects from low level RF exposure need to be further studied.

  7. Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Growth and Differentiation of ’Physarum polycephalum’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    AD-AO10 187 EFFECTS OF EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY ELECTRO- MAGNETIC FIELDS ON GROWTH AND DIFFERENTIATION OF ’ PHYSARUM POLYCEPHALUM ’ E. M. Guodman, et al...LExtremely Low Prequency Electromagnetic Fields on Growth and Differentiation of Physarum polycephalum Technical Report Phase I (Continuous Wave) by...that weak, alternating electromagnetic fields (60 or 75 Hz, 2.0 G, 0.7 V/n) affect the cell cycle of Physarum polycephalum by increasing the interval

  8. Acute neuroprotective effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Ling; Wang, Yan-Gang; Fei, Zhou; Zhong, Jun; Wei, Li-Zhou; Long, Qian-Fa; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2012-05-10

    Traumatic brain injury commonly has a result of a short window of opportunity between the period of initial brain injury and secondary brain injury, which provides protective strategies and can reduce damages of brain due to secondary brain injury. Previous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. However, the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on neural damage after traumatic brain injury have not been reported yet. The present study aims to investigate effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the model of lateral fluid percussion injury, which were placed in non-electromagnetic fields and 15 Hz (Hertz) electromagnetic fields with intensities of 1 G (Gauss), 3 G and 5 G. At various time points (ranging from 0.5 to 30 h) after lateral fluid percussion injury, rats were treated with kainic acid (administered by intraperitoneal injection) to induce apoptosis in hippocampal cells. The results were as follows: (1) the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α was dramatically decreased during the neuroprotective time window. (2) The kainic acid-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields. (3) Electromagnetic fields exposure shortened the escape time in water maze test. (4) Electromagnetic fields exposure accelerated the recovery of the blood-brain barrier after brain injury. These findings revealed that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields significantly prolong the window of opportunity for brain protection and enhance the intensity of neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  10. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP), Part I: Effects on field medical equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Vandre, R.H.; Klebers, J.; Tesche, F.M.; Blanchard, J.P. )

    1993-04-01

    The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from a high-altitude nuclear detonation has the potential to cover an area as large as the continental United States with damaging levels of EMP radiation. In this study, two of seven items of medical equipment were damaged by an EMP simulator. Computer circuit analysis of 17 different items showed that 11 of the 17 items would be damaged by current surges on the power cords, while two would be damaged by current surges on external leads. This research showed that a field commander can expect approximately 65% of his electronic medical equipment to be damaged by a single nuclear detonation as far as 2,200 km away.

  11. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    SciTech Connect

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sanchez; Perez, Javier; Garcia, M. N. Jimenez; Lopez, M. A. Jimenez; Espindola, M. E. Sanchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernandez, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez

    2008-08-11

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-{beta}) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  12. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sánchez; Pérez, Javiér; García, M. N. Jiménez; López, M. A. Jiménez; Espíndola, M. E. Sánchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernández, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez

    2008-08-01

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-β) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  13. Deuteron electromagnetic form factors in a renormalizable formulation of chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epelbaum, E.; Gasparyan, A. M.; Gegelia, J.; Schindler, M. R.

    2014-03-01

    We calculate the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in a modified version of Weinberg's chiral effective field theory approach to the two-nucleon system. We derive renormalizable integral equations for the deuteron without partial wave decomposition. Deuteron form factors are extracted by applying the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formalism to the three-point correlation function of deuteron interpolating fields and the electromagnetic current operator. Numerical results of a leading-order calculation with removed cutoff regularization agree well with experimental data.

  14. Effect of radio frequency waves of electromagnetic field on the tubulin.

    PubMed

    Taghi, Mousavi; Gholamhosein, Riazi; Saeed, Rezayi-Zarchi

    2013-09-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are macromolecular structures consisting of tubulin heterodimers and present in almost every eukaryotic cell. MTs fulfill all conditions for generation of electromagnetic field and are electrically polar due to the electrical polarity of a tubulin heterodimer. The calculated static electric dipole moment of about 1000 Debye makes them capable of being aligned parallel to the applied electromagnetic field direction. In the present study, the tubulin heterodimers were extracted and purified from the rat brains. MTs were obtained by polymerization in vitro. Samples of microtubules were adsorbed in the absence and in the presence of electromagnetic fields with radio frequency of 900 Hz. Our results demonstrate the effect of electromagnetic field with 900 Hz frequency to change the structure of MTs. In this paper, a related patent was used that will help to better understand the studied subject.

  15. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Automated Blood Cell Measurements.

    PubMed

    Vagdatli, Eleni; Konstandinidou, Vasiliki; Adrianakis, Nikolaos; Tsikopoulos, Ioannis; Tsikopoulos, Alexios; Mitsopoulou, Kyriaki

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the electromagnetic fields associated with mobile phones and/or laptops interfere with blood cell counts of hematology analyzers. Random blood samples were analyzed on an Aperture Impedance hematology analyzer. The analysis was performed in four ways: (A) without the presence of any mobile phone or portable computer in use, (B) with mobile phones in use (B1: one mobile, B4: four mobiles), (C) with portable computers (laptops) in use (C1: one laptop, C3: three laptops), and (D) with four mobile phones and three laptops in use simultaneously. The results obtained demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in neutrophil, erythrocyte, and platelet count and an increase in lymphocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, and red blood cell distribution width, notably in the B4 group. Despite this statistical significance, in clinical practice, only the red blood cell reduction could be taken into account, as the mean difference between the A and B4 group was 60,000 cells/µL. In group D, the analyzer gave odd results after 11 measurements and finally stopped working. The combined and multiple use of mobile phones and computers affects the function of hematology analyzers, leading to false results. Consequently, the use of such electronic devices must be avoided.

  16. [The effect of electromagnetic fields on living organisms: plants, birds and animals].

    PubMed

    Rochalska, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields, constant and alternating, are a static element of the environment. They originate from both natural and man-made sources. Depending on the type of the field, its intensity and time of activity, they exert different effects on the natural world (plants and animals). Some animals utilize magnetic field of the earth for their own purposes.

  17. Transient effect of weak electromagnetic fields on calcium ion concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pazur, Alexander; Rassadina, Valentina

    2009-04-30

    Weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields can influence physiological processes in animals, plants and microorganisms, but the underlying way of perception is poorly understood. The ion cyclotron resonance is one of the discussed mechanisms, predicting biological effects for definite frequencies and intensities of electromagnetic fields possibly by affecting the physiological availability of small ions. Above all an influence on Calcium, which is crucial for many life processes, is in the focus of interest. We show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, changes in Ca2+-concentrations can be induced by combinations of magnetic and electromagnetic fields that match Ca2+-ion cyclotron resonance conditions. An aequorin expressing Arabidopsis thaliana mutant (Col0-1 Aeq Cy+) was subjected to a magnetic field around 65 microtesla (0.65 Gauss) and an electromagnetic field with the corresponding Ca2+ cyclotron frequency of 50 Hz. The resulting changes in free Ca2+ were monitored by aequorin bioluminescence, using a high sensitive photomultiplier unit. The experiments were referenced by the additional use of wild type plants. Transient increases of cytosolic Ca2+ were observed both after switching the electromagnetic field on and off, with the latter effect decreasing with increasing duration of the electromagnetic impact. Compared with this the uninfluenced long-term loss of bioluminescence activity without any exogenic impact was negligible. The magnetic field effect rapidly decreased if ion cyclotron resonance conditions were mismatched by varying the magnetic fieldstrength, also a dependence on the amplitude of the electromagnetic component was seen. Considering the various functions of Ca2+ as a second messenger in plants, this mechanism may be relevant for perception of these combined fields. The applicability of recently hypothesized mechanisms for the ion cyclotron resonance effect in biological systems is discussed considering it's operating at magnetic field strengths weak

  18. Transient effect of weak electromagnetic fields on calcium ion concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pazur, Alexander; Rassadina, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    Background Weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields can influence physiological processes in animals, plants and microorganisms, but the underlying way of perception is poorly understood. The ion cyclotron resonance is one of the discussed mechanisms, predicting biological effects for definite frequencies and intensities of electromagnetic fields possibly by affecting the physiological availability of small ions. Above all an influence on Calcium, which is crucial for many life processes, is in the focus of interest. We show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, changes in Ca2+-concentrations can be induced by combinations of magnetic and electromagnetic fields that match Ca2+-ion cyclotron resonance conditions. Results An aequorin expressing Arabidopsis thaliana mutant (Col0-1 Aeq Cy+) was subjected to a magnetic field around 65 microtesla (0.65 Gauss) and an electromagnetic field with the corresponding Ca2+ cyclotron frequency of 50 Hz. The resulting changes in free Ca2+ were monitored by aequorin bioluminescence, using a high sensitive photomultiplier unit. The experiments were referenced by the additional use of wild type plants. Transient increases of cytosolic Ca2+ were observed both after switching the electromagnetic field on and off, with the latter effect decreasing with increasing duration of the electromagnetic impact. Compared with this the uninfluenced long-term loss of bioluminescence activity without any exogenic impact was negligible. The magnetic field effect rapidly decreased if ion cyclotron resonance conditions were mismatched by varying the magnetic fieldstrength, also a dependence on the amplitude of the electromagnetic component was seen. Conclusion Considering the various functions of Ca2+ as a second messenger in plants, this mechanism may be relevant for perception of these combined fields. The applicability of recently hypothesized mechanisms for the ion cyclotron resonance effect in biological systems is discussed considering it's operating at

  19. The Effect of Direct Lightning Shielding Rod on Lightning Electromagnetic Fields Aboveground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ya-Peng; Gao, Cheng; Yang, Bo

    2017-09-01

    A practical new type direct lightning shielding rod is designed to reduce the electromagnetic radiation produced by lightning stroking to Franklin lightning rod in the paper. The Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method is adopted for analyzing. It is the shielding layer that affects the electromagnetic fields and the insulating medium make no difference. All the electromagnetic fields amplitude obtained decrease for the shielding layer existing, regardless of any condition, but the extent is different. That is, the effect on the horizontal electric field is most noticeable, the vertical electric field comes second, minimum the azimuthal magnetic field. All the field components are affected by shielding layer height and the distance between shielding layer and lightning channel, but not significantly by the shielding layer grounding depth. The shielding effect is more obvious with lower ground conductivity, but the ground relative permittivity makes no difference.

  20. Neurobehavioral effects of power-frequency electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Paneth, N.

    1993-12-01

    Some laboratory experiments have suggested that power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) may be capable of influencing calcium efflux from cell membranes, pineal function, and circadian rhythms. As yet, however, no consistent, replicable laboratory model has been developed for any of these effects. Most assessments of human volunteers exposed to EMF have been negative, but occasional effects on vigilance or alertness and some modest effects on circadian rhythmicity have been reported. Several carefully performed studies of workers occupationally exposed to high electric-field strengths have failed to find effects on behavior or cognitive functioning. Although the bulk of human research on the effects of EMF on cognitive performance is negative, there has been less assessment of behavior and psychiatric symptomatology. Because some studies, in both humans and animals, have described effects of EMF on circadian rhythms, future research might concentrate profitably on the assessment of EMF in relation to depression and other cyclically mediated psychiatric disorders. 40 refs.

  1. Neurobehavioral effects of power-frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Paneth, N

    1993-01-01

    Some laboratory experiments have suggested that power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) may be capable of influencing calcium efflux from cell membranes, pineal function, and circadian rhythms. As yet, however, no consistent, replicable laboratory model has been developed for any of these effects. Most assessments of human volunteers exposed to EMF have been negative, but occasional effects on vigilance or alertness and some modest effects on circadian rhythmicity have been reported. Several carefully performed studies of workers occupationally exposed to high electric-field strengths have failed to find effects on behavior or cognitive functioning. Although the bulk of human research on the effects of EMF on cognitive performance is negative, there has been less assessment of behavior and psychiatric symptomatology. Because some studies, in both humans and animals, have described effects of EMF on circadian rhythms, future research might concentrate profitably on the assessment of EMF in relation to depression and other cyclically mediated psychiatric disorders. PMID:8206018

  2. Magnetic healing, quackery, and the debate about the health effects of electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Macklis, R M

    1993-03-01

    Although the biological effects of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation have been studied since the time of Paracelsus, there is still no consensus on whether these effects are physiologically significant. The recent discovery of deposits of magnetite within the human brain as well as recent, highly publicized tort litigation charging adverse effects after exposure to magnetic fields has rekindled the debate. New data suggest that electromagnetic radiation generated from power lines may lead to physiologic effects with potentially dangerous results. Whether these effects are important enough to produce major epidemiologic consequences remains to be established. The assumption of quackery that has attended this subject since the time of Mesmer's original "animal magnetism" investigations continues to hamper efforts to compile a reliable data base on the health effects of electromagnetic fields.

  3. Oxidative and genotoxic effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Tkalec, Mirta; Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja; Malarić, Krešimir; Klobučar, Göran I V

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) can have various biological effects. In this study the oxidative and genotoxic effects were investigated in earthworms Eisenia fetida exposed in vivo to RF-EMF at the mobile phone frequency (900 MHz). Earthworms were exposed to the homogeneous RF-EMF at field levels of 10, 23, 41 and 120 V m(-1) for a period of 2h using a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic (GTEM) cell. At the field level of 23 V m(-1) the effect of longer exposure (4h) and field modulation (80% AM 1 kHz sinusoidal) was investigated as well. All exposure treatments induced significant genotoxic effect in earthworms coelomocytes detected by the Comet assay, demonstrating DNA damaging capacity of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Field modulation additionally increased the genotoxic effect. Moreover, our results indicated the induction of antioxidant stress response in terms of enhanced catalase and glutathione reductase activity as a result of the RF-EMF exposure, and demonstrated the generation of lipid and protein oxidative damage. Antioxidant responses and the potential of RF-EMF to induce damage to lipids, proteins and DNA differed depending on the field level applied, modulation of the field and duration of E. fetida exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Nature of detected DNA lesions and oxidative stress as the mechanism of action for the induction of DNA damage are discussed.

  4. Electromagnetic fields and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, T E; Easterly, C E

    1987-01-01

    A review of the literature is provided for the topic of health-related research and power frequency electromagnetic fields. Minimal evidence for concern is present on the basis of animal and plant research. General observation would accord with the implication that there is no single and manifest health effect as the result of exposure to these fields. There are persistent indications, however, that these fields have biologic activity, and consequently, there may be a deleterious component to their action, possibly in the presence of other factors. Power frequency electromagnetic field exposures are essentially ubiquitous in modern society, and their implications in the larger perspective of public health are unclear at this time. Electromagnetic fields represent a methodological obstacle for epidemiologic studies and a quandary for risk assessment; there is need for more data. PMID:3319560

  5. Studies on Weak Electromagnetic Fields Effects in Chick Embryos.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-31

    of them for the field exposed eggs , the other for the controls. In the first one called "Experimental incubator", are located cylindric coils or...of fertilized chicken eggs in these experimental conditions. In our previous and present studies of EMFs effects on chick embryos development, the...of 34C for eggs in- F30. DISTISUTIONIAVAILAPUTY 00 "ITRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION UCkSSPION~oumITED 03 SAMES As apt. DOI USERS(U

  6. [Mechanism of the effect of weak electromagnetic fields on the living body].

    PubMed

    Sidorenko, V M

    2001-01-01

    By using the model conceptions of the dielectric polarization theory, a new mechanism for the effect of electromagnetic field was proposed. The model enables one to explain the experimentally observed influence of low-frequency weak electromagnetic field on biological objects. It was shown that, at the cellular and subcellular levels, an increase in the intensity of the electric component of external electromagnetic field can occur. The magnitude of this increase is determined by the ratio of the contributions of the medium polarization and the depolarizing factor (which depends on body shape) to the total effect. As a result of this increase, a potential comparable with intrinsic biological values can be generated on neuron membranes, which must elicit nervous and physiological responses of the organism.

  7. Effects of electric field and structure on the electromagnetically induced transparency in double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, D.

    2017-05-01

    We theoretically investigated the effects of electric field and structural parameters of the confining potential on the optical properties of a GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum dot related to the occurrence of the electromagnetically induced transparency phenomenon, using the compact density-matrix formalism and the effective mass approximation. The dependences of the absorption coefficient, refraction index and light group velocity on the Rabi frequency of the control field, intensity of the static electric field, asymmetry parameter of the potential and dot dimension are discussed in detail. It is found that electromagnetically induced transparency occurs in the system for intermediate field values and its transparency window for probe field absorption and sub- and super-luminal frequency interval of the probe field are blueshifted by the increment of the electric field strength and dot dimension but are redshifted by the augment of the asymmetry parameter of the potential.

  8. Effect of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on fetal heart rate patterns.

    PubMed

    Celik, Onder; Hascalik, Seyma

    2004-01-15

    The study was planned to determine the effects of electromagnetic fields produced by cellular phones on baseline fetal heart rate, acceleration and deceleration. Forty pregnant women undergoing non-stress test were admitted to the study. Non-stress test was obtained while the subjects were holding the CP on stand by mode and on dialing mode, each for 5 min. Similar recordings were taken while there were no phones around for 10 min. Electromagnetic fields produced by cellular phones do not cause any demonstrable affect in fetal heart rate, acceleration and deceleration.

  9. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields in Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Case Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo, L.; Martínez-Mata, J.; Serrano-Luna, G.

    2004-09-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type I is a disease that rapidly progress to death in early infancy. A case report of a child with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease Type I that recovered at three years of age after two years exposure to electromagnetic fields (ELF) is presented. The child is now eleven years old and with the exception of slightly abnormal gait, the muscle mass of tights and gluteus, high, weight and his everyday activities correspond to those of a normal child his age. Hypothetical explanations for the effects of the electromagnetic fields are discussed.

  10. Electromagnetic field interactions with the human body: Observed effects and theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human body were reported and human related studies were collected. Nonionizing EM fields are linked to cancer in humans in three different ways: cause, means of detection, and effective treatment. Bad and benign effects are expected from nonionizing EM fields and much more knowledge is necessary to properly categorize and qualify EM field characteristics. It is concluded that knowledge of the boundary between categories, largely dependent on field intensity, is vital to proper future use of EM radiation for any purpose and the protection of the individual from hazard.

  11. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on cognitive processes - a pilot study on pulsed field interference with cognitive regeneration.

    PubMed

    Maier, R; Greter, S-E; Maier, N

    2004-07-01

    Due to the ubiquitous use of cellular phones much has been speculated on secondary effects of electromagnetic irradiation emitted by those. Additionally, several studies have reported vegetative alterations as well as effects on the neuronal and molecular levels in humans. Here, using a psycho-physiological test paradigm, we examined effects of exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields on cognitive performance. In 11 volunteers, we tested cognitive processing under field exposure (GSM standard) and under field-free conditions. To examine the hypothesized effect of pulsed fields, we applied an auditory discrimination task and determined the participant's current 'Order Threshold' value. Following a first test cycle, the volunteers had to relax for 50 min while being, or not, exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields. Subsequently, the test was repeated. Data acquired before and after the resting phase were compared from both experimental conditions. We found that nine of the 11 test participants (81.8%) showed worse results in their auditory discrimination performance upon field exposure as compared with control conditions. Group data comparison revealed a statistical significance of P = 0.0105. We could show that the participants' cognitive performance was impaired after exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields. With regard to this finding, we recommend that the use of cellular phones should be restricted generally and in particular in respect of physical hazard of high-risk groups, e.g. elderly, children and ill people.

  12. Effects of low-intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields on the early development of sea urchins

    SciTech Connect

    Falugi, C.; Grattarola, M.; Prestipino, G.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of weak electromagnetic signals on the early development of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have been studied. The duration and repetition of the pulses were similar to those used for bone healing in clinical practice. A sequence of pulses, applied for a time ranging from 2 to 4 h, accelerates the cleavages of sea urchin embryo cells. This effect can be quantitatively assessed by determining the time shifts induced by the applied electromagnetic field on the completion of the first and second cleavages in a population of fertilized eggs. The exposed embryos were allowed to develop up to the pluteus stage, showing no abnormalities.

  13. Effects of low-intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields on the early development of sea urchins.

    PubMed Central

    Falugi, C; Grattarola, M; Prestipino, G

    1987-01-01

    The effects of weak electromagnetic signals on the early development of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have been studied. The duration and repetition of the pulses were similar to those used for bone healing in clinical practice. A sequence of pulses, applied for a time ranging from 2 to 4 h, accelerates the cleavages of sea urchin embryo cells. This effect can be quantitatively assessed by determining the time shifts induced by the applied electromagnetic field on the completion of the first and second cleavages in a population of fertilized eggs. The exposed embryos were allowed to develop up to the pluteus stage, showing no abnormalities. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:3607217

  14. Proca and electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hillion, P.; Quinnerz, S.

    1986-07-01

    In the framework of the proper orthochronous Lorentz group, the old connection is revived between the electromagnetic field characterized by a self-dual tensor and a traceless second-rank spinor obeying the Proca equation. The relationship between this spinor and the Hertz potential also considered as a self-dual tensor is emphasized. The extension of this formalism to meet the covariance under the full Lorentz group is also discussed.

  15. Effect of non-ionizing electromagnetic field on the alteration of ovarian follicles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Seyed Shahin; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Ainehchi, Nava; Alihemmati, Alireza; Khatooni, Azam Asghari; Khaki, Arash; Asghari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, there has been an increase in the attention paid to safety effects, environmental and society’s health, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF), and radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). The aim of this research was to determine the effect of EMF on the alteration of ovarian follicles. Methods In this experimental study at Tabriz Medical University in 2015, we did EMF exposures and assessed the alteration of rats’ ovarian follicles. Thirty three-month old rats were selected randomly from laboratory animals, and, after their ages and weights were determined, they were divided randomly into three groups. The control group consisted of 10 rats without any treatment, and they were kept in normal conditions. The second group of rats was influenced by a magnetic field of 50 Hz for eight weeks (three weeks intrauterine and five weeks ectopic). The third group of rats was influenced by a magnetic field of 50 Hz for 13 weeks (three weeks intrauterine and ten weeks ectopic). Samples were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde and cleared with Xylol and embedded in paraffin. After sectioning and staining, samples were studied by optic microscopy. Finally, SPSS version 17, were used for data analysis. Results EMF radiation increased the harmful effects on the formation of ovarian follicles and oocytes implantation. Studies on the effects of electromagnetic fields on ovarian follicles have shown that the nuclei of the oocytes become smaller and change shape. There were significant, harmful changes in the groups affected by electromagnetic waves. Atresia of ovarian follicles was significantly significant in both study groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Exposure to electromagnetic fields during embryonic development can cause morphological changes in oocytes and affect the differentiation of oocytes and folliculogenesis, resulting in decreased ovarian reserve leading to infertility or reduced

  16. Carter separable electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynden-Bell, D.

    2000-02-01

    The purely electromagnetic analogue in flat space of Kerr's metric in general relativity is only rarely considered. Here we carry out in flat space a programme similar to Carter's investigation of metrics in general relativity in which the motion of a charged particle is separable. We concentrate on the separability of the motion (be it classical, relativistic or quantum) of a charged particle in electromagnetic fields that lie in planes through an axis of symmetry. In cylindrical polar coordinates (t,R,φ,z) the four-vector potential takes the form [formmu2] is the unit toroidal vector. The forms of the functions Φ(R,z) and A(R,z) are sought that allow separable motion. This occurs for relativistic motion only when AR,Φ and A2-Φ2 are all of the separable form ζ(λ)-η(μ)]/(λ-μ), where ζ and η are arbitrary functions, and λ and μ are spheroidal coordinates or degenerations thereof. The special forms of A and Φ that allow this are deduced. They include the Kerr metric analogue, with E+iB=-∇{q[(r-ia).(r-ia)]-1/2}. Rather more general electromagnetic fields allow separation when the motion is non-relativistic. The investigation is extended to fields that lie in parallel planes. Connections to Larmor's theorem are remarked upon.

  17. Electromagnetic field effects on cells of the immune system: The role of calcium signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Walleczek, J. )

    1992-10-01

    During the past decade considerable evidence has accumulated demonstrating that nonthermal exposures of cells of the immune system to extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (< 300 Hz) can elicit cellular changes that might be relevant to in vivo immune activity. A similar responsiveness to nonionizing electromagnetic energy in this frequency range has also been documented for tissues of the neuroendocrine and musculoskeletal system. However, knowledge about the underlying biological mechanisms by which such fields can induce cellular changes is still very limited. It is generally believed that the cell membrane and Ca[sup 2+]-regulated activity is involved in bioactive ELF field coupling to living systems. This article begins with a short review of the current state of knowledge concerning the effects of nonthermal levels of ELF electromagnetic fields on the biochemistry and activity of immune cells and then closely examines new results that suggest a role for Ca[sup 2+] in the induction of these cellular field effects. Based on these findings it is proposed that membrane-mediated Ca[sup 2+] in the induction of these cellular field effects. Based on these findings it is proposed that membrane-mediated Ca[sup 2+] signaling processes are involved in the mediation of field effects on the immune system. 69 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Studies on weak electromagnetic fields effects in chick embryos. Annual report, June 1985-June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-31

    This research was directed to test some experimental conditions of the Henhouse project and to enforce a previous study on VLF electromagnetic fields effects on chick embryos. Henhouse Project: the response of White Leghorn Hisex embryos to field exposures effective on the Shaver breed, was studied. 1) A 48-hour exposure, in vivo, to a pulsed horizontal field of 100-Hz frequency, 1.0 micro T intensity, 500-microsecond pulse duration and 2-microsecond rise time induced a significant increase of developmental abnormalities in Hisex embryos. 2) A five-hour exposure of stage 7 Hisex embryos changed the Mitotic Index of their neural tissue. So, the early development of Hisex embryos, like Shaver embryos, can be modified by VLF pulsed electromagnetic fields. In the protocol of the Henhouse project, it was suggested a temperature of 38 C for eggs incubation. Studying the development of chick embryos in relation to the temperature, in the range of 37.4-40 C, it was confirmed that a 48-hour incubation at 38 C (with 55% humidity) does not induce abnormalities and allows a convenient developmental growth rate of the chick embryos. Electromagnetic fields effects in relation to the embryos orientation: preliminary results on the induction of abnormalities in field exposed embryos in relation to their orientation were confirmed. In a East-West oriented horizontal pulsed field, the organisms oriented to Southwest and Southeast showed a significant increase of developmental abnormalities. No effect was appreciable among the embryos Southward oriented.

  19. String theory in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Makeenko, Yuri M.; Semenoff, Gordon W.; Szabo, Richard J.

    2003-02-01

    A review of various aspects of superstrings in background electromagnetic fields is presented. Topics covered include the Born-Infeld action, spectrum of open strings in background gauge fields, the Schwinger mechanism, finite-temperature formalism and Hagedorn behaviour in external fields, Debye screening, D-brane scattering, thermodynamics of D-branes, and noncommutative field and string theories on D-branes. The electric field instabilities are emphasized throughout and contrasted with the case of magnetic fields. A new derivation of the velocity-dependent potential between moving D-branes is presented, as is a new result for the velocity corrections to the one-loop thermal effective potential.

  20. [Effect of electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency on ATPase activity of actomyosin].

    PubMed

    Tseĭslier, Iu V; Sheliuk, O V; Martyniuk, V S; Nuryshchenko, N Ie

    2012-01-01

    The Mg2+/Ca2+ and K(+)-ATPase actomyosin activity of rabbit skeletal muscle was evaluated by the Fiske-Subbarow method during a five-hour exposition of protein solutions in electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency of 8 Hz and 25 microT induction. The results of the study of the ATPase activity of actomyosin upon electromagnetic exposure have shown statistically significant changes that are characterized by a rather complex time dynamics. After 1, 2 and 4 hours of exposure of protein solutions the effect of ELF EMF exposure inhibits the ATPase activity compared to control samples, which are not exposed to the magnetic field. By the third and fifth hours of exposure to the electromagnetic field, there is a significant increase in the ATPase activity of actomyosin. It should be noted that a similar pattern of change in enzyme activity was universal, both for the environment by Mg2+ and Ca2+, and in the absence of these ions in the buffer. This can evidence for Ca(2+)-independent ways of the infuence of electromagnetic field (EMP) on biologic objects. In our opinion, the above effects are explained by EMP influence on the dynamic properties of actomyosin solutions, which are based on the processes of spontaneous dynamic formation of structure.

  1. Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Field on Healthy and Infected Lime (Citrus aurantifolia) Trees with Phytoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Niknam, Vahid; Ghanati, Faezeh; Masroor, Faribors; Noorbakhsh, Seyyed Nasr

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has become an issue of concern for a great many people and is an active area of research. Phytoplasmas, also known as mycoplasma-like organisms, are wall-less prokaryotes that are pathogens of many plant species throughout the world. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the changes of lipid peroxidation, content of H2O2, proline, protein, and carbohydrates were investigated in leaves of two-year-old trees of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) infected by the Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifoliae. The healthy and infected plants were discontinuously exposed to a 10 KHz quadratic EMF with maximum power of 9 W for 5 days, each 5 h, at 25°C. Fresh and dry weight of leaves, content of MDA, proline, and protein increased in both healthy and infected plants under electromagnetic fields, compared with those of the control plants. Electromagnetic fields decreased hydrogen peroxide and carbohydrates content in both healthy and infected plants compared to those of the controls. PMID:22649313

  2. Biological effects of weak electromagnetic field on healthy and infected lime (Citrus aurantifolia) trees with phytoplasma.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Niknam, Vahid; Ghanati, Faezeh; Masroor, Faribors; Noorbakhsh, Seyyed Nasr

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has become an issue of concern for a great many people and is an active area of research. Phytoplasmas, also known as mycoplasma-like organisms, are wall-less prokaryotes that are pathogens of many plant species throughout the world. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the changes of lipid peroxidation, content of H(2)O(2), proline, protein, and carbohydrates were investigated in leaves of two-year-old trees of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) infected by the Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifoliae. The healthy and infected plants were discontinuously exposed to a 10 KHz quadratic EMF with maximum power of 9 W for 5 days, each 5 h, at 25 °C. Fresh and dry weight of leaves, content of MDA, proline, and protein increased in both healthy and infected plants under electromagnetic fields, compared with those of the control plants. Electromagnetic fields decreased hydrogen peroxide and carbohydrates content in both healthy and infected plants compared to those of the controls.

  3. The Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on The Nervous System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FROGS , EAR, RADIATION EFFECTS, RADIATION HAZARDS, AUDITORY SIGNALS, COCHLEA, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, GUINEA PIGS, NEUROMUSCULAR TRANSMISSION, DIAPHRAGMS(ANATOMY), AUDITORY NERVE, CATS, GANGLIA, SCIATIC NERVE.

  4. Epilepsy and electromagnetic fields: effects of simulated atmospherics and 100-Hz magnetic fields on audiogenic seizure in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juutilainen, J.; Björk, E.; Saali, K.

    1988-03-01

    In order to study the possible association between epileptic seizures and natural electromagnetic fields, 32 female audiogenic seizure (AGS)-susceptible rats were exposed to simulated 10 kHz and 28 kHz atmospherics and to a sinusoidally oscillating magnetic field with a frequency of 100 Hz and field strength of 1 A/m. After the electromagnetic exposure, seizures were induced in the rats with a sound stimulus. The severity of the seizure was determined on an ordinal scale, the audiogenic response score (ARS). The time from the beginning of the sound stimulus to the onset of the seizure (seizure latency) and the duration of the convulsion was measured. No differences from the control experiments were found in the experiments with simulated atmospherics, but the 100 Hz magnetic field increased the seizure latency by about 13% ( P<0.02). The results do not support the hypothesis that natural atmospheric electromagnetic signals could affect the onset of epileptic seizures, but they suggest that AGS-susceptible rats may be a useful model for studying the biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

  5. Effects of radiofrequency-modulated electromagnetic fields on proteome.

    PubMed

    Leszczynski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Proteomics, the science that examines the repertoire of proteins present in an organism using both high-throughput and low-throughput techniques, might give a better understanding of the functional processes ongoing in cells than genomics or transcriptomics, because proteins are the molecules that directly regulate physiological processes. Not all changes in gene expression are necessarily reflected in the proteome. Therefore, using proteomics approaches to study the effects of RF-EMF might provide information about potential biological and health effects. Especially that the RF-EMF used in wireless communication devices has very low energy and is unable to directly induce gene mutations.

  6. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on instrumented posterolateral spinal fusion and device-related stress shielding.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Fay, L A; Ito, Y; Yuan, M R; Edwards, W T; Yuan, H A

    1997-02-15

    This study was designed to examine stress-shielding effects on the spine caused by rigid implants and to investigate the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the instrumented spine. To investigate the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on posterolateral spinal fusion, and to determine if osteopenia induced by rigid instrumentation can be diminished by pulsed electromagnetic fields. Although device-related osteopenia on vertebral bodies is of a great clinical importance, no method for preventing bone mineral loss in vertebrae by stiff spinal implants has been effective. Twenty-eight adult beagles underwent L5-L6 destabilization followed by posterolateral spinal fusion. The study was divided into four groups: 1) Group CNTL: without instrumentation, without pulsed electromagnetic fields, 2) Group PEMF: without Steffee, with pulsed electromagnetic fields, 3) Group INST: with Steffee, without pulsed electromagnetic fields, 4) Group PEMF + INST: with Steffee, with pulsed electromagnetic fields. At the end of 24 weeks, the dogs were killed, and L4-L7 segments were tested biomechanically without instrumentation. Radiographs and quantitative computed tomography assessed the condition of the fusion mass. Stress shielding was induced in the anterior vertebral bodies of L6 with the Steffee plates; bone mineral density was increased with the addition of pulsed electromagnetic fields, regardless of the presence or absence of fixation. A decrease in flexion and bending stiffness was observed in the Group INST; pulsed electromagnetic fields did increase the flexion stiffness regardless of the presence or absence of fixation, although this was not statistically significant. Use of pulsed electromagnetic fields has the potential to minimize device-related vertebral-bone mineral loss.

  7. Effects of Pulse Electromagnetic Field on Corrosion Resistance of Al-5 % Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Tang, L. D.; Qi, J. G.; Wang, J. Z.

    2013-03-01

    It was investigated that corrosion resistance of Al-5 % Cu alloy was influenced by pulse electromagnetic field (PEMF). The morphologies were observed by scanning election microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behaviors were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization tests and immersion tests. The results indicated that corrosion resistance of samples could be increased by using pulse electromagnetic field, moreover, the optimum parameter of pulse electromagnetic field in this experiment was showed as follows: 500 V, 3 Hz, 30 s. Decreasing the quantity of eutectic in grain boundaries and refining the grains were main causations for increasing corrosion resistance of Al-5 % Cu alloy with pulse electromagnetic field.

  8. Growth and differentiation of PC6 cells: the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF).

    PubMed

    Shah, J P; Midkiff, P; Brandt, P C; Sisken, B F

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that neurite outgrowth in vitro and nerve regeneration in vivo were stimulated by 2 Hz, 0.3 mT (3 G) pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). To learn more about the effects of PEMF on nerve cells, we exposed PC6 cells, a standard neuronal-like cell model, to the same pulsed electromagnetic fields for 2 h/day for 2 days and asked whether two different cell processes, proliferation and differentiation, were affected. The cells were also treated with a differentiating agent, nerve growth factor (NGF), to further define any interactive effects. We found that proliferation was unaffected by either PEMF or NGF alone or in combination. Differentiation, expressed as neurite outgrowth, was strongly upregulated with NGF, but this NGF response was significantly depressed in cells treated with PEMF. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Delineation of electric and magnetic field effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation on transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.J.; Skowronski, W.J.; Mullins, J.M.; Nardone, R.M.; Penafiel, M.; Meister, R. )

    1991-01-31

    The relative effects of the electric and magnetic field components of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation (ELF) on transcription were examined in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Delineation of the individual field contributions was achieved by irradiating cells in separate concentric compartments of a culture dish within a solenoid chamber. This exposure system produced a homogeneous magnetic field with a coincident electric field whose strength varied directly with distance from the center of the culture dish. Irradiation of HL-60 cells with sine wave ELF at 60 Hz and a field strength of 10 Gauss produced a transient increase in the transcriptional rates which reached a maximum of 50-60% enhancement at 30-120 minutes of irradiation and declined to near basal levels by 18 hours. Comparison of transcription responses to ELF of cells in different concentric compartments revealed that the transcriptional effects were primarily the result of the electric field component with little or no contribution from the magnetic field.

  10. Electromagnetic field effects on binary dimethylimidazolium-based ionic liquid/water solutions.

    PubMed

    English, Niall J; Mooney, Damian A

    2009-11-07

    The non-thermal effects of electromagnetic fields in the microwave to far-infrared frequency on neat dimethylimidazolium chloride and triflate salts and their binary mixtures with water have been investigated by means of non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. Significant alterations in dipole alignment and molecular mobility were found vis-à-vis zero-field conditions for mixtures of varying composition. Results indicate that the dimethylimidazolium and triflate ions respond most significantly to frequencies much lower than that of water in terms of dipole alignment and molecular mobility, and this was rationalized. in terms of dipole moment magnitudes, rotational inertia and translational field response.

  11. Health hazards and electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Saunders, T

    2003-11-01

    Biological rhythms, physical wellbeing and mental states are dependent on our electrical brainwave system interacting with the extremely weak electromagnetic fields generated by the Earth's telluric and Cosmic radiations. In a single generation, since the evolution of humankind over millions of years, we are exposed to a wide range of powerful, artificially generated electromagnetic radiation which adversely affects the subtle balance in nature's energy fields and has become the source of so-called 'diseases of civilization'. This also includes electromagnetic sensitivity. Generally, there is a lack of awareness and understanding of the impact electromagnetic fields can have upon health and wellbeing.Our ancestors were acutely aware that certain locations, were perceived to have a positive energy field which was beneficial to health and vitality. Over time, these areas are now referred to as sacred sites for spiritual ceremony and as healing centres. In contrast, there are other geographical locations that can have a negative effect upon health and these are known as geopathic stress zones. It is believed that such zones can interfere with the brain's normal function that inhibits the release of melatonin and other endocrine secretions needed to replenish the immune system. Geopathic stress can affect animals and plant life as well as human beings and significantly contributes to sick building syndrome (SBS). Whilst there is an increasing body of opinion amongst eminent researchers and scientists who are addressing these issues, the establishment professions are slow to change. However, very gradually, modern allopathic medicine and attitudes are beginning to recognise the extraordinary wisdom and efficacy of ancient traditions such as acupuncture, light, colour and other therapies based on the understanding and treatment of the interaction of a person's electromagnetic subtle body and the immediate environment. These and many other 'complementary' therapies may

  12. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on inflammatory pathway markers in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ross, Christina L; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2013-01-01

    In the treatment of bacterial infections, antibiotics have proven to be very effective, but the way in which antibiotics are dosed can create a lag time between the administration of the drug and its absorption at the site of insult. The time it takes an antibiotic to reach therapeutic levels can often be significantly increased if the vascular system is compromized. Bacteria can multiply pending the delivery of the drug, therefore, developing treatments that can inhibit the inflammatory response while waiting for antibiotics to take effect could help prevent medical conditions such as septic shock. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the production of inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF), transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB), and the expression of the A20 (tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 3), in an inflamed-cell model. Lipopolysaccharide-challenged cells were exposed to a pulsed electromagnetic field at various frequencies in order to determine which, if any, frequency would affect the TNF-NFkB-A20 inflammatory response pathway. Our study revealed that cells continuously exposed to a pulsed electromagnetic field at 5 Hz demonstrated significant changes in the downregulation of TNF-α and NFkB and also showed a trend in the down regulation of A20, as compared with controls. This treatment could be beneficial in modulating the immune response, in the presence of infection.

  13. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on inflammatory pathway markers in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Christina L; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2013-01-01

    In the treatment of bacterial infections, antibiotics have proven to be very effective, but the way in which antibiotics are dosed can create a lag time between the administration of the drug and its absorption at the site of insult. The time it takes an antibiotic to reach therapeutic levels can often be significantly increased if the vascular system is compromized. Bacteria can multiply pending the delivery of the drug, therefore, developing treatments that can inhibit the inflammatory response while waiting for antibiotics to take effect could help prevent medical conditions such as septic shock. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the production of inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF), transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB), and the expression of the A20 (tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 3), in an inflamed-cell model. Lipopolysaccharide-challenged cells were exposed to a pulsed electromagnetic field at various frequencies in order to determine which, if any, frequency would affect the TNF-NFkB-A20 inflammatory response pathway. Our study revealed that cells continuously exposed to a pulsed electromagnetic field at 5 Hz demonstrated significant changes in the downregulation of TNF-α and NFkB and also showed a trend in the down regulation of A20, as compared with controls. This treatment could be beneficial in modulating the immune response, in the presence of infection. PMID:23576877

  14. The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Behari, Jitendra

    2011-01-01

    Environmental exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields has been steadily increasing with the growing demand for electronic items that are operational at various frequencies. Testicular function is particularly susceptible to radiation emitted by electromagnetic fields. This study aimed to examine the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz) on the reproductive systems of male Wistar rats (70 days old). The experiments were divided into five groups: microwave sham, microwave exposure (2.45 GHz), pulsed electromagnetic field sham, pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz) exposure, and microwave/pulsed electromagnetic field exposure. The animals were exposed for 2 hours/day for 60 days. After exposure, the animals were sacrificed, their sperm was used for creatine and caspase assays, and their serum was used for melatonin and testosterone assays. The results showed significant increases in caspase and creatine kinase and significant decreases in testosterone and melatonin in the exposed groups. This finding emphasizes that reactive oxygen species (a potential inducer of cancer) are the primary cause of DNA damage. However, pulsed electromagnetic field exposure relieves the effect of microwave exposure by inducing Faraday currents. Electromagnetic fields are recognized as hazards that affect testicular function by generating reactive oxygen species and reduce the bioavailability of androgen to maturing spermatozoa. Thus, microwave exposure adversely affects male fertility, whereas pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is a non-invasive, simple technique that can be used as a scavenger agent to combat oxidative stress.

  15. The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Behari, Jitendra

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Environmental exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields has been steadily increasing with the growing demand for electronic items that are operational at various frequencies. Testicular function is particularly susceptible to radiation emitted by electromagnetic fields. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz) on the reproductive systems of male Wistar rats (70 days old). METHODS: The experiments were divided into five groups: microwave sham, microwave exposure (2.45 GHz), pulsed electromagnetic field sham, pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz) exposure, and microwave/pulsed electromagnetic field exposure. The animals were exposed for 2 hours/day for 60 days. After exposure, the animals were sacrificed, their sperm was used for creatine and caspase assays, and their serum was used for melatonin and testosterone assays. RESULTS: The results showed significant increases in caspase and creatine kinase and significant decreases in testosterone and melatonin in the exposed groups. This finding emphasizes that reactive oxygen species (a potential inducer of cancer) are the primary cause of DNA damage. However, pulsed electromagnetic field exposure relieves the effect of microwave exposure by inducing Faraday currents. CONCLUSIONS: Electromagnetic fields are recognized as hazards that affect testicular function by generating reactive oxygen species and reduce the bioavailability of androgen to maturing spermatozoa. Thus, microwave exposure adversely affects male fertility, whereas pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is a non-invasive, simple technique that can be used as a scavenger agent to combat oxidative stress. PMID:21876981

  16. Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are in the ionizing radiation part of the electromagnetic spectrum and can damage DNA or cells directly. Low- ... in the non-ionizing radiation part of the electromagnetic spectrum and are not known to damage DNA or ...

  17. Interactions between electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, H. P.

    1985-02-01

    We applied for this grant to support a workshop at Erice, Italy. This workshop has been commonly called Erice School and the main subject of this workshop is the interaction of electromagnetic fields with biological cells and molecules. The grant from ONR enabled us to invite American scientists to participants in this workshop and deliver scientific papers. The duration of the Erice School was ten days. Therefore, we had sufficient time to discuss the problems of electromagnetic radiations. Vigorous discussions took place during official sessions and during private conversations. The participants of this workshop are mostly those who have been active in the research on bioelectromagnetics, but there are some numbers of speakers who discussed the basic electrical and magnetic properties of polyelectrolytes, biological membranes and tissue. The workshop was unique in that there were participants with a variety of training backgrounds. This enabled us to exchange the information between applied scientists and basic scientists. Also, active exchanges of opinions took place between biological scientists and physical scientists.

  18. Bioreactor coupled with electromagnetic field generator: effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Perez, Victor H; Reyes, Alfredo F; Justo, Oselys R; Alvarez, David C; Alegre, Ranulfo M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using sugar cane molasses was studied during batch fermentation. The cellular suspension from the fermentor was externally recycled through a stainless steel tube inserted in two magnetic field generators, and consequently, the ethanol production was intensified. Two magnetic field generators were coupled to the bioreactor, which were operated conveniently in simple or combined ways. Therefore, the recycle velocity and intensity of the magnetic field varied in a range of 0.6-1.4 m s(-1) and 5-20 mT, respectively. However, under the best conditions with the magnetic field treatment (0.9-1.2 m s(-1) and 20 mT plus solenoid), the overall volumetric ethanol productivity was approximately 17% higher than in the control experiment. These results made it possible to verify the effectiveness of the dynamic magnetic treatment since the fermentations with magnetic treatment reached their final stage in less time, i.e., approximately 2 h earlier, when compared with the control experiment.

  19. Neuroendocrine mediated effects of electromagnetic-field exposure: Possible role of the pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.B.; Stevens, R.G.; Anderson, L.E. )

    1989-01-01

    Reports from recent epidemiological studies have suggested a possible association between extremely low frequently (ELF; including 50- or 60-Hz) electric- and magnetic-field exposure, and increased risk of certain cancers, depression, and miscarriage. ELF field-induced pineal gland dysfunction is a possible etiological factor in these effects. Work in our laboratory and elsewhere has shown that ELF electromagnetic-field exposure can alter the normal circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis and release in the pineal gland. Consequences of reduced or inappropriately timed melatonin release on the endocrine, neuronal, and immune systems are discussed. Laboratory data linking ELF field exposure to changes in pineal circadian rhythms in both animal and humans are reviewed. The authors suggest that the pineal gland, in addition to being a convenient locus for measuring dyschronogenic effects of ELF field exposure, may play a central role in biological response to these fields via alterations in the melatonin signal.

  20. Effects of Multipolar Radiofrequency and Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Treatment for Face and Neck Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Thais Cristina Ferraz; Rocha, Sheyla de Fatima Soares; Ramos, Daniel Gontijo; Ramos, Camila Gontijo; Carvalho, Michelle Vanessa dos Anjos

    2017-01-01

    Skin aging is a gradual process that leads to wrinkle formation, laxity, and overall changes in skin appearance. In recent years, the demands to noninvasive treatments for facial rejuvenation increased, along with a variety of technologies and devices, such as radiofrequency. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of a multipolar radiofrequency and pulsed electromagnetic field treatment for face and neck rejuvenation. Eleven patients with mild to moderate grades of photoaging underwent eight radiofrequency and pulsed electromagnetic field treatment sessions, once a week. Clinical photographs were taken before and a week after the end of the treatment, and improvement of facial skin parameters was evaluated by two different investigators. Significant improvement in skin laxity was observed in all eleven patients (100%). Improvement in facial contour was noted in 73% and 100% of patients when analyzed by investigators A and B, respectively. The score for overall improvement in skin condition was 3 ± 0.78 for investigator A and 3.6 ± 0.67 for investigator B. All patients were satisfied with the procedure and noted significant improvement in the skin. The combined multipolar radiofrequency and pulsed electromagnetic field device is effective and safe for treatment of aged skin in Brazilian patients. PMID:28373880

  1. Electromagnetic field effects on cells of the immune system: The role of calcium signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Walleczek, J.

    1991-07-01

    During the past decade considerable evidence has accumulated demonstrating the exposures of cells of the immune system to relatively weak extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (< 300 Hz) can elicit cellular changes which might be relevant to in-vivo immune activity. However, knowledge about the underlying biological mechanisms by which weak fields induce cellular changes is still very limited. It is generally believed that the cell membrane and Ca{sup 2+} regulated activity is involved in bioactive ELF field-coupling to living systems. This article begins with a short review of the current state of knowledge concerning the effects of nonthermal levels of ELF electromagnetic fields on the biochemistry and activity of immune cells, and then closely examines new results which suggest a role for Ca{sup 2+} in the induction of these cellular field effects. Based on these findings it is proposed that membrane-mediated Ca{sup 2+} signalling processes are involved in the mediation of field effects on the immune system. 64 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearities in Composite Media and Structures via Local Fields and Electromagnetic Coupling Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.

    2002-01-01

    This talk will review the linear and nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles and dielectric microparticles, with an emphasis on local field effects, and whispering gallery modes (WGMs), as well as the conjunction of these two effects for enhanced Raman. In particular, enhanced optical properties that result from electromagnetic coupling effects will be discussed in the context of Mie scattering from concentric spheres and bispheres. Predictions of mode splitting and photonic bandgaps in micro-spheres will be presented and will be shown to be analogous to effects that occur in coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW). Slow and fast light in SCISSOR / CROW configurations will also be discussed.

  3. Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearities in Composite Media and Structures via Local Fields and Electromagnetic Coupling Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.

    2002-01-01

    This talk will review the linear and nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles and dielectric microparticles, with an emphasis on local field effects, and whispering gallery modes (WGMs), as well as the conjunction of these two effects for enhanced Raman. In particular, enhanced optical properties that result from electromagnetic coupling effects will be discussed in the context of Mie scattering from concentric spheres and bispheres. Predictions of mode splitting and photonic bandgaps in micro-spheres will be presented and will be shown to be analogous to effects that occur in coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW). Slow and fast light in SCISSOR / CROW configurations will also be discussed.

  4. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF 7 Using Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Dominic Z; Soliman, Ian Jerry S; Pobre, Romeric F; Naguib, Raouf N G

    2017-07-01

    We present an analysis of the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) with 3.3 MHz carrier frequency and modulated by audio resonant frequencies on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in vitro using absorption spectroscopy. This involves a fluorescence dye called PrestoBlue™ Cell Viability Reagent and a spectrophotometry to test the viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells under different PEMF treatment conditions in terms of the cell absorption values. The DNA molecule of the MCF-7 breast cancer cells has an electric dipole property that renders it sensitive and reactive to applied electromagnetic fields. Resonant frequencies derived from four genes mutated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells [rapamycin-insensitive companion of mammalian target of rapamycin (RICTOR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARG), Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBN) and checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2)] were applied in generating square pulsed electromagnetic waves. Effects were monitored through measurement of absorption of the samples with PrestoBlue™, and the significance of the treatment was determined using the t-test. There was a significant effect on MCF-7 cells after treatment with PEMF at the resonant frequencies of the following genes for specific durations of exposure: RICTOR for 10 min, PPARG for 10 min, NBN for 15 min, and CHEK2 for 5 min. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Electromagnetic-field effects on structure and dynamics of amyloidogenic peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorova, Nevena; Bentvelzen, Alan; English, Niall J.; Yarovsky, Irene

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ever-present, and so is the need to better understand their influence on human health and biological matter in general. The interaction between a molecular system and external EMF can alter the structure, and dynamical behaviour, and, hence, biological function of proteins with uncertain health consequences. This urges a detailed investigation of EMF-induced effects on basic protein biophysics. Here, we used all-atom non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to understand and quantify the response mechanisms of the amyloidogenic apoC-II(60-70) peptides to non-ionising radiation by modelling their behaviour under external electromagnetic and electric fields of different strengths. Our simulations show high strength fields (>0.04 V/nm) cause structural changes in apoC-II(60-70) due to the peptide dipole alignment along the applied field direction, which disrupts the inherent β-hairpin conformation known to be the intermediate state for fibril formation. The intermediate field-strength range (0.04-0.004 V/nm) causes a significant acceleration in peptide dynamics, which leads to the increased population of structures with fibril-inhibiting characteristics, such as the separated N- and C-termini and colocation of the aromatic residues at the same peptide face. In contrast, lower field strengths (<0.004 V/nm) promote the formation of the amyloid-prone hairpin structures relative to the ambient conditions. These findings suggest that intermediate-strength electromagnetic fields could be considered for designing alternative treatments of amyloid diseases, while the very high and low field strengths could be employed for engineering well-ordered fibrillar aggregates for non-medicinal applications.

  6. [Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phone on auditory and vestibular labyrinth].

    PubMed

    Sievert, U; Eggert, S; Goltz, S; Pau, H W

    2007-04-01

    It is the subject of this study to investigate the biological effect of the HF radiation produced by the Global System for Mobile Communications-( GSM)-mobile phone on the inner ear with its sensors of the vestibular and auditive systems. Thermographic investigations made on various model materials and on the human temporal bone should show whether mobile phone does induce any increases of temperature which would lead to a relevant stimulus for the auditive and vestibular system or not. We carried out video-nystagmographic recordings of 13 subjects, brainstem electric response audiometry of 24 ears, and recordings of distorsion products of otoacoustic emissions of 20 ears. All tests were made with and without a mobile phone in use. The data was then analyzed for variation patterns in the functional parameters of the hearing and balance system that are subject to the (non)existence of electromagnetic radiation from the mobile phone. The thermographic investigations suggest that the mobile phone does not induce any increases of temperature which would lead to a relevant stimulus for the auditive and vestibular system. Video-nystagmographic recordings under field effect do not furnish any indication of vestibular reactions generated by field effects. Compared with the recording without field, the brainstem electric response audiometry under field effect did not reveal any changes of the parameters investigated, i. e. absolute latency of the peaks I, III, V and the interpeak latency between the peaks I and V. The distorsion products of otoacoustic emissions do not indicate, comparing the three measuring situations, i. e. before field effect, pulsed field and continuous field, any possible impacts of the HF field on the spectrum or levels of emissions for none of the probands. The investigations made show that the electromagnetic fields generated in using the mobile phone do not have an effect on the inner ear and auditive system to the colliculus inferior in the

  7. Effects of power frequency electromagnetic fields on melatonin and sleep in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dyche, Jeff; Anch, A Michael; Fogler, Kethera A J; Barnett, David W; Thomas, Cecil

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating the effect of power frequency (50-60 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on melatonin synthesis in rats have been inconsistent with several showing suppression of melatonin synthesis, others showing no effect and a few actually demonstrating small increases. Scant research has focused on the ensuing sleep patterns of EMF exposed rats. The present study was designed to examine the effects of extremely low power frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the production of melatonin and the subsequent sleep structure in rats. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a 1000 milligauss (mG) magnetic field for 1 month. Urine was collected for the final 3 days of the exposure period for analysis of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin, the major catabolic product of melatonin found in urine. Subsequent sleep was analyzed over a 24-hour period. Melatonin production was mildly increased in exposed animals. Although there were no statistically significant changes in sleep structure, exposed animals showed slight decreases in REM (rapid eye movement) sleep as compared to sham (non-exposed) animals. Power frequency magnetic fields induced a marginally statistically significant increase in melatonin levels in exposed rats compared to control. Subsequent sleep analysis indicated little effect on the sleep architecture of rats, at least not within the first day after 1 month's continuous exposure. Varying results in the literature are discussed and future research suggested.

  8. Effects of power frequency electromagnetic fields on melatonin and sleep in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Dyche, Jeff; Anch, A. Michael; Fogler, Kethera A. J.; Barnett, David W.; Thomas, Cecil

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies investigating the effect of power frequency (50–60 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on melatonin synthesis in rats have been inconsistent with several showing suppression of melatonin synthesis, others showing no effect and a few actually demonstrating small increases. Scant research has focused on the ensuing sleep patterns of EMF exposed rats. The present study was designed to examine the effects of extremely low power frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the production of melatonin and the subsequent sleep structure in rats. Methods Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a 1000 milligauss (mG) magnetic field for 1 month. Urine was collected for the final 3 days of the exposure period for analysis of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin, the major catabolic product of melatonin found in urine. Subsequent sleep was analyzed over a 24-hour period. Results Melatonin production was mildly increased in exposed animals. Although there were no statistically significant changes in sleep structure, exposed animals showed slight decreases in REM (rapid eye movement) sleep as compared to sham (non-exposed) animals. Conclusions Power frequency magnetic fields induced a marginally statistically significant increase in melatonin levels in exposed rats compared to control. Subsequent sleep analysis indicated little effect on the sleep architecture of rats, at least not within the first day after 1 month's continuous exposure. Varying results in the literature are discussed and future research suggested. PMID:22529876

  9. [Hygienic evaluation of the combined effect of electromagnetic fields and pesticides in experimental conditions].

    PubMed

    Chernykh, A M

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of combined effects of some natural and anthropogenic factors that are typical of the Kursk magnetic anomaly region by means of dispersion analysis in the experiments on albino rats and mice. The resultant signs were the indices of animal deaths, nonspecific protective factors, immune responses, changes in body weight, etc. A higher geomagnetic field can modify the biological effects of exposure to agricultural chemicals. The combined effects of a static electromagnetic field with induction of 300 microT to 0.3 T and of chlorpyrifos at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 50, and 100 mg/kg) were found to potentiate the toxic properties of the pesticide. The proportion of the potentiation effects increased as the intensity of the studied factors rose. The dispersion analysis established a predominant role of chlorpyrifos in the combined effects of the factors on the death of animals, serum complementary activity, antibody- and rosette-forming cells of the spleen and other lymphoid organs. The role of a static electromagnetic field is prevalent in the formation of effects of the intensity and completeness of phagocytosis.

  10. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on brain histopathology of Caspian Sea Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Samiee, Farzaneh; Samiee, Keivandokht

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research on the effect of electromagnetic field on aquatic organisms, especially freshwater fish species. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (50 Hz) exposure on brain histopathology of Cyprinus carpio, one of the important species of Caspian Sea with significant economic value. A total of 200 healthy fish were used in this study. They were classified randomly in two groups: sham-exposed group and experimental group, which were exposed to five different magnetic field intensities (0.1, 1, 3, 5, and 7 mT) at two different exposure times (0.5 and 1 h). Histologic results indicate that exposure of C. carpio to artificial ELF-EMF caused severe histopathological changes in the brain at field intensities ≥3 mT leading to brain necrosis. Field intensity and duration of exposure were key parameters in induction of lesion in the brain. Further studies are needed to elucidate exact mechanism of EMF exposure on the brain.

  11. Comparison of the genotoxic effects induced by 50 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in GC-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Weixia; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Lei; He, Mindi; Xu, Shangcheng; Chen, Chunhai; Pi, Huifeng; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhong, Min; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have been considered to be possibly carcinogenic to humans. However, their genotoxic effects remain controversial. To make experiments controllable and results comparable, we standardized exposure conditions and explored the potential genotoxicity of 50 Hz ELF-EMF and 1800 MHz RF-EMF. A mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was intermittently (5 min on and 10 min off) exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF at an intensity of 1, 2 or 3 mT or to RF-EMF in GSM-Talk mode at the specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1, 2 or 4 W/kg. After exposure for 24 h, we found that neither ELF-EMF nor RF-EMF affected cell viability using Cell Counting Kit-8. Through the use of an alkaline comet assay and immunofluorescence against γ-H2AX foci, we found that ELF-EMF exposure resulted in a significant increase of DNA strand breaks at 3 mT, whereas RF-EMF exposure had insufficient energy to induce such effects. Using a formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-modified alkaline comet assay, we observed that RF-EMF exposure significantly induced oxidative DNA base damage at a SAR value of 4 W/kg, whereas ELF-EMF exposure did not. Our results suggest that both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity at relative high intensities, but they create different patterns of DNA damage. Therefore, the potential mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of different frequency electromagnetic fields may be different.

  12. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W. . Chemical Sciences Dept.); Stevens, R.G. ); Anderson, L.E. . Life Sciences Center)

    1990-01-01

    The authors focus on that which seems to be the central scientific issue emerging from current ELF research in epidemiology and in the laboratory; namely, can ELF electromagnetic fields interact with biological systems in such a way as to increase cancer risk The authors examine how cancer risk might be related to two reproducible biological effects of ELF exposure: effects on the pineal gland and circadian biology, and effects on calcium homeostasis in cells. Because they are concerned with the possible biological mechanisms of carcinogenesis, epidemiological studies are only briefly reviewed.

  13. Creation of an Effective Magnetic Field in Ultracold Atomic Gases Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Juzeliunas, G.; Oehberg, P.

    2005-09-15

    We consider the influence of the control and probe beams in the electromagnetically induced transparency configuration on the mechanical motion of ultracold atomic gases (atomic Bose-Einstein condensates or degenerate Fermi gases). We carry out a microscopic analysis of the interplay between radiation and matter and show that the two beams of light can provide an effective magnetic field acting on electrically neutral atoms in the case where the probe beam has an orbital angular momentum. As an example, we demonstrate how a Meissner-like effect can be created in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate.

  14. Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers through Systemic Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trejo-Núñez, A. D.; Pérez-Chávez, F.; García-Sánchez, C.; Serrano-Luna, G.; Cañendo-Dorantes, L.

    2008-08-01

    This study was designed to, investigate the healing effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on diabetic foot ulcers and test two different exposure systems aimed at reducing the ELF-EMF exposure time of patients. In the first system the ELF-EMF were applied to the arm where only 3% of the total blood volume/min circulates at any given time. In the second system the ELF-EMF were applied to the thorax where more than 100% of the total blood volume/minute circulates at any given time. Twenty-six diabetic patients, with superficial neuropathic ulcers unresponsive to medical treatment were included in this preliminary report. In the first group (17 patients), the arm was exposed two hours twice a week to a extremely low frequency electromagnetic field of 0.45-0.9 mTrms, 120 Hz generated inside a solenoid coil of 10.1 cm by 20.5 cm long. In the second group the thorax of 7 patients was exposed 25 minutes twice a week to an electromagnetic field of 0.4-0.85 mTrms, 120 Hz generated in the center of a squared quasi-Helmholtz coil 52 cm by side. One patient was assigned to a placebo configuration of each exposure system with identical appearance as the active equipment but without magnetic field. Patients with deep ulcers, infected ulcers, cancer, or auto-immune disease were excluded. These preliminary results showed that the two exposure systems accelerate the healing process of neuropathic ulcers. Complete healing of the ulcer had a median duration of 90 days in both exposure systems. Therefore thorax exposure where more blood is exposed to ELF-EMF per unit of time was able to reduce 4.8 times the patient treatment time. In those patients assigned to the placebo equipment no healing effects were observed. This study will continue with a parallel, double blind placebo controlled protocol.

  15. Calculation of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields and Their Effects in MRI of Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Christopher M.; Wang, Zhangwei

    2011-01-01

    Radiofrequency magnetic fields are critical to nuclear excitation and signal reception in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The interactions between these fields and human tissues in anatomical geometries results in a variety of effects regarding image integrity and safety of the human subject. In recent decades numerical methods of calculation have been used increasingly to understand the effects of these interactions and aid in engineering better, faster, and safer equipment and methods. As MRI techniques and technology have evolved through the years, so too have the requirements for meaningful interpretation of calculation results. Here we review the basic physics of RF electromagnetics in MRI and discuss a variety of ways RF field calculations are used in MRI in engineering and safety assurance from simple systems and sequences through advanced methods of development for the future. PMID:21381106

  16. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  17. Nonlinear electromagnetic fields and symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barjašić, Irena; Gulin, Luka; Smolić, Ivica

    2017-06-01

    We extend the classical results on the symmetry inheritance of the canonical electromagnetic fields, described by the Maxwell's Lagrangian, to a much wider class of models, which include those of the Born-Infeld, power Maxwell and the Euler-Heisenberg type. Symmetry inheriting fields allow the introduction of electromagnetic scalar potentials and these are proven to be constant on the Killing horizons. Finally, using the relations obtained along the analysis, we generalize and simplify the recent proof for the symmetry inheritance of the 3-dimensional case, as well as give the first constraint for the higher dimensional electromagnetic fields.

  18. Electromagnetic Structure of Two- and Three-Nucleon Systems: An Effective Field Theory Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Daniel R.

    2016-10-01

    I discuss the use of chiral effective field theory (χEFT) to describe electromagnetic reactions in the two- and three-nucleon systems. I review the results of χEFT power counting for charge and current operators up to [Formula: see text] relative to leading order, before showing that renormalization-group arguments imply that short-distance electromagnetic operators play a larger role than suggested by this standard counting. A detailed examination of χEFT's predictions for the electromagnetic form factors of deuterium and the trinucleons, and for the threshold captures np→dγ and nd→tγ, enables a critical appraisal of the theory's performance in these contexts. Recent χEFT calculations using the [Formula: see text] chiral perturbation theory (χPT) potential yielded both form factors that agree with experimental data for Q2<0.25 GeV2 and an excellent description of the challenging threshold captures. Short-distance M1 operators are essential to this success, and the addition of a short-distance part of the nucleon-nucleon charge operator produces precise predictions of the deuteron charge and quadrupole form factors in this kinematic domain.

  19. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Haitham S.; Fahmy, Heba M.; Radwan, Nasr M.; Elsayed, Anwar A.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested. PMID:25685416

  20. The effect of external magnetic field on plasma acceleration in electromagnetic railgun channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobashev, S. V.; Zhukov, B. G.; Kurakin, R. O.; Ponyaev, S. A.; Reznikov, B. I.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the effect of an external magnetic field on the dynamics of a free plasma piston (PP) accelerated without solid striker armature in an electromagnetic railgun channel filled with various gases (argon or helium). It is established that, as the applied magnetic field grows, the velocity of a shock wave generated by PP in the channel increases. The experimental results are compared to a theoretical model that takes into account the gas pressure force behind the shock wave and the drag force that arises when erosion mass entering the channel is partly entrained by the accelerated plasma. The results of model calculations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The discrepancy somewhat increases with the applied field, but the maximum deviation still does not exceed 20%.

  1. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Haitham S; Fahmy, Heba M; Radwan, Nasr M; Elsayed, Anwar A

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.

  2. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on infarct size and inflammation after cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Pena-Philippides, Juan Carlos; Yang, Yirong; Bragina, Olga; Hagberg, Sean; Nemoto, Edwin; Roitbak, Tamara

    2014-08-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and pro-regenerative effects in animals and humans. We used the FDA-approved Sofpulse (Ivivi Health Sciences, LLC) to study effect of PEMF on infarct size and poststroke inflammation following distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) in mice. Electromagnetic field was applied within 30-45 min after ischemic brain damage and utilized twice a day for 21 consecutive days. Ischemic infarct size was assessed using MRI and histological analysis. At 21 days after dMCAO, the infarct size was significantly (by 26%) smaller in PEMF-treated animals as compared to controls. Neuroinflammation in these animals was evaluated using specialized cytokine/chemokine PCR array. We demonstrate that PEMF significantly influenced expression profile of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in the hemisphere ipsilateral to ischemic damage. Importantly, expression of gene encoding major pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1α was significantly reduced, while expression of major anti-inflammatory IL-10 was significantly increased. PEMF application significantly downregulated genes encoding members of the major pro-apoptotic tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily indicating that the treatment could have both anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Both reduction of infarct size and influence on neuroinflammation could have a potentially important positive impact on the poststroke recovery process, implicating PEMF as a possible adjunctive therapy for stroke patients.

  3. On the thermal effect induced in tissue samples exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Racuciu, M; Miclaus, S; Creanga, D

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electromagnetic exposure on mammalian tissues was approached as a public health issue aiming to reveal the putative side effect of 50 Hz industrial and domestic supply source (i) during aliments storage near such sources; (ii) in people staying couple of hours in the proximity of conducting wires. Fluorescence emission based thermal sensor was used to emphasize temperature dynamics of fresh meat samples during controlled electromagnetic exposure in Helmholtz coils adjusted to deliver 50 Hz / (4÷10) mT electromagnetic field in their inner volume. Fluoroptic temperature probe with 0.1 °C accuracy measurement and data acquisition software allowed reading temperature every second, in the tissue volume during exposure. The temperature dynamics curves of ex-vivo porcine tissues like liver, kidney, brain, muscle, lung, and bone, were comparatively analyzed - the choosing of the mammalian species being justified by metabolic and physiological similarities with human body. The curve slopes appear to be the same for the range of initial temperatures chosen to perform the tests (20.0 ± 0.1 °C), the temperature increase reaching around 2.0 °C for the magnetic flux density of 10 mT. Quantitative dependence was evidenced between the thermal effect and the magnetic flux density. The technical interpretation is based on heating effect, on bioimpedance increasing and on water vaporization during wet sample exposure. The biomedical aspects derive from the degrading effects of food heating as well as from possible in vivo effects of living body exposure.

  4. Low-level exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: health effects and research needs.

    PubMed

    Repacholi, M H

    1998-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and the German and Austrian Governments jointly sponsored an international seminar in November of 1996 on the biological effects of low-level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. For purposes of this seminar, RF fields having frequencies only in the range of about 10 MHz to 300 GHz were considered. This is one of a series of scientific review seminars held under the International Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Project to identify any health hazards from EMF exposure. The scientific literature was reviewed during the seminar and expert working groups formed to provide a status report on possible health effects from exposure to low-level RF fields and identify gaps in knowledge requiring more research to improve health risk assessments. It was concluded that, although hazards from exposure to high-level (thermal) RF fields were established, no known health hazards were associated with exposure to RF sources emitting fields too low to cause a significant temperature rise in tissue. Biological effects from low-level RF exposure were identified needing replication and further study. These included in vitro studies of cell kinetics and proliferation effects, effects on genes, signal transduction effects and alterations in membrane structure and function, and biophysical and biochemical mechanisms for RF field effects. In vivo studies should focus on the potential for cancer promotion, co-promotion and progression, as well as possible synergistic, genotoxic, immunological, and carcinogenic effects associated with chronic low-level RF exposure. Research is needed to determine whether low-level RF exposure causes DNA damage or influences central nervous system function, melatonin synthesis, permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), or reaction to neurotropic drugs. Reported RF-induced changes to eye structure and function should also be investigated

  5. Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on ’Physarum polycephalum’.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    When the myxomycete Physarum polycephalum is exposed to sinusoidal (45, 60, 75 Hz) or modulated (76 Hz) electromagnetic fields, the mitotic cycle is...fields is deleterious for Physarum (or other organisms); it can be concluded, however, that these fields do significantly affect biological processes.

  6. Simple and effective monitoring of the electromagnetic field in the smart cities arena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ares-Pena, Francisco J.; Franceschetti, Giorgio; Iodice, Antonio; Salas-Sánchez, Aarón A.

    2016-08-01

    A simple and economical method for monitoring the electromagnetic field intensity in built-up areas is presented. The method is based on the measurement of the field level over a limited number of points at street level in the city and their transmission to an operative control center, where the field values all over the city are correctly interpolated in real time. Citizens might obtain these values at their sites, via Internet, or by connecting with a dedicated call center. Numerical evaluations of the electromagnetic field intensity via the new developed model and confirming experimental results are finally presented.

  7. Searching for the Perfect Wave: The Effect of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields on Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gherardini, Lisa; Ciuti, Gastone; Tognarelli, Selene; Cinti, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing concern in the population about the effects that environmental exposure to any source of “uncontrolled” radiation may have on public health. Anxiety arises from the controversial knowledge about the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure to cells and organisms but most of all concerning the possible causal relation to human diseases. Here we reviewed those in vitro and in vivo and epidemiological works that gave a new insight about the effect of radio frequency (RF) exposure, relating to intracellular molecular pathways that lead to biological and functional outcomes. It appears that a thorough application of standardized protocols is the key to reliable data acquisition and interpretation that could contribute a clearer picture for scientists and lay public. Moreover, specific tuning of experimental and clinical RF exposure might lead to beneficial health effects. PMID:24681584

  8. Searching for the perfect wave: the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on cells.

    PubMed

    Gherardini, Lisa; Ciuti, Gastone; Tognarelli, Selene; Cinti, Caterina

    2014-03-27

    There is a growing concern in the population about the effects that environmental exposure to any source of "uncontrolled" radiation may have on public health. Anxiety arises from the controversial knowledge about the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure to cells and organisms but most of all concerning the possible causal relation to human diseases. Here we reviewed those in vitro and in vivo and epidemiological works that gave a new insight about the effect of radio frequency (RF) exposure, relating to intracellular molecular pathways that lead to biological and functional outcomes. It appears that a thorough application of standardized protocols is the key to reliable data acquisition and interpretation that could contribute a clearer picture for scientists and lay public. Moreover, specific tuning of experimental and clinical RF exposure might lead to beneficial health effects.

  9. Bio-effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in context of cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Saliev, Timur; Tachibana, Katsuro; Bulanin, Denis; Mikhalovsky, Sergey; Whitby, Ray D L

    2014-01-01

    Bio-effects mediated by non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) have become a hot topic of research in the last decades. This interest has been triggered by a growing public concern about the rapid expansion of telecommunication devices and possible consequences of their use on human health. Despite a feasibility study of potential negative impacts, the therapeutic advantages of EMF could be effectively harnessed for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This review aims to examine recent findings relating to the mechanisms of action underlying the bio-effects induced by non-ionizing EMF. The potential of non-thermal and thermal effects is discussed in the context of possible applications for the induction of apoptosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, and increase of membrane permeability in malignant cells. A special emphasis has been put on the combination of EMF with magnetic nano-particles and ultrasound for cancer treatment. The review encompasses both human and animal studies.

  10. Effect of electromagnetic fields on some biomechanical and biochemical properties of rat’s blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaseb, M. A.; Shahin, F. A.; Ali, F. M.; Baieth, H. A.

    2017-06-01

    In order to study the effect of electromagnetic fields (0.3 mT, 50 Hz) on some biomechanical and biochemical properties of rats’ blood, healthy thirty male albino rats of 150 ± 10 g were divided into three equal groups namely A, B1, B2. Group A used as a control group, group B1 was continuously exposed to a magnetic field of (0.3 mT, 50 Hz) for a period of 21 days for direct effect studies. Group B2 was continuously exposed to the same magnetic field for the same period of time, then was housed away from the magnetic field for a period of 45 days for delayed effects studies. After examination, the results indicated that the apparent viscosity and the consistency index increased significantly and very high significantly for groub B1 and B2 compared to control at P<0.05. Red blood cell counts (RBCs) membrane elasticity had significantly and very high significantly decreased for groups B1 and B2. Moreover, delayed effects studies indicated that there is deterioration in the bone marrow functions. These results are supported by the blood film image, where irregularities and deformations in the RBCs membranes had been occurred. We conclude that the cell membrane properties are highly affected by the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields, which proved to be biologically toxic.

  11. [Effects of electromagnetic field from cellular phones on selected central nervous system functions: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Bak, Marek; Zmyślony, Marek

    2010-01-01

    In the opinion of some experts, a growing emission of man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF), also known as electromagnetic is a source of continuously increasing health hazards to the general population. Due to their large number and very close proximity to the user's head, mobile phones deserve special attention. This work is intended to give a systematic review of objective studies, assessing the effects of mobile phone EMF on the functions of the central nervous system (CNS) structures. Our review shows that short exposures to mobile phone EMF, experienced by telephone users during receiving calls, do not affect the cochlear function. Effects of GSM mobile phone EMF on the conduction of neural impulses from the inner car neurons to the brainstem auditory centres have not been detected either. If Picton's principle, saying that P300 amplitude varies with the improbability of the targets and its latency varies with difficulty of discriminating the target stimulus from standard stimuli, is true, EMF changes the improbability of the targets without hindering their discrimination. Experiments with use of indirect methods do not enable unequivocal verification of EMF effects on the cognitive functions due to the CNS anatomical and functional complexity. Thus, it seems advisable to develop a model of EMF effects on the excitable brain structures at the cellular level.

  12. Vibration as a possible explanation for putative electromagnetic field effects: a case study on marine diatoms.

    PubMed

    Davies, M S; Norris, W T

    2004-10-01

    We examined the conjecture that mechanical vibration, being an uncontrolled and variable factor from one trial to another, might explain the inconsistency of results from investigations of the influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on the Ca-dependent motility of marine diatoms (Amphora coffeaeformis, strain #2038). Owing to slight differences in culture of diatoms in previous studies, culture techniques are described in detail here. Diatoms showed maximal motility in logarithmic growth and motility was dependent on external [Ca], reducing at <.25 mM added Ca. Ninety-six different vertical vibration treatments were applied to the petri dishes containing the agar on which the diatoms were placed. The envelope of amplitudes varied from 50-500 pmicro at 10Hz to 100 nm-l1mmicro at 500 Hz. No significant effect of the mechanical vibrations on the motility response of diatoms was observed. We were unable to impose deliberate vibrations in a horizontal direction though some component of horizontal movement was probably present in our tests. The results imply that the variability of earlier experiments with extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields is unlikely to be ascribable to mechanical vibration.

  13. Finite Size Effects on the Electromagnetic Field Enhancement from Low-dimensional Silver Nanoshell Dimer Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Youlin; Zhao, Ke; Jia, Yu; Hu, Xing; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2009-03-01

    Finite size effects on the optical properties of one-dimensional (1D) and 2D nanoshell dimer arrays are investigated using generalized Mie theory and coupled dipole approximation within the context of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). It is shown that the huge enhancement in the electromagnetic (EM) field at the center of a given dimer oscillates with the length of the 1D array. For an array of fixed length, the EM enhancement also oscillates along the array, but with a different period. Both types of oscillations can be attributed to the interference of the dynamic dipole fields from different dimers in the array. When generalized to 2D arrays, EM enhancement higher than that of the 1D arrays can be gained with a constant magnitude, a salient feature advantageous to experimental realization of single-molecule SERS. [K. Zhao et al, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 081102 (2005); Y. L. Song et al, accepted by J. Chem. Phys.

  14. Finite size effects on the electromagnetic field enhancement from low-dimensional silver nanoshell dimer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Youlin; Zhao, Ke; Jia, Yu; Hu, Xing; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2008-11-01

    Finite size effects on the optical properties of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nanoshell dimer arrays are investigated using generalized Mie theory and coupled dipole approximation within the context of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). It is shown that the huge enhancement in the electromagnetic (EM) field at the center of a given dimer oscillates with the length of the 1D array. For an array of fixed length, the EM enhancement also oscillates along the array, but with a different period. Both types of oscillations can be attributed to the interference of the dynamic dipole fields from different dimers in the array. When generalized to 2D arrays, EM enhancement higher than that of the 1D arrays can be gained with a constant magnitude, a salient feature advantageous to experimental realization of single-molecule SERS.

  15. Effects of low-energy electromagnetic fields (pulsed and DC) on membrane signal transduction processes in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Luben, R A

    1991-07-01

    The vertebrate organism possesses a number of internal processes for signaling and communication between cell types. Hormones and neurotransmitters move from one cell type to another and carry chemical "messages" that modulate the metabolic responses of tissues to the environment. Interaction with these signaling systems is a potential mechanism by which very low-energy electromagnetic fields might produce metabolic responses in the body. Hormone and neurotransmitter receptors are specialized protein molecules that use a variety of biochemical activities to pass chemical signals from the outside of a cell across the plasma membrane to the interior of the cell. Since many low-energy electromagnetic fields have too little energy to directly traverse the membrane, it is possible that they may modify the existing signal transduction processes in cell membranes, thus producing both transduction and biochemical amplification of the effects of the field itself. As an example of the kinds of processes that may be involved in these interactions, one metabolic process in which the physiological effects of low-energy electromagnetic fields is well established is the healing of bone fractures. The process of regulation of bone turnover and healing is reviewed in the context of clinical applications of electromagnetic energy to the healing process, especially for persistent nonunion fractures. A hypothetical molecular mechanism is presented that might account for the observed effects of electromagnetic fields on bone cell metabolism in terms of the fields' interference with signal transduction events involved in the hormonal regulation of osteoblast function and differentiation.

  16. Influence of electromagnetic fields and protective effect of CAPE on bone mineral density in rats.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Cicek, Ekrem; Cerci, Sevim Sureyya; Cerci, Celal; Oral, Baha; Koyu, Ahmet

    2006-10-01

    Most mobile phones emit electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz or 1800 MHz. An electromagnetic field has some biological effects on the behavior of the cell population of bone. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of the radiation emitted by mobile phones on bone mineral density (BMD). The effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the radiation-induced changes were also investigated. In the study, 48 Sprague Dawley rats were used. Rats were divided into five groups as follows: control, irradiated with 900 MHz, irradiated with 900 MHz and treatment, irradiated with 1800 MHz, irradiated with 1800 MHz and treatment groups. The rats in the control group (first group) were left within the experimental setup during 30 min/day for 28 days without radiation exposure. Nine hundred-MHz radiation group was exposed to irradiate both second and third groups for 28 days (30 min/day); 1800-MHz radiation group was exposed to irradiate both fourth and fifth groups for 28 days (30 min/day). Third and fifth groups were also treated by CAPE for 28 days. Treatment groups received 10 microml/kg/day CAPE i.p. before the irradiation. Bone mineral densities were determined in all groups. BMD was found to be decreased in the irradiated groups and to be increased in the treatment groups. The changes were not significant (p >0.05).

  17. Electrons in strong electromagnetic fields: spin effects and radiation reaction (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauke, Heiko; Wen, Meng; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2017-05-01

    Various different classical models of electrons including their spin degree of freedom are commonly applied to describe the coupled dynamics of relativistic electron motion and spin precession in strong electromagnetic fields. The spin dynamics is usually governed by the Thomas-Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation [1, 2] in these models, while the electron's orbital motion follows the (modified) Lorentz force and a spin-dependent Stern-Gerlach force. Various classical models can lead to different or even contradicting predictions how the spin degree of freedom modifies the electron's orbital motion when the electron moves in strong electromagnetic fields. This discrepancy is rooted in the model-specific energy dependency of the spin induced relativistic Stern-Gerlach force acting on the electron. The Frenkel model [3, 4] and the classical Foldy-Wouthuysen model 5 are compared exemplarily against each other and against the quantum mechanical Dirac equation in order to identify parameter regimes where these classical models make different predictions [6, 7]. Our theoretical results allow for experimental tests of these models. In the setup of the longitudinal Stern-Gerlach effect, the Frenkel model and classical Foldy-Wouthuysen model lead in the relativistic limit to qualitatively different spin effects on the electron trajectory. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that in tightly focused beams in the near infrared the effect of the Stern-Gerlach force of the Frenkel model becomes sufficiently large to be potentially detectable in an experiment. Among the classical spin models, the Frenkel model is certainly prominent for its long history and its wide application. Our results, however, suggest that the classical Foldy-Wouthuysen model is superior as it is qualitatively in better agreement with the quantum mechanical Dirac equation. In ultra strong laser setups at parameter regimes where effects of the Stern-Gerlach force become relevant also radiation reaction effects are

  18. Electromagnetic Meissner-Effect Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed electromagnetic Meissner-effect launching apparatus differs from previous electromagnetic launchers; no need for electromagnet coil on projectile. Result, no need for brush contacts and high-voltage commutation equipment to supply current directly to projectile coil, or for pulse circuitry to induce current in projectile coil if brush contacts not used. Compresses magnetic field surrounding rear surface of projectile, creating gradient of magnetic pressure pushing projectile forward.

  19. Electromagnetic Meissner-Effect Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed electromagnetic Meissner-effect launching apparatus differs from previous electromagnetic launchers; no need for electromagnet coil on projectile. Result, no need for brush contacts and high-voltage commutation equipment to supply current directly to projectile coil, or for pulse circuitry to induce current in projectile coil if brush contacts not used. Compresses magnetic field surrounding rear surface of projectile, creating gradient of magnetic pressure pushing projectile forward.

  20. Interaction of electromagnetic fields and biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darshan Shrivastava, Bhakt; Barde, Ravindra; Mishra, Ashutosh; Phadke, S.

    2014-09-01

    This paper deals with the electromagnetic field interact in biological tissues. It is actually one of the important challenges for the electromagnetic field for the recent years. The experimental techniques are use in Broad-band Dielectric Measurement (BDM) with LCR meters. The authors used Bones and scales of Fish taken from Narmada River (Rajghat Dist. Barwani) as biological tissues. Experimental work carried out done in inter-university consortium (IUC) Indore. The major difficulties that appear are related to the material properties, to the effect of the electromagnetic problem and to the thermal model of the biological tissues.

  1. The effects of 30 mT electromagnetic fields on hippocampus cells of rats

    PubMed Central

    Teimori, Farzaneh; Khaki, Amir A.; Rajabzadeh, Asghar; Roshangar, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the use of electromagnetic waves in the treatment of some acute and chronic diseases, application of these waves in everyday life has created several problems for humans, especially the nerve system. In this study, the effects of 30mT electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the hippocampus is investigated. Methods: Twenty-four 5-month Wistar rats weighing 150–200 g were divided into two groups. The experimental group rats were under the influence of an EMF at an intensity of 3 mT for approximately 4 hours a day (from 8 AM to 12 PM) during 10 weeks. After the hippocampus was removed, thin slides were prepared for transmission electron microscope (TEM) to study the ultrastructural tissue. Cell death detection POD kits were used to determine the apoptosis rate. Results: The results of the TEM showed that, in the hippocampus of the experimental group, in comparison to the control group, there was a substantial shift; even intracellular organelles such as the mitochondria were morphologically abnormal and uncertain. The number of apoptotic cells in the exposed group compared to the control group showed significant changes. Conclusions: Similar to numerous studies that have reported the effects of EMFs on nerves system, it was also confirmed in this lecture. Hence, the hippocampus which is important in regulating emotions, behavior, motivation, and memory functions, may be impaired by the negative impacts of EMFs. PMID:27453795

  2. The effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields on T cell function during development

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, Shin; Ushiyama, Akira; Maeda, Machiko; Ogasawara, Yuki; Wang, Jianqing; Kunugita, Naoki; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread use of radio-frequency devices, it is increasingly important to understand the biological effects of the associated electromagnetic fields. Thus, we investigated the effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on T cell responses during development due to the lack of science-based evidence for RF-EMF effects on developmental immune systems. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to 2.14-GHz wideband code division multiple-access (W-CDMA) RF signals at a whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.2 W/kg. Exposures were performed for a total of 9 weeks spanning in utero development, lactation and the juvenile period. Rats were continuously exposed to RF-EMF for 20 h/day, 7 days/week. Comparisons of control and exposed rats using flow cytometry revealed no changes in the numbers of CD4/CD8 T cells, activated T cells or regulatory T cells among peripheral blood cells, splenocytes and thymocytes. Expression levels of 16 genes that regulate the immunological Th1/Th2 paradigm were analyzed using real-time PCR in the spleen and thymus tissues of control and RF-EMF–exposed rats. Although only the Il5 gene was significantly regulated in spleen tissues, Il4, Il5 and Il23a genes were significantly upregulated in thymus tissues following exposure to RF-EMF. However, ELISAs showed no changes in serum IL-4 protein concentrations. These data indicate no adverse effects of long-term RF-EMF exposure on immune-like T cell populations, T cell activation, or Th1/Th2 balance in developing rats, although significant transcriptional effects were observed. PMID:25835473

  3. Effects of the pulsed electromagnetic field PST® on human tendon stem cells: a controlled laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Randelli, Pietro; Menon, Alessandra; Ragone, Vincenza; Creo, Pasquale; Alfieri Montrasio, Umberto; Perucca Orfei, Carlotta; Banfi, Giuseppe; Cabitza, Paolo; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2016-08-18

    Current clinical procedures for rotator cuff tears need to be improved, as a high rate of failure is still observed. Therefore, new approaches have been attempted to stimulate self-regeneration, including biophysical stimulation modalities, such as low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields, which are alternative and non-invasive methods that seem to produce satisfying therapeutic effects. While little is known about their mechanism of action, it has been speculated that they may act on resident stem cells. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PST®) on human tendon stem cells (hTSCs) in order to elucidate the possible mechanism of the observed therapeutic effects. hTSCs from the rotator cuff were isolated from tendon biopsies and cultured in vitro. Then, cells were exposed to a 1-h PST® treatment and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell morphology, proliferation, viability, migration, and stem cell marker expression. Exposure of hTSCs to PST® did not cause any significant changes in proliferation, viability, migration, and morphology. Instead, while stem cell marker expression significantly decreased in control cells during cell culturing, PST®-treated cells did not have a significant reduction of the same markers. While PST® did not have significant effects on hTSCs proliferation, the treatment had beneficial effects on stem cell marker expression, as treated cells maintained a higher expression of these markers during culturing. These results support the notion that PST® treatment may increase the patient stem cell regenerative potential.

  4. The effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields on T cell function during development.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Shin; Ushiyama, Akira; Maeda, Machiko; Ogasawara, Yuki; Wang, Jianqing; Kunugita, Naoki; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2015-05-01

    With the widespread use of radio-frequency devices, it is increasingly important to understand the biological effects of the associated electromagnetic fields. Thus, we investigated the effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on T cell responses during development due to the lack of science-based evidence for RF-EMF effects on developmental immune systems. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to 2.14-GHz wideband code division multiple-access (W-CDMA) RF signals at a whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.2 W/kg. Exposures were performed for a total of 9 weeks spanning in utero development, lactation and the juvenile period. Rats were continuously exposed to RF-EMF for 20 h/day, 7 days/week. Comparisons of control and exposed rats using flow cytometry revealed no changes in the numbers of CD4/CD8 T cells, activated T cells or regulatory T cells among peripheral blood cells, splenocytes and thymocytes. Expression levels of 16 genes that regulate the immunological Th1/Th2 paradigm were analyzed using real-time PCR in the spleen and thymus tissues of control and RF-EMF-exposed rats. Although only the Il5 gene was significantly regulated in spleen tissues, Il4, Il5 and Il23a genes were significantly upregulated in thymus tissues following exposure to RF-EMF. However, ELISAs showed no changes in serum IL-4 protein concentrations. These data indicate no adverse effects of long-term RF-EMF exposure on immune-like T cell populations, T cell activation, or Th1/Th2 balance in developing rats, although significant transcriptional effects were observed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  5. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations.

    PubMed

    Barsam, Tayebeh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Ghotbi, Mohammad Reza; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang

    2012-11-30

    This study aims to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations (132, 230 and 400 KV) in Kerman city and the suburbs. For this purpose, the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density were measured in different parts of substations, and then the occupational exposure was estimated by averaging electric field intensity and magnetic flux density in a shift work. The cases comprised 67 workers who had been exposed to electromagnetic fields in age range of 24-57 and the controls were 110 persons the age ranged 24-50 years. Sleep quality of both groups was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). Finally, these data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that 90.5% of cases and 85.3% of controls had the poor quality sleep according to PSQI (P-value=0.615). Total sleep quality score mean for the case and control groups were 10.22 ± 3.4 and 9.74 ± 3.62 (P-value=0.415) ,respectively. Meantime to fall asleep for cases(35.68 ± 26.25 min) was significantly higher than for controls (28.89 ± 20.18 min) (P-value=0.002). Cases had average sleep duration of 5.49 ± 1.31 hours, which was lower ascompared with control subjects (5.90 ± 1.67hours). Although there was a higher percentage for the case group with poor sleep quality than the control group, but no statistically significant difference was observed.

  6. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations (132, 230 and 400 KV) in Kerman city and the suburbs. For this purpose, the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density were measured in different parts of substations, and then the occupational exposure was estimated by averaging electric field intensity and magnetic flux density in a shift work. The cases comprised 67 workers who had been exposed to electromagnetic fields in age range of 24–57 and the controls were 110 persons the age ranged 24–50 years. Sleep quality of both groups was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). Finally, these data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that 90.5% of cases and 85.3% of controls had the poor quality sleep according to PSQI (P-value=0.615). Total sleep quality score mean for the case and control groups were 10.22 ± 3.4 and 9.74 ± 3.62 (P-value=0.415) ,respectively. Meantime to fall asleep for cases(35.68 ± 26.25 min) was significantly higher than for controls (28.89 ± 20.18 min) (P-value=0.002). Cases had average sleep duration of 5.49 ± 1.31 hours, which was lower ascompared with control subjects (5.90 ± 1.67hours). Although there was a higher percentage for the case group with poor sleep quality than the control group, but no statistically significant difference was observed. PMID:23369281

  7. Auroral effects in the D region of the ionosphere. [interactions between auroral particles and electromagnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akasofu, S. I.

    1974-01-01

    Physical phenomena associated with the interaction between auroral particles and electromagnetic fields, auroral energy flow, and the propagation of auroral effects to low altitudes are discussed in detail. It is concluded that energy deposition of soft auroral X-rays would be negligible at stratospheric altitudes. New data from incoherent backscatter measurements of neutral winds in the auroral region indicate a lack of correlation between stratospheric winds and winds in the auroral ionosphere. Magnetograms are used to show that sector boundary crossings with a time scale of approximately one hour (as opposed to the sector structure itself with a time scale of several days) do not couple effectively with the magnetosphere and are not significant energy inputs to it.

  8. Effects of acute electromagnetic fields exposure on the interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity during resting state.

    PubMed

    Lv, Bin; Shao, Qing; Chen, Zhiye; Ma, Lin; Wu, Tongning

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we aimed to investigate the possible effects of acute radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. We designed a controllable LTE-related EMF exposure environment at 2.573 GHz and performed the 30 min real/sham exposure experiments on human brain under the safety limits. The resting state fMRI signals were collected before and after EMF exposure. Then voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity method was utilized to evaluate the acute effects of LTE EMF exposure on the homotopic functional connectivity between two human hemispheres. Based on our previous research, we further demonstrated that the 30 min short-term LTE EMF exposure would modulate the interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity in resting state around the medial frontal gyrus and the paracentral lobule during the real exposure.

  9. Gold-Gold Sulfide nanoparticles intensify thermal effects of radio frequency electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Hamid Reza; Toosi, Mohammad Hossein Bahreyni; Soudmand, Samaneh; Sadoughi, Hamid Reza; Sazgarnia, Ameneh

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy of thermotherapy resulting from the presence of gold-gold sulfide nanoshells (GGS) in radio frequency electromagnetic field (13.56 MHz) onthe survival of CT26 colon carcinoma cells. GGS was synthesized and after characterizing and determining the features, the RF-radiation effects on aquatic environments were determined by recording temperature changes. To investigate the biological effects, cell survival rate due to GGS usage at five different concentrations, each one with applying three different exposure times of RF field, at CT26 cells were evaluated by MTT assay. In the presence of 100 mg/L GGS and 5 min RF exposure, increasing in temperature was recorded more than 60°C. A significant difference in cell survival rate was observed, when both GGS and RF field were applied with each other or separately (p<0.001). The GGS concentration of 25mg/L with a 4 min exposure causes cell death with the efficiency of 80 percent more than using them separately. The GGS as an available nanostructure (i.e. it's not expensive and can be synthesized simply) is an environmental friendly material which has the ability to cause damage to malignant cell effectively, by absorbing the non-invasive and deeply penetrating energy of RF field.

  10. 1800 MHz electromagnetic field effects on melatonin release from isolated pineal glands.

    PubMed

    Sukhotina, Irina; Streckert, Joachim R; Bitz, Andreas K; Hansen, Volkert W; Lerchl, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Isolated pineal glands of Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were continuously perifused by Krebs-Ringer buffer, stimulated with the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol to induce melatonin synthesis, and exposed for 7 hr to a 1800 MHz continuous wave (CW) or pulsed GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)-modulated electromagnetic signal at specific absorption rate (SAR) rates of 8, 80, 800, and 2700 mW/kg. Experiments were performed in a blind fashion. Perifusate samples were collected every hour, and melatonin concentrations were measured by a specific radioimmunoassay. Both types of signal significantly enhanced melatonin release at 800 mW/kg SAR, while at 2700 mW/kg SAR, melatonin levels were elevated in the CW, but suppressed in the GSM-exposed pineal glands. As a temperature rise of approximately 1.2 degrees C was measured at 2700 mW/kg SAR, effects at this level are thermal. With regard to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, the data do not support the 'melatonin hypothesis,' according to which nonthermal exposure suppresses melatonin synthesis.

  11. Effects on the nervous system by exposure to electromagnetic fields: experimental and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Hansson, H A

    1988-01-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields may cause various types of effects on nervous tissue, in severe cases even irreversible damage. The exposure conditions, i.e. frequency including type and extent of modulation, time, intensity, wave form, as well as shape, size and position of exposed subject and possible treatment with drugs, are factors determining if damage, acute or chronic, ultimately result. Long term exposure of newborn rabbits, rats and mice to electromagnetic fields of power frequency (10-14 kV/m; 50 or 60 Hz; sinusoidal wave form; 21-24 h per day) may cause affection and even damage to the nervous system. Large nerve cells showed reactive changes such as lamellar bodies and cytoskeletal alteration to an extent varying with exposure conditions. Reactive neuroglial changes as well as increase in neuroglial marker proteins could concomitantly be demonstrated. The changes seemed to be reversible although we only have incomplete data available. Exposure in vitro of frog sciatic nerve to 16-60 Hz sinusoidal low current (50-1000 nA) for 17 h induced cytoskeletal changes. Exposure of rabbits to pulsed microwaves of moderate to high intensity (3.1 GHz; 300 Hz modulation; peak duration 1.4 usec with maximal peak intensity about 1000 times average; 55 mW/cm; SAR in the brain cortex about 20 W/kg; increase of temperature as measured by lightguide-equipped instruments in right brain hemisphere about 1-2 degrees C) during 1 h per day during three days resulted in no obvious initial changes in behaviour. Minimal acute dam- age could be demonstrated. However, after two to four months and later on both structural, immunohistochemical and biochemical changes could be documented. Radar technicians accidently and/or occupationally exposed to microwaves showed psychoneurological signs of affection as well as changes in cerebrospinal fluid protein pattern. No related changes have been noticed among matched controls. Exposure of nervous tissue to electromagnetic fields ranging

  12. The effect of electromagnetic fields, from two commercially available water treatment devices, on bacterial culturability.

    PubMed

    Piyadasa, Chathuri; Yeager, Thomas R; Gray, Stephen R; Stewart, Matthew B; Ridgway, Harry F; Pelekani, Con; Orbell, John D

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available pulsed-electromagnetic field (PEMF) devices are currently being marketed and employed to ostensibly manage biofouling. The reliable application and industry acceptance of such technologies require thorough scientific validation - and this is currently lacking. We have initiated proof-of-principle research in an effort to investigate whether such commercially available PEMF devices can influence the viability (culturability) of planktonic bacteria in an aqueous environment. Thus two different commercial PEMF devices were investigated via a static (i.e. non-flowing) treatment system. 'Healthy' Escherichia coli cells, as well as cultures that were physiologically compromised by silver nano-particles, were exposed to the PEMFs from both devices under controlled conditions. Although relatively minor, the observed effects were nevertheless statistically significant and consistent with the hypothesis that PEMF exposure under controlled conditions may result in a decrease in cellular viability and culturability. It has also been observed that under certain conditions bacterial growth is actually stimulated.

  13. Effect of long-term pulsed electromagnetic field exposure on hepatic and immunologic functions of rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Bao-lin; Li, Wei; Bi, Jia-Qi; Zhao, Jian-gang; Qu, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Chen; Yang, Song-Lin; Meng, Qing-gang; Yue, Qi

    2015-12-01

    In this report, the effects of long-term pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) exposure on hepatic and immunologic functions were examined. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group and three experimental groups exposed to a 50-Hz PEMF at 5, 10, or 20 mT for 10 weeks. Compared with the control group, activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and concentrations of serum, liver, and spleen Metabolism of lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the 10- and 20-mT PEMF groups were significantly increased. The activities of Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) in the serum, liver, and spleen and concentrations of serum immunoglobulins were significantly decreased. These results demonstrate that long-term exposure to PEMF can lead to oxidative damage of the liver and spleen.

  14. Pro-oxidant effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in the land snail Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    Regoli, Francesco; Gorbi, Stefania; Machella, Nicola; Tedesco, Sara; Benedetti, Maura; Bocchetti, Raffaella; Notti, Alessandra; Fattorini, Daniele; Piva, Francesco; Principato, Giovanni

    2005-12-15

    Pro-oxidant effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) 50-Hz magnetic fields were investigated in the land snail Helix aspersa exposed both in short-term laboratory treatments and under field conditions by maintaining the organisms in the proximity of a power line for up to 2 months. Oxidative perturbations were investigated as individual antioxidants (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferases, and total glutathione) and total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals. Accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, destabilization of lysosomal membranes, and loss of DNA integrity were also evaluated as markers of cell damage. The overall results indicated an oxidative challenge caused by ELF magnetic fields with particularly prompt and sensitive responses for catalase, glutathione reductase, and the overall capability to neutralize peroxyl radicals. Cell injuries occurred to different extents according to duration and intensity of electromagnetic exposure and confirmed complex cause-effect relationships between pro-oxidant factors, efficiency of antioxidant defenses, and the onset of oxidative toxicity. This study highlights the importance of a multimarker approach for detecting a wide panel of biological responses, the necessity of investigating the long-term effects of early oxidative responses, and the role of ELF in enhancing susceptibility to other forms of pathologies or diseases.

  15. Electromagnetic Field Devices and Their Effects on Nociception and Peripheral Inflammatory Pain Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ross, Christina L; Teli, Thaleia; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2016-03-01

    Context • During cell-communication processes, endogenous and exogenous signaling affects normal and pathological developmental conditions. Exogenous influences, such as extra-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been shown to affect pain and inflammation by modulating G-protein coupling receptors (GPCRs), downregulating cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) activity, and downregulating inflammatory modulators, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) as well as the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). EMF devices could help clinicians who seek an alternative or complementary treatment for relief of patients chronic pain and disability. Objective • The research team intended to review the literature on the effects of EMFs on inflammatory pain mechanisms. Design • We used a literature search of articles published in PubMed using the following key words: low-frequency electromagnetic field therapy, inflammatory pain markers, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), opioid receptors, G-protein coupling receptors, and enzymes. Setting • The study took place at the Wake Forest School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC, USA. Results • The mechanistic pathway most often considered for the biological effects of EMF is the plasma membrane, across which the EMF signal induces a voltage change. Oscillating EMF exerts forces on free ions that are present on both sides of the plasma membrane and that move across the cell surface through transmembrane proteins. The ions create a forced intracellular vibration that is responsible for phenomena such as the influx of extracellular calcium (Ca2+) and the binding affinity of calmodulin (CaM), which is the primary transduction pathway to the secondary messengers, cAMP and cGMP, which have been found to influence inflammatory pain. Conclusions • An emerging body of evidence indicates the existence of a frequency

  16. The Effects of Exposure to Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Male Fertility.

    PubMed

    Darbandi, Mahsa; Darbandi, Sara; Agarwal, Ashok; Henkle, Ralf; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-06-23

    Context • People are increasingly exposed to low frequency (LF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), mainly from electricity distribution networks and electronic devices. Critics of this widespread exposure believe that it can have detrimental effects on the human body. On the other hand, many in vivo and in vitro studies have claimed that low frequency electromagnetic therapy can function as a form of alternative medicine and that therapists can treat disease by applying electromagnetic radiation or pulsed EMFs to the body or cells. It is not yet entirely clear, however, whether LF-EMF is beneficial or harmful. Objectives • This study aimed to examine the effects of LF-EMFs on men's reproductive functions, according to the types of waveform and the frequency and duration of exposure. Design • The study reviewed all available research, both human and animal, on the effects of LF-EMFs on male reproductive functions, covering the literature from January 1978 to June 2016. The documents were obtained from PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar, and any article that was irrelevant or a duplicate was excluded. A total of 61 articles were found, and 27 articles were reviewed. Setting • This project was performed at the Avicenna Research Center (Tehran, Iran). Participants • Literature included human and animal studies conducted on rabbits, mice, rats, and boars. Intervention • Among these studies, any article that was irrelevant, a duplicate, or published with duplicate data was excluded. At the end, 27 articles were checked. Outcome Measures • Outcome measures included testing related to reproductive organ weights, reproductive endocrinal hormones, fetal development, and spermatogenesis as well as sperm motility, morphology, and vitality. Results • The reviewed studies provided contradictory results that were highly dependent on the exposure parameters, such as the shape and frequency of wave, intensity, duration, and timing of the exposure. Conclusions

  17. Electromagnetic fields in cased borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, Hee Joon; Uchida, Toshihiro

    2001-07-20

    Borehole electromagnetic (EM) measurements, using fiberglass-cased boreholes, have proven useful in oil field reservoir characterization and process monitoring (Wilt et al., 1995). It has been presumed that these measurements would be impossible in steel-cased wells due to the very large EM attenuation and phase shifts. Recent laboratory and field studies have indicated that detection of EM signals through steel casing should be possible at low frequencies, and that these data provide a reasonable conductivity image at a useful scale. Thus, we see an increased application of this technique to mature oilfields, and an immediate extension to geothermal industry as well. Along with the field experiments numerical model studies have been carried out for analyzing the effect of steel casing to the EM fields. The model used to be an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous whole space. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the formation signal could be accurately recovered if the casing characteristics were independently known (Becker et al., 1998; Lee el al., 1998). Real steel-cased wells are much more complex than the simple laboratory models used in work to date. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient numerical methods for analyzing EM fields in realistic settings, and to evaluate the potential application of EM technologies to cross-borehole and single-hole environment for reservoir characterization and monitoring.

  18. Effects of phase conjugation on electromagnetic optical fields propagating in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanseri, Bhaskar

    2017-03-01

    By using the property of phase conjugation, we demonstrate that the inverse of van Cittert–Zernike theorem holds for electromagnetic (EM) fields propagating in free space. This essentially implies that spatially incoherent partially polarized field distributions can be generated from spatially coherent partially polarized optical fields. We further utilize phase conjugation with a polarization rotator to swap the spatial coherence properties of orthogonal polarization components of EM fields on propagation, at least in free space. This study suggests that the method of phase conjugation could be potentially useful in arbitrarily manipulating spatial coherence properties of vector optical fields in the field plane.

  19. The Effects of Electromagnetic Field on the Endocrine System in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sangün, Özlem; Dündar, Bumin; Çömlekçi, Selçuk; Büyükgebiz, Attila

    2015-12-01

    Children are exposed to various kind of non-ionizan radiation in their daily life involuntarily. The potential sensitivity of developing organism to the effects of radiofrequency (RF) signals, the higher estimated specific absorption rate (SAR) values of children and greater lifetime cumulative risk raised the scientific interest for children's vulnerability to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). In modern societies, children are being exposed to EMFs in very early ages. There are many researches in scientific literature investigating the alterations of biological parameters in living organisms after EMFs. Although the international guidelines did not report definite, convincing data about the causality, there are unignorable amount of studies indicating the increased risk of cancer, hematologic effects and cognitive impairment. Although they are less in amount; growing number of studies reveal the impacts on metabolism and endocrine function. Reproductive system and growth look like the most challenging fields. However there are also some concerns on detrimental effects of EMFs on thyroid functions, adrenal hormones, glucose homeostasis and melatonin levels. It is not easy to conduct a study investigating the effects of EMFs on a fetus or child due to ethical issues. Hence, the studies are usually performed on virtual models or animals. Although the results are conflicting and cannot be totally matched with humans; there is growing evidence to distress us about the threats of EMF on children.

  20. Effects on the nervous system by exposure to electromagnetic fields: experimental and clinical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hansson, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields may cause various types of effects on nervous tissue, in severe cases even irreversible damage. The exposure conditions, i.e. frequency including type and extent of modulation, time, intensity, wave form, as well as shape, size and position of exposed subject and possible treatment with drugs, are factors determining if damage, acute or chronic, ultimately result. Long term exposure of newborn rabbits, rats and mice to electromagnetic fields of power frequency (10-14 kV/m; 50 or 60 Hz; sinusoidal wave form; 21-24 h per day) may cause affection and even damage to the nervous system. Large nerve cells showed reactive changes such as lamellar bodies and cytoskeletal alteration to an extent varying with exposure conditions. Reactive neuroglial changes as well as increase in neuroglial marker proteins could concomitantly be demonstrated. The changes seemed to be reversible although we only have incomplete data available. Exposure in vitro of frog sciatic nerve to 16-60 Hz sinusoidal low current (50-1000 nA) for 17 h induced cytoskeletal changes. Exposure of rabbits to pulsed microwaves of moderate to high intensity during 1 h per day during three days resulted in no obvious initial changes in behavior. Minimal acute damage could be demonstrated. However, after two to four months and later on both structural, immunohistochemical and biochemical changes could be documented. Radar technicians accidently and/or occupationally exposed to microwaves showed psychoneurological signs of affection as well as changes in cerebrospinal fluid protein pattern. No related changes have been noticed among matched controls.

  1. The Effect of the Incident Relative Phase on the Four-Wave Mixing Field and the Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Y.; Gong, S.

    2005-10-15

    In a {lambda}-type system employing a two-photon pump field, a four-wave mixing field can be generated simultaneously and, hence, a closed-loop system forms. We study theoretically the effect of the relative phase between the two incident fields on the generated four-wave mixing field and the electromagnetically induced transparency. It is found that the phase of the generated four-wave mixing field is the sum of the incident relative phase and a fixed phase that is irrelative to the incident relative phase. Hence, the total phase of the closed-loop system is independent of the incident relative phase. As a result, the incident relative phase has no effect on the electromagnetically induced transparency, which is different from the case of a {lambda}-type loop system closed by a third incident field.

  2. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Henry C.; Singh, Narendra P.

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  3. Effects of electromagnetic field exposure on the heart: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elmas, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The use of electrical devices has gradually increased throughout the last century, and scientists have suggested that electromagnetic fields (EMF) generated by such devices may have harmful effects on living creatures. This work represents a systematic review of collective scholarly literature examining the effects of EMFs on the heart. Although most works describing effects of EMF exposure have been carried out using city electric frequencies (50-60 Hz), a consensus has not been reached about whether long- or short-term exposure to 50-60 Hz EMF negatively affects the heart. Studies have indicated that EMFs produced at cell-phone frequencies cause no-effect on the heart. Differences between results of studies may be due to a compensatory response developed by the body over time. At greater EMF strengths or shorter exposures, the ability of the body to develop compensation mechanisms is reduced and the potential for heart-related effects increases. It is noteworthy that diseases of heart tissues such as myocardial ischemia can also be successfully treated using EMF. Despite the substantial volume of data that has been collected on heart-related effects of EMFs, additional studies are needed at the cellular and molecular level to fully clarify the subject. Until the effects of EMF on heart tissue are more fully explored, electronic devices generating EMFs should be approached with caution.

  4. Low dose short duration pulsed electromagnetic field effects on cultured human chondrocytes: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Anbarasan, Selvam; Baraneedharan, Ulaganathan; Paul, Solomon FD; Kaur, Harpreet; Rangaswami, Subramoniam; Bhaskar, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) is used to treat bone and joint disorders for over 30 years. Recent studies demonstrate a significant effect of PEMF on bone and cartilage proliferation, differentiation, synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) and production of growth factors. The aim of this study is to assess if PEMF of low frequency, ultralow field strength and short time exposure have beneficial effects on in-vitro cultured human chondrocytes. Materials and Methods: Primary human chondrocytes cultures were established using articular cartilage obtained from knee joint during joint replacement surgery. Post characterization, the cells were exposed to PEMF at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 Hz and field intensities ranging from 0.65 to 1.95 μT for 60 min/day for 3 consecutive days to analyze the viability, ECM component synthesis, proliferation and morphology related changes post exposure. Association between exposure doses and cellular effects were analyzed with paired't’ test. Results: In-vitro PEMF exposure of 0.1 Hz frequency, 1.95 μT and duration of 60 min/day for 3 consecutive days produced the most favorable response on chondrocytes viability (P < 0.001), ECM component production (P < 0.001) and multiplication. Exposure of identical chondrocyte cultures to PEMFs of 0.65 μT field intensity at 1 Hz frequency resulted in less significant response. Exposure to 1.3 μT PEMFs at 10 Hz frequency does not show any significant effects in different analytical parameters. Conclusions: Short duration PEMF exposure may represent a new therapy for patients with Osteoarthritis (OA). PMID:26955182

  5. Effects of low intensity static electromagnetic radiofrequency fields on leiomyosarcoma and smooth muscle cell lines.

    PubMed

    Karkabounas, Spyridon; Havelas, Konstantinos; Kostoula, Olga K; Vezyraki, Patra; Avdikos, Antonios; Binolis, Jayne; Hatziavazis, George; Metsios, Apostolos; Verginadis, Ioannis; Evangelou, Angelos

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of low intensity static radiofrequency electromagnetic field (EMF) causing no thermal effects, on leiomyosarcoma cells (LSC), isolated from tumors of fifteen Wistar rats induced via a 3,4-benzopyrene injection. Electromagnetic resonance frequencies measurements and exposure of cells to static EMF were performed by a device called multi channel dynamic exciter 100 V1 (MCDE). The LSC were exposed to electromagnetic resonance radiofrequencies (ERF) between 10 kHz to 120 kHz, for 45 min. During a 24h period, after the exposure of the LSC to ERF, there was no inhibition of cells proliferation. In contrast, at the end of a 48 h incubation period, LSC proliferation dramatically decreased by more than 98% (P<0.001). At that time, the survived LSC were only 2% of the total cell population exposed to ERF, and under the same culture conditions showed significant decrease of proliferation. These cells were exposed once again to ERF for 45 min (totally 4 sessions of exposure, of 45 min duration each) and tested using a flow cytometer. Experiments as above were repeated five times. It was found that 45% of these double exposed to ERF, LSC (EMF cells) were apoptotic and only a small percentage 2%, underwent mitosis. In order to determinate their metastatic potential, these EMF cells were also counted and tested by an aggregometer for their ability to aggregate platelets and found to maintain this ability., since they showed no difference in platelet aggregation ability compared to the LSC not exposed to ERF (control cells). In conclusion, exposure of LSC to specific ERF, decreases their proliferation rate and induces cell apoptosis. Also, the LSC that survived after exposed to ERF, had a lower proliferation rate compared to the LSC controls (P<0.05) but did not loose their potential for metastases (platelet aggregation ability). The non-malignant SMC were not affected by the EMF exposure (P<0.4). The specific ERF generated from the MCDE

  6. Explanations, Education, and Electromagnetic Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.

    Explaining complex scientific and environmental subjects in the mass media is difficult to do, particularly under such constraints as short deadlines and lack of space or time. When a scientific controversy and human health risk are involved, this becomes an even harder task to accomplish. The subject of electromagnetic fields (EMF) involves…

  7. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on breeding and migrating birds

    SciTech Connect

    Hanowski, J.M.; Blake, J.G.; Niemi, G.J.; Collins, P.T. )

    1993-01-01

    We conducted this study to determine if electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by an extremely low frequency (ELF) antenna system affected either the abundance or richness of breeding and migrating bird species. We counted birds on 80-500 m transects, 40 in reference areas and 40 in treatment areas adjacent to an ELF antenna system in northern Wisconsin. Counts were done three times during the breeding season and twice during autumn migration from 1986 to 1989. We used repeated measures ANOVA (multivariate test) to determine if species abundance and numbers of species varied annually (univariate test), no treatment effects were detected for bird community parameters. Fifteen of 75 breeding bird species tested indicated significant differences between reference and treatment study areas; 10 were more abundant in treatment areas. Six of 10 species more abundant in treatment areas were species that occur along edges. Eight of 51 species showed significant treatment effects in the migration season; six were more abundant in reference study areas. Two species, the ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) and white-breasted nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis) were more abundant in reference study areas in both the breeding and migration seasons. Overall, most differences detected between treatment and reference study areas could be attributed to differences in habitat (or presence of edge). It is unlikely that differences could be attributed to ELF EM fields. 49 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on the health of workers in automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Longyu; Yu, Duo; Ma, Shumei; Liu, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    To observe the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) in automotive industry on occupational workers. A total of 704 workers were investigated, and 374 workers were chosen and divided into two groups (control group and exposure group) according to the inclusive criteria, namely male with age 20-40 years old and ≥ 2 years of exposure. The intensities of ELF-EMFs and noise were detected with EFA-300 Field Analyzer (Narda company, Pfullingen, Germany) and AWA5610D integrating sound level meter (Hangzhou Aihua Instruments Co., Ltd, Hangzhou, China), respectively. Survey data were collected by questionnaire, and the physical check-up was done in hospital. All the data were input into SPSS17.0 software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA), and the appropriate statistic analyses were carried out. The intensity of EMFs in exposure group was significantly higher than that in control group (p < 0.05), while the noise in two workplaces showed no difference (p>0.05). The survey data collected by questionnaires showed that the symptoms of loss of hair in exposure group were significantly different as compared with that in control group (p < 0.05). The check-up parameters of cardiovascular, liver and hematology system showed significant differences between the two groups (p < 0.05). Survey and check-up data suggest that exposure to ELF-EMFs might have effects on the nervous, cardiovascular, liver, and hematology system of workers.

  9. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on human fetal scleral fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huang; Wang, Jie; Cui, Jiefeng; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on human fetal scleral fibroblasts (HFSFs). HFSFs were subjected to 50 Hz artificial ELF-EMFs generated by Helmholtz coils with 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mT field intensities for 6 to 48 h. The viability and factors involved in scleral structuring of HFSFs were determined. The growth rate of HFSFs significantly decreased after only 24 h of exposure to ELF-EMFs (0.2 mT). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of collagen type I (COL1A1) decreased and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) increased significantly. There was a decrease in tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 mRNA levels between treated and control cells only at the 1.0 mT intensity level. Transforming growth factor beta-2 mRNA increased in exposed cells, and, simultaneously, fibroblast growth factor-2 mRNA levels decreased. The protein expressions of COL1A1 and MMP-2 were also significantly altered subsequent to exposure (p < 0.05). This study shows that ELF-EMFs had biological effects on HFSFs and could cause abnormality in scleral collagen. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Effects of electromagnetic field on the electrical properties of DNA molecular wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Varsha

    Fabrication process for semiconductor electronics is approaching the barriers set by the fundamental laws of physics. Alternative technologies for implementing long term molecular wires in electronics such as deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) continue to be pursued. In this thesis, we investigate the long-term electrical properties of double-stranded lambda-DNA during exposure of electromagnetic and electrostatic fields to DNA. While there is no specific theory and mechanism on how electromagnetic fields affect DNA, some research has shown damage to DNA while some have given negative results. All the studies have been conducted on cells and DNA damage is believed to be caused by multiple factors. Even small structural alterations in DNA is likely to cause changes in electrical readings. In this research, DNA is suspended between two 3-dimensional microelectrodes, which are separated by a 10 micron gap, fabricated using negative lithography. Afterwards, separate samples were exposed to electromagnetic field of 4.11E-10 eV energy. DNA was also exposed to high voltage directly to test its properties due to internal field. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was done on electrostatic field exposed DNA. Experimental results showed that the electrical conductivity of DNA decreased with high exposure time. FTIR confirmed the structural changes that happened in DNA due to exposure to electrostatic fields.

  11. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Differentiation of HUES-17 Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Lin; Ma, Shi-Rong; Peng, Tao; Teng, Zeng-Hui; Liang, Xiang-Yan; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Li, Kang-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields are considered to potentially affect embryonic development, but the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line HUES-17 was applied to explore the mechanism of exposure on embryonic development to pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) for 400 pulses at different electric field intensities and the differentiation of HUES-17 cells was observed after PEMF exposure. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP), stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3), SSEA-4 and the mRNA level and protein level of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog in HUES-17 cells remained unchanged after PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m. Four hundred pulses PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m did not affect the differentiation of HUES-17 cells. The reason why electromagnetic fields affect embryonic development may be due to other mechanisms rather than affecting the differentiation of embryonic stem cells. PMID:25196518

  12. Acute effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phone on brain function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Sumich, Alexander; Wang, Grace Y

    2017-07-01

    Due to its attributes, characteristics, and technological resources, the mobile phone (MP) has become one of the most commonly used communication devices. Historically, ample evidence has ruled out the substantial short-term impact of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) emitted by MP on human cognitive performance. However, more recent evidence suggests potential harmful effects associated with MP EMF exposure. The aim of this review is to readdress the question of whether the effect of MP EMF exposure on brain function should be reopened. We strengthen our argument focusing on recent neuroimaging and electroencephalography studies, in order to present a more specific analysis of effects of MP EMF exposure on neurocognitive function. Several studies indicate an increase in cortical excitability and/or efficiency with EMF exposure, which appears to be more prominent in fronto-temporal regions and has been associated with faster reaction time. Cortical excitability might also underpin disruption to sleep. However, several inconsistent findings exist, and conclusions regarding adverse effects of EMF exposure are currently limited. It also should be noted that the crucial scientific question of the effect of longer-term MP EMF exposure on brain function remains unanswered and essentially unaddressed. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:329-338, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The mathematical model for the problem "diffusion - reaction" at effect of electromagnetic field in cylindrical system of coordinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarova, Liudmila A.

    2017-07-01

    The problem "diffusion reaction" with the binary reaction at a condition of an effect of electromagnetic waves on the boundary of some region (medium) in cylindrical system coordinate is considered. It is received that the effect of electromagnetic field on the mass transfer on the medium boundary can lead to the non-monotone solutions of the problem "diffusion - reaction" even for the most simple reaction. It is received that the necessary condition on parameters of the problem has the form: t/2 t0 <2 π e (t/1t_2) 2 , where t0, t1, t2 are the times of diffusion and reaction.

  14. Different electromagnetic field waveforms have different effects on proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Wang, Jia-Qi; Ge, Bao-Feng; Ma, Xiao-Ni; Ma, Hui-Ping; Xian, Cory J; Chen, Ke-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been known to be able to improve bone health; however, their optimal application parameters and action mechanisms remain unclear. This study compared the effects of different forms of EMFs (sinusoidal, triangular, square, and serrated, all set at 50 Hz frequency and 1.8 mT intensity) on proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of rat calvarial osteoblasts. Square EMFs stimulated osteoblast proliferation but sinusoidal EMFs inhibited it. Sinusoidal and triangular EMFs produced significantly greater alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, ALP staining areas, calcium deposition, mineralized nodule areas, and mRNA expression of Runx-2, osteoprotegerin and insulin-like growth factor-I than square and serrated EMFs (P < 0.01). Triangular EMFs had a greater effect than sinusoidal EMFs on every indices except for Runx-2 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). These results indicated that while square EMFs promoted proliferation and had no effect on the differentiation of osteoblasts, sinusoidal EMFs inhibited proliferation but enhanced osteogenic differentiation. Triangular EMFs did not affect cell proliferation but induced the strongest osteogenic activity among the four waveforms of EMFs. Thus, the effects of EMFs on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro were dependent on their waveforms. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The preventive effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on diabetic bone loss in streptozotocin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, D; Cai, J; Shen, G; Huang, J; Li, F; Li, J; Lu, L; Luo, E; Xu, Q

    2011-06-01

    The present study was the first report demonstrating that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) could partially prevent bone strength and architecture deterioration and improve the impaired bone formation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The findings indicated that PEMF might become a potential additive method for inhibiting diabetic osteopenia or osteoporosis. Diabetes mellitus (DM) can cause various musculoskeletal abnormalities. Optimal therapeutic methods for diabetic bone complication are still lacking. It is essential to develop more effective and safe therapeutic methods for diabetic bone disorders. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) as an alternative noninvasive method has proven to be effective for treating fracture healing and osteoporosis in non-diabetic conditions. However, the issue about the therapeutic effects of PEMF on diabetic bone complication has not been previously investigated. We herein systematically evaluated the preventive effects of PEMF on diabetic bone loss in streptozotocin-treated rats. Two similar experiments were conducted. In each experiment, 16 diabetic and eight non-diabetic rats were equally assigned to the control, DM, and DM + PEMF group. DM + PEMF group was subjected to daily 8-h PEMF exposure for 8 weeks. In experiment 1, three-point bending test suggested that PEMF improved the biomechanical quality of diabetic bone tissues, evidenced by increased maximum load, stiffness, and energy absorption. Microcomputed tomography analysis demonstrated that DM-induced bone architecture deterioration was partially reversed by PEMF, evidenced by increased Tb.N, Tb.Th, BV/TV, and Conn.D and reduced Tb.Sp and SMI. Serum OC analysis indicated that PEMF partially prevented DM-induced decrease in bone formation. In experiment 2, no significant difference in the bone resorption marker TRACP5b was observed. These biochemical findings were further supported by the dynamic bone histomorphometric parameters BFR/BS and Oc.N/BS. The results

  16. Investigation of co-genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in vivo.

    PubMed

    Verschaeve, L; Heikkinen, P; Verheyen, G; Van Gorp, U; Boonen, F; Vander Plaetse, F; Maes, A; Kumlin, T; Mäki-Paakkanen, J; Puranen, L; Juutilainen, J

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the possible combined genotoxic effects of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (900 MHz, amplitude modulated at 217 Hz, mobile phone signal) with the drinking water mutagen and carcinogen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX). Female rats were exposed to RF fields for a period of 2 years for 2 h per day, 5 days per week at average whole-body specific absorption rates of 0.3 or 0.9 W/kg. MX was given in the drinking water at a concentration of 19 microg/ml. Blood samples were taken at 3, 6 and 24 months of exposure and brain and liver samples were taken at the end of the study (24 months). DNA damage was assessed in all samples using the alkaline comet assay, and micronuclei were determined in erythrocytes. We did not find significant genotoxic activity of MX in blood and liver cells. However, MX induced DNA damage in rat brain. Co-exposures to MX and RF radiation did not significantly increase the response of blood, liver and brain cells compared to MX exposure only. In conclusion, this 2-year animal study involving long-term exposures to RF radiation and MX did not provide any evidence for enhanced genotoxicity in rats exposed to RF radiation.

  17. Effects of Anatomical Differences on Electromagnetic Fields, SAR, and Temperature Change.

    PubMed

    Alon, Leeor; Deniz, Cem Murat; Carluccio, Giuseppe; Brown, Ryan; Sodickson, Daniel K; Collins, Christopher M

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetic field simulations are increasingly used to assure RF safety of patients during MRI exams. In practice, however, tissue property distribution of the patient being imaged is not known, but may be represented with a pre-existing model. Repeatedly, agreement in transmit magnetic (B1(+)) field distributions between two geometries has been used to suggest agreement in heating distributions. Here we examine relative effects of anatomical differences on B1(+) distribution, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and temperature change (ΔT). Numerical simulations were performed for a single surface coil positioned adjacent a homogeneous phantom and bovine phantom, each with slight geometric variations, and adjacent two different human body models. Experimental demonstration was performed on a bovine phantom using MR thermometry and B1(+) mapping. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that B1(+) distributions in different samples can be well correlated, while notable difference in maximum SAR and ΔT occur. This work illustrates challenges associated with utilizing simulations or experiments for RF safety assurance purposes. Reliance on B1(+) distributions alone for validation of simulations and/or experiments with a sample or subject for assurance of safety in another should be performed with caution.

  18. Effects of electromagnetic fields on mental health of the staff employed in gas power plants, Shiraz, 2009.

    PubMed

    Zamanian, Z; Gharepoor, S; Dehghani, M

    2010-10-01

    The aims of this study are to assess, in a power station in Shiraz, the effects of noise and electromagnetic field on psychological mood. By the great industrial and technological improvements human beings have been exposed to different types of physical and chemical factors. Some of these factors such as electromagnetism are known as the constant components of the environment. According to the studies carried out in one of the power stations in Shiraz, psychological disorders caused by jobs are among the most important problems of the workers. This study is performed to determine the presence or absence of these psychological disorders. This cross-sectional study is performed on these groups : (1) The gas power plant staff who were in contact with electromagnetic field and nose, (2) employees who were only exposed to noise and (3) a group of staff employed in the administrative parts of the Telecommunication companies who did not have any history of being exposed to electromagnetic field and sounds. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is used in this study to recognize psychosomatic disorders. Measurements indicate that range of electromagnetic field varies from 0.087 micro Tesla in the phone homes to 30 micro Tesla in power stations. The results of this study has shown that a significant number of staff which were exposed to electromagnetic fields and noise (78.2%) were suspected to have a kind of mental disorders. The results obtained from this study which shows the prevalence of mental disorders among the suspected case is higher than the results of Noorbala and colleagues study in 2006.

  19. Effects of prenatal 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposures on the histology of rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Ulubay, Mahmut; Yahyazadeh, Ahmad; Deniz, Ö Gülsüm; Kıvrak, Elfide Gizem; Altunkaynak, B Zuhal; Erdem, Gülünar; Kaplan, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    To research the harmful effects of prenatal exposure of 900 megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) on kidneys of four-week-old male rats and to determine protective effects of melatonin (MEL) and omega-3 (ω-3). Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were randomly placed into seven groups as follows: Control (Cont), Sham, MEL, ω-3, EMF, EMF+ MEL and EMF+ω-3. After mating, three groups (EMF, EMF+ MEL, EMF+ ω-3) were exposed to an EMF. In the fourth week subsequent to parturition, six rats were randomly chosen from each group. Mean volume of kidneys and renal cortices, the total number of glomeruli and basic histological structure of kidney were evaluated by stereological and light microscopical methods, respectively. Stereological results determined the mean volume of the kidneys and cortices were significantly increased in EMF-exposed groups compared to the Cont group. However, EMF-unexposed groups were not significantly modified compared to the Cont group. Additionally, the total number of glomeruli was significantly higher in EMF-unexposed groups compared to the Cont group. Alternatively, the number of glomeruli in EMF-exposed groups was decreased compared to the Cont group. Prenatal exposure of rat kidneys to 900 MHz EMF resulted in increased total kidney volume and decreased the numbers of glomeruli. Moreover, MEL and ω-3 prevented adverse effects of EMF on the kidneys.

  20. Effect of Bluetooth headset and mobile phone electromagnetic fields on the human auditory nerve.

    PubMed

    Mandalà, Marco; Colletti, Vittorio; Sacchetto, Luca; Manganotti, Paolo; Ramat, Stefano; Marcocci, Alessandro; Colletti, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that long-term mobile phone use increases the incidence of astrocytoma, glioma and acoustic neuroma has been investigated in several studies. Recently, our group showed that direct exposure (in a surgical setting) to cell phone electromagnetic fields (EMFs) induces deterioration of auditory evoked cochlear nerve compound action potential (CNAP) in humans. To verify whether the use of Bluetooth devices reduces these effects, we conducted the present study with the same experimental protocol. Randomized trial. Twelve patients underwent retrosigmoid vestibular neurectomy to treat definite unilateral Ménière's disease while being monitored with acoustically evoked CNAPs to assess direct mobile phone exposure or alternatively the EMF effects of Bluetooth headsets. We found no short-term effects of Bluetooth EMFs on the auditory nervous structures, whereas direct mobile phone EMF exposure confirmed a significant decrease in CNAPs amplitude and an increase in latency in all subjects. The outcomes of the present study show that, contrary to the finding that the latency and amplitude of CNAPs are very sensitive to EMFs produced by the tested mobile phone, the EMFs produced by a common Bluetooth device do not induce any significant change in cochlear nerve activity. The conditions of exposure, therefore, differ from those of everyday life, in which various biological tissues may reduce the EMF affecting the cochlear nerve. Nevertheless, these novel findings may have important safety implications. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Effects of electromagnetic field frequencies on chondrocytes in 3D cell-printed composite constructs.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hee-Gyeong; Kang, Kyung Shin; Hong, Jung Min; Jang, Jinah; Park, Moon Nyeo; Jeong, Young Hun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-07-01

    In cartilage tissue engineering, electromagnetic field (EMF) therapy has been reported to have a modest effect on promoting cartilage regeneration. However, these studies were conducted using different frequencies of EMF to stimulate chondrocytes. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the effect of EMF frequency on cartilage formation. In addition to the stimulation, a scaffold is required to satisfy the characteristics of cartilage such as its hydrated and dense extracellular matrix, and a mechanical resilience to applied loads. Therefore, we 3D-printed a composite construct composed of a polymeric framework and a chondrocyte-laden hydrogel. Here, we observed frequency-dependent positive and negative effects on chondrogenesis using a 3D cell-printed cartilage tissue. We found that a frequency of 45 Hz promoted gene expression and secretion of extracellular matrix molecules of chondrocytes. In contrast, a frequency of 7.5 Hz suppressed chondrogenic differentiation in vitro. Additionally, the EMF-treated composite constructs prior to implantation showed consistent results with those of in vitro, suggesting that in vitro pre-treatment with different EMF frequencies provides different capabilities for the enhancement of cartilage formation in vivo. This correlation between EMF frequency and 3D-printed chondrocytes suggests the necessity for optimization of EMF parameters when this physical stimulus is applied to engineered cartilage. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1797-1804, 2016.

  2. Effects of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on plateau frostbite healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Mingke; Lou, Lin; Jiao, Lin; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Zhongming; Xu, Wenjuan; Geng, Xiliang; Song, Hongping

    2016-11-01

    Plateau frostbite (PF) treatments have remained a clinical challenge because this condition injures tissues in deep layers and affected tissues exhibit unique pathological characteristics. For instance, low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) can affect tissue restoration and penetrate tissues. Therefore, the effect of PEMF on PF healing should be investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-frequency PEMF on PF healing systematically. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and equally divided into three groups: normal control, partial thickness plateau frostbite (PTPF), and PTPF with low-frequency PEMF exposure (PTPF + PEMF). PTPF wounds were induced in the dorsum of the rats. The PTPF + PEMF group was exposed to low-frequency PEMF daily. During PF healing, wound microcirculation in each group was monitored through contrast ultrasonography. Wound appearance, histological observation, and wound tensile strength were also evaluated. Results showed that the rate of the microcirculation restoration of the PTPF + PEMF group was nearly 25% faster than that of the PTPF group, and wound appearance suggested that the healing of the PTPF group was slower than that of the PTPF + PEMF group. Histological observation revealed that PEMF accelerated the growth of different deep tissues, as confirmed by tensile strength examination. Low-frequency PEMF could penetrate PF tissues, promote their restoration, and provide a beneficial effect on PF healing. Therefore, this technique may be a potential alternative to treat PF. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  3. Neuroprotective Effect of Low Frequency-Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Urnukhsaikhan, Enerelt; Mishig-Ochir, Tsogbadrakh; Kim, Soo-Chan; Park, Jung-Keug; Seo, Young-Kwon

    2017-04-01

    Low frequency-pulsed electromagnetic fields (LF-PEMFs) affect many biological processes; however, the fundamental mechanisms responsible for these effects remain unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of LF-PEMFs on neuroprotection after ischemic stroke. C57B6 mice were exposed to LF-PEMF (F = 60 Hz, Bm = 10 mT) after photothrombotic occlusion. We measured the BDNF/TrkB/Akt signaling pathway, pro-apoptotic and pro-survival protein and gene expressions, and the expression of inflammatory mediators and performed behavioral tests in both LF-PEMF-treated and untreated ischemic stroke mice. Our results showed that LF-PEMF treatment promotes activation of the BDNF/TrkB/Akt signaling pathway. Subsequently, pro-survival proteins were significantly increased, while pro-apoptotic proteins and inflammatory mediators were decreased in ischemic stroke mice after LF-PEMF treatment. The results demonstrated that LF-PEMF exposure has a neuroprotective effect after ischemic stroke in mice during the recovery process.

  4. The effect of mobile phone electromagnetic fields on the alpha rhythm of human electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Croft, R J; Hamblin, D L; Spong, J; Wood, A W; McKenzie, R J; Stough, C

    2008-01-01

    Mobile phones (MP) emit low-level electromagnetic fields that have been reported to affect neural function in humans; however, demonstrations of such effects have not been conclusive. The purpose of the present study was to test one of the strongest findings in the literature; that of increased "alpha" power in response to MP-type radiation. Healthy participants (N = 120) were tested using a double-blind counterbalanced crossover design, with each receiving a 30-min Active and a 30-min Sham Exposure 1 week apart, while electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded. Resting alpha power (8-12 Hz) was then derived as a function of time, for periods both during and following exposure. Non-parametric analyses were employed as data could not be normalized. Previous reports of an overall alpha power enhancement during the MP exposure were confirmed (relative to Sham), with this effect larger at ipsilateral than contralateral sites over posterior regions. No overall change to alpha power was observed following exposure cessation; however, there was less alpha power contralateral to the exposure source during this period (relative to ipsilateral). Employing a strong methodology, the current findings support previous research that has reported an effect of MP exposure on EEG alpha power.

  5. The effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on pregnancy and fetal growth, and development.

    PubMed

    Mahram, Manoochehr; Ghazavi, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and its effects at different frequencies on living beings has been investigated for decades. However, there are fewer studies that have been conducted on humans, thus this study aims to determine the effect of extremely low frequency (ELF) -EMFs on pregnancy, fetal growth and development in humans. In this epidemiologic analytical cohort study, cases included pregnant women and their newborns. There were 222 women exposed to ELF-EMFs from high voltage electricity towers and cables during pregnancy and 158 women who had no exposure during pregnancy. Data that included pregnancy duration, neonatal birth weight, length, head circumference, gender and congenital malformations were collected through direct questions, measurements and referral to the registered data of related hospital or health center documents. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS-16. P < 0.05 was considered significant. No significant difference was found in pregnancy duration and preterm labor, neonatal birth weight, length, head circumference and congenital malformations in the two studied groups. Although the results of this study have shown no significant effects of ELF-EMFs on human pregnancy, fetal growth and development, taking precautionary measures to reduce exposure to EMFs by pregnant women seems logical. Conducting similar studies is strongly recommended.

  6. Calculation of the surface effect in the ferromagnetic conductor with the harmonic electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosov, G. V.; Kuleshova, E. O.; Vassilyeva, Yu Z.; Elizarov, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the paper have obtained formulas for analytical calculation of the constants with the harmonic electromagnetic field, which characterize the surface layer (a skin layer) of the ferromagnetic conductors in case of heating and nonlinear magnetic properties, which can be used for practical calculation of the electromagnetic screens, rotors of the electrical machines and inductive heating installations. A nonlinear dependence of the magnetic induction on the magnetic tension of the ferromagnetic conductor is replaced by one or two linear sections. It is considered that the skin layer of the conductor has constant quantities of the specific conductivity and averaged temperature. Linear electrodynamics equations are solved for the conductive half-space. Parameters of the ferromagnetic conductor's surface layer are calculated: magnetic permeability, the thickness of the skin layer and its averaged temperature, exposure time of the electromagnetic field on the conductor with the established maximum temperature on the conductor's surface, pressure of the field on the conductor and its resistance, inductivity of the internal magnetic field in the conductor, the thermal energy capacity. The methods credibility is confirmed with the concurrence of the resistance and inductiviry of the ferromagnetic conductor with analogous quantities from other methods.

  7. Comment on ``Constraints on biological effects of weak extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, Joseph L.

    1992-08-01

    In a recent paper, Adair [Phys. Rev. A 43, 1039 (1991)] concludes that weak extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields cannot affect biology on the cell level. However, Adair's assertion that few cells of higher organisms contain magnetite (Fe3O4) and his blanket denial of reproducible ELF effects on animals are both wrong. Large numbers of single-domain magnetite particles are present in a variety of animal tissues, including up to a hundred million per gram in human brain tissues, organized in clusters of tens to hundreds of thousand per gram. This is far more than a ``few cells.'' Similarly, a series of reproducible behavioral experiments on honeybees, Apis mellifera, have shown that they are capable of responding to weak ELF magnetic fields that are well within the bounds of Adair's criteria. A biologically plausible model of the interaction of single-domain magnetosomes with a mechanically activated transmembrane ion channel shows that ELF fields on the order of 0.1 to 1 mT are capable of perturbing the open-closed state by an energy of kT. As up to several hundred thousand such structures could fit within a eukaryotic cell, and the noise should go as the square root of the number of independent channels, much smaller ELF sensitivities at the cellular level are possible. Hence, the credibility of weak ELF magnetic effects on living systems must stand or fall mainly on the merits and reproducibility of the biological or epidemiological experiments that suggest them, rather than on dogma about physical implausibility.

  8. Effects of a continuous electromagnetic field on wound healing in human airway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun Jun; Gimm, Yoon-Myoung; Hong, Sung Pyo; Jeon, Eun-ju; Park, Eun Young

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 1.8-GHz continuous electromagnetic field (EMF) on wound healing in a human airway cell-culture system. In vitro study using a cell line. Immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (a BEAS-2B cell line) were exposed to a 1.8-GHz EMF (specific absorption rate = 1.0 W/kg). We evaluated the effect of EMF on the cells using an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assay, by cell counting, and by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of cell cycle dynamics and apoptosis. Inhibition of migration was tested by a wound-healing assay on scratched cell cultures. Cell migration in the wound-healing assay was decreased by the EMF treatment compared with controls. The MTT assay and cell counting consistently showed that the EMF used was not cytotoxic and did not inhibit cell proliferation. FACS analysis showed no alterations in the cell-cycle phase distribution or in apoptosis after EMF exposure. EMF can inhibit wound healing in vitro by inhibiting cell migration. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Electromagnetic field emitted by 902 MHz mobile phones shows no effects on children's cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Haarala, Christian; Bergman, Monica; Laine, Matti; Revonsuo, Antti; Koivisto, Mika; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential effects of a standard 902 MHz global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone on 10-14 years old children's cognitive function. A total of 32 children (16 boys, 16 girls) participated with their own and parental consent. The subjects were 10-14 years old (mean 12.1 years, SD 1.1). They performed a battery of cognitive tests twice in a counter-balanced order: once while exposed to an active mobile phone and once during exposure to an inactive phone. The tests were selected from those we used earlier with adults. The statistical analyses showed no significant differences between the mobile phone off and on conditions in reaction times and accuracy over all tests or in any single test. It was concluded that a standard mobile phone has no effect on children's cognitive function as measured by response speed and accuracy. The present results challenge some earlier findings suggesting that the electromagnetic field (EMF) created by an active mobile phone would facilitate cognitive functioning. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  10. An Investigation on the Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Human Electrocardiograms (ECGs)

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qiang; Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Yan, Jiayong; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    For this investigation, we studied the effects of extremely low frequency pulse electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMF) on the human cardiac signal. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 22 healthy volunteers before and after a short duration of ELF-PEMF exposure were recorded. The experiment was conducted under single-blind conditions. The root mean square (RMS) value of the recorded data was considered as comparison criteria. We also measured and analysed four important ECG time intervals before and after ELF-PEMF exposure. Results revealed that the RMS value of the ECG recordings from 18 participants (81.8% of the total participants) increased with a mean value of 3.72%. The increase in ECG voltage levels was then verified by a second experimental protocol with a control exposure. In addition to this, we used hyperbolic T-distributions (HTD) in the analysis of ECG signals to verify the change in the RR interval. It was found that there were small shifts in the frequency-domain signal before and after EMF exposure. This shift has an influence on all frequency components of the ECG signals, as all spectrums were shifted. It is shown from this investigation that a short time exposure to ELF-PEMF can affect the properties of ECG signals. Further study is needed to consolidate this finding and discover more on the biological effects of ELF-PEMF on human physiological processes. PMID:27886102

  11. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Osteogenesis of Human Alveolar Bone-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, KiTaek; Hexiu, Jin; Kim, Jangho; Seonwoo, Hoon; Cho, Woo Jae; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Chung, Jong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMFs) on the proliferation and differentiation of human alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hABMSCs). Osteogenesis is a complex series of events involving the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to generate new bone. In this study, we examined not merely the effect of ELF-PEMFs on cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralization of the extracellular matrix but vinculin, vimentin, and calmodulin (CaM) expressions in hABMSCs during osteogenic differentiation. Exposure of hABMSCs to ELF-PEMFs increased proliferation by 15% compared to untreated cells at day 5. In addition, exposure to ELF-PEMFs significantly increased ALP expression during the early stages of osteogenesis and substantially enhanced mineralization near the midpoint of osteogenesis within 2 weeks. ELF-PEMFs also increased vinculin, vimentin, and CaM expressions, compared to control. In particular, CaM indicated that ELF-PEMFs significantly altered the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The results indicated that ELF-PEMFs could enhance early cell proliferation in hABMSCs-mediated osteogenesis and accelerate the osteogenesis. PMID:23862141

  12. Effect of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phones on the latency of evoked electrodermal activity.

    PubMed

    Esen, F; Esen, H

    2006-03-01

    The widespread use of cellular phones raises the question of their possible adverse biological effects, especially on the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, the authors examined the effect of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phones (CPEMFs) on the evoked neuronal activity of CNS relating to generation and representation of electrodermal activity (EDA), an index of sympathetic nervous system activity. EDA (skin resistance response; SRR) latency was lengthened approximately 200 ms with CPEMFs exposure irrespective of the head site next to mobile phone used. Hemispheric asymmetry of EDA-2 pathway, which is represented by shorter SRR latency in the right hand of the right hand responders, was also distorted with CPEMFs. Because the CNS regions including EDA-2 are also involved in tasks of motor timing and time estimation, delayed response in this neuronal network due to CPEMFs exposure may increase the response time of mobile phone users. Therefore, the findings point to the potential risks of mobile phones on the function of CNS and consequently, possible increase in the risk of phone-related driving hazards.

  13. The effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on rat testicular function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-June; Jin, Yeung Bae; Kim, Tae-Hong; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Choi, Hyung-Do; Lee, Jae-Seon; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2012-05-01

    Wireless mobile phones and other telecommunication devices are used extensively in daily life. We therefore examined the effects of combined exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on rat testicular function, specifically with respect to sensitive processes such as spermatogenesis. Male rats were exposed to single code division multiple access (CDMA) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) RF signals for 12 weeks. The RF exposure schedule comprised 45 min/day, 5 days/week for a total of 12 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA and WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg each or 4.0 W/kg in total. We then investigated the correlates of testicular function such as sperm count in the cauda epididymis, testosterone concentration in the blood serum, malondialdehyde concentrations in the testes and epididymis, frequency of spermatogenesis stages, and appearance of apoptotic cells in the testes. We also immunoblotted for p53, bcl2, GADD45, cyclin G, and HSP70 in the testes of sham- and combined RF-exposed animals. Based on the results, we concluded that simultaneous exposure to CDMA and WCDMA RF-EMFs at 4.0 W/kg SAR did not have any observable adverse effects on rat spermatogenesis.

  14. Assessment of the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    OZLEM-CALISKAN, Sercin; ERTABAKLAR, Hatice; BILGIN, Mehmet Dincer; ERTUG, Sema

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on Toxoplasma gondii have not been explained yet. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effects of ELF-EMF on growth, survival time and viability of Toxoplasma gondii. In addition, the life span of Toxoplasma infected animals was investigated. Methods: Sixty adult male BALB/c mice were used for in vivo and in vivo experiments in Laboratory of Biopyhsics and Parasitology of Medical Faculty, Adnan Menderes University, Turkey, in 2010. During in vivo experiments, pulsed and continuous EMFs were applied for 5 d to the infected mice. During in vivo experiments, pulsed and continuous EMF was applied to the tachyzoites within peritoneal exudates for 8 h/d at 4 °C and the tachyzoites were then injected to mice. In both experiments, the number of T. gondii in peritoneal exudates was counted and T. gondii protein bands patterns were investigated with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western Blotting. Results: Pulsed and continuous EMF exposure reduced the number of T. gondii tachyzoites in comparison to controls. However, no statistically significant differences were observed at the patterns of protein bands among the samples. Conclusion: EMF exposure induces a decrease in the number of T. gondii. Further studies are required to understand the mechanism of EMF on intracellular parasites. PMID:28096849

  15. Effective area of energy interactions between the plasma of a deeply subcritical microwave discharge and its initiating electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, K. V.; Grachev, L. P.; Esakov, I. I.; Ravaev, A. A.; Severinov, L. G.

    2017-05-01

    Experiments on initiating electrical air discharge in an airtight radiotransparent volume have been described. The discharge is initiated by a quasi-optical linearly polarized microwave beam with a deeply subcritical field by means of an electromagnetic vibrator mounted above a screen. The results make it possible to calculate the effective area of energy interaction between the plasma of the discharge and its initiating microwave field. It has been shown that this area considerably exceeds the cross-sectional area of the discharge.

  16. The synergic effect of glycyrrhizic acid and low frequency electromagnetic field on angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane

    PubMed Central

    Majidian Eydgahi, Shokat; Baharara, Javad; Zafar Balanezhad, Saeideh; Asadi Samani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Much attention is paid to angiogenesis due to its mutual role in health and disease. Therefore, the effect of various chemical and physical agents on inhibition of this process has been recently studied. This study was conducted to investigate the synergic effect of glycyrrhizic acid and electromagnetic field on angiogenesis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 44 Ross fertilized chicken eggs were randomly divided into four groups, one control and three experimental. Control group was kept with dimethyl sulfoxide on the eighth day, experimental group 1 treated with 200 gauss, 50 Hz electromagnetic field on the 10th day, experimental group 2 treated with 1 mg/ml glycyrrhizic acid on the eighth day, and experimental group 3 simultaneously treated with glycyrrhizic acid on the eighth day and electromagnetic field on the 10th day. On the 12th day, the images of chorioallantoic membrane samples were prepared using photostreomicroscope and the number and length of vessels were measured. Results: The mean number of vessels in the experimental groups 1 and 3 (29.31±3.60 and 27.43±4.61, respectively) was not significantly different from that in the control group (29.11±4.76) (p>0.05). The length of vessels in the experimental groups 1 and 3 (52.35±3.25 mm and 54.94±4.70 mm, respectively) decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with the control group (61.79±6.46 mm). In experimental group 2, both length and number of vessels (54.53±5.85 mm and 23.96±3.94) decreased significantly compared with the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Electromagnetic field and glycyrrhizic acid separately led to inhibition of angiogenesis. However, use of electromagnetic field accompanied with glycyrrhizic acid not only did not increase but also decreased the inhibitory effect. PMID:26101751

  17. The synergic effect of glycyrrhizic acid and low frequency electromagnetic field on angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Majidian Eydgahi, Shokat; Baharara, Javad; Zafar Balanezhad, Saeideh; Asadi Samani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Much attention is paid to angiogenesis due to its mutual role in health and disease. Therefore, the effect of various chemical and physical agents on inhibition of this process has been recently studied. This study was conducted to investigate the synergic effect of glycyrrhizic acid and electromagnetic field on angiogenesis. In this experimental study, 44 Ross fertilized chicken eggs were randomly divided into four groups, one control and three experimental. Control group was kept with dimethyl sulfoxide on the eighth day, experimental group 1 treated with 200 gauss, 50 Hz electromagnetic field on the 10th day, experimental group 2 treated with 1 mg/ml glycyrrhizic acid on the eighth day, and experimental group 3 simultaneously treated with glycyrrhizic acid on the eighth day and electromagnetic field on the 10th day. On the 12th day, the images of chorioallantoic membrane samples were prepared using photostreomicroscope and the number and length of vessels were measured. The mean number of vessels in the experimental groups 1 and 3 (29.31±3.60 and 27.43±4.61, respectively) was not significantly different from that in the control group (29.11±4.76) (p>0.05). The length of vessels in the experimental groups 1 and 3 (52.35±3.25 mm and 54.94±4.70 mm, respectively) decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with the control group (61.79±6.46 mm). In experimental group 2, both length and number of vessels (54.53±5.85 mm and 23.96±3.94) decreased significantly compared with the control group (p<0.05). Electromagnetic field and glycyrrhizic acid separately led to inhibition of angiogenesis. However, use of electromagnetic field accompanied with glycyrrhizic acid not only did not increase but also decreased the inhibitory effect.

  18. Interactions between Electromagnetic Fields.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-10

    f the.’ le.ctin mliD-cnic effect-veness on ly-.7-hocytes; rer-.urbetisn of the hormone induced c,’l?7 Irouction in estee - blaPsts. It will ble shown...either a conligurational effect (,itl t I Icochime. na LOP ti2 tflu of exposure Subsequent data collection or a self -limiting shift in the (inset of

  19. Casimir effect of the electromagnetic field in D-dimensional spherically symmetric cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, L. P.

    2010-10-15

    Eigenmodes of the electromagnetic field with perfectly conducting or infinitely permeable conditions on the boundary of a D-dimensional spherically symmetric cavity is derived explicitly. It is shown that there are (D-2) polarizations for TE modes and one polarization for TM modes, giving rise to a total of (D-1) polarizations. In case of a D-dimensional ball, the eigenfrequencies of the electromagnetic field with perfectly conducting boundary condition coincides with the eigenfrequencies of gauge 1-forms with relative boundary condition; whereas the eigenfrequencies of the electromagnetic field with infinitely permeable boundary condition coincides with the eigenfrequencies of gauge 1-forms with absolute boundary condition. Casimir energies of single and concentric spherical shells in D-dimensions are computed. The Casimir energy of concentric spherical shells can be written as a sum of the single spherical shell contributions and an interacting term, and the latter is free of divergence. The interacting term always gives rise to an attractive force between the two spherical shells. Its leading term is the Casimir force acting between two parallel plates of the same area, as expected by proximity force approximation.

  20. Systematic review and meta-analysis of psychomotor effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Elia; Ferrara, Michele; Presaghi, Fabio; De Gennaro, Luigi; Gennaro, Luigi De; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    Over the past 10 years there has been increasing concern about the possible behavioural effects of mobile phone use. This systematic review and meta-analysis focuses on studies published since 1999 on the human cognitive and performance effects of mobile phone-related electromagnetic fields (EMF). PubMed, Biomed, Medline, Biological Sciences, PsychInfo, PsycARTICLES, Environmental Sciences and Pollution Management, Neurosciences Abstracts and Web of Science professional databases were searched and 24 studies selected for meta-analysis. Each study had to have at least one psychomotor measurement result as a main outcome. Data were analysed using standardised mean difference (SMD) as the effect size measure. Results Only three tasks (2-back, 3-back and simple reaction time (SRT)) displayed significant heterogeneity, but after studies with extreme SMD were excluded using sensitivity analysis, the statistical significance disappeared (χ(2)(7)=1.63, p=0.20; χ(2)(6)=1.00, p=0.32; χ(2)(10)=14.04, p=0.17, respectively). Following sensitivity analysis, the effect of sponsorship and publication bias were assessed. Meta-regression indicated a significant effect (b1/40.12, p<0.05) only for the 2-back task with mixed funding (industry and public/charity). Funnel plot inspection revealed a significant publication bias only for two cognitive tasks: SRT (Begg's rank correlation r=0.443; Egger's test b=-0.652) and the subtraction task (Egger's test b=-0.687). Mobile phone-like EMF do not seem to induce cognitive and psychomotor effects. Nonetheless, the existence of sponsorship and publication biases should encourage WHO intervention to develop official research standards and guidelines. In addition, future research should address critical and neglected issues such as investigation of repeated, intensive and chronic exposures, especially in highly sensitive populations such as children.

  1. Republished review: systematic review and meta-analysis of psychomotor effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Elia; Ferrara, Michele; Presaghi, Fabio; De Gennaro, Luigi; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVES Over the past 10 years there has been increasing concern about the possible behavioural effects of mobile phone use. This systematic review and meta-analysis focuses on studies published since 1999 on the human cognitive and performance effects of mobile phone-related electromagnetic fields (EMF). METHODS PubMed, Biomed, Medline, Biological Sciences, PsychInfo, PsycARTICLES, Environmental Sciences and Pollution Management, Neurosciences Abstracts and Web of Science professional databases were searched and 24 studies selected for meta-analysis. Each study had to have at least one psychomotor measurement result as a main outcome. Data were analysed using standardised mean difference (SMD) as the effect size measure. RESULTS Only three tasks (2-back, 3-back and simple reaction time (SRT)) displayed significant heterogeneity, but after studies with extreme SMD were excluded using sensitivity analysis, the statistical significance disappeared (χ(2)(7)=1.63, p=0.20; χ(2)(6)=1.00, p=0.32; χ(2)(10)=14.04, p=0.17, respectively). Following sensitivity analysis, the effect of sponsorship and publication bias were assessed. Meta-regression indicated a significant effect (b1/40.12, p<0.05) only for the 2-back task with mixed funding (industry and public/charity). Funnel plot inspection revealed a significant publication bias only for two cognitive tasks: SRT (Begg's rank correlation r=0.443; Egger's test b=-0.652) and the subtraction task (Egger's test b=-0.687). CONCLUSIONS Mobile phone-like EMF do not seem to induce cognitive and psychomotor effects. Nonetheless, the existence of sponsorship and publication biases should encourage WHO intervention to develop official research standards and guidelines. In addition, future research should address critical and neglected issues such as investigation of repeated, intensive and chronic exposures, especially in highly sensitive populations such as children.

  2. Effects of electromagnetic fields on serum lipids in workers of a power plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaopin; Wang, Lijuan; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Ding, Zheyuan; Liu, Hui; Jin, Wen; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Fei, Ying; Chen, Guangdi; Xu, Zhengping; Yu, Yunxian

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure on levels of serum lipids in workers of an electric power plant. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an electric power plant in Zhejiang province, China, from August to September 2011. All participants were divided into two groups with high occupational EMF exposure and low occupational EMF exposure. The occupational EMF exposure included radiofrequency EMF and extremely low-frequency EMF. Occupational EMF exposure was associated with an increased level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c; β = 0.17 mmol/L, P = 0.022). High EMF exposure group with longer employment duration, longer daily EMF exposure duration, and more mobile phone or electric fee per month had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL-c, or triglyceride than the corresponding reference group. However, significantly decreased level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was only observed in high EMF exposure group with more mobile phone fee per month. Similar results were also found in 544 participants with available data of serum lipids in 2010. The findings showed that chronic EMF exposure was associated with the change of serum lipid levels. EMF exposure might modulate the process of lipid metabolism.

  3. The effect of a high frequency electromagnetic field in the microwave range on red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, The Hong Phong; Pham, Vy T H; Baulin, Vladimir; Croft, Rodney J; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2017-09-07

    The effect of red blood cells (RBC) exposed to an 18 GHz electromagnetic field (EMF) was studied. The results of this study demonstrated for the first time that exposure of RBCs to 18 GHz EMF has the capacity to induce nanospheres uptake in RBCs. The uptake of nanospheres (loading efficiency 96% and 46% for 23.5 and 46.3 nm nanospheres respectively), their presence and locality were confirmed using three independent techniques, namely scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It appeared that 23.5 nm nanospheres were translocated through the membrane into the cytosol, while the 46.3 nm-nanospheres were mostly translocated through the phospholipid-cholesterol bilayer, with only some of these nanospheres passing the 2D cytoskeleton network. The nanospheres uptake increased by up to 12% with increasing temperature from 33 to 37 °C. The TEM analysis revealed that the nanospheres were engulfed by the cell membrane itself, and then translocated into the cytosol. It is believed that EMF-induced rotating water dipoles caused disturbance of the membrane, initiating its deformation and result in an enhanced degree of membrane trafficking via a quasi-exocytosis process.

  4. Novel protective effects of pulsed electromagnetic field ischemia/reperfusion injury rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fenfen; Li, Wenwen; Li, Xinghui; Tran, Ba Hieu; Suguro, Rinkiko; Guan, Ruijuan; Hou, Cuilan; Wang, Huijuan; Zhang, Aijie; Zhu, Yichun; Zhu, YiZhun

    2016-12-01

    Extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has shown the ability to regenerate tissue by promoting cell proliferation. In the present study, we investigated for the first time whether PEMF treatment could improve the myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and uncovered its underlying mechanisms.In our study, we demonstrated for the first time that extracorporeal PEMF has a novel effect on myocardial I/R injury. The number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were increased in PEMF treating rats. The in vivo results showed that per-treatment of PEMF could significantly improve the cardiac function in I/R injury group. In addition, PEMF treatment also reduced the apoptosis of myocardial cells by up-regulating the expression of anti-apoptosis protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and down-regulating the expression of pro-apoptosis protein (Bax). In vitro, the results showed that PEMF treatment could significantly reduce the apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in primary neonatal rat cardiac ventricular myocytes (NRCMs) induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). In particular, PEMF increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which might be closely related to attenuated cell apoptosis by increasing the releasing of nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, our data indicated that PEMF could be a potential candidate for I/R injury. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Novel protective effects of pulsed electromagnetic field ischemia/reperfusion injury rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fenfen; Li, Wenwen; Li, Xinghui; Tran, Ba Hieu; Suguro, Rinkiko; Guan, Ruijuan; Hou, Cuilan; Wang, Huijuan; Zhang, Aijie; Zhu, Yichun; Zhu, YiZhun

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has shown the ability to regenerate tissue by promoting cell proliferation. In the present study, we investigated for the first time whether PEMF treatment could improve the myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and uncovered its underlying mechanisms. In our study, we demonstrated for the first time that extracorporeal PEMF has a novel effect on myocardial I/R injury. The number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were increased in PEMF treating rats. The in vivo results showed that per-treatment of PEMF could significantly improve the cardiac function in I/R injury group. In addition, PEMF treatment also reduced the apoptosis of myocardial cells by up-regulating the expression of anti-apoptosis protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and down-regulating the expression of pro-apoptosis protein (Bax). In vitro, the results showed that PEMF treatment could significantly reduce the apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in primary neonatal rat cardiac ventricular myocytes (NRCMs) induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). In particular, PEMF increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which might be closely related to attenuated cell apoptosis by increasing the releasing of nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, our data indicated that PEMF could be a potential candidate for I/R injury. PMID:27780890

  6. Effects of electromagnetic fields on photophasic circulating melatonin levels in American kestrels.

    PubMed Central

    Fernie, K J; Bird, D M; Petitclerc, D

    1999-01-01

    Birds reproduce within electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from transmission lines. Melatonin influences physiologic and behavioral processes that are critical to survival, and melatonin has been equivocally suppressed by EMFs in mammalian species. We examined whether EMFs affect photophasic plasma melatonin in reproducing adult and fledgling American kestrels (Falco sparverius), and whether melatonin was correlated with body mass to explain previously reported results. Captive kestrel pairs were bred under control or EMF conditions for one (short-term) or two (long-term) breeding seasons. EMF exposure had an overall effect on plasma melatonin in male kestrels, with plasma levels suppressed at 42 days and elevated at 70 days of EMF exposure. The similarity in melatonin levels between EMF males at 42 days and controls at 70 days suggests a seasonal phase-shift of the melatonin profile caused by EMF exposure. Melatonin was also suppressed in long-term fledglings, but not in short-term fledglings or adult females. Melatonin levels in adult males were higher than in adult females, possibly explaining the sexually dimorphic response to EMFs. Melatonin and body mass were not associated in American kestrels. It is likely that the results are relevant to wild raptors nesting within EMFs. Images Figure 1 PMID:10544158

  7. Electromagnetic currents and magnetic moments in chiral effective field theory ({chi}EFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Pastore, S.; Girlanda, L.; Schiavilla, R.; Viviani, M.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2009-09-15

    A two-nucleon potential and consistent electromagnetic currents are derived in chiral effective field theory ({chi}EFT) at, respectively, Q{sup 2} (or N{sup 2}LO) and eQ (or N{sup 3}LO), where Q generically denotes the low-momentum scale and e is the electric charge. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A simple expression is derived for the magnetic dipole (M1) operator associated with pion loops, consisting of two terms, one of which is determined, uniquely, by the isospin-dependent part of the two-pion-exchange potential. This decomposition is also carried out for the M1 operator arising from contact currents, in which the unique term is determined by the contact potential. Finally, the low-energy constants entering the N{sup 2}LO potential are fixed by fits to the np S- and P-wave phase shifts up to 100 MeV laboratory energies.

  8. Electromagnetic fields in bone repair and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Kenneth J.; Rubin, Clinton T.; Donahue, Henry J.

    1995-01-01

    The treatment of delayed union of bone fractures has served for the past 20 years as the principal testing ground for determining whether nonionizing electromagnetic fields can have any substantial, long-term effects in clinical medicine. Recent double-blinded clinical trials have confirmed the significance of the reported effects on bone healing and have led to the suggestion that electromagnetic fields may also be useful in the treatment of other orthopedic problems such as fresh fractures, stabilization of prosthetic implants, or even the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis. However, the design of appropriate treatment regimens for these new applications would be greatly facilitated if it were understood how the biological cells within bone tissue sense these low-frequency, and remarkably low level, electromagnetic fields. Here we address the engineering and physical science aspects of this problem. We review the characteristics of clinically used electromagnetic fields and discuss which components of these fields may actually be responsible for altering the activity of the bone cells. We then consider several physical mechanisms which have been proposed to explain how the cells within the bone or fracture tissue detect this field component.

  9. Elf (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological monitoring program. The effects of exposing the slime mold Physarum polycephalum to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, E.M.; Marron, M.T.; Greenebaum, B.

    1982-11-01

    Laboratory exposure of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum to weak electromagnetic fields results in a lengthened mitotic cycle and depressed oxygen consumption. This research program has been designed to ascertain if the same physiological effects are obtained when Physarum polycephalum is exposed to electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of the Wisconsin Test Facility at Clam Lake, Wisconsin.

  10. Therapeutic effects of whole-body devices applying pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF): a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hug, Kerstin; Röösli, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) delivered by whole-body mats are promoted in many countries for a wide range of therapeutic applications and for enhanced well-being. However, neither the therapeutic efficacy nor the potential health hazards caused by these mats have been systematically evaluated. We conducted a systematic review of trials investigating the therapeutic effects of low-frequency PEMF devices. We were interested in all health outcomes addressed so far in randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind trials. In total, 11 trials were identified. They were focused on osteoarthritis of the knee (3 trials) or the cervical spine (1), fibromyalgia (1), pain perception (2), skin ulcer healing (1), multiple sclerosis-related fatigue (2), or heart rate variability and well-being (1). The sample sizes of the trials ranged from 12 to 71 individuals. The observation period lasted 12 weeks at maximum, and the applied magnetic flux densities ranged from 3.4 to 200 µT. In some trials sporadic positive effects on health were observed. However, independent confirmation of such singular findings was lacking. We conclude that the scientific evidence for therapeutic effects of whole-body PEMF devices is insufficient. Acute adverse effects have not been reported. However, adverse effects occurring after long-term application have not been studied so far. In summary, the therapeutic use of low-frequency whole-body PEMF devices cannot be recommended without more scientific evidence from high-quality, double-blind trials. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Biologic effects of prolonged exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields in rats. 2: 50 Hz magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Margonato, V.; Cerretelli, P.; Nicolini, P.; Conti, R.; Zecca, L.; Veicsteinas, Z.

    1995-12-31

    To provide possible laboratory support to health risk evaluation associated with long-term, low-intensity magnetic field exposure, 256 male albino rats and an equal number of control animals (initial age 12 weeks) were exposed 22 h/day to a 50 Hz magnetic flux density of 5 {micro}T for 32 weeks (a total of about 5,000 h). Hematology was studied from blood samples before exposure to the field and at 12 week intervals. Morphology and histology of liver, heart, mesenteric lymph nodes, and testes as well as brain neurotransmitters were assessed at the end of the exposure period. In two identical sets of experiments, no significant differences in the investigated variables were found between exposed and sham-exposed animals. It is concluded that continuous exposure to a 50 Hz magnetic field of 5 {micro}T from week 12 to week 44, which makes up {approximately}70% of the life span of the rat before sacrifice, does not cause changes in growth rate, in the morphology and histology of liver, heart, mesenteric lymph nodes, testes, and bone marrow, in hematology and hematochemistry, or in the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin.

  12. Quantization of electromagnetic field and analysis of Purcell effect based on formalism of scattering matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliteevski, M. A.; Gubaydullin, A. R.; Ivanov, K. A.; Mazlin, V. A.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a rigorous self-consistent approach for the quantization of electromagnetic field in inhomogeneous structures. The approach is based on utilization of the scattering matrix of the system. Instead of the use of standard periodic Born-Karman boundary conditions, we use the quantization condition implying equating eigenvalues of the scattering matrix (S-matrix) of the system to unity (S-quantization). In the trivial case of uniform medium boundary condition for S-quantization is nothing but periodic boundary condition. S-quantization allows calculating modification of the spontaneous emission rate for arbitrary inhomogeneous structure and direction of the emitted radiation. S-quantization solves the long-standing problem coupled to normalization of the quasi-stationary electromagnetic modes. Examples of application of S-quantization for the calculation of spontaneous emission rate for the cases of Bragg reflector and microcavity are demonstrated.

  13. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field on intervertebral disc cell apoptosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Reihani Kermani, Hamed; Pourghazi, Mehdi; Mahani, Saeed Esmaeili

    2014-09-01

    Despite numerous studies on pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) application, its effects of PEMF on intervertebral disc (IVD) have not yet been investigated in vivo. Accordingly, the effects of PEMF upon IVD in rats were evaluated through molecular surveys. Rats were divided into six groups: Group I and II were exposed to low and high frequency of PEMF (LF and HF, respectively). Group III and IV underwent induced disc degeneration and were exposed to low and high frequency of PEMF (LF/IDD and HF/IDD, respectively). Group V underwent induced disc degeneration (IDD), and group VI was control. The values of caspase 3, Bax, Bcl-2 and β-actin band density, as cell apoptotic markers, were obtained from band densitometry. Our results showed that the value of cleaved caspase-3 of cells and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in IDD group increased significantly compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The value of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio decreased significantly in LF/IDD and HF/IDD groups compared to IDD group (p < 0.05). No significant increase was seen in the cell apoptotic markers in the groups just exposed to PEMF compared to the control group. There was also no significant decrease in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in HF/IDD and LF/IDD groups compared to the control group. These data suggest that PEMF attenuates degenerative processes in rat's intervertebral discs and has no effect on normal discs. Regulations of the expression of apoptotic proteins may be one of the mechanisms by which PEMF is effective in reduce disc degeneration.

  14. Effects of chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on energy balance in developing rats.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Amandine; Delanaud, Stéphane; Décima, Pauline; Thuroczy, Gyorgy; de Seze, René; Cerri, Matteo; Bach, Véronique; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Loos, Nathalie

    2013-05-01

    The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on the control of body energy balance in developing organisms have not been studied, despite the involvement of energy status in vital physiological functions. We examined the effects of chronic RF-EMF exposure (900 MHz, 1 V m(-1)) on the main functions involved in body energy homeostasis (feeding behaviour, sleep and thermoregulatory processes). Thirteen juvenile male Wistar rats were exposed to continuous RF-EMF for 5 weeks at 24 °C of air temperature (T a) and compared with 11 non-exposed animals. Hence, at the beginning of the 6th week of exposure, the functions were recorded at T a of 24 °C and then at 31 °C. We showed that the frequency of rapid eye movement sleep episodes was greater in the RF-EMF-exposed group, independently of T a (+42.1 % at 24 °C and +31.6 % at 31 °C). The other effects of RF-EMF exposure on several sleep parameters were dependent on T a. At 31 °C, RF-EMF-exposed animals had a significantly lower subcutaneous tail temperature (-1.21 °C) than controls at all sleep stages; this suggested peripheral vasoconstriction, which was confirmed in an experiment with the vasodilatator prazosin. Exposure to RF-EMF also increased daytime food intake (+0.22 g h(-1)). Most of the observed effects of RF-EMF exposure were dependent on T a. Exposure to RF-EMF appears to modify the functioning of vasomotor tone by acting peripherally through α-adrenoceptors. The elicited vasoconstriction may restrict body cooling, whereas energy intake increases. Our results show that RF-EMF exposure can induce energy-saving processes without strongly disturbing the overall sleep pattern.

  15. Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on electrocardiograms of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Meral, I; Tekintangac, Y; Demir, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by cellular phones (CPs) on electrocardiograms (ECGs) of guinea pigs. A total of 30 healthy guinea pigs weighing 500-800 g were used. After 1 week of adaptation period, animals were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n = 10) and EMF-exposed group (n = 20). Control guinea pigs were housed in a separate room without exposing them to EMFs of CPs. Animals in second group were exposed to 890-915 MHz EMF (217 Hz of pulse rate, 2 W of maximum peak power and 0.95 wt kg(-1) of specific absorption rate) for 12 h day(-1) (11 h 45 min stand-by and 15 min speaking mode) for 30 days. ECGs of guinea pigs in both the groups were recorded by a direct writing electrocardiograph at the beginning and 10th, 20th and 30th days of the experiment. All ECGs were standardized at 1 mV = 10 mm and with a chart speed of 50 mm sec(-1). Leads I, II, III, lead augmented vector right (aVR), lead augmented vector left (aVL) and lead augmented vector foot (aVF) were recorded. The durations and amplitudes of waves on the trace were measured in lead II. The data were expressed as mean with SEM. It was found that 12 h day(-1) EMF exposure for 30 days did not have any significant effects on ECG findings of guinea pigs. However, this issue needed to be further investigated in a variety of perspectives, such as longer duration of exposure to be able to elucidate the effects of mobile phone-induced EMFs on cardiovascular functions.

  16. Effect of intervention initiation timing of pulsed electromagnetic field on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Liao, Yuan; Zeng, Yahua; Xie, Haitao; Fu, Chengxiao; Li, Neng

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of timing of initiation of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy on bone mass, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties, and to investigate receptor activator of NF-kB (RANK) expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two equal batches of three groups each (10 rats in each group). The first batch comprised of sham-operated (Sham-0 group), ovariectomized (OVX-0 group), and ovariectomized plus treated with PEMF starting from the day of OVX (Early PEMF group). The second batch comprised of sham-operated (Sham-12 group), ovariectomized (OVX-12 group), and ovariectomized plus treated with PEMF starting 12 weeks after OVX (Late PEMF group). Rats (whole body) in the early and late PEMF groups were exposed to PEMF (3.8 mT peak, 8 Hz pulse burst repetition rate). After 12 weeks of PEMF therapy, Early PEMF prevented OVX-induced deterioration in bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in lumbar vertebral body and femur, and deterioration in bone microarchitecture in lumbar vertebral body and proximal tibia. Late PEMF intervention only inhibited deterioration of BMD, bone microarchitecture, and mechanical properties in lumbar vertebral body. Both early and late PEMF therapy suppressed RANK protein expression in OVX rats without a concomitant effect on RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that timing of initiation of PEMF therapy plays an important role in achieving optimal beneficial effects. The specific PEMF parameters may exert these favorable biological responses, at least partially, via inhibition of protein expression of RANK. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:456-465, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The effects of electromagnetic fields on the number of ovarian primordial follicles: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bakacak, Murat; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Attar, Rukset; Yıldırım, Özge Kizilkale; Yıldırım, Gazi; Bakacak, Zeyneb; Sayar, Hamide; Han, Agahan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electromagnetic field (EMF), generated close to the ovaries, on primordial follicles. A total of 16 rats were used in this study. The study group consisted of rats exposed to an EMF in the abdominal region for 15 min/d for 15 days. Both the study and control group were composed of eight rats. After the treatment period of 15 days, the ovaries of the rats were extracted, and sections of ovarian tissue were taken for histological evaluation. The independent samples t test was used to compare the two groups. In the study group, the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers were 34.00 ± 10.20 and 36.00 ± 10.53, respectively. The average total ovarian follicle number was 70.00 ± 19.03. In the control group, the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers were 78.50 ± 25.98 and 71.75 ± 29.66, respectively, and the average total ovarian follicle number was 150.25 ± 49.53. The comparisons of the means of the right and left ovarian follicle numbers and the means of the total ovarian follicle numbers between the study and control groups indicated that the study group had significantly fewer follicles (p < 0.001, p = 0.011, and p = 0.002, respectively). This study found a significant decrease in the number of ovarian follicles in rats exposed to an EMF. Further clinical studies are needed to reveal the effects of EMFs on ovarian reserve and infertility. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  18. Effects of electromagnetic fields on bone loss in hyperthyroidism rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoxu; Zhang, Yingchi; Fu, Tao; Liu, Yang; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Yong; Zhao, Dongming; Zhao, Wenchun; Song, Mingyu; Tang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hua

    2017-02-01

    Optimal therapeutics for hyperthyroidism-induced osteoporosis are still lacking. As a noninvasive treatment, electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been proven to be effective for treating osteoporosis in non-hyperthyroidism conditions. We herein systematically evaluated the reduced effects of EMF on osteoporosis in a hyperthyroidism rat model. With the use of Helmholtz coils and an EMF stimulator, 15 Hz/1 mT EMF was generated. Forty-eight 5-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four different groups: control, levothyroxine treated (L-T4), EMF exposure + levothyroxine (EMF + L-T4), and EMF exposure without levothyroxine administration (EMF). All rats were treated with L-T4 (100 mg/day) except those in control and EMF groups. After 12 weeks, the results obtained from bone mineral density analyses and bone mechanical measurements showed significant differences between L-T4 and EMF + L-T4 groups. Micro CT and bone histomorphometric analyses indicated that trabecular bone mass and architecture in distal femur and proximal tibia were augmented and restored partially in EMF + L-T4 group. In addition, bone thyroid hormone receptors (THR) expression of hyperthyroidism rats was attenuated in EMF + L-T4 group, compared to control group, which was not observed in L-T4 group. According to these results, we concluded that 15 Hz/1 mT EMF significantly inhibited bone loss and micro architecture deterioration in hyperthyroidism rats, which might occur due to reduced THR expression caused by EMF exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:137-150, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Assessment of potential effects of the electromagnetic fields of mobile phones on hearing

    PubMed Central

    Uloziene, Ingrida; Uloza, Virgilijus; Gradauskiene, Egle; Saferis, Viktoras

    2005-01-01

    Background Mobile phones have become indispensable as communication tools; however, to date there is only a limited knowledge about interaction between electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by mobile phones and auditory function. The aim of the study was to assess potential changes in hearing function as a consequence of exposure to low-intensity EMF's produced by mobile phones at frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz. Methods The within-subject study was performed on thirty volunteers (age 18–30 years) with normal hearing to assess possible acute effect of EMF. Participants attended two sessions: genuine and sham exposure of EMF. Hearing threshold levels (HTL) on pure tone audiometry (PTA) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE's) were recorded before and immediately after 10 min of genuine and/or sham exposure of mobile phone EMF. The administration of genuine or sham exposure was double blind and counterbalanced in order. Results Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in the mean HTLs of PTA and mean shifts of TEOAE's before and after genuine and/or sham mobile phone EMF 10 min exposure. The data collected showed that average TEOAE levels (averaged across a frequency range) changed less than 2.5 dB between pre- and post-, genuine and sham exposure. The greatest individual change was 10 dB, with a decrease in level from pre- to post- real exposure. Conclusion It could be concluded that a 10-min close exposure of EMFs emitted from a mobile phone had no immediate after-effect on measurements of HTL of PTA and TEOAEs in young human subjects and no measurable hearing deterioration was detected in our study. PMID:15840162

  20. Effects of electromagnetic fields on reelin and Dab1 expression in the developing cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Matin; Mashayekhi, Farhad; Firouzi, Fareheh; Ashori, Masoumeh; Mashayekhi, Hamidreza

    2014-08-01

    Many studies describe the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) including brain damages, neuronal migration and neurogenesis within the central nervous system. Neuronal cell produced in the neuroepithelium migrates along radial glial fibers into the cortical plate. Reelin, which is produced by Cajal-Retzius cells directs neuronal migration. It was shown that Disabled 1 (Dab1) functions downstream of reelin signal transduction pathway that directs the correct cytoarchitecture of the developing cortex. In this study, the EMF effects on total protein concentration (TPC), reelin and Dab1 expression in the developing cortex was studied. 30 pregnant Balb/c mice were separated into three groups: control (n = 10), EMF (n = 10) and SHAM groups (n = 10). The 15-day pregnant mice were placed inside the solenoid for a daily EMF exposure of 5 h for 3 consecutive days (15-17). The SHAM group was also located in the same coil with no exposure. Mice were sacrificed 24 h after the final exposure session. TPC, reelin and Dab1 expression were studied by Bio-Rad protein assay and western blot. No significant change in the TPC was seen in the EMF-treated cerebral cortex samples compared with those from the SHAM and control groups. It was also shown that the reelin and Dab1 expression increases in the EMF-treated cerebral cortex extracts as compared to controls and SHAM group. It is concluded that EMF may play important role in the neural cell migration by increasing reelin and Dab1 expression in the developing cortex.

  1. Effects on auditory function of chronic exposure to electromagnetic fields from mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Sanjeev; Varshney, Saurabh; Bist, Sampan Singh; Goel, Deepak; Mishra, Sarita; Jha, Vivek Kumar

    2016-08-01

    The widespread use of mobile phones has given rise to apprehension regarding the possible hazardous health effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on auditory function. We conducted a study to investigate the effects of long-term (>4 yr) exposure to EMFs emitted by mobile phones on auditory function. Our study population was made up of 40 healthy medical students-31 men and 9 women, aged 20 to 30 years (mean 22.7). Of this group, 31 subjects typically held their phone to the right ear and 9 to the left ear; the non-phone-using ear served as each subject's control ear. The phone-using subjects were also split into two groups of 20 based on the duration of their daily phone use (≤60 min vs. >60 min). All subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, impedance audiometry, and brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA), and comparisons were made between the phone-using ear and the control ear and between the shorter and longer duration of daily use. We found no statistically significant differences in high-frequency pure-tone average between the phone-using ears and the control ears (p = 0.69) or between the shorter- and longer-duration phone-using ears (p = 0.85). Moreover, statistical analysis of BERA findings revealed no significant differences between the phone-using ears and the control ears in terms of wave I-III, III-V, and I-V interpeak latencies (p = 0.59, 0.74 and 0.44, respectively). None of the subjects reported any subjective symptoms, such as headache, tinnitus, or sensations of burning or warmth behind, around, or on the phone-using ear. We conclude that the long-term exposure to EMFs from mobile phones does not affect auditory function.

  2. Photon Propagation in Slowly Varying Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbstein, F.

    2017-03-01

    Effective theory of soft photons in slowly varying electromagnetic background fields is studied at one-loop order in QED. This is of relevance for the study of all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in realistic electromagnetic background fields as provided by high-intensity lasers. The central result derived in this article is a new analytical expression for the photon polarization tensor in two linearly polarized counterpropagating pulsed Gaussian laser beams. Treating the peak field strengths of both laser beams as free parameters, this field configuration can be considered as interpolating between the limiting cases of a purely right- or left-moving laser beam (if one of the peak field strengths is set equal to zero) and the standing-wave type scenario with two counter-propagating beams of equal strength.

  3. Effects of electromagnetic field stimulation on cellular signal transduction mechanisms: Analyses of the effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields on calcium spiking in ROS 17/2.8 cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sisken, B.F.; Sisken, J.E.

    1997-12-01

    The general goals of this work were to determine whether resting levels of cellular second messengers, especially calcium, are affected by low-level electromagnetic fields and the mechanisms that could lead to such changes. The work performed was directed at (1) verifying the report of McLeod et al (1990) that low frequency sinusoidal EMF can alter basal calcium fluctuations in cultured ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells and (2) reproducing the findings of Luben et al (1982) that pulsed electromagnetic fields can affect PTH-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in osteoblasts. Initially a system was constructed so that cells could be exposed to sinusoidal electric fields using platinum electrodes. In this system, the electrodes were separated from the cells and culture medium by agar barriers. A series of experiments indicated that this system was subject to a significant, though little-known artifact in which a not well understood interaction between the electrodes and sodium ions in the medium or in plain salt solutions led to frequency and amplitude dependent emission of photons that are recorded by the detection system. They therefore designed and constructed an air gap reactor system that utilizes a ferromagnetic core to direct the magnetic flux generated by a sinusoidal coil. Studies on the effects of a 15 Hz pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on cyclic AMP metabolism were performed on ROS 17/2.8 and MC3T3 cells.

  4. Effects of electromagnetic field exposure on conduction and concentration of voltage gated calcium channels: A Brownian dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Tekieh, Tahereh; Sasanpour, Pezhman; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2016-09-01

    A three-dimensional Brownian Dynamics (BD) in combination with electrostatic calculations is employed to specifically study the effects of radiation of high frequency electromagnetic fields on the conduction and concentration profile of calcium ions inside the voltage-gated calcium channels. The electrostatic calculations are performed using COMSOL Multiphysics by considering dielectric interfaces effectively. The simulations are performed for different frequencies and intensities. The simulation results show the variations of conductance, average number of ions and the concentration profiles of ions inside the channels in response to high frequency radiation. The ionic current inside the channel increases in response to high frequency electromagnetic field radiation, and the concentration profiles show that the residency of ions in the channel decreases accordingly.

  5. The Effect of Electromagnetic Field Generated by a Mobile Phone on the Performance of a SPECT Scanner: A Quantitative Study.

    PubMed

    Pashazadeh, Ali Mahmoud; Dehkordi, Forough Jafarian; Tanha, Kaveh; Assadi, Majid

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the current attempt was quantitative investigation of the electromagnetic interference (EMI) of a mobile phone with the function of a SPECT gamma camera during data acquisition. We tested the effect of a mobile phone, in both ringing mode and standby mode, on one SPECT gamma camera during scanning a cylindrical phantom containing 5.4 mCi (99m)Tc. The experiment was performed for different distances of 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 25, and 30 cm between mobile phone and head of the scanner, and for different head angles of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 degrees. A RF-EMF meter measured strength of electromagnetic field throughout the study. Statistically significant decrease in count number was considered to be electromagnetic interference. There was significant reduction in the recorded counts during ringing of the mobile phone in all studied distances. For gamma camera, fixed at a distance, there was no uniform pattern of reduction of the counts at different angles between two operation modes of the mobile phone. A mobile phone, at close distance, can be a sensible source of electromagnetic field, disturbing the normal function of a gamma camera.

  6. The mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed electrical contacts including Thomson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, Stanislav; Sarsengeldin, Merey; Kassabek, Samat

    2016-08-01

    We represent mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed symmetric and asymmetric electrical contacts including Thomson effect, which are essentially nonlinear due to the dependence of thermal and electrical conductivities on temperature. Suggested solutions are based on the assumption of identity of equipotentials and isothermal surfaces, which agrees with experimental data and valid for both linear and nonlinear cases. Well known Kohlrausch temperature-potential relation is analytically justified.

  7. Effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human EEG: a brain mapping study.

    PubMed

    Kramarenko, Alexander V; Tan, Uner

    2003-07-01

    Cell phones emitting pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) may affect the human brain, but there are inconsistent results concerning their effects on electroencephalogram (EEG). We used a 16-channel telemetric electroencephalograph (ExpertTM), to record EEG changes during exposure of human skull to EMF emitted by a mobile phone. Spatial distribution of EMF was especially concentrated around the ipsilateral eye adjacent to the basal surface of the brain. Traditional EEG was full of noises during operation of a cellular phone. Using a telemetric electroencephalograph (ExpertTM) in awake subjects, all the noise was eliminated, and EEG showed interesting changes: after a period of 10-15 s there was no visible change, the spectrum median frequency increased in areas close to antenna; after 20-40 s, a slow-wave activity (2.5-6.0 Hz) appeared in the contralateral frontal and temporal areas. These slow waves lasting for about one second repeated every 15-20 s at the same recording electrodes. After turning off the mobile phone, slow-wave activity progressively disappeared; local changes such as increased median frequency decreased and disappeared after 15-20 min. We observed similar changes in children, but the slow-waves with higher amplitude appeared earlier in children (10-20 s) than adults, and their frequency was lower (1.0-2.5 Hz) with longer duration and shorter intervals. The results suggested that cellular phones may reversibly influence the human brain, inducing abnormal slow waves in EEG of awake persons.

  8. Effect of electromagnetic field on the slag resistance of MgO-C refractories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. C.; Wang, T. X.; Zhu, B. Q.

    2011-10-01

    The recent years have witnessed an unprecedented growth in the development and deployment of electromagnetic field(EMF) used in steel metallurgy. This paper investigates the effect of EMF on the slag resistance of MgO-C refractories. Using MgO-C refractories containing 14% carbon and the slag with a basicity(CaO/SiO2) of around 0.8, the experiments of melting slag resistance of MgO-C refractories were carried out in an induction furnace and a resistance furnace. The results show that in induction furnace having EMF, the refractory sample corroded by the slag has an apparent penetration layer. MgFe2O4 phase is formed at a low temperature by MgO dissolved in Fe2O3. The low melting phases are monticellite (CaMgSiO4, CMS) and forsterite (Mg2SiO4, MS). Under the condition of resistance furnace without EMF, scaling MgO dissolves into slag and reacts with Al2O3 to generate MgAl2O4 phase. The low melting phases are gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7, C2A2S) and akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O, C2MS2). As EMF exists at a high temperature, it could enhance the diffusion and penetration of Fe2+/3+ ions to form the MgFe2O4 phase. At the same time, some MgAl2O4 spinels exist. However, only MgAl2O4 phase can be generated without EMF.

  9. Effect of low frequency low energy pulsing electromagnetic fields on mice injected with cyclophosphamide

    SciTech Connect

    Cadossi, R.; Zucchini, P.; Emilia, G.; Franceschi, C.; Cossarizza, A.; Santantonio, M.; Mandolini, G.; Torelli, G. )

    1991-03-01

    C3H mice have been used to investigate the effect of a combination of cyclophosphamide (CY) and electromagnetic fields (PEMF). Mice were injected i.p. with a single dose of 200 mg/kg body weight of CY and then exposed to PEMF 24 h per day. In an initial series of experiments immediately after CY injection mice were exposed to PEMF until sacrifice. WBC counts in the peripheral blood demonstrated a quicker decline in WBC at days 1 and 2 in mice exposed to PEMF. Groups of mice were sacrificed at days 1, 4, 6, 8, and 10 after CY injection. In mice exposed to PEMF the spleen weight was less than in controls at days 6, 8, and 10. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that the labeling index of bone marrow smears did not significantly differ between controls and experimental mice exposed to PEMF, whereas the spleen labeling index proved to be higher among control mice versus mice exposed to PEMF at day 6, and higher among mice exposed to PEMF versus controls at day 8. In a second series of experiments mice were exposed to PEMF only over the 24 h following CY injection. We found that the spleens of mice exposed to PEMF weighed less than those of controls at days 6 and 8. The labeling index of bone marrow did evidence a slight decrease among mice exposed to PEMF at days 8 and 10 after CY injection versus control mice. The spleen labeling index proved to be lower in experimental mice exposed to PEMF than in controls at days 4, 6, and 8. Mice were then injected with CY, half were exposed to PEMF, and 24 h later bone marrow was recovered from both groups of animals. The same number of bone marrow cells was injected via the tail vein into recipient mice irradiated to 8.5 Gy.

  10. Cartilage repair with osteochondral autografts in sheep: effect of biophysical stimulation with pulsed electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Benazzo, Franco; Cadossi, Matteo; Cavani, Francesco; Fini, Milena; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Setti, Stefania; Cadossi, Ruggero; Giardino, Roberto

    2008-05-01

    The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on the integration of osteochondral autografts was evaluated in sheep. After osteochondral grafts were performed, the animals were treated with PEMFs for 6 h/day or sham-treated. Six animals were sacrificed at 1 month. Fourteen animals were treated for 2 months and sacrificed at 6 months. At 1 month, the osteogenic activity at the transplant-host subchondral bone interface was increased in PEMF-treated animals compared to controls. Articular cartilage was healthy in controls and stimulated animals. At 6 months, complete resorption was observed in four control grafts only. Cyst-like resorption areas were more frequent within the graft of sham-treated animals versus PEMF-treated. The average volume of the cysts was not significantly different between the two groups; nevertheless, analysis of the variance of the volumes demonstrated a significant difference. The histological score showed no significant differences between controls and stimulated animals, but the percentage of surface covered by fibrous tissue was higher in the control group than in the stimulated one. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration in the synovial fluid was significantly lower, and transforming growth factor-beta1 was significantly higher, in PEMF-treated animals compared to controls. One month after osteochondral graft implantation, we observed larger bone formation in PEMF-treated grafts which favors early graft stabilization. In the long term, PEMF exposure limited the bone resorption in subchondral bone; furthermore, the cytokine profile in the synovial fluid was indicative of a more favorable articular environment for the graft.

  11. Quantitative study of the effect of electromagnetic field on scale deposition on nanofiltration membranes via UTDR.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianxin; Liu, Jingxia; Yang, Tao; Xiao, Changfa

    2007-12-01

    Ultrasonic time-domain reflectometry (UTDR) as an in situ, non-invasive real-time technique has been successfully utilized to quantify membrane fouling and cleaning. This study describes an existing ultrasonic technique for quantitative study of the effect of magnetic fields on CaCO(3) scale deposition on the membrane surface during crossflow nanofiltration (NF). The fouling experiments were conducted with CaCO(3) solution containing Ca(2+) of 1.8 and 3 mmol/L. The experimental electromagnetic field (EMF) was 0.02T. A commercial NF membrane and a highly sensitive ultrasonic sensor were used in all the experiments. Results show a good relationship between the ultrasonic measurements and the development of CaCO(3) scale on the NF membrane surface. An increase in the amplitude of differential signal with operation time results from the deposition of the CaCO(3) scale layer. In addition, the movement of the differential signal in the time domain observed is associated with an increase in the thickness of the fouling layer. The UTDR technique is capable of measuring the rate of fouling layer formation under different treatment conditions, i.e. with non-magnetic field (NMF) and EMF. Scale layer of deposited CaCO(3) obtained in the experiment with NMF is denser and thicker than that with EMF. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses imply that the magnetic treatment suppresses the formation of calcite crystals and prefers vaterite and aragonite. Furthermore, the ultrasonic technique is sensitive to the different fouling rate between experiments carried out with 1.8 and 3 mmol/L CaCO(3) solutions. The thickness of the fouling layer measured by weight measurement is consistent with that obtained by UTDR in real time. The thinner and less dense scale layer is the main reason for the slower flux decline. Overall, independent measurements such as the flux-decline data, SEM analysis and weight measurement corroborate the ultrasonic

  12. Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression.

    PubMed

    Pall, Martin L

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Calcium channel blockers block EMF effects and several types of additional evidence confirm this mechanism. Low intensity microwave EMFs have been proposed to produce neuropsychiatric effects, sometimes called microwave syndrome, and the focus of this review is whether these are indeed well documented and consistent with the known mechanism(s) of action of such EMFs. VGCCs occur in very high densities throughout the nervous system and have near universal roles in release of neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine hormones. Soviet and Western literature shows that much of the impact of non-thermal microwave exposures in experimental animals occurs in the brain and peripheral nervous system, such that nervous system histology and function show diverse and substantial changes. These may be generated through roles of VGCC activation, producing excessive neurotransmitter/neuroendocrine release as well as oxidative/nitrosative stress and other responses. Excessive VGCC activity has been shown from genetic polymorphism studies to have roles in producing neuropsychiatric changes in humans. Two U.S. government reports from the 1970s to 1980s provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose-response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression

  13. On Acceptable Exposures to Short Pulses of Electromagnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    NAWCWD TP 8791 On Acceptable Exposures to Short Pulses of Electromagnetic Fields by Francis X. Canning, PhD Physics...prepared in response to a request to study the effects of exposure to short pulses of electromagnetic fields. The author is a physicist at the Naval... Exposures to Short Pulses of Electromagnetic Fields (U) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S

  14. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field with Temozolomide Can Elicit an Epigenetic Pro-apoptotic Effect on Glioblastoma T98G Cells.

    PubMed

    Pasi, Francesca; Fassina, Lorenzo; Mognaschi, Maria Evelina; Lupo, Giuseppe; Corbella, Franco; Nano, Rosanna; Capelli, Enrica

    2016-11-01

    Treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) is emerging as an interesting therapeutic option for patients with cancer. The literature has demonstrated that low-frequency/low-energy electromagnetic fields do not cause predictable effects on DNA; however, they can epigenetically act on gene expression. The aim of the present work was to study a possible epigenetic effect of a PEMF, mediated by miRNAs, on a human glioblastoma cell line (T98G). We tested a PEMF (maximum magnetic induction, 2 mT; frequency, 75 Hz) that has been demonstrated to induce autophagy in glioblastoma cells. In particular, we studied the effect of PEMF on the expression of genes involved in cancer progression and a promising synergistic effect with temozolomide, a frequently used drug to treat glioblastoma multiforme. We found that electromagnetic stimulation in combination with temozolomide can elicit an epigenetic pro-apoptotic effect in the chemo- and radioresistant T98G glioblastoma cell line. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. 78 FR 33633 - Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields; Reassessment of Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic..., and 95 Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields AGENCY: Federal Communications... electromagnetic fields. More specifically, the Commission clarifies evaluation procedures and references...

  16. Physiological and Molecular Genetic Effects of Time-Varying Electromagnetic Fields on Human Neuronal Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    The present investigation details the development of model systems for growing two- and three-dimensional human neural progenitor cells within a culture medium facilitated by a time-varying electromagnetic field (TVEMF). The cells and culture medium are contained within a two- or three-dimensional culture vessel, and the electromagnetic field is emitted from an electrode or coil. These studies further provide methods to promote neural tissue regeneration by means of culturing the neural cells in either configuration. Grown in two dimensions, neuronal cells extended longitudinally, forming tissue strands extending axially along and within electrodes comprising electrically conductive channels or guides through which a time-varying electrical current was conducted. In the three-dimensional aspect, exposure to TVEMF resulted in the development of three-dimensional aggregates, which emulated organized neural tissues. In both experimental configurations, the proliferation rate of the TVEMF cells was 2.5 to 4.0 times the rate of the non-waveform cells. Each of the experimental embodiments resulted in similar molecular genetic changes regarding the growth potential of the tissues as measured by gene chip analyses, which measured more than 10,000 human genes simultaneously.

  17. Effects of a unique electromagnetic field system on the fertility of rats.

    PubMed

    Gathiram, Prem; Kistnasamy, Barry; Lalloo, Umesh

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the fertility of male and female rats exposed to a unique-design electromagnetic apparatus (Hivex Electromagnetic Field System-5 [EMFS-5]), which establishes an omni-directional, spatial field and has a wide band range of 100 MHz-3 GHz. We used 32 male and 32 female rats that were proven breeders. Sixteen rats from each sex were exposed to the EMFS for 8h/day for 10 days. The others were sham exposed. The rats were divided into the following 4 groups: in group AG1-AG8, males and females were exposed; in group AG9-AG16, only females were exposed; in group AG17-AG24, only males were exposed; and in group AG25-AG32, males and females were sham exposed. After exposure for each group, a male rat was cohabited with a female rat until parturition. The authors' results showed that except for 1 male, the fertility of all other rats was not affected. They did not see differences in reproductive ability (latency to parturition, litter size, number of male/female pups, male-to-female ratio, mass of pups at weaning) between experimental groups and the sham exposed group. The authors concluded that exposure of male and female rats to the Hivex EMFS-5 does not affect fertility or reproductive ability.

  18. [Effect of long-term power frequency electromagnetic field exposure on proliferation and apoptosis of SRA01/04 cells].

    PubMed

    An, Guang-zhou; Zhou, Yan; Hou, Qing-xia; Li, Yu-rong; Jiang, Da-peng; Guo, Guo-zhen; Zhang, Chen; Ding, Gui-rong

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the effect of long-term power frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz) exposure on the proliferation and apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells (SRA01/04 cells). SRA01/04 cells in the exponential growth phase were exposed or sham-exposed to power frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz, 2.3 mT) for 2 hours per day, 5 days every week. After 11 weeks of exposure, the cells were collected; the cell morphology was observed under a microscope, the cell viability was measured by MTT assay, the cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry, and the protein expression levels of cyclin D and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were determined by western blot. Compared with the sham-exposed SRA01/04 cells, most exposed cells became rounded and more stereoscopic, and heterochromatin gathered near the nuclear membrane in some exposed cells. The MTT assay showed that the viability of exposed cells was significantly increased compared with that of the sham-exposed cells (P < 0.05). Long-term power frequency electromagnetic field exposure led to significantly increased number of cells in S phase (P < 0.05), and the proliferation index was significantly higher in the exposed cells than in the sham-exposed cells (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in apoptotic rate between the exposed cells and sham-exposed cells (P > 0.05). The exposed cells had significantly higher protein expression levels of cyclin D and PCNA than the sham-exposed cells (P < 0.05). Long-term power frequency electromagnetic field exposure can promote cellular proliferation and change cell cycle in SRA01/04 cells, but it has no marked effect on the apoptosis of SRA01/04 cells.

  19. Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on histopathology and structures of brains of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Lahijani, Maryam Shams; Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza; Kalantary, Sima

    2011-09-01

    There are several reports indicating linkages between exposures to 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields and abnormalities in the early stages of chicken embryonic development. Based on our previous published research carried out at the Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on histopathology and structures of brains of preincubated white leghorn hen eggs were investigated. Three hundred healthy fresh fertilized eggs (55-65 gr) were divided into three groups of experimental (n = 50), control (n = 75), and sham (n = 75). Experimental eggs (inside the coil) were exposed to 3 different intensities of 1.33, 2.66, and 7.32 mT and sham groups were located inside the same coil with no exposure, for 24 h before incubation. Control, sham, and experimental groups were all incubated in an incubator (38 ± 0.5(°)C, 60% humidity) for 14 days. 14-day old chicken embryos were removed by C-sections, and the brains of all embryos of all groups were fixed in formalin(10%), stained with H&E and TUNEL assay, for studying the histopatholog and process of apoptosis. The brains of other embryos were prepared for Scanning Electeron Microscope. Results showed electromagnetic fields have toxic effects on brain cells by increasing the number of apoptotic cells and degeneration of brains' tissues of exposed chicken embryos. These findings suggest that the electromagnetic fields induce brain damages at different levels.

  20. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic field on immune functions in rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Pyun, Bo-Jeong; Jin, Hee; Choi, Hyung-Do; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2012-11-01

    Despite the importance of the immune system in defending the body against infection and cancer, little research on the possible effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) signals on immune functions exists, and, in the case of simultaneous combined exposure of RF-EMF, to the best of our knowledge no work has been done. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of simultaneous exposure to two types of RF-EMF signals, single code division multiple access (CDMA) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) signals on the immune system of rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg. Every 2 weeks after the experiment began, 20 rats were autopsied. Blood hematology, subtype population of splenocytes and cytokine production or mRNA expressions, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β, interferon (IFN)-γ and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β from the splenocytes or IL-6, TNF-α, and immunoglobulin (Ig) of IgG and IgM from blood serum, were examined. The results suggest that 8-week exposure to CDMA (849 MHz) and WCDMA (1.95 GHz) RF simultaneously at 2.0 W/kg each for 45-min RF-EMF exposure (total, 4 W/kg) did not affect these immune parameters. The present experiments suggest that simultaneous combined exposure of CDMA and WCDMA with total SAR dose of 4.0 W/kg for 45 min/day for 8 weeks, which is a relatively high SAR level compared to the exposure levels for the human system recommended by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP, 0.4W/kg for whole body exposure levels and 2.0 W/kg for local exposure levels of general public), did not have any detectable effects on immune function in rats.

  1. Effect of low frequency low energy pulsing electromagnetic field (PEMF) on X-ray-irradiated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Cadossi, R.; Hentz, V.R.; Kipp, J.; Eiverson, R.; Ceccherelli, G.; Zucchini, P.; Emilia, G.; Torelli, G.; Franceschi, C.; Cossarizza, A.

    1989-02-01

    C3H/Km flora-defined mice were used to investigate the effect of exposure to pulsing electromagnetic field (PEMF) after total body x-ray irradiation. Prolonged exposure to PEMF had no effect on normal nonirradiated mice. When mice irradiated with different doses of x-ray (8.5 Gy, 6.8 Gy, and 6.3 Gy) were exposed to PEMF 24 h a day, we observed a more rapid decline in white blood cells (WBC) in the peripheral blood of mice exposed to PEMF at all the x-ray dosages used. No effect of exposure to PEMF was observed on the survival of the mice irradiated with 6.3 Gy and 8.5 Gy; in mice irradiated with 6.8 Gy, 2 out of 12 survived when exposed to PEMF as compared to 10 out of 12 control mice that were irradiated only. At day 4 after irradiation autoradiographic studies performed on bone marrow and spleen of 8.5-Gy-irradiated mice showed no difference between controls and mice exposed to PEMF, whereas on 6.8-Gy mice the bone marrow labeling index was lower in mice exposed to PEMF. In mice irradiated to 6.3 Gy we observed that the recovery of WBC in the peripheral blood was slowed in mice exposed to PEMF and their body weight was significantly lower than in control mice that were irradiated only. The spleen and bone marrow of the mice irradiated to 6.3 Gy and sacrificed at days 4, 14, 20, and 25 after irradiation were analyzed by autoradiography to evaluate the labeling index. Half of the spleens from mice sacrificed at day 25 after irradiation were used to evaluate the RNA content. Autoradiography showed that in the spleen and bone marrow of control mice, there were more cells labeled with (3H)thymidine at days 4 and 14 and less at days 20 and 25 after irradiation in comparison with mice irradiated and exposed to PEMF.

  2. Effect of low frequency electromagnetic fields on A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Varani, Katia; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Iannotta, Valeria; Cattabriga, Elena; Spisani, Susanna; Cadossi, Ruggero; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes the effect of low frequency, low energy, pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophils.Saturation experiments performed using a high affinity adenosine antagonist [3H]-ZM 241385 revealed a single class of binding sites in control and in PEMF-treated human neutrophils with similar affinity (KD=1.05±0.10 and 1.08±0.12 nM, respectively). Furthermore, after 1 h of exposure to PEMFs the receptor density was statistically increased (P<0.01) (Bmax =126±10 and 215±15 fmol mg−1 protein, respectively).The effect of PEMFs was specific to the A2A adenosine receptors. This effect was also intensity, time and temperature dependent.In the adenylyl cyclase assays the A2A receptor agonists, HE-NECA and NECA, increased cyclic AMP accumulation in untreated human neutrophils with an EC50 value of 43 (40 – 47) and 255 (228 – 284) nM, respectively. The capability of HE-NECA and NECA to stimulate cyclic AMP levels in human neutrophils was increased (P<0.01) after exposure to PEMFs with an EC50 value of 10(8 – 13) and 61(52 – 71) nM, respectively.In the superoxide anion (O2−) production assays HE-NECA and NECA inhibited the generation of O2− in untreated human neutrophils, with an EC50 value of 3.6(3.1 – 4.2) and of 23(20 – 27) nM, respectively. Moreover, in PEMF-treated human neutrophils, the same compounds show an EC50 value of 1.6(1.2 – 2.1) and of 6.0(4.7 – 7.5) nM respectively.These results indicate the presence of significant alterations in the expression and in the functionality of adenosine A2A receptors in human neutrophils treated with PEMFs. PMID:11976268

  3. Coherent polarization driven by external electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, M.; Ganciu, M.

    2010-11-01

    The coherent interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with an ensemble of polarizable, identical particles with two energy levels is investigated in the presence of external electromagnetic fields. The coupled non-linear equations of motion are solved in the stationary regime and in the limit of small coupling constants. It is shown that an external electromagnetic field may induce a macroscopic occupation of both the energy levels of the particles and the corresponding photon states, governed by a long-range order of the quantum phases of the internal motion (polarization) of the particles. A lasing effect is thereby obtained, controlled by the external field. Its main characteristics are estimated for typical atomic matter and atomic nuclei. For atomic matter the effect may be considerable (for usual external fields), while for atomic nuclei the effect is extremely small (practically insignificant), due to the great disparity in the coupling constants. In the absence of the external field, the solution, which is non-analytic in the coupling constant, corresponds to a second-order phase transition (super-radiance), which was previously investigated.

  4. Unconventional Impacts from Unconventional Hydropower Devices: The Environmental Effects of Noise, Electromagnetic Fields, and other Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelhimer, M.; Cada, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional dam-based hydropower production produces a variety of environmental stressors that have been debated and confronted for decades. In-current hydrokinetic devices present some of the same or analogous stressors (e.g., changes in sediment transport and deposition, interference with animal movements and migrations, and strike by rotor blades) and some potentially new stressors (e.g., noise during operation, emission of electromagnetic fields [EMF], and toxicity of paints, lubricants, and antifouling coatings). The types of hydrokinetic devices being proposed and tested are varied, as are the locations where they could be deployed, i.e., coastal, estuarine, and big rivers. Differences in hydrology, device type, and the affected aquatic community (marine, estuarine, and riverine) will likely result in a different suite of environmental concerns for each project. Studies are underway at the U.S. Department of Energy's national laboratories to characterize the level of exposure to these stressors and to measure environmental response where possible. In this presentation we present results of studies on EMF, noise, and benthic habitat alteration relevant to hydrokinetic device operation in large rivers. In laboratory studies we tested the behavioral response of a variety of fish and invertebrate organisms to exposure to DC and AC EMF. Our findings suggest that lake sturgeon may be susceptible to EMF like that emitted from underwater cables, but most other species tested are not. Based on recordings of various underwater noise sources, we will show how the spectral density of noises created by hydrokinetic devices compares to that from other anthropogenic sources and natural sources. We will also report the results of hydroacoustic surveys that show how sediments are redistributed behind pilings like those that could be used for mounting hydrokinetic devices. The potential effects of these stressors will be discussed in the context of possible fish population

  5. Effects of electromagnetic fields produced by radiotelevision broadcasting stations on the immune system of women.

    PubMed

    Boscol, P; Di Sciascio, M B; D'Ostilio, S; Del Signore, A; Reale, M; Conti, P; Bavazzano, P; Paganelli, R; Di Gioacchino, M

    2001-06-12

    The object of this study was to investigate the immune system of 19 women with a mean age of 35 years, for at least 2 years (mean = 13 years) exposed to electromagnetic fields (ELMFs) induced by radiotelevision broadcasting stations in their residential area. In September 1999, the ELMFs (with range 500 KHz-3 GHz) in the balconies of the homes of the women were (mean +/- S.D.) 4.3 +/- 1.4 V/m. Forty-seven women of similar age, smoking habits and atopy composed the control group, with a nearby resident ELMF exposure of < 1.8 V/m. Blood lead and urinary trans-trans muconic acid (a metabolite of benzene), markers of exposure to urban traffic, were higher in the control women. The ELMF exposed group showed a statistically significant reduction of blood NK CD16+-CD56+, cytotoxic CD3(-)-CD8+, B and NK activated CD3(-)-HLA-DR+ and CD3(-)-CD25+ lymphocytes. 'In vitro' production of IL-2 and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of the ELMF exposed group, incubated either with or without phytohaemoagglutinin (PHA), was significantly lower; the 'in vitro' production of IL-2 was significantly correlated with blood CD16+-CD56+ lymphocytes. The stimulation index (S.I.) of blastogenesis (ratio between cell proliferation with and without PHA) of PBMC of ELMF exposed women was lower than that of the control subjects. The S.I. of blastogenesis of the ELMF exposed group (but not blood NK lymphocytes and the 'in vitro' production of IL-2 and INF-gamma by PBMC) was significantly correlated with the ELMF levels. Blood lead and urinary trans-trans muconic acid were barely correlated with immune parameters: the urinary metabolite of benzene of the control group was only correlated with CD16+-CD56+ cells indicating a slight effect of traffic on the immune system. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that high frequency ELMFs reduce cytotoxic activity in the peripheral blood of women without a dose-response effect.

  6. Effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on electromagnetically induced transparency based nonlinear frequency conversion in quantum ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumber, Sukirti; Gambhir, Monica; Jha, Pradip Kumar; Mohan, Man

    2016-10-01

    We study the combined effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on electromagnetically induced transparency in quantum ring. The high flexibility in size and shape of ring makes it possible to fabricate a nearly perfect two-dimensional quantum structure. We also explore the dependence of frequency conversion, measured in terms of third order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) , on coupling field, hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field. Although, a dip in χ(3) is observed with the introduction of strong coupling field, it renders the ring structure transparent to generated wave thus effectively enhancing the output of nonlinear frequency conversion process. At a fixed coupling strength, the output can be further enhanced by increasing the magnetic field while it shows an inverse relationship with pressure. These parameters, being externally controlled, provide an easy handle to control the output of quantum ring which can be used as frequency converter in communication networks.

  7. The effect of external magnetic field on the density distributions and electromagnetic fields in the interaction of high-intensity short laser pulse with collisionless underdense plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodi-Darian, Masoomeh; Ettehadi-Abari, Mehdi; Sedaghat, Mahsa

    2016-03-01

    Laser absorption in the interaction between ultra-intense femtosecond laser and solid density plasma is studied theoretically here in the intensity range I{λ^2} ˜eq 10^{14}{-}10^{16}{{W}}{{{cm}}^{-2}} \\upmu{{{m}}2} . The collisionless effect is found to be significant when the incident laser intensity is less than 10^{16}{{W}}{{{cm}}^{-2}}\\upmu{{{m}}2} . In the current work, the propagation of a high-frequency electromagnetic wave, for underdense collisionless plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field is investigated. When a constant magnetic field parallel to the laser pulse propagation direction is applied, the electrons rotate along the magnetic field lines and generate the electromagnetic part in the wake with a nonzero group velocity. Here, by considering the ponderomotive force in attendance of the external magnetic field and assuming the isothermal collisionless plasma, the nonlinear permittivity of the plasma medium is obtained and the equation of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma is solved. Here, by considering the effect of the ponderomotive force in isothermal collisionless magnetized plasma, it is shown that by increasing the laser pulse intensity, the electrons density profile leads to steepening and the electron bunches of plasma become narrower. Moreover, it is found that the wavelength of electric and magnetic field oscillations increases by increasing the external magnetic field and the density distribution of electrons also grows in comparison to the unmagnetized collisionless plasma.

  8. [Effect of electromagnetic fields on the chemical composition of regenerative bone under defective ceramic hydroxylapatite plastics].

    PubMed

    Luzin, V I; Pokhvalityĭ, A P; Kucherenko, S L; Berezhnyĭ, Ie P

    2003-01-01

    In experiment on white rats with the initial mass 130-150 grams researched influence of volumetric-combinative impulse electromagnetic fields (VCI EMF) with the amplitude of a magnetic field 0.04/0.05 Teslas on composition of a reclaim formative in the field of defect of a tibial bone, filled with ceramic hydroxylapatite (HAP) with a size of particles less than 63 microns. Was researched the exposure by VCI EMF boosts synthesis of organic matters in the field of a forming osteal regenerate in early periods of experiment and accelerates the processes of a mineralization of an organic matrix. was been stated it appears by increase of do the mineral component part in a reclaim. In that case, when the generated osteal defect is filled with ceramic HAP, VCI EMF boosts synthesis of a organic matrix and processes of its mineralization, that leads on to the optimization of chemical composition of a reclaim. In order to use the obtained results in clinical practice, the histological and ultra structural research of a formating reclaim are necessary too. These researches are our proximate task.

  9. [Effects of electromagnetic fields on tonicity of cerebral vessels and arterial pressure].

    PubMed

    Razumov, A N; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P; Kolesnikova, I V; Kasparov, E V; Anan'in, N N; El'chininov, N V; Gallinger, V E; Mineeva, E N

    2006-01-01

    Investigations performed by the authors show that normalization of the mechanisms of vegetative regulation of arterial pressure and cerebral vessels tonicity in young patients with sympathico-tonic vegetative dystonia can be achieved by combined use of constant magnetic field (magnetic induction 60 mTl, penetration 10 mm, area 1.5 cm2) and monochromatic electromagnetic wave (length 0.47 mcm, frequency 6 x 10(14) Hz, penetration 1.5 mm and light spot 7 mm) which are directed to a biologically active point C7 shen-men from both sides simultaneously for 3 min, at 11 a.m. to 13 p.m. once a day, for 10 days.

  10. Quantization of Electromagnetic Fields in Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakazu, Kiyotaka; Oshiro, Kazunori

    1996-01-01

    A quantization procedure for the electromagnetic field in a rectangular cavity with perfect conductor walls is presented, where a decomposition formula of the field plays an essential role. All vector mode functions are obtained by using the decomposition. After expanding the field in terms of the vector mode functions, we get the quantized electromagnetic Hamiltonian.

  11. A radio-frequency system for in vivo pilot experiments aimed at the studies on biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ardoino, Lucia; Lopresto, Vanni; Mancini, Sergio; Marino, Carmela; Pinto, Rosanna; Lovisolo, Giorgio A

    2005-08-07

    An exposure system consisting of two long transversal electromagnetic (TEM) cells, operating at a frequency of 900 MHz, is presented and discussed. The set-up allows simultaneous exposure of a significant number of animals (up to 12 mice per cell) in a blind way to a uniform plane wave at a frequency of 900 MHz, for investigating possible biological effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields produced by wireless communication systems. A heating/refrigerating system has also been designed for maintaining comfortable environmental conditions within the TEM cells during experiments. An accurate dosimetric study has been performed both numerically and by means of direct measurements on phantoms and living mice. The results have shown that good homogeneity of exposure and adequate power efficiency, in terms of whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) per 1 W of input power, are achievable for the biological target.

  12. [Mechanism of the biological impact of weak electromagnetic fields and in vitro effects of degassing of blood].

    PubMed

    Shatalov, V M

    2012-01-01

    The physical validity of the mechanism proposed by the author is discussed. According to the theory a prolonged exposure to weak electromagnetic fields leads to an enlargement of the micro-bubbles and degassing of bioliquid. Degassing alters the physical and chemical properties of bioliquid that affect some medical and biological indicators. The following changes in some blood parameters during degassing in vitro were analyzed: a decrease in the glucose concentration, an abnormal activation of blood clotting, an increase in the rate of blood cell aggregation, a decrease in the effectiveness of aspirin as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation and the slowing of indirect anticoagulants. All of this evidences a possible correlation between the increasing electromagnetic pollution and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  13. Volcano-electromagnetic effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, Malcolm J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Volcano-electromagnetic effects—electromagnetic (EM) signals generated by volcanic activity—derive from a variety of physical processes. These include piezomagnetic effects, electrokinetic effects, fluid vaporization, thermal demagnetization/remagnetization, resistivity changes, thermochemical effects, magnetohydrodynamic effects, and blast-excited traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Identification of different physical processes and their interdependence is often possible with multiparameter monitoring, now common on volcanoes, since many of these processes occur with different timescales and some are simultaneously identified in other geophysical data (deformation, seismic, gas, ionospheric disturbances, etc.). EM monitoring plays an important part in understanding these processes.

  14. The effect of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on the formation of micronuclei in rodent cell lines exposed to gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Lagroye, I; Poncy, J L

    1997-08-01

    Low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) do not produce enough energy to damage DNA, in contrast to ionizing radiations. Any relationship between increased incidence of cancer and EMF must therefore be explained by a promoting effect on cellular transformation by ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was to investigate using the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay a possible amplification of the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiations in cells exposed to combined static and power-frequency electromagnetic fields. Rat tracheal epithelial cell lines were first exposed in vitro to 60Co gamma rays (0, 2 and 6 Gy) and cells were then cultured for 24 h in a homogeneous sinusoidal 50 Hz magnetic field (flux density: 100 microTrms) combined with an artificial geomagnetic-like field created by the use of horizontal and vertical pairs of Helmholtz coils. Control cells were cultured in an adjacent incubator where the background EMF was about 0.1 microTrms. Under our in vitro experimental conditions, EMF appeared to have no significant direct effect on micronucleus induction in rat tracheal cell lines. However, an increased frequency of binucleated cells with micronuclei was observed in cells exposed to 6 Gy of gamma rays and EMF, compared with gamma irradiation alone. This could enhance radiation-induced genomic alterations and increase the probability of neoplastic transformation.

  15. Protective Effects of Vitamin E Consumption against 3MT Electromagnetic Field Effects on Oxidative Parameters in Substantia Nigra in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Ahmad Ali; Shabani, Kobra; Mohammad Nejad, Daryoush

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can influence the biological system by the formation of free radicals in cells. The EMFs are able to deteriorate defense system against free radicals that leads to oxidative stress (OS). Lipid peroxidation process (LPO) is an index of oxidative stress, and the Malandialdehyde (MDA) is the final product of LPO. Vitamin E is the most important antioxidant which inhibits the LPO process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3MT EMF exposure on oxidative stress parameters in substantia nigra and the role of vitamin E in reducing oxidative stress and preventing of LPO process. Methods: 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) Control group: received standard food without exposure to EMF and without consumption of vitamin E, 2) Experimental group 1: was exposed to EMF (3MT) 4 h/day for 50 days, 3) The experimental group 2: received 200 mg/kg vitamin E with gavage every day and also was exposed to EMF (3MT) 4 h/day for 50 days, 4) Sham group: received water with gavage for 50 days. Results: A significant increase in MDA levels and Glutation peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the substantia nigra following 50 days exposure to EMF was detected, but the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased. Exposure did not change total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in plasma. Vitamin E treatment significantly prevented the increase of the MDA levels and GSHPx activity and also prevented the decrease of SOD activity in tissue but did not alter TAC levels. The GSH-Px activity increased because the duration and intensity of exposure were not enough to decrease it. Conclusion: We demonstrated two important findings; that 50 days exposure to 3 MT electromagnetic field caused oxidative stress by increasing the levels of MDA, and decreasing SOD activity in the substantia nigra; and that treatment with the vitamin E significantly prevented the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. PMID:27872692

  16. Basic Discoveries in Electromagnetic Field Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Basic discoveries in the electromagnetic field visualization are presented, mentioning the late Dr. A. Tonomura's significant achievements in this field. First, the discovery of the electron biprism interferences by G. Möllenstedt and his colleagues was noted. Having studied Möllenstedt's interference experiments, A. Tonomura and his colleagues have extended the electron holography system to clearly prove the physical reality of vector potentials, the so-called Aharonov-Bohm effect. They also succeeded in observing the dynamic motions of magnetic flux quanta (fluxons) in a superconducting Nb film. In a joint research with A. Tonomura, we succeeded in visualizing a fluxon pinned by an insulating particle in a high-Tc Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor by combining electron holography and scanning ion microscopy. As the study of a scalar potential, the visualization of the orbits of electron-induced secondary electrons around positively charged biological specimens was noted. Finally, although the electromagnetic field analysis using electron holography on the basis of Maxwell's equations seems to be promising, it is pointed out that there have been some controversies on the interpretation and treatment of electromagnetic field.

  17. Electromagnetic Meissner effect launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An electromagnetic projectile launcher provides acceleration of a superconducting projectile through the diamagnetic repulsion of the superconducting projectile. A superconducting layer is provided aft of the projectile, either directly on the projectile or on a platform upon which the projectile is carried, and a traveling magnetic field is caused to propagate along a magnetic field drive coil in which the projectile is disposed. The resulting diamagnetic repulsion between the superconducting projectile and the traveling magnetic field causes the projectile to be propelled along the coil. In one embodiment, a segmented drive coil is used to generate the traveling magnetic field.

  18. Effects of low-intensity AC and/or DC electromagnetic fields on cell attachment and induction of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, N.C.; Ricci, J.; Breger, L.; Zychlinsky, A.; Solomon, H.; Chen, G.G.; Kuznetsov, D.; Dorfman, R.

    1997-05-01

    Rat tendon fibroblast (RTF) and rat bone marrow (RBM) osteoprogenitor cells were cultured and exposed to AC and/or DC magnetic fields in a triaxial Helmholtz coil in an incubator for up to 13 days. The AC fields were at 60 and 1,000 Hz and up to 0.25 mT peak to peak, and the DC fields were up to 0.25 mT. At various combinations of field strengths and frequencies, AC and/or DC fields resulted in extensive detachment of preattached cells and prevented the normal attachment of cells not previously attached to substrates. In addition, the fields resulted in altered cell morphologies. When RTF and RBM cells were removed from the fields after several days of exposure, they partially reattached and assumed more normal morphologies. An additional set of experiments described in the Appendix corroborates these findings and also shows that low-frequency EMF also initiates apoptosis, i.e., programmed cell death, at the onset of cell detachment. Taken together, these results suggest that the electromagnetic fields result in significant alterations in cell metabolism and cytoskeleton structure. Further work is required to determine the relative effect of the electric and magnetic fields on these phenomena. The research has implications for understanding the role of fields in affecting bone healing in fracture nonunions, in cell detachment in cancer metastasis, and in the effect of EMF on organisms generally.

  19. Millimeter waves or extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields in the environment: what are their effects on bacteria?

    PubMed

    Soghomonyan, Diana; Trchounian, Karen; Trchounian, Armen

    2016-06-01

    Millimeter waves (MMW) or electromagnetic fields of extremely high frequencies at low intensity is a new environmental factor, the level of which is increased as technology advance. It is of interest that bacteria and other cells might communicate with each other by electromagnetic field of sub-extremely high frequency range. These MMW affected Escherichia coli and many other bacteria, mainly depressing their growth and changing properties and activity. These effects were non-thermal and depended on different factors. The significant cellular targets for MMW effects could be water, cell plasma membrane, and genome. The model for the MMW interaction with bacteria is suggested; a role of the membrane-associated proton FOF1-ATPase, key enzyme of bioenergetic relevance, is proposed. The consequences of MMW interaction with bacteria are the changes in their sensitivity to different biologically active chemicals, including antibiotics. Novel data on MMW effects on bacteria and their sensitivity to different antibiotics are presented and discussed; the combined action of MMW and antibiotics resulted with more strong effects. These effects are of significance for understanding changed metabolic pathways and distinguish role of bacteria in environment; they might be leading to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The effects might have applications in the development of technique, therapeutic practices, and food protection technology.

  20. Behavioral in-effectiveness of high frequency electromagnetic field in mice.

    PubMed

    Salunke, Balwant P; Umathe, Sudhir N; Chavan, Jagatpalsingh G

    2015-03-01

    The present investigation was carried out with an objective to study the influence of high frequency electromagnetic field (HF-EMF) on anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression-like behavior. For exposure to HF-EMF, non-magnetic material was used to fabricate the housing. Mice were exposed to HF-EMF (2.45GHz), 60min/day for 7 or 30 or 60 or 90 or 120days. The exposure was carried out by switching-on inbuilt class-I BLUETOOTH device that operates on 2.45GHz frequency in file transfer mode at a peak density of 100mW. Mice were subjected to the assessment of anxiety, OCD and depression-like behavior for 7 or 30 or 60 or 90 or 120days of exposure. The anxiety-like behavior was assessed by elevated plus maze, open field test and social interaction test. OCD-like behavior was assessed by marble burying behavior, whereas depression-like behavior was assessed by forced swim test and tail suspension test. The present experiment demonstrates that up to 120days of exposure to HF-EMF does not produce anxiety, OCD and depression-like behavior in mice.

  1. Effect of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on the activity of hsp70 promoter: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de la Fuente, Abraham O; Alcocer-González, Juan M; Antonio Heredia-Rojas, J; Balderas-Candanosa, Isaías; Rodríguez-Flores, Laura E; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Taméz-Guerra, Reyes S

    2009-03-01

    We have evaluated the effect of 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields (MF) at 8 and 8 microT on expression of the luciferase gene contained in a gene construct labelled as Electromagnetic Field-plasmid (pEMF). The vector included the hsp70 promotor containing the 3 nCTCTn sequences previously described for the induction of hsp70 expression by magnetic fields, as well as the reporter of the luciferase gene. We also replicated the study of Lin et al. [Lin H, Blank M, Rossol-Haseroth K, Goodman R. Regulating genes with electromagnetic response elements. J Cell Biochem 2001;81(1):143-48]. The pEMF plasmid was transfected into HeLa and BMK16 cell lines that were later exposed to either MF or thermal shock (TS). An increased luciferase expression was found in both the cells exposed to MF and TS compared with their control groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the combined effect of MF and TS was also analyzed. A synergistic effect between two factors was observed for this co-exposure condition in terms of luciferase gene expression.

  2. Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Vascular Permeability of Circumventricular Organs in the Adult Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y. K.; Cañedo-Dorantes, L.; Bañuelos-Pineda, J.; Serrano-Luna, G.; Feria-Velasco, A.

    2008-08-01

    The present work deals with the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on blood vessels permeability to non liposoluble substances of the circumventricular organs (CVO) of adult rats. Male Wistar adult rats were exposed to ELF-EMF and vascular permeability to colloidal carbon was investigated with the use of histological techniques. Results were compared to corresponding data from sham-exposed and control groups of animals. Exposure to ELF-EMF increased the CVO vascular permeability to colloidal carbon intravascularly injected, particularly in the subfornical organ, the median eminence, the pineal gland and the area postrema.

  3. Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Eissenberg, David M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Casada, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

  4. Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Eissenberg, D.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Casada, D.A.

    1993-03-16

    One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

  5. Biophysical evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic field effects on male reproductive pattern.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Nirala, Jayprakash; Siddiqui, Mohd Haris; Behari, Jitendra

    2013-03-01

    There are possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations emitted from mobile phone on the human reproductive pattern. It is more effective while keeping mobile phones in pocket or near testicular organs. Present review examines the possible concern on radio frequency radiation interaction and biological effects such as enzyme induction, and toxicological effects, including genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, testicular cancer, and reproductive outcomes. Testicular infertility or testicular cancer due to mobile phone or microwave radiations suggests an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Though generation of ROS in testis has been responsible for possible toxic effects on physiology of reproduction, the reviews of last few decades have well established that these radiations are very harmful and cause mutagenic changes in reproductive pattern and leads to infertility. The debate will be focused on bio-interaction mechanism between mobile phone and testicular cancer due to ROS formation. This causes the biological damage and leads to several changes like decreased sperm count, enzymatic and hormonal changes, DNA damage, and apoptosis formation. In the present review, physics of mobile phone including future research on various aspects has been discussed.

  6. Mechanism underlying the bio-effects of an electromagnetic field based on the Huang-Ferrell model.

    PubMed

    Geng, D Y; Hu, G; Wang, L; Jia, N; Wang, F X

    2016-06-27

    To understand the beneficial and harmful bio-effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, we studied the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway based on the Huang-Ferrell model. The sensitivity analysis method was used to study the influence of the model parameters on the activity of ERK, and to further investigate the key biochemical reactions and proteins. The results of the simulation show that an increase in the reaction rate of MAPK/ERK kinase had little effect on ERK activation and the steady-state molecular number. However, a decrease in the reaction rate of MAPK/ERK kinase significantly affected the trigger time of ERK activation and decreased the steady-state molecular number. Together with the biological significance of ERK activity, our findings indicate that the effects of electromagnetic fields are a result of the decrease in the reaction rate of MAPK/ERK kinase, which eventually determines whether these effects cause physical damage or are beneficial in treatment.

  7. Genotoxic effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in cultured mammalian cells are not independently reproducible.

    PubMed

    Speit, Günter; Schütz, Petra; Hoffmann, Heike

    2007-01-10

    Conflicting results have been published regarding the induction of genotoxic effects by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Using the comet assay, the micronucleus test and the chromosome aberration test with human fibroblasts (ES1 cells), the EU-funded "REFLEX" project (Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards From Low Energy Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods) reported clearly positive effects for various exposure conditions. Because of the ongoing discussion on the biological significance of the effects observed, it was the aim of the present study to independently repeat the results using the same cells, the same equipment and the same exposure conditions. We therefore exposed ES1 cells to RF-EMF (1800 MHz; SAR 2 W/kg, continuous wave with intermittent exposure) for different time periods and then performed the alkaline (pH>13) comet assay and the micronucleus test (MNT). For both tests, clearly negative results were obtained in independently repeated experiments. We also performed these experiments with V79 cells, a sensitive Chinese hamster cell line that is frequently used in genotoxicity testing, and also did not measure any genotoxic effect in the comet assay and the MNT. Appropriate measures of quality control were considered to exclude variations in the test performance, failure of the RF-EMF exposure or an evaluation bias. The reasons for the difference between the results reported by the REFLEX project and our experiments remain unclear.

  8. Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficklen, Carter B.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of ElectroMagnetic Fields (EMF) completed at NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars Program. This project was performed to determine levels of electromagnetic fields, determine the significance of the levels present, and determine a plan to reduce electromagnetic field exposure, if necessary. This report also describes the properties of electromagnetic fields and their interaction with humans. The results of three major occupational epidemiological studies is presented to determine risks posed to humans by EMF exposure. The data for this report came from peer-reviewed journal articles and government publications pertaining to the health effects of electromagnetic fields.

  9. Amplitude and phase effects in Josephson qubits driven by a biharmonic electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satanin, A. M.; Denisenko, M. V.; Gelman, A. I.; Nori, Franco

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the amplitude and phase effects of qubit dynamics and excited-state population under the influence of a biharmonic control field. It is demonstrated that the biharmonic driving field can have a significant effect on the behavior of quasienergy level crossing as well as on multiphoton transitions. Also, the interference pattern for the populations of qubit excited states is sensitive to the signal parameters. We discuss the possibility of using these effects for manipulating qubit states and calibrating nanosecond pulses.

  10. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, J.T.

    1997-06-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating homogeneous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented mirror symmetrically about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set. 26 figs.

  11. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, J.T.

    1998-02-10

    An apparatus and method for generating homogeneous electromagnetic fields within a volume is disclosed. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented mirror symmetrically about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set. 39 figs.

  12. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, James T.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for generating homogenous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set.

  13. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, J.T.

    1998-05-05

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating homogeneous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set. 55 figs.

  14. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, James Terry

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for generating homogenous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented mirror symmetrically about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set.

  15. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, James T.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for generating homogenous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented mirror symmetrically about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially cancelling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set.

  16. Sensing network for electromagnetic fields generated by seismic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenzon, Naum I.; Bambakidis, Gust; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

    2014-06-01

    The sensors network is becoming prolific and play now increasingly more important role in acquiring and processing information. Cyber-Physical Systems are focusing on investigation of integrated systems that includes sensing, networking, and computations. The physics of the seismic measurement and electromagnetic field measurement requires special consideration how to design electromagnetic field measurement networks for both research and detection earthquakes and explosions along with the seismic measurement networks. In addition, the electromagnetic sensor network itself could be designed and deployed, as a research tool with great deal of flexibility, the placement of the measuring nodes must be design based on systematic analysis of the seismic-electromagnetic interaction. In this article, we review the observations of the co-seismic electromagnetic field generated by earthquakes and man-made sources such as vibrations and explosions. The theoretical investigation allows the distribution of sensor nodes to be optimized and could be used to support existing geological networks. The placement of sensor nodes have to be determined based on physics of electromagnetic field distribution above the ground level. The results of theoretical investigations of seismo-electromagnetic phenomena are considered in Section I. First, we compare the relative contribution of various types of mechano-electromagnetic mechanisms and then analyze in detail the calculation of electromagnetic fields generated by piezomagnetic and electrokinetic effects.

  17. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the liver of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Lahijani, Maryam Shams; Tehrani, Daryush Minaei; Sabouri, Elliam

    2009-01-01

    There are several reports indicating a linkage between exposures to 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields and abnormalities in the early stages of embryonic development of chicken embryos. The present study was designed to demonstrate whether electromagnetic fields could be an environmental factor invoking histopathological and ultra-structural changes in livers of preincubated chicken embryos exposed to EMFs. Following other researchers and our previous results from different groups of Developmental Biology at the Animal Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid-Beheshti University, effects of most effective intensities (1.33, 2.66, 5.52, and 7.32 mT) of electromagnetic fields (EMFs, 50 Hz ) on livers of pre-incubated white leghorn chicken embryos were investigated . 150 healthy, fresh, and fertilized eggs (55-65 gr) were divided into 6 groups of experimental(1-4, n = 30), control (n = 60), and sham (n = 50). Experimental eggs (inside coil) were exposed to 4 different intensities (1.33, 2.66, 5.52, and 7.32 mT). Sham groups were located inside same coil, with no exposure, for 24 h before incubation. Control, sham, and experimental groups (1-4) were then incubated in an incubator (38 +/- 0.5 degrees C, 60% humidity) for 17 days. At the end of this period, livers of experimental, sham, and control groups were processed for light and transmission electrom microscopes (TEM and SEM) studies. So, livers of 17-day old chicken embryos were removed by C-sections, fixed in formalin 10%, stained with H&E and reticulin, and studied under light microscope. Others were prepared for electron microscopes (TEM and SEM) investigations. Morphological observations indicated exencephalic embryos, embryos with asymmetrical faces, crossed beak, shorter upper beak, deformed hind limbs, gastroschesis, anophthalmia, and microphthalmia. H&E and reticulin stainings, TEMS, and SEMs studies indicated EMFs would create hepato-cytes with fibrotic bands, severe steatohepatitis, vacuolizations

  18. Effects of 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields with a wide range of SARs on bacterial and HPRT gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shin; Takashima, Yoshio; Sakurai, Tomonori; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Taki, Masao; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2007-01-01

    Present day use of mobile phones is ubiquitous. This causes some concern for human health due to exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields (HFEMF) from mobile phones. Consequently, we have examined the effects of 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields on bacterial mutations and the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene mutations. Using the Ames test, bacteria were exposed to HFEMF for 30 min at specific absorption rates (SARs) from 5 to 200 W/kg. In all strains, there was no significant difference in the frequency of revertant colonies between sham exposure and HFEMF-exposed groups. In examination of mutations of the HPRT gene, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells were exposed to HFEMF for 2 h at SARs from 5 to 200 W/kg. We detected a combination effect of simultaneous exposure to HFEMF and bleomycin at the respective SARs. A statistically significant difference was observed between the cells exposed to HFEMF at the SAR of 200 W/kg. Cells treated with the combination of HFEMF at SARs from 50 to 200 W/kg and bleomycin exhibited increased HPRT mutations. As the exposure to HFEMF induced an increase in temperature, these increases of mutation frequency may be a result of activation of bleomycin by heat. We consider that the increase of mutation frequency may be due to a thermal effect.

  19. Effects of an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on stress factors: a study in Dictyostelium discoideum cells.

    PubMed

    Amaroli, Andrea; Chessa, Maria Giovanna; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Bianco, Bruno

    2013-08-01

    The development of technologies that generate environmental electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has led public opinion and the scientific community to debate upon the existence of possible effects caused by man-made EMFs on the human population and, more generally, on terrestrial ecosystems. Protozoa are known to be excellent bioassay systems in bioelectromagnetic studies because of their features that combine the reliability of in vivo results with the practicality of in vitro ones. For this reason, we examined the possible stressful effects of a 50-Hz, 300-μT extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on the protozoan Dictyostelium discoideum, which was used as it is included in the eight bioassay alternatives to vertebrate models for the study of human disease by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Our results show how a 24-h exposure of D. discoideum cells to ELF-EMF can affect the net fission rate, the activity and presence of the pseudocholinesterase as well as the presence of the heat shock protein-70, while no change in the catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities was observed. However, this effect seems to be transient and all the altered parameters returned to their respective control value after a 24-h stay under dummy exposure conditions.

  20. The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on In Vitro Fertilization Success Rate in N MRI Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hafizi, Leili; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Mousavifar, Nezhat; Karimi, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Saleh; Kazemi, Mohammad Reza; Emami Meibodi, Neda; Hosseini, Golkoo; Mostafavi Toroghi, Hesam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) on reproduction systems have been widely debated. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether low frequency EMF could ameliorate the in vitro fertilization success rate in Naval medical research institute (NMRI) Mice. Materials and Methods: In this randomized comparative animal study, ten NMRI mice were randomly divided into 2 equal groups (control and experimental). 10 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was injected intraperitoneally to both groups in order to stimulate ovulating, and ovums were then aspirated and kept in KSOM (modified version of sequential simplex optimization medium with a higher K+ concentration) culture medium. Metaphase II ovums were separated, and sperms obtained by "swim out" method were added to metaphase II ovums in the culture medium. The experimental group was exposed to 1.3 millitesla pulsed electromagnetic field at 4 kilohertz frequency for 5 hours. To assess the efficacy, we considered the identification of two-pronuclear zygote (2PN) under microscope as fertilizing criterion. Results: Total number of collected ovums in the control and experimental groups was 191 and 173, respectively, from which 58 (30.05%) and 52 (30.36%) ovums were collected from metaphase II, respectively. In vitro fertilization (IVF) success rate was 77% in extremely low frequency- pulsed electromagnetic field (ELFPEMF) for exposed group (experimental), whereas the rate was 68% for control group. Conclusion: Despite increased percentile of IVF success rate in exposed group, there was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups, but this hypothesis has still been stated as a question. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different EMF designs are suggested. PMID:24381855

  1. FDTD Analysis of Effectiveness of Shielding Clothes in Suppressing Electromagnetic Field in Phantom Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Yoshiyuki; Nagano, Isamu; Yagitani, Satoshi; Ueno, Tomohiko; Nakayabu, Toshihiro

    In order to prevent cardiac pacemakers from malfunctioning caused by electromagnetic (EM) wave, as one of the solutions to the problem of pacemaker malfunctioning, we can use a shielding material to decrease the EM wave intensity. For the effective suppression of the EM wave including a complicated enclosure or a human body, it is desirable to solve for the EM wave propagation by using numerical analysis. We introduce the transmission coefficient when an EM wave is incident into a multi-layered material with an arbitrary direction into the FDTD method. This realizes three-dimensional numerical analysis of a thin shielding material as a method to solve the EM wave transmission problem, which has been conventionally considered difficult. We use a phantom model, a dummy model of a cardiac pacemaker wearer, to analyze the EM wave shielding effectiveness of the shielding clothes. The analytical result agrees fairly well with the experimental result, which verifies the validity of the developed method. As for the effect of the aperture of the shielding clothes, the EM wave coming around from the apertures is found to be larger in amount than the EM wave transmitted through the clothes, which suggests that the aperture causes the SE to decrease largely.

  2. Assessments and viewpoints on the biological and human health effects of extremely low-frequency (elf) electromagnetic fields. Compilation of commissioned papers for the elf literature review project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Contents: effects of elf fields on neural development and nerve regeneration; electromagnetic fields and calcium efflux; studies of plants and animals exposed to elf electric and magnetic fields; electromagnetic influences on birds; a review of cell effects induced by exposure of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; the effects of elf electric and magnetic fields on artificial cardiac pacemakers; behavioral toxicology of elf electric and magnetic fields; electromagnetic fields and public health; influence of power frequency electric and magnetic fields on human health; ecological effects of extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields; reproductive and developmental alterations associated with exposure of mammals to elf (1-300 hz) electromagnetic fields; behavioral effects extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields; effects of electromagnetic fields on circadian rhythms; effects of elf electromagnetic fields on neuroendocrine systems; immunological effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; neural effects of extremely low frequency fields as a function of induced tissue current density; magnetic and electromagetic field effects on biological systems; effects of extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields on the nervous system.

  3. Effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on expression levels of some antioxidant genes in human MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudinasab, Hamideh; Sanie-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Saadat, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, study on the biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) has been of interest to scientists. Although the exact mechanism of its effect is not fully understood, free radical processes has been proposed as a possible mechanism. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of 50-Hz EMFs on the mRNA levels of seven antioxidant genes (CAT, SOD1, SOD2, GSTO1, GSTM3, MSGT1, and MSGT3) in human MCF-7 cells. The EMF exposure patterns were: 1) 5 min field-on/5 min filed-off, 2) 15 min field-on/15 min field-off, 3) 30 min field-on continuously. In all three exposure conditions we tried to have total exposure time of 30 minutes. Control cultures were located in the exposure apparatus when the power was off. The experiments were done at two field intensities; 0.25 mT and 0.50 mT. The RNA extraction was done at two times; immediately post exposure and two hours post exposure. The mRNA levels were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. MTT assay for three exposure conditions in the two field intensities represented no cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cells. Statistical comparison showed a significant difference between 0.25 mT and 0.50 mT intensities for "the 15 min field-on/15 min field-off condition" (Fisher's exact test, P=0.041), indicating that at 0.50 mT intensity field, the number of down-regulated and/or up-regulated genes increased compared with the other ones. However, there is no statistical significant difference between the field intensities for the two others EMF exposure conditions. PMID:28097161

  4. Effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on expression levels of some antioxidant genes in human MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudinasab, Hamideh; Sanie-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Saadat, Mostafa

    2016-06-01

    In the past three decades, study on the biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) has been of interest to scientists. Although the exact mechanism of its effect is not fully understood, free radical processes has been proposed as a possible mechanism. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of 50-Hz EMFs on the mRNA levels of seven antioxidant genes (CAT, SOD1, SOD2, GSTO1, GSTM3, MSGT1, and MSGT3) in human MCF-7 cells. The EMF exposure patterns were: 1) 5 min field-on/5 min filed-off, 2) 15 min field-on/15 min field-off, 3) 30 min field-on continuously. In all three exposure conditions we tried to have total exposure time of 30 minutes. Control cultures were located in the exposure apparatus when the power was off. The experiments were done at two field intensities; 0.25 mT and 0.50 mT. The RNA extraction was done at two times; immediately post exposure and two hours post exposure. The mRNA levels were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. MTT assay for three exposure conditions in the two field intensities represented no cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cells. Statistical comparison showed a significant difference between 0.25 mT and 0.50 mT intensities for "the 15 min field-on/15 min field-off condition" (Fisher's exact test, P=0.041), indicating that at 0.50 mT intensity field, the number of down-regulated and/or up-regulated genes increased compared with the other ones. However, there is no statistical significant difference between the field intensities for the two others EMF exposure conditions.

  5. A New Theory of the Electromagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriske, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This author has previously introduced a new theory of the Electromagnetic Field and its interaction with matter. There was from the start a problem with Einstein's formulation of Invariants and its use in describing The EM field. The photon produced by first varying a stationary Electric field in one observer's reference frame is not the same as a photon produced from varying the a stationary Magnetic Field. The Magnetic field photon is thought of as being ``off the mass shell''. The Quantum information seems to carry with it an ordering of these events. You see this ordering in Wick's theory and in Feynman diagrams. This author is proposing that other fields can vary first in another Observers reference frame, not just the ``Scalar Field'' or the ``Fermion Field'', but many other forms of Energy. If the ``Nuclear Field'' varies first, it results in Quantum information that produces a photon that has the Nuclear Field in it and also the Magnetic Field, this is the strange effect seen in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. This author proposed that there is a large number of photons with different properties, because of this ordering of events that occurs in Quantum Information. One of these photons is the Neutrino which appears to be a three field photon. This is Kriske's Field Theory.

  6. Effects of short-term exposure to powerline-frequency electromagnetic field on the electrical activity of the heart.

    PubMed

    Elmas, Onur; Comlekci, Selcuk; Koylu, Halis

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The heart is a contractile organ that can generate its own rhythm. The contraction, or the rhythm, of the heart may be influenced by electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure, because of the heart's excitability characteristic. In previous studies, different methods have been used to study the possible effects of an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on the heart. But the studies' designs were not similar, and the results were also different. Recent studies have shown some evidence that short-term EMF exposure can influence the heart more than long-term exposure. This study investigated how the heart is affected in the first EMF exposure. In a simulation of the daily exposure of humans to a power frequency, Wistar albino rats were used. By utilizing the Helmholtz-coil set, we obtained a 50-Hz, 1-μT EMF and examined rat heart activity during short-term EMF exposure. No effect was observed under this exposure condition. The results obtained do not confirm a possible mechanism in the electrical activity of the rat heart model.

  7. Nanomechanical electric and electromagnetic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Datskos, Panagiotis George; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a system for detecting and analyzing at least one of an electric field and an electromagnetic field. The system includes a micro/nanomechanical oscillator which oscillates in the presence of at least one of the electric field and the electromagnetic field. The micro/nanomechanical oscillator includes a dense array of cantilevers mounted to a substrate. A charge localized on a tip of each cantilever interacts with and oscillates in the presence of the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a subsystem for recording the movement of the cantilever to extract information from the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a means of adjusting a stiffness of the cantilever to heterodyne tune an operating frequency of the system over a frequency range.

  8. Effects of different intensities of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on formation of osteoclast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyle; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Wu, Mei-Ling; Shih, Chung

    2003-09-01

    Over the past 30 years, the beneficial therapeutic effects of selected low energy, time varying electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been documented with increasing frequency to treat therapeutically resistant problems of the musculoskeletal system. However, the underlying mechanisms at a cellular level are still not completely understood. In this study, the effects of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMF) on osteoclastogenesis, cultured from murine bone marrow cells and stimulated by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), were examined. Primary bone marrow cells were cultured from mature Wistar rats and exposed to ELF-PEMF stimulation daily for 7 days with different intensities of induced electric field (4.8, 8.7, and 12.2 micro V/cm rms) and stimulation times (0.5, 2, and 8 h/day). Recruitment and authentication of osteoclast-like cells were evaluated, respectively, by determining multinuclear, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive cells on day 8 of culture and by the pit formation assay. During the experiments, cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta), and prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) were assayed using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These findings suggest that ELF-PEMF can both enhance (approximately 50%) and suppress (approximately 27%) the formation of osteoclast-like cells in bone marrow culture, depending on the induced electric field intensity. In addition, consistent correlations were observed between TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and osteoclast-like cell number after exposure to different induced electric field intensities of ELF-PEMF. This in vitro study could be considered as groundwork for in vivo ELF-PEMF clinical applications on some osteoclast-associated bone diseases.

  9. An experiment to study strong electromagnetic fields at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fatyga, M. ); Norbury, J.W. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    We present a description of an experiment which can be used to search for effects of strong electromagnetic fields on the production of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pairs in the elastic scattering of two heavy ions at RHIC. A very brief discussion of other possible studies of electromagnetic phenomena at RHIC is also presented.

  10. Behavioral effects on rats of high strength magnetic fields generated by a resistive electromagnet.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Thomas A; Pittman, David W; Riccardi, Christina; Cassell, Jennifer A; Lockwood, Denesa R; Barranco, Jan M; Kwon, Bumsup; Smith, James C

    2005-10-15

    It has been reported previously that exposure to static high magnetic fields of 7 T or above in superconducting magnets has behavioral effects on rats. In particular, magnetic field exposure acutely but transiently suppressed rearing and induced walking in tight circles; the direction of circular locomotion was dependent on the rats' orientation within the magnet. Furthermore, when magnet exposure was paired with consumption of a palatable, novel solution, rats acquired a persistent taste aversion. In order to confirm these results under more controlled conditions, we exposed rats to static magnetic fields of 4 to 19.4 T in a 189 mm bore, 20 T resistive magnet. By using a resistive magnet, field strengths could be arbitrary varied from -19.4 to 19.4 T within the same bore. Rearing was suppressed after exposure to 4 T and above; circling was observed after 7 T and above. Conditioned taste aversion was acquired after 14 T and above. The effects of the magnetic fields were dependent on orientation. Exposure to +14 T induced counter-clockwise circling, while exposure to -14 T induced clockwise circling. Exposure with the rostral-caudal axis of the rat perpendicular to the magnetic field produced an attenuated behavioral response compared to exposure with the rostral-caudal axis parallel to the field. These results in a single resistive magnet confirm and extend our earlier findings using multiple superconducting magnets. They demonstrate that the behavioral effects of exposure within large magnets are dependent on the magnetic field, and not on non-magnetic properties of the machinery. Finally, the effects of exposure to 4 T are clinically relevant, as 4 T magnetic fields are commonly used in functional MRI assays.

  11. Effects of Grounding on Body Voltage and Current in the Presence of Electromagnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if grounding in the presence of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) encountered in a normal housing environment produces harmful currents in the human body. This study had a test-retest design, with duration of 5-15 min per participant. There were 50 participants, of whom 23 were males aged 12-77 years (Mage ± standard deviation = 50.5 ± 19.5 years) and 27 were females aged 13-79 years (Mage ± standard deviation = 45.9 ± 19.0 years). Each participant was instructed to touch a lamp on a desk with his or her left hand, then to move the hand away from the lamp (first one foot away and then three feet) while his/her body voltage was measured. Each participant was then grounded and instructed to repeat the same hand movements. Current was also measured during the grounded retest. The measured parameters were alternating current (AC) body voltage and current generated from contact or proximity to a lamp and other appliances situated on top of a desk. AC body voltage was reduced by an average of 58-fold when participants were grounded compared with when they were not grounded. AC currents generated during grounding were several orders of magnitude lower than the accepted minimum level of perception. Normal levels of EMFs existing in houses are too low to produce harmful currents when a person is grounded.

  12. Teratogenic effect of broad-band electromagnetic field on neonatal mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Z E; Newkirk, C; Conetta, J A; Sama, M A; Sisselman, S

    2003-01-01

    Pregnant mice (Mus musculus), strain Swiss Webster, were exposed to a continuous electromagnetic field (12.8V/m) beginning in the third week of pregnancy. Histological and hematological analysis showed gender specific responses in 21 day-old mice after in-utero and post-natal continuous exposure. Automated lymphocyte percentage and total white blood cell counts were significantly elevated in exposed 21 day-old female mice compared to control mice. Lymphoma-like cells were seen in higher numbers in exposed 21 day-old male mice. Megaloblastic changes, such as hypersegmented neutrophils, were observed in exposed mice. The blood from control neonatal mice was more viscous than that of exposed mice, enough to interfere with making a blood smear. The adult female mice showed no significant differences in the above hematologic parameters between exposed and control groups. Histological study showed the following pathological changes in the adrenal cortex: degeneration/necrosis in the zona glomerulosa; hypertrophy in zona reticularis; degeneration/necrosis, intracytoplasmic inclusions and inflammation in the zona fasciculata/reticularis, more prominent in exposed female neonates; and lipidosis in the zona fasciculata. In the adrenal medulla: atrophy was more common in exposed female neonates; and intracytoplasmic inclusions and vacuolation were more common in exposed male neonates. Cystic proliferations were found in the cortical area of the thymus. In the medulla of the thymus, there was vacuolation, inflammation, or eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions in exposed adults. Behavioral differences occurred in both neonates and adult females. Control neonates were able to manipulate through a maze more quickly than exposed neonates; and control adult females displayed more thorough grooming behavior than exposed mothers, and maintained more distance between the nest and dropping location than did the exposed group.

  13. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on MAP2 and Nestin gene expression of hair follicle dermal papilla cells.

    PubMed

    Moraveji, Marzie; Haghighipour, Nooshin; Keshvari, Hamid; Nourizadeh Abbariki, Tannaz; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Amanzadeh, Amir

    2016-08-19

    In recent years, the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) has attracted a great deal of scientific interest. The ELF-EMF signal is able to control ion transport across ion channels and therefore induce cell differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 1 mT) on MAP2 and Nestin gene expression of dermal papilla mesenchymal cells (DPCs). In order to examine the effect of chemical and electromagnetic factors on gene expression, 4 experimental groups, namely chemical (cell exposure to chemical signals), EMF (exposing cells to ELF-EMF), chemical-EMF (subjecting cells to chemical signals and ELF-EMF) and control (with no treatment) groups, were prepared, treated for 5 days, and studied. To assess the effect of extended test time on the expression of neural differentiation markers (Nestin and MAP2), an EMF group was prepared and treated for a period of 14 consecutive days. The beneficial role of EMF in inducing neural differentiation was shown by real-time PCR analysis. The higher expression of MAP2 after 14 days compared to that after 5 days and decrease of cell proliferation on days 5 to 20 were indicative of the positive effect of extending treatment time on neural differentiation by evaluation of gene expression in EMF group.

  14. Effects of multiple resistive shells and transient electromagnetic torque on the dynamics of mode locking in reversed field pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S. C.; Chu, M. S.

    2002-11-01

    The effects of multiple resistive shells and transient electromagnetic torque on the dynamics of mode locking in the reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas are studied. Most RFP machines are equipped with one or more metal shells outside of the vacuum vessel. These shells have finite resistivities. The eddy currents induced in each of the shells contribute to the braking electromagnetic (EM) torque which slows down the plasma rotation. In this work we study the electromagnetic torque acting on the plasma (tearing) modes produced by a system of resistive shells. These shells may consist of several nested thin shells or several thin shells enclosed within a thick shell. The dynamics of the plasma mode is investigated by balancing the EM torque from the resistive shells with the plasma viscous torque. Both the steady state theory and the time-dependent theory are developed. The steady state theory is shown to provide an accurate account of the resultant EM torque if (dω/dt)ω-2≪1 and the time scale of interest is much longer than the response (L/R) time of the shell. Otherwise, the transient theory should be adopted. As applications, the steady state theory is used to evaluate the changes of the EM torque response from the resistive shells in two variants of two RFP machines: (1) modification from Reversed Field Experiment (RFX) [Gnesotto et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 25, 335 (1995)] to the modified RFX: both of them are equipped with one thin shell plus one thick shell; (2) modification from Extrap T2 to Extrap T2R [Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)]: both of them are equipped with two thin shells. The transient theory has been applied numerically to study the time evolution of the EM torque during the unlocking of a locked tearing mode in the modified RFX.

  15. The effects of pulsed electromagnetic field on the functions of osteoblasts on implant surfaces with different topographies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; An, Yanxin; Li, Feijiang; Li, Dongmei; Jing, Da; Guo, Tianwen; Luo, Erping; Ma, Chufan

    2014-02-01

    The use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) is a promising approach to promote osteogenesis. However, few studies have reported the effects of this technique on the osseointegration of endosseous implants, especially with regard to different implant topographies. We focused on how the initial interaction between cells and the titanium surface is enhanced by a PEMF and the possible regulatory mechanisms in this study. Rat osteoblasts were cultured on three types of titanium surfaces (Flat, Micro and Nano) under PEMF stimulation or control conditions. Protein adsorption was significantly increased by the PEMF. The number of osteoblasts attached to the surfaces in the PEMF group was substantially greater than that in the control group after 1.5h incubation. PEMF stimulation oriented the osteoblasts perpendicular to the electromagnetic field lines and increased the number of microfilaments and pseudopodia formed by the osteoblasts. The cell proliferation on the implant surfaces was significantly promoted by the PEMF. Significantly increased extracellular matrix mineralization nodules were observed under PEMF stimulation. The expression of osteogenesis-related genes, including BMP-2, OCN, Col-1,ALP, Runx2 and OSX, were up-regulated on all the surfaces by PEMF stimulation. Our findings suggest that PEMFs enhance the osteoblast compatibility on titanium surfaces but to different extents with regard to implant surface topographies. The use of PEMFs might be a potential adjuvant treatment for improving the osseointegration process. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field (1.8/0.9 GHz) on testicular function and structure in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Ozlem Nisbet, H; Nisbet, Cevat; Akar, Aysegul; Cevik, Mesut; Karayigit, M Onder

    2012-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible effects of whole-body electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on reproduction in growing male rats. Male albino Wistar rats (2 days old) were exposed to EMF 1800 and 900 MHz for 2 h continuously per day for 90 days. Sham control was kept under similar conditions except that the field was not applied for the same period. After blood samples were collected, the animals were sacrificed 24 h after the last exposure and the tissues of interest were harvested. The mean plasma total testosterone showed similarity among the two study groups and was significantly higher than the sham control rats. The percentage of epididymal sperm motility was significantly higher in the 1800 MHz group (P<0.05). The morphologically normal spermatozoa rates were higher and the tail abnormality and total percentage abnormalities were lower in the 900 MHz group (P<0.05). Histopathologic parameters in the 1800 MHz group were significantly higher (P<0.05). In conclusion, the present study indicated that exposure to electromagnetic wave caused an increase in testosterone level, epididymal sperm motility (forward), and normal sperm morphology of rats. As a consequences, 1800 and 900 MHz EMF could be considered to be a cause of precocious puberty in growing rats.

  17. Biological and Agricultural Studies on Application of Discharge Plasma and Electromagnetic Fields 5. Effects of High Electric Fields on Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaka, Katsuo

    The biological effects of extremely low frequency electric fields on animals are reviewed with emphasis on studies of the nervous system, behavior, endocrinology, and blood chemistry. First, this paper provides a histrical overview of studies on the electric field effects initiated in Russia and the United States mainly regarding electric utility workers in high voltage substations and transmission lines. Then, the possible mechanisms of electric field effects are explained using the functions of surface electric fields and induced currents in biological objects. The real mechanisms have not yet been identified. The thresholds of electric field perception levels for rats, baboons, and humans are introduced and compared. The experimental results concerning the depression of melatonin secretion in rats exposed to electric fields are described.

  18. No effects of acute exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones on brainstem auditory potentials in young volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bak, Marek; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Zmyślony, Marek; Dudarewicz, Adam

    2003-01-01

    A widespread use of mobile phones evokes a growing concern for their possible adverse effects on the human central nervous system. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of EMF generated by mobile phones, at all standard wavelengths: 450, 935 and 1800 MHz used in Poland, on the auditory brainstem-evoked responses (ABR) during and after the exposure. The effects of acute exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) on ABR were evaluated in 45 young, healthy volunteers of both genders. The electromagnetic impulses were generated with the antenna of mobile phone. The exposure was induced by repeated phone activation for 20 min. The ABR evaluation was performed before, during and immediately after the exposure, and the latencies of waves I, III and V, and inter-waves I-V were analyzed. Prior test calibration on a phantom did not show the influence of the external EMF generated by the mobile phone on the ABR equipment. For neither EMF frequency, differences were observed in wave and inter-wave latencies during and after exposure to EMF compared to the initial ABR pattern, in both men and woman. This implies that commonly used mobile phones do not affect propagation of electrical stimuli along the auditory nerve to auditory brainstem centers.

  19. Far-field high resolution effects and manipulating of electromagnetic waves based on transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, XueBin; Zang, XiaoFei; Li, Zhou; Shi, Cheng; Chen, Lin; Cai, Bin; Zhu, YiMing

    2015-05-01

    Based on the transformation optics (TO) and the effective medium theory (EMT), a new illusion media with homogeneous and isotropic materials is proposed to realize the far-field high resolution effects. When two point sources with the separation distance of λ0 / 4 are covered with the illusion media (λ0 is the free-space wavelength), the corresponding far-field pattern is equivalent to the case of two point sources with the separation distance larger than λ0 / 2 in free space, leading to the far-field high resolution effects (in free space, the separation distance of λ0 / 4 is less than half-wavelength, and thus the two point sources cannot be distinguished from each other). Furthermore, such illusion media can be applied to design tunable high-directivity antenna and an angle-dependent floating carpet cloak. Full wave simulations are carried out to verify the performance of our device.

  20. Effects of electromagnetic fields on membrane ion transport of cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Ikehara, T; Yamaguchi, H; Miyamoto, H

    1998-08-01

    We have studied the mechanisms of ion transport mediated by Na+/K(+)-pump and Na+,K+,Cl(-)-cotransport pathway of HeLa cells using Rb+ as an analog for K+, and proposed models of binding of ions for the transport pathways. Also, we clarified the relation between ion and water movements in the cells. Based on these findings, we have studied the effects of homogeneous and time-varying magnetic fields on the ion transport activity. The research presented here covers (i) brief explanations of our kinetic studies on the ion transport pathways for promoting understanding of the effects of magnetic fields on the pathways, (ii) our and other reports of the effects of magnetic fields on ion transport systems.

  1. Self field electromagnetism and quantum phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1994-07-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) has been extremely successful inits predictive capability for atomic phenomena. Thus the greatest hope for any alternative view is solely to mimic the predictive capability of quantum mechanics (QM), and perhaps its usefulness will lie in gaining a better understanding of microscopic phenomena. Many ?paradoxes? and problematic situations emerge in QED. To combat the QED problems, the field of Stochastics Electrodynamics (SE) emerged, wherein a random ?zero point radiation? is assumed to fill all of space in an attmept to explain quantum phenomena, without some of the paradoxical concerns. SE, however, has greater failings. One is that the electromagnetic field energy must be infinit eto work. We have examined a deterministic side branch of SE, ?self field? electrodynamics, which may overcome the probelms of SE. Self field electrodynamics (SFE) utilizes the chaotic nature of electromagnetic emissions, as charges lose energy near atomic dimensions, to try to understand and mimic quantum phenomena. These fields and charges can ?interact with themselves? in a non-linear fashion, and may thereby explain many quantum phenomena from a semi-classical viewpoint. Referred to as self fields, they have gone by other names in the literature: ?evanesccent radiation?, ?virtual photons?, and ?vacuum fluctuations?. Using self fields, we discuss the uncertainty principles, the Casimir effects, and the black-body radiation spectrum, diffraction and interference effects, Schrodinger's equation, Planck's constant, and the nature of the electron and how they might be understood in the present framework. No new theory could ever replace QED. The self field view (if correct) would, at best, only serve to provide some understanding of the processes by which strange quantum phenomena occur at the atomic level. We discuss possible areas where experiments might be employed to test SFE, and areas where future work may lie.

  2. Electromagnetic fields (UHF) increase voltage sensitivity of membrane ion channels; possible indication of cell phone effect on living cells.

    PubMed

    Ketabi, N; Mobasheri, H; Faraji-Dana, R

    2015-03-01

    The effects of ultra high frequency (UHF) nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the channel activities of nanopore forming protein, OmpF porin, were investigated. The voltage clamp technique was used to study the single channel activity of the pore in an artificial bilayer in the presence and absence of the electromagnetic fields at 910 to 990 MHz in real time. Channel activity patterns were used to address the effect of EMF on the dynamic, arrangement and dielectric properties of water molecules, as well as on the hydration state and arrangements of side chains lining the channel barrel. Based on the varied voltage sensitivity of the channel at different temperatures in the presence and absence of EMF, the amount of energy transferred to nano-environments of accessible groups was estimated to address the possible thermal effects of EMF. Our results show that the effects of EMF on channel activities are frequency dependent, with a maximum effect at 930 MHz. The frequency of channel gating and the voltage sensitivity is increased when the channel is exposed to EMF, while its conductance remains unchanged at all frequencies applied. We have not identified any changes in the capacitance and permeability of membrane in the presence of EMF. The effect of the EMF irradiated by cell phones is measured by Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in artificial model of human head, Phantom. Thus, current approach applied to biological molecules and electrolytes might be considered as complement to evaluate safety of irradiating sources on biological matter at molecular level.

  3. Genotoxic effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in HL-60 cells are not reproducible.

    PubMed

    Speit, Günter; Gminski, Richard; Tauber, Rudolf

    2013-08-15

    Conflicting results have been published regarding the induction of genotoxic effects by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Various results indicating a genotoxic potential of RF-EMF were reported by the collaborative EU-funded REFLEX (Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards From Low Energy Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods) project. There has been a long-lasting scientific debate about the reliability of the reported results and an attempt to reproduce parts of the results obtained with human fibroblasts failed. Another part of the REFLEX study was performed in Berlin with the human lymphoblastoid cell line HL-60; genotoxic effects of RF-EMF were measured by means of the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The plausibility and reliability of these results were also questioned. In order to contribute to a clarification of the biological significance of the reported findings, a repeat study was performed, involving scientists of the original study. Comet-assay experiments and micronucleus tests were performed under the same experimental conditions that had led to genotoxic effects in the REFLEX study. Here we report that the attempts to reproduce the induction of genotoxic effects by RF-EMF in HL-60 cells failed. No genotoxic effects of RF-EMF were measured in the repeat experiments. We could not find an explanation for the conflicting results. However, the negative repeat experiments suggest that the biological significance of genotoxic effects of RF-EMF reported by the REFLEX study should be re-assessed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of weak, low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (BEMER type) on gene expression of human mesenchymal stem cells and chondrocytes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Walther, Markus; Mayer, Florian; Kafka, Wolf; Schütze, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    In vitro effects of electromagnetic fields appear to be related to the type of electromagnetic field applied. Previously, we showed that human osteoblasts display effects of BEMER type electromagnetic field (BTEMF) on gene regulation. Here, we analyze effects of BTEMF on gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells and chondrocytes. Primary mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and the chondrocyte cell line C28I2 were stimulated 5 times at 12-h intervals for 8 min each with BTEMF. RNA from treated and control cells was analyzed for gene expression using the affymetrix chip HG-U133A. A limited number of regulated gene products from both cell types mainly affect cell metabolism and cell matrix structure. There was no increased expression of cancer-related genes. RT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts partly confirmed array data. Results indicate that BTEMF in human mesenchymal stem cells and chondrocytes provide the first indications to understanding therapeutic effects achieved with BTEMF stimulation.

  5. Effect of the Earth's magnetic field spatial distribution on the electromagnetic coupling at the fluid core boundaries for nutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koot, L.; Dumberry, M.

    2011-12-01

    Nutations are periodic variations in the orientation of the Earth's rotation axis in space. This motion is generated by the gravitational torque applied on the Earth's equatorial bulge by the Moon, the Sun, and the other planets. Because the mantle, the fluid outer core and the solid inner core react differently to the applied torque, the nutation motion is characterized by differential rotations between these three regions. Since the boundaries of the fluid outer core are permeated by a background magnetic field (the geodynamo field), the differential rotation at the fluid core boundaries induces a secondary magnetic field by shear and advection of the background field. The associated electric currents produce Lorentz forces and torques between the outer core, inner core, and mantle, that tend to oppose the differential rotation. A previous study has shown that the magnitude of the electromagnetic (EM) torque is mainly determined by the electrical conductivities on both sides of the outer core boundaries and by the mean RMS strength of the background magnetic field, with the spatial distribution of this magnetic field being unimportant to first order. The goal of the present work is to reassess the role of the magnetic field spatial distribution on the strength of the EM torque using a new model of the EM coupling for nutations that we have recently developed. Our model differs from previous ones in that we use a global approach to describe the induced magnetic field. Moreover, we also include in the torque the contribution from the poloidal component of the induced field, an effect neglected in previous models. In addition, we do not assume a priori that the non-dipolar components of the background magnetic field can be represented by a uniform field with the same power but instead we calculate the torque on the basis of the full geometry of the field. This is particularly important for the poloidal torque as it depends directly on the surface gradient of the

  6. Electromagnetic field parameters and instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, A. R.; Jones, R. A.; Stell, M. E.; Adey, W. R.; Bawin, S.

    1986-07-01

    We studied the effects of the electric and magnetic components of a Loran-C type waveform on three biological systems. Neurochemical assays of brain neurotransmitter substances indicate field-related changes in the levels of norepinephrine in the hippocampus and in the number and affinities of the opiate receptors in the cortex. Behavioral data showed that rats trained in an operant conditioning task did not reliably detect any electric field strength used. Biochemical data demonstrated that the Loran-C field did not modify basal ornithine decarboxylase activity in primary bone cells.

  7. Biological and Human Health Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields. Post-1977 Literature Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    years that Seafarer ELF fields might constitute a source of dangerous, even catastrophic, environmental contamination have been raised and found...Health Effects Research Laboratory, Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. W. T. Kaune, Ph.D., Biology Department...Battelle Northwest Richland, Washington. Robert Lindberg, Ph.D., Laboratory of Biomedical & Environmental Sciences, University of California-Los Angeles

  8. Effect of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on the activity of hsp70 promoter: an in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-De la Fuente, Abraham O.; Alcocer-González, Juan M.; Heredia-Rojas, J. Antonio; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Rodríguez-Flores, Laura E.; Santoyo-Stephano, Martha A.; Castañeda-Garza, Esperanza; Taméz-Guerra, Reyes S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to EMFs (electromagnetic fields) results in a number of important biological changes, including modification of genetic expression. We have investigated the effect of 60 Hz sinusoidal EMFs at a magnetic flux density of 80 μT on the expression of the luciferase gene contained in a plasmid labelled as pEMF (EMF plasmid). This gene construct contains the specific sequences for the induction of hsp70 (heat-shock protein 70) expression by EMFs, as well as the reporter for the luciferase gene. The pEMF vector was electrotransferred into quadriceps muscles of BALB/c mice that were later exposed to EMFs. Increased luciferase expression was observed in mice exposed to EMFs 2 h daily for 7 days compared with controls (P<0.05). These data along with other reports in the literature suggest that EMFs can have far-reaching effects on the genome. PMID:23124775

  9. The two-nucleon electromagnetic charge operator in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to one loop

    SciTech Connect

    S. Pastore,L. Girlanda,R. Schiavilla,M. Viviani,S. Pastore,L. Girlanda,R. Schiavilla,M. Viviani

    2011-08-01

    The electromagnetic charge operator in a two-nucleon system is derived in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to order $e\\, Q$ (or N4LO), where $Q$ denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. The specific form of the N3LO and N4LO corrections from, respectively, one-pion-exchange and two-pion-exchange depends on the off-the-energy-shell prescriptions adopted for the non-static terms in the corresponding potentials. We show that different prescriptions lead to unitarily equivalent potentials and accompanying charge operators. Thus, provided a consistent set is adopted, predictions for physical observables will remain unaffected by the non-uniqueness associated with these off-the-energy-shell effects.

  10. Two-nucleon electromagnetic charge operator in chiral effective field theory ({chi}EFT) up to one loop

    SciTech Connect

    Pastore, S.; Girlanda, L.; Schiavilla, R.; Viviani, M.

    2011-08-15

    The electromagnetic charge operator in a two-nucleon system is derived in chiral effective field theory ({chi}EFT) up to order e Q[or next-to-next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N4LO)], where Q denotes the low-momentum scale and e is the electric charge. The specific form of the N3LO and N4LO corrections from, respectively, one-pion-exchange and two-pion-exchange depends on the off-the-energy-shell prescriptions adopted for the nonstatic terms in the corresponding potentials. We show that different prescriptions lead to unitarily equivalent potentials and accompanying charge operators. Thus, provided a consistent set is adopted, predictions for physical observables will remain unaffected by the nonuniqueness associated with these off-the-energy-shell effects.

  11. Effects of GSM-modulated 900 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on the hematopoietic potential of mouse bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Maria Manuela; Nasta, Francesca; Prisco, Maria Grazia; Lovisolo, Giorgio Alfonso; Marino, Carmela; Pioli, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    Studies describing the influence of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on bone marrow cells (BMC) often lack functional data. We examined the effects of in vivo exposure to a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modulated 900 MHz RF fields on BMC using two transplantation models. X-irradiated syngeneic mice were injected with BMC from either RF-field-exposed, sham-exposed or cage control mice. Twelve weeks after transplantation, no differences in thymocyte number, frequency of subpopulations and cell proliferation were found in mice receiving BMC from either group. Also, in the spleen cell number, percentages of B/T cells, B/T-cell proliferation, and interferon γ (IFN-γ) production were similar in all groups. In parallel, a mixture of BMC from congenic sham- and RF-exposed mice were co-transplanted into lymphopenic Rag2 deficient mice. BMC from RF-exposed and sham-exposed mice displayed no advantage or disadvantage when competing for the replenishment of lymphatic organs with mature lymphocytes in Rag2 deficient mice. This model revealed that BMC from sham-exposed and RF-exposed mice were less efficient than BMC from cage control mice in repopulating the thymus, an effect likely due to restraint stress. In conclusion, our results showed no effects of in vivo exposure to GSM-modulated RF-fields on the ability of bone marrow (BM) precursors to long-term reconstitute peripheral T and B cell compartments.

  12. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments.

  13. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-11-19

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments. 12 figs.

  14. Effect of electromagnetic fields on the creation of scalar particles in a flat Robertson-Walker space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haouat, S.; Chekireb, R.

    2012-06-01

    The influence of electromagnetic fields on the creation of scalar particles from vacuum in a flat Robertson-Walker space-time is studied. The Klein-Gordon equation with varying electric field and constant magnetic one is solved. The Bogoliubov transformation method is applied to calculate the pair creation probability and the number density of created particles. It is shown that the electric field amplifies the creation of scalar particles while the magnetic field minimizes it.

  15. [Electromagnetic fields of mobile telephone systems--thresholds, effects and risks for cochlear implant patients and healthy people].

    PubMed

    Bischof, F; Langer, J; Begall, K

    2008-11-01

    Every day life is detectably affected by manifold natural sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF), e. g. infrared radiation, light and the terrestrial magnetic field. However, there is still uncertainty about the consequences or hazards of artificial EMF, which emerge from mobile phone or wireless network (wireless local area network [WLAN]) services, for instance. Following recommendations of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) the German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK) defined corresponding thresholds for high frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) in 2003. By observing those thresholds HF-EMF is thought to be innocent so far. However, there is still controversial discussion about induction of cancer or neurovegetative symptoms due to inconsistent study results. Patients with cochlea implants are of particular interest within the speciality of otorhinolaryngology due to specific hazards, which arise during mobile telephone use from the distance between brain and inductive metal implants (electrode) on the one hand and the electronic system of the cochlear implant and the source of HF-EMF on the other hand. Besides many studies about the impact of HF-EMF on common welfare, there are only very few surveys (n = 6) covering the effects on patients with cochlear implants. The purpose of this paper is to overview sources, thresholds and subsequently harmful or harmless effects of HFEMF. Due to the current state of knowledge about the impact of mobile phone use on health, we assume, that HF-EMF are harmless both for healthy people and patients with cochlea implants, provided that legal thresholds are observed.

  16. Does exposure to environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields cause cognitive and behavioral effects in 10-year-old boys?

    PubMed

    Calvente, Irene; Pérez-Lobato, Rocío; Núñez, María-Isabel; Ramos, Rosa; Guxens, Mònica; Villalba, Juan; Olea, Nicolás; Fernández, Mariana F

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields from non-ionizing radiation and adverse human health effects remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association of environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) exposure with neurobehavioral function of children. A subsample of 123 boys belonging to the Environment and Childhood cohort from Granada (Spain), recruited at birth from 2000 through 2002, were evaluated at the age of 9-11 years. Spot electric field measurements within the 100 kHz to 6 GHz frequency range, expressed as both root mean-square (S(RMS) and maximum power density (S(MAX)) magnitudes, were performed in the immediate surrounds of childreńs dwellings. Neurocognitive and behavioral functions were assessed with a comprehensive battery of tests. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used, adjusting for potential confounders. All measurements were lower than reference guideline limits, with median S(RMS) and S(MAX) values of 285.94 and 2759.68 μW/m(2), respectively. Most of the cognitive and behavioral parameters did not show any effect, but children living in higher RF exposure areas (above median S(RMS) levels) had lower scores for verbal expression/comprehension and higher scores for internalizing and total problems, and obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders, in comparison to those living in areas with lower exposure. These associations were stronger when S(MAX) values were considered. Although some of our results may suggest that low-level environmental RF-EMF exposure has a negative impact on cognitive and/or behavior development in children; given limitations in the study design and that the majority of neurobehavioral functioning tasks were not affected, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn.

  17. Effects of GSM-modulated radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on mouse bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Prisco, Maria Grazia; Nasta, Francesca; Rosado, Maria Manuela; Lovisolo, Giorgio Alfonso; Marino, Carmela; Pioli, Claudio

    2008-12-01

    We examined the effects of in vivo exposure to a GSM-modulated 900 MHz RF field on the ability of bone marrow cells to differentiate, colonize lymphatic organs, and rescue lethally X-irradiated mice from death. X-irradiated mice were injected with medium alone or containing bone marrow cells from either RF-field-exposed (SAR 2 W/kg, 2 h/day, 5 days/ week, 4 weeks) or sham-exposed or cage control donor mice. Whereas all mice injected with medium alone died, mice that received bone marrow cells survived. Three and 6 weeks after bone marrow cell transplantation, no differences in thymus cellularity and in the frequencies of differentiating cell subpopulations (identified by CD4/CD8 expression) were observed among the three transplanted groups. Mitogen-induced thymocyte proliferation yielded comparable levels in all transplanted groups. As to the spleen, no effects of the RF-field exposure on cell number, percentages of B and T (CD4 and CD8) cells, B- and T-cell proliferation, and IFN-gamma production were found in transplanted mice. In conclusion, our results show no effect of in vivo exposure to GSM-modulated RF fields on the ability of bone marrow precursor cells to home and colonize lymphoid organs and differentiate in phenotypically and functionally mature T and B lymphocytes.

  18. Effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the chemiluminescence (CL) of murine peritoneal exudate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Caren, L.D. )

    1992-02-26

    Stimulated PEC generate microbicidal free oxygen radicals which are potentially mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic. The effects of combined alternating electric and magnetic fields on oxygen radical production were measured in this study. A Helmholtz coil and parallel plate electrodes were utilized to provide uniform field characteristics. Effects were studied at combined field frequencies of 60, 600, and 6,000 Hz. Thioglycollate-elicited PEC were exposed to EMF or placed in a far corner of the lab (controls). Following the addition of zymosan, luminol-enhanced CL was measured. No differences in CL were found for exposures to 60 Hz for 18 hr; 600 Hz for 10 hr; or 6,000 Hz for 0.75 hr. PEC exposed to 6,000 Hz for 11 hr showed a 25% increase in CL over control PEC. At 600 and 6,000 Hz, the temperature of the air and a dish of saline in the EMF apparatus was 26C, vs. 25C where the controls were kept. At 60 Hz, there was no temperature difference. These preliminary experiments indicate that under these conditions, EMF fields do not have a significant effect on this immune function.

  19. No effect of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on MYC or {beta}-actin expression in human leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy-Hulbert, A.; Wilkins, R.C.; Hesketh, T.R.

    1995-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown weak correlations between exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) and the incidence of several cancers, particularly childhood leukemias, although negative studies have also been reported. These observations have prompted a broad range of in vitro cellular studies in which effects of ELF EMFs have been observed. However, no reported response has been replicated widely in independent laboratories. One potentially important response is the rapid activation of proto-oncogenes and other genes in human leukemic (HL60) cells and a wide variety of other eukaryotic cells, because of the role of these genes in cell proliferation. We describe quantitative Northern analysis of MYC and {beta}actin mRNAs from HL60 cells exposed to fields under conditions very similar to those reported previously to activate these genes, namely 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields of 0.57, 5.7 or 57 {mu}T for 20 min. In addition we have used a new design of field-exposure system and introduced a number of other modifications to the protocol to optimize any response. We have also developed a novel method providing enhanced accuracy for the quantitative measurement of mRNA. No significant effect of ELF EMFs on gene expression was observed using any of these systems and analytical methods. 70 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Effect of rosmarinic acid on sertoli cells apoptosis and serum antioxidant levels in rats after exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hajhosseini, Laleh; Khaki, Arash; Merat, Ehsan; Ainehchi, Nava

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid belongs to the group of polyphenols; it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities and help to prevent cell damage caused by free radicals. The objective was to study the effect of Rosmarinic acid on sertolli cells apoptosis and serum antioxidant levels in rats after they were exposed to electromagnetic fields. Male Wistar rats (n=40) were allocated into three groups: control group (n=10) that received 5 cc normal saline (0.9% NaCl) daily by gavage method, Rosmarinic acid group that received 5mg/rat (gavage) (n=10), electromagnetic fields (EMF) group that had exposure with 50 hz (n=20) which was subdivided to two groups of 10; EMF group and treatment group. Treatment group received 5mg/rat (gavage) Rosmarinic acid daily for 6 weeks, respectively. However, the control group just received an equal volume of distilled water daily (gavage). On the 42nd day of research, 5 cc blood was collected to measure testosterone hormones, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), levels from whole group's analysis. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and sertoli cells apoptosis significantly decreased in the group that received 5mg/rat of Rosmarinic acid (P<0.05) in comparison with experimental groups. Level of testosterone, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), significantly increased in groups that received Rosmarinic acid (P<0.05). Since in our study 5mg/rat of Rosmarinic acid showed significantly preventive effect on cell damages especial sertoli cells apoptosis that caused with EMF, it seems that using Rosmarinic acid as food additive can be effective for supporting people living under EMF environmental pollution.

  1. Effects of gamma rays, ultraviolet radiation, sunlight, microwaves and electromagnetic fields on gene expression mediated by human immunodeficiency virus promoter.

    PubMed

    Libertin, C R; Panozzo, J; Groh, K R; Chang-Liu, C M; Schreck, S; Woloschak, G E

    1994-10-01

    Previous work by our group and others has shown the modulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter or long terminal repeat (LTR) after exposure to neutrons and ultraviolet radiations. Using HeLa cells stably transfected with a construct containing the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene, the transcription of which is mediated by the HIV-LTR, we designed experiments to examine the effects of exposure to different types of radiation (such as gamma rays, ultraviolet and sunlight irradiations, electromagnetic fields and microwaves) on HIV-LTR-driven expression of CAT. These results demonstrated ultraviolet-light-induced transcription from the HIV promoter, as has been shown by others. Exposure to other DNA-damaging agents such as gamma rays and sunlight (with limited exposures) had no significant effect on transcription mediated by HIV-LTR, suggesting that induction of HIV is not mediated by just any type of DNA damage but rather may require specific types of DNA damage. Microwaves did not cause cell killing when cells in culture were exposed in high volumes of medium, and the same cells showed no changes in expression. When microwave exposure was carried out in low volumes of medium (so that excessive heat was generated) induction of HIV-LTR transcription (as assayed by CAT activity) was evident. Electromagnetic field exposures had no effect on expression of HIV-LTR. These results demonstrate that not all types of radiation and not all DNA-damaging agents are capable of inducing HIV. We hypothesize that induction of HIV transcription may be mediated by several different signals after exposure to radiation.

  2. [Effect of discontinuous short-wave electromagnetic field irradiation on the state of the endocrine glands].

    PubMed

    Minkina, N A; Kuz'minskaia, G N; Nikitina, V N; Garina, Ch A

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of interrupted EMF SW of 500 and 250 V/m on endocrine glands of male rats. The following changes were noted: activation of neurosecretion in hypothalamus, inhibition of adrenocorticotropic and gonadotropic functions of hypophysis and adrenal cortex, degenerative and dystrophic changes in testes. The observed disorders were aggravated as the intensity of the field and duration of exposure increased.

  3. Analysis of lightning electromagnetic field propagation in mountainous terrain and its effects on ToA-based lightning location systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongshuai; Azadifar, Mohammad; Rachidi, Farhad; Rubinstein, Marcos; Diendorfer, Gerhard; Sheshyekani, Keyhan; Zhang, Qilin; Wang, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the propagation effects on lightning-radiated electromagnetic fields over mountainous terrain by using a three-dimensional (3-D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We also discuss the time delay error in the time-of-arrival (ToA) technique currently used to locate lightning in detection networks, specifically. Furthermore, the accuracy of different approximate methods presented in the literature is discussed and tested by using our 3-D FDTD method. It is found that (1) the time delays and amplitudes of the lightning-radiated electromagnetic fields can be significantly affected by the presence of a mountainous terrain and associated diffraction phenomena; (2) for a finitely conducting ground, the time delay shows a slight increase with the increase of the observation distance, but the time delay resulting from the finite ground conductivity appears to be smaller than that caused by the mountainous terrain; and (3) the timing error associated with the ToA technique depends on the threshold times. Threshold times of 10% and 20% of the peak provide very similar results compared to those corresponding to the peak of the first derivative of the magnetic field, and the threshold time exceeds 50% of the initial rising amplitude of the signal. Furthermore, we have assessed the accuracy of two simplified methods (terrain-envelope method and tight-terrain fit method) to account for the time delays resulting from the propagation in a mountainous terrain. It is found that both methods result in time delays that are in reasonable agreement but always overestimating the results obtained using the full-wave 3-D FDTD approach for the perfectly conducting ground. These two methods represent interesting alternatives to account for the time delay over a nonflat terrain using the terrain model.

  4. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the nonlinear optical properties of asymmetric double quantum well under intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilgul, U.; Sari, H.; Ungan, F.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Restrepo, R. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.; Sökmen, I.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation in asymmetric double quantum well under the intense non-resonant laser field is theoretically investigated. We calculate the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation within the compact density-matrix approach. The theoretical findings show that the influence of electric, magnetic, and intense laser fields leads to significant changes in the coefficients of nonlinear optical rectification, second and third harmonic generation.

  5. Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields exposure on cochlear cells' functionality in rats: evaluation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Galloni, Paolo; Lovisolo, Giorgio Alfonso; Mancini, Sergio; Parazzini, Marta; Pinto, Rosanna; Piscitelli, Marta; Ravazzani, Paolo; Marino, Carmela

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has been accompanied by public debate about possible adverse consequences on human health. The auditory system is a major target of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular telephones; the aim of this study was the evaluation of possible effects of cellular phone-like emissions on the functionality of rat's cochlea. Distortion Products OtoAcoustic Emission (DPOAE) amplitude was selected as cochlea's outer hair cells (OHC) status indicator. A number of protocols, including different frequencies (the lower ones in rat's cochlea sensitivity spectrum), intensities and periods of exposure, were used; tests were carried out before, during and after the period of treatment. No significant variation due to exposure to microwaves has been evidenced.

  6. Near-field radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Nina; Perov, Sergey; Belaya, Olga; Kuster, Niels; Balzano, Quirino

    2015-09-01

    Personal wireless telecommunication devices, such as radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) sources operated in vicinity of human body, have possible adverse health effects. Therefore, the correct EMF assessment is necessary in their near field. According to international near-field measurement criteria, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is used for absorbed energy distribution assessment in tissue simulating liquid phantoms. The aim of this investigation is to validate the relationship between the H-field of incident EMF and absorbed energy in phantoms. Three typical wireless telecommunication system frequencies are considered (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz). The EMF source at each frequency is an appropriate half-wave dipole antenna and the absorbing medium is a flat phantom filled with the suitable tissue simulating liquid. Two methods for SAR estimation have been used: standard procedure based on E-field measured in tissue simulating medium and a proposed evaluation by measuring the incident H-field. Compared SAR estimations were performed for various distances between sources and phantom. Also, these research data were compared with simulation results, obtained by using finite-difference time-domain method. The acquired data help to determine the source near-field space characterized by the smallest deviation between SAR estimation methods. So, this region near the RF source is suitable for correct RF energy absorption assessment using the magnetic component of the RF fields.

  7. [Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF)--results in evidence based medicine].

    PubMed

    Pieber, Karin; Schuhfried, Othmar; Fialka-Moser, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    Therapy with electromagnetic fields has a very old tradition in medicine. The indications are widespread, whereas little is known about the effects. Controlled randomizied studies with positive results for pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are available for osteotomies, the healing of skin wounds, and osteoarthritis. Comparison of the studies is difficult because of the different doses applied and intervals of therapy. Therefore recommendations regarding an optimal dosis and interval are, depending on the disease, quite variable.

  8. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field with Predatory Stress on Functional and Histological Index of Injured-Sciatic Nerve in Rat.

    PubMed

    Tasbih-Forosh, Maryam; Zarei, Leila; Saboory, Ehsan; Bahrami-Bukani, Mehran

    2017-04-01

    To assess the effect of combination of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) with predatory stress on transected sciatic nerve regeneration in rats. In sham- operated group (SOG) the nerve was manipulated and left intact. The 10-mm rat sciatic nerve gap was created in rats. In transected group (Transected) nerve stumps were sutured to adjacent muscle and in vein graft group (VG) the gap was bridged using an inside-out vein graft. In VG/PEMF group the transected nerve was bridged using vein graft, phosphate buffered saline was administered into the graft and the whole body was exposed to PEMF. In VG/PS group the transected nerve was bridged using vein graft, phosphate buffered saline was administered into the graft and the rats underwent predatory stress (PS).  In VG/PEMF/PS group the transected nerve was bridged using vein graft, phosphate buffered saline was administered into the graft, the whole body was exposed to PEMF and the rats underwent predatory stress. The regenerated nerve fibers were studied within 12 weeks after surgery. Functional, gastrocnemius muscle mass findings and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in VG/PEMF and VG/PEMF/PS groups compared to those in the other groups (p=0.001). The whole body exposure to PEMF improved functional recovery. Predatory stress did not affect nerve regeneration in the animals undergone predatory stress (p=0.343). Pulsed electromagnetic fields could be considered as an effective, safe and tolerable treatment for peripheral nerve repair in clinical practice.

  9. Gene transcription and electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Our overall aim is to obtain sufficient information to allow us to ultimately determine whether ELF EM field exposure is an initiating factor in neoplastic transformation and/or if exposure can mimic characteristics of the second-step counterpart in neoplastic disease. This aim is based on our previous findings that levels of some transcripts are increased in cells exposed to EM fields. While the research is basic in nature, the ramifications have bearing on the general safety of exposure to EM fields in industrial and everyday life. A large array of diverse biological effects are reported to occur as the result of exposure to elf EM fields, suggesting that the cell response to EM fields is at a basic level, presumably initiated by molecular and/or biophysical events at the cell membrane. The hypothesized route is a signal transduction pathway involving membrane calcium fluxes. Information flow resulting from signal transduction can mediate the induction of regulatory factors in the cell, and directly affect how transcription is regulated.

  10. Comparison of self-fields effects in two-stream electromagnetically pumped FEL with ion-channel guiding and axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saviz, S.; Mehdian, H.; Aghamir, Farzin M.; Ghorannevis, M.; Ashkarran, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    A theory of two-stream free-electron laser in a combined electromagnetic wiggler and an ion-channel guiding is developed. In the analysis, the electron trajectories and the small signal gain are derived by considering the effects of self-fields. Numerical calculations show that there are seven group's trajectories rather than nine groups reported in Mehdian and Saviz (2010 Chin. Phys. B 19(1), 014214). The comparison of the normalized gains and their corresponding normalized frequencies by employing the axial magnetic field and ion-channel guiding, with and without self-fields, in FEL has been studied numerically. The results show that the normalized maximum gain in FEL with axial magnetic is larger than that for using ion-channel guiding except in small region, but the results for their corresponding normalized frequencies are opposite.

  11. Effect exerted by a radio wave electromagnetic field on the rheological properties of water and portland-cement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azharonok, V. V.; Belous, N. Kh.; Rodtsevich, S. P.; Koshevar, V. D.; Shkadretsova, V. G.; Goncharik, S. V.; Chubrik, N. I.; Orlovich, A. I.

    2013-09-01

    We have studied the effect of the regimes of high-frequency (radio wave) electromagnetic treatment of gauging water on the process of structurization and on the technological characteristics of portland-cement systems. It has been established that the radio wave electromagnetic activation of water leads to a reduction in its surface tension, dynamic viscosity, and shear stress, as well as intensifies the formation of coagulation structures in a portlandcement slurry and aids in increasing the mobility of cement-sand mixtures.

  12. Program For Displaying Computed Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hom, Kam W.

    1995-01-01

    EM-ANIMATE computer program specialized visualization displays and animates output data on near fields and surface currents computed by electromagnetic-field program - in particular MOM3D (LAR-15074). Program based on windows and contains user-friendly, graphical interface for setting viewing options, selecting cases, manipulating files, and like. Written in FORTRAN 77. EM-ANIMATE also available as part of package, COS-10048, includes MOM3D, IRIS program computing near-field and surface-current solutions of electromagnetic-field equations.

  13. Combined effect of constant high voltage electrostatic field and variable frequency pulsed electromagnetic field on the morphology of calcium carbonate scale in circulating cooling water systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ju-Dong; Liu, Zhi-An; Zhao, Er-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Research on scale inhibition is of importance to improve the heat transfer efficiency of heat exchangers. The combined effect of high voltage electrostatic and variable frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on calcium carbonate precipitation was investigated, both theoretically and experimentally. Using energy dispersive spectrum analysis, the predominant phase was found to be CaCO(3). The formed crystal phases mainly consist of calcite and aragonite, which is, in part, verified by theory. The results indicate that the setting of water flow velocity, and high voltage electrostatic and variable frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields is very important. Favorable values of these parameters can have a significant anti-scaling effect, with 68.95% of anti-scaling ratio for scale sample 13, while unfavorable values do not affect scale inhibition, but rather promoted fouling, such as scale sample 6. By using scanning electron microscopy analysis, when the anti-scaling ratio is positive, the particle size of scale was found to become smaller than that of untreated sample and the morphology became loose. The X-ray diffraction results verify that the good combined effect favors the appearance and growth of aragonite and restrains its transition to calcite. The mechanism for scale reduction is discussed.

  14. [Effect of ATP and glutaminic acid on carbohydrate-energy and nitrogen metabolism in the rat brain and liver under the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field].

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, L I; Kolodub, F A

    1975-01-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation, content of lactate, creatine phosphate, ammonia and glutamine were studied as affected by ATP and glutaminic acid in the brain and liver of rat subjected to the action of the pulsed electromagnetic field of 7 kHz frequency (72 kA/m, 15 seances). ATP (1 mg per 100 g of weight) was found to have a normalizing effect on the processes of nitrogen metabolism in the rat brain, ATP increasing the intenstiy of the oxidative phosphorylation in the tissues of intact rats, has no analogous influence on the irradiated animals. With administration of glutaminic acid (5 mg per 100 g of weight) the processes of oxidative phosphorylation and nitrogen metabolism, disturbed under the effect of the pulsed electromagnetic field are normalized.

  15. Design and fabrication of helmholtz coils to study the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the healing process in periodontitis: preliminary animal results.

    PubMed

    Haghnegahdar, A; Khosrovpanah, H; Andisheh-Tadbir, A; Mortazavi, Gh; Saeedi Moghadam, M; Mortazavi, Smj; Zamani, A; Haghani, M; Shojaei Fard, M; Parsaei, H; Koohi, O

    2014-09-01

    Effects of electromagnetic fields on healing have been investigated for centuries. Substantial data indicate that exposure to electromagnetic field can lead to enhanced healing in both soft and hard tissues. Helmholtz coils are devices that generate pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). Objective : In this work, a pair of Helmholtz coils for enhancing the healing process in periodontitis was designed and fabricated. An identical pair of square Helmholtz coils generated the 50 Hz magnetic field.  This device was made up of two parallel coaxial circular coils (100 turns in each loop, wound in series) which were separated from each other by a distance equal to the radius of one coil (12.5 cm). The windings of our Helmholtz coil was made of standard 0.95mm wire to provide the maximum possible current. The coil was powered by a function generator.  The Helmholtz Coils generated a uniform magnetic field between its coils. The magnetic field strength at the center of the space between two coils was 97.6 μT. Preliminary biological studies performed on rats show that exposure of laboratory animals to pulsed electromagnetic fields enhanced the healing of periodontitis. Exposure to PEMFs can lead to stimulatory physiological effects on cells and tissues such as enhanced healing of periodontitis.

  16. Design and Fabrication of Helmholtz Coils to Study the Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on the Healing Process in Periodontitis: Preliminary Animal Results

    PubMed Central

    Haghnegahdar, A; Khosrovpanah, H; Andisheh-Tadbir, A; Mortazavi, Gh; Saeedi Moghadam, M; Mortazavi, SMJ; Zamani, A; Haghani, M; Shojaei Fard, M; Parsaei, H; Koohi, O

    2014-01-01

    Background: Effects of electromagnetic fields on healing have been investigated for centuries. Substantial data indicate that exposure to electromagnetic field can lead to enhanced healing in both soft and hard tissues. Helmholtz coils are devices that generate pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). Objective: In this work, a pair of Helmholtz coils for enhancing the healing process in periodontitis was designed and fabricated. Method: An identical pair of square Helmholtz coils generated the 50 Hz magnetic field.  This device was made up of two parallel coaxial circular coils (100 turns in each loop, wound in series) which were separated from each other by a distance equal to the radius of one coil (12.5 cm). The windings of our Helmholtz coil was made of standard 0.95mm wire to provide the maximum possible current. The coil was powered by a function generator.  Results: The Helmholtz Coils generated a uniform magnetic field between its coils. The magnetic field strength at the center of the space between two coils was 97.6 μT. Preliminary biological studies performed on rats show that exposure of laboratory animals to pulsed electromagnetic fields enhanced the healing of periodontitis. Conclusion: Exposure to PEMFs can lead to stimulatory physiological effects on cells and tissues such as enhanced healing of periodontitis. PMID:25505775

  17. Studies of Weak, ELF Electromagnetic Fields Effects on the Early Embryonic Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-29

    8217.account that the amibient DC field had a 44.2 uT\\ magnetic flux density, for a possvihl, reso-nant effect on sodium and calciun ions transport . Even...days. In the process of transport of the eggs from the first incubator to the poultry one, the eggs were maintained at the laboratory temperature (22...during and after their transport to the poultry incubator. 14 TBLEI Cases of dead and/or malformed organisms observed after a 11 day incubation, among

  18. Health problems among workers of iron welding machines: an effect of electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Prasad, S K; Vyas, S

    2001-04-01

    The possible effects of EMFs on 100 workers were studied by means of structured interview and rating of subjective symptoms. As control 41 sewing machine operators and assembly workers were chosen, interviewed and likewise tested. The present Indian ceiling value of 250 Tesla for the equivalent power density was exceeded in more than 50% of the machines. The highest leakage fields, for EMFs, were found near machines, which gave a high exposure to the hands. Eye irritation complaints were reported by 40% of the workers. The fertility outcome did not show any significant result.

  19. Effects of subchronic extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure on biochemical parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xue; Ma, Lingjuan; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yanwen

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to systematically determine the effects of 50 Hertz (Hz) magnetic fields (MFs) on biochemical parameters in rats. Sixty-four adult (5 weeks old, 140-165 g) male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, 20 µTesla (µT), 100 µT, and 500 µT 50 Hz MF ( n = 16 in each group). The rats in the MF groups were exposed for 2 h daily for up to 4 weeks. Under these experimental conditions, body weight, organ coefficients, biochemical parameters (blood lipids, myocardial enzymes, liver function, and renal function) were measured. We found that 50 Hz MFs had no significant effects on growth or on the majority of blood biochemical parameters, with the exception of creatinine and cholesterol. However, the changes in creatinine and cholesterol were relatively small and unlikely to be clinically relevant.

  20. No effects of GSM-modulated 900 MHz electromagnetic fields on survival rate and spontaneous development of lymphoma in female AKR/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Angela M; Streckert, Joachim; Bitz, Andreas K; Hansen, Volkert W; Lerchl, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Background Several reports indicated that non-thermal electromagnetic radiation such as from mobile phones and base stations may promote cancer. Therefore, it was investigated experimentally, whether 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure influences lymphoma development in a mouse strain that is genetically predisposed to this disease. The AKR/J mice genome carries the AK-virus, which leads within one year to spontaneous development of thymic lymphoblastic lymphoma. Methods 320 unrestrained female mice were sham-exposed or exposed (each n = 160 animals) to GSM like 900 MHz electromagnetic fields for 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, at an average whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) value of 0.4 W/kg. Animals were visually checked daily and were weighed and palpated weekly. Starting with an age of 6 months, blood samples were taken monthly from the tail. Animals with signs of disease or with an age of about 46 weeks were sacrificed and a gross necropsy was performed. Results Electromagnetic field exposure had a significant effect on body weight gain, with higher values in exposed than in sham-exposed animals. However, survival rate and lymphoma incidence did not differ between exposed and sham-exposed mice. Conclusion These data do not support the hypothesis that exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields is a significant risk factor for developing lymphoma in a genetically predisposed species, even at a relatively high exposure level. PMID:15538947

  1. Controlling the Electromagnetic Field Confinement with Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bonache, Jordi; Zamora, Gerard; Paredes, Ferran; Zuffanelli, Simone; Aguilà, Pau; Martín, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    The definition of a precise illumination region is essential in many applications where the electromagnetic field should be confined in some specific volume. By using conventional structures, it is difficult to achieve an adequate confinement distance (or volume) with negligible levels of radiation leakage beyond it. Although metamaterial structures and metasurfaces are well-known to provide high controllability of their electromagnetic properties, this feature has not yet been applied to solve this problem. We present a method of electromagnetic field confinement based on the generation of evanescent waves by means of metamaterial structures. With this method, the confinement volume can be controlled, namely, it is possible to define a large area with an intense field without radiation leakage. A prototype working in the microwave region has been implemented, and very good agreement between the measurements and the theoretical prediction of field distribution has been obtained. PMID:27886230

  2. Controlling the Electromagnetic Field Confinement with Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonache, Jordi; Zamora, Gerard; Paredes, Ferran; Zuffanelli, Simone; Aguilà, Pau; Martín, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    The definition of a precise illumination region is essential in many applications where the electromagnetic field should be confined in some specific volume. By using conventional structures, it is difficult to achieve an adequate confinement distance (or volume) with negligible levels of radiation leakage beyond it. Although metamaterial structures and metasurfaces are well-known to provide high controllability of their electromagnetic properties, this feature has not yet been applied to solve this problem. We present a method of electromagnetic field confinement based on the generation of evanescent waves by means of metamaterial structures. With this method, the confinement volume can be controlled, namely, it is possible to define a large area with an intense field without radiation leakage. A prototype working in the microwave region has been implemented, and very good agreement between the measurements and the theoretical prediction of field distribution has been obtained.

  3. Effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields: critical evaluation of behavioral and neurophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2011-05-01

    For the last two decades, a large number of studies have investigated the effects of mobile phone radiation on the human brain and cognition using behavioral or neurophysiological measurements. This review evaluated previous findings with respect to study design and data analysis. Provocation studies found no evidence of subjective symptoms attributed to mobile phone radiation, suggesting psychological reasons for inducing such symptoms in hypersensitive people. Behavioral studies previously reported improved cognitive performance under exposure, but it was likely to have occurred by chance due to multiple comparisons. Recent behavioral studies and replication studies with more conservative statistics found no significant effects compared with original studies. Neurophysiological studies found no significant effects on cochlear and brainstem auditory processing, but only inconsistent results on spontaneous and evoked brain electrical activity. The inconsistent findings suggest possible false positives due to multiple comparisons and thus replication is needed. Other approaches such as brain hemodynamic response measurements are promising but the findings are few and not yet conclusive. Rigorous study design and data analysis considering multiple comparisons and effect size are required to reduce controversy in this important field of research.

  4. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields have no effect on the in vivo proliferation of the 9L brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Higashikubo, R; Culbreth, V O; Spitz, D R; LaRegina, M C; Pickard, W F; Straube, W L; Moros, E G; Roti, J L

    1999-12-01

    The intracranial 9L tumor model was used to determine if exposure to a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field similar to those used in cellular telephone has any effects on the growth of a central nervous system tumor. Fischer 344 rats implanted with different numbers of 9L gliosarcoma cells were exposed to 835.62 MHz frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) or 847.74 MHz code division multiple access (CDMA) RF field with nominal slot-average specific absorption rates in the brain of 0.75 +/- 0.25 W/kg. The animals were exposed to the RF field for 4 h a day, 5 days a week starting 4 weeks prior to and up to 150 days after the implantation of tumor cells. Among sham-exposed animals injected with 2 to 10 viable cells (group 1), the median survival was 70 days, with 27% of the animals surviving at 150 days. The median survival length and final survival fraction for animals injected with 11 to 36 viable cells (group 2) were 52 days and 14%, respectively, while the values for those injected with 37 to 100 cells (group 3) were 45 days and 0%. The animals exposed to CDMA or FMCW had similar survival parameters, and the statistical comparison of the survival curves for each of the groups 1, 2 and 3 showed no significant differences compared to sham-exposed controls.

  5. Effects of Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) electromagnetic fields on the blood-brain barrier in vitro.

    PubMed

    Franke, Helmut; Streckert, Joachim; Bitz, Andreas; Goeke, Johannes; Hansen, Volkert; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Nattkämper, Heiner; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Stögbauer, Florian

    2005-09-01

    The extensive use of mobile phone communication has raised public concerns about adverse health effects of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in recent years. A central issue in this discussion is the question whether EMFs enhance the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here we report an investigation on the influence of a generic UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) signal on barrier tightness, transport processes and the morphology of porcine brain microvascular endothelial cell cultures (PBEC) serving as an in vitro model of the BBB. An exposure device with integrated online monitoring system was developed for simultaneous exposure and measuring of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) to determine the tightness of the BBB. PBEC were exposed continuously for up to 84 h at an average electric-field strength of 3.4-34 V/m (maximum 1.8 W/kg) ensuring athermal conditions. We did not find any evidence of RF-field-induced disturbance of the function of the BBB. After and during exposure, the tightness of the BBB quantified by 14C-sucrose and serum albumin permeation as well as by TEER remained unchanged compared to sham-exposed cultures. Permeation of transporter substrates at the BBB as well as the localization and integrity of the tight-junction proteins occludin and ZO1 were not affected either.

  6. Evaluation of genotoxic effects in human fibroblasts after intermittent exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields: a confirmatory study.

    PubMed

    Scarfí, Maria Rosaria; Sannino, Anna; Perrotta, Alessandro; Sarti, Maurizio; Mesirca, Pietro; Bersani, Ferdinando

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to confirm the main results reported in recent studies on the induction of genotoxic effects in human fibroblasts exposed to 50 Hz intermittent (5 min field on/10 min field off) sinusoidal electromagnetic fields. For this purpose, the induction of DNA single-strand breaks was evaluated by applying the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)/comet assay. To extend the study and validate the results, in the same experimental conditions, the potential genotoxicity was also tested by exposing the cells to a 50 Hz powerline signal (50 Hz frequency plus its harmonics). The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was applied after 24 h intermittent exposure to both sinusoidal and powerline signals to obtain information on cell cycle kinetics. The experiments were carried out on human diploid fibroblasts (ES-1). For each experimental run, exposed and sham-exposed samples were set up; positive controls were also provided by treating cells with hydrogen peroxide or mitomycin C for the comet or micronucleus assay, respectively. No statistically significant difference was detected in exposed compared to sham-exposed samples in any of the experimental conditions tested (P > 0.05). In contrast, the positive controls showed a statistically significant increase in DNA damage in all cases, as expected. Accordingly, our findings do not confirm the results reported previously for either comet induction or an increase in micronucleus frequency.

  7. Quantization of the electromagnetic field at the presence of two dielectric slabs and application to the Casimir effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falinejad, Hossein

    2017-06-01

    The three dimensional formalism of the Green function method of the electro-magnetic field quantization is extended to quantize the electromagnetic field, at the presence of two dispersive and dissipative dielectric slabs. It is shown that the system decomposes into a singlet and a doublet parts. The singlet system corresponds to the normal polarization state of the electric field and the doublet system corresponds to the sum of parallel and longitudinal polarization states. Each part is quantized separately and vector potential operator of the each part is derived in terms of rightward and leftwards annihilation and creation operators. By using the assuming commutation properties of the noise current density, the equal time canonical commutation relations between the vector potential operator and its conjugate generalized momentum are verified for each part. Finally as an application, the explicit form of field operators are used to obtain an expression for the Casimir force between the two slabs via Maxwell stress tensor.

  8. Effect of ultraviolet B radiation and 100 Hz electromagnetic fields on proliferation and DNA synthesis of Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Nindl, G; Hughes, E F; Johnson, M T; Spandau, D F; Vesper, D N; Balcavage, W X

    2002-09-01

    The use of ultraviolet B light (UVB) has been proven to be highly effective for treatment of various inflammatory skin diseases, but UVB phototherapy is limited by its carcinogenic side effects. It is necessary to uncover effectors that augment UVB so that similar or improved efficacy can be obtained with lower UVB doses. We found that low frequency, low intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can act as such an effector and synergistically inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation. We first characterized the effects of UVB on Jurkat cells, a model for cutaneous T lymphocytes, and determined UVB's dose dependent inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Cells exposed to a sublethal UVB dose retained their sensitivity to UVB, but repetitive irradiation seemed to cause accumulation of delayed DNA damage. We then exposed cells to combinations of UVB plus EMFs and found that 100 Hz, 1 mT EMFs decrease DNA synthesis of UVB-activated Jurkat cells by 34 +/- 13% compared to UVB alone. The decrease is, however, most effective when relatively high UVB doses are employed. Since EMFs alone had only a very weak inhibitory effect (10 +/- 2%), the data suggest that EMFs augment the cell killing effects of UVB in a synergistic way. These findings could provide the basis for development of new and improved clinical phototherapy protocols. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Hematological and toxicogenomic effects of ferromagnetic screening of natural electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, S D; Nikitina, V N; Yamshanov, V A; Kovanko, E G; Lyashko, G G; Monakhov, A S; Koshelevsky, V K

    2011-05-01

    Aftereffects of ferromagnetic screening on the hematological and toxicogenomic parameters in rats were traced over 45 days. Two-day ferromagnetic screening of male and female rats (reducing permanent constituent of magnetic field induction by 4-10 μT) led to leukopenia observed on day 14 of the experiment. Life-time evaluation of the toxicogenomic effects was carried out by rapid method for measurement of blood nucleotide DNA by fluorescent indication. In male blood leukocytes, increased aneuploidy and polyploidy were observed after 48 h of ferromagnetic screening and remained high on days 12 and 28 after screen removal. In contrast to males, leukocyte apoptosis in females was increased only 48 h after the start of ferromagnetic screening.

  10. Electromagnetic field patterning or crystal light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słupski, Piotr; Wymysłowski, Artur; Czarczyński, Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Using the orbital angular momentum of light for the development of a vortex interferometer, the underlying physics requires microwave/RF models,1 as well as quantum mechanics for light1, 2 and fluid flow for semiconductor devices.3, 4 The combination of the aforementioned physical models yields simulations and results such as optical lattices,1 or an Inverse Farday effect.5 The latter is explained as the absorption of optical angular momentum, generating extremely high instantenous magnetic fields due to radiation friction. An algorithmic reduction across the computational methods used in microwaves, lasers, quantum optics and holography is performed in order to explain electromagnetic field interactions in a single computational framework. This work presents a computational model for photon-electron interactions, being a simplified gauge theory described using differentials or disturbances (photons) instead of integrals or fields. The model is based on treating the Z-axis variables as a Laplace fluid with spatial harmonics, and the XY plane as Maxwell's equations on boundaries. The result is a unified, coherent, graphical computational method of describing the photon qualitatively, quantitatively and with proportion. The model relies on five variables and is described using two equations, which use emitted power, cavity wavelength, input frequency, phase and time. Phase is treated as a rotated physical dimension under gauge theory of Feynmann's QED. In essence, this model allows the electromagnetic field to be treated with it's specific crystallography. The model itself is described in Python programming language. PACS 42.50.Pq, 31.30.J-, 03.70.+k, 11.10.-z, 67.10.Hk

  11. Characterizing and Designing Localized Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzdov, Georgy N.

    2004-11-01

    An approach to characterizing and designing localized electromagnetic fields in complex media and free space, based on the use of differentiable manifolds, differentiable mappings, and the rotation group, is discussed. Families of exact time-harmonic solutions to Maxwell's equations -- standing waves defined by spherical harmonics, and localized fields defined by the rotation group -- are presented.

  12. The effects of prenatal exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on the 21-day-old male rat heart.

    PubMed

    Türedi, Sibel; Hancı, Hatice; Topal, Zehra; Ünal, Deniz; Mercantepe, Tolga; Bozkurt, İlyas; Kaya, Haydar; Odacı, Ersan

    2015-01-01

    The growing spread of mobile phone use is raising concerns about the effect on human health of the electromagnetic field (EMF) these devices emit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on rat pup heart tissue of prenatal exposure to a 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF. For this purpose, pregnant rats were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group rats were exposed to a 900 MHz EMF (1 h/d) on days 13-21 of pregnancy. Measurements were performed with rats inside the exposure box in order to determine the distribution of EMF intensity. Our measurements showed that pregnant experimental group rats were exposed to a mean electrical field intensity of 13.77 V/m inside the box (0.50 W/m(2)). This study continued with male rat pups obtained from both groups. Pups were sacrificed on postnatal day 21, and the heart tissues were extracted. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase values were significantly higher in the experimental group rats, while glutathione values were lower. Light microscopy revealed irregularities in heart muscle fibers and apoptotic changes in the experimental group. Electron microscopy revealed crista loss and swelling in the mitochondria, degeneration in myofibrils and structural impairments in Z bands. Our study results suggest that exposure to EMF in the prenatal period causes oxidative stress and histopathological changes in male rat pup heart tissue.

  13. Quantum mechanical model for the anticarcinogenic effect of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields on early chemical hepatocarcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godina-Nava, Juan José; Torres-Vega, Gabino; López-Riquelme, Germán Octavio; López-Sandoval, Eduardo; Samana, Arturo Rodolfo; García Velasco, Fermín; Hernández-Aguilar, Claudia; Domínguez-Pacheco, Arturo

    2017-02-01

    Using the conventional Haberkorn approach, it is evaluated the recombination of the radical pair (RP) singlet spin state to study theoretically the cytoprotective effect of an extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on early stages of hepatic cancer chemically induced in rats. The proposal is that ELF-EMF modulates the interconversion rate of singlet and triplet spin states of the RP populations modifying the products from the metabolization of carcinogens. Previously, we found that the daily treatment with ELF-EMF 120 Hz inhibited the number and area of preneoplastic lesions in chemical carcinogenesis. The singlet spin population is evaluated diagonalizing the spin density matrix through the Lanczos method in a radical pair mechanism (RPM). Using four values of the interchange energy, we have studied the variations over the singlet population. The low magnetic field effect as a test of the influence over the enzymatic chemical reaction is evaluated calculating the quantum yield. Through a bootstrap technique the range is found for the singlet decay rate for the process. Applying the quantum measurements concept, we addressed the impact toward hepatic cells. The result contributes to improving our understanding of the chemical carcinogenesis process affected by charged particles that damage the DNA.

  14. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field influences the survival and proliferation effect of human adipose derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Shahnaz; Salimi, Marzieh; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Karbasi, Saeed; Kermani, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can effect on biological systems and alters some cell functions like proliferation rate. Therefore, we aimed to attempt the evaluation effect of ELF-EMF on the growth of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs). Materials and Methods: ELF-EMF was generated by a system including autotransformer, multi-meter, solenoid coils, teslameter and its probe. We assessed the effect of ELF-EMF with intensity of 0.5 and 1 mT and power line frequency 50 Hz on the survival of hADSCs for 20 and 40 min/day for 7 days by MTT assay. One-way analysis of variance was used to assessment the significant differences in groups. Results: ELF-EMF has maximum effect with intensity of 1 mT for 20 min/day on proliferation of hADSCs. The survival and proliferation effect (PE) in all exposure groups were significantly higher than that in sham groups (P < 0.05) except in group of 1 mT and 40 min/day. Conclusion: Our results show that between 0.5 m and 1 mT ELF-EMF could be enhances survival and PE of hADSCs conserving the duration of exposure. PMID:24592372

  15. The Effects of Precautionary Messages about Electromagnetic Fields from Mobile Phones and Base Stations Revisited: The Role of Recipient Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Boehmert, Christoph; Wiedemann, Peter; Pye, Jonathon; Croft, Rodney

    2016-05-10

    Precautionary messages have been shown to increase recipients' threat perceptions about radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted by mobile phones and mobile phone base stations. The current study explored the interplay of variables on the side of message recipients with this effect. The individual difference variables of interest were gender, trait anxiety, personal need for structure, and personal fear of invalidity. Furthermore, the study determined whether the increased threat perception is accompanied by emotional distress. A total of 298 university students answered a survey after reading either a basic text about RF-EMFs or a text including precautionary information. Linear multiple regression with interactions analyses showed that the effect of precautionary messages differed for people with different levels of trait anxiety. How trait anxiety was related to the effect of precautionary messages in turn depended on participants' gender. Personal need for structure and personal fear of invalidity were mostly unrelated to the effect of precautionary messages. Regarding participants' emotional distress, we found no difference in state anxiety scores between those participants who received precautionary information and those who did not. The findings show that the effects of precautionary messages on threat perception depend on individual difference variables such as recipients' trait anxiety and gender. Also, the fact that precautionary communication did not result in heightened state anxiety challenges the assumption that precautionary messages induce fear or anxiety.

  16. ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The Effects of Exposing the Slime Mold Physarum polycephalum to Electromagnetic Fields,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Laboratory exposure of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum to weak electromagnetic fields results in a lengthened mitotic cycle and depressed oxygen...consumption. This research program has been designed to ascertain if the same physiological effects are obtained when Physarum polycephalum is

  17. Differential form representation of stochastic electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Michael; Russer, Johannes A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we revisit the theory of stochastic electromagnetic fields using exterior differential forms. We present a short overview as well as a brief introduction to the application of differential forms in electromagnetic theory. Within the framework of exterior calculus we derive equations for the second order moments, describing stochastic electromagnetic fields. Since the resulting objects are continuous quantities in space, a discretization scheme based on the Method of Moments (MoM) is introduced for numerical treatment. The MoM is applied in such a way, that the notation of exterior calculus is maintained while we still arrive at the same set of algebraic equations as obtained for the case of formulating the theory using the traditional notation of vector calculus. We conclude with an analytic calculation of the radiated electric field of two Hertzian dipole, excited by uncorrelated random currents.

  18. Cohort study on the effects of everyday life radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure on non-specific symptoms and tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Frei, Patrizia; Mohler, Evelyn; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Fröhlich, Jürg; Neubauer, Georg; Röösli, Martin

    2012-01-01

    There is public concern regarding potential health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) exposure, as produced by mobile phones or broadcast transmitters. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between RF-EMF exposure and non-specific symptoms and tinnitus in a prospective cohort study. In 2008, 1375 randomly selected participants from Basel, Switzerland, were enrolled in a questionnaire survey with follow-up after one year (participation rate 82%). A score for somatic complaints (von Zerssen list) and headache (HIT-6) was assessed. Far-field environmental RF-EMF exposure was predicted using a validated prediction model. Regarding near-field exposure, self-reported mobile and cordless phone use as well as mobile phone operator data were collected. In multivariate regression models, we investigated whether exposure at baseline (cohort analysis) or changes in exposure between baseline and follow-up (change analysis) were related to changes in health scores. For participants in the top decile of environmental far-field RF-EMF exposure at baseline, in comparison to participants exposed below the median value, the change in the von Zerssen- and HIT-6-scores between baseline and follow-up was -0.12 (95%-CI: -1.79 to 1.56) and -0.37 (95%-CI: -1.80 to 1.07) units, respectively. Exposure to near-field sources and a change in exposure between baseline and follow-up were not related to non-specific symptoms. Similarly, no association between RF-EMF exposure and tinnitus was observed. In this first cohort study using objective and well-validated RF-EMF exposure measures, we did not observe an association between RF-EMF exposure and non-specific symptoms or tinnitus. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Bidirectional frequency-dependent effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on E. coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Varsik; Baghdasaryan, Naira; Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, the frequency-dependent effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) on Escherichia coli K-12 growth have been studied. The frequency-dependent effects of ELF EMF have shown that it can either stimulate or inhibit the growth of microbes. However, the mechanism by which the ELF EMF affects the bacterial cells is not clear yet. It was suggested that the aqua medium can serve as a target through which the biological effect of ELF EMF on microbes may be realized. To check this hypothesis, the frequency-dependent effects (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Hz, B = 0.4 mT, 30 min) of ELF EMF on the bacterial growth were studied in both cases where the microbes were in the culture media during the exposure and where culture media was preliminarily exposed to the ELF EMF before the addition of bacteria. For investigating the cell proliferation, the radioactive [(3)H]-thymidine assay was carried out. It has been shown that EMF at 4 Hz exposure has pronounced stimulation while at 8 Hz it has inhibited cell proliferation.

  20. Effects of low frequency electromagnetic field on proliferation of human epidermal stem cells: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingsheng; Li, Xinping; Bai, Liming; Uchida, Kenzo; Bai, Wenfang; Wu, Bo; Xu, Weicheng; Zhu, Hongxiang; Huang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the proliferation of epidermal stem cells, human epidermal stem cells (hESC) were isolated, expanded ex vivo, and then exposed to a low frequency EMF. The test and control cells were placed under the same environment. The test cells were exposed for 30 min/day to a 5 mT low frequency EMF at 1, 10, and 50 Hz for 3, 5, or 7 days. The effects of low frequency EMF on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and cell-surface antigen phenotype were investigated. Low frequency EMF significantly enhanced the proliferation of hESC in the culture medium in a frequency-dependent manner, with the highest cell proliferation rate at 50 Hz (P < 0.05). Exposure to a low frequency EMF significantly increased the percentage of cells at the S phase of the cell cycle, coupled with a decrease in the percentage of cells in the G1 phase (P < 0.05) but the effect was not frequency dependent. The percentage of CD29(+) /CD71(-) cells remained unchanged in the low frequency EMF-exposed hESC. The results suggested that low frequency EMF influenced hESC proliferation in vitro, and this effect was related to the increased proportion of cells at the S phase.

  1. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on experimental pain: A double-blind, randomized study in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Karen; Beland, Patricia; Pinard, Marilee; Handfield, Guilène; Handfield, Nicole; Goffaux, Philippe; Corriveau, Hélène; Léonard, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy can decrease pain. To date, however, it remains difficult to determine whether the analgesic effect observed in patients are attributable to a direct effect of PEMF on pain or to an indirect effect of PEMF on inflammation and healing. In the present study, we used an experimental pain paradigm to evaluate the direct effect of PEMF on pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, and temporal summation of pain. Twenty-four healthy subjects (mean age 22 ± 2 years; 9 males) participated in the experiment. Both real and sham PEMF were administered to every participant using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. For each visit, PEMF was applied for 10 minutes on the right forearm using a portable device. Experimental pain was evoked before (baseline) and after PEMF with a 9 cm(2) Pelletier-type thermode, applied on the right forearm (120 s stimulation; temperature individually adjusted to produce moderate baseline pain). Pain intensity and unpleasantness were evaluated using a 0-100 numerical pain rating scale. Temporal summation was evaluated by comparing pain intensity ratings obtained at the end of tonic nociceptive stimulation (120 s) with pain intensity ratings obtained after 60 s of stimulation. When compared to baseline, there was no change in pain intensity and unpleasantness following the application of real or sham PEMF. PEMF did not affect temporal summation. The present observations suggest that PEMF does not directly influence heat pain perception in healthy individuals.

  2. Mechanisms of interaction and biological effects of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-07-01

    Evidence is mounting, that environmental electric and magnetic fields in the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) band below 300 Hz can influence biological functions by mechanisms that are only poorly understood at the present time. The primary objectives of this paper are to review the physical properties of ELF fields, their interactions with living systems at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels, and the key role of cell membranes in the transduction of signals from imposed ELF fields. Topics of discussion include signal-to-noise ratios for single cells and cell aggregates, resonance phenomena involving a combination of static and ELF magnetic fields, and the possible influence of ELF fields on molecular signaling pathways that involve membrane receptors and cytoplasmic second messengers. The implications of these findings for promotion of tumor growth by ELF fields are also reviewed.

  3. [The influence of electromagnetic fields on flora and fauna].

    PubMed

    Rochalska, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of natural and artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF) on fauna and flora. The mechanisms of Earth's magnetic field detection and the use of this skill by migratory animals to faultlessly reach the destination of their travel are discussed, as well as the positive effects of electric and magnetic fields on plants relative to their physiology, yielding and health. EMF influence on social insects and animal organisms, including possible DNA damages and DNA repair systems, is presented. The influence of high frequency electromagnetic fields on birds nesting is also discussed.

  4. Properties of electromagnetic field focusing probe.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, W S; Yassa, N A; Hill, D L; Patil, A A; Lester, P D

    1988-11-01

    The electromagnetic field focusing (EFF) apparatus consists of a radio frequency generator, solenoidal coil, and a hand-held or catheter probe. Applications such as aneurysm treatment, angioplasty, and neurosurgery in various models have been reported. The probe is operated in the near field (within one wavelength of an electromagnetic field source) of a coil inducing eddy currents in biological tissues, producing maximal convergence of the induced current at the probe tip. The probe produces very high temperatures depending on the wattage selected for the given radio frequency of output power. The high temperature can be used in cutting, cauterizing, or vaporizing. The EFF probe is comparable to different types of lasers and to bipolar and monopolar cautery. The EFF probe can be used with catheters or endoscopes. Objectives of this study were to determine what the thermal properties of the EFF probe are and how instrument parameters can be varied to obtain different temperatures in the tissue near the probe tip. In this study an F2 catheter was used as an insulated sheath and the tip of the guide wire was used as the probe tip. Different powers, wave forms, coil-to-probe distances, and probe-tip lengths were tested on a phantom that simulates tissue electrical properties. Some of the experiments were conducted under normal saline to simulate treatment of tissue with body fluids such as blood vessels or brain tissue under normal physiologic conditions. It is concluded that the EFF probe has the advantages of easy manipulation, relative safety, cost effectiveness, and a high degree of spatial control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Electromagnetic structure of A=2 and 3 nuclei in chiral effective field theory

    SciTech Connect

    M. Piarulli, L. Girlanda, L.E. Marcucci, S. Pastore, R. Schiavilla, M. Viviani

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present work are twofold. The first is to address and resolve some of the differences present in independent, chiral-effective-field-theory ({chi}EFT) derivations up to one loop, recently appeared in the literature, of the nuclear charge and current operators. The second objective is to provide a complete set of {chi}EFT predictions for the structure functions and tensor polarization of the deuteron, for the charge and magnetic form factors of {sup 3}He and {sup 3}H, and for the charge and magnetic radii of these few-nucleon systems. The calculations use wave functions derived from high-order chiral two- and three-nucleon potentials and Monte Carlo methods to evaluate the relevant matrix elements. Predictions based on conventional potentials in combination with {chi}EFT charge and current operators are also presented. There is excellent agreement between theory and experiment for all these observables for momentum transfers up to q {<=} 2.0--2.5 fm{sup -1}; for a subset of them, this agreement extends to momentum transfers as high as q ~ 5--6 fm{sup -1}. A complete analysis of the results is provided.

  6. Effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on antioxidant activity in the human keratinocyte cell line NCTC 2544.

    PubMed

    Calcabrini, Cinzia; Mancini, Umberto; De Bellis, Roberta; Diaz, Anna Rita; Martinelli, Maddalena; Cucchiarini, Luigi; Sestili, Piero; Stocchi, Vilberto; Potenza, Lucia

    2016-03-22

    Some epidemiological studies have suggested possible associations between exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) and various diseases. Recently, ELF-EMF has been considered as a therapeutic agent. To support ELF-EMF use in regenerative medicine, in particular in the treatment of skin injuries, we investigated whether significant cell damage occurs after ELF-EMF exposure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated in the human keratinocyte exposed for 1 H to 50 Hz ELF-EMF in a range of field strengths from 0.25 to 2 G. Significant ROS increases resulted at 0.5 and 1 G and under these flux densities ROS production, glutathione content, antioxidant defense activity, and lipid peroxidation markers were assessed for different lengths of time. Analyzed parameters of antioxidant defense and membrane integrity showed a different trend at two selected magnetic fluxes, with a greater sensitivity of the cells exposed to 0.5 G, especially after 1 H. All significant alterations observed in the first 4 H of exposure reverted to controls 24 H after suggesting that under these conditions, ELF-EMF induces a slight oxidative stress that does not overwhelm the metabolic capacity of the cells or have a cytotoxic effect.

  7. Analgetic effects of non-thermal GSM-1900 radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the land snail Helix pomatia.

    PubMed

    Nittby, Henrietta; Moghadam, Mehri Kaviani; Sun, Wenjun; Malmgren, Lars; Eberhardt, Jacob; Persson, Bertil R; Salford, Leif G

    2012-03-01

    To investigate whether mobile phone radiation might affect snail nociception, employing radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) which, to our knowledge, have hitherto not been studied in a snail model. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has however been shown to significantly affect nociceptive responses. In the present study, we exposed 29 land snails of the strain Helix pomatia to global system for mobile communications (GSM) EMF at 1900 MHz at the non-thermal level 48 mW/kg for 1 hour each and 29 snails were sham controls. The experiments took place during the onset of summer, with all snails being well out of hibernation. Before and after GSM or sham exposure, the snails were subjected to thermal pain by being placed on a hot plate. The reaction time for retraction from the hot plate was measured by two blinded observers. Comparing the reaction pattern of each snail before and after exposure, the GSM-exposed snails were less sensitive to thermal pain as compared to the sham controls, indicating that RF exposure induces a significant analgesia (Mann-Whitney p < 0.001). This study might support earlier findings, describing beneficial effects of EMF exposure upon nociception.

  8. Effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields at nonthermal SAR values on melatonin and body weight of Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Lerchl, Alexander; Krüger, Heike; Niehaus, Michael; Streckert, Joachim R; Bitz, Andreas K; Hansen, Volkert

    2008-04-01

    In three experiments, adult male Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were exposed 24 hr/day for 60 days to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at 383, 900, and 1800 MHz, modulated according to the TETRA (383 MHz) and GSM standards (900 and 1800 MHz), respectively. A radial waveguide system ensured a well defined and uniform exposure at whole-body averaged specific absorption rates of 80 mW/kg, which is equal to the upper limit of whole-body exposure of the general population in Germany and other countries. For each experiment, using two identical waveguides, hamsters were exposed (n = 120) and sham-exposed (n = 120) in a blind fashion. In all experiments, pineal and serum melatonin levels as well as the weights of testes, brain, kidneys, and liver were not affected. At 383 MHz, exposure resulted in a significant transient increase in body weight up to 4%, while at 900 MHz this body weight increase was more pronounced (up to 6%) and not transient. At 1800 MHz, no effect on body weight was seen. The results corroborate earlier findings which have shown no effects of RF-EMF on melatonin levels in vivo and in vitro. The data are in accordance with the hypothesis that absorbed RF energy may result in metabolic changes which eventually cause body weight increases in exposed animals. The data support the notion that metabolic effects of RF-EMFs need to be investigated in more detail in future studies.

  9. Effects of four kinds of electromagnetic fields (EMF) with different frequency spectrum bands on ovariectomized osteoporosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Lei, Tao; Li, Feijiang; Liang, Zhuowen; Tang, Chi; Xie, Kangning; Wang, Pan; Dong, Xu; Shan, Shuai; Liu, Juan; Xu, Qiaoling; Luo, Erping; Shen, Guanghao

    2017-04-03

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) was considered as a non-invasive modality for treatment of osteoporosis while the effects were diverse with EMF parameters in time domain. In present study, we extended analysis of EMF characteristics from time domain to frequency domain, aiming to investigate effects of four kinds of EMF (LP (1-100 Hz), BP (100-3,000 Hz), HP (3,000-50,000 Hz) and AP (1-50,000 Hz)) on ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis (OP) in mice. Forty-eight 3-month-old female BALB/c mice were equally assigned to Sham, OVX, OVX + LP, OVX + BP, OVX + HP and OVX + AP groups (n = 8). After 8-week exposure (3 h/day), LP and BP significantly increased serum bone formation markers and osteogenesis-related gene expressions compared with OVX. Bedsides, LP and BP also slightly increased bone resorption activity compared with OVX, evidenced by increased RANKL/OPG ratio. HP sharply decreased serum bone formation and resporption markers and osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis related gene expressions compared with OVX. AP had accumulative effects of LP, BP and HP, which significantly increased bone formation and decreased bone resporption activity compared with OVX. As a result, LP, BP and HP exposure did not later deterioration of bone mass, microarchitecture and mechanical strength in OVX mice with OP. However, AP stimulation attenuated OVX-induced bone loss.

  10. Effects of BMP-2 and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on rat primary osteoblastic cell proliferation and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Kwok, Sukyee; Vasilov, Anatoliy; Jefcoat, Stephen C; Partridge, Nicola C

    2007-09-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) strongly promote osteoblast differentiation. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) promote fracture healing in non-union fractures. In this study, we hypothesized that a combined BMP-2 and PEMF stimulation would augment bone formation to a greater degree than treatment with either single stimulus. BMP-2 maximally increased the proliferative activity of rat primary osteoblastic cells at 25 ng/ml concentration. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that BMP-2 stimulated mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alpha(1) (I) procollagen, and osteocalcin (OC) in the differentiation phase and only OC mRNA expression in the mineralization phase after 24-h treatment. Both BMP-2 and PEMF (Spinal-Stim) increased cell proliferation, which was additive when both agents were combined. PEMF alone or together with BMP-2 increased only ALP mRNA expression and only during the differentiation phase 24 h after one 4-h treatment. This effect was additive when both agents were combined. Continuous daily 4-h treatment with PEMF alone or together with BMP-2 increased expression of all three osteoblast marker genes during the differentiation phase and increased the mineralized matrix. This effect was additive when both agents were combined, suggesting that the two interventions may be working on different cellular pathways. Thus, a combined effect of BMP-2 and PEMF in vitro could be considered as groundwork for in vivo bone development that may support skeletal therapy.

  11. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields and dehydroepiandrosterone on viability and osteo-induction of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kaivosoja, Emilia; Sariola, Veikko; Chen, Yan; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this work was that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are regulated by pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) and by intracrine conversion of an adrenal prohormone to dihydrotestosterone. The effect of PEMF and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on viability and osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs and on the viability of osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells was evaluated. It was found that PEMF promoted the viability rate of both cell types, whereas DHEA decreased the viability rate in a concentration-dependent manner. PEMF did not have major effects on osteo-induction at this low seeding density level (3000 cells/cm(2) ). Instead, DHEA, after MSC-mediated and 5α-reductase-dependent conversion to dihydrotestosterone, clearly promoted the osteo-induction of MSCs induced with β-glyserophosphate, ascorbate and dexamethasone. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), SMAD1, RUNX2, osteopontin (OP) and osteocalcin (OC) RNA levels were increased and alizarin red S- and hydroxyapatite-specific OsteoImage(TM) stainings disclosed a promoted mineralization process. In addition, DHEA increased OP and OC mRNA levels of non-induced MSCs. A sequential use of mitogenic PEMF early during the fracture healing, followed by later administration of DHEA with osteogenic differentiating effect, might be worth subjecting to a randomized clinical trial.

  12. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (UMTS) on reproduction and development of mice: a multi-generation study.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Angela M; Grote, Karen; Reinhardt, Tina; Streckert, Joachim; Hansen, Volkert; Lerchl, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Male and female mice (C57BL) were chronically exposed (life-long, 24 h/day) to mobile phone communication electromagnetic fields at approximately 1966 MHz (UMTS). Their development and fertility were monitored over four generations by investigating histological, physiological, reproductive and behavioral functions. The mean whole-body SARs, calculated for adult animals at the time of mating, were 0 (sham), 0.08, 0.4 and 1.3 W/kg. Power densities were kept constant for each group (0, 1.35, 6.8 and 22 W/m(2)), resulting in varying SARs due to the different numbers of adults and pups over the course of the experiment. The experiment was done in a blind fashion. The results show no harmful effects of exposure on the fertility and development of the animals. The number and the development of pups were not affected by exposure. Some data, albeit without a clear dose-response relationship, indicate effects of exposure on food consumption that is in accordance with some data published previously. In summary, the results of this study do not indicate harmful effects of long-term exposure of mice to UMTS over several generations.

  13. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1800 MHz) on immature and mature rats.

    PubMed

    Sekeroğlu, Vedat; Akar, Ayşegül; Sekeroğlu, Zülal Atlı

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the cytogenotoxic effects of high frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) for 45 day and the effect of a recovery period of 15 day after exposure to EMF on bone marrow cells of immature and mature rats. The animals in treatment groups were exposed to 1800 MHz EMF at SAR of 0.37 W/kg and 0.49 W/kg for 2h/day for 45 day. Two recovery groups were kept for a recovery period of 15 day without EMF after exposure to HF-EMF. Two control groups for both immature and mature rats were also included. Significant differences were also observed in chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus (MN) frequency, mitotic index (MI) and ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in all treatment groups. The cytogenotoxic damage was more remarkable in immature rats and, the recovery period did not improve this damage in immature rats. Because much higher and irreversible cytogenotoxic damage was observed in immature rats than in mature rats, further studies are needed to understand effects of EMF on DNA damage and DNA repair, and to determine safe limits for environment and human, especially for children.

  14. Anti-proliferative effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on preneoplastic lesions formation in the rat liver

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have been studied with great interest due to their possible effects on human health. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF on the development of preneoplastic lesions in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Methods Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to the modified resistant hepatocyte model and were exposed to 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF. The effects of the ELF-EMF on hepatocarcinogenesis, apoptosis, proliferation and cell cycle progression were evaluated by histochemical, TUNEL assay, caspase 3 levels, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. Results The application of the ELF-EMF resulted in a decrease of more than 50% of the number and the area of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive preneoplastic lesions (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively) and glutathione S-transferase placental expression (P = 0.01). The number of TUNEL-positive cells and the cleaved caspase 3 levels were unaffected; however, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, and cyclin D1 expression decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.03), as compared to the sham-exposure group. Conclusion The application of 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF inhibits preneoplastic lesions chemically induced in the rat liver through the reduction of cell proliferation, without altering the apoptosis process. PMID:20416104

  15. Resveratrol may reverse the effects of long-term occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields on workers of a power plant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Baoyu; Zhang, He; Sun, Ye; Sun, Chengxun

    2017-07-18

    High-voltage electricity lines are known to generate extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs). With the process of urbanization, increasing concerns has been focused on the potentially hazardous impacts of ELF-EMF on human health, and the conclusions are controversial. Little is known about the method of prevention against ELF-EMF induced healthy problems. A total of 186 male workers with occupational exposure to high-voltage electricity lines, and 154 male subjects with insignificant exposure as reference control were enrolled in this study. Resveratrol or placebo was given as dietary supplements (500 mg twice daily), and several inflammatory biomarkers and biomarkers of oxidative stress were assessed. Workers who had long-term exposure to high-voltage electricity lines exhibited elevated urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) and F2-isoprostane, compared to the reference group. Lower plasma nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed in exposed workers compared to the reference group. Resveratrol significantly reversed the adverse impacts of ELF-EMF. Stimulated cytokine production by resveratrol was found in exposed workers but not in the reference group. This study supported that occupational and long-term exposure to high-voltage electricity lines has an adverse effect on homeostasis of human body, and resveratrol supplement could be an effective protection strategy against the adverse effects induced by ELF-EMFs.

  16. Visualizing electromagnetic fields in metals by MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrashekar, Chandrika Sefcikova; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Chandrashekar, S.; Taylor, Erika A.; Taylor, Deanne M.

    2017-02-01

    Based upon Maxwell's equations, it has long been established that oscillating electromagnetic (EM) fields incident upon a metal surface, decay exponentially inside the conductor, leading to a virtual absence of EM fields at sufficient depths. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizes radiofrequency (r.f.) EM fields to produce images. Here we present a visualization of a virtual EM vacuum inside a bulk metal strip by MRI, amongst several findings. At its simplest, an MRI image is an intensity map of density variations across voxels (pixels) of identical size (=Δ x Δ y Δ z ). By contrast in bulk metal MRI, we uncover that despite uniform density, intensity variations arise from differing effective elemental volumes (voxels) from different parts of the bulk metal. Further, we furnish chemical shift imaging (CSI) results that discriminate different faces (surfaces) of a metal block according to their distinct nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts, which holds much promise for monitoring surface chemical reactions noninvasively. Bulk metals are ubiquitous, and MRI is a premier noninvasive diagnostic tool. Combining the two, the emerging field of bulk metal MRI can be expected to grow in importance. The findings here may impact further development of bulk metal MRI and CSI.

  17. Electromagnetic field interactions with biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, A.H. )

    1993-02-01

    This is a report on Symposia organized by the International Society for Bioelectricity and presented at the 1992 FASEB Meeting. The presentations summarized here were intended to provide a sampling of new and fruitful lines of research. The theme topics for the Symposia were cancer, neural function, cell signaling, pineal gland function, and immune system interactions. Living organisms are complex electrochemical systems that evolved over billions of years in a world with a relatively simple weak magnetic field and with few electromagnetic energy emitters. As is characteristic of living organisms, they interacted with and adapted to this environment of electric and magnetic fields. In recent years there has been a massive introduction of equipment that emits electromagnetic fields in an enormous range of new frequencies, modulations, and intensities. As living organisms have only recently found themselves immersed in this new and virtually ubiquitous environment, they have not had the opportunity to adapt to it. This gives biologists the opportunity to use these electromagnetic fields as probes to study the functioning of living systems. This is a significant opportunity, as new approaches to studying living systems so often provide the means to make great leaps in science. In recent years, a diversity of biologists have carried out experiments using electromagnetic fields to study the function of living cells and systems. This approach is now becoming quite fruitful and is yielding data that are advancing our knowledge in diverse areas of biology. 25 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. A Physiological and Biochemical Study of the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    times than controls were T4ncluded. REPSULTS We observe a lengthened mitotic cycle in Physarum polycephalum exposed to EMF fields. Typical data are shown...ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION We have previosly shown that long-term exposure of Physarum polycephalum to continous wave extremely low frequency fields (EMF) of...External Factors II . . . . ’ I I SUMMARY Physarum polycephalum cultures exhibiting a lengthened mitotic cycle and depressed respiration rate after

  19. Lack of adverse effects of whole-body exposure to a mobile telecommunication electromagnetic field on the rat fetus.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoru; Imai, Norio; Nabae, Kyoko; Wake, Kanako; Kawai, Hiroki; Wang, Jianqing; Watanabe, So-ichi; Kawabe, Mayumi; Fujiwara, Osamu; Ogawa, Kumiko; Tamano, Seiko; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2010-03-01

    Abstract The recent steep increase in the number of users of cellular phones is resulting in marked increase of exposure of humans to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Children are of particular concern. Our goal was to evaluate potential adverse effects of long-term whole-body exposure to EMFs simulating those from base stations for cellular phone communication. Pregnant rats were given low, high or no exposure. At the high level, the average specific absorption rate (SAR)for the dams was 0.066-0.093 W/kg. The SAR for the fetuses and the F(1) progeny was 0.068-0.146 W/kg. At the low level, the SARs were about 43% of these. The 2.14 GHz signals were applied for 20 h per day during the gestation and lactation periods. No abnormal findings were observed in either the dams or the F(1) generation exposed to the EMF or in the F(2) offspring. Parameters evaluated included growth, gestational condition and organ weights for dams and survival rates, development, growth, physical and functional development, hormonal status, memory function and reproductive ability of the F(1) offspring (at 10 weeks of age) along with embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in the F(2) rats. Thus, under our experimental conditions, whole-body exposure to 2.14 GHz for 20 h per day during gestation and lactation did not cause any adverse effects on pregnancy or the development of rats.

  20. Effects of electromagnetic field on the batch cultivation and nutritional composition of Spirulina platensis in an air-lift photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Guo, Si-Yuan; Li, Lin; Cai, Miao-Yan

    2007-02-01

    Spirulina platensis was batch cultivated in a novel 3.5l magnetic air-lift photobioreactor with external-loop on which 0-0.55 T electromagnetic field (EMF) was imposed to investigate the EMF effects on the algal growth and nutrition composition. At the same time, the correlative mechanism was discussed mainly based on C, N, P uptake. It was found that, EMF has double-side effects on S. platensis cultivation depend on EMF intensity. 0.25 T EMF stress was found to be suitable for the algal cultivation enhancement increasing the maximum cell dry weight by 22% in a time period two days less than that of the control at 35 degrees C and 252 micromol photonsm(-2)S(-1). In addition, the nutritional composition of S. platensis was improved in both essential amino acids such as histidine and trace elements Ni, Sr, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ca, Co and V. It was suggested it was possible to optimize the cultivation process of S. platensis by imposing suitable weak EMF which may enhance the nutrition assimilation e.g. C, N, P and minerals by S. platensis.

  1. Improving Functional Outcomes for Vascular Amputees Through Use of Mirror Therapy and Elimination of the Effects of Electromagnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Houston, Helen; Dickerson, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effectiveness of combining an amputee limb cover to eliminate the effects of electromagnetic fields (i.e., pain) and a Mirror Therapy exercise program to improve functional outcomes for vascular amputees. A cross-sectional repeated-measures design was used with 14 participants with either acute amputations or surgery at least 8 to 24 months previously. The 4-week intervention included the use of an amputee limb cover and mirror therapy exercises each day. The outcome measures were activities of daily living interference (e.g., self-care, walking, car transfer, low chair transfer, sleep), and well-being (e.g., satisfaction, mood, quality of life) at three times (pre- and posttreatment and maintenance). Participants with acute amputations made significant improvements in the areas of self-care, walking, car transfer, sleep, mood, and quality of life, while the subacute participants improved significantly in sleep and satisfaction. A reduction in the time required before prosthetic fitting decreased from 12 weeks to 8 weeks for acute amputees and an improvement in wearing tolerance from 0-2 to 8-12 hours for the subacute amputees were unexpected results suggesting the combined intervention may improves the extent to which amputees can increase participation in their activities of everyday living.

  2. The effects of electromagnetic field on the microstructure of seminal vesicles in rat: a light and transmission electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Khaki, Amir Afshin; Zarrintan, Sina; Khaki, Arash; Zahedi, Afshin

    2008-03-01

    In the industrial world, almost everyone is unavoidably exposed to ambient electromagnetic field (EMF) generated from various technical and household appliances. Controversy exists about the effects of EMF on various tissues of the living bodies. Seminal vesicles as one of these accessory glands play an important role in natural seminal fluid formation and the effects of EMF on its tissue is worthy of investigation. In order to examine this 30 rat were selected and kept for one weeks in quarantine and 15 (experimental group) were exposed to 50 Hz (non-ionizing radiation) during postnatal life for 2 months. The materials were processed and observed under a light and transmission electron microscope. In the experimental rats epithelial and basal cells showed significant destructions presented by heterochromatin and dense nuclei. Cell debris and abnormal areas was recognizable in the stromal connective tissue. Obvious vacuolization was present within the epithelial cell cytoplasm and also between the cellular organelles. The nuclei of the endothelial cells of the blood vessels were more rigid and endothelial cell cytoplasm contained a lot of vacuoles and pinoctotic vesicles. The results suggested that EMF exposure may cause profound changes in the vesicle seminal tissues. Therefore exposure to EMF may result in pathological changes that lead to sub fertility and infertility.

  3. Effect of 900MHz electromagnetic fields emitted from cellular phones on fracture healing: an experimental study on rats.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ahmet; Atay, Tolga; Gülle, Kanat; Kırdemir, Vecihi; Ozden, Ahmet; Çömlekçi, Selçuk; Aydoğan, Nevres Hürriyet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at 900 MHz frequencies on bone fracture healing. The study included 30 adult male Wistar albino rats (average weight: 256 g) divided into two equal groups. Transverse fracture was created manually by pressing a finger on the right tibias of all rats and fractures were fixed intramedullary using a K-wire. Rats in Group 1 were exposed to EMF at 900 MHz frequency 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Group 2, the control group, was kept under the same experimental conditions without EMF exposure. Radiological, mechanical and histological examination of tibial fracture healing was performed. There was a significant difference between radiological, histological and manual biomechanical scores of the study and control groups (p=0.020, p=0.006 and p=0.032, respectively). All scores were lower in the study group than the control group. Results of this study demonstrate that EMF at 900 MHz of frequency emitted from cellular phones has a significantly negative effect on bone fracture healing in a rat tibia model.

  4. The Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated from 1800 MHz Cell Phones on Erythrocyte Rheological Parameters and Zinc Level in Rats.

    PubMed

    Erken, Gülten; Küçükatay, Melek Bor; Turgut, Sebahat; Erken, Haydar Ali; Cömlekçi, Selçuk; Divrikli, Umit; Genç, Osman

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field generated from the 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation (EF) on erythrocyte rheological parameters and erythrocyte zinc levels. Twenty-four male Wistar Albino rats were randomly grouped as follows: 1) two control groups and 2) study groups: i) Group A: EF exposed group (2.5 h/day for 30 days, the phone on stand-by), and ii) Group B: EF exposed group (2.5 min/day for 30 days, the phone ringing in silent mode). At the end of the experimental period erythrocyte rheological parameters such as erythrocyte deformability and aggregation were determined by an ectacytometer. Erythrocyte zinc level, which affects hemorheological parameters, was also measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Erythrocyte deformability was decreased in both study groups but the decrease in group A was not statistically significant. Exposure to EF did not have any significant effect on erythrocyte aggregation. On the other hand, erythrocyte zinc level was significantly reduced in both study groups. Exposure to EF may have decreased tissue oxygenation due to reduced erythrocyte deformability. Decrease in erythrocyte zinc level may have caused the impairment in erythrocyte deformability.

  5. Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Reproductive-Age Female Operators of Plastic Welding Machines in Fuzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Youqiong; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Chen, Yu; Ren, Nan; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Qunwei

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) among female operators of plastic welding machines. We examined 180 female operators in shoe factories as the exposed group, and 349 female workers from nearby supermarkets as the unexposed group. The mean radiation levels in the vicinity of the welding machines ranged from 51.3 to 368.9 V/m. The prevalence of neurovegetative symptoms increased with higher EMFs exposures (P < 0.05). The prevalence of menstrual disorder was 12.0% in the unexposed group, but was 26.8% and 33.8% in low and high-exposure groups, respectively (P < 0.01). Exposure-response relationships were found between cumulate exposure and neurovegetative symptoms and menstrual disorder (P < 0.05). Serum progesterone (P4) was significantly lower in the exposed groups (P < 0.01). EMFs exposure was associated with adverse health effects, including neurovegetative symptoms, menstrual disorder, and low level of P4.

  6. Radiated fields from an electromagnetic pulse simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, M.; Delisle, G. Y.; Kashyap, S.

    Simulators of electromagnetic pulses allow generation within a limited time of very high-intensity fields such as those produced in a nuclear explosion. These fields can be radiated out of the test zone at a lower but nevertheless significant level; if the intensity of these fields is sufficiently high, damage to humans and electronic equipment can result. An evaluation of the potential danger of these simulator emissions requires knowledge of the amplitude, duration, and the energy of the radiated impulses. A technique is presented for calculating the fields radiated by a parallel-plane electromagnetic pulse simulator. The same method can also be applied to a rhombic type simulator. Sample numerical results are presented along with the calculations of the energy and power density and a discussion of the formation of the field in the frequency domain.

  7. Electromagnetic fields and infant incubators.

    PubMed

    Bearer, C F

    1994-01-01

    Two models of infant incubators were studied to determine the strength of the magnetic field generated by the heater and fan motors. Measurements were taken at intervals along the center line of the incubator. The results show that fields greater than 100 milligauss and 25 milligauss were measured in the C-86 and C-100 model Isolettes, respectively.

  8. Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Microstructure and Properties of Bulk AlCrFeNiMo0.2 High-Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yong; Jiang, Li; Tang, Zhongyi; Lu, Yiping; Li, Tingju

    2015-11-01

    The bulk AlCrFeNiMo0.2 high-entropy alloy was successfully prepared by vacuum medium frequency induction melting. The effects of electromagnetic field on microstructure and properties were investigated. The alloy possessed a mixed structure of B2 and BCC, and the phase types were not changed by the electromagnetic field treatment. The microstructure exhibited typical lamellar eutectic cell and rod eutectic cell structures. These eutectic cell structures were constituted by the AlNi-type intermetallic compound and the FeCr-type solid solution. With the increase of electromagnetic field intensity, the hardness increases, while the compressive fracture strength and fracture strain of the alloy first increases and then decreases. The alloy with 15 mT electromagnetic field has the largest fracture strength 2282.3 MPa, yield strength 1160.5 MPa, and fracture strain 0.29. The alloy shows typical ferromagnetic behavior, and the homogenized lamellar eutectic cell microstructure significantly decreased the specific saturation magnetizations.

  9. Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects

    PubMed Central

    Pall, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    The direct targets of extremely low and microwave frequency range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in producing non-thermal effects have not been clearly established. However, studies in the literature, reviewed here, provide substantial support for such direct targets. Twenty-three studies have shown that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce these and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gated properties of these channels may provide biophysically plausible mechanisms for EMF biological effects. Downstream responses of such EMF exposures may be mediated through Ca2+/calmodulin stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Potentially, physiological/therapeutic responses may be largely as a result of nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G pathway stimulation. A well-studied example of such an apparent therapeutic response, EMF stimulation of bone growth, appears to work along this pathway. However, pathophysiological responses to EMFs may be as a result of nitric oxide-peroxynitrite-oxidative stress pathway of action. A single such well-documented example, EMF induction of DNA single-strand breaks in cells, as measured by alkaline comet assays, is reviewed here. Such single-strand breaks are known to be produced through the action of this pathway. Data on the mechanism of EMF induction of such breaks are limited; what data are available support this proposed mechanism. Other Ca2+-mediated regulatory changes, independent of nitric oxide, may also have roles. This article reviews, then, a substantially supported set of targets, VGCCs, whose stimulation produces non-thermal EMF responses by humans/higher animals with downstream effects involving Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide increases, which may explain therapeutic and pathophysiological effects. PMID:23802593

  10. Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Pall, Martin L

    2013-08-01

    The direct targets of extremely low and microwave frequency range electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in producing non-thermal effects have not been clearly established. However, studies in the literature, reviewed here, provide substantial support for such direct targets. Twenty-three studies have shown that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce these and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gated properties of these channels may provide biophysically plausible mechanisms for EMF biological effects. Downstream responses of such EMF exposures may be mediated through Ca(2+) /calmodulin stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Potentially, physiological/therapeutic responses may be largely as a result of nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G pathway stimulation. A well-studied example of such an apparent therapeutic response, EMF stimulation of bone growth, appears to work along this pathway. However, pathophysiological responses to EMFs may be as a result of nitric oxide-peroxynitrite-oxidative stress pathway of action. A single such well-documented example, EMF induction of DNA single-strand breaks in cells, as measured by alkaline comet assays, is reviewed here. Such single-strand breaks are known to be produced through the action of this pathway. Data on the mechanism of EMF induction of such breaks are limited; what data are available support this proposed mechanism. Other Ca(2+) -mediated regulatory changes, independent of nitric oxide, may also have roles. This article reviews, then, a substantially supported set of targets, VGCCs, whose stimulation produces non-thermal EMF responses by humans/higher animals with downstream effects involving Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide increases, which may explain therapeutic and pathophysiological effects.

  11. A Challenging Issue in the Etiology of Speech Problems: The Effect of Maternal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields on Speech Problems in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, S.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Mehdizadeh, A. R.; Jalalipour, M.; Borzou, S.; Taeb, S.; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, S. A. R.; Shojaei-fard, M. B.; Nematollahi, S.; Alighanbari, N.; Jarideh, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nowadays, mothers are continuously exposed to different sources of electromagnetic fields before and even during pregnancy.  It has recently been shown that exposure to mobile phone radiation during pregnancy may lead to adverse effects on the brain development in offspring and cause hyperactivity. Researchers have shown that behavioral problems in laboratory animals which have a similar appearance to ADHD are caused by intrauterine exposure to mobile phones. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the maternal exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields affect on the rate and severity of speech problems in their offspring. Methods In this study, mothers of 35 healthy 3-5 year old children (control group) and 77 children and diagnosed with speech problems who had been referred to a speech treatment center in Shiraz, Iran were interviewed. These mothers were asked whether they had exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, Wi-Fi, cordless phones, laptops and power lines. Results We found a significant association between either the call time (P=0.002) or history of mobile phone use (months used) and speech problems in the offspring (P=0.003). However, other exposures had no effect on the occurrence of speech problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate a possible association between maternal exposure to electromagnetic field and speech problems in the offspring. Although a major limitation in our study is the relatively small sample size, this study indicates that the maternal exposure to common sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones can affect the occurrence of speech problems in the offspring. PMID:26396971

  12. A Challenging Issue in the Etiology of Speech Problems: The Effect of Maternal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields on Speech Problems in the Offspring.

    PubMed

    Zarei, S; Mortazavi, S M J; Mehdizadeh, A R; Jalalipour, M; Borzou, S; Taeb, S; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, S A R; Shojaei-Fard, M B; Nematollahi, S; Alighanbari, N; Jarideh, S

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, mothers are continuously exposed to different sources of electromagnetic fields before and even during pregnancy.  It has recently been shown that exposure to mobile phone radiation during pregnancy may lead to adverse effects on the brain development in offspring and cause hyperactivity. Researchers have shown that behavioral problems in laboratory animals which have a similar appearance to ADHD are caused by intrauterine exposure to mobile phones. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the maternal exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields affect on the rate and severity of speech problems in their offspring. In this study, mothers of 35 healthy 3-5 year old children (control group) and 77 children and diagnosed with speech problems who had been referred to a speech treatment center in Shiraz, Iran were interviewed. These mothers were asked whether they had exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, Wi-Fi, cordless phones, laptops and power lines. We found a significant association between either the call time (P=0.002) or history of mobile phone use (months used) and speech problems in the offspring (P=0.003). However, other exposures had no effect on the occurrence of speech problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate a possible association between maternal exposure to electromagnetic field and speech problems in the offspring. Although a major limitation in our study is the relatively small sample size, this study indicates that the maternal exposure to common sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones can affect the occurrence of speech problems in the offspring.

  13. Analytical model for electromagnetic cascades in rotating electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Nerush, E. N.; Bashmakov, V. F.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.

    2011-08-15

    Electromagnetic cascades attract a lot of attention as an important quantum electrodynamics effect that will reveal itself in various electromagnetic field configurations at ultrahigh intensities. We study cascade dynamics in rotating electric field analytically and numerically. The kinetic equations for the electron-positron plasma and gamma-quanta are formulated. The scaling laws are derived and analyzed. For the cascades arising far above the threshold the dependence of the cascade parameters on the field frequency is derived. The spectra of high-energy cascade particles are calculated. The analytical results are verified by numerical simulations.

  14. LEM—electromagnetic fields measurement laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annino, A.; Falciglia, F.; Musumeci, F.; Oliveri, M.; Privitera, G.; Triglia, A.

    2000-04-01

    The widespread presence of electromagnetic waves and the relative problems regarding them have favored the constitution of the LEM at the DMFCI in Catania University, where competence has been developing in this sector for about 10 years. Full operativeness has been reached as far as the electromagnetic field measurements in anthropized environments are concerned. Other research will be undertaken as soon as further funds are available. Some problems connected with the perfecting of measurements instruments and the results of emission measurements of cellular telephones are presented.

  15. Effect of electromagnetic fields on the denitrification activity of Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Fojt, Lukás; Strasák, Ludek; Vetterl, Vladimír

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic activity (denitrification) of Paracoccus denitrificans was estimated electrochemically by reduction of duroquinone (DQ). Graphite electrodes covered with whole bacterial cells behind a dialysis membrane were used for measurement. P. denitrificans reduce nitrate and/or nitrite under anaerobic conditions to nitrogen gas. DQ acts as an electron mediator. After donation of the electrons to the respiratory system of the bacteria, produced DQ is reduced to durohydroquinone on the electrode surface electrocatalytically. P. denitrificans were exposed to low-frequency magnetic field (10 mT, 50 Hz) for 24 min. In comparison with the control samples, the reduction peak of I-E curves that represent denitrification activity of the cells decreased significantly after magnetic field exposure. The decrease of the peak current was about 20%. The CFU-colony forming units-method was used to estimate the number of surviving bacteria. After 24 min exposure of 10 mT magnetic field P. denitrificans culture on electrode indicates 21% bacterial death.

  16. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on the proliferation and differentiation potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Yi; Hsieh, Dean-Kuo; Yu, Tzai-Chiu; Chiu, Hsien-Tai; Lu, Sheng-Fen; Luo, Geng-Hong; Kuo, Tom K; Lee, Oscar K; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2009-05-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been used clinically to slow down osteoporosis and accelerate the healing of bone fractures for many years. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of PEMFs on the proliferation and differentiation potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC). PEMF stimulus was administered to BMMSCs for 8 h per day during culture period. The PEMF applied consisted of 4.5 ms bursts repeating at 15 Hz, and each burst contained 20 pulses. Results showed that about 59% and 40% more viable BMMSC cells were obtained in the PEMF-exposed cultures at 24 h after plating for the seeding density of 1000 and 3000 cells/cm2, respectively. Although, based on the kinetic analysis, the growth rates of BMMSC during the exponential growth phase were not significantly affected, 20-60% higher cell densities were achieved during the exponentially expanding stage. Many newly divided cells appeared from 12 to 16 h after the PEMF treatment as revealed by the cell cycle analysis. These results suggest that PEMF exposure could enhance the BMMSC cell proliferation during the exponential phase and it possibly resulted from the shortening of the lag phase. In addition, according to the cytochemical and immunofluorescence analysis performed, the PEMF-exposed BMMSC showed multi-lineage differentiation potential similar to the control group. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Nonpulsed sinusoidal electromagnetic fields as a noninvasive strategy in bone repair: the effect on human mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Mario; D'Emilia, Enrico; Giuliani, Livio; Marchese, Rodolfo; Foletti, Alberto; Grimaldi, Settimio; Lisi, Antonella

    2015-02-01

    In vivo control of osteoblast differentiation is an important process needed to maintain the continuous supply of mature osteoblast cells for growth, repair, and remodeling of bones. The regulation of this process has also an important and significant impact on the clinical strategies and future applications of cell therapy. In this article, we studied the effect of nonpulsed sinusoidal electromagnetic field radiation tuned at calcium-ion cyclotron frequency of 50 Hz exposure treatment for bone differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) alone or in synergy with dexamethasone, their canonical chemical differentiation agent. Five days of continuous exposure to calcium-ion cyclotron resonance affect hMSC proliferation, morphology, and cytoskeletal actin reorganization. By quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we also observed an increase of osteoblast differentiation marker expression such as Runx2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), and osteopontin (OPN) together with the osteoprotegerin mRNA modulation. Moreover, in these cells, the increase of the protein expression of OPN and ALP was also demonstrated. These results demonstrate bone commitment of hMSCs through a noninvasive and biocompatible differentiating physical agent treatment and highlight possible applications in new regenerative medicine protocols.

  18. The effects of mobile-phone electromagnetic fields on brain electrical activity: a critical analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marino, Andrew A; Carrubba, Simona

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the reports in which human brain electrical activity was compared between the presence and absence of radio-frequency and low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from mobile phones, or between pre- and post-exposure to the EMFs. Of 55 reports, 37 claimed and 18 denied an EMF-induced effect on either the baseline electro encephalogram (EEG), or on cognitive processing of visual or auditory stimuli as reflected in changes in event-related potentials. The positive reports did not adequately consider the family-wise error rate, the presence of spike artifacts in the EEG, or the confounding role of the two different EMFs. The negative reports contained neither positive controls nor power analyses. Almost all reports were based on the incorrect assumption that the brain was in equilibrium with its surroundings. Overall, the doubt regarding the existence of reproducible mobile-phone EMFs on brain activity created by the reports appeared to legitimate the knowledge claims of the mobile-phone industry. However, it funded, partly or wholly, at least 87% of the reports. From an analysis of their cognitive framework, the common use of disclaimers, the absence of information concerning conflicts of interest, and the industry's donations to the principal EMF journal, we inferred that the doubt was manufactured by the industry. The crucial scientific question of the pathophysiology of mobile-phone EMFs as reflected in measurements of brain electrical activity remains unanswered, and essentially unaddressed.

  19. [Remote effects of occupational and non-occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields of power-line frequency. Epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, G I; Rubtsova, N B; Novokhatskaia, E A; Tikhonov, A V

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study of mortality in the personnel of power-supply plants in the European regions of Russia was carried out. The exposure of the personnel to electromagnetic fields of power-line frequency (PF) was taken into account. Statistically non-significant raise of mortality from leukemia was found, compared to low mortality rates due to all other causes including cancer of any type. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was equal to 2.03 (95% CI = 0.23-7.31). In the retrospective case-control study the haemoblastosis development risk under occupational PF EMF exposure was evaluated. The data of 571 "cases" and 1208 "controls" interview showed that odd ratio (OR) was 1.64 (95% CI = 0.8-3.1). In another retrospective case-control study the risk of the haemoblastosis development in children due to parents PF EMF occupational exposure was evaluated. The data of 208 "cases" and 319 "controls" interview showed that the odd ratio (OR) was 1.69 (95% CI = 0.7-3.3). A retrospective cohort study of mortality in a settlement situated near a high-voltage (500 kV) substation, which took into account PF EMF levels in residential areas, revealed low mortality rates, except leukemia mortality (SMR 1.3; 95% CI = 0.2-7.0). The obtained data do not allow excluding a possibility of PF EMF leukogenic effect.

  20. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on peripheral blood circulation in people with diabetes: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiahui; Kwan, Rachel Lai-Chu; Zheng, Yongping; Cheing, Gladys Lai-Ying

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous blood flow provides nourishment that plays an essential role in maintaining skin health. We examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on cutaneous circulation of dorsal feet. Twenty-two patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 21 healthy control subjects were randomly allocated to receive either PEMFs or sham PEMFs (0.5 mT, 12 Hz, 30 min). Blood flow velocity and diameter of the small vein were examined by using ultrasound biomicroscopy; also, microcirculation at skin over the base of the 1st metatarsal bone (Flux1) and distal 1st phalange (Flux2) was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry before and after intervention. Results indicated that PEMFs produced significantly greater changes in blood flow velocity of the smallest observable vein than did sham PEMFs (both P < 0.05) in both types of subjects. However, no significant difference was found in changes of vein diameter, nor in Flux1 and Flux2, between PEMFs and sham PEMFs groups in subjects with or without DM. We hypothesized that PEMFs would increase blood flow velocity of the smallest observable vein in people with or without DM. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:290-297, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field vibration on tooth movement induced by magnetic and mechanical forces: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Darendeliler, M Ali; Zea, A; Shen, G; Zoellner, H

    2007-12-01

    This study was designed to determine whether or not high-frequency and low-magnitude vibration affects orthodontic tooth movement caused by magnetic or/and mechanical forces. Forty-four 7-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, with each group further divided into experimental and control subgroups. Neodymium-Iron-Boron (Nd-Fe-B) magnets and Sentalloy closed coil springs were placed between maxillary or mandibular first molars and incisors to activate tooth movement. The animals of experimental subgroups were exposed to the vibration induced by pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) whilst the control subgroups were under normal atmosphere. The experiment lasted for 14 days and all of the animals were sacrificed for examination. The changes in the space between the molar and incisor were measured to indicate the amount of tooth movement. The coil springs, either with sham or active magnets, move molar much more than magnets alone, regardless of absence or presence of PEMF (p < 0.001). Under PEMF, the coil spring moved significantly more amount of tooth movement than that of coil-magnet combination (p < 0.01), as did the magnets compared to sham magnets (p < 0.019). Under a non-PEMF scenario, there was no significant difference in tooth movement between coil spring and coil-magnets combination, nor was there difference between magnets and sham magnets. It is suggested that the PEMF-induced vibration may enhance the effect of mechanical and magnetic forces on tooth movement.

  2. The Effects of Exposure to Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in the Treatment of Migraine Headache: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadianinejad, Seyed Ehsan; Babaei, Manuchehr; Nazari, Pedram

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Findings have indicated that increased usage of mobile phones may be concomitant with higher rate of headache attacks due to the low radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of low RF-EMF on the treatment outcome in migraine patients. Methods This cohort study was performed on 114 migraine patients referred to the Neurology Clinic of Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz, Southwest Iran, from September 2014 to March 2015. Patients with migraine were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire exploring mobile phones, Wi-Fi devices and fixed-line telephone use as RF-EMF sources. After 3 months, we determined patients’ response to treatment. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) tests were carried out to analyze data, using SPSS version 17. Results Out of 114 individuals who participated, 82 (71.9%) were female and 32 (28.1%) cases were male. The number and severity of migraine headaches were correlated significantly with an increased use of mobile phones during day and Wi-Fi per week (p<0.05). The usage of fixed-line telephones had no significant relationship with the study variables (p>0.05). Conclusion It is recommended that the patients with migraine headache limit mobile phone use and instead, use the fixed-line telephone for their daily telecommunications. PMID:28163863

  3. 17-β-Estradiol Counteracts the Effects of High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Trophoblastic Connexins and Integrins

    PubMed Central

    Cervellati, Franco; Lunghi, Laura; Fabbri, Elena; Valbonesi, Paola; Marci, Roberto; Biondi, Carla; Vesce, Fortunato

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMFs) and 17-β-estradiol on connexins (Cxs), integrins (Ints), and estrogen receptor (ER) expression, as well as on ultrastructure of trophoblast-derived HTR-8/SVneo cells. HF-EMF, 17-β-estradiol, and their combination induced an increase of Cx40 and Cx43 mRNA expression. HF-EMF decreased Int alpha1 and β1 mRNA levels but enhanced Int alpha5 mRNA expression. All the Ints mRNA expressions were increased by 17-β-estradiol and exposure to both stimuli. ER-β mRNA was reduced by HF-EMF but augmented by 17-β-estradiol alone or with HF-EMF. ER-β immunofluorescence showed a cytoplasmic localization in sham and HF-EMF exposed cells which became nuclear after treatment with hormone or both stimuli. Electron microscopy evidenced a loss of cellular contact in exposed cells which appeared counteracted by 17-β-estradiol. We demonstrate that 17-β-estradiol modulates Cxs and Ints as well as ER-β expression induced by HF-EMF, suggesting an influence of both stimuli on trophoblast differentiation and migration. PMID:23819010

  4. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2013-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method. PMID:23239176

  5. Neuroprotective effects of lotus seedpod procyanidins on extremely low frequency electromagnetic field-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chunchun; Luo, Xiaoping; Duan, Yuqing; Duan, Wenyi; Zhang, Haihui; He, Yuanqing; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the protective effects of lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) on extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF)-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons and the underlying molecular mechanism. The results of MTT, morphological observation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays showed that compared with control, incubating neurons under ELF-EMF exposure significantly decreased cell viability and increased the number of apoptotic cells, whereas LSPCs evidently protected the hippocampal neurons against ELF-EMF-induced cell damage. Moreover, a certain concentration of LSPCs inhibited the elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) level, as well as prevented the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by ELF-EMF exposure. In addition, supplementation with LSPCs could alleviate DNA damage, block cell cycle arrest at S phase, and inhibit apoptosis and necrosis of hippocampal neurons under ELF-EMF exposure. Further study demonstrated that LSPCs up-regulated the activations of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl proteins and suppressed the expressions of Bad, Bax proteins caused by ELF-EMF exposure. In conclusion, these findings revealed that LSPCs protected against ELF-EMF-induced neurotoxicity through inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  6. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2013-05-01

    Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method.

  7. Electromagnetic fields and male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tynes, T

    1993-01-01

    The aetiology of male breast cancer is still considered to be rather unclear. Epidemiological studies have recently shown an excess risk of male breast cancer in "electrical workers" with potential exposure to electromagnetic (EM) fields. Interest on the possible association between pineal function and breast cancer has come into focus. The pineal hormone melatonin has been shown to reduce the incidence of experimentally-induced breast cancer in rats, the hormone is oncostatic and cytotoxic to breast, ovarian, and bladder cancer cell lines in vitro. Treatment of cancer patients with orally administered melatonin has been tried. Pineal function in humans is suppressed by light-at-night (LAN). Animal studies have shown that exposure to 60-Hz electric fields may also suppress the nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin production in adult rats. Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in industrialised world. No good explanation has so far been provided for the increased incidence of this site during the last decades, although changes in fertility factors have had some effect. If new epidemiological and experimental data give support to the hypothesis that exposure to LAN and EM fields may increase breast cancer risk, this may have regulatory and political consequences for future use of electric power.

  8. Effects of early-onset radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure (GSM 900 MHz) on behavior and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Klose, Melanie; Grote, Karen; Spathmann, Oliver; Streckert, Joachim; Clemens, Markus; Hansen, Volkert W; Lerchl, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    Female Wistar rats, from an age of 14 days to 19 months, were exposed in the head region for 2 h per day, 5 days per week, to a GSM-modulated 900 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF). The average specific absorption rates (SAR) in the brain were 0 (sham), 0.7, 2.5 and 10 W/kg. To ensure a primary exposure of the head region, rats were fixed in restraining tubes of different sizes according to their increasing body weight. During the experiment, a set of 4 behavioral and learning tests (rotarod, Morris water maze, 8-arm radial maze, open field) were performed 3 times in juvenile, adult and presenile rats. In these tests, no profound differences could be identified between the groups. Only presenile rats of the cage control group showed a lower activity in two of these tests compared to the other groups presumably due to the lack of daily handling. The rotarod data revealed on some testing days significantly longer holding times for the sham-exposed rat vs. the exposed rat, but these findings were not consistent. During the first year, body weights of sham-exposed and exposed rats were not different from those of the cage controls, and thereafter only marginally lower, so that the effect of stress as confounder was probably negligible. The results of this study do not indicate harmful effects of long-term RF-EMF exposure even when begun at an early age on subsequent development, learning skills and behavior in rats, even at relatively high SAR values.

  9. Noise induced calcium oscillations in a cell exposed to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yongli; Chen, Yafei; Yuan, Changqing; Zhan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of noise on the calcium oscillations in a cell exposed to electromagnetic fields are described by a dynamic model. Noise is a very important factor to be considered in the dynamic research on the calcium oscillations in a cell exposed to electromagnetic fields. Some meaningful results have been obtained here based on the discussion. The results show that the pattern of intracellular calcium oscillations exposure to electromagnetic fields can be influenced by noise. Furthermore, the intracellular calcium oscillations exposure to electromagnetic fields can also be induced by noise. And the work has also studied the relationships between the voltage sensitive calcium channel's open probability and electromagnetic field. The result can provide new insights into constructive roles and potential applications of selecting appropriate electromagnetic field frequency during the research of biological effect of electromagnetic field.

  10. The effects of electromagnetic fields on B16-BL6 cells are dependent on their spatial and temporal character.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Carly A; Buckner, Alison L; Koren, Stan A; Persinger, Michael A; Lafrenie, Robert M

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to low intensity, low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) has effects on several biological systems. Spatiotemporal characteristics of these EMFs are critical. The effect of several complex EMF patterns on the proliferation of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells was tested. Exposure to one of these patterns, the Thomas-EMF, inhibited cell proliferation and promoted calcium uptake. The Thomas-EMF is coded from a digital-to-analog file comprised of 849 points, which provides power to solenoids and can be set to alter timing, intensity, and duration of variable EMF. Setting the point duration to 3 ms generated a time-varying EMF pattern which began at 25 Hz and slowed to 6 Hz over a 2.5 s repeat. Exposing B16-BL6 cells to Thomas-EMF set to 3 ms for 1 h/day inhibited cell proliferation by 40% after 5 days, while setting the point duration to 1, 2, 4, or 5 ms had no effect on cell proliferation. Similarly, exposing cells to Thomas-EMF set to 3 ms promoted a three-fold increase in calcium uptake after 1 h, while the other timings had no effect. Exposure to Thomas-EMF for as short as 15 min/day slowed cell proliferation, but exposure for 1 h/day was optimal. This corresponded to the effect on calcium uptake where uptake was detected after 15 min exposure and was maximal by 1 h of treatment. Studies show that the specific spatiotemporal character of EMF is critical in mediating their biological activities. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:165-174, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Occupational exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields and its effect on human immune parameters.

    PubMed

    Tuschl, H; Neubauer, G; Garn, H; Duftschmid, K; Winker, N; Brusl, H

    1999-01-01

    The present study recorded a considerable excess of recommended exposure limits in the vicinity of shortwave diathermy devices used for medical treatment of patients. Different kinds of field probes were used to measure electric and magnetic field strength and the whole body exposure of medical personnel operating shortwave, decimeter wave and microwave units was calculated. To investigate the influence of chronic exposure on the immune system of operators, blood was sampled from physiotherapists working at the above mentioned devices. Eighteen exposed and thirteen control persons, matched by sex and age, were examined. Total leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were performed and leucocytic subpopulations determined by flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies against surface antigens. In addition, to quantify subpopulations of immunocompetent cells, the activity of lymphocytes was measured. Lymphocytes were stimulated by mitogen phytohemagglutinin and their proliferation measured by a flow cytometric method. No statistically significant differences between the control and exposed persons were found. In both study groups all immune parameters were within normal ranges.

  12. Electromagnetic Fields, Oxidative Stress, and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Consales, Claudia; Merla, Caterina; Marino, Carmela; Benassi, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) originating both from both natural and manmade sources permeate our environment. As people are continuously exposed to EMFs in everyday life, it is a matter of great debate whether they can be harmful to human health. On the basis of two decades of epidemiological studies, an increased risk for childhood leukemia associated with Extremely Low Frequency fields has been consistently assessed, inducing the International Agency for Research on Cancer to insert them in the 2B section of carcinogens in 2001. EMFs interaction with biological systems may cause oxidative stress under certain circumstances. Since free radicals are essential for brain physiological processes and pathological degeneration, research focusing on the possible influence of the EMFs-driven oxidative stress is still in progress, especially in the light of recent studies suggesting that EMFs may contribute to the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders. This review synthesizes the emerging evidences about this topic, highlighting the wide data uncertainty that still characterizes the EMFs effect on oxidative stress modulation, as both pro-oxidant and neuroprotective effects have been documented. Care should be taken to avoid methodological limitations and to determine the patho-physiological relevance of any alteration found in EMFs-exposed biological system. PMID:22991514

  13. Effects of combined treatment with ibandronate and pulsed electromagnetic field on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Liao, Yuan; Xie, Haitao; Liao, Ying; Zeng, Yahua; Li, Neng; Sun, Guanghua; Wu, Qi; Zhou, Guijuan

    2017-01-01

    Ibandronate (IBN) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) have each shown positive effects for treating osteoporosis, but no study has evaluated the relative effects of these treatments combined. This study investigated the effects of IBN + PEMF on bone turnover, mineral density, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. Fifty 3-month-old rats were randomly apportioned to receive a sham-operation (n = 10), or ovariectomy (n = 40). The latter group was equally divided as the model (OVX control) or to receive IBN, PEMF, or IBN + PEMF. Beginning the day after surgery, the IBN and IBN + PEMF groups received weekly subcutaneous IBN; the PEMF and IBN + PEMF groups were given daily PEMF during the same 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of treatments, biochemical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD), microarchitecture parameters, biomechanical properties, and some metabolic modulators that are involved in bone resorption were compared. The L5 lumbar vertebral body BMDs of the IBN, PEMF, and IBN + PEMF groups were 121.6%, 119.5%, and 139.6%; maximum loads were 111.4%, 112.7%, and 121.9%; and energy to failure was 130.8%, 129.2%, and 154.9% of the OVX model, respectively. The IBN + PEMF group had significantly lower levels of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, and greater improvement in BMD, bone microarchitecture, and strength of the lumbar spine compared with monotherapy groups. Results showed that IBN + PEMF had a more favorable effect on the lumbar spine in this osteoporosis model than did either monotherapy. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:31-40, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Neuroprotective effects of melatonin and omega-3 on hippocampal cells prenatally exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Erdem Koç, Gülüna; Kaplan, Suleyman; Altun, Gamze; Gümüş, Hasan; Gülsüm Deniz, Ömür; Aydin, Isinsu; Emin Onger, Mehmet; Altunkaynak, Zuhal

    2016-10-01

    Adverse effects on human health caused by electromagnetic fields (EMF) associated with the use of mobile phones, particularly among young people, are increasing all the time. The potential deleterious effects of EMF exposure resulting from mobile phones being used in close proximity to the brain require particular evaluation. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to EMF in the development of the pyramidal cells using melatonin (MEL) and omega-3 (ω-3). We established seven groups of pregnant rats consisting of three animals each; control (CONT), SHAM, EMF, EMF + MEL, MEL, EMF + ω-3 and ω-3 alone. The rats in the EMF, EMF + MEL, EMF + ω-3 groups were exposed to 900 MHz EMF for 60 min/day in an exposure tube during the gestation period. The CONT, MEL and ω-3 group rats were not placed inside the exposure tube or exposed to EMF during the study period. After delivery, only spontaneously delivered male rat pups were selected for the establishment of further groups. Each group of offspring consisted of six animals. The optical fractionator technique was used to determine total pyramidal neuron numbers in the rat hippocampal region. The total number of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis (CA) in the EMF group was significantly lower than in the CONT, SHAM, EMF + MEL, and EMF + ω-3 groups. No significant difference was observed between the EMF, MEL and ω-3 groups. No difference was also observed between any groups in terms of rats' body or brain weights. MEL and ω-3 can protect the cell against neuronal damage in the hippocampus induced by 900 MHz EMF. However, further studies are now needed to evaluate the chronic effects of 900 MHz EMF on the brain in the prenatal period.

  15. Effect of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on apoptosis in the rat cerebellum, following prenatal and postnatal exposure to an electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Köktürk, Sibel; Yardimoglu, Melda; Celikozlu, Saadet D; Dolanbay, Elif Gelenli; Cimbiz, Ali

    2013-07-01

    The expansion of mobile phone technology has raised concerns regarding the effect of 900-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on the central nervous system. At present, the developing human brain is regularly exposed to mobile telephones, pre- and postnatally. Several studies have demonstrated the acute effects of EMF exposure during pre- or postnatal periods; however, the chronic effects of EMF exposure are less understood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the chronic effects of EMF on the pre- and postnatal rat cerebellum. The control group was maintained in the same conditions as the experimental groups, without the exposure to EMF. In the EMF1 group, the rats were exposed to EMF during pre- and postnatal periods (until postnatal day 80). In the EMF2 group, the rats were also exposed to EMF pre- and postnatally; in addition, however, they were provided with a daily oral supplementation of Lycopersicon esculentum extract (∼2 g/kg). The number of caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells present in the rats in the control and experimental groups were then counted. The neurodegenerative changes were studied using cresyl violet staining, and these changes were evaluated. In comparison with the control animals, the EMF1 group demonstrated a significant increase in the number of caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells present in the cerebellum (P<0.001). However, in comparison with the EMF1 group, the EMF2 group exhibited significantly fewer caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells in the cerebellum. In the EMF1 group, the Purkinje neurons were revealed to have undergone dark neuron degenerative changes. However, the presence of dark Purkinje neurons was reduced in the EMF2 group, compared with the EMF1 group. The results indicated that apoptosis and neurodegeneration in rats exposed to EMF during pre- and postnatal periods may be reduced with Lycopersicon esculentum extract therapy.

  16. Effect of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on apoptosis in the rat cerebellum, following prenatal and postnatal exposure to an electromagnetic field

    PubMed Central

    KÖKTÜRK, SIBEL; YARDIMOGLU, MELDA; CELIKOZLU, SAADET D.; DOLANBAY, ELIF GELENLI; CIMBIZ, ALI

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of mobile phone technology has raised concerns regarding the effect of 900-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on the central nervous system. At present, the developing human brain is regularly exposed to mobile telephones, pre- and postnatally. Several studies have demonstrated the acute effects of EMF exposure during pre- or postnatal periods; however, the chronic effects of EMF exposure are less understood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the chronic effects of EMF on the pre- and postnatal rat cerebellum. The control group was maintained in the same conditions as the experimental groups, without the exposure to EMF. In the EMF1 group, the rats were exposed to EMF during pre- and postnatal periods (until postnatal day 80). In the EMF2 group, the rats were also exposed to EMF pre- and postnatally; in addition, however, they were provided with a daily oral supplementation of Lycopersicon esculentum extract (∼2 g/kg). The number of caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells present in the rats in the control and experimental groups were then counted. The neurodegenerative changes were studied using cresyl violet staining, and these changes were evaluated. In comparison with the control animals, the EMF1 group demonstrated a significant increase in the number of caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells present in the cerebellum (P<0.001). However, in comparison with the EMF1 group, the EMF2 group exhibited significantly fewer caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells in the cerebellum. In the EMF1 group, the Purkinje neurons were revealed to have undergone dark neuron degenerative changes. However, the presence of dark Purkinje neurons was reduced in the EMF2 group, compared with the EMF1 group. The results indicated that apoptosis and neurodegeneration in rats exposed to EMF during pre- and postnatal periods may be reduced with Lycopersicon esculentum extract therapy. PMID:23935717

  17. A Natural Electromagnetic Fields Effect on Healthy Volunteers During Long-Term Experiment with Isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yury I.; Mikhailov, Valery M.; Ushakov, Boris B.

    2008-06-01

    There were investigated four healthy volunteers at the age of 37, 40, 41 and 48 during the baseline 240-d isolation period starting from July 3, 1999 in the frame of SFINCSS-99 - "SIMULATION OF FLIGHT OF INTERNATIONAL CREW ON SPACE STATION". Before a starting of experiment with long-term isolation were carried out measurements of magnetic properties of module and sleeping places. With the regularity of 3 times a week each subject made records of no less then 3 video episodes with the total length of one minute minimum at the same time between 1 and 2 p.m. Applying vital non-invasive computer capillaroscopy of nailbed has allowed quantitatively estimating a capillary blood velocity (CBV). The microcirculation parameters obtained during experiment were compared to local indexes of geomagnetic activity. About 1500 episodes were recorded on laser disks and analyzed. Parameters of microcirculation were compared with other physiological parameters monitored in the experiment. CBV investigation during the most intensive magnetic storm for the period of isolation (A-index- 44) show, that CBV at all volunteers was considerably slowed down. The greatest delay of blood flow velocity revealed at the subject which the factor of shielding of a constant magnetic field at the level of the sleeping berth has made 2,0. CBV at the subject has made 498 ± 46 μm/s with (- 65,8 % from base line). Least delay of a CBV is revealed at the subject which the factor of shielding of a constant magnetic field at the level of the sleeping berth has made 3, 15 (-12 % from base line).

  18. Non-inertial electromagnetic effects in matter. Gyromagnetic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, M.

    2012-08-01

    Non-inertial electromagnetic effects in matter, i.e. electromagnetic fields created by a non-inertial motion of material bodies, are discussed within the Drude-Lorentz (plasma) model of matter polarization. It is shown that an oscillatory motion of a point-like body, or wavelike motion in an extended body gives rise to electromagnetic fields with the same frequency as the frequency of the original motion, while shock-like movements of a point-like body generate electromagnetic fields with the characteristic (atomic scale) frequency of the bodies. The polarization of a rigid body induced by rotations is discussed in various circumstances. A uniform rotation produces a static electric field in a dielectric and a stationary current (and a static magnetic field) in a conductor. The latter corresponds to the gyromagnetic effect (while the former may be called the gyroelectric effect). Both fields are computed for a sphere and the gyromagnetic coefficient is derived. A non-uniform rotation induces emission of electromagnetic fields. The equations of motion for the polarization are linearized for slight non-uniformities of the angular velocity and solved both for a dielectric and a conducting sphere. The electromagnetic field emitted by a dielectric spherically shaped body in (a slightly) non-uniform rotation has the characteristic (atomic scale) frequency of the body (slightly shifted by the uniform part of the angular frequency). In the same conditions, a conducting sphere emits an electromagnetic field whose frequency is double the uniform part of the angular frequency.

  19. Investigation of Potential Behavioral Effects of Exposure to 60 Hz Electromagnetic Fields.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    chlorpromazine was not altered by exposure to microwaves. A lhough, the above current literature indicates that under many con- ditions the effects of various...Oct 20-23, 1975, Vol. 1, DHEW Publ. ( FDA )77-8010, pp. 311-322, Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1975. % % 6. deLorge, J. Operant...In: Symposium on Biological Effects and Measurement of Radio Frequency/Microwaves, D. G. Hazzard (Ed.), pp. 62-68, HEW Publ ( FDA )77-8026, Washington

  20. Effects of BMP9 and pulsed electromagnetic fields on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Wang, Pei; Cao, Zhizhong; Wang, Xingxing; Wang, Dalin; Shen, Yaxian; Jing, Da; Luo, Erping; Tang, Weizhong

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) have been confirmed to have self-renewal capacity and multidifferentiation potential and are good candidates for periodontal tissue regeneration. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been demonstrated to promote osteogenesis in non-union fractures, partly by regulating mesenchymal stem cells or osteoblast activity. However, there is no report about the osteo-inductive effect of PEMF stimulation on human PDLSCs (hPDLSCs). Thus, we tested the hypothesis that PEMF biophysical stimulation alone has an influence on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs. To detect the osteo-inductive potential of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP9), we transfected the STRO-1(+) /CD146(+) hPDLCSs with BMP9-expressing recombinant adenoviruses. We examined the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs treated with either PEMF (15 Hz, 1 h daily, different intensities), or BMP9, or both stimuli. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay showed that PEMF of different intensities had no effect on the proliferation of hPDLSCs and did not enhance the proliferative capability of BMP9-transfected cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting showed that the combination of both PEMFs (1.8 or 2.4 mT) and BMP9 stimulation had a synergistic effect on early and intermediate osteogenic genes and protein expressions of runt-related transcription factor 2, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and late mineralized extracellular matrix formation in hPDLSCs. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:63-77, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effect of electromagnetic field on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in a human mu-opioid receptor cell model.

    PubMed

    Ross, Christina L; Teli, Thaleia; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2016-01-01

    During the cell communication process, endogenous and exogenous signaling affect normal as well as pathological developmental conditions. Exogenous influences such as extra-low-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) have been shown to effect pain and inflammation by modulating G-protein receptors, down-regulating cyclooxygenase-2 activity, and affecting the calcium/calmodulin/nitric oxide pathway. Investigators have reported changes in opioid receptors and second messengers, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), in opiate tolerance and dependence by showing how repeated exposure to morphine decreases adenylate cyclase activity causing cAMP to return to control levels in the tolerant state, and increase above control levels during withdrawal. Resonance responses to biological systems using exogenous EMF signals suggest that frequency response characteristics of the target can determine the EMF biological response. In our past research we found significant down regulation of inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) using 5 Hz EMF frequency. In this study cAMP was stimulated in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells transfected with human mu-opioid receptors, then exposed to 5 Hz EMF, and outcomes were compared with morphine treatment. Results showed a 23% greater inhibition of cAMP-treating cells with EMF than with morphine. In order to test our results for frequency specific effects, we ran identical experiments using 13 Hz EMF, which produced results similar to controls. This study suggests the use of EMF as a complementary or alternative treatment to morphine that could both reduce pain and enhance patient quality of life without the side-effects of opiates.

  2. Exposure time-dependent thermal effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on the whole body of rats.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Shin; Ushiyama, Akira; Maeda, Machiko; Hattori, Kenji; Kunugita, Naoki; Wang, Jianqing; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the thermal effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) on the variation in core temperature and gene expression of some stress markers in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2.14 GHz wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) RF signals at a whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) of 4 W/kg, which causes behavioral disruption in laboratory animals, and 0.4 W/kg, which is the limit for the occupational exposure set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guideline. It is important to understand the possible in vivo effects derived from RF-EMF exposures at these intensities. Because of inadequate data on real-time core temperature analyses using free-moving animal and the association between stress and thermal effects of RF-EMF exposure, we analyzed the core body temperature under nonanesthetic condition during RF-EMF exposure. The results revealed that the core temperature increased by approximately 1.5°C compared with the baseline and reached a plateau till the end of RF-EMF exposure. Furthermore, we analyzed the gene expression of heat-shock proteins (Hsp) and heat-shock transcription factors (Hsf) family after RF-EMF exposure. At WBA-SAR of 4 W/kg, some Hsp and Hsf gene expression levels were significantly upregulated in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum following exposure for 6 hr/day but were not upregulated after exposure for 3 hr/day. On the other hand, there was no significant change in the core temperature and gene expression at WBA-SAR of 0.4 W/kg. Thus, 2.14-GHz RF-EMF exposure at WBA-SAR of 4 W/kg induced increases in the core temperature and upregulation of some stress markers, particularly in the cerebellum.

  3. Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones (GSM 900 and WCDMA/UMTS) on the macrostructure of sleep.

    PubMed

    Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Dorn, Hans; Bahr, Achim; Anderer, Peter; Sauter, Cornelia

    2011-03-01

    In the present double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled cross-over study, possible effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 and Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA)/Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) cell-phones on the macrostructure of sleep were investigated in a laboratory environment. An adaptation night, which served as screening night for sleep disorders and as an adjustment night to the laboratory environment, was followed by 9 study nights (separated by a 2-week interval) in which subjects were exposed to three exposure conditions (sham, GSM 900 and WCDMA/UMTS). The sample comprised 30 healthy male subjects within the age range 18-30 years (mean ± standard deviation: 25.3 ± 2.6 years). A cell-phone usage at maximum radio frequency (RF) output power was simulated and the transmitted power was adjusted in order to approach, but not to exceed, the specific absorption rate (SAR) limits of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines for general public exposure (SAR(10g) = 2.0 W kg(-1)). In this study, possible effects of long-term (8 h) continuous RF exposure on the central nervous system were analysed during sleep, because sleep is a state in which many confounding intrinsic and extrinsic factors (e.g. motivation, personality, attitude) are eliminated or controlled. Thirteen of 177 variables characterizing the initiation and maintenance of sleep in the GSM 900 and three in the WCDMA exposure condition differed from the sham condition. The few significant results are not indicative of a negative impact on sleep architecture. From the present results there is no evidence for a sleep-disturbing effect of GSM 900 and WCDMA exposure. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Electromagnetic field of a linear antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derby, Norman; Olbert, Stanislaw

    2008-11-01

    Animated computer simulations of the electric field of a radiating antenna can capture the attention of students in introductory electromagnetism courses and stimulate active discussions. The simulations raise questions not usually addressed in textbooks. In certain cases, some of the field lines appear to move toward the antenna, the speed of the field lines can change as they move, and the field lines exhibit strange behavior (circling or splitting) at certain points. Because their fields can be expressed in terms of elementary functions, animations of point dipole antennas are common, but animations showing the fields of antennas with more realistic lengths are not as common because analytical expressions for these fields are not as well known. We show that it is possible to derive analytical expressions in terms of elementary functions for the electromagnetic field of linear antennas of finite length. We draw attention to an open-source method for displaying the fine details within the field patterns and then give a general discussion of singular points and their motions, derive expressions for their location and phase velocity, and apply these results to some of the phenomena that are visible in visualizations of the fields of various antennas.

  5. Effects of exposure to an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on hippocampal long-term potentiation in rat.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Alireza; Khalili, Afshin; Salehi, Iraj; Shahidi, Siamak; Sarihi, Abdolrahman

    2014-05-20

    Modern lifestyle exposes nearly all humans to electromagnetic fields, particularly to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs). Prolonged exposure to ELF-EMFs induces persistent changes in neuronal activity. However, the modulation of synaptic efficiency by ELF-EMFs in vivo is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether ELF-EMFs can change induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse ratio (PPR) in the rat hippocampal area. Twenty-nine adult male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (ELF-EMF exposed, sham and control groups). The ELF-EMF group was exposed to a magnetic field for 90 consecutive days (2h/day). ELF-EMFs were produced by a circular coil (50Hz, 100 micro Tesla). The sham-exposed controls were placed in an identical chamber with no electromagnetic field. After this period, rats were deeply anesthetized with urethane (2.0mg/kg) and then a bipolar stimulating and recording electrode was implanted into the perforant pathway (PP) and dentate gyrus (DG), respectively. LTP in hippocampal area was induced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS). Prolonged exposure to ELF-EMFs increased LTP induction. There was a significant difference in the slope of EPSP and amplitude of PS between the ELF-EMF group and other groups. In conclusion, our data suggest that exposure to ELF-EMFs produces a marked change in the synaptic plasticity generated in synapses of the PP-DG. No significant difference in PPR of ELF-EMF group before and after HFS suggests a postsynaptic expression site of LTP.

  6. Consideration of the effects of intense tissue heating on the RF electromagnetic fields during MRI: simulations for MRgFUS in the hip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuegang Xin, Sherman; Gu, Shiyong; Carluccio, Giuseppe; Collins, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the strong dependence of tissue electrical properties on temperature, it is important to consider the potential effects of intense tissue heating on the RF electromagnetic fields during MRI, as can occur in MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. In principle, changes of the RF electromagnetic fields could affect both efficacy of RF pulses, and the MRI-induced RF heating (SAR) pattern. In this study, the equilibrium temperature distribution in a whole-body model with 2 mm resolution before and during intense tissue heating up to 60 °C at the target region was calculated. Temperature-dependent electric properties of tissues were assigned to the model to establish a temperature-dependent electromagnetic whole-body model in a 3T MRI system. The results showed maximum changes in conductivity, permittivity, ≤ft|\\mathbf{B}1+\\right|, and SAR of about 25%, 6%, 2%, and 20%, respectively. Though the B1 field and SAR distributions are both temperature-dependent, the potential harm to patients due to higher SARs is expected to be minimal and the effects on the B1 field distribution should have minimal effect on images from basic MRI sequences.

  7. Consideration of the effects of intense tissue heating on the RF electromagnetic fields during MRI: simulations for MRgFUS in the hip.

    PubMed

    Xin, Sherman Xuegang; Gu, Shiyong; Carluccio, Giuseppe; Collins, Christopher M

    2015-01-07

    Due to the strong dependence of tissue electrical properties on temperature, it is important to consider the potential effects of intense tissue heating on the RF electromagnetic fields during MRI, as can occur in MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. In principle, changes of the RF electromagnetic fields could affect both efficacy of RF pulses, and the MRI-induced RF heating (SAR) pattern. In this study, the equilibrium temperature distribution in a whole-body model with 2 mm resolution before and during intense tissue heating up to 60 °C at the target region was calculated. Temperature-dependent electric properties of tissues were assigned to the model to establish a temperature-dependent electromagnetic whole-body model in a 3T MRI system. The results showed maximum changes in conductivity, permittivity, [absolute value]B(1)(+)[absolute value] and SAR of about 25%, 6%, 2%, and 20%, respectively. Though the B1 field and SAR distributions are both temperature-dependent, the potential harm to patients due to higher SARs is expected to be minimal and the effects on the B1 field distribution should have minimal effect on images from basic MRI sequences.

  8. Effects of electromagnetic field produced by mobile phones on the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats.

    PubMed

    Elhag, M A; Nabil, Ghada M; Attia, Atef M M

    2007-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of EMR produced by GSM Mobile Phones (MP) on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rats. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) controls, (2) rats exposed to a fractionated dose of EMR (15 min day(-1) for four days) (EMR-F) and (3) rats exposed to an acute dose of EMR (EMR-A). A net drop in the plasma concentration of vitamin C (-47 and -59.8%) was observed in EMR-F and EMR-A groups, respectively, when compared to controls. While, a significant decrease in the levels of lypophilic antioxidant vitamins: vitamin E (-33 and -65.8%), vitamin A (-44.4 and -46.8%) was observed in EMR-F and EMR-A groups, respectively, when compared to controls. A net drop in plasma level of reduced glutathione (GSH) (-19.8 and -35.3%) was observed in EMR-F and EMR-A groups, respectively. EMR exposure of rats produced a significant decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, with the values of these activities for EMR-A group is significantly lower than those of EMR-F. These results indicate that the effects of acute doses of EMR produced by mobile phones on the rat's antioxidant status is significantly higher than those of fractionated doses of the same type of radiation. On the basis of present results, it can be concluded that exposure to acute doses of EMR produced by mobile phones is more hazardous than that produced by fractionated doses of the same type of radiation.

  9. Protective effect of procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod on immune function injury induced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihui; Cheng, Yanxiang; Luo, Xiaoping; Duan, Yuqing

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) from extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure (50Hz, 8mT, 28 days) and their protective mechanism against radiation damage. The results showed that LSPCs increased the organ index of mice and made the damaged blood-producing function and cytokine(INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in spleen) levels by ELF-EMF-irradiation recovered to normal appearance. And experimental results proved that dosing LSPCs inhibit more stagnation of splenocytes in G0/G1 phase caused by ELF-EMF, thus the spleen cells from G0/G1 phase to S phase shift, restore normal cell metabolism, promote the splenocytes proliferation, reduced the apoptosis of spleen cells, effective protect the damage induced by the ELF-EMF radiation. In addition, LSPCs prevented the decline of DNA content caused by ELF-EMF. Western blot determinated the levels of apoptosis genes including Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-cl, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. The results revealed that a significant suppression in Bcl-2 expression and increase in Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in splenic cells in ELF-EMF group. However, LSPCs restored these changes. Taking these results together, it may be summarized that LSPCs could protect hematopoietic tissues and the immune system from ELF-EMF. And it may be hypothesized that ELF-EMF-induced apoptosis in splenocytes might occur via triggers the trans-activation of Bax and activates caspases-3 and -9, which then cleaves the death substrates, leading to apoptosis in splenocytes of mice treated with ELF-EMF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of electromagnetic fields exposure on plasma hormonal and inflammatory pathway biomarkers in male workers of a power plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaopin; Fei, Ying; Liu, Hui; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Ding, Zheyuan; Jin, Wen; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Guangdi; Xu, Zhengping; Zhu, Yongjian; Yu, Yunxian

    2016-01-01

    The potential health risks of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have currently raised considerable public concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of EMF exposure on levels of plasma hormonal and inflammatory pathway biomarkers in male workers of an electric power plant. Seventy-seven male workers with high occupational EMF exposure and 77 male controls with low exposure, matched by age, were selected from a cross-sectional study. Moreover, high EMF exposure group was with walkie-talkies usage and exposed to power frequency EMF at the work places for a longer duration than control group. A questionnaire was applied to obtain relevant information, including sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and EMF exposures. Plasma levels of testosterone, estradiol, melatonin, NF-κB, heat-shock protein (HSP) 70, HSP27, and TET1 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. EMF exposure group had statistically significantly lower levels of testosterone (β = -0.3 nmol/L, P = 0.015), testosterone/estradiol (T/E2) ratio (β = -15.6, P = 0.037), and NF-κB (β = -20.8 ng/L, P = 0.045) than control group. Moreover, joint effects between occupational EMF exposure and employment duration, mobile phone fees, years of mobile phone usage, and electric fees on levels of testosterone and T/E2 ratio were observed. Nevertheless, no statistically significant associations of EMF exposures with plasma estradiol, melatonin, HSP70, HSP27, and TET1 were found. The findings showed that chronic exposure to EMF could decrease male plasma testosterone and T/E2 ratio, and it might possibly affect reproductive functions in males. No significant associations of EMF exposure with inflammatory pathway biomarkers were found.

  11. Effects of broad band electromagnetic fields on HSP70 expression and ischemia-reperfusion in rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Raffaella; Marano, Lidia; Braidotti, Paola; Bianciardi, Paola; Calamia, Mario; Fiorentini, Cesare; Samaja, Michele

    2004-09-03

    Although exposure to broad band (0.2-20 MHz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) is part of the treatment of several diseases, little is known as to their effects on myocardial protein expression and resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). We exposed Sprague-Dawley rats to either high (H, 10 min/day at 200 V/m, 36.1 microT) or low (L, 2 min/day at 30 V/m, 11.4 microT) intensity broad band EMF for 15 days. At the end of the treatment, myocardial HSP70 was 32 +/- 8% (mean +/- SEM) higher in L (P = 0.01) than in control (C), whereas in H it remained the same as in C. Electron microscopy revealed sporadic ruptures of mitochondrial cristae in H hearts, with no differences in other parameters. Malondialdehyde was increased in treated hearts (P < 0.05), but especially in H (P = 0.008). To assess the protective role of HSP70 during I/R, hearts were Langendorff-perfused with Krebs-Henseleit. After I/R, C hearts displayed depressed rate. pressure (-13 +/- 7%) and increased end-diastolic (+9.2 +/- 2.8 mmHg) and perfusion pressures (+30 +/- 10 mmHg). In H and L, rate. pressure recovery was similar to C (-2 +/- 21% and -12 +/- 16%, respectively, P = NS). In contrast, both end-diastolic and perfusion pressures were higher in L than in H (30.8 +/- 5.4 vs 18.2 +/- 3.5, P = 0.01, and 54 +/- 8 vs 21 +/- 8 mmHg, P = 0.01, respectively) indicating diastolic derangement in L. In conclusion, the effects of broad band EMF on HSP70 appear to be biphasic, and HSP70 overexpression might not be directly related to improved protection against I/R.

  12. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field treatment on programmed resolution of inflammation pathway markers in human cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    Kubat, Nicole J; Moffett, John; Fray, Linley M

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex process involving distinct but overlapping biochemical and molecular events that are highly regulated. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy is increasingly used to treat pain and edema associated with inflammation following surgery involving soft tissue. However, the molecular and cellular effects of PEMF therapy on pathways involved in the resolution of inflammation are poorly understood. Using cell culture lines relevant to trauma-induced inflammation of the skin (human dermal fibroblasts, human epidermal keratinocytes, and human mononuclear cells), we investigated the effect of PEMF on gene expression involved in the acute and resolution phases of inflammation. We found that PEMF treatment was followed by changes in the relative amount of messenger (m)RNAs encoding enzymes involved in heme catabolism and removal of reactive oxygen species, including an increase in heme oxygenase 1 and superoxide dismutase 3 mRNAs, in all cell types examined 2 hours after PEMF treatment. A relative increase in mRNAs encoding enzymes involved in lipid mediator biosynthesis was also observed, including an increase in arachidonate 12- and 15-lipoxygenase mRNAs in dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes, respectively. The relative amount of both of these lipoxygenase mRNAs was elevated in mononuclear cells following PEMF treatment relative to nontreated cells. PEMF treatment was also followed by changes in the mRNA levels of several cytokines. A decrease in the relative amount of interleukin 1 beta mRNA was observed in mononuclear cells, similar to that previously reported for epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Based on our results, we propose a model in which PEMF therapy may promote chronic inflammation resolution by mediating gene expression changes important for inhibiting and resolving inflammation. PMID:25759595

  13. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field treatment on programmed resolution of inflammation pathway markers in human cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Kubat, Nicole J; Moffett, John; Fray, Linley M

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex process involving distinct but overlapping biochemical and molecular events that are highly regulated. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy is increasingly used to treat pain and edema associated with inflammation following surgery involving soft tissue. However, the molecular and cellular effects of PEMF therapy on pathways involved in the resolution of inflammation are poorly understood. Using cell culture lines relevant to trauma-induced inflammation of the skin (human dermal fibroblasts, human epidermal keratinocytes, and human mononuclear cells), we investigated the effect of PEMF on gene expression involved in the acute and resolution phases of inflammation. We found that PEMF treatment was followed by changes in the relative amount of messenger (m)RNAs encoding enzymes involved in heme catabolism and removal of reactive oxygen species, including an increase in heme oxygenase 1 and superoxide dismutase 3 mRNAs, in all cell types examined 2 hours after PEMF treatment. A relative increase in mRNAs encoding enzymes involved in lipid mediator biosynthesis was also observed, including an increase in arachidonate 12- and 15-lipoxygenase mRNAs in dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes, respectively. The relative amount of both of these lipoxygenase mRNAs was elevated in mononuclear cells following PEMF treatment relative to nontreated cells. PEMF treatment was also followed by changes in the mRNA levels of several cytokines. A decrease in the relative amount of interleukin 1 beta mRNA was observed in mononuclear cells, similar to that previously reported for epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Based on our results, we propose a model in which PEMF therapy may promote chronic inflammation resolution by mediating gene expression changes important for inhibiting and resolving inflammation.

  14. The effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on osteoblast-like cells cultured on titanium and titanium-zirconium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Belir; Aybar, Buket; Ergüven, Mine; Emes, Yusuf; Bultan, Özgür; Akça, Kivanç; Yalçin, Serhat; Baysal, Uğur; Işsever, Halim; Çehreli, Murat Cavit; Bilir, Ayhan

    2013-11-01

    Commercially pure Ti, together with Ti Ni, Ti-6Al-4V, and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys, are among the materials currently being used for this purpose. Titanium-zirconium (TiZr) has been developed that allows SLActive surface modification and that has comparable or better mechanical strength and improved biocompatibility compared with existing Ti alloys. Furthermore, approaches have targeted making the implant surface more hydrophilic, as with the Straumann SLActive surface, a modification of the SLA surface. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) to the behavior of neonatal rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells cultured on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) and titanium-zirconium alloy (TiZr) discs with hydrophilic surface properties. Osteoblast cells were cultured on titanium and TiZr discs, and PEMF was applied. Cell proliferation rates, cell numbers, cell viability rates, alkaline phosphatase, and midkine (MK) levels were measured at 24 and 72 hours. At 24 hours, the number of cells was significantly higher in the TiZr group. At 72 hours, TiZr had a significantly higher number of cells when compared to SLActive, SLActive + PEMF, and machine surface + PEMF groups. At 24 hours, cell proliferation was significantly higher in the TiZr group than SLActive and TiZr + PEMF group. At 72 hours, TiZr group had higher proliferation rate than machine surface and TiZr + PEMF. Cell proliferation in the machine surface group was lower than both SLActive + PEMF and machine surface + PEMF. MK levels of PEMF-treated groups were lower than untreated groups for 72 hours. Our findings conclude that TiZr surfaces are similar to cpTi surfaces in terms of biocompatibility. However, PEMF application has a higher stimulative effect on cells cultured on cpTi surfaces when compared to TiZr.

  15. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation (EMFR) generated by activated mobile phones on fasting blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al Rubeaan, Khalid

    2013-04-01

    Extensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied by a common public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. No study has been published so far to establish any association between the fastest growing innovation of mobile phone and fasting blood glucose. The aim was to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on fasting blood glucose in Wistar Albino rats. 40 Male Albino rats (Wistar Strain) were divided into 5 equally numerous groups. Group A served as the control one, group B received mobile phone radiation for less than 15 min/day, group C: 15-30 min/day, group D: 31-45 min/day, and group E: 46-60 min/day for a total period of 3 months. Fasting blood glucose was determined by using Spectrophotometer and serum insulin by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The Homeostatic Model (HOMA-B) was applied for the assessment of β-cell function and (HOMA-IR) for resistance to insulin. Wister Albino rats exposed to mobile phone radiation for longer than 15 min a day for a total period of 3 months had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p < 0.015) and serum insulin (p < 0.01) compared to the control group. HOMA-IR for insulin resistance was significantly increased (p < 0.003) in the groups that were exposed for 15-30 and 46-60 min/day compared to the control rats. The results of the present study show an association between long-term exposure to activated mobile phones and increase in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin in Albino rats.

  16. Quantum processes in short and intensive electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, A. I.; Kämpfer, Burkhard; Hosaka, Atsushi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    This work provides an overview of our recent results in studying two most important and widely discussed quantum processes: electron-positron pairs production off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.g. laser) wave field or generalized Breit-Wheeler process, and a single a photon emission off an electron interacting with the laser pules, so-called non-linear Compton scattering. We show that the probabilities of particle production in both processes are determined by interplay of two dynamical effects, where the first one is related to the shape and duration of the pulse and the second one is non-linear dynamics of the interaction of charged fermions with a strong electromagnetic field. We elaborate suitable expressions for the production probabilities and cross sections, convenient for studying evolution of the plasma in presence of strong electromagnetic fields.

  17. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz) on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Fadakar, Kaveh; Saba, Valiallah; Farzampour, Shahrokh

    2013-06-01

    The electromagnetic fields (EMF) have various behavioral and biological effects on human body. There are growing concerns about the consequences of exposure to EMF. However, some studies have shown beneficial effects of these waves on human. In this paper, we study the effect of acute, sub acute and long-term exposure to 50 Hz, 0.1 mT magnetic fields (MF) on the seizure induction threshold in mice. 64 mice are used and divided into four groups. Eight mice in any group were selected to be exposed to MF for specific duration and the others were used as a control group. The duration of the applied exposures was as follows: (1) 1 day (acute), (2) 3 days (sub acute), (3) 2 weeks (sub acute), (4) 1 month (long term). The mice were exposed 2 h for a day. After exposure, the pentylentetrazol (PTZ) is injected to the mice to induce seizure and the needed dose for the seizure induction threshold is measured. In the acute exposure, the threshold to induce seizure in the exposed and sham-exposed groups was 44.25 and 46.5 mg, respectively, while the difference was not significant (p value = 0.5). In the sub acute exposure (3 days), the mean amount of drug to induce seizure was 47.38 mg in the exposed and 43.88 mg in the sham-exposed groups, however, the difference was not significant (p value = 0.3). The results were 52.38 and 46.75 mg after 2 weeks of exposure which were not significantly different either (p value = 0.2). After 1 month of exposure to MF, the threshold for the induction of seizure was significantly increased (p value < 0.05). The mean dosage to induce seizure in the exposed and control group was 54.3 and 45.75 mg, respectively. However, considering the p value, the difference in the seizure induction threshold between the exposed and sham-exposed groups after acute and sub acute exposure was not significant, analyzing the effects of acute, sub acute and long-term exposures totally indicates that increasing the exposure time increases the

  18. Kinetic theory of plasma equilibrium in an electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, L. M.; Gradov, O. M.; Ziunder, D.; Ramazashvili, R. R.

    1981-04-01

    The present study examines the equilibrium of a direct-current-carrying plasma in an electromagnetic field under the assumption that the particles escaping from the plasma have a Maxwellian distribution. It is shown that an equilibrium state is possible only in the case of a definite relationship between the amplitude of the incident wave and the concentration of escaping particles. Attention is given to spatial variations of the electromagnetic field, and of the plasma density and flow velocity. The application of these effects in microwave devices is discussed.

  19. Combined effects of flow-induced shear stress and electromagnetic field on neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mascotte-Cruz, Juan Uriel; Ríos, Amelia; Escalante, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into neural phenotype has been induced by either flow-induced shear stress (FSS) or electromagnetic fields (EMF). However, procedures are still expensive and time consuming. In the present work, induction for 1 h with the combination of both forces showed the presence of the neural precursor nestin as early as 9 h in culture after treatment and this result lasted for the following 6 d. In conclusion, the use of a combination of FSS and EMF for a short-time renders in neurite-like cells, although further investigation is required to analyze cell functionality.

  20. Effects of time-variant extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on cholinesterase activity in Dictyostelium discoideum (Protista).

    PubMed

    Amaroli, Andrea; Trielli, Francesca; Bianco, Bruno; Giordano, Stefano; Moggia, Elsa; Corrado, Maria U Delmonte

    2005-12-15

    Recently, we detected propionylcholinesterase (PrChE) activity in single-cell amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum using cytochemical, electrophoretic, and spectrophotometric methods. The involvement of this enzyme activity in cell-cell and cell-environment interactions was suggested. In this work, we found that exposure of single-cell amoebae to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) of 300 microT, 50 Hz, from 1 h up to 48 h at 21 +/- 1 degrees C affected PrChE activity.

  1. [Theoretical and experimental dosimetry in evaluation of biological effects of electromagnetic field for portable radio transmitters. Report 1. Flat phantoms].

    PubMed

    Perov, S Iu; Bogacheva, E V

    2014-01-01

    Results of the theoretical (numerical) and experimental dosimetry approach for portable radio transmitters are considered. The simulation and measurement results are shown. A generic type of a portable radio transmitter operating in a very high frequency range was tested as an electromagnetic field source. The analysis of specific absorption rate distribution in the flat homogeneous phantom was carried out on the basis of a portable radio transmitter. The results have shown the admissible divergence between measurements and simulation. According to these results, the authors have come to the conclusion about using the complex dosimetry approach including experimental and numerical dosimetry.

  2. Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyama, H.; Janischewskyj, W.; Hussein, A.M.; Chisholm, W.A.; Chang, J.S.; Rusan, R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes observation and analysis of electromagnetic field radiation from lightning strokes to tall structures. Electromagnetic field waveforms and current waveforms of lightning strokes to the CN Tower have been simultaneously measured since 1991. A new calculation model of electromagnetic field radiation is proposed. The proposed model consists of the lightning current propagation and distribution model and the electromagnetic field radiation model. Electromagnetic fields calculated by the proposed model, based on the observed lightning current at the CN Tower, agree well with the observed fields at 2km north of the tower.

  3. Effect of Static Magnetic Field on Recalescence and Surface Velocity Field in Electromagnetically Levitated Molten CuCo Droplet in Undercooled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitahara, Tsubasa; Tanada, Koki; Ueno, Shoya; Sugioka, Ken-ichi; Kubo, Masaki; Tsukada, Takao; Uchikoshi, Masahito; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    The recalescence events of phase-separated Co-rich phases in undercooled molten CuCo droplets electromagnetically levitated under various static magnetic fields were observed directly using a high-speed camera, and also the surface velocities on the levitated droplets were measured by tracing the trajectories of the phase-separated Co-rich phases as tracer particles. In addition, numerical simulations of melt convection in a spherical electromagnetically levitated CuCo droplet exposed to a static magnetic field were performed assuming laminar flow. We observed the emergence of many intermittent bright spots due to recalescence on the entire surface of the levitated droplet, and the frequency of the bright spots decreased markedly as the static magnetic field increased, with no bright spots observed at fields larger than 1.5 T. Also, the Reynolds numbers were evaluated from the measured and calculated velocities in the droplet for various static magnetic fields and compared with the critical Reynolds number of approximately 600, at which the laminar-turbulent transition of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in an electromagnetically levitated droplet occurs, as proposed by Hyers et al. The above results clearly revealed that the marked change in the phase separation structures in undercooled molten CuCo droplets at approximately 1.5 T is due to a convective transition from turbulent flow to laminar flow in the levitated droplets, as speculated in our previous work.

  4. [Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field with different frequencies on the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of human ovarian cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Wu, Wenchao; Chen, Xiaoying; He, Chenqi; Liu, Xiaojing

    2012-04-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF), a non-invasive physical treatment modality, is now used clinically to promote bone formation for osteoporosis. The patients after ectomy of ovarian cancer are easily complicated with osteoporosis. However, the safety parameters of PEMF treatment for the osteoporosis patients after resection of ovarian cancer remain unknown. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effect of different frequency of PEMF on the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3 cells). Cultured SKOV3 cells were exposed to PEMF stimulation daily with radiation of 8 Hz, 16 Hz, 32 Hz and 64 Hz, respectively. We used sinusoidal waves with strength of 1 mT, twice a day with an interval of 12 hours. An exposure to the waves lasted 30 minutes, for 3 days, with those no PEMF stimulation serving as the control. The proliferation of cells was detected using EdU assay, and the apoptosis of cell was assessed with Annexin V-FITC fluorescence. The migration of cells was measured with the scratch wound assay. The data showed that exposure to PEMF of 1 mT, 8 Hz for 3 days could significantly inhibit the proliferation of SKOV3 cells and induce the apoptosis of the cells. The migrated distance and number were increased by 1 mT, 8 Hz or 32 Hz PEMF stimulation, but decreased by 1 mT, 16 Hz treatment. The results suggested that we should be careful about the safety of PEMF treatment and strictly choose the optical parameters in preventing or treating the osteoporosis of the patients after resection of ovarian cancer.

  5. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation on knee cartilage, subchondral and epyphiseal trabecular bone of aged Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fini, Milena; Torricelli, Paola; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Aldini, Nicolò Nicoli; Cavani, Francesco; Setti, Stefania; Nicolini, Andrea; Carpi, Angelo; Giardino, Roberto

    2008-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation has a chondroprotective effect on osteoarthritis (OA) progression in the knee joints of the 12-month-old guinea pigs. The aim of the present study was to discover whether the therapeutic efficacy of PEMFs was maintained in older animals also in more severe OA lesions. PEMFs were administered daily (6 h/day for 6 months) to 15-month-old guinea pigs. The knee joints (medial and lateral tibial plateaus, medial and lateral femoral condyles) were evaluated by means of a histological/histochemical Mankin modified by Carlsson grading score and histomorphometric measurements of cartilage thickness (CT), fibrillation index (FI), subchondral bone thickness (SBT) and epiphyseal bone microarchitecture (bone volume: BV/TV; trabecular thickness: Tb.Th; trabecular number: Tb.N; trabecular separation: Tb.SP). Periarticular knee bone was also evaluated with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). PEMF stimulation significantly changed the progression of OA lesions in all examined knee areas. In the most affected area of the knee joint (medial tibial plateau), significant lower histochemical score (p<0.0005), FI (p<0.005), SBT (p<0.05), BV/TV (p<0.0005), Tb.Th (p<0.05) and Tb.N (p<0.05) were observed while CT (p<0.05) and Tb.Sp (p<0.0005) were significantly higher than in SHAM-treated animals. DXA confirmed the significantly higher bone density in SHAM-treated animals. Even in the presence of severe OA lesions PEMFs maintained a significant efficacy in reducing lesion progression.

  6. Therapeutic effects of 15 Hz pulsed electromagnetic field on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Lei, Tao; Jing, Da; Xie, Kangning; Jiang, Maogang; Li, Feijiang; Cai, Jing; Wu, Xiaoming; Tang, Chi; Xu, Qiaoling; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Shen, Guanghao; Luo, Erping

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous clinical studies have reported that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have a neuroprotective role in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the application of PEMF for clinic is still controversial. The present study was designed to investigate whether PEMF has therapeutic potential in relieving peripheral neuropathic symptoms in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups (eight in each group): the non-diabetic control group (Control), diabetes mellitus with 15 Hz PEMF exposure group (DM+PEMF) which were subjected to daily 8-h PEMF exposure for 7 weeks and diabetes mellitus with sham PEMF exposure group (DM). Signs and symptoms of DPN in STZ-treated rats were investigated by using behavioral assays. Meanwhile, ultrastructural examination and immunohistochemical study for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of sciatic nerve were also performed. During a 7-week experimental observation, we found that PEMF stimulation did not alter hyperglycemia and weight loss in STZ-treated rats with DPN. However, PEMF stimulation attenuated the development of the abnormalities observed in STZ-treated rats with DPN, which were demonstrated by increased hind paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical and thermal stimuli, slighter demyelination and axon enlargement and less VEGF immunostaining of sciatic nerve compared to those of the DM group. The current study demonstrates that treatment with PEMF might prevent the development of abnormalities observed in animal models for DPN. It is suggested that PEMF might have direct corrective effects on injured nerves and would be a potentially promising non-invasive therapeutic tool for the treatment of DPN.

  7. Therapeutic Effects of 15 Hz Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Maogang; Li, Feijiang; Cai, Jing; Wu, Xiaoming; Tang, Chi; Xu, Qiaoling; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Shen, Guanghao; Luo, Erping

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous clinical studies have reported that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have a neuroprotective role in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the application of PEMF for clinic is still controversial. The present study was designed to investigate whether PEMF has therapeutic potential in relieving peripheral neuropathic symptoms in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups (eight in each group): the non-diabetic control group (Control), diabetes mellitus with 15 Hz PEMF exposure group (DM+PEMF) which were subjected to daily 8-h PEMF exposure for 7 weeks and diabetes mellitus with sham PEMF exposure group (DM). Signs and symptoms of DPN in STZ-treated rats were investigated by using behavioral assays. Meanwhile, ultrastructural examination and immunohistochemical study for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of sciatic nerve were also performed. During a 7-week experimental observation, we found that PEMF stimulation did not alter hyperglycemia and weight loss in STZ-treated rats with DPN. However, PEMF stimulation attenuated the development of the abnormalities observed in STZ-treated rats with DPN, which were demonstrated by increased hind paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical and thermal stimuli, slighter demyelination and axon enlargement and less VEGF immunostaining of sciatic nerve compared to those of the DM group. The current study demonstrates that treatment with PEMF might prevent the development of abnormalities observed in animal models for DPN. It is suggested that PEMF might have direct corrective effects on injured nerves and would be a potentially promising non-invasive therapeutic tool for the treatment of DPN. PMID:23637830

  8. The electromagnetic bio-field: clinical experiments and interferences

    PubMed Central

    Burnei, G; Hodorogea, D; Georgescu, I; Gavriliu, Ş; Drăghici, I; Dan, D; Vlad, C; Drăghici, L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most important factors is the technical and scientifically rapid development that is continually modifying the world we live in and polluting it with electromagnetic radiations. A functional and structural influence of magnetic and electromagnetic field on living organisms is presented in the literature by many performed experiments. Material and methods: The notion of bio-field represents the electromagnetic field generated by the bio-structures, not only in their normal physiological activities but also in their pathological states. There is a tight interdependency between the bio-field and the bio-structure, which respects the primary notion of an electromagnetic field given by the Maxwell-Faraday laws, in which, the electromagnetic phenomena are simplified to the field variations. These variations can be expressed in a coherent differential equation system that bounds the field vectors to different space points at different time moments. Results: The living organisms cannot contain electrostatic and magneto-static fields due to the intense activity of the bio-structures. The biochemical reactions that have high rhythms and speeds always impose the electrodynamics character of the biologic field that also corresponds to the stability of the protein molecule that can be explained only through a dynamic way. The existent energy is not considered an exciting agent, and it does not lead to any effects. Conclusions: The parameters of these elementary bio-fields cannot yet be fully known due to technical reasons. The biological structures are very complex ones and undergo continuous dynamical activity. That is why the calculus model should be related to the constant dynamics, nowadays being very difficult to express. PMID:22802878

  9. The electromagnetic bio-field: clinical experiments and interferences.

    PubMed

    Burnei, G; Hodorogea, D; Georgescu, I; Gavriliu, Ş; Drăghici, I; Dan, D; Vlad, C; Drăghici, L

    2012-06-12

    One of the most important factors is the technical and scientifically rapid development that is continually modifying the world we live in and polluting it with electromagnetic radiations. A functional and structural influence of magnetic and electromagnetic field on living organisms is presented in the literature by many performed experiments. The notion of bio-field represents the electromagnetic field generated by the bio-structures, not only in their normal physiological activities but also in their pathological states. There is a tight interdependency between the bio-field and the bio-structure, which respects the primary notion of an electromagnetic field given by the Maxwell-Faraday laws, in which, the electromagnetic phenomena are simplified to the field variations. These variations can be expressed in a coherent differential equation system that bounds the field vectors to different space points at different time moments. The living organisms cannot contain electrostatic and magneto-static fields due to the intense activity of the bio-structures. The biochemical reactions that have high rhythms and speeds always impose the electrodynamics character of the biologic field that also corresponds to the stability of the protein molecule that can be explained only through a dynamic way. The existent energy is not considered an exciting agent, and it does not lead to any effects. The parameters of these elementary bio-fields cannot yet be fully known due to technical reasons. The biological structures are very complex ones and undergo continuous dynamical activity. That is why the calculus model should be related to the constant dynamics, nowadays being very difficult to express.

  10. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    PubMed

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  11. The effect of low-frequency electromagnetic field on human bone marrow stem/progenitor cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Christina L.; Siriwardane, Mevan; Almeida-Porada, Graça; Porada, Christopher D.; Brink, Peter; Christ, George J.; Harrison, Benjamin S.

    2015-01-01

    Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) are a population of progenitor cells that contain a subset of skeletal stem cells (hSSCs), able to recreate cartilage, bone, stroma that supports hematopoiesis and marrow adipocytes. As such, they have become an important resource in developing strategies for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering due to their self-renewal and differentiation capabilities. The differentiation of SSCs/BMSCs is dependent on exposure to biophysical and biochemical stimuli that favor early and rapid activation of the in vivo tissue repair process. Exposure to exogenous stimuli such as an electromagnetic field (EMF) can promote differentiation of SSCs/BMSCs via ion dynamics and small signaling molecules. The plasma membrane is often considered to be the main target for EMF signals and most results point to an effect on the rate of ion or ligand binding due to a receptor site acting as a modulator of signaling cascades. Ion fluxes are closely involved in differentiation control as stem cells move and grow in specific directions to form tissues and organs. EMF affects numerous biological functions such as gene expression, cell fate, and cell differentiation, but will only induce these effects within a certain range of low frequencies as well as low amplitudes. EMF has been reported to be effective in the enhancement of osteogenesis and chondrogenesis of hSSCs/BMSCs with no documented negative effects. Studies show specific EMF frequencies enhance hSSC/BMSC adherence, proliferation, differentiation, and viability, all of which play a key role in the use of hSSCs/BMSCs for tissue engineering. While many EMF studies report significant enhancement of the differentiation process, results differ depending on the experimental and environmental conditions. Here we review how specific EMF parameters (frequency, intensity, and time of exposure) significantly regulate hSSC/BMSC differentiation in

  12. Study of human neurovegetative and hematologic effects of environmental low-frequency (50-Hz) electromagnetic fields produced by transformers.

    PubMed

    Bonhomme-Faivre, L; Marion, S; Bezie, Y; Auclair, H; Fredj, G; Hommeau, C

    1998-01-01

    A survey of neurovegetative and hematologic disorders was conducted in a population (n = 13) exposed occupationally to environmental electromagnetic fields; the population was matched with 13 control subjects. The exposed subjects worked at least 8 h/d for 1-5 y in premises located above transformers and high-tension cables, and the subjects were submitted to low-frequency electromagnetic fields (i.e., 50 Hz) of 0.2 microT-6.6 microT. The subjects were matched with respect to socioeconomic category, sex, and age with a control population of subjects that worked in premises outside of the immediate vicinity of transformers or high-tension cables. The exposed population had a significant increase in degree of certain neurovegetative disorders (i.e., physical fatigue, psychical asthenia, lipothymia, decreased libido, melancholy, depressive tendency, and irritability). In addition, the population experienced a significant fall in total lymphocytes and CD4, CD3, and CD2 lymphocytes, as well as a rise in NK cells. Leukopenia and neutropenia were also observed in two persons permanently exposed to doses of 1.2-6.6 microT. The disorders disappeared when exposure stopped, and they reappeared on reexposure.

  13. Effects of 100-μT extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on hematograms and blood chemistry in rats.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jinsheng; Zhang, Yemao; Zhang, Jiangong; Liu, Xingfa; Ruan, Guoran; Chaugai, Sandip; Tang, Jiarong; Wang, Hong; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao Wen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) affect health or not. Here, we constructed a 100-μT/50 Hz electromagnetic field atmosphere. A total of 128 rats were randomly assigned into two groups: the ELF EMF group and the sham group. The ELF EMF group was exposed to 100-μT/50-Hz ELF EMF for 20 h per day for three months; at the same time the other group was exposed to a sham device without ELF EMF. During the three months, the weight was recorded every 2 weeks, and the water intake and food intake of the animals were recorded weekly. The hematologic parameters were detected before and after the exposure, whereas blood chemistry analysis was performed every 4 weeks. The general condition of the exposed rats was not affected by ELF EMF. Compared with the sham group, the hematograms were not significantly altered in the ELF EMF group. Similarly, the blood chemistry (including lipid profile, blood glucose, liver function and renal function of rats) from the ELF EMF group showed no difference compared with rats from the control group during the three months exposure. The present study indicated that short-term exposure of 100-μT/50-Hz ELF EMF may not affect hematograms and blood chemistry in rats. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  14. Modeling the effect of adverse environmental conditions and clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Wood, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a fully clothed, finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, subject to the maximum allowable reference level for a 1-GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field for a worker, and also subject to adverse environmental conditions, including high humidity and high ambient temperature. An initial observation is that while electromagnetic fields at the occupational safety limit will contribute an additional thermal load to the tissues, and subsequently, cause an elevated temperature, the magnitude of this effect is far outweighed by that due to the conditions including the ambient temperature, relative humidity, and the type of clothing worn. It is envisaged that the computational modeling approach outlined in this paper will be suitably modified in future studies to evaluate the thermal response of a body at elevated metabolic rates, and for different body shapes and sizes including children and pregnant women.

  15. Difficulties in applying numerical simulations to an evaluation of occupational hazards caused by electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Due to the various physical mechanisms of interaction between a worker's body and the electromagnetic field at various frequencies, the principles of numerical simulations have been discussed for three areas of worker exposure: to low frequency magnetic field, to low and intermediate frequency electric field and to radiofrequency electromagnetic field. This paper presents the identified difficulties in applying numerical simulations to evaluate physical estimators of direct and indirect effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields at various frequencies. Exposure of workers operating a plastic sealer have been taken as an example scenario of electromagnetic field exposure at the workplace for discussion of those difficulties in applying numerical simulations. The following difficulties in reliable numerical simulations of workers' exposure to the electromagnetic field have been considered: workers' body models (posture, dimensions, shape and grounding conditions), working environment models (objects most influencing electromagnetic field distribution) and an analysis of parameters for which exposure limitations are specified in international guidelines and standards.

  16. Difficulties in applying numerical simulations to an evaluation of occupational hazards caused by electromagnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Due to the various physical mechanisms of interaction between a worker's body and the electromagnetic field at various frequencies, the principles of numerical simulations have been discussed for three areas of worker exposure: to low frequency magnetic field, to low and intermediate frequency electric field and to radiofrequency electromagnetic field. This paper presents the identified difficulties in applying numerical simulations to evaluate physical estimators of direct and indirect effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields at various frequencies. Exposure of workers operating a plastic sealer have been taken as an example scenario of electromagnetic field exposure at the workplace for discussion of those difficulties in applying numerical simulations. The following difficulties in reliable numerical simulations of workers’ exposure to the electromagnetic field have been considered: workers’ body models (posture, dimensions, shape and grounding conditions), working environment models (objects most influencing electromagnetic field distribution) and an analysis of parameters for which exposure limitations are specified in international guidelines and standards. PMID:26323781

  17. On electromagnetic field problems in inhomogeneous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohsen, A.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media is of practical interest in general scattering and propagation problems and in the study of lenses. For certain types of inhomogeneities, the fields may be represented in terms of two scalars. In a general orthogonal coordinate system, these potentials satisfy second order differential equations. Exact solutions of these equations are known only for a few particular cases and in general, an approximate or numerical technique must be employed. The present work reviews and generalizes some of the main methods of attack of the problem. The results are presented in a form appropriate for numerical computation.

  18. Optimization methods in control of electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, Thomas S.; Kleinman, Ralph E.

    1991-05-01

    This program is developing constructive methods for certain constrained optimization problems arising in the design and control of electromagnetic fields and in the identification of scattering objects. The problems addressed fall into three categories: (1) the design of antennas with optimal radiation characteristics measured in terms of directivity; (2) the control of the electromagnetic scattering characteristics of an object, in particular the minimization of its radar cross section, by the choice of material properties; and (3) the determination of the shape of scattering objects with various electromagnetic properties from scattered field data. The main thrust of the program is toward the development of constructive methods based on the use of complete families of solutions of the time-harmonic Maxwell equations in the infinite domain exterior to the radiating or scattering body. During the course of the work an increasing amount of attention has been devoted to the use of iterative methods for the solution of various direct and inverse problems. The continued investigation and development of these methods and their application in parameter identification has become a significant part of the program.

  19. A study of the effects of flux density and frequency of pulsed electromagnetic field on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Ding, Jun; Duan, Wei

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pulsed electromagnetic fields with various flux densities and frequencies on neurite outgrowth in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells. We have studied the percentage of neurite-bearing cells, average length of neurites and directivity of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells cultured for 96 hours in the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF). PC12 cells were exposed to 50 Hz pulsed electromagnetic fields with a flux density of 1.37 mT, 0.19 mT and 0.016 mT respectively. The field was generated through a Helmholtz coil pair housed in one incubator and the control samples were placed in another identical incubator. It was found that exposure to both a relatively high flux density (1.37 mT) and a medium flux density (0.19 mT) inhibited the percentage of neurite-bearing cells and promoted neurite length significantly. Exposure to high flux density (1.37 mT) also resulted in nearly 20% enhancement of neurite directivity along the field direction. However, exposure to low flux density field (0.016 mT) had no detectable effect on neurite outgrowth. We also studied the effect of frequency at the constant flux density of 1.37 mT. In the range from 1 approximately 100 Hz, only 50 and 70 Hz pulse frequencies had significant effects on neurite outgrowth. Our study has shown that neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells is sensitive to flux density and frequency of pulsed electromagnetic field.

  20. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on late-phase osteotomy gap healing in a canine tibial model.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Nozomu; Ohnishi, Isao; Chen, Dongan; Deitz, Luke W; Schwardt, Jeffrey D; Chao, Edmund Y S

    2002-09-01

    The effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on late bone healing phases using an osteotomy gap model in the canine mid-tibia were investigated. A transverse mid-diaphyseal tibial osteotomy with a 2-mm gap was performed unilaterally in 12 adult mixed-breed dogs and stabilized with external fixation. Animals in the variable group (n = 6) were treated with PEMF for 1 h daily starting 4 weeks after surgery for a total of 8 weeks, whereas no stimulation signal was generated in the control group (n = 6). Functional load-bearing and radiographic assessments were conducted time-sequentially until euthanasia 12 weeks after surgery. Torsional tests and an analysis of undecalcified histology were performed on the retrieved mid-tibial diaphysis containing the osteotomy site. In the PEMF group, load-bearing of the operated limb recovered earlier when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Load-bearing in the PEMF group at 8 weeks was greater than in the control group (p < 0.02). The periosteal callus area increased following surgery at 6 weeks (p < 0.05) and thereafter (p < 0.01) in the PEMF group, while a significant increase was observed at 8 and 10 weeks after surgery (p < 0.05) in the control group. Both the normalized maximum torque and torsional stiffness of the PEMF group were significantly greater than those of the control group (p < 0.04 and p < 0.007, respectively). Histomorphometric analyses revealed greater new-bone formation (p < 0.05) in the osteotomy gap tissue and increased mineral apposition rate (p < 0.04) and decreased porosity in the cortex adjacent to the osteotomy line (p < 0.02) in the PEMF group. PEMF stimulation of 1 h per day for 8 weeks provided faster recovery of load-bearing, a significant increase in new bone formation, and a higher mechanical strength of the healing mid-tibial osteotomy. This study revealed enhancing effects of PEMF on callus formation and maturation in the late-phase of bone healing.

  1. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the expression of NFATc1 and CAII in mouse osteoclast-like cells.

    PubMed

    He, Jianquan; Zhang, Yongsheng; Chen, Jian; Zheng, Suyu; Huang, Hui; Dong, Xiaoyu

    2015-02-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have proven to be an effective noninvasive method in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. This study evaluated the effects of PEMF on the expression of the NFATc1, CAII and RANK genes in mouse osteoclast-like cells. Bone marrow from bilateral tibiae and femurs was cultured in differentiation medium in the presence of soluble macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). After 5 days, the osteoclast-like cells were confirmed by both tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and bone resorption assays. The osteoclast-like cells were divided into five groups and exposed to the following treatments for 3 days: M-CSF; M-CSF + RANKL; M-CSF + RANKL + osteoprotegerin (OPG), M-CSF + RANKL + premarin (E2); and M-CSF + RANKL + PEMF. The numbers of multinucleated, TRAP-positive osteoclast-like cells and resorption pits formed were determined. The expression of NFATc1, CAII and RANK mRNA was determined with real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction. PEMF substantially reduced the number of osteoclast-like cells in the culture with M-CSF + RANKL. The level of NFATc1, CAII, and RANK mRNA expression was decreased in the M-CSF + RANKL + PEMF group compared to the M-CSF + RANKL group (p = 0.007, p = 0.039, p = 0.001, respectively). The mRNA expression of NFATc1, CAII, and RANK was not higher in the M-CSF + RANKL + OPG group compared to the M-CSF + RANKL + PEMF group (p = 0.682, p = 0.200, p = 0.924, respectively). In addition, there was no difference in the expression of mRNA from NFATc1, CAII, and RANK between the M-CSF + RANKL + PEMF group and the M-CSF + RANKL + E2 group (p = 0.853, p = 0.509, p = 0.664, respectively). These data suggest that PEMF might modulate the process of osteoclastogenesis and subsequent bone resorption, at least partially, through NFATc1, CAII and RANK.

  2. Investigating excitation-dependent and fringe-field effects of electromagnet and permanent-magnet phase shifters for a crossed undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Ting-Yi; Yang, Chih-Sheng; Chu, Yun-Liang; Lin, Fu-Yuan; Jan, Jyh-Chyuan; Hwang, Ching-Shiang

    2017-04-01

    To enhance the flux density or to control polarization, a phase shifter was designed and used to modulate the phase matching between segmented undulators. A larger hysteresis loop causes, however, a repeatability issue in the phase matching; the fringe field of the phase shifter creates an extra magnetic-field error. The design of the phase shifter must therefore minimize the hysteresis loop and fringe field to maintain the phases exact and to ignore the crosstalk effect. Two critical issues are the hysteresis-loop problem and the fringe-field effect, which determine the radiation performance and the stability of the ring. To investigate these issues, a phase shifter was constructed to operate in accordance with electromagnetic- and permanent-type magnets; the results from the field measurements and shims are discussed here. The shimming algorithm and a compact permanent-magnet phase shifter that eliminates the issues are also presented.

  3. Bioelectromagnetic effects of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, E.L.; Vault, W.L.

    1990-03-01

    The public has expressed concern about the biological effects and hazards of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields produced by the electro-magnetic pulse (EMP) simulators that simulate the EMP emanating from a high-altitude nuclear explosion. This paper provides a summary of the bioelectromagnetic effects literature up through the present, describes current occupational standards for workers exposed to the EMP environment, and discusses the use of medical surveillance as it relates to the potential human health hazards associated with exposure to the EMP environment.

  4. Effects of electromagnetic stimuli on bone and bone cells in vitro: Inhibition of responses to parathyroid hormone by low-energy low-frequency fields

    PubMed Central

    Luben, Richard A.; Cain, Christopher D.; Chen, Monica Chi-Yun; Rosen, David M.; Adey, W. Ross

    1982-01-01

    Low-energy electromagnetic fields pulsed at frequencies of 10-90 Hz significantly increase healing of chronic fracture nonunions in man. These fields are effective at tissue current levels several orders of magnitude lower than those required for transmembrane depolarization of normal cells. We have examined the effects of two clinically used pulsed electromagnetic fields on cultures of the osteoblast-like mouse bone cell line MMB-1. Both fields significantly reduced cellular production of cAMP in response to parathyroid hormone and osteoclast activating factor. Neither basal nor fluoride-activated levels of adenylate cyclase were altered in membranes from cells cultured in the fields; however, the same membrane preparations exhibited markedly inhibited responses to parathyroid hormone. The fields blocked the inhibitory effects of the hormone on collagen synthesis by MMB-1 cells. However, there was no effect on the inhibition of collagen synthesis by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, which is believed to act primarily by a nuclear, rather than by a membrane-dependent, mechanism. No significant differences were noted between effects of the two fields, one generating continuous pulse trains (72 Hz) and the other generating recurrent bursts (15 Hz) of shorter pulses. We hypothesize that these field effects are mediated primarily at the plasma membrane of osteoblasts, either by interference with hormone-receptor interactions or by blocking of receptor-cyclase coupling in the membrane. These responses occurred with induced extracellular fields of 1 mV/cm or less, even though transmembrane potential gradients are typically 105 V/cm. PMID:6287472

  5. Effects of electromagnetic stimuli on bone and bone cells in vitro: inhibition of responses to parathyroid hormone by low-energy low-frequency fields.

    PubMed

    Luben, R A; Cain, C D; Chen, M C; Rosen, D M; Adey, W R

    1982-07-01

    Low-energy electromagnetic fields pulsed at frequencies of 10-90 Hz significantly increase healing of chronic fracture nonunions in man. These fields are effective at tissue current levels several orders of magnitude lower than those required for transmembrane depolarization of normal cells. We have examined the effects of two clinically used pulsed electromagnetic fields on cultures of the osteoblast-like mouse bone cell line MMB-1. Both fields significantly reduced cellular production of cAMP in response to parathyroid hormone and osteoclast activating factor. Neither basal nor fluoride-activated levels of adenylate cyclase were altered in membranes from cells cultured in the fields; however, the same membrane preparations exhibited markedly inhibited responses to parathyroid hormone. The fields blocked the inhibitory effects of the hormone on collagen synthesis by MMB-1 cells. However, there was no effect on the inhibition of collagen synthesis by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), which is believed to act primarily by a nuclear, rather than by a membrane-dependent, mechanism. No significant differences were noted between effects of the two fields, one generating continuous pulse trains (72 Hz) and the other generating recurrent bursts (15 Hz) of shorter pulses. We hypothesize that these field effects are mediated primarily at the plasma membrane of osteoblasts, either by interference with hormone-receptor interactions or by blocking of receptor-cyclase coupling in the membrane. These responses occurred with induced extracellular fields of 1 mV/cm or less, even though transmembrane potential gradients are typically 10(5) V/cm.

  6. A. A. Ukhtomskii's dominance principle of brain activity in the perception of electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, Yu. A.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary instruction of the subject plays an important role in the perception of weak electromagnetic fields acting on the hand. Active attention to a potential effect amplifies a brain state that can be called caution dominance and arises spontaneously with a “placebo” or an electromagnetic field. The radar principle of brain operation is discussed among the physiological mechanisms through which electromagnetic fields act on an organism.

  7. A. A. Ukhtomskii`s dominance principle of brain activity in the perception of electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kholodov, Yu.A.

    1994-07-01

    Preliminary instruction of the subject plays an important role in the perception of weak electromagnetic fields acting on the hand. Active attention to a potential effect amplifies a brain state that can be called caution dominance and arises spontaneously with a {open_quotes}placebo{close_quotes} or an electromagnetic field. The radar principle of brain operation is discussed among the physiological mechanisms through which electromagnetic fields act on an organism.

  8. Basic Materials for Electromagnetic Field Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-04

    choliner- gic processes // Labor Hygiene and Biological Effects of electromagnetic waves of ra- diofrequencies. Proceedings of 3rd All-Union Symposium...Microwave on Blood asparthate Amine transferase Enzymatic System. J. Radiation biology and ecol - ogy (Russian academy of sciences) 2001. Vol. 41. No.1...under Increased Temperature. J. Radiation biology and ecol - ogy (Russian academy of sciences) 2002. Vol. 42. No.1, pp. 191–193. 13. T.P. Semenova

  9. Quantum diffusion of electromagnetic fields of ultrarelativistic spin-half particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroutka, Balthazar; Tuchin, Kirill

    2017-10-01

    We compute electromagnetic fields created by a relativistic charged spin-half particle in empty space at distances comparable to the particle Compton wavelength. The particle is described as a wave packet evolving according to the Dirac equation. It produces the electromagnetic field that is essentially different from the Coulomb field due to the quantum diffusion effect.

  10. Giant field enhancement in electromagnetic Helmholtz nanoantenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Paul; Bouchon, Patrick; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Haïdar, Riad; Pardo, Fabrice

    2014-11-01

    Inspired by the acoustic Helmholtz resonator, we propose a slit-box electromagnetic nanoantenna able to concentrate the energy of an incident beam into surfaces a thousand times smaller than with a classical lens. This design produces a giant electric field enhancement throughout the slit. The intensity enhancement reaches 104 in the visible range up to 108 in the THz range even with focused beams, thanks to an omnidirectional reception. These properties could target applications requiring extreme light concentration, such as surface-enhanced infrared absorption, nonlinear optics, and biophotonics.

  11. Biomarkers of induced electromagnetic field and cancer.

    PubMed

    Behari, J; Paulraj, R

    2007-01-01

    The present article delineates the epidemiological and experimental studies of electromagnetic field which affects various tissues of human body. These affects lead to cell proliferation, which may lead to cancer formation. Certain biomarkers have been identified which are one way or the other responsible for tumor promotion or co-promotion. These are (i) melatonin, a hormone secreted by pineal gland, (ii) Ca2+, which is essential in the regulation of the resting membrane potential and in the sequence of events in synaptic excitation and neurotransmitter, release are affected by electromagnetic field, (iii) ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines, considered as a useful biological marker; over expression of ODC can cause cell transformation and enhancement of tumor promotion. (iv) protein kinase is an enzyme, which transfers phosphate groups from ATP to hydroxyl groups in the amino acid chains of acceptor proteins, and (v) Na+-K+ ATPase, which transports sodium and potassium ions across the membrane has a critical role in living cells. The various possible mechanisms depending upon non equilibrium thermodynamics, co-operativism, stochastic and resonance are discussed as possible models of signal transduction in cytosol, thereby controlling the transcription phenomena. Finally a mechanism comprising the extremely low frequency and radio frequency (RF)/microwave (MW) modulated field is compared.

  12. Geometrization conditions for perfect fluids, scalar fields, and electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torre, Charles; Krongos, Dionisios

    2016-03-01

    The classical Rainich conditions are a system of geometric conditions, expressed purely in terms of the spacetime metric, which are necessary and sufficient for the metric to define a solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations with a non-null electromagnetic field. We obtain analogous ``geometrization'' conditions for other matter sources. Specifically, we find geometric conditions which are necessary and sufficient for a metric to define a solution to the Einstein equations with a perfect fluid source, and to define a solution to the Einstein-scalar field equations. These conditions work in any dimension, allow for a cosmological constant, and allow for an arbitrary self-interaction potential in the scalar field case. We also generalize the classical Rainich conditions to include a cosmological constant and we obtain geometrization conditions which are applicable to the case of null electromagnetic fields. This work was supported in part by Grant No. OCI-1148331 from the National Science Foundation.

  13. Transient electromagnetic fields near large earthing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grcev, L.D.; Menter, F.E.

    1996-05-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility studies require knowledge of transient voltages that may be developed near earthing systems during lightning discharge, since such voltages may be coupled to sensitive electronic circuits. For such purpose accurate evaluation of transient electric field near to and/or at the surface of the grounding conductors is necessary. In this paper, a procedure for computation of transient fields near large earthing systems, as a response to a typical lightning current impulse, based on computational methodology developed in the field of antennas, is presented. Computed results are favorably compared with published measurement results. The model is applied to check the common assumption that the soil ionization can be neglected in case of large earthing systems. Presented results show that the soil ionization threshold is met and exceeded during typical lightning discharge in a large earthing system.

  14. The enhanced effects of antibiotics irradiated of extremely high frequency electromagnetic field on Escherichia coli growth properties.

    PubMed

    Torgomyan, Heghine; Trchounian, Armen

    2015-