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Sample records for electromagnetic filamentary structures

  1. Kinetic stability analysis on electromagnetic filamentary structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonjae; Krasheninnikov, Sergei

    2014-10-01

    A coherent radial transport of filamentary structures in SOL region is important for its characteristics that can increase unwanted high fluxes to plasma facing components. In the course of propagation in radial direction, the coherency of the filaments is significantly limited by electrostatic resistive drift instability (Angus et al., 2012). Considering higher plasma pressure, which would have more large impact in heat fluxes, electromagnetic effects will reduce the growth rate of the drift wave instability and increase the instabilities from electron inertial effects. According to a linear stability analysis on equations with fluid approximation, the maximum growth rate of the instability from the electron inertia is higher than that of drift-Alfvén wave instability in high beta filaments such as ELMs. However, the analysis on the high beta filaments requires kinetic approach, since the decreased collisionality will make the fluid approximation broken. Therefore, the kinetic analysis will be presented for the electromagnetic effects on the dynamics of filamentary structures. This work was supported by the USDOE Grants DE-FG02-04ER54739 and DE-SC0010413 at UCSD and also by the Kwanjeong Educational Foundation.

  2. Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wonjae; Umansky, Maxim V.; Angus, J. R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.

    2015-01-12

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner SOL region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and the BOUT++ simulation, it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave turbulence when resistivity drops below some certain value. Lastly, in the course of blobs motion in the SOL its temperature is reduced, which leads to enhancement of resistive effects, so the blob can switch from electromagnetic to electrostatic regime, where resistive drift wave turbulence become important.

  3. Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Wonjae; Umansky, Maxim V.; Angus, J. R.; ...

    2015-01-12

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner SOL region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and the BOUT++ simulation,more » it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave turbulence when resistivity drops below some certain value. Lastly, in the course of blobs motion in the SOL its temperature is reduced, which leads to enhancement of resistive effects, so the blob can switch from electromagnetic to electrostatic regime, where resistive drift wave turbulence become important.« less

  4. Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wonjae; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.; Umansky, Maxim V.; Angus, J. R.

    2015-01-15

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner scrape-off layer (SOL) region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and BOUT++ simulations, it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave instability when resistivity drops below a certain value. The blobs temperature decreases in the course of its motion through the SOL and so the blob can switch from the electromagnetic to the electrostatic regime where resistive drift waves become important again.

  5. Magnetosheath Filamentary Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Castillo, D. I.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Omidi, N.; Kajdic, P.

    2014-12-01

    The terrestrial magnetosheath is full of highly perturbed plasma. The inhomogeneity of this region leads to temperature anisotropies that can originate waves; e.g, mirror mode and ion cyclotron waves. Other structures like the magnetosheath filamentary structures (MFS) can also be present. These are structures reported from results of global hybrid simulations by Omidi et al. (2014) that are formed in the quasi-parallel region of the bow shock and they are convected into the magnetosheath. The MFS are characterized by field aligned enhancements of density and temperature that are anti-correlated. In this work we analyze magnetic field and plasma data from the THEMIS mission to explore the possible existence of MFS.

  6. Method and apparatus for synthesizing filamentary structures

    DOEpatents

    Height, Murray J [Somerville, MA; Howard, Jack B [Winchester, MA; Vandersande, John B [Newbury, MA

    2008-02-26

    Method and apparatus for producing filamentary structures. The structures include single-walled nanotubes. The method includes combusting hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen to establish a non-sooting flame and providing an unsupported catalyst to synthesize the filamentary structure in a post-flame region of the flame. Residence time is selected to favor filamentary structure growth.

  7. Method and apparatus for synthesizing filamentary structures

    DOEpatents

    Height, Murray J.; Howard, Jack B.; Vandersande, John B.

    2008-02-26

    Method and apparatus for producing filamentary structures. The structures include single-walled nanotubes. The method includes combusting hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen to establish a non-sooting flame and providing an unsupported catalyst to synthesize the filamentary structure in a post-flame region of the flame. Residence time is selected to favor filamentary structure growth.

  8. POLARIZATION STRUCTURE OF FILAMENTARY CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Tomisaka, Kohji

    2015-07-01

    Filaments are considered to be basic structures, and molecular clouds consist of filaments. Filaments are often observed as extending in the direction perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field. The structure of filaments has been studied based on a magnetohydrostatic equilibrium model. Here we simulate the expected polarization pattern for isothermal magnetohydrostatic filaments. The filament exhibits a polarization pattern in which the magnetic field is apparently perpendicular to the filament when observed from the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. When the line of sight is parallel to the global magnetic field, the observed polarization pattern is dependent on the center-to-surface density ratio for the filament and the concentration of the gas mass toward the central magnetic flux tube. Filaments with low center-to-surface density ratios have an insignificant degree of polarization when observed from the direction parallel to the global magnetic field. However, models with a large center-to-surface density ratio have polarization patterns that indicate that the filament is perpendicularly threaded by the magnetic field. When mass is heavily concentrated at the central magnetic flux tube, which can be realized by the ambipolar diffusion process, the polarization pattern is similar to that expected for a low center-to-surface density contrast.

  9. Filamentary structure in the Orion molecular cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bally, J.; Langer, W. D.; Bally, J.; Langer, W. D.; Bally, J.; Langer, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    A large scale 13CO map (containing 33,000 spectra) of the giant molecular cloud located in the southern part of Orion is presented which contains the Orion Nebula, NGC1977, and the LI641 dark cloud complex. The overall structure of the cloud is filamentary, with individual features having a length up to 40 times their width. This morphology may result from the effects of star formation in the region or embedded magnetic fields in the cloud. We suggest a simple picture for the evolution of the Orion-A cloud and the formation of the major filament. A rotating proto-cloud (counter rotating with respect to the galaxy) contians a b-field aligned with the galaxtic plane. The northern protion of this cloud collapsed first, perhaps triggered by the pressure of the Ori I OB association. The magnetic field combined with the anisotropic pressure produced by the OB-association breaks the symmetry of the pancake instability, a filament rather than a disc is produced. The growth of instabilities in the filament formed sub-condensations which are recent sites of star formation.

  10. Fine-Scale Filamentary Structure in Coronal Streamers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard; Armstrong, John W.; Bird, Michael K.; Paetzold, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Doppler scintillation measurements of a coronal streamer lasting several solar rotations have been conducted by Ulysses in 1991 over a heliocentric distance range of 14-77 R(sub 0). By showing that the solar corona is filamentary, and that Doppler frequency is the radio counterpart of white-light eclipse pictures processed to enhance spatial gradients, it is demonstrated that Doppler scintillation measurements provide the high spatial resolution that has long eluded white-light coronagraph measurements. The region of enhanced scintillation, spanning an angular extent of 1.8 deg in heliographic longitude, coincides with the radially expanding streamer stalk and represents filamentary structure with scale sizes at least as small as 340 km (0.5 sec) when extrapolated to the Sun. Within the stalk of the streamer, the fine-scale structure corresponding to scale sizes in the range of 20-340 km at the Sun and associated with closed magnetic fields amounts to a few percent of the mean density, while outside the stalk, the fine-scale structure associated with open fields is an order of magnitude lower. Clustering of filamentary structure that takes place within the stalk of the streamer is suggestive of multiple current sheets. Comparison with ISEE 3 in situ plasma measurements shows that significant evolution resulting from dynamic interaction with increasing heliocentric distance takes place by the time streamers reach Earth orbit.

  11. Magnetosheath filamentary structures formed by ion acceleration at the quasi-parallel bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidi, N.; Sibeck, D.; Gutynska, O.; Trattner, K. J.

    2014-04-01

    Results from 2.5-D electromagnetic hybrid simulations show the formation of field-aligned, filamentary plasma structures in the magnetosheath. They begin at the quasi-parallel bow shock and extend far into the magnetosheath. These structures exhibit anticorrelated, spatial oscillations in plasma density and ion temperature. Closer to the bow shock, magnetic field variations associated with density and temperature oscillations may also be present. Magnetosheath filamentary structures (MFS) form primarily in the quasi-parallel sheath; however, they may extend to the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. They occur over a wide range of solar wind Alfvénic Mach numbers and interplanetary magnetic field directions. At lower Mach numbers with lower levels of magnetosheath turbulence, MFS remain highly coherent over large distances. At higher Mach numbers, magnetosheath turbulence decreases the level of coherence. Magnetosheath filamentary structures result from localized ion acceleration at the quasi-parallel bow shock and the injection of energetic ions into the magnetosheath. The localized nature of ion acceleration is tied to the generation of fast magnetosonic waves at and upstream of the quasi-parallel shock. The increased pressure in flux tubes containing the shock accelerated ions results in the depletion of the thermal plasma in these flux tubes and the enhancement of density in flux tubes void of energetic ions. This results in the observed anticorrelation between ion temperature and plasma density.

  12. Magnetosheath Filamentary Structures Formed by Ion Acceleration at the Quasi-Parallel Bow Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidi, N.; Sibeck, D.; Gutynska, O.; Trattner, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Results from 2.5-D electromagnetic hybrid simulations show the formation of field-aligned, filamentary plasma structures in the magnetosheath. They begin at the quasi-parallel bow shock and extend far into the magnetosheath. These structures exhibit anticorrelated, spatial oscillations in plasma density and ion temperature. Closer to the bow shock, magnetic field variations associated with density and temperature oscillations may also be present. Magnetosheath filamentary structures (MFS) form primarily in the quasi-parallel sheath; however, they may extend to the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. They occur over a wide range of solar wind Alfvénic Mach numbers and interplanetary magnetic field directions. At lower Mach numbers with lower levels of magnetosheath turbulence, MFS remain highly coherent over large distances. At higher Mach numbers, magnetosheath turbulence decreases the level of coherence. Magnetosheath filamentary structures result from localized ion acceleration at the quasi-parallel bow shock and the injection of energetic ions into the magnetosheath. The localized nature of ion acceleration is tied to the generation of fast magnetosonic waves at and upstream of the quasi-parallel shock. The increased pressure in flux tubes containing the shock accelerated ions results in the depletion of the thermal plasma in these flux tubes and the enhancement of density in flux tubes void of energetic ions. This results in the observed anticorrelation between ion temperature and plasma density.

  13. Electromagnetic radiation from filamentary sources in the presence of axially magnetized cylindrical plasma scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es'kin, V. A.; Ivoninsky, A. V.; Kudrin, A. V.; Popova, L. L.

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic radiation from filamentary electric-dipole and magnetic-current sources of infinite length in the presence of gyrotropic cylindrical scatterers in the surrounding free space is studied. The scatterers are assumed to be infinitely long, axially magnetized circular plasma columns parallel to the axis of the filamentary source. The field and the radiation pattern of each source are calculated in the case where the source frequency is equal to one of the surface plasmon resonance frequencies of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown that the presence of even a single resonant magnetized plasma scatterer of small electrical radius or a few such scatterers significantly affects the total fields of the filamentary sources, so that their radiation patterns become essentially different from those in the absence of scatterers or the presence of isotropic scatterers of the same shape and size. It is concluded that the radiation characteristics of the considered sources can efficiently be controlled using their resonance interaction with the neighboring gyrotropic scatterers.

  14. Filamentary structure and magnetic field orientation in Musca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.; Arzoumanian, D.; André, Ph.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Prusti, T.; Men'shchikov, A.; Royer, P.; Kóspál, Á.; Palmeirim, P.; Ribas, A.; Könyves, V.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Merin, B.; Vavrek, R.; Alves de Oliveira, C.; Didelon, P.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Waelkens, C.

    2016-05-01

    Herschel has shown that filamentary structures are ubiquitous in star-forming regions, in particular in nearby molecular clouds associated with Gould's Belt. High dynamic range far-infrared imaging of the Musca cloud with SPIRE and PACS reveals at least two types of filamentary structures: (1) the main ~10-pc scale high column-density linear filament; and (2) low column-density striations in close proximity to the main filament. In addition, we find features with intermediate column densities (hair-like strands) that appear physically connected to the main filament. We present an analysis of this filamentary network traced by Herschel and explore its connection with the local magnetic field. We find that both the faint dust emission striations and the plane-of-the-sky (POS) magnetic field are locally oriented close to perpendicular to the high-density main filament (position angle ~25-35°). The low-density striations and strands are oriented parallel to the POS magnetic field lines, which are derived previously from optical polarization measurements of background stars and more recently from Planck observations of dust polarized emission. The position angles are 97 ± 25°, 105 ± 7°, and 105 ± 5°. From these observations, we propose a scenario in which local interstellar material in this cloud has condensed into a gravitationally-unstable filament (with "supercritical" mass per unit length) that is accreting background matter along field lines through the striations. We also compare the filamentary structure in Musca with what is seen in similar Herschel observations of the Taurus B211/3 filament system and find that there is significantly less substructure in the Musca main filament than in the B211/3 filament. We suggest that the Musca cloud may represent an earlier evolutionary stage in which the main filament has not yet accreted sufficient mass and energy to develop a multiple system of intertwined filamentary components. Herschel is an ESA space

  15. FilFinder: Filamentary structure in molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Eric W.; Rosolowsky, Erik W.

    2016-08-01

    FilFinder extracts and analyzes filamentary structure in molecular clouds. In particular, it is capable of uniformly extracting structure over a large dynamical range in intensity. It returns the main filament properties: local amplitude and background, width, length, orientation and curvature. FilFinder offers additional tools to, for example, create a filament-only image based on the properties of the radial fits. The resulting mask and skeletons may be saved in FITS format, and property tables may be saved as a CSV, FITS or LaTeX table.

  16. Alignment between Protostellar Outflows and Filamentary Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Ian W.; Dunham, Michael M.; Myers, Philip C.; Pokhrel, Riwaj; Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Tobin, John J.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Offner, Stella S. R.; Lee, Katherine I.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Arce, Héctor G.; Plunkett, Adele L.

    2017-09-01

    We present new Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of CO(2–1) outflows toward young, embedded protostars in the Perseus molecular cloud as part of the Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA (MASSES) survey. For 57 Perseus protostars, we characterize the orientation of the outflow angles and compare them with the orientation of the local filaments as derived from Herschel observations. We find that the relative angles between outflows and filaments are inconsistent with purely parallel or purely perpendicular distributions. Instead, the observed distribution of outflow-filament angles are more consistent with either randomly aligned angles or a mix of projected parallel and perpendicular angles. A mix of parallel and perpendicular angles requires perpendicular alignment to be more common by a factor of ∼3. Our results show that the observed distributions probably hold regardless of the protostar’s multiplicity, age, or the host core’s opacity. These observations indicate that the angular momentum axis of a protostar may be independent of the large-scale structure. We discuss the significance of independent protostellar rotation axes in the general picture of filament-based star formation.

  17. Large-scale Filamentary Structures around the Virgo Cluster Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Bureau, Martin; Yoon, Hyein; Chung, Aeree; Jerjen, Helmut; Lisker, Thorsten; Jeong, Hyunjin; Sung, Eon-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Lee, Woong; Chung, Jiwon

    2016-12-01

    We revisit the filamentary structures of galaxies around the Virgo cluster, exploiting a larger data set, based on the HyperLeda database, than previous studies. In particular, this includes a large number of low-luminosity galaxies, resulting in better sampled individual structures. We confirm seven known structures in the distance range 4 h -1 Mpc < SGY < 16 h -1 Mpc, now identified as filaments, where SGY is the axis of the supergalactic coordinate system roughly along the line of sight. The Hubble diagram of the filament galaxies suggests they are infalling toward the main body of the Virgo cluster. We propose that the collinear distribution of giant elliptical galaxies along the fundamental axis of the Virgo cluster is smoothly connected to two of these filaments (Leo II A and B). Behind the Virgo cluster (16 h -1 Mpc < SGY < 27 h -1 Mpc), we also identify a new filament elongated toward the NGC 5353/4 group (“NGC 5353/4 filament”) and confirm a sheet that includes galaxies from the W and M clouds of the Virgo cluster (“W-M sheet”). In the Hubble diagram, the NGC 5353/4 filament galaxies show infall toward the NGC 5353/4 group, whereas the W-M sheet galaxies do not show hints of gravitational influence from the Virgo cluster. The filamentary structures identified can now be used to better understand the generic role of filaments in the build-up of galaxy clusters at z ≈ 0.

  18. Generation of filamentary structures by beam-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.Y.; Lin, Y.

    2006-05-15

    The previous simulations by Wang and Lin [Phys. Plasmas. 10, 3528 (2003)] showed that filaments, frequently observed in space plasmas, can form via the interaction between an ion beam and a background plasma. In this study, the physical mechanism for the generation of the filaments is investigated by a two-dimensional hybrid simulation, in which a field-aligned ion beam with relative beam density n{sub b}=0.1 and beam velocity V{sub b}=10V{sub A} is initiated in a uniform plasma. Right-hand nonresonant ion beam modes, consistent with the linear theory, are found to be dominant in the linear stage of the beam-plasma interaction. In the later nonlinear stage, the nonresonant modes decay and the resonant modes grow through a nonlinear wave coupling. The interaction among the resonant modes leads to the formation of filamentary structures, which are the field-aligned structures (k perpendicular B) of magnetic field B, density, and temperature in the final stage. The filaments are nonlinearly generated in a prey-predator fashion by the parallel and oblique resonant ion beam modes, which meanwhile evolve into two types of shear Alfven modes, with one mainly propagating along the background field B{sub 0} and the other obliquely propagating. The filamentary structures are found to be phase standing in the plasma frame, but their amplitude oscillates with time. In the dominant filament mode, fluctuations in the background ion density, background ion temperature, and beam density are in phase with the fluctuations in B, whereas the significantly enhanced beam temperature is antiphase with B. It is found that the filaments are produced by the interaction of at least two ion beam modes with comparable amplitudes, not by only one single mode, thus their generation mechanism is different from other mechanisms such as the stimulated excitation by the decay of an Alfven wave.

  19. A Catalog of Bright Filamentary Structures in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Tom; Werner, Michael; Gautier, T. N., III

    2003-12-01

    We present a listing of prominent filamentary structures in the interstellar cirrus, selected with an eye toward current and planned far-infrared and submillimeter polarimetry facilities. The filaments were identified on the 100 μm plates of the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA), using a computer vision algorithm that is unbiased with respect to source intensity. Our catalog is two-tiered: the selection criteria in the Galactic plane are based on the sensitivity limits of airborne polarimeters such as the proposed HALE instrument for SOFIA, and away from the plane the limits are dictated by the sensitivities of balloon-borne cosmic microwave background experiments, such as BOOMERanG and MAXIMA. Infrared detector technology is currently at the point where detecting the polarization of the interstellar cirrus is feasible, and we hope this catalog will assist any experimenter undertaking this task.

  20. A Catalog of Filamentary Structures in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, T.; Werner, M. W.; Gautier, T. N.

    2001-12-01

    Polarimetry of far infrared emission from the interstellar medium has found polarization exceeding 5% in many sources, approaching 10% in some cases. The polarization mechanism appears to be emission from elongated, magnetically-aligned, grains, and the high fractional polarization suggests efficient alignment. If filamentary structures in the interstellar medium trace the magnetic field, then polarimetry of the emission from such filaments could allow the grain alignment to be studied without complications due to varying field orientation along the line of sight. At high galactic latitudes where polarimetry of the cosmic microwave background will be carried out, observations of such filaments might provide useful local polarization standards and permit an assessment of the potential polarization of the galactic foreground. To meet these and similar needs, we have compiled a catalog of filamentary structures in the interstellar medium by developing a suitable pattern recognition algorithm and applying it to the 100um images from the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas. The catalog contains 83 filaments at high galactic latitude, 47 at low galactic latitude, and 10 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Length [typically 30 arcmin or greater], straightness, and brightness criteria are applied to make the low latitude objects suitable for study with a far infrared polarimeter on SOFIA, and to make these and the high latitude objects suitable for study with a balloon-borne radiometer operating in the sub-millimeter. The brightness is tabulated at 100um, based on the ISSA catalog, and at both 100um and 340GHz based on the Davis et al estimates of the absolute sky brightness. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. T. Jackson held a Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship at JPL/Caltech.

  1. Investigating the structure and fragmentation of a highly filamentary IRDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshaw, J. D.; Caselli, P.; Fontani, F.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Tan, J. C.; Longmore, S. N.; Pineda, J. E.; Parker, R. J.; Barnes, A. T.

    2016-11-01

    We present 3.7 arcsec (˜0.05 pc) resolution 3.2 mm dust continuum observations from the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique Plateau de Bure Interferometer, with the aim of studying the structure and fragmentation of the filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G035.39-00.33. The continuum emission is segmented into a series of 13 quasi-regularly spaced (λobs ˜ 0.18 pc) cores, following the major axis of the IRDC. We compare the spatial distribution of the cores with that predicted by theoretical work describing the fragmentation of hydrodynamic fluid cylinders, finding a significant (a factor of ≳ 8) discrepancy between the two. Our observations are consistent with the picture emerging from kinematic studies of molecular clouds suggesting that the cores are harboured within a complex network of independent sub-filaments. This result emphasizes the importance of considering the underlying physical structure, and potentially, dynamically important magnetic fields, in any fragmentation analysis. The identified cores exhibit a range in (peak) beam-averaged column density (3.6 × 1023 cm-2 < NH, c < 8.0 × 1023 cm-2), mass (8.1 M⊙ < Mc < 26.1 M⊙), and number density (6.1 × 105 cm-3 < nH, c, eq < 14.7 × 105 cm-3). Two of these cores, dark in the mid-infrared, centrally concentrated, monolithic (with no traceable substructure at our PdBI resolution), and with estimated masses of the order ˜20-25 M⊙, are good candidates for the progenitors of intermediate-to-high-mass stars. Virial parameters span a range 0.2 < αvir < 1.3. Without additional support, possibly from dynamically important magnetic fields with strengths of the order of 230 μG < B < 670 μG, the cores are susceptible to gravitational collapse. These results may imply a multilayered fragmentation process, which incorporates the formation of sub-filaments, embedded cores, and the possibility of further fragmentation.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ATLASGAL dense filamentary structures (Li+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.-X.; Urquhart, J. S.; Leurini, S.; Csengeri, T.; Wyrowski, F.; Menten, K. M.; Schuller, F.

    2016-05-01

    The ATLASGAL survey (Schuller et al., 2009A&A...504..415S) covers 300°filamentary structures in the ATLASGAL survey. This has been achieved through two steps. First, we extract skeleton representations of structures in the dust continuum emission maps with the DisPerSE (Discrete Persistent Extractor; Sousbie, 2011MNRAS.414..350S). Then, the extracted structures are classified, and filamentary structures are identified. (10 data files).

  3. Finest Filamentary Structures of the Corona in the Slow and Fast Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Richard; Habbal, Shadia Rifai

    1997-01-01

    Recent progress in our understanding of electron density fluctuations observed by radio occultation measurements has demonstrated that a break in the vicinity of 1 Hz in the temporal frequency spectrum of the density fluctuations provides a measure of the size of the finest filamentary structures in the solar corona. Breaks in frequency have been inferred from the density spectra deduced by Coles et al. from 1979-1980 Voyager phase scintillation and spectral broadening measurements. These results show that the finest filamentary structures are found in the extensions or stalks of coronal streamers--the likely sources of the slow solar wind--and are over a factor of 3 smaller than those in the fast wind emanating from coronal holes. The inferred sizes of the finest filamentary structures are approximately 6 km in the slow wind at 8 Rsolar and 22 km in the fast wind at 9.1 Rsolar.

  4. Method and apparatus for fabricating a composite structure consisting of a filamentary material in a metal matrix

    DOEpatents

    Banker, J.G.; Anderson, R.C.

    1975-10-21

    A method and apparatus are provided for preparing a composite structure consisting of filamentary material within a metal matrix. The method is practiced by the steps of confining the metal for forming the matrix in a first chamber, heating the confined metal to a temperature adequate to effect melting thereof, introducing a stream of inert gas into the chamber for pressurizing the atmosphere in the chamber to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, confining the filamentary material in a second chamber, heating the confined filamentary material to a temperature less than the melting temperature of the metal, evacuating the second chamber to provide an atmosphere therein at a pressure, placing the second chamber in registry with the first chamber to provide for the forced flow of the molten metal into the second chamber to effect infiltration of the filamentary material with the molten metal, and thereafter cooling the metal infiltrated-filamentary material to form said composite structure.

  5. Ultra-fine-scale filamentary structures in the Outer Corona and the Solar Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Filamentary structures following magnetic field lines pervade the Sun's atmosphere and offer us insight into the solar magnetic field. Radio propagation measurements have shown that the smallest filamentary structures in the solar corona are more than 2 orders of magnitude finer than those seen in solar imaging. Here we use radio Doppler measurements to characterize their transverse density gradient and determine their finest scale in the outer corona at 20-30 R(circled dot operator), where open magnetic fields prevail. Filamentary structures overly active regions have the steepest gradient and finest scale, while those overlying coronal holes have the shallowest gradient and least finest scale. Their organization by the underlying corona implies that these subresolution structures extend radially from the entire Sun, confirming that they trace the coronal magnetic field responsible for the radial expansion of the solar wind. That they are rooted all over the Sun elucidates the association between the magnetic field of the photosphere and that of the corona, as revealed by the similarity between the power spectra of the photospheric field and the coronal density fluctuations. This association along with the persistence of filamentary structures far from the Sun demonstrate that subresolution magnetic fields must play an important role not only in magnetic coupling of the photosphere and corona, but also in coronal heating and solar wind acceleration through the process of small-scale magnetic reconnection. They also explain why current widely used theoretical models that extrapolate photospheric magnetic fields into the corona do not predict the correct source of the solar wind.

  6. Particle-in-Cell simulations of filamentary structures formation in DBD-tissue interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhanskii, Alexandre; Messmer, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrated high potential of the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas for medical applications, such as sterilization or tissue regeneration. Despite intensive experimental studies have been conducted, the mechanism of plasma-tissue interaction still remains unclear. One of the open questions for the plasma-medical applications is the mechanism of filamentary structures formation in plasma and their interaction with tissues. Since formation of filaments is a purely kinetic effect, this issue needs to be addressed using kinetic, Particle-In-Cell simulation approach. We will present results of such numerical study. We performed 2D simulations of multiple streamers generation in atmospheric air using Tech-X's 2D/3D hybrid simulation tool VORPAL. We will demonstrate the resolution of the filamentary structure and will report the plasma properties. We will also address the plasma-induced effects on the tissue.

  7. Discovery of a New Filamentary Structure G358.85+0.47 -- The Pelican

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantharamaiah, K. R.; Lang, C. C.; Kassim, N. E.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Goss, W. M.

    1999-06-01

    We report the discovery of a new filamentary structure, G358.85+0.47, consisting of at least three mutually parallel but bent `strands', located about 1.5̂ SW of the Sgr A complex. Unlike all the other known Galactic center filaments, G358.85+0.47 is oriented parallel to the galactic plane. Based on its appearance in a 20 cm image, we give it the name 'the Pelican' for further reference.

  8. Residual stress alleviation of aircraft metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. B.; June, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    Methods to eliminate or reduce residual stresses in aircraft metal structures reinforced by filamentary composites are discussed. Residual stress level reductions were achieved by modifying the manufacturing procedures used during adhesive bonding. The residual stress alleviation techniques involved various forms of mechanical constraint which were applied to the components during bonding. Nine methods were evaluated, covering a wide range in complexity. All methods investigated during the program affected the residual stress level. In general, residual stresses were reduced by 70 percent or more from the stress level produced by conventional adhesive bonding procedures.

  9. A discussion of the H-alpha filamentary nebulae and galactic structure in the Cygnus region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, T. A.; Simonson, S. C., III

    1971-01-01

    From observation of the galactic structure in Cygnus, the system of filamentary nebulae was found to lie at a distance of roughly 1.5 kpc, in the same region as about half the thermal radio sources in Cygnus X, the supernova remnant near gamma Cygni, and the association Cygnus OB2, in the direction of which the X-ray source Cygnus XR-3 is observed. The source of excitation was probably the pulse of radiation from a supernova explosion, as proposed in the case of Gum nebula. However continuing excitation by early stars in the region of Cygnus X cannot be excluded.

  10. Filamentary structure on the Sun from the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Hiroaki; Miyagoshi, Takehiro; Shibata, Kazunari; Yokoyama, Takaaki

    2005-03-24

    Magnetic flux emerges from the solar surface as dark filaments connecting small sunspots with opposite polarities. The regions around the dark filaments are often bright in X-rays and are associated with jets. This implies plasma heating and acceleration, which are important for coronal heating. Previous two-dimensional simulations of such regions showed that magnetic reconnection between the coronal magnetic field and the emerging flux produced X-ray jets and flares, but left unresolved the origin of filamentary structure and the intermittent nature of the heating. Here we report three-dimensional simulations of emerging flux showing that the filamentary structure arises spontaneously from the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability, contrary to the previous view that the dark filaments are isolated bundles of magnetic field that rise from the photosphere carrying the dense gas. As a result of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability, thin current sheets are formed in the emerging flux, and magnetic reconnection occurs between emerging flux and the pre-existing coronal field in a spatially intermittent way. This explains naturally the intermittent nature of coronal heating and the patchy brightenings in solar flares.

  11. Optical structure and function of the white filamentary hair covering the edelweiss bracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Rassart, Marie; Vértesy, Zofia; Kertész, Krisztián; Sarrazin, Michaël; Biró, László P.; Ertz, Damien; Lousse, Virginie

    2005-01-01

    The optical properties of the inflorescence of the high-altitude Leontopodium nivale subsp. alpinum (edelweiss) is investigated, in relation with its submicrometer structure, as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The filaments forming the hair layer have been found to exhibit an internal structure which may be one of the few examples of a photonic structure found in a plant. Measurements of light transmission through a self-supported layer of hair pads taken from the bracts supports the idea that the wooly layer covering the plant absorbs near-ultraviolet radiation before it reaches the cellular tissue. Calculations based on a photonic-crystal model provide insight on the way radiation can be absorbed by the filamentary threads.

  12. Particle Acceleration at Filamentary Structures Downstream of Collisionless Shocks in the Heliosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharek, H.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Gamayunov, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Collisionless shocks are an important feature in astrophysical, heliospheric and magnetospheric settings. At these structures plasma is heated, the properties of flows are changed, and particles are accelerated to high energies. Particles are accelerated throughout the heliosphere. There are no times or conditions where suprathermal ions forming tails are not present on the solar wind ion distribution, and given the low speeds of these particles they must be accelerated locally in the heliosphere. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs) accelerate particles up to 10s of MeV/nucleon. The termination shock of the solar and the heliosheath produce energetic particles including the Anomalous Cosmic Rays (ACRs), with energies in excess of 100 MeV. In the last few years' very interesting observations at low energies showing power laws that cannot be explained with commonly accepted acceleration mechanisms and thus increased the need for alternative acceleration processes. Fully consistent kinetic particle simulations such as hybrid simulations appear to be a powerful tool to investigated ion acceleration. Nowadays these simulations can be performed in 3D and relative large simulation domains covering up to hundreds of ion inertial length in size and thus representing the MHD scale. These 3D hybrid simulations show filamentary magnetic and density structures, which could be interpreted as small-scale flux ropes. The growth of these small-scale structures is also associated with ion acceleration. In this talk we will discuss properties of these filamentary structures, their spatial and temporal evolution and the particle dynamics during the acceleration process. The results of this study may be of particular importance for future high resolution magnetospheric and heliospheric mission such as THOR.

  13. Can HI 21-cm lines trace the missing baryons in the filamentary structures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horii, Toshihiro; Asaba, Shinsuke; Hasegawa, Kenji; Tashiro, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    A large fraction of baryons predicted from the standard cosmology is still missing observationally. Although previous numerical simulations have indicated that most of the missing baryons reside in large-scale filaments in the form of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), it is generally very difficult to detect signatures from such a diffuse gas. In this work, we focus on the hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen (HI), called the 21-cm line, as a tool to trace the WHIM. For the purpose, we first construct the map of the 21-cm signals by using the data provided by the state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamics simulation project, Illustris, in which detailed processes affecting the dynamical and thermal evolution of the WHIM are implemented. From a comparison of the constructed 21-cm signal map with the expected noise level of the Square Kilometre Array phase 1 mid-frequency instrument (SKA1-mid), we find that the 21-cm signals from the WHIM in the filamentary structures at redshifts z = 0.5-3 are too small to detect with the SKA1-mid. Our results suggest that a sensitivity about 10 times higher than the SKA1-mid is possibly enough to detect the WHIM at z = 0.5-3. However, we also show that the signals of the filamentary structures including the contribution from galaxies are detectable with the SKA1-mid if we assume the angular resolution of Δθ ≥ 10' and the observing time of tobs ≥ 100 hr.

  14. Structure and Stability of Filamentary Clouds Supported by Lateral Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Tomisaka, Kohji

    2015-03-01

    We have constructed two types of analytical models for an isothermal filamentary cloud supported mainly by magnetic tension. The first one describes an isolated cloud while the second considers filamentary clouds spaced periodically. Both models assume that the filamentary clouds are highly flattened. The former is proved to be the asymptotic limit of the latter in which each filamentary cloud is much thinner than the distance to the neighboring filaments. We show that these models reproduce the main features of the 2D equilibrium model of Tomisaka for a filamentary cloud threaded by a perpendicular magnetic field. It is also shown that the critical mass to flux ratio is M/Φ={{(2π \\sqrt{G})}-1}, where M, Φ and G denote the cloud mass, the total magnetic flux of the cloud, and the gravitational constant, respectively. This upper bound coincides with that for an axisymmetric cloud supported by poloidal magnetic fields. We apply the variational principle for studying the Jeans instability of the first model. Our model cloud is unstable against fragmentation as well as the filamentary clouds threaded by a longitudinal magnetic field. The fastest growing mode has a wavelength several times longer than the cloud diameter. The second model describes quasi-static evolution of a filamentary molecular cloud by ambipolar diffusion.

  15. Structure and Stability of Filamentary Clouds Supported by Lateral Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Tomisaka, Kohji

    2015-08-01

    We have constructed two types of analytical models for an isothermal filamentary cloud supported mainly by magnetic tension. The first one describes an isolated cloud while the second considers filamentary clouds spaced periodically. Both the models assume that the filamentary clouds are highly flattened. The former is proved to be the asymptotic limit of the latter in which each filamentary cloud is much thinner than the distance to the neighboring filaments. We show that these models reproduce the main features of the 2D equilibrium model of a filamentary cloud threaded by a perpendicular magnetic field. It is also shown that the critical mass to flux ratio is M/Φ = 1/(2 π√G ) , where M, Φ, and G denote the cloud mass, the total magnetic flux of the cloud, and the gravitational constant, respectively. This upper bound coincides with that for an axisymmetric cloud supported by poloidal magnetic fields. We apply the variational principle for studying the Jeans instability of the first model. Our model cloud is unstable against fragmentation as well as the filamentary clouds threaded by a longitudinal magnetic field. The fastest growing mode has a wavelength several times longer than the cloud diameter. This is because the first model is supercritical. The second model describes quasi-static evolution of a filamentary molecular cloud by ambipolar diffusion. The mass to flux ratio increases at the filament center and exceeds the critical value at a certain point. It is suggested that the filamentary cloud becomes unstable against fragmentation at the critical mass to flux ratio.

  16. Machine Learning Based Data Mining for Milky Way Filamentary Structures Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, Giuseppe; Cavuoti, Stefano; Schisano, Eugenio; Brescia, Massimo; Mercurio, Amata; Elia, Davide; Benedettini, Milena; Pezzuto, Stefano; Molinari, Sergio; Di Giorgio, Anna Maria

    2016-06-01

    We present an innovative method called FilExSeC (Filaments Extraction, Selection and Classification), a data mining tool developed to investigate the possibility to refine and optimize the shape reconstruction of filamentary structures detected with a consolidated method based on the flux derivative analysis, through the column-density maps computed from Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey (Hi-GAL) observations of the Galactic plane. The present methodology is based on a feature extraction module followed by a machine learning model (Random Forest) dedicated to select features and to classify the pixels of the input images. From tests on both simulations and real observations the method appears reliable and robust with respect to the variability of shape and distribution of filaments. In the cases of highly defined filament structures, the presented method is able to bridge the gaps among the detected fragments, thus improving their shape reconstruction. From a preliminary a posteriori analysis of derived filament physical parameters, the method appears potentially able to add a sufficient contribution to complete and refine the filament reconstruction.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Bright filamentary structures in the ISM (Jackson+, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, T.; Werner, M.; Gautier, T. N., III

    2003-11-01

    We present a listing of prominent filamentary structures in the interstellar cirrus, selected with an eye toward current and planned far-infrared and submillimeter polarimetry facilities. The filaments were identified on the 100{mu}m plates of the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA, Wheelock et al. 1994, IRAS Sky Survey Atlas: Explanatory Supplement (JPL Publ. 94-11; Pasadena: JPL)), using a computer vision algorithm that is unbiased with respect to source intensity. Our catalog is two-tiered: the selection criteria in the Galactic plane are based on the sensitivity limits of airborne polarimeters such as the proposed HALE instrument for SOFIA, and away from the plane the limits are dictated by the sensitivities of balloon-borne cosmic microwave background experiments, such as BOOMERanG and MAXIMA. Infrared detector technology is currently at the point where detecting the polarization of the interstellar cirrus is feasible, and we hope this catalog will assist any experimenter undertaking this task. (3 data files).

  18. Analytical and experimental investigation of aircraft metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites. Phase 3: Major component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, L. L.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations, performed to establish the feasibility of reinforcing metal aircraft structures with advanced filamentary composites, are reported. Aluminum-boron-epoxy and titanium-boron-epoxy were used in the design and manufacture of three major structural components. The components were representative of subsonic aircraft fuselage and window belt panels and supersonic aircraft compression panels. Both unidirectional and multidirectional reinforcement concepts were employed. Blade penetration, axial compression, and inplane shear tests were conducted. Composite reinforced structural components designed to realistic airframe structural criteria demonstrated the potential for significant weight savings while maintaining strength, stability, and damage containment properties of all metal components designed to meet the same criteria.

  19. Structure and Stability of Filamentary Clouds Supported by Lateral Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Tomisakar, Kohji

    We have constructed two types of analytical models for an isothermal filamentary cloud supported mainly by magnetic tension. The first one describes an isolated cloud while the second considers filamentary clouds spaced periodically. The filamentary clouds are assumed to be highly flattened in both the models. The former is proved to be the asymptotic limit of the latter in which each filamentary cloud is much thinner than the distance to the neighboring filaments. These models show that the mass to flux ratio is crucial for the magnetohydrodynamical equilibrium. The upper bound for the line density, i.e., the mass per unit length, is proportional to the magnetic flux. The mass to flux ratio is slightly larger than the critical value, ( )-1, in the first model and lower in the second model. The first model is unstable against fragmentation and the wavelength of the fastest growing mode is several times longer than the cloud diameter. The second model is likely to be unstable only when the mass to flux ratio is supercritical.

  20. THE ROLE OF TURBULENCE AND MAGNETIC FIELDS IN SIMULATED FILAMENTARY STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Helen; Pudritz, Ralph; Klassen, Mikhail; Pillsworth, Samantha

    2015-04-01

    We use numerical simulations of turbulent cluster-forming regions to study the nature of dense filamentary structures in star formation. Using four hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulations chosen to match observations, we identify filaments in the resulting column density maps and analyze their properties. We calculate the radial column density profiles of the filaments every 0.05 Myr and fit the profiles with the modified isothermal and pressure-confined isothermal cylinder models, finding reasonable fits for either model. The filaments formed in the simulations have similar radial column density profiles to those observed. Magnetic fields provide additional pressure support to the filaments, making “puffier” filaments less prone to fragmentation than in the pure hydrodynamic case, which continue to condense at a slower rate. In the higher density simulations, the filaments grow faster through the increased importance of gravity. Not all of the filaments identified in the simulations will evolve to form stars: some expand and disperse. Given these different filament evolutionary paths, the trends in bulk filament width as a function of time, magnetic field strength, or density are weak, and all cases are reasonably consistent with the finding of a constant filament width in different star-forming regions. In the simulations, the mean FWHM lies between 0.06 and 0.26 pc for all times and initial conditions, with most lying between 0.1 to 0.15 pc; the range in FWHMs is however, larger than seen in typical Herschel analyses. Finally, the filaments display a wealth of substructure similar to the recent discovery of filament bundles in Taurus.

  1. Spontaneous thermal waves and exponential spectra associated with a filamentary pressure structure in a magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, David Carl

    An experimental study of plasma turbulence and transport is performed in the fundamental geometry of a narrow pressure filament in a magnetized plasma. An electron beam is used to heat a cold background plasma in a linear device, the Large Plasma Device (LAPD-U) [W. Gekelman et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] operated by the Basic Plasma Science Facility at the University of California, Los Angeles. This results in the generation of a filamentary structure 1000 cm in length and 1 cm in diameter) exhibiting a controllable radial temperature gradient embedded in a large plasma. The filament serves as a resonance cavity for a thermal (diffusive) wave manifested by large amplitude, coherent oscillations in electron temperature. Properties of this wave are used to determine the electron collision time of the plasma and suggest that a diagnostic method for studying plasma transport can be designed in a similar manner. For short times and low heating powers the filament conducts away thermal energy through particle collisions, consistent with classical theory. Experiments performed with longer heating times or greater injected power feature a transition from the classical transport regime to a regime of enhanced transport levels. During the anomalous transport regime, fluctuations exhibit an exponential power spectrum for frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency. The exponential feature has been traced to the presence of solitary pulses having a Lorentzian temporal signature. These pulses arise from nonlinear interactions of drift-Alfven waves driven by the pressure gradients. The temporal width of the pulses is measured to be a fraction of a period of the drift-Alfven waves. A second experiment involves a macroscopic (3.5 cm gradient length) limiter-edge geometry in which a density gradient is established by inserting a metallic plate at the edge of the nominal plasma column of the LAPD-U. In both experiments the width of the pulses is narrowly distributed

  2. Analytical and experimental investigation of aircraft metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites. Phase 1: Concept development and feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oken, S.; June, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The analytical and experimental investigations are described in the first phase of a program to establish the feasibility of reinforcing metal aircraft structures with advanced filamentary composites. The interactions resulting from combining the two types of materials into single assemblies as well as their ability to function structurally were studied. The combinations studied were boron-epoxy reinforced aluminum, boron-epoxy reinforced titanium, and boron-polyimide reinforced titanium. The concepts used unidirectional composites as reinforcement in the primary loading direction and metal for carrying the transverse loads as well as its portion of the primary load. The program established that several realistic concepts could be fabricated, that these concepts could perform to a level that would result in significant weight savings, and that there are means for predicting their capability within a reasonable degree of accuracy. This program also encountered problems related to the application of polyimide systems that resulted in their relatively poor and variable performance.

  3. Unusual Domain Structure and Filamentary Superfluidity for 2D Hard-Core Bosons in Insulating Charge-Ordered Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, Yu. D.; Moskvin, A. S.; Rybakov, F. N.; Borisov, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    We made use of a special algorithm for compute unified device architecture for NVIDIA graphics cards, a nonlinear conjugate-gradient method to minimize energy functional, and Monte-Carlo technique to directly observe the forming of the ground state configuration for the 2D hard-core bosons by lowering the temperature and its evolution with deviation away from half-filling. The novel technique allowed us to examine earlier implications and uncover novel features of the phase transitions, in particular, look upon the nucleation of the odd domain structure, emergence of filamentary superfluidity nucleated at the antiphase domain walls of the charge-ordered phase, and nucleation and evolution of different topological structures.

  4. Cosmic structure formation: From first stars to large-scale filamentary structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zheng

    Theory of cosmic structure formation outlines how stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and large-scale structures formed out of primordial density fluctuations. It presents us a picture of cosmic mass assembly, and places strong constraints on cosmological model. Both observations and theories suggest that structures formation follows a "bottom up" process, in which small, low-mass component form first, and gradually develop into larger, more massive systems. This dissertation focuses on three crucial stages of cosmic structure formation: first generation stars, quasar host galaxies and the large-scale galaxy overdensities. In Chapter 1, I present an overview of structure formation, acquainting readers with a general picture from first object in the Universe to large-scale structures at later epochs. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, I derive strong constraints to the star formation rates (SFRs) of very massive Population III (Pop III) stars in two high redshift galaxies at z = 7. By probing the He II emission lines for both galaxies, I conclude that the contributions of very massive Pop III stars to total the SFRs are less than 3%. In Chapter 4, I move to more massive systems, quasar host galaxies at z ˜ 3. Using damped Lyman alpha absorption systems as natural coronagraphs, I report that rest-frame far-UV emission of quasar host galaxy correlates strongly with quasar luminosity. This result suggests a co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. In Chapter 5, I develop a novel method for searching the most massive protoclusters at z = 2--3, by utilizing intergalactic Lyman alpha absorption. My investigations suggest that large intergalactic Lyman alpha absorption systems effectively trace the most overdense regions at large scale of ˜15 h -1 Mpc. In Chapter 6, I present our imaging observations of an extreme galaxy overdensity (protocluster) BOSS1441+4000, which is discovered using the techniques developed in Chapter 5. Furthermore, I report an

  5. Comparison of Magnetic Field Structures on Different Scales in and around the Filamentary Dark Cloud GF 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poidevin, F.; Bastien, P.

    2006-10-01

    New visible polarization data combined with existing IR and FIR polarization data are used to study how the magnetic field threading the filamentary molecular cloud GF 9 connects to larger structures in its general environment. When visible and NIR polarization data are combined, no evidence is found for a plateau in the polarization above extinction AV~1.3, as seen in dark clouds in Taurus. This lack of saturation effect suggests that even in the denser parts of GF 9 magnetic fields can be probed. The visible polarization is smooth and has a well-defined orientation. In the core region, the IR and FIR data are also well defined, but each with a different direction. A multiscale analysis of the magnetic field shows that on the scale of a few times the mean radial dimension of the molecular cloud, it is as if the magnetic field were ``blind'' to the spatial distribution of the filaments, while on smaller scales in the core region, multiwavelength polarimetry shows a rotation of the magnetic field lines in these denser phases. Finally, the Chandrasekhar and Fermi method is used to evaluate the magnetic field strength, indicating that the core region is approximately magnetically critical. A global interpretation suggests that in the core region an original poloidal field could have been twisted by a rotating elongated (core+envelope) structure. There is no evidence for turbulence, and ambipolar diffusion does not seem to be effective at the present time.

  6. The formation of filamentary structures from molten silicates: Peleʼs hair, angel hair, and blown clinker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2012-08-01

    We conduct an analysis of the concomitant, competing phenomena at play in the formation of long filamentary structures from a stream of hot, very viscous and cohesive liquid as it is blown by a fast, cool air stream. The situation is relevant to a broad class of problems, namely volcanic glass threads or fibers formed when small particles of molten material are thrown into the air and spun out by the wind into long hair-like strands (called Pele's hair), to the process of prilling, the manufacture of glass fibers, and the formation of coke in furnaces and combustion chambers. The air stream blowing on the molten material both breaks up the liquid into fragments stabilized by capillarity, and cools the liquid down to solidification. There are, in this problem, four characteristic times. First, a deformation time of the liquid masses, setting the rate at which drops elongate into ligaments. Then, two timescales set the time of capillary breakup of these ligaments, one prevailing on the other depending on the relative weight of inertia on viscous slowing (that point is illustrated by an original experiment). Finally, a solidification time of the ligaments. Thin solid strands will only form when solidification occurs before capillary breakup. We have discovered that this condition is likely to apply when the liquid is strongly viscous, as for clinker in the cement industry, considered here as a generic example. We formulate recommendations to remove (or enhance) the formation of these objects.

  7. Spatially and spectrally resolved filamentary structures in the (3/2)omega 0 emission from laser produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.; Willi, O.; Rumsby, P. T.

    This study was conducted to explore the problem of filamentation of laser light in the underdense plasma corona surrounding ablatively imploded spherical targets, a phenomenon which may prevent the realization of laser-driven fusion schemes. Preliminary observations were made of filamentary structures in the (3/2)(omega sub 0) emission from microballoon targets irradiated in the ablative mode. Time integrated spectroscopy showed double and single peaked (3/2)(omega sub 0) emission spectra. A simple model for the growth and collapse of filaments was based on the movement of the density contours at the bottom of the filament with large velocity. Here the laser intensity was high and various decay instabilities and scattering processes took place. In particular the two plasmon decay instability occurred where the electron density was nc/4, a region of (3/2)(omega sub 0) emission. The model was consistent with the experimentally observed spectra and predicted the type of omega sub 0 and 2 omega sub 0 that should be observed in future experiments.

  8. Electromagnetic Transmission Through Resonant Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Steven M.

    Electromagnetic resonators store energy in the form of oscillatory electric and magnetic fields and gradually exchange that energy by coupling with their environment. This coupling process can have profound effects on the transmission and reflection properties of nearby interfaces, with rapid transitions from high transmittance to high reflectance over narrow frequency ranges, and has been exploited to design useful optical components such as spectral filters and dielectric mirrors. This dissertation includes analytic, numeric, and experimental investigations of three different electromagnetic resonators, each based on a different method of confining electromagnetic fields near the region of interest. First, we show that a structure with two parallel conducting plates, each containing a subwavelength slit, supports a localized resonant mode bound to the slits and therefore exhibits (in the absence of nonradiative losses), perfect resonant transmission over a narrow frequency range. In practice, the transmission is limited by conduction losses in the sidewalls; nevertheless, experimental results at 10 GHz show a narrowband transmission enhancement by a factor of 104 compared to the non-resonant transmission, with quality factor (ratio of frequency to peak width) Q ~ 3000. Second, we describe a narrowband transmission filter based on a single-layer dielectric grating. We use a group theory analysis to show that, due to their symmetry, several of the grating modes cannot couple to light at normal incidence, while several others have extremely large coupling. We then show how selectively breaking the system symmetry using off-normal light incidence can produce transmission peaks by enabling weak coupling to some of the previously protected modes. The narrowband filtering capabilities are validated by an experimental demonstration in the long wavelength infrared, showing transmission peaks of quality factor Q ~ 100 within a free-spectral range of 8-15 mum. Third, we

  9. Electromagnetic structure of light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pastore, Saori

    Here, the present understanding of nuclear electromagnetic properties including electromagnetic moments, form factors and transitions in nuclei with A ≤ 10 is reviewed. Emphasis is on calculations based on nuclear Hamiltonians that include two- and three-nucleon realistic potentials, along with one- and two-body electromagnetic currents derived from a chiral effective field theory with pions and nucleons.

  10. Electromagnetic structure of light nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Pastore, Saori

    2016-03-25

    Here, the present understanding of nuclear electromagnetic properties including electromagnetic moments, form factors and transitions in nuclei with A ≤ 10 is reviewed. Emphasis is on calculations based on nuclear Hamiltonians that include two- and three-nucleon realistic potentials, along with one- and two-body electromagnetic currents derived from a chiral effective field theory with pions and nucleons.

  11. Sub-ion scale intermittency and the development of filamentary current structures from the Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, S. C.; Kiyani, K. H.; Meyrand, R.; Sahraoui, F.; Osman, K.

    2014-12-01

    The distinct quantitative nature of the intermittency seen on fluid and kinetic scales in solar wind plasma turbulence is now well documented from an observational point of view. The classic high-order statistical signature rapidly transitions to a monoscaling signature as one crosses to sub-ion scales. How this scaling depends upon plasma conditions, and the underlying physical implications have yet to be fully explored. We present a study focusing on 28 intervals of solar wind magnetic field data from the Cluster spacecraft sampling a broad range of plasma parameters. We show how the scaling properties vary between these intervals and more importantly, if there are any correlations between the scaling exponents and the plasma parameter variations. We supplement this observational study with a computational investigation where we study spatial samples from an 1024^3 EMHD simulation -- a model for sub-ion scale magnetic field dynamics consisting solely of the Hall effect. From this, we show that the Hall-term can generate a topological change from current sheets at fluid scales to current filaments at sub-ion scales. We conjecture that this fundamental change in the coherent structures comprising the turbulence is also responsible for the change in the intermittency that we see from our observations; and which could also be responsible for dissipation at these scales.

  12. Filamentary Structure of Serpens Main and Serpens South Seen in N2H+, HCO+, and HCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Erin Guilfoil; Fernandez-Lopez, Manuel; Looney, Leslie; Arce, Héctor; Mundy, Lee; Storm, Shaye; Harris, Robert J.; Teuben, Peter J.

    2016-06-01

    We present the N2H+ (J = 1 → 0) map of the Serpens Main and Serpens South molecular cloud obtained as part of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy). The observations cover 150 arcmin2 and 250 arcmin2, respectively, and fully sample structures from 3000 AU to 3 pc with a velocity resolution of 0.16 km s-1. They can be used to constrain the origin and evolution of molecular cloud filaments. The spatial distribution of the N2H+ emission is characterized by long filaments that resemble those observed in the dust continuum emission by Herschel. However, the gas filaments are typically narrower such that, in some cases, two or three quasi-parallel N2H+ filaments comprise a single observed dust continuum filament. Our results suggest that single filaments seen in Serpens South by Herschel may in fact be comprised of multiple narrower filaments. Some molecular filaments show velocity gradients along their major axis, and two are characterized by a steep velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the filament axis. The observed velocity gradient along one of these filaments was previously postulated as evidence for mass infall toward the central cluster, but these kind of gradients can be interpreted as projection of large-scale turbulence. Finally we compare the morphologies of these N2H+ filaments with those detected in HCO+ and HCN. In Serpens South we find that the N2H+ and dust maps are well correlated, whereas HCO+ and HCN do not have regularly have N2H+ counterparts. We postulate that this difference is due to large-scale shocks creating the HCO+ and HCN emission.

  13. Formation of H i Clouds in Shock-compressed Interstellar Medium: Physical Origin of Angular Correlation between Filamentary Structure and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-12-01

    Recent observations of the neutral Galactic interstellar medium showed that filamentary structures of H i clouds are aligned with the interstellar magnetic field. Many interesting applications are proposed based on the alignment, such as measurement of magnetic field strength through the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method and removal of foreground dust emissions for the detection of inflationary polarized emission in the cosmic microwave background radiation. However, the physical origin of the alignment remains to be explained. To understand the mechanism, we examine the formation of H i clouds triggered by shock compression of the diffuse warm neutral medium using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We show that the shock-compressed medium of density n˜ 1 cm-3 evolves into H i clouds with n˜ 50 cm-3 via thermal instability consistent with previous studies. We apply a machine vision transformation developed by Clark et al. to the simulated column density structures to measure angle correlation between filamentary structures of H i clouds and magnetic field. We find that the orientation of H i filaments depends on the environmental turbulent velocity field, particularly on the strength of shear strain in the direction of the magnetic field, which is controlled by the angle between the shock propagation direction and upstream magnetic field. When the strain along the magnetic field is weak, filamentary components of H i clouds lie perpendicular to the magnetic field. However, the filaments have come to align with the magnetic field, if we enhance the turbulent strain along the magnetic field or if we set turbulence in the preshock medium.

  14. Electromagnetic scattering by impedance structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Griesser, Timothy

    1987-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic waves from impedance structures is investigated, and current work on antenna pattern calculation is presented. A general algorithm for determining radiation patterns from antennas mounted near or on polygonal plates is presented. These plates are assumed to be of a material which satisfies the Leontovich (or surface impedance) boundary condition. Calculated patterns including reflection and diffraction terms are presented for numerious geometries, and refinements are included for antennas mounted directly on impedance surfaces. For the case of a monopole mounted on a surface impedance ground plane, computed patterns are compared with experimental measurements. This work in antenna pattern prediction forms the basis of understanding of the complex scattering mechanisms from impedance surfaces. It provides the foundation for the analysis of backscattering patterns which, in general, are more problematic than calculation of antenna patterns. Further proposed study of related topics, including surface waves, corner diffractions, and multiple diffractions, is outlined.

  15. Filamentary structure of plasma produced by compression of puffing deuterium by deuterium or neon plasma sheath on plasma-focus discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Kubes, P.; Cikhardt, J.; Kortanek, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Rezac, K.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.

    2014-12-15

    The present experiments were performed on the PF-1000 plasma focus device at a current of 2 MA with the deuterium injected from the gas-puff placed in the axis of the anode face. The XUV frames showed, in contrast with the interferograms, the fine structure: filaments and spots up to 1 mm diameter. In the deuterium filling, the short filaments are registered mainly in the region of the internal plasmoidal structures and their number correlates with the intensity of neutron production. The longer filamentary structure was recorded close to the anode after the constriction decay. The long curve-like filaments with spots were registered in the big bubble formed after the pinch phase in the head of the umbrella shape of the plasma sheath. Filaments can indicate the filamentary structure of the current in the pinch. Together with the filaments, small compact balls a few mm in diameter were registered by both interferometry and XUV frame pictures. They emerge out of the dense column and their life-time can be greater than hundreds of ns.

  16. Analytical and experimental investigation of aircraft metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites. Phase 2: Structural fatigue, thermal cycling, creep, and residual strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blichfeldt, B.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Specimens representative of metal aircraft structural components reinforced with boron filamentary composites were manufactured and tested under cyclic loading, cyclic temperature, or continuously applied loading to evaluate some of the factors that affect structural integrity under cyclic conditions. Bonded, stepped joints were used throughout to provide composite-to-metal transition regions at load introduction points. Honeycomb panels with titanium or aluminum faces reinforced with unidirectional boron composite were fatigue tested at constant amplitude under completely reversed loading. Results indicated that the matrix material was the most fatigue-sensitive part of the design, with debonding initiating in the stepped joints. However, comparisons with equal weight all-metal specimens show a 10 to 50 times improved fatigue life. Fatigue crack propagation and residual strength were studied for several different stiffened panel concepts, and were found to vary considerably depending on the configuration. Composite-reinforced metal specimens were also subjected to creep and thermal cycling tests. Thermal cycling of stepped joint tensile specimens resulted in a ten percent decrease in residual strength after 4000 cycles.

  17. Fragmentation in filamentary molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Yanett; Garay, Guido; Rathborne, Jill M.; Sanhueza, Patricio

    2016-02-01

    Recent surveys of dust continuum emission at sub-mm wavelengths have shown that filamentary molecular clouds are ubiquitous along the Galactic plane. These structures are inhomogeneous, with overdensities that are sometimes associated with infrared emission and active of star formation. To investigate the connection between filaments and star formation, requires an understanding of the processes that lead to the fragmentation of filaments and a determination of the physical properties of the overdensities (clumps). In this paper, we present a multiwavelength study of five filamentary molecular clouds, containing several clumps in different evolutionary stages of star formation. We analyse the fragmentation of the filaments and derive the physical properties of their clumps. We find that the clumps in all filaments have a characteristic spacing consistent with the prediction of the `sausage' instability theory, regardless of the complex morphology of the filaments or their evolutionary stage. We also find that most clumps have sufficient mass and density to form high-mass stars, supporting the idea that high-mass stars and clusters form within filaments.

  18. Electromagnetic force on structured metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velzen, Andrew H.; Webb, Kevin J.

    2015-09-01

    We present a method by which the relatively weak electromagnetic force exerted on a surface can be dramatically enhanced. By structuring a metal surface at the nanoscale, we show that the force can be substantially increased over that on the planar metallic surface. The basis for this effect is found to be cavity-enhanced fields and the excitation of surface waves, and results are related to theory. In practice, this force enhancement could be expanded to other materials in various frequency regimes. This increased electromagnetic force should facilitate an expansion of applications related to optomechanics.

  19. Vector resonances and electromagnetic nucleon structure

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.A.; Krewald, S.; Linen, K. )

    1995-02-01

    Motivated by new, precise magnetic proton form factor data in the timelike reigon, a hybrid vector meson dominance (hVMD) formalism is employed to investigate the significance of excited vector meson rsonances on electromagnetic nucleon structure. We find that the [rho](1700), [omega](1600), and two previously unobserved states are required to reproduce the local structure seen in the new LEAR data just above the [ital p[bar p

  20. Filamentary magnetohydrodynamic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, R.; Tajima, T.; Petviashvili, N.; McWilliams, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    A filamentary construct of magnetohydrodynamical plasma dynamics, based on the Elsasser variables was developed. This approach is modeled after discrete vortex models of hydrodynamical turbulence, which cannot be expected in general to produce results identical to ones based on a Fourier decomposition of the fields. In a highly intermittent plasma, the induction force is small compared to the convective motion, and when this force is neglected. the plasma vortex system is described by a Hamiltonian. For a system with many such vortices we present a statistical treatment of a collection of discrete current-vorticity concentrations. Canonical and microcanonical statistical calculations show that both the vorticity and the current spectra are peaked at long wavelengths, and the expected states revert to known hydrodynamical states as the magnetic field vanishes. These results differ from previous Fourier-based statistical theories. but it is found that when the filament calculation is expanded to include the inductive force, the results approach the Fourier equilibria in the low-temperature limit, and the previous Hamiltonian plasma vortex results in the high-temperature limit. Numerical simulations of a large number of filaments are carried out and support the theory. A three-dimensional vortex model is outlined as well, which is also Hamiltonian when the inductive force is neglected.

  1. STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO INTENSE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    EXPLODING WIRES, *GLASS, *DAMAGE, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , ENERGY CONVERSION, ENERGY CONVERSION, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , ELECTROMAGNETIC ... RADIATION , PLASTICS, PLASMAS(PHYSICS), STRESSES, THERMAL STRESSES, INSTRUMENTATION, ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE, ELECTRIC DISCHARGES, THERMOCOUPLES, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS.

  2. The identification of filaments on far-infrared and submillimiter images: Morphology, physical conditions and relation with star formation of filamentary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Schisano, E.; Carey, S.; Paladini, R.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Molinari, S.; Elia, D.; Pestalozzi, M.; Busquet, G.; Billot, N.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Moore, T. J. T.; Plume, R.; Glover, S. C. O.; Vázquez-Semadeni, E.

    2014-08-10

    Observations of molecular clouds reveal a complex structure, with gas and dust often arranged in filamentary, rather than spherical geometries. The association of pre- and proto-stellar cores with the filaments suggests a direct link with the process of star formation. Any study of the properties of such filaments requires representative samples from different environments for an unbiased detection method. We developed such an approach using the Hessian matrix of a surface-brightness distribution to identify filaments and determine their physical and morphological properties. After testing the method on simulated, but realistic, filaments, we apply the algorithms to column-density maps computed from Herschel observations of the Galactic plane obtained by the Hi-GAL project. We identified ∼500 filaments, in the longitude range of l = 216.°5 to l = 225.°5, with lengths from ∼1 pc up to ∼30 pc and widths between 0.1 pc and 2.5 pc. Average column densities are between 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} and 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. Filaments include the majority of dense material with N{sub H{sub 2}} > 6 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2}. We find that the pre- and proto-stellar compact sources already identified in the same region are mostly associated with filaments. However, surface densities in excess of the expected critical values for high-mass star formation are only found on the filaments, indicating that these structures are necessary to channel material into the clumps. Furthermore, we analyze the gravitational stability of filaments and discuss their relationship with star formation.

  3. Planck intermediate results: XXXVIII. E- and B-modes of dust polarization from the magnetized filamentary structure of the interstellar medium

    DOE PAGES

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; ...

    2016-02-09

    The quest for a B-mode imprint from primordial gravity waves on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) requires the characterization of foreground polarization from Galactic dust. In this paper, we present a statistical study of the filamentary structure of the 353 GHz Planck Stokes maps at high Galactic latitude, relevant to the study of dust emission as a polarized foreground to the CMB. We filter the intensity and polarization maps to isolate filaments in the range of angular scales where the power asymmetry between E-modes and B-modes is observed. Using the Smoothed Hessian Major Axis Filament Finder (SMAFF),more » we identify 259 filaments at high Galactic latitude, with lengths larger or equal to 2° (corresponding to 3.5 pc in length for a typical distance of 100 pc). Thesefilaments show a preferred orientation parallel to the magnetic field projected onto the plane of the sky, derived from their polarization angles. We present mean maps of the filaments in Stokes I, Q, U, E, and B, computed by stacking individual images rotated to align the orientations of the filaments. Combining the stacked images and the histogram of relative orientations, we estimate the mean polarization fraction of the filaments to be 11%. Furthermore, we show that the correlation between the filaments and the magnetic field orientations may account for the E and B asymmetry and the CℓTE/CℓEE ratio, reported in the power spectra analysis of the Planck353 GHz polarization maps. Finally, future models of the dust foreground for CMB polarization studies will need to take into account the observed correlation between the dust polarization and the structure of interstellar matter.« less

  4. Planck intermediate results. XXXVIII. E- and B-modes of dust polarization from the magnetized filamentary structure of the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Ferrière, K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Soler, J. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-02-01

    The quest for a B-mode imprint from primordial gravity waves on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) requires the characterization of foreground polarization from Galactic dust. We present a statistical study of the filamentary structure of the 353 GHz Planck Stokes maps at high Galactic latitude, relevant to the study of dust emission as a polarized foreground to the CMB. We filter the intensity and polarization maps to isolate filaments in the range of angular scales where the power asymmetry between E-modes and B-modes is observed. Using the Smoothed Hessian Major Axis Filament Finder (SMAFF), we identify 259 filaments at high Galactic latitude, with lengths larger or equal to 2° (corresponding to 3.5 pc in length for a typical distance of 100 pc). Thesefilaments show a preferred orientation parallel to the magnetic field projected onto the plane of the sky, derived from their polarization angles. We present mean maps of the filaments in Stokes I, Q, U, E, and B, computed by stacking individual images rotated to align the orientations of the filaments. Combining the stacked images and the histogram of relative orientations, we estimate the mean polarization fraction of the filaments to be 11%. Furthermore, we show that the correlation between the filaments and the magnetic field orientations may account for the E and B asymmetry and the CℓTE/CℓEE ratio, reported in the power spectra analysis of the Planck353 GHz polarization maps. Future models of the dust foreground for CMB polarization studies will need to take into account the observed correlation between the dust polarization and the structure of interstellar matter.

  5. Electromagnetic studies of nucleon and nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Heisenberg, J.H.; Calarco, J.R.; Hersman, F.W.; Dawson, J.F.

    1993-06-01

    Important objectives of the group are the study of subatomic structure through experimental measurements and the interpretation of the data through modeling. The common theme that unifies the studies of strong interactions and hadronic systems is the effort to determine the electromagnetic response as completely as possible. The general approach is coincidence detection of exclusive final states and determination of the dependence on the spin variables using polarized beams and targets and outgoing nucleon polarimetry. Direct reaction and giant resonance studies of electron quasi-elastic scattering on {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O are reported, as well as work on nuclear structure models and instrumentation development.

  6. Multi-filamentary REBCO tapes fabricated by scratching a buffer layer along the tape longitudinal direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Chihaya; Fujita, Shinji; Nakamura, Naonori; Igarashi, Mitsunori; Iijima, Yasuhiro; Higashikawa, Kohei; Uetsuhara, Dai; Kiss, Takanobu; Iwakuma, Masataka

    2016-11-01

    A method for making multi-filamentary REBCO tapes by only scratching buffer layer was developed for coil application which requires accurate magnetic fields. By continuous Ic measurement, we found that our new multi-filamentary tape could provide almost equal Ic compared to conventional tapes. Then, using EBSD and RTR-SHPM methods, a divided structure of REBCO layer was surely confirmed. AC loss was also decreased. Furthermore, the result of delamination test of our new multi-filamentary tape showed enough mechanical property. As a result, we have succeeded in developing 100 m class multi-filamentary tape for superconducting coil.

  7. THE FORMATION OF FILAMENTARY BUNDLES IN TURBULENT MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Moeckel, Nickolas; Burkert, Andreas E-mail: burkert@usm.uni-muenchen.de

    2015-07-01

    The classical picture of a star-forming filament is a near-equilibrium structure with its collapse dependent on its gravitational criticality. Recent observations have complicated this picture, revealing filaments to be a mess of apparently interacting subfilaments with transsonic internal velocity dispersions and mildly supersonic intra-subfilament dispersions. How structures like this form is unresolved. Here, we study the velocity structure of filamentary regions in a simulation of a turbulent molecular cloud. We present two main findings. First, the observed complex velocity features in filaments arise naturally in self-gravitating hydrodynamic simulations of turbulent clouds without the need for magnetic or other effects. Second, a region that is filamentary only in projection and is in fact made of spatially distinct features can display these same velocity characteristics. The fact that these disjoint structures can masquerade as coherent filaments in both projection and velocity diagnostics highlights the need to continue developing sophisticated filamentary analysis techniques for star formation observations.

  8. The electromagnetic response of different metamaterial structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Dinh Lam; Tuong Pham, Van; Viet Do, Thanh; Nguyen, Thanh Tung; Thanh Thuy Vu, Tran; Le, Van Hong; Pak Lee, Young

    2010-12-01

    This report investigates systematically the effect of structural parameters on the left-handed behavior of a combined structure. The combined structure consists of a 'cut-wire pair', providing a negative magnetic permeability μ<0, and a 'continuous wire', yielding a negative electric permittivity ε<0. The left-handed metamaterials were designed, fabricated and measured in the microwave-frequency regime. It was found that the width of the continuous wire as well as the distance between the substructures play an important role in determining whether negative refractive properties (in other words, left-handed behavior) are obtained or not. Additionally, we studied the influence of the lattice constant on the electromagnetic response of the combined structure. The actual measurements are compared with numerical simulation values to show good coincidence. Finally, we designed and simulated an electromagnetic absorber made of metamaterials. It is expected that this work will allow us to optimize appropriate characteristic parameters even without avoiding trial and error fabrications.

  9. Spatially variant periodic structures in electromagnetics

    PubMed Central

    Rumpf, Raymond C.; Pazos, Javier J.; Digaum, Jennefir L.; Kuebler, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial transforms are a popular technique for designing periodic structures that are macroscopically inhomogeneous. The structures are often required to be anisotropic, provide a magnetic response, and to have extreme values for the constitutive parameters in Maxwell's equations. Metamaterials and photonic crystals are capable of providing these, although sometimes only approximately. The problem still remains about how to generate the geometry of the final lattice when it is functionally graded, or spatially varied. This paper describes a simple numerical technique to spatially vary any periodic structure while minimizing deformations to the unit cells that would weaken or destroy the electromagnetic properties. New developments in this algorithm are disclosed that increase efficiency, improve the quality of the lattices and provide the ability to design aplanatic metasurfaces. The ability to spatially vary a lattice in this manner enables new design paradigms that are not possible using spatial transforms, three of which are discussed here. First, spatially variant self-collimating photonic crystals are shown to flow unguided waves around very tight bends using ordinary materials with low refractive index. Second, multi-mode waveguides in spatially variant band gap materials are shown to guide waves around bends without mixing power between the modes. Third, spatially variant anisotropic materials are shown to sculpt the near-field around electric components. This can be used to improve electromagnetic compatibility between components in close proximity. PMID:26217058

  10. Formation of sub-ion scale filamentary force-free structures in the vicinity of reconnection region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, L. M.; Frank, A. G.; Artemyev, A. V.; Petrukovich, A. A.; Nakamura, R.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we review the results of spacecraft observations of current sheets (CSs) of sub-ion spatial scales in the Earth’s magnetotail as well as experiments with these structures in laboratory devices. We demonstrate that such sub-ion CSs having a thickness less than the ion gyroradius are usually formed in the vicinity of the magnetic reconnection region and are supported by strong electron currents flowing along magnetic field lines. The magnetic field configuration of sub-ion CSs is close to the force-free configuration, with a strong shear magnetic field component in the CS central region. Spacecraft observations suggest that parallel electron currents are generated by electron beams (pronounced enhancement of the phase space density for electrons with small pitch angles and energies  ˜1-3 keV). We discuss several models describing such force-free sub-ion CSs.

  11. Vector resonances and electromagnetic nucleon structure

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Williams; Siegfried Krewald; Kevin Linen

    1995-02-01

    Motivated by new, precise magnetic proton form factor data in the timelike region, a hybrid vector meson dominance (hVMD) formalism is employed to investigate the significance of excited vector meson resonances on electromagnetic nucleon structure. We find that the rho (1700), omega (1600), and two previously unobserved states are required to reproduce the local structure seen in the new LEAR data just above the pp-bar threshold. We also investigate sensitivity to the phi meson. The model dependence of our result is tested by introducing an alternative model which couples the isoscalar vector meson states to a hypothetical vector glueball resonance. We obtain nearly identical results from both models, except for GnE(q2) in the spacelike region which is very sensitive to the glueball mass and the effective phi NN coupling.

  12. Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyama, H.; Janischewskyj, W.; Hussein, A.M.; Chisholm, W.A.; Chang, J.S.; Rusan, R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes observation and analysis of electromagnetic field radiation from lightning strokes to tall structures. Electromagnetic field waveforms and current waveforms of lightning strokes to the CN Tower have been simultaneously measured since 1991. A new calculation model of electromagnetic field radiation is proposed. The proposed model consists of the lightning current propagation and distribution model and the electromagnetic field radiation model. Electromagnetic fields calculated by the proposed model, based on the observed lightning current at the CN Tower, agree well with the observed fields at 2km north of the tower.

  13. Filamentary structure and Keplerian rotation in the high-mass star-forming region G35.03+0.35 imaged with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, M. T.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Cesaroni, R.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Galli, D.; Walmsley, C. M.; Etoka, S.; Furuya, R. S.; Moscadelli, L.; Stanke, T.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vig, S.; Wang, K.-S.; Zinnecker, H.; Elia, D.; Schisano, E.

    2014-11-01

    Context. Theoretical scenarios propose that high-mass stars are formed by disk-mediated accretion. Aims: To test the theoretical predictions on the formation of massive stars, we wish to make a thorough study at high-angular resolution of the structure and kinematics of the dust and gas emission toward the high-mass star-forming region G35.03+0.35, which harbors a disk candidate around a B-type (proto)star. Methods: We carried out ALMA Cycle 0 observations at 870 μm of dust of typical high-density, molecular outflow, and cloud tracers with resolutions of < 0''&dotbelow;5. Complementary Subaru COMICS 25 μm observations were carried out to trace the mid-infrared emission toward this star-forming region. Results: The submillimeter continuum emission has revealed a filamentary structure fragmented into six cores, called A-F. The filament could be in quasi-equilibrium taking into account that the mass per unit length of the filament, 200-375 M⊙/pc, is similar to the critical mass of a thermally and turbulently supported infinite cylinder, ~335 M⊙/pc. The cores, which are on average separated by ~0.02 pc, have deconvolved sizes of 1300-3400 AU, temperatures of 35-240 K, H2 densities >107 cm -3, and masses in the range 1-5 M⊙, and they are subcritical. Core A, which is associated with a hypercompact Hii region and could be the driving source of the molecular outflow observed in the region, is the most chemically rich source in G35.03+0.35 with strong emission of typical hot core tracers such as CH3CN. Tracers of high density and excitation show a clear velocity gradient along the major axis of the core, which is consistent with a disk rotating about the axis of the associated outflow. The PV plots along the SE-NW direction of the velocity gradient show clear signatures of Keplerian rotation, although infall could also be present, and they are consistent with the pattern of an edge-on Keplerian disk rotating about a star with a mass in the range 5-13 M⊙. The high

  14. Coupled structural/thermal/electromagnetic analysis/tailoring of graded composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Huang, H.; Hartle, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for the third years effort of a 5-year program to develop a methodology for coupled structural/thermal/electromagnetic analysis/tailoring of graded composite structures. These accomplishments include: (1) structural analysis capability specialized for graded composite structures including large deformation and deformation position eigenanalysis technologies; (2) a thermal analyzer specialized for graded composite structures; (3) absorption of electromagnetic waves by graded composite structures; and (4) coupled structural thermal/electromagnetic analysis of graded composite structures.

  15. Bisous model-Detecting filamentary patterns in point processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempel, E.; Stoica, R. S.; Kipper, R.; Saar, E.

    2016-07-01

    The cosmic web is a highly complex geometrical pattern, with galaxy clusters at the intersection of filaments and filaments at the intersection of walls. Identifying and describing the filamentary network is not a trivial task due to the overwhelming complexity of the structure, its connectivity and the intrinsic hierarchical nature. To detect and quantify galactic filaments we use the Bisous model, which is a marked point process built to model multi-dimensional patterns. The Bisous filament finder works directly with the galaxy distribution data and the model intrinsically takes into account the connectivity of the filamentary network. The Bisous model generates the visit map (the probability to find a filament at a given point) together with the filament orientation field. Using these two fields, we can extract filament spines from the data. Together with this paper we publish the computer code for the Bisous model that is made available in GitHub. The Bisous filament finder has been successfully used in several cosmological applications and further development of the model will allow to detect the filamentary network also in photometric redshift surveys, using the full redshift posterior. We also want to encourage the astro-statistical community to use the model and to connect it with all other existing methods for filamentary pattern detection and characterisation.

  16. Filamentary and hierarchical pictures - Kinetic energy criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klypin, Anatoly A.; Melott, Adrian L.

    1992-01-01

    We present a new criterion for formation of second-generation filaments. The criterion called the kinetic energy ratio, KR, is based on comparison of peculiar velocities at different scales. We suggest that the clumpiness of the distribution in some cases might be less important than the 'coldness' or 'hotness' of the flow for formation of coherent structures. The kinetic energy ratio is analogous to the Mach number except for one essential difference. If at some scale KR is greater than 1, as estimated at the linear stage, then when fluctuations of this scale reach nonlinearity, the objects they produce must be anisotropic ('filamentary'). In the case of power-law initial spectra the kinetic ratio criterion suggests that the border line is the power-spectrum with the slope n = -1.

  17. Filamentary and hierarchical pictures - Kinetic energy criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klypin, Anatoly A.; Melott, Adrian L.

    1992-01-01

    We present a new criterion for formation of second-generation filaments. The criterion called the kinetic energy ratio, KR, is based on comparison of peculiar velocities at different scales. We suggest that the clumpiness of the distribution in some cases might be less important than the 'coldness' or 'hotness' of the flow for formation of coherent structures. The kinetic energy ratio is analogous to the Mach number except for one essential difference. If at some scale KR is greater than 1, as estimated at the linear stage, then when fluctuations of this scale reach nonlinearity, the objects they produce must be anisotropic ('filamentary'). In the case of power-law initial spectra the kinetic ratio criterion suggests that the border line is the power-spectrum with the slope n = -1.

  18. Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields and energy flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields in stationary spacetime. > Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the electomagnetic field tensor. > Energy-momentum in terms of eigenvectors and Killing vector. > Explicit form of reference frame with vanishing Poynting vector. > Application of formalism to Bessel beams. - Abstract: The algebraic structures of a general electromagnetic field and its energy-momentum tensor in a stationary space-time are analyzed. The explicit form of the reference frame in which the energy of the field appears at rest is obtained in terms of the eigenvectors of the electromagnetic tensor and the existing Killing vector. The case of a stationary electromagnetic field is also studied and a comparison is made with the standard short-wave approximation. The results can be applied to the general case of a structured light beams, in flat or curved spaces. Bessel beams are worked out as example.

  19. Self-healing structural composites with electromagnetic functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaisted, Thomas A.; Vakil Amirkhizi, Alireza; Arbelaez, Diego; Nemat-Nasser, Syrus C.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2003-08-01

    We have incorporated arrays of conductive electromagnetic scattering elements such as straight copper wires and copper coils into fiber-reinforced polymer composites, resulting in materials with required structural and further electromagnetic functionality. The scattering elements provide controlled electromagnetic response for tasks such as filtering and may be used to tune the overall index of refraction of the composite. Integration of these metallic elements into traditional fiber-reinforced polymer composites has introduced other opportunities for multifunctionality in terms of self-healing, thermal transport and perhaps sensing applications. Such functionalities are the result of fiber/wire integration through textile braiding and weaving, combined with a new polymer matrix that has the ability to heal internal cracking through thermo-reversible covalent bonds. Multifunctional composites of this kind enhance the role of structural materials from mere load-bearing systems to lightweight structures of good thermo-mechanical attributes that also have electromagnetic and other functionalities.

  20. Understanding Io's Interior Structure from Electromagnetic Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, K. K.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Jia, X.

    2015-12-01

    Io has long been suspected of a molten interior based on theoretical models of tidal dissipation in its interior. Extremely high temperature lava erupting on Io's surface would be consistent with an internal magma ocean but the highest reported eruption temperatures are questionable. Currently, the only direct evidence of a subsurface magma ocean in Io is the electromagnetic induction response observed by Galileo (Khurana et al. 2011, Science, 332, 1186). Using Jupiter's rotating magnetic field as a sounding signal, Khurana et al. (2011) provided evidence of a strong dipolar induction signature in Galileo's magnetometer data from four different flybys. They further showed that the signal is consistent with electromagnetic induction from large amounts of rock-melts in the asthenosphere of Io. Modeling showed that the induction response from a completely solid mantle model is inadequate to explain the magnetometer observations. However, a layer of asthenosphere >50 km in thickness with a melt fraction ≥20% is adequate to accurately match the observed magnetic field. Here we summarize our current knowledge of Io's interior from Galileo's induction measurements, and then outline a scheme to further infer properties of Io's interior, especially its internal temperature profile, by marrying the principles of thermodynamics with those of electromagnetism. In particular, we obtain guidance on stable mineral phases and their physical properties (such as density, melt state and electrical conductivity) from thermodynamic principles, whereas guidance on how the resulting internal conductivity profile affects the magnetic environment around Io is obtained from electromagnetic theory. We also explore how induction measurements can be obtained at multiple frequencies from a future mission and be used to constrain both the location and the thickness of the magma ocean. Finally, we explore the consequences of the global magma ocean on Io's physical properties such as the current

  1. FILAMENTARY STAR FORMATION: OBSERVING THE EVOLUTION TOWARD FLATTENED ENVELOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Katherine; Looney, Leslie; Johnstone, Doug; Tobin, John E-mail: lwl@illinois.edu E-mail: jtobin@nrao.edu

    2012-12-20

    Filamentary structures are ubiquitous from large-scale molecular clouds (a few parsecs) to small-scale circumstellar envelopes around Class 0 sources ({approx}1000 AU to {approx}0.1 pc). In particular, recent observations with the Herschel Space Observatory emphasize the importance of large-scale filaments (a few parsecs) and star formation. The small-scale flattened envelopes around Class 0 sources are reminiscent of the large-scale filaments. We propose an observationally derived scenario for filamentary star formation that describes the evolution of filaments as part of the process for formation of cores and circumstellar envelopes. If such a scenario is correct, small-scale filamentary structures (0.1 pc in length) with higher densities embedded in starless cores should exist, although to date almost all the interferometers have failed to observe such structures. We perform synthetic observations of filaments at the prestellar stage by modeling the known Class 0 flattened envelope in L1157 using both the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We show that with reasonable estimates for the column density through the flattened envelope, the CARMA D array at 3 mm wavelengths is not able to detect such filamentary structure, so previous studies would not have detected them. However, the substructures may be detected with the CARMA D+E array at 3 mm and the CARMA E array at 1 mm as a result of more appropriate resolution and sensitivity. ALMA is also capable of detecting the substructures and showing the structures in detail compared to the CARMA results with its unprecedented sensitivity. Such detection will confirm the new proposed paradigm of non-spherical star formation.

  2. Electromagnetic wave structures within subauroral polarization streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, E. V.; Burke, W. J.; Huang, C. Y.; Rich, F. J.

    2003-08-01

    We report on oscillations in electric (δEY) and magnetic (δBZ) fields and plasma density (δNi) observed by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites within fast subauroral convection streams in the evening sector during the magnetic storm of 6 November 2001. There are two types of wave phenomena. The first and more common is characterized by electromagnetic and plasma density variations that have the same frequency range of ˜0.15 Hz in the spacecraft frame of reference. The second is characterized by large-amplitude plasma and field oscillations over a broader range of frequencies ˜0.1 to 0.3 Hz. In this case the perturbation densities and fields appear to have different frequency responses. In this and other magnetic storms, strong waves are associated with the precipitation of ˜30 keV ions. Ratios of δEY/δBZ indicate encounters with mixtures of electromagnetic (in part Alfvénic) and electrostatic modes. Poynting vectors associated with the oscillations can be directed either into or out of the ionosphere. The density perturbations appear to be extended east-west corrugations in the plasma flow streams with north-south wavelengths of ˜50 km. The δEY and δNi variations were anticorrelated, as required for current conservation. Our analysis shows that Alfvénic perturbations are consistent with expected effects of irregular potential distribution around ionospheric density irregularities mapped to the magnetosphere. Inertial currents act to generate mesoscale field-aligned currents carried by Alfvén waves, as was previously discussed with regards to auroral arcs formation. We suggest that δNi irregularities observed by DMSP satellites in the evening sector began as striated plasma patches in the polar cap that convected to subauroral latitudes.

  3. Nucleon Structure Studies with Electromagnetic Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, Michael F.

    2011-03-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from March 1, 2008 to June 14, 2009 under contract number DE-FG02-03ER41252. This is the final technical report under this contract. The experimental work described here is part of the electromagnetic nuclear physics program of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) Collaboration at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) that published 17 journal articles during the period of this report. One of these journal articles reported on the results of precise measurements of the neutron magnetic form factor. I was a spokesperson on this experiment and the publication of these results is the culmination of years of effort by a small subset of the CLAS Collaboration. As usual, undergraduate students were involved in all aspects of this work. Three Union College students participated in this program during the window of this report and one presented a paper on his work at the 2009 National Conference on Undergraduate Research (NCUR22). In this report, I discuss recent progress on the measurements of the neutron magnetic form factor and describe my service work for the CLAS Collaboration.

  4. Coupled structural/thermal/electromagnetic analysis/tailoring of graded composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Huang, H.; Hartle, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for the fourth years effort of a 5-year program to develop a methodology for coupled structural/thermal/electromagnetic analysis/tailoring of graded component structures. These accomplishments include: (1) demonstration of coupled solution capability; (2) alternate CSTEM electromagnetic technology; (3) CSTEM acoustic capability; (4) CSTEM tailoring; (5) CSTEM composite micromechanics using ICAN; and (6) multiple layer elements in CSTEM.

  5. Design and fabrication of planar structures with graded electromagnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Brandon Lowell

    Successfully integrating electromagnetic properties in planar structures offers numerous benefits to the microwave and optical communities. This work aims at formulating new analytic and optimized design methods, creating new fabrication techniques for achieving those methods, and matching appropriate implementation of methods to fabrication techniques. The analytic method consists of modifying an approach that realizes perfect antireflective properties from graded profiles. This method is shown for all-dielectric and magneto-dielectric grading profiles. The optimized design methods are applied to transformer (discrete) or taper (continuous) designs. From these methods, a subtractive and an additive manufacturing technique were established and are described. The additive method, dry powder dot deposition, enables three dimensional varying electromagnetic properties in a structural composite. Combining the methods and fabrication is shown in two applied methodologies. The first uses dry powder dot deposition to design one dimensionally graded electromagnetic profiles in a planar fiberglass composite. The second method simultaneously applies antireflective properties and adjusts directivity through a slab through the use of subwavelength structures to achieve a flat antireflective lens. The end result of this work is a complete set of methods, formulations, and fabrication techniques to achieve integrated electromagnetic properties in planar structures.

  6. Algebraic Sub-Structuring for Electromagnetic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Gao, W.G.; Bai, Z.J.; Li, X.Y.S.; Lee, L.Q.; Husbands, P.; Ng, E.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Davis /SLAC

    2006-06-30

    Algebraic sub-structuring refers to the process of applying matrix reordering and partitioning algorithms to divide a large sparse matrix into smaller submatrices from which a subset of spectral components are extracted and combined to form approximate solutions to the original problem. In this paper, they show that algebraic sub-structuring can be effectively used to solve generalized eigenvalue problems arising from the finite element analysis of an accelerator structure.

  7. Algebraic sub-structuring for electromagnetic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao; Gao, Weiguo; Bai, Zhaojun; Li, Xiaoye; Lee, Lie-Quan; Husbands, Parry; Ng, Esmond G.

    2004-09-14

    Algebraic sub-structuring refers to the process of applying matrix reordering and partitioning algorithms to divide a large sparse matrix into smaller submatrices from which a subset of spectral components are extracted and combined to form approximate solutions to the original problem. In this paper, we show that algebraic sub-structuring can be effectively used to solve generalized eigenvalue problems arising from the finite element analysis of an accelerator structure.

  8. Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hersman, F.W.; Dawson, J.F.; Heisenberg, J.H.; Calarco, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: giant resonance studies; deep inelastic scattering studies; high resolution nuclear structure work; and relativistic RPA; and field theory in the Schroedinger Representation.

  9. Numerical Simulations of Star Formation in Filamentary Dark Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) are believed to be the precursors to star clusters and massive stars (e.g. Bergin & Tafalla 2007). The complex intertwined braid-like structure of IRDCs (e.g. André et al. 2014) poses a challenge to theorists to explain their dynamics and formation. We have performed large-scale adaptive mesh refinement, driven turbulence, MHD simulations to study the structure and formation of IRDCs. Filamentary structure emerges naturally from the simulations. Magnetic field lines pierce the dark cloud filament primarily in the direction normal to the filament axis. The column density profiles of the main features are well fit by the power law as observations have found (e.g. Hill et al. 2011, Arzoumanian et al. 2011). The dark cloud filaments in the simulation resemble the dark cloud SDC13 (Peretto et al. 2014) and the 3D information from the simulation can be used to explain the observed structure and dynamics of SDC13. We have carried out a detailed analysis of the magnetic field properties of the cloud clumps in our simulations (Li et al. 2015), finding good agreement with the Zeeman observations of Crutcher et al. (2010). We then added radiation, zoomed into the main IRDC filament, and continued one of the simulations to study the star formation inside IRDCs. By including radiation feedback and proto-stellar outflows, we obtain a proto-stellar mass function (PMF) for comparison with theoretical PMFs (McKee & Offner 2010) and the Chabrier IMF. In this presentation, we summarize what we have learned about the formation of filamentary IRDCs, their complex braided filamentary structure, the magnetic properties of cloud clumps inside the IRDC filaments, and star formation in the first half of a free fall time of the system.

  10. Coupled structural/thermal/electromagnetic analysis/tailoring of graded composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Chen, P. C.; Dame, L. T.; Huang, H.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for the first year effort of a 5-year program to develop a methodology for coupled structural/thermal/electromagnetic analysis/tailoring of graded composite structures. These accomplishments include: (1) the results of the selective literature survey; (2) 8-, 16-, and 20-noded isoparametric plate and shell elements; (3) large deformation structural analysis; (4) eigenanalysis; (5) anisotropic heat transfer analysis; and (6) anisotropic electromagnetic analysis.

  11. Planck intermediate results: XXXVIII. E- and B-modes of dust polarization from the magnetized filamentary structure of the interstellar medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Ferrière, K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Soler, J. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-02-09

    The quest for a B-mode imprint from primordial gravity waves on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) requires the characterization of foreground polarization from Galactic dust. In this paper, we present a statistical study of the filamentary structure of the 353 GHz Planck Stokes maps at high Galactic latitude, relevant to the study of dust emission as a polarized foreground to the CMB. We filter the intensity and polarization maps to isolate filaments in the range of angular scales where the power asymmetry between E-modes and B-modes is observed. Using the Smoothed Hessian Major Axis Filament Finder (SMAFF), we identify 259 filaments at high Galactic latitude, with lengths larger or equal to 2° (corresponding to 3.5 pc in length for a typical distance of 100 pc). Thesefilaments show a preferred orientation parallel to the magnetic field projected onto the plane of the sky, derived from their polarization angles. We present mean maps of the filaments in Stokes I, Q, U, E, and B, computed by stacking individual images rotated to align the orientations of the filaments. Combining the stacked images and the histogram of relative orientations, we estimate the mean polarization fraction of the filaments to be 11%. Furthermore, we show that the correlation between the filaments and the magnetic field orientations may account for the E and B asymmetry and the CTE/CEE ratio, reported in the power spectra analysis of the Planck353 GHz polarization maps. Finally, future models of the dust foreground for CMB polarization studies will need to take into account the observed correlation between the dust polarization and the structure of interstellar matter.

  12. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures

    DOEpatents

    Datskos, Panagiotis G [Knoxville, TN; Rajic, Slobodan [Knoxville, TN; Datskou, Irene [Knoxville, TN

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable micromechanical apparatus incorporating multiple quantum wells structures. When photons strike the quantum-well structure, physical stresses are created within the sensor, similar to a "bimetallic effect." The stresses cause the sensor to bend. The extent of deflection of the sensor can be measured through any of a variety of conventional means to provide a measurement of the photons striking the sensor. A large number of such sensors can be arranged in a two-dimensional array to provide imaging capability.

  13. Filamentary probe on the COMPASS tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovarik, K.; Duran, I.; Stockel, J.; Seidl, J.; Adamek, J.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Hacek, P.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes a new filamentary probe recently introduced on the COMPASS tokamak. It allows the measurement of electrostatic and magnetic properties of the filaments and their changes in dependence on distance from the separatrix in the region between a divertor and midplane. The probe head is mounted on a manipulator moving the probe radially on a shot-to-shot basis. This configuration is suitable for the long term statistical measurement of the plasma filaments and the measurement of their evolution during their propagation from the separatrix to the wall. The basics of the filamentary probe construction, the evolution of the plasma parameters, and first conditional averages of the plasma filaments in the scrape-off layer of the COMPASS tokamak during the L-mode regime are presented.

  14. Filamentary probe on the COMPASS tokamak.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, K; Duran, I; Stockel, J; Seidl, J; Adamek, J; Spolaore, M; Vianello, N; Hacek, P; Hron, M; Panek, R

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes a new filamentary probe recently introduced on the COMPASS tokamak. It allows the measurement of electrostatic and magnetic properties of the filaments and their changes in dependence on distance from the separatrix in the region between a divertor and midplane. The probe head is mounted on a manipulator moving the probe radially on a shot-to-shot basis. This configuration is suitable for the long term statistical measurement of the plasma filaments and the measurement of their evolution during their propagation from the separatrix to the wall. The basics of the filamentary probe construction, the evolution of the plasma parameters, and first conditional averages of the plasma filaments in the scrape-off layer of the COMPASS tokamak during the L-mode regime are presented.

  15. Electromagnetic interference reduction using electromagnetic bandgap structures in packages, enclosures, cavities, and antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer Iravani, Baharak

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a source of noise problems in electronic devices. The EMI is attributed to coupling between sources of radiation and components placed in the same media such as package or chassis. This coupling can be either through conducting currents or through radiation. The radiation of electromagnetic (EM) fields is supported by surface currents. Thus, minimizing these surface currents is considered a major and critical step to suppress EMI. In this work, we present novel strategies to confine surface currents in different applications including packages, enclosures, cavities, and antennas. The efficiency of present methods of EM noise suppression is limited due to different drawbacks. For example, the traditional use of lossy materials and absorbers suffers from considerable disadvantages including mechanical and thermal reliability leading to limited life time, cost, volume, and weight. In this work, we consider the use of Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) structures. These structures are suitable for suppressing surface currents within a frequency band denoted as the bandgap. Their design is straight forward, they are inexpensive to implement, and they do not suffer from the limitations of the previous methods. A new method of EM noise suppression in enclosures and cavity-backed antennas using mushroom-type EBG structures is introduced. The effectiveness of the EBG as an EMI suppresser is demonstrated using numerical simulations and experimental measurements. To allow integration of EBGs in printed circuit boards and packages, novel miniaturized simple planar EBG structures based on use of high-k dielectric material (epsilonr > 100) are proposed. The design consists of meander lines and patches. The inductive meander lines serve to provide current continuity bridges between the capacitive patches. The high-k dielectric material increases the effective capacitive load substantially in comparison to commonly used material with much lower

  16. Numerical modelling of electromagnetic loads on fusion device structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Paolo; Furno Palumbo, Maurizio; Specogna, Ruben

    2014-03-01

    In magnetic confinement fusion devices, during abnormal operations (disruptions) the plasma begins to move rapidly towards the vessel wall in a vertical displacement event (VDE), producing plasma current asymmetries, vessel eddy currents and open field line halo currents, each of which can exert potentially damaging forces upon the vessel and in-vessel components. This paper presents a methodology to estimate electromagnetic loads, on three-dimensional conductive structures surrounding the plasma, which arise from the interaction of halo-currents associated to VDEs with a magnetic field of the order of some Tesla needed for plasma confinement. Lorentz forces, calculated by complementary formulations, are used as constraining loads in a linear static structural analysis carried out on a detailed model of the mechanical structures of a representative machine.

  17. Structural evidence for electromagnetic resonance in plant morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pietak, Alexis Mari

    2012-09-01

    How a homogeneous collective of cells consistently and precisely establishes long-range tissue patterns remains a question of active research. This work explores the hypothesis of plant organs as resonators for electromagnetic radiation. Long-range structural patterns in the developing ovaries and male flower buds of cucurbit plants (zucchini, acorn, and butternut squash), in addition to mature cucurbit fruits (acorn, butternut, and zucchini squash; watermelon, and cucumber), were investigated. A finite element analysis (FEA) model was used to determine resonant EM modes for models with similar geometric and electrical parameters to those of developing organs. Main features of the developing ovaries (i.e. shape of placental lines, ovum location, definition of distinct tissue regions), male flower buds (i.e. early pollen tube features), and mature fruits (i.e. septa placement, seed location, endocarp and mesocarp) showed distinct correlations with electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic resonant modes. On account of shared pattern signatures in developing organs and the EM resonant modes supported by a modelled structure with similar geometric and electrical properties to those of cucurbit organs, experimental investigations are warranted. The concept of a developing organ as an EM dielectric resonator may extend to a variety of morphogenetic phenomena in a number of living systems.

  18. Effect of magnetic field on the rotating filamentary molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghili, P.; Kokabi, K.

    2017-04-01

    The Purpose of this work is to study the evolution of magnetized rotating filamentary molecular clouds. We consider cylindrical symmetric filamentary molecular clouds at an early stage of evolution. For the first time we consider the rotation of filamentary molecular in the presence of an axial and azimuthal magnetic field without any assumption of density and magnetic functions. We show that in addition to decreasing the radial collapse velocity, the rotational velocity is also affected by the magnetic field. The existence of rotation yields fragmentation of filaments. Moreover, we show that the magnetic field has a significant effect on the fragmentation of filamentary molecular clouds.

  19. Detailed electromagnetic simulation for the structural color of butterfly wings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R Todd; Smith, Glenn S

    2009-07-20

    Many species of butterflies exhibit interesting optical phenomena due to structural color. The physical reason for this color is subwavelength features on the surface of a single scale. The exposed surface of a scale is covered with a ridge structure. The fully three-dimensional, periodic, finite-difference time-domain method is used to create a detailed electromagnetic model of a generic ridge. A novel method for presenting the three-dimensional observed color pattern is developed. Using these tools, the change in color that is a result of varying individual features of the scale is explored. Computational models are developed that are similar to three butterflies: Morpho rhetenor, Troides magellanus, and Ancyluris meliboeus.

  20. Identification of subsurface structures using electromagnetic data and shape priors

    SciTech Connect

    Tveit, Svenn; Bakr, Shaaban A.; Lien, Martha; Mannseth, Trond

    2015-03-01

    We consider the inverse problem of identifying large-scale subsurface structures using the controlled source electromagnetic method. To identify structures in the subsurface where the contrast in electric conductivity can be small, regularization is needed to bias the solution towards preserving structural information. We propose to combine two approaches for regularization of the inverse problem. In the first approach we utilize a model-based, reduced, composite representation of the electric conductivity that is highly flexible, even for a moderate number of degrees of freedom. With a low number of parameters, the inverse problem is efficiently solved using a standard, second-order gradient-based optimization algorithm. Further regularization is obtained using structural prior information, available, e.g., from interpreted seismic data. The reduced conductivity representation is suitable for incorporation of structural prior information. Such prior information cannot, however, be accurately modeled with a gaussian distribution. To alleviate this, we incorporate the structural information using shape priors. The shape prior technique requires the choice of kernel function, which is application dependent. We argue for using the conditionally positive definite kernel which is shown to have computational advantages over the commonly applied gaussian kernel for our problem. Numerical experiments on various test cases show that the methodology is able to identify fairly complex subsurface electric conductivity distributions while preserving structural prior information during the inversion.

  1. Coherent array of branched filamentary scales along the wing margin of a small moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Tejima, Shin; Sakuma, Masayuki; Sakamaki, Yositaka; Kodama, Ryuji

    2017-04-01

    In butterflies and moths, the wing margins are fringed with specialized scales that are typically longer than common scales. In the hindwings of some small moths, the posterior margins are fringed with particularly long filamentary scales. Despite the small size of these moth wings, these scales are much longer than those of large moths and butterflies. In the current study, photography of the tethered flight of a small moth, Phthorimaea operculella, revealed a wide array composed of a large number of long filamentary scales. This array did not become disheveled in flight, maintaining a coherent sheet-like structure during wingbeat. Examination of the morphology of individual scales revealed that each filamentary scale consists of a proximal stalk and distal branches. Moreover, not only long scales but also shorter scales of various lengths were found to coexist in each small section of the wing margin. Scale branches were ubiquitously and densely distributed within the scale array to form a mesh-like architecture similar to a nonwoven fabric. We propose that possible mechanical interactions among branched filamentary scales, mediated by these branches, may contribute to maintaining a coherent sheet-like structure of the scale array during wingbeat.

  2. Coherent array of branched filamentary scales along the wing margin of a small moth.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Tejima, Shin; Sakuma, Masayuki; Sakamaki, Yositaka; Kodama, Ryuji

    2017-04-01

    In butterflies and moths, the wing margins are fringed with specialized scales that are typically longer than common scales. In the hindwings of some small moths, the posterior margins are fringed with particularly long filamentary scales. Despite the small size of these moth wings, these scales are much longer than those of large moths and butterflies. In the current study, photography of the tethered flight of a small moth, Phthorimaea operculella, revealed a wide array composed of a large number of long filamentary scales. This array did not become disheveled in flight, maintaining a coherent sheet-like structure during wingbeat. Examination of the morphology of individual scales revealed that each filamentary scale consists of a proximal stalk and distal branches. Moreover, not only long scales but also shorter scales of various lengths were found to coexist in each small section of the wing margin. Scale branches were ubiquitously and densely distributed within the scale array to form a mesh-like architecture similar to a nonwoven fabric. We propose that possible mechanical interactions among branched filamentary scales, mediated by these branches, may contribute to maintaining a coherent sheet-like structure of the scale array during wingbeat.

  3. Simulation Analysis of a Strip Dipole Excited Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    ARL-TR-7337 ● JULY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Simulation Analysis of a Strip Dipole Excited Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG...Simulation Analysis of a Strip Dipole Excited Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) Structure by Seth A McCormick and William O Coburn Sensors and...4/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Simulation Analysis of a Strip Dipole Excited Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) Structure 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  4. Integrated structural electromagnetic optimization of large space antenna reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Adelman, H. M.; Bailey, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    The requirements for extremely precise and powerful large space antenna reflectors have motivated the development of a procedure for shape control of the reflector surface. A mathematical optimization procedure has been developed which improves antenna performance while minimizing necessary shape correction effort. In contrast to previous work which proposed controlling the rms distortion error of the surface thereby indirectly improving antenna performance, the current work includes electromagnetic (EM) performance calculations as an integral part of the control procedure. The application of the procedure to a radiometer design with a tetrahedral truss backup structure demonstrates the potential for significant improvement. The results indicate the benefit of including EM performance calculations in procedures for shape control of large space antenna reflectors.

  5. Integrated structure electromagnetic optimization of large space antenna reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Adelman, Howard M.; Bailey, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    The requirements for extremely precise and powerful large space antenna reflectors have motivated the development of a procedure for shape control of the reflector surface. A mathematical optimization procedure has been developed which improves antenna performance while minimizing necessary shape correction effort. In contrast to previous work which proposed controlling the rms distortion error of the surface thereby indirectly improving antenna performance, the current work includes electromagnetic (EM) performance calculations as an integral of the control procedure. The application of the procedure to a radiometer design with a tetrahedral truss backup structure demonstrates the potential for significant improvement. The results indicate the benefit of including EM performance calculations in procedures for shape control of large space antenna reflectors.

  6. S4 : A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Victor; Fan, Shanhui

    2012-10-01

    We describe S4, a free implementation of the Fourier modal method (FMM), which has also been commonly referred to as rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA), for simulating electromagnetic propagation through 3D structures with 2D periodicity. We detail design aspects that allow S4 to be a flexible platform for these types of simulations. In particular, we highlight the ability to select different FMM formulations, user scripting, and extensibility of program capabilities for eigenmode computations. Program summary Program title: S4 Catalogue identifier: AEMO_v1_0. Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMO_v1_0..html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 56910 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 433883 Distribution format: Programming language: C, C++. Computer: Any computer with a Unix-like environment and a C++ compiler. Developed on 2.3 GHz AMD Phenom 9600. Operating system: Any Unix-like environment; developed under MinGW32 on Windows 7. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. Parallelized using MPI. RAM: Problem dependent (linearly proportional to number of layers and quadratic in number of Fourier components). A single layer calculation with approximately 100 Fourier components uses approximately 10 MB. Classification: 10. Electrostatics and Electromagnetics. External routines: Lua [1] and optionally exploits additional free software packages: FFTW [2], CHOLMOD [3], MPI message-passing interface [4], LAPACK and BLAS linear-algebra software [5], and Kiss FFT [6]. Nature of problem: Time-harmonic electromagnetism in layered bi-periodic structures. Solution method: The Fourier modal method (rigorous coupled wave analysis) and the scattering matrix method. Running time: Problem dependent and highly dependent on quality of the BLAS

  7. Modeling the antireflective properties of composite materials based on semiconductor filamentary nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorai, L. I.; Buravlev, A. D.; Ponyaev, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    The feasibility of application of films of composite materials based on semiconductor filamentary nanocrystals (FNCs) to suppress the reflection of electromagnetic radiation in the radiofrequency range is demonstrated for the first time with the use of the effective medium theory (EMT). It is shown that the reflec- tion coefficients of single- and double-layer models may be reduced several-fold and by as much as two orders of magnitude, respectively, in a wide range of parameters. The agreement of the EMT data with the results of rigorous calculations allows one to apply the zeroth-order EMT in the analysis and synthesis of antireflective composite materials based on FNCs.

  8. Successive Two-sided Loop Jets Caused by Magnetic Reconnection between Two Adjacent Filamentary Threads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhanjun; Liu, Yu; Shen, Yuandeng; Elmhamdi, Abouazza; Su, Jiangtao; Liu, Ying D.; Kordi, Ayman. S.

    2017-08-01

    We present observational analysis of two successive two-sided loop jets observed by the ground-based New Vacuum Solar Telescope and the space-borne Solar Dynamics Observatory. The two successive two-sided loop jets manifested similar evolution processes and both were associated with the interaction of two small-scale adjacent filamentary threads, magnetic emerging, and cancellation processes at the jet’s source region. High temporal and high spatial resolution observations reveal that the two adjacent ends of the two filamentary threads are rooted in opposite magnetic polarities within the source region. The two threads approached each other, and then an obvious brightening patch is observed at the interaction position. Subsequently, a pair of hot plasma ejections are observed heading in opposite directions along the paths of the two filamentary threads at a typical speed for two-sided loop jets of the order 150 km s-1. Close to the end of the second jet, we report the formation of a bright hot loop structure at the source region, which suggests the formation of new loops during the interaction. Based on the observational results, we propose that the observed two-sided loop jets are caused by magnetic reconnection between the two adjacent filamentary threads, largely different from the previous scenario that a two-sided loop jet is generated by magnetic reconnection between an emerging bipole and the overlying horizontal magnetic fields.

  9. Radiative transfer in astronomical masers. III - Filamentary masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elitzur, Moshe; Mckee, Christopher F.; Hollenbach, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The complete solution of a filamentary maser is presented. An integral equation and an iterative procedure are developed to calculate and solve the contribution of rays emanating from the filament sidewall. The solution provides complete expressions for the distributions of intensity and flux across the source as functions of position and direction with regard to the axis. The results are used to find the number distribution of brightness temperature in a large sample of randomly oriented filaments with an arbitrary distribution of lengths. The effects of external radiation on the maser structure and intensity are studied. It is proposed that the two giant bursts of H2O maser emission observed in W49 and Orion resulted from the interaction or two interacting filaments and a foreground slab amplifying a background filament.

  10. Filamentary transport in the private flux region in MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. R.; Fishpool, G. M.; Dudson, B. D.

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of intensity fluctuation of light emission within the divertor volume of MAST provide strong evidence for the existence of filamentary structures within the private flux region (PFR). These filaments are observed in L-mode and H-mode confinement regimes. Correlation analysis of the camera data supports the hypothesis that the filaments observed in the line integrated camera data are genuinely within the PFR, as fluctuations at a given location in the PFR in the image are correlated with fluctuations elsewhere in the PFR, and these two regions are connected by field lines. The filaments appear to move from a position in the PFR of the inner divertor leg, moving towards the inner divertor target, whilst ejecting secondary blobs of plasma deeper into the PFR away from the separatrix.

  11. Radiative transfer in astronomical masers. III - Filamentary masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elitzur, Moshe; Mckee, Christopher F.; Hollenbach, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The complete solution of a filamentary maser is presented. An integral equation and an iterative procedure are developed to calculate and solve the contribution of rays emanating from the filament sidewall. The solution provides complete expressions for the distributions of intensity and flux across the source as functions of position and direction with regard to the axis. The results are used to find the number distribution of brightness temperature in a large sample of randomly oriented filaments with an arbitrary distribution of lengths. The effects of external radiation on the maser structure and intensity are studied. It is proposed that the two giant bursts of H2O maser emission observed in W49 and Orion resulted from the interaction or two interacting filaments and a foreground slab amplifying a background filament.

  12. Electromagnetic response of buried cylindrical structures for line current excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Ponti, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    arbitrary arrangements of cylinders in the soil. As future work, the presented analysis, carried out in the spectral domain, will be extended to a time-domain solution following an approach analogous to the one developed in [6] for pulsed plane-wave excitation. [1] M. Di Vico, F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, and G. Schettini, "Scattering by a Finite Set of Perfectly Conducting Cylinders Buried in a Dielectric Half-Space: a Spectral-Domain Solution," IEEE Transactions Antennas and Propagation, vol. 53(2), 719-727, 2005. [2] M. Di Vico, F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, and G. Schettini, "Scattering by Buried Dielectric Cylindrical Structures," Radio Science, vol. 40(6), RS6S18, 2005. [3] F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, C. Ponti, and G. Schettini, "Scattering by Perfectly-Conducting Cylinders Buried in a Dielectric Slab through the Cylindrical Wave Approach," IEEE Transactions Antennas and Propagation, vol. 57(4), 1208-1217, 2009. [4] F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, C. Ponti, and G. Schettini, "Accurate Wire-Grid Modeling of Buried Conducting Cylindrical Scatterers," Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (Special Issue on "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar"), vol. 27(3), pp. 199-207, 2012. [5] F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, C. Ponti, G. Schettini, and N. Tedeschi, "Electromagnetic Scattering by a Metallic Cylinder Buried in a Lossy Medium with the Cylindrical Wave Approach," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 10(1), pp. 179-183, 2013. [6] F. Frezza, P. Martinelli, L. Pajewski, and G. Schettini, "Short-Pulse Electromagnetic Scattering from Buried Perfectly-Conducting Cylinders," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 4(4), pp. 611-615, 2007.

  13. Structural and functional polymer-matrix composites for electromagnetic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junhua

    This dissertation addresses the science and technology of functional and structural polymer-matrix composite materials for electromagnetic applications, which include electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and low observability (Stealth). The structural composites are continuous carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composites, which are widely used for airframes. The functional composites are composites with discontinuous fillers and in both bulk and coating forms. Through composite structure variation, attractive electromagnetic properties have been achieved. With no degradation of the tensile strength or modulus, the shielding effectiveness of the structural composites has been improved by enhancing multiple reflections through light activation of the carbon fiber. The multiple reflections loss of the electromagnetic wave increases from 1.1 to 10.2 dB at 1.0 GHz due to the activation. Such a large effect of multiple reflections has not been previously reported in any material. The observability of these composites has been lowered by decreasing the electrical conductivity (and hence decreasing the reflection loss) through carbon fiber coating. The incorporation of mumetal, a magnetic alloy particulate filler (28-40 mum size), in a latex paint has been found to be effective for enhancing the shielding only if the electrical resistivity of the resulting composite coating is below 10 O.cm, as rendered by a conductive particulate filler, such as nickel flake (14-20 mum size). This effectiveness (39 dB at 1.0 GHz) is attributed to the absorption of the electromagnetic wave by the mumetal and the nickel flake, with the high conductivity rendered by the presence of the nickel flake resulting in a relatively high reflection loss of 15.5 dB. Without the nickel flake, the mumetal gives only 3 dB of shielding and 1.5 dB of reflection loss at 1.0 GHz. Nickel powder (0.3-0.5 mum size) has been found to be an effective filler for improving the shielding of polyethersulfone (PES

  14. Pattern reconfigurable antenna using electromagnetic band gap structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M. F.; Rahim, M. K. A.; Majid, H. A.; Hamid, M. R.; Yusoff, M. F. M.; Dewan, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a single rectangular patch antenna incorporated with an array of electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures is proposed. The proposed antenna features radiation pattern agility by means of connecting the shorting pin vias to the EBG unit cells. The proposed design consists of 32 mm × 35.5 mm rectangular patch antenna and 10.4-mm-square mushroom-like EBG unit cells. The EBGs are placed at both sides of the antenna radiating patch and located on the thicker substrate of thickness, h. The copper tape which represents the PIN diode is used to control the connection between the EBG's via and the ground plane as reconfigurable mechanism of the antenna. The simulated result shows by switching the ON and OFF EBG structures in either sides or both, the directional radiation pattern can be tilted from 0 to +14°. The proposed antenna exhibits 7.2 dB realized gain at 2.42 GHz. The parametric study on EBG and antenna is also discussed.

  15. Fast wave evanescence in filamentary boundary plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J. R.

    2014-02-15

    Radio frequency waves for heating and current drive of plasmas in tokamaks and other magnetic confinement devices must first traverse the scrape-off-layer (SOL) before they can be put to their intended use. The SOL plasma is strongly turbulent and intermittent in space and time. These turbulent properties of the SOL, which are not routinely taken into account in wave propagation codes, can have an important effect on the coupling of waves through an evanescent SOL or edge plasma region. The effective scale length for fast wave (FW) evanescence in the presence of short-scale field-aligned filamentary plasma turbulence is addressed in this paper. It is shown that although the FW wavelength or evanescent scale length is long compared with the dimensions of the turbulence, the FW does not simply average over the turbulent density; rather, the average is over the exponentiation rate. Implications for practical situations are discussed.

  16. Interacting filamentary eruptions in magnetised plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, S. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Wilson, H. R.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction between multiple filamentary plasma eruptions is investigated by modelling the non-linear ideal MHD ballooning mode envelope equation with a mixed Eulerian and Lagrangian characterisation of the boundary conditions. The study of multiple plasma filaments is performed in a specific slab equilibrium susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. If the unstable system is initiated with three equal sized filaments, they erupt at the same rate, independently of each other, even in the non-linear regime. However, if one is initiated very slightly larger than the other two it causes a down-draft as it erupts upwards, which suppresses the smaller filaments. This suggests that those filaments which first enter the non-linear regime will dominate the plasma eruption dynamics.

  17. Evaluation of a metal fuselage panel selectively reinforced with filamentary composites for space shuttle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wennhold, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    The use of high strength and modulus of advanced filamentary composites to reduce the structural weight of aerospace vehicles was investigated. Application of the technology to space shuttle components was the primary consideration. The mechanical properties for the boron/epoxy, graphite/epoxy, and polyimide data are presented. Structural testing of two compression panel components was conducted in a simulated space shuttle thermal environment. Results of the tests are analyzed.

  18. Electromagnetic structure of few-nucleon ground states

    DOE PAGES

    Marcucci, Laura E.; Gross, Franz L.; Peña, M. T.; ...

    2016-01-08

    Experimental form factors of the hydrogen and helium isotopes, extracted from an up-to-date global analysis of cross sections and polarization observables measured in elastic electron scattering from these systems, are compared to predictions obtained in three different theoretical approaches: the first is based on realistic interactions and currents, including relativistic corrections (labeled as the conventional approach); the second relies on a chiral effective field theory description of the strong and electromagnetic interactions in nuclei (labeled ChiEFT); the third utilizes a fully relativistic treatment of nuclear dynamics as implemented in the covariant spectator theory (labeled CST). Furthermore, for momentum transfers belowmore » Q < 5 fm-1 there is satisfactory agreement between experimental data and theoretical results in all three approaches. Conversely, at Q > 5 fm-1, particularly in the case of the deuteron, a relativistic treatment of the dynamics, as is done in the CST, is necessary. The experimental data on the deuteron A structure function extend to Q ~ 12 fm-1, and the close agreement between these data and the CST results suggests that, even in this extreme kinematical regime, there is no evidence for new effects coming from quark and gluon degrees of freedom at short distances.« less

  19. Electromagnetic structure of few-nucleon ground states

    SciTech Connect

    Marcucci, Laura E.; Gross, Franz L.; Peña, M. T.; Piarulli, M.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Sick, Ingo; Stadler, Alfred; Orden, J. W. Van; Viviani, Michele

    2016-01-08

    Experimental form factors of the hydrogen and helium isotopes, extracted from an up-to-date global analysis of cross sections and polarization observables measured in elastic electron scattering from these systems, are compared to predictions obtained in three different theoretical approaches: the first is based on realistic interactions and currents, including relativistic corrections (labeled as the conventional approach); the second relies on a chiral effective field theory description of the strong and electromagnetic interactions in nuclei (labeled ChiEFT); the third utilizes a fully relativistic treatment of nuclear dynamics as implemented in the covariant spectator theory (labeled CST). Furthermore, for momentum transfers below Q < 5 fm-1 there is satisfactory agreement between experimental data and theoretical results in all three approaches. Conversely, at Q > 5 fm-1, particularly in the case of the deuteron, a relativistic treatment of the dynamics, as is done in the CST, is necessary. The experimental data on the deuteron A structure function extend to Q ~ 12 fm-1, and the close agreement between these data and the CST results suggests that, even in this extreme kinematical regime, there is no evidence for new effects coming from quark and gluon degrees of freedom at short distances.

  20. Finite element modeling of electromagnetic propagation in composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1987-01-01

    A finite element Galerkin formulation has been developed to study electromagnetic propagation in complex two-dimensional absorbing ducts. The reflection and transmission at entrance and exit boundaries are determined by coupling the finite element solutions at the entrance and exit to the eigenfunctions of an infinite uniform perfect conducting duct. Example solutions are presented for electromagnetic propagation with absorbing duct walls and propagating through dielectric-metallic matrix materials.

  1. [Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions]. Progress summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The experimental goals are focused on developing an understanding of strong interactions and the structure of hadronic systems by determination of the electromagnetic response; these goals will be accomplished through coincidence detection of final states. Nuclear modeling objectives are to organize and interpret the data through a consistent description of a broad spectrum of reaction observables; calculations are performed in a nonrelativistic diagrammatic framework as well as a relativistic QHD approach. Work is described according to the following arrangement: direct knockout reactions (completion of {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}p), {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}pp) progress, large acceptance detector physics simulations), giant resonance studies (intermediate-energy experiments with solid-state detectors, the third response function in {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}p{sub 0}) and {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}p{sub 0}), comparison of the {sup 12}C(e, e{prime}p{sub 0}) and {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}p{sub 3}) reactions, quadrupole strength in the {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}{alpha}{sub 0}) reaction, quadrupole strength in the {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}{alpha}) reaction, analysis of the {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}p{sub 1}) and {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}p{sub 3}) angular distributions, analysis of the {sup 40}Ca(e,e{prime}x) reaction at low q, analysis of the higher-q {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}x) data from Bates), models of nuclear structure (experimental work, Hartree-Fock calculations, phonon excitations in spherical nuclei, shell model calculations, variational methods for relativistic fields), and instrumentation development efforts (developments at CEBAF, CLAS contracts, BLAST developments).

  2. Growth and optical properties of filamentary GaN nanocrystals grown on a hybrid SiC/Si(111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznik, R. R.; Kotlyar, K. P.; Il'kiv, I. V.; Soshnikov, I. P.; Kukushkin, S. A.; Osipov, A. V.; Nikitina, E. V.; Cirlin, G. E.

    2016-10-01

    The potential to grow filamentary GaN nanocrystals by molecular beam epitaxy on a silicon substrate with a nanosized buffer layer of silicon carbide has been demonstrated. Morphological and optical properties of the obtained system have been studied. It has been shown that the intensity of the photoluminescence spectrum peak of such structures is higher than that of the best filamentary GaN nanocrystals without the buffer silicon carbide layer by a factor of more than two.

  3. Geometric algorithms for electromagnetic modeling of large scale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingenot, James

    With the rapid increase in the speed and complexity of integrated circuit designs, 3D full wave and time domain simulation of chip, package, and board systems becomes more and more important for the engineering of modern designs. Much effort has been applied to the problem of electromagnetic (EM) simulation of such systems in recent years. Major advances in boundary element EM simulations have led to O(n log n) simulations using iterative methods and advanced Fast. Fourier Transform (FFT), Multi-Level Fast Multi-pole Methods (MLFMM), and low-rank matrix compression techniques. These advances have been augmented with an explosion of multi-core and distributed computing technologies, however, realization of the full scale of these capabilities has been hindered by cumbersome and inefficient geometric processing. Anecdotal evidence from industry suggests that users may spend around 80% of turn-around time manipulating the geometric model and mesh. This dissertation addresses this problem by developing fast and efficient data structures and algorithms for 3D modeling of chips, packages, and boards. The methods proposed here harness the regular, layered 2D nature of the models (often referred to as "2.5D") to optimize these systems for large geometries. First, an architecture is developed for efficient storage and manipulation of 2.5D models. The architecture gives special attention to native representation of structures across various input models and special issues particular to 3D modeling. The 2.5D structure is then used to optimize the mesh systems First, circuit/EM co-simulation techniques are extended to provide electrical connectivity between objects. This concept is used to connect independently meshed layers, allowing simple and efficient 2D mesh algorithms to be used in creating a 3D mesh. Here, adaptive meshing is used to ensure that the mesh accurately models the physical unknowns (current and charge). Utilizing the regularized nature of 2.5D objects and

  4. Fabrication of Filamentary YBCO Coated Conductor by Inkjet Printing

    SciTech Connect

    List III, Frederick Alyious; Kodenkandath, Thomas; Rupich, Marty

    2007-01-01

    Inkjet printing is a potentially low cost, high rate method for depositing precursors for filamentary YBCO coated conductors. The method offers considerable flexibility of filament pattern, width, and thickness. Using standard solution precursors and RABiTSTM substrates, the printing, processing, and properties of some inkjet-derived filamentary YBCO coated conductors for Second Generation (2G) wire are demonstrated on a laboratory scale. Some systematic variations of growth rate and critical transport current with filament width are observed and discussed.

  5. Features of electromagnetic radiation time-and-frequency fluctuation intensity distributions from human brain structures.

    PubMed

    Kublanov, V S; Gasilov, V L; Kazakov, Y E

    2000-01-01

    Time-and-frequency fluctuation intensity distributions' analysis is made of the electromagnetic radiation obtained from deep human brain structures. The role of monitoring the distribution changes due to various cerebral circulation disorders is explained.

  6. Application of electromagnetic waves in damage detection of concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Maria Q.; De Flaviis, Franco; Kim, Yoo J.; Diaz, Rodolfo E.

    2000-04-01

    Jacketing technology using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is being applied for seismic retrofit of reinforced concrete (RC) columns designed and constructed under older specifications. In this study, the authors develop an electromagnetic (EM) imaging technology for detecting voids and debonding between the jacket and the column, which may significantly weaken the structural performance of the column otherwise attainable by jacketing. This technology is based on the reflection analysis of a continuous EM wave sent toward and reflected from layered FRP-adhesive-concrete medium: Poor bonding conditions including voids and debonding will generate air gaps which produce additional reflections of the EM wave. In this study, dielectric properties of various materials involved in the FRP-jacketed RC column were first measured. Second, the measured properties were used for a computer simulation of the proposed EM imaging technology. The simulation demonstrated the difficulty in detecting imperfect bonding conditions by using plane waves, as the scattering contribution from the voids and debonding is very small compared to that from the jacketed column. Third, in order to alleviate this difficulty, a special dielectric lens was designed and fabricated to focus the EM wave on the bonding interface. Furthermore, the time gating technique is used in order to reduce the noise resulting from various uncertainties associated with the jacketed columns. Finally, three concrete columns were constructed and wrapped with glass-FRP jackets with various voids and debonding condition artificially introduced in the bonding interface. Using the proposed EM imaging technology with the lens especially designed and installed, these voids and debonding condition were successfully detected.

  7. Negative-group-delay and non-foster electromagnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Hassan

    This PhD dissertation explores novel electromagnetic applications using negative-group-delay (NGD) and non-Foster structures and establishes an intimate connection between these two phenomena. As a result, novel implementations of non-Foster reactive elements using NGD networks are proposed. To this end, NGD and non-Foster structures are investigated separately in Chapters 1 and 2 and related corresponding applications are explored. Then, a two-way link between these two phenomena is proposed, analytically demonstrated and experimentally verified in Chapters 3. This link provides a novel perspective in the realization of non-Foster reactive elements, leading to new designs that are well-behaved and more predictable in terms of stability and operation than traditional designs. Particularly, a class of non-Foster elements, called unilateral reactive non-Foster elements, is presented where losses are compensated using regular unilateral amplifiers. This type of non-Foster element is implemented by cascading an amplifier and a passive load, operating as a NGD network, and provides a stable operation for new applications. In Chapters 4, in preparation for the following chapter where a novel application of reactive non-Foster elements in embedded-matching-network applications is introduced, a frequency-reconfigurable antenna is presented which provides an excellent compromise among size, frequency tuning range and count of tuning elements. In Chapters 5, a design procedure for replacing the tuning element with a circuit, generating a non-Foster reactance, is presented. This embedded circuit creates a wide matching bandwidth at the antenna terminals. In Chapters 6, passive and active approaches for eliminating beam-squinting in linear series-fed arrays are investigated and experimentally verified. The passive approaches are designed based on the parameters of the branches connecting the feedline to the antenna elements, whereas the active approach works on the parameters

  8. Biological Decontamination Using Pulsed Filamentary Microplasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Keil, Gernot; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    Microplasma jet for the generation of pulsed filamentary discharge at atmospheric pressure has been devised for biological decontamination as well as for modification of surface properties. Long plasma-filament is generated inside a quartz tube and characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, current voltage measurements, numerical simulations and microphotography. Efficiency of our plasma source for the decontamination on inner surface of the tube as well as on objects placed in proximity of plasma effluent is studied. Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) and spores of Bacillus atrophaeus (Gram-positive bacteria) are used for the decontamination studies. Decontamination of Bacillus atrophaeus endospores, which are layered on PET polymer material, and placed in the proximity of plasma effluent, shows the mean logarithmic bacterial reduction of 3.67 for the treatment time of 120 s. Inactivation of Escherichia coli coated on inner surface of the tube shows the mean logarithmic bacterial reduction of about 5 for the treatment time of 30 s. In addition to this, inhibition studies of bacteria coated on agar plate are also carried out. It shows plasma effluent generated in our plasma source is very effective for the inhibition of bacterial colonization.

  9. Stored electromagnetic energy and quality factor of radiating structures

    PubMed Central

    Jelinek, Lukas; Vandenbosch, Guy A. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the old yet unsolved problem of defining and evaluating the stored electromagnetic energy—a quantity essential for calculating the quality factor, which reflects the intrinsic bandwidth of the considered electromagnetic system. A novel paradigm is proposed to determine the stored energy in the time domain leading to the method, which exhibits positive semi-definiteness and coordinate independence, i.e. two key properties actually not met by the contemporary approaches. The proposed technique is compared with an up-to-date frequency domain method that is extensively used in practice. Both concepts are discussed and compared on the basis of examples of varying complexity. PMID:27274693

  10. Filamentary Discharges: on the Physics of Plasma Globes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burin, M. J.; Simmons, G. G.; Saucedo, L.; Nagy, A.; Zweben, S. J.

    2013-10-01

    Filamentary structures have been observed in many types of plasma discharges, in both natural and industrial systems. However, some fundamental aspects of their physics remain unclear. A common example can be found within a commercial plasma globe, in which a neon-based gas mixture clearly displays filamentation when driven with a RF high voltage transformer. Recent work has provided the first characterization of these plasma globe filaments [Campanell et al. 2010]. We are now extending this initial work by quantifying filament properties with respect to voltage waveform, ambient pressure, and gas composition, using a custom apparatus with a programmable high voltage supply. Initial results using high-speed photography include significant asymmetry between positive and negative discharges, with the former being more structured than the latter. We also note significant waveform effects on filament number and morphology (see undergraduate poster at this meeting by G.G. Simmons et al., session 14.2). System memory/hysteresis effects are also explored. Our results are discussed in light of theory and observations regarding discharge structures/striations found in planetary atmospheres (e.g. lightning leaders and sprites) and in dielectric barrier discharges. Research supported by the U.S. DOE (DE-SC0006876).

  11. Comparisons of seismic and electromagnetic structures of the MELT area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R. L.; Hirth, G.; Forsyth, D.; Baba, K.; Chave, A.

    2003-04-01

    Both seismic and electromagnetic (EM) models from the MELT experiment show similar broad scale features in the mantle beneath the Southern EPR. In all EM models, the conductivity in the upper 50-60˜km is considerably higher to the west of the ridge than to the east. Similarly, seismic models of short period Love waves are asymmetric in velocity structure, with slower velocities to the west of the ridge within the upper 60˜km. Body wave data suggest a similar asymmetry, although the depth extent is not as well defined. West of the ridge, both the higher conductivities and lower velocities have been attributed to the presence of a small melt fraction, although the anomalous regions estimated from different techniques do not entirely agree. To the east, there is a rapid increase in resistivity and S-wave velocity, indicating that within 25˜km of the axis the mantle above 70˜km is both dry and melt-free. Further away from the ridge, the boundary between a conductive asthenospheric mantle and a resistive overlying mantle flattens, at a depth around 60-80˜km. Rayleigh wave inversions also show fairly flat velocity contours with a broad minimum centered at 60-80˜km. Both of these features are consistent with a transition from dry to damp mantle. Also away from the ridge, EM data, shear-wave splitting, and Rayleigh waves all require an azimuthally anisotropic mantle consistent with the a-axis of olivine being preferentially oriented horizontally and perpendicular to the ridge. Anisotropy in EM data suggests damp mantle conditions in the 100-200˜km depth range, with enhanced conduction along the a-axis of olivine. Rayleigh waves are most sensitive to shallower structure and require anisotropy in the upper 70˜km. In the uppermost 40˜km, the most conductive and lowest velocity regions are close to the axis but offset 5-10˜km to the west. Some anisotropic inversions recover a vertically conductive feature that could be interpreted as a few percent melt distributed in

  12. Electromagnetic wave band structure due to surface plasmon resonances in a complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, S. V.; Ishihara, O.

    2016-07-01

    The dielectric properties of complex plasma containing either metal or dielectric spherical inclusions (macroparticles, dust) are investigated. We focus on surface plasmon resonances on the macroparticle surfaces and their effect on electromagnetic wave propagation. It is demonstrated that the presence of surface plasmon oscillations can significantly modify plasma electromagnetic properties by resonances and cutoffs in the effective permittivity. This leads to related branches of electromagnetic waves and to the wave band gaps. The conditions necessary to observe the band-gap structure in laboratory dusty plasma and/or space (cosmic) dusty plasmas are discussed.

  13. Broadband electromagnetic analysis of dispersive, periodic structures for radiometer calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, S.

    This thesis primarily focusses on the full wave electromagnetic analysis of radiometer calibration targets using doubly dispersive 3D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) formulation. The boundary conditions are set up to solve for doubly periodic structures. The thesis contains very detailed derivation and equations regarding this formulation. One of the novelty in this formulation is the handling of magnetically and electrically dispersive media (usually it is just the electrical dispersion which is incorporated). Using a custom developed code which can be run on a distributed computing system, the reflectivity spectrum of calibration targets of different geometries, coating thicknesses and aspect ratios are analyzed. The results are well validated using commercial simulation softwares and custom Geometric Optics (GO) code. The geometries analyzed include square pyramids, conical pyramids, truncated square pyramids and truncated conical pyramids with spherical top. The coating thicknesses used are 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm. The aspect ratios (ratio of base to height) used include 1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 1 : 4. The nominal target structure has 1 : 4 aspect ratio and 2mm coating thickness. The material used for simulation is ECCOSORB MF112. The material properties of other materials such as MF110 and MF114 are listed. It should be remarked that measured material properties are available only in the frequency range [8, 26] GHz and a Debye series extrapolation was used for simulation at frequencies outside this range. Throughout this work 0.5 inch base was used. Some significant conclusions include the following: (1) 1:4 aspect ratio or better is required to achieve a -50 dB reflectivity or lower. (2) Low frequency reflectivity is independent of the target geometry. (3) At high frequencies, the conical target results in better performance when compared to square pyramids (by about 10 dB). (4) The reflectivity spectrum exhibits a general trend of high reflectivity at low

  14. Coupled V-structured nano-antenna for electromagnetic field enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wanli; Zhang, Wanwan; Feng, Yuanming; Lin, Wang

    2017-05-01

    Nano-antennas play an important role in many areas of science and technology. It is desirable to achieve strong electric field enhancement by nano-antenna. In this paper, we simulate a symmetrical V-structured nano-antenna that is used to regulate the electromagnetic fields in the central gap region. We study the effects of structural parameters on the charge distribution and analyze the electric field enhancement factor in the central region of the nano-antenna. Then we use structural coupling methods to strengthen electromagnetic field intensity in the central region. Our results demonstrate that the charge distribution of the nano-antenna can be controlled by regulating the structural parameters, leading to the change of electromagnetic field intensity. In addition, electric field enhancement is achieved by coupling of multiple V structures. The multiple V structure could be used in surface-enhanced Raman scattering due to the electric field enhancement in its central region.

  15. Structures, systems and methods for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation

    DOEpatents

    Novack, Steven D [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale K [Shelley, ID; Pinhero, Patrick J [Columbia, MO

    2011-12-06

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  16. Estimation of the Lithospheric Component Share in the Earth Natural Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshkov, S. Y.; Gordeev, V. F.; Polyvach, V. I.; Shtalin, S. G.; Pustovalov, K. N.

    2017-04-01

    Article describes the results of the atmosphere and Earth’s crust climatic and ecological parameters integrated monitoring. The estimation is made for lithospheric component share in the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field structure. To estimate lithospheric component we performed a round-the-clock monitoring of the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field background variations at the experiment location and measured the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field under electric shields. Natural materials in a natural environment were used for shielding, specifically lakes with varying parameters of water conductivity. Skin effect was used in the experiment - it is the tendency of electromagnetic waves amplitude to decrease with greater depths in the conductor. Atmospheric and lithospheric component the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field data recorded on terrain was compared against the recorded data with atmosphere component decayed by an electric shield. In summary we have demonstrated in the experiment that thunderstorm discharge originating electromagnetic field decay corresponds to the decay calculated using Maxwell equations. In the absence of close lightning strikes the ratio of field intensity recorded on terrain to shielded field intensity is inconsistent with the ratio calculated for atmospheric sources, that confirms there is a lithospheric component present to the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field.

  17. Galaxy Formation through Filamentary Accretion at z = 6.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. C.; Willott, C. J.; Carilli, C. L.; Ferrara, A.; Wang, R.; Wagg, J.

    2017-08-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the dust continuum and [C ii] 158 μm line emission from the z = 6.0695 Lyman-Break Galaxy (LBG) WMH5. These observations at 0.″3 spatial resolution show a compact (˜3 kpc) main galaxy in dust and [C ii] emission, with a “tail” of emission extending to the east by about 5 kpc (in projection). The [C ii] tail is comprised predominantly of two distinct sub-components in velocity, separated from the core by ˜100 and 250 km s-1, with narrow intrinsic widths of about 80 km s-1, which we call “sub-galaxies.” The sub-galaxies themselves are extended east-west by about 3 kpc in individual channel images. The [C ii] tail joins smoothly into the main galaxy velocity field. The [C ii] line to continuum ratios are comparable for the main and sub-galaxy positions, within a factor two. In addition, these ratios are comparable to z˜ 5.5 LBGs. We conjecture that the WMH5 system represents the early formation of a galaxy through the accretion of smaller satellite galaxies, embedded in a smoother gas distribution, along a possibly filamentary structure. The results are consistent with current cosmological simulations of early galaxy formation and support the idea of very early enrichment with dust and heavy elements of the accreting material.

  18. 1d, 2d, and 3d periodic structures: Electromagnetic characterization, design, and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockett, Timothy John

    Periodic structures have many useful applications in electromagnetics including phased arrays, frequency selective surfaces, and absorbing interfaces. Their unique properties can be used to provide increased performance in antenna gain, electromagnetic propagation, and electromagnetic absorption. In antenna arrays, repeating elements create a larger eective aperture, increasing the gain of the antenna and the ability to scan the direction of the main beam. Three-dimensional periodic structures, such as an array of shaped pillars such as columns, cones, or prisms have the potential of improving electromagnetic absorption, improving performance in applications such as solar cell eciency and absorbing interfaces. Furthermore, research into periodic structures is a continuing endeavor where novel approaches and analysis in appropriate applications can be sought. This dissertation will address the analysis, diagnostics, and enhancement of 1D, 2D, and 3D periodic structures for antenna array applications and solar cell technology. In particular, a unique approach to array design will be introduced to prevent the appearance of undesirable grating lobes in large antenna arrays that employ subarrays. This approach, named the distortion diagnostic procedure, can apply directly to 1D and 2D periodic structures in the form of planar antenna arrays. Interesting corollaries included here are developments in millimeter-wave antenna measurements including spiral planar scanning, phaseless measurements, and addressing antennas that feature an internal source. Finally, analysis and enhancement of 3D periodic structures in nanostructure photovoltaic arrays and absorbing interfaces will be examined for their behavior and basic operation in regards to improved absorption of electromagnetic waves.

  19. NGC 1275, High Velocity Filamentary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulet, Adeline

    The extensive filamentary system surrounding NGC 1275 is known to exhibit two velocity components, one at 5200 km/s which is the same as the velocity of NGC 1275 itself, and one at 8300 km/s. The low velocity (LV) system has been studied extensively with a view to elucidating the nature of a putative cooling flow of intracluster (A426) gas into NGC1275. A plausible hypothesis based on optical and radio data describes the high velocity (HV) system as a late-type galaxy caught in the gravitational potential well of NGC 1275 and falling into it with a velocity of about 3000 km/s. In this picture the HV filaments are composed of giant HII regions which have been imaged in H-alpha and observed spectroscopically in other optical lines. Our lack of certainty about the morphology of the HV system, the dynamical relationship between the HV and LV systems, and the optical spectral characteristics of the HV filaments coupled with the fact that spiral galaxies are rare in the inner regions of A426 make this hypothesis tentative. Yet it is important to understand the nature of the HV system in order to properly interpret observations of the LV system in terms of a cooling flow. We propose to obtain vacuum ultraviolet spectra with the IUE of several emission regions of the HV system. The objectives are: a) to use any observed vacuum ultraviolet emission lines together with existing optical emission line data to infer the physical processes by which the emission lines are produced, b) to use any vacuum ultraviolet emission line data to help determine abundances, particularly that of carbon, with a view to finding evidence bearing on the origin of the HV system, and c) and to search for an ultraviolet continuum characteristic of an OB stellar population. The proposed work is part of a larger effort to obtain groundbased Fabry-Perot imagery and sounding rocket vacuum ultraviolet imagery of the HV and LV systems.

  20. Compact electromagnetic bandgap structures for notch band in ultra-wideband applications.

    PubMed

    Rotaru, Mihai; Sykulski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to create notch band filters in the front-end of ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems based on electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structures. The concept presented here can be implemented in any structure that has a microstrip in its configuration. The EBG structure is first analyzed using a full wave electromagnetic solver and then optimized to work at WLAN band (5.15-5.825 GHz). Two UWB passband filters are used to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the novel EBG notch band feature. Simulation results are provided for two cases studied.

  1. Compact Electromagnetic Bandgap Structures for Notch Band in Ultra-Wideband Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rotaru, Mihai; Sykulski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to create notch band filters in the front-end of ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems based on electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structures. The concept presented here can be implemented in any structure that has a microstrip in its configuration. The EBG structure is first analyzed using a full wave electromagnetic solver and then optimized to work at WLAN band (5.15–5.825 GHz). Two UWB passband filters are used to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the novel EBG notch band feature. Simulation results are provided for two cases studied. PMID:22163430

  2. A non-asymptotic homogenization theory for periodic electromagnetic structures

    PubMed Central

    Tsukerman, Igor; Markel, Vadim A.

    2014-01-01

    Homogenization of electromagnetic periodic composites is treated as a two-scale problem and solved by approximating the fields on both scales with eigenmodes that satisfy Maxwell's equations and boundary conditions as accurately as possible. Built into this homogenization methodology is an error indicator whose value characterizes the accuracy of homogenization. The proposed theory allows one to define not only bulk, but also position-dependent material parameters (e.g. in proximity to a physical boundary) and to quantify the trade-off between the accuracy of homogenization and its range of applicability to various illumination conditions. PMID:25104912

  3. Dispersion characteristics of spin-electromagnetic waves in planar multiferroic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, Andrey A.; Ustinov, Alexey B.; Vitko, Vitaliy V.; Semenov, Alexander A.; Mironenko, Igor G.; Belyavskiy, Pavel Yu.; Kalinikos, Boris A.; Stashkevich, Andrey A.; Lähderanta, E.

    2015-11-14

    A method of approximate boundary conditions is used to derive dispersion relations for spin-electromagnetic waves (SEWs) propagating in thin ferrite films and in multiferroic layered structures. A high accuracy of this method is proven. It was shown that the spin-electromagnetic wave propagating in the structure composed of a thin ferrite film, a thin ferroelectric film, and a slot transmission line is formed as a result of hybridization of the surface spin wave in the ferrite film and the electromagnetic wave in the slot-line. The structure demonstrates dual electric and magnetic field tunability of the SEW spectrum. The electric field tunability is provided by the thin ferroelectric film. Its efficiency increases with an increase in the thicknesses of the ferrite and ferroelectric films and with a decrease in the slot-line gap width. The theory is confirmed by experimental data.

  4. One-dimensional electromagnetic band gap structures formed by discharge plasmas in a waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Arkhipenko, V. I.; Simonchik, L. V. Usachonak, M. S.; Callegari, Th.; Sokoloff, J.

    2014-09-28

    We demonstrate the ability to develop one-dimensional electromagnetic band gap structure in X-band waveguide solely by using the positive columns of glow discharges in neon at the middle pressure. Plasma inhomogeneities are distributed uniformly along a typical X-band waveguide with cross section of 23×10 mm². It is shown that electron densities larger than 10¹⁴ cm ⁻³ are needed in order to create an effective one-dimensional electromagnetic band gap structure. Some applications for using the one-dimensional electromagnetic band gap structure in waveguide as a control of microwave (broadband filter and device for variation of pulse duration) are demonstrated.

  5. Parallel Computation of Integrated Electromagnetic, Thermal and Structural Effects for Accelerator Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.E.; Kabel, A.C.; Ko, K.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.K.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    The successful operation of accelerator cavities has to satisfy both rf and mechanical requirements. It is highly desirable that electromagnetic, thermal and structural effects such as cavity wall heating and Lorentz force detuning in superconducting rf cavities can be addressed in an integrated analysis. Based on the SLAC parallel finite-element code infrastructure for electromagnetic modeling, a novel multi-physics analysis tool has been developed to include additional thermal and mechanical effects. The parallel computation enables virtual prototyping of accelerator cavities on computers, which would substantially reduce the cost and time of a design cycle. The multi-physics tool is applied to the LCLS rf gun for electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses.

  6. A case report and review of filamentary keratitis.

    PubMed

    Diller, Rebecca; Sant, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Filamentary keratitis is most often a chronic corneal condition, characterized by filaments attached at one or both ends to the cornea. Patients often experience foreign body sensation, grittiness, discomfort, photophobia, blepharospasm, and increased blinking. Filamentary keratitis is commonly the result of aqueous deficient dry eye syndrome. Management options include lubrication, punctal occlusion, removal of filaments, hypertonic saline, mucolytic agents, anti-inflammatory agents, and therapeutic contact lenses. A 58-year-old man came to us with acute symptoms of pain, photophobia, and redness x 2 days 0.S. The diagnosis of filamentary keratitis was made based on the clinical findings of positively staining mucus strands attached to the superior cornea. The patient was also found to have dry eye, blepharitis, and floppy eyelid syndrome. Numerous treatment regimens were implemented, including lubrication with non-preserved artificial tears, lubricating ointment, and topical steroids. The patient's condition was finally best managed with silicone plug punctal occlusion and therapeutic contact lenses. Filamentary keratitis can be a recurrent and incapacitating condition that may prove difficult to manage.

  7. Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-07-15

    In this review, we present our recent work on making structured metals transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves via excitation of surface waves. First, we theoretically show that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic waves by relying on surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. Second, we experimentally demonstrate that metallic gratings with narrow slits are highly transparent for broadband terahertz waves at oblique incidence and high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. Further, we significantly develop oblique metal gratings transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves (including optical waves and terahertz ones) under normal incidence. In the third, we find the principles of broadband transparency for structured metals can be extended from one-dimensional metallic gratings to two-dimensional cases. Moreover, similar phenomena are found in sonic artificially metallic structures, which present the transparency for broadband acoustic waves. These investigations provide guidelines to develop many novel materials and devices, such as transparent conducting panels, antireflective solar cells, and other broadband metamaterials and stealth technologies. - Highlights: • Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves. • Non-resonant excitation of surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. • Sonic artificially metallic structures transparent for broadband acoustic waves.

  8. Manifestation of Symmetry Properties of Nucleon Structure in Strong and Electromagnetic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasi-Gustafsson, Egle; Rekalo, Michail P.

    2004-04-01

    In this contribution we present a specific application of a result obtained by Franco Iachello (in collaboration with R. Bijker and A. Leviatan), which concerns the inelastic electromagnetic form factors on the nucleons. In particular we show examples where symmetries inherent to the structure of the nucleon resonances can manifest in complicated processes of the strong interaction.

  9. Evaluation of a metal fuselage frame selectively reinforced with filamentary composites for space shuttle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oken, S.; Skoumal, D. E.; Straayer, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The development of metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites as a weight saving feature of the space shuttle components is discussed. A frame was selected for study that was representative of the type of construction used in the bulk frames of the orbiter vehicle. Theoretical and experimental investigations were conducted. Component tests were performed to evaluate the critical details used in the designs and to provide credibility to the weight saving results. A model frame was constructed of the reinforced metal material to provide a final evaluation of the construction under realistic load conditions.

  10. Single-impact calibrated electromagnetic tightening of long-life bolted joints in aviation structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firsov, V. A.; Bekhmet'ev, V. I.

    The general design and operation of a newly developed electromagnetic impact driver for the assembly of aviation structures is described. The electromagnetic impact driver makes it possible to considerably improve the precision of bolt torquing during the assembly. To test the performance of the new tool, M6 bolts of 16KhSN steel (tensile strength 120 +/- 10 kg/sq mm) were tightened by a manual torque wrench and by the electromagnetic impact driver. It is shown that the scatter of bolt elongation during the tightening by the impact driver is a factor of 3-5 less than in the case of manual torquing, which corresponds to a torque precision of 1.5-2 percent.

  11. On the influence of crystal structure on the electromagnetic shower development in the lead tungstate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshevsky, V. G.; Haurylavets, V. V.; Korjik, M. V.; Lobko, A. S.; Mechinsky, V. A.; Sytov, A. I.; Tikhomirov, V. V.; Uglov, V. V.

    2017-07-01

    The development of high-energy electromagnetic showers in long oriented lead tungstate crystals, accelerated by the effects induced by the strong field of atomic strings, is simulated for the first time. For that the characteristics of pair production and gamma-radiation by electrons or positrons were first simulated by the direct application of Baier-Katkov formulae in a thin PWO crystal to derive the scaling coefficients of the corresponding Bethe-Heitler cross sections to be incorporated into GEANT4 for the simulation of the electromagnetic shower development in a long crystal. Simulation results demonstrate the significant influence of the crystal structure on the e± and gamma-quanta registration processes in the existing homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeters and gamma-telescopes as well as wide possibilities of improving their performance in future developments.

  12. Glaciotectonic structures mapped by GPR, geoelectrical, high-resolution seismic and airborne transient electromagnetic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høyer, Anne-Sophie; Møller, Ingelise; Jørgensen, Flemming

    2013-04-01

    Glaciotectonic structures have traditionally been recognized through observations in the landscape or exposures like cliffs. However, mapping of these structures can highly benefit from geophysical data, which can give information on buried glaciotectonic complexes. In the current study, we focus on the appearance of glaciotectonic structures in data from four commonly used geophysical methods: Ground penetrating radar (GPR), geoelectrical, high-resolution seismic and airborne transient electromagnetic (SkyTEM). The data are collected within a study area that covers 100 km2 and is located in the western part of Denmark. The study area is characterized by a highly heterogeneous geological setting, which has been influenced by multiple glacial deformation phases resulting in a buried glaciotectonic complex. The glaciotectonic structures appear as folds and faults and are recognizable at all scales. As a consequence of the different resolution capabilities of the methods, different degrees of detail are observed: Large-scale structures are recognized based on the seismic and airborne transient electromagnetic data, whereas small-scale structures are interpreted based on the GPR and geoelectrical data. At the same time, the nature of the methods results in different types of information from the data: The GPR and the seismic data generally provide detailed structural information, whereas the electric and electromagnetic data provide a more 'blurred' resistivity image of the subsurface. In order to recognize geological structures on the electric and electromagnetic data, the structures therefore need to influence sediments with contrasting resistivities to the surroundings. The structures are recognizable on all the different data sets, but the understanding and thus, the interpretation, of the geological environment strongly benefits from the combined observations from the different types of data.

  13. All-dielectric structure development for electromagnetic wave shielding using a systematic design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, H.; Heo, N.; Park, J.; Seo, I.; Yoo, J.

    2017-01-01

    Common dielectric metamaterials for electromagnetic (EM) interference shielding, stealth applications, and EM cloaking generally require larger thicknesses than the wavelength of incidence light. We propose an all-dielectric metamaterial inspired structure using a systematic approach based on the phase field design method. The structure is composed of periodically arranged unit structures that have a 2D configuration, which is sub-wavelength thick over its entire structure. The proposed structure provides anomalous reflections to prevent reflections back toward the wave source and is anti-penetrative over the microwave band with no conductive materials. We digitally fabricated the designed structure using 3D printing and verified the design specifications by experiments.

  14. Electromagnetic spin structure response of nucleons in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, J.M.

    1994-10-26

    Complete characterization of the electromagnetic nuclear current in ({rvec e}, e`{rvec n}) reactions require a decomposition of the virtual photon spin-density-matrix coupled with measurements of initial- and final-state spin polarizations. Theoretical analysis reveals a wealth of information with different amplitudes demonstrating quite different sensitivities to the various ingredients of the reaction mechanism. Recent technological advances including development of polarized targets and recoil-polarimeters have made a first generation of experiments possible. Much of the initial effort has been directed. at extracting G{sub En} from (e,e`n) experiments on deuterium and {sup 3}He targets. The quasifree assumption underlying these experiments can itself be put to a rigorous test by performing the analogous (e,e`p) experiments. Beyond these measurements, a complete study of these elementary systems is expected to greatly enhance our understanding of two- and three-body currents which is vital for the construction of the short-range nuclear force. Scattering from single-particle orbits in complex nuclear systems provides a convenient spin-isospin filter. This can be used to study selected components of the effective interaction, providing complimentary information to on-going hadron scattering experiments. At the higher Q{sup 2} of the CEBAF laboratory, one can expect that complex systems will also be used as a laboratory to study the composition and propagation of nucleons in nuclear matter. For example, polarization transfer in quasifree knockout of protons from the nuclear interior can be examined to determine if the effective G{sub E}/G{sup m} ratio varies from that of the free proton. One can also examine those amplitudes that vanish in the impulse approximation to see if there is a systematic weakening of the FSI at high Q{sup 2}, which might be a precursor for the onset of color transparency.

  15. Instability-driven electromagnetic fields in coronal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Sinenian, N.; Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hager, J. D.; Betti, R.; Hu, S. X.; Delettrez, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2013-04-15

    Filamentary electromagnetic fields previously observed in the coronae of laser-driven spherical targets [F. H. S eguin et al., Phys. Plasma. 19, 012701 (2012)] have been further investigated in laser irradiated plastic foils. Face-on proton-radiography provides an axial view of these filaments and shows coherent cellular structure regardless of initial foil-surface conditions. The observed cellular fields are shown to have an approximately constant scale size of 210 lm throughout the plasma evolution. A discussion of possible field-generation mechanisms is provided and it is demonstrated that the likely source of the cellular field structure is the magnetothermal instability. Using predicted temperature and density profiles, the fastest growing modes of this instability were found to be slowly varying in time and consistent with the observed cellular size.

  16. Instability-driven electromagnetic fields in coronal plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; ...

    2013-04-15

    Filamentary electromagnetic fields previously observed in the coronae of laser-driven spherical targets [F. H. S eguin et al., Phys. Plasma. 19, 012701 (2012)] have been further investigated in laser irradiated plastic foils. Face-on proton-radiography provides an axial view of these filaments and shows coherent cellular structure regardless of initial foil-surface conditions. The observed cellular fields are shown to have an approximately constant scale size of 210 lm throughout the plasma evolution. A discussion of possible field-generation mechanisms is provided and it is demonstrated that the likely source of the cellular field structure is the magnetothermal instability. Using predicted temperature andmore » density profiles, the fastest growing modes of this instability were found to be slowly varying in time and consistent with the observed cellular size.« less

  17. Structure characteristics in industrially centrifugally cast 25Cr20Ni stainless steel tubes solidified under different electromagnetic field intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, X.Q.; Yang, Y.S.; Zhang, J.S.; Jia, G.L.; Hu, Z.Q.

    1999-10-01

    The influences of different electromagnetic field intensities on the solidification structures of industrially centrifugally cast 25Cr20Ni stainless steel tubes have been investigated in detail. The results reveal that the electromagnetic field exerted during the centrifugal solidification causes a marked variation in the structures of the cast tubes. With an increase of the electromagnetic field intensity, the area fraction of the equiaxed structures in transverse sections of the cast tubes increases, and the macrostructures are gradually refined. The distribution of the eutectic carbides changes from the dendrite boundaries to the grain boundaries. However, an excessive electromagnetic field intensity gives rise to many intergranular cast defects formed along the inner walls of the centrifugally cast tubes. The effects of fluid flow induced by the electromagnetic field on the solidification process of the centrifugally cast tubes are the primary reason for the previously mentioned structure variations.

  18. Investigation of spin-electromagnetic wave envelope solitons in a multiferroic layered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, A. B.; Kondrashov, A. V.; Nikitin, A. A.; Cherkasskii, M. A.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hybrid spin-electromagnetic wave (SEW) envelope solitons have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. The solitons were formed during auto-generation of SEWs in an active ring resonator for which the role of the nonlinear dispersive waveguide media was played by a multiferroic layered ferrite-ferroelectric structure. It is demonstrated that the dielectric constant of the structure affects the nonlinear properties of SEWs.

  19. Electron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave propagating across a magnetic field in periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buts, V. A.; Ognivenko, V. V.

    1990-05-01

    The possibility of the acceleration of charged particles captured by an electromagnetic wave propagating across a constant magnetic field in periodic slow-wave structures is demonstrated. A plane waveguide with perfectly conducting walls is examined as an example of an electrodynamic structure in which such an acceleration mechanism is possible. The acceleration rate is determined, and the stability of captured particle motion is investigated.

  20. Direct Visualization of Local Electromagnetic Field Structures by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Naoya; Findlay, Scott D; Matsumoto, Takao; Kohno, Yuji; Seki, Takehito; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-07-18

    The functional properties of materials and devices are critically determined by the electromagnetic field structures formed inside them, especially at nanointerface and surface regions, because such structures are strongly associated with the dynamics of electrons, holes and ions. To understand the fundamental origin of many exotic properties in modern materials and devices, it is essential to directly characterize local electromagnetic field structures at such defect regions, even down to atomic dimensions. In recent years, rapid progress in the development of high-speed area detectors for aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with sub-angstrom spatial resolution has opened new possibilities to directly image such electromagnetic field structures at very high-resolution. In this Account, we give an overview of our recent development of differential phase contrast (DPC) microscopy for aberration-corrected STEM and its application to many materials problems. In recent years, we have developed segmented-type STEM detectors which divide the detector plane into 16 segments and enable simultaneous imaging of 16 STEM images which are sensitive to the positions and angles of transmitted/scattered electrons on the detector plane. These detectors also have atomic-resolution imaging capability. Using these segmented-type STEM detectors, we show DPC STEM imaging to be a very powerful tool for directly imaging local electromagnetic field structures in materials and devices in real space. For example, DPC STEM can clearly visualize the local electric field variation due to the abrupt potential change across a p-n junction in a GaAs semiconductor, which cannot be observed by normal in-focus bright-field or annular type dark-field STEM imaging modes. DPC STEM is also very effective for imaging magnetic field structures in magnetic materials, such as magnetic domains and skyrmions. Moreover, real-time imaging of electromagnetic field structures can

  1. One-dimensional electromagnetic band gap plasma structure formed by atmospheric pressure plasma inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babitski, V. S.; Callegari, Th.; Simonchik, L. V.; Sokoloff, J.; Usachonak, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    The ability to use plasma columns of pulse discharges in argon at atmospheric pressure to form a one-dimensional electromagnetic band gap structure (or electromagnetic crystal) in the X-band waveguide is demonstrated. We show that a plasma electromagnetic crystal attenuates a microwave propagation in the stopband more than by 4 orders of magnitude. In order to obtain an effective control of the transmission spectrum comparable with a metallic regular structure, the electron concentration in plasma inhomogeneities should vary within the range from 1014 cm-3 to 1016 cm-3, while gas temperature and mean electron energy must be in the range of 2000 K and 0.5 eV, respectively, to lower electron collision frequency around 1010 s-1. We analyze in detail the time evolution response of the electromagnetic crystal according to the plasma parameters for the duration of the discharge. The interest of using atmospheric pressure discharges is to increase the microwave breakdown threshold in discharge volumes, whereby it becomes possible to perform dynamic control of high power microwaves.

  2. Semi-analytic approach for electromagnetic problems of large arrays structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami-Angas, Masoud

    helps us in finding the microscopic charactristics of the structure. Building on the theory that the molecules can be modeled by electric dipoles; a semi-analytic and semi-classical approach is developed to solve the electromagnetic problem of large array of dipoles and simulate the optical response of molecular aggregates. In chapter 3, a double negative (DNG) metamaterial structure is designed by unit cells of multilayer (concentric) spheres. The dispersion diagram is analyzed to find the frequency band with negative group velocity and the losses in DNG region. Basically, the combination of a positive permittivity dielectric and a negative permittivity plasmonic material can control the resonances of unit cells and therefore the effective permittivity of the 3-D structure. It is also discussed how a novel design of multilayer sphere unit cells leads to the DNG performance at the desired frequency band. In chapter 4, analytical solution to the problem of electromagnetic wave scattering by an arbitrary array of non-concentric spheres is derived. A full wave multipole expansion method is applied to express the electromagnetic fields in terms of the electric and magnetic dipole modes and the higher order moments. Vector spherical wave functions are used as the basis functions of the multipole expansions and the translation addition theorem is implemented to expand fields in desired coordinate systems. The accuracy and computational performance of the model are investigated and some interesting applications are discussed.

  3. ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATIONS OF LINEAR PROTON ACCELERATOR STRUCTURES USING DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S; Poole, B; Caporaso, G

    2007-06-15

    Proton accelerator structures for medical applications using Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA) technology allow for the utilization of high electric field gradients on the order of 100 MV/m to accelerate the proton bunch. Medical applications involving cancer therapy treatment usually desire short bunch lengths on the order of hundreds of picoseconds in order to limit the extent of the energy deposited in the tumor site (in 3D space, time, and deposited proton charge). Electromagnetic simulations of the DWA structure, in combination with injections of proton bunches have been performed using 3D finite difference codes in combination with particle pushing codes. Electromagnetic simulations of DWA structures includes these effects and also include the details of the switch configuration and how that switch time affects the electric field pulse which accelerates the particle beam.

  4. Influence analysis of structural parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS linear induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Zheng, T. Q.; Zhang, W.; Fang, J.; Liu, Y. M.

    2011-11-01

    A new type high temperature superconductor linear induction motor is designed and analyzed as a prototype to ensure applicability aimed at industrial motors. Made of Bi-2223/Ag, primary windings are distributed with the double-layer concentrated structure. The motor is analyzed by 2D electromagnetic Finite Element Method to get magnetic field distribution, thrust force, vertical force and so on. The critical current of motor and the electromagnetic force are mostly decided by the leakage flux density of primary slot and by the main magnetic flux and eddy current respectively. The structural parameters of motor have a great influence on the distribution of magnetic field. Under constant currents, the properties of motor are analyzed with different slot widths, slot heights and winding turns. The properties of motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux density, motor thrust and motor vertical force, are analyzed with different structural parameters.

  5. Electrical model of dielectric barrier discharge homogenous and filamentary modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Fernandez, J. A.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; López-Callejas, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Muñoz-Castro, A.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes an electrical model that combines homogeneous and filamentary modes of an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge cell. A voltage controlled electric current source has been utilized to implement the power law equation that represents the homogeneous discharge mode, which starts when the gas breakdown voltage is reached. The filamentary mode implies the emergence of electric current conducting channels (microdischarges), to add this phenomenon an RC circuit commutated by an ideal switch has been proposed. The switch activation occurs at a higher voltage level than the gas breakdown voltage because it is necessary to impose a huge electric field that contributes to the appearance of streamers. The model allows the estimation of several electric parameters inside the reactor that cannot be measured. Also, it is possible to appreciate the modes of the DBD depending on the applied voltage magnitude. Finally, it has been recognized a good agreement between simulation outcomes and experimental results.

  6. Time-dependent response of filamentary composite spherical pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A filamentary composite spherical pressure vessel is modeled as a pseudoisotropic (or transversely isotropic) composite shell, with the effects of the liner and fill tubes omitted. Equations of elasticity, macromechanical and micromechanical formulations, and laminate properties are derived for the application of an internally pressured spherical composite vessel. Viscoelastic properties for the composite matrix are used to characterize time-dependent behavior. Using the maximum strain theory of failure, burst pressure and critical strain equations are formulated, solved in the Laplace domain with an associated elastic solution, and inverted back into the time domain using the method of collocation. Viscoelastic properties of HBFR-55 resin are experimentally determined and a Kevlar/HBFR-55 system is evaluated with a FORTRAN program. The computed reduction in burst pressure with respect to time indicates that the analysis employed may be used to predict the time-dependent response of a filamentary composite spherical pressure vessel.

  7. Complex layered materials and periodic electromagnetic band-gap structures: Concepts, characterizations, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosallaei, Hossein

    The main objective of this dissertation is to characterize and create insight into the electromagnetic performances of two classes of composite structures, namely, complex multi-layered media and periodic Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) structures. The advanced and diversified computational techniques are applied to obtain their unique propagation characteristics and integrate the results into some novel applications. In the first part of this dissertation, the vector wave solution of Maxwell's equations is integrated with the Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization method to provide a powerful technique for characterizing multi-layered materials, and obtaining their optimal designs. The developed method is successfully applied to determine the optimal composite coatings for Radar Cross Section (RCS) reduction of canonical structures. Both monostatic and bistatic scatterings are explored. A GA with hybrid planar/curved surface implementation is also introduced to efficiently obtain the optimal absorbing materials for curved structures. Furthermore, design optimization of the non-uniform Luneburg and 2-shell spherical lens antennas utilizing modal solution/GA-adaptive-cost function is presented. The lens antennas are effectively optimized for both high gain and suppressed grating lobes. The second part demonstrates the development of an advanced computational engine, which accurately computes the broadband characteristics of challenging periodic electromagnetic band-gap structures. This method utilizes the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique with Periodic Boundary Condition/Perfectly Matched Layer (PBC/PML), which is efficiently integrated with the Prony scheme. The computational technique is successfully applied to characterize and present the unique propagation performances of different classes of periodic structures such as Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS), Photonic Band-Gap (PBG) materials, and Left-Handed (LH) composite media. The results are

  8. Electromagnetic Modeling and Measurement of Adaptive Metamaterial Structural Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    via electrodes , the permittivity is shifted, thereby shifting the resonance of the device [24]. Figure 35. Geometry of a tunable FSS structure that...2.5.6 Series SRR Particles. Nicholson and Ghorbani present a series SRR design with interdigital capacitors patterned on a barium strontium titanate

  9. Experimental Progress Toward Detection and Identification of Electromagnetically Complex Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    requiring geolocation. These requirements led us to our choice of a pulsed ultra wide band ( UWB ) detection system. Structures of interest (targets...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 function of multiple frequencies contained in the UWB transmit pulse ). The range dependence of...test circuit) in the field . A technique for reliably predicting range from the pulsed radar receiver signals is available, and the range dependence of

  10. All-thin-film multilayered multiferroic structures with a slot-line for spin-electromagnetic wave devices

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, Andrey A.; Ustinov, Alexey B.; Semenov, Alexander A.; Kalinikos, Boris A.; Lähderanta, E.

    2014-03-03

    Spin-electromagnetic waves propagating in thin-film multilayered multiferroic structures containing a slot transmission line have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The thin-film structure was composed of a ferrite film, a ferroelectric film, and a slot-line. It was shown that the spectrum of the spin-electromagnetic wave was formed as a result of hybridization of the spin wave in the ferrite film with the electromagnetic wave in the slot-line and was electrically and magnetically tunable. For the experimental investigations, a microwave phase shifter based on the multiferroic structure has been fabricated. Performance characteristics are presented.

  11. Generation Mechanism and Propagation Features of the Ionospheric Weather Forming ULF Electromagnetic Wave Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, Kh. Z.; Khantadze, A. G.; Lominadze, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Results of theoretical investigation of the dynamics of generation and propagation of planetary (with wavelengths 103 km and more) weather-forming Ultra-Low Frequency (ULF) electromagnetic wave structures in the dissipative ionosphere are given in this paper. It is established that the global factor, acting permanently in the ionosphere spatial inhomogeneity and curvature of the geomagnetic field and inhomogeneity of angular velocity of the Earth's rotation generates the fast and slow planetary ULF electromagnetic waves. The waves propagate along the parallels to the east as well as to the west. In the E-region the fast waves have phase velocities of (2-20) km/s-1 and frequencies of (10^-1-10^-4) Hz; the slow waves propagate with local wind velocities and have frequencies (10^-4-10^-6) Hz. In the F-region the fast ULF electromagnetic waves propagate with phase velocities of tens-hundreds km/s-1 and their frequencies are in the range of (10-10^-3) Hz. The large-scale waves are weakly damped. The waves generate the geomagnetic field perturbations from several tens to several hundreds nT and more. It is established that planetary ULF electromagnetic waves, at their interaction with the local shear winds, can self-localize in the form of nonlinear solitary vortices, moving along the latitude circles westward as well as eastward.

  12. The structure of the nucleon: Elastic electromagnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Punjabi, V.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Jones, M. K.; Brash, E. J.; Carlson, C. E.

    2015-07-10

    Precise proton and neutron form factor measurements at Jefferson Lab, using spin observables, have recently made a significant contribution to the unraveling of the internal structure of the nucleon. Accurate experimental measurements of the nucleon form factors are a test-bed for understanding how the nucleon's static properties and dynamical behavior emerge from QCD, the theory of the strong interactions between quarks. There has been enormous theoretical progress, since the publication of the Jefferson Lab proton form factor ratio data, aiming at reevaluating the picture of the nucleon. We will review the experimental and theoretical developments in this field and discuss the outlook for the future.

  13. Integrated Thermal-structural-electromagnetic Design Optimization of Large Space Antenna Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Padula, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    The requirements for low mass and high electromagnetic (EM) performance in large, flexible space antenna structures is motivating the development of a systematic procedure for antenna design. In contrast to previous work which concentrated on reducing rms distortions of the reflector surface, thereby indirectly increasing antenna performance, the current work involves a direct approach to increasing electromagnetic performance using mathematical optimization. The thermal, structural, and EM analyses are fully integrated in the context of an optimization procedure, and consequently, the interaction of the various responses is accounted for directly and automatically. Preliminary results are presented for sizing cross-sectional areas of a tetrahedral truss reflector. The results indicate potential for this integrated procedure from the standpoint of mass reduction, performance increase, and efficiency of the design process.

  14. Characterizing filamentary switching in resistive memories (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, Yan; Pireaux, Jean-Jacques

    2015-09-01

    Characterizing filamentary switching in resistive memories For many organic, inorganic and hybrid memory devices the resistive switching mechanism is well known to rely on filament formation [1]. This implies that localized conductive paths are established between the two terminal electrodes during the forming step. This filaments sustain the current flow when the memory is in the low conductive state and they can be ruptured and possibly re-formed for more than hundreds of I-V cycles. The nature and morphology of filaments has been long time debated especially for organic memories. The filament size, density and formation mechanism have been very challenging to be characterized, and need appropriate experimental techniques. However, filaments in organic memories have been recently identified and characterized by cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM), conductive-AFM, AFM-tomography and through depth profile analysis combining Time-of-flight secondary ions mass spectrometry (SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In particular, 3D spectroscopic images obtained with ToF-SIMS give access for the first time to filament formation process and rupture mechanism. From these results, a clear picture of the filament(s) dynamics during memory operation can be drawn. In this contribution, recent results showing filaments in memories based on different structures and architectures will be discussed. The memories are based on insulating polymers (polystyrene [2] and poly methyl methacrylate [3]), conductive polymers/nanocomposites (polyera N1400 with metal NPs [4]), and small semiconducting molecules (Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium - Alq3 [5]). The results show that resistive switching clearly involves the inhomogeneous metal diffusion in the organic layer taking place during the top electrode deposition and during memory operation. This may be of great relevance in many other organic electronics applications. REFERENCES [1] S. Nau, S. Sax, E

  15. The structure of the nucleon: Elastic electromagnetic form factors

    DOE PAGES

    Punjabi, V.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Jones, M. K.; ...

    2015-07-10

    Precise proton and neutron form factor measurements at Jefferson Lab, using spin observables, have recently made a significant contribution to the unraveling of the internal structure of the nucleon. Accurate experimental measurements of the nucleon form factors are a test-bed for understanding how the nucleon's static properties and dynamical behavior emerge from QCD, the theory of the strong interactions between quarks. There has been enormous theoretical progress, since the publication of the Jefferson Lab proton form factor ratio data, aiming at reevaluating the picture of the nucleon. We will review the experimental and theoretical developments in this field and discussmore » the outlook for the future.« less

  16. Application study of filamentary composites in a commercial jet aircraft fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; June, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A study of applications of filamentary composite materials to aircraft fuselage structure was performed. General design criteria were established and material studies conducted using the 727-200 forebody as the primary structural component. Three design approaches to the use of composites were investigated: uniaxial reinforcement of metal structure, uniaxial and biaxial reinforcement of metal structure, and an all-composite design. Materials application studies for all three concepts were conducted on fuselage shell panels, keel beam, floor beams, floor panels, body frames, fail-safe straps, and window frames. Cost benefit studies were conducted and developmental program costs estimated. On the basis of weight savings, cost effectiveness, developmental program costs, and potential for early application on commercial aircraft, the unaxial design is recommended for a 5-year flight service evaluation program.

  17. Filamentary fragmentation in a turbulent medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Hubber, D. A.

    2017-06-01

    We present the results of smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations investigating the evolution and fragmentation of filaments that are accreting from a turbulent medium. We show that the presence of turbulence and the resulting inhomogeneities in the accretion flow play a significant role in the fragmentation process. Filaments that experience a weakly turbulent accretion flow fragment in a two-tier hierarchical fashion, similar to the fragmentation pattern seen in the Orion Integral Shaped Filament. Increasing the energy in the turbulent velocity field results in more sub-structure within the filaments, and one sees a shift from gravity-dominated fragmentation to turbulence-dominated fragmentation. The sub-structure formed in the filaments is elongated and roughly parallel to the longitudinal axis of the filament, similar to the fibres seen in observations of Taurus, and suggests that the fray and fragment scenario is a possible mechanism for the production of fibres. We show that the formation of these fibre-like structures is linked to the vorticity of the velocity field inside the filament and the filament's accretion from an inhomogeneous medium. Moreover, we find that accretion is able to drive and sustain roughly sonic levels of turbulence inside the filaments, but is not able to prevent radial collapse once the filaments become supercritical. However, the supercritical filaments that contain fibre-like structures do not collapse radially, suggesting that fibrous filaments may not necessarily become radially unstable once they reach the critical line-density.

  18. Frequency-selective multilayer electromagnetic bandgap structure combining carbon nanotubes with polymeric or ceramic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danlée, Y.; Huynen, I.; Bailly, C.

    2014-09-01

    We present an electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) multilayer structure, acting as a frequency-selective surface able to absorb in specified narrow frequency bands within the GHz-range. The structure is a lossy EBG using ultra-thin conductive layers to generate a controlled resonance in homogenous high permittivity slabs. The basic structure is composed of carbon nanotubes depositions sandwiched between polycarbonate films, which are stacked in alternation between dielectric slabs. The physical properties (i.e., relative permittivity and thickness) of the dielectric spacers allow creating narrow high-absorption bands at defined frequencies. This multilayer approach offers a smart and versatile solution for tuning the selectivity of EBG performance.

  19. LSP Simulation and Analytical Results on Electromagnetic Wave Scattering on Coherent Density Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J.; Paraschiv, I.; Mehlhorn, T.

    2014-09-01

    The presence of plasma turbulence can strongly influence propagation properties of electromagnetic signals used for surveillance and communication. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of coherent vortex structures. Interchange or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. These types of density irregularities play important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics (HEDP) and in many other applications. We will discuss scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves on low frequency density irregularities due to the presence of vortex density structures associated with interchange instability. We will also present PIC simulation results on EM scattering on vortex type density structures using the LSP code and compare them with analytical results. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Air Force Research laboratory, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Naval Research Laboratory and NNSA/DOE grant no. DE-FC52-06NA27616 at the University of Nevada at Reno.

  20. Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-07-01

    In this review, we present our recent work on making structured metals transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves via excitation of surface waves. First, we theoretically show that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic waves by relying on surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. Second, we experimentally demonstrate that metallic gratings with narrow slits are highly transparent for broadband terahertz waves at oblique incidence and high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. Further, we significantly develop oblique metal gratings transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves (including optical waves and terahertz ones) under normal incidence. In the third, we find the principles of broadband transparency for structured metals can be extended from one-dimensional metallic gratings to two-dimensional cases. Moreover, similar phenomena are found in sonic artificially metallic structures, which present the transparency for broadband acoustic waves. These investigations provide guidelines to develop many novel materials and devices, such as transparent conducting panels, antireflective solar cells, and other broadband metamaterials and stealth technologies.

  1. Electromagnetic Structure and Electron Acceleration in Shock–Shock Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanotani, Masaru; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Hada, Tohru; Mazelle, Christian X.

    2017-09-01

    A shock–shock interaction is investigated by using a one-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulation. The simulation reproduces the collision of two symmetrical high Mach number quasi-perpendicular shocks. The basic structure of the shocks and ion dynamics is similar to that obtained by previous hybrid simulations. The new aspects obtained here are as follows. Electrons are already strongly accelerated before the two shocks collide through multiple reflection. The reflected electrons self-generate waves upstream between the two shocks before they collide. The waves far upstream are generated through the right-hand resonant instability with the anomalous Doppler effect. The waves generated near the shock are due to firehose instability and have much larger amplitudes than those due to the resonant instability. The high-energy electrons are efficiently scattered by the waves so that some of them gain large pitch angles. Those electrons can be easily reflected at the shock of the other side. The accelerated electrons form a power-law energy spectrum. Due to the accelerated electrons, the pressure of upstream electrons increases with time. This appears to cause the deceleration of the approaching shock speed. The accelerated electrons having sufficiently large Larmor radii are further accelerated through the similar mechanism working for ions when the two shocks are colliding.

  2. Generation and propagation of the ULF planetary-scale electromagnetic wavy structures in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, Kh. Z.; Jandieri, G. V.; Khantadze, A. G.; Kharshiladze, O. A.; Lominadze, J. G.

    2005-08-01

    In the present article, the results of theoretical investigation of the dynamics of generation and propagation of planetary (with wavelength 10 3 km and more) ultra-low frequency (ULF) electromagnetic wave structures in the dissipative ionosphere are given. The physical mechanism of generation of the planetary electromagnetic waves is proposed. It is established, that the global factor, acting permanently in the ionosphere - inhomogeneity (latitude variation) of the geomagnetic field and angular velocity of the earth's rotation - generates the fast and slow planetary ULF electromagnetic waves. The waves propagate along the parallels to the east as well as to the west. In E-region the fast waves have phase velocities (2-20) km s -1and frequencies (10 -1-10 -4) s -1; the slow waves propagate with local winds velocities and have frequencies (10 -4-10 -6) s -1. In F-region the fast ULF electromagnetic waves propagate with phase velocities tens-hundreds km s -1 and their frequencies are in the range of (10-10 -3) s -1. The slow mode is produced by the dynamoelectric field, it represents a generalization of the ordinary Rossby-type waves in the rotating ionosphere and is caused by the Hall effect in the E-layer. The fast disturbances are the new modes, which are associated with oscillations of the ionospheric electrons frozen in the geomagnetic field and are connected with the large-scale internal vortical electric field generation in the ionosphere. The large-scale waves are weakly damped. The features and the parameters of the theoretically investigated electromagnetic wave structures agree with those of large-scale ULF midlatitude long-period oscillations (MLO) and magnetoionospheric wave perturbations (MIWP), observed experimentally in the ionosphere. It is established, that because of relevance of Coriolis and electromagnetic forces, generation of slow planetary electromagnetic waves at the fixed latitude in the ionosphere can give rise to the reverse of local wind

  3. Analysis of electromagnetic scattering by nearly periodic structures: an LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, William Arthur; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wilton, Donald R. (University of Houston, Houston, TX); Basilio, Lorena I.; Peters, David William; Capolino, F.

    2006-10-01

    In this LDRD we examine techniques to analyze the electromagnetic scattering from structures that are nearly periodic. Nearly periodic could mean that one of the structure's unit cells is different from all the others--a defect. It could also mean that the structure is truncated, or butted up against another periodic structure to form a seam. Straightforward electromagnetic analysis of these nearly periodic structures requires us to grid the entire structure, which would overwhelm today's computers and the computers in the foreseeable future. In this report we will examine various approximations that allow us to continue to exploit some aspects of the structure's periodicity and thereby reduce the number of unknowns required for analysis. We will use the Green's Function Interpolation with a Fast Fourier Transform (GIFFT) to examine isolated defects both in the form of a source dipole over a meta-material slab and as a rotated dipole in a finite array of dipoles. We will look at the numerically exact solution of a one-dimensional seam. In order to solve a two-dimensional seam, we formulate an efficient way to calculate the Green's function of a 1d array of point sources. We next formulate ways of calculating the far-field due to a seam and due to array truncation based on both array theory and high-frequency asymptotic methods. We compare the high-frequency and GIFFT results. Finally, we use GIFFT to solve a simple, two-dimensional seam problem.

  4. Full-wave finite-difference time-domain simulation of electromagnetic cloaking structures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Argyropoulos, Christos; Hao, Yang

    2008-04-28

    This paper proposes a radial dependent dispersive finite-difference time-domain method for the modeling of electromagnetic cloaking structures. The permittivity and permeability of the cloak are mapped to the Drude dispersion model and taken into account in dispersive FDTD simulations. Numerical simulations demonstrate that under ideal conditions, objects placed inside the cloak are 'invisible' to external electromagnetic fields. However for the simplified cloak based on linear transformations, the back scattering has a similar level to the case of a PEC cylinder without any cloak, rendering the object still being 'visible'. It is also demonstrated numerically that the simplified cloak based on high-order transformations can indeed improve the cloaking performance.

  5. Effects of electric field and structure on the electromagnetically induced transparency in double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, D.

    2017-05-01

    We theoretically investigated the effects of electric field and structural parameters of the confining potential on the optical properties of a GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum dot related to the occurrence of the electromagnetically induced transparency phenomenon, using the compact density-matrix formalism and the effective mass approximation. The dependences of the absorption coefficient, refraction index and light group velocity on the Rabi frequency of the control field, intensity of the static electric field, asymmetry parameter of the potential and dot dimension are discussed in detail. It is found that electromagnetically induced transparency occurs in the system for intermediate field values and its transparency window for probe field absorption and sub- and super-luminal frequency interval of the probe field are blueshifted by the increment of the electric field strength and dot dimension but are redshifted by the augment of the asymmetry parameter of the potential.

  6. An efficient and stable spectral method for electromagnetic scattering from a layered periodic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ying; Nicholls, David P.; Shen, Jie

    2012-04-01

    The scattering of acoustic and electromagnetic waves by periodic structures plays an important role in a wide range of problems of scientific and technological interest. This contribution focuses upon the stable and high-order numerical simulation of the interaction of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves incident upon a periodic doubly layered dielectric media with sharp, irregular interface. We describe a boundary perturbation method for this problem which avoids not only the need for specialized quadrature rules but also the dense linear systems characteristic of boundary integral/element methods. Additionally, it is a provably stable algorithm as opposed to other boundary perturbation approaches such as Bruno and Reitich's "method of field expansions" or Milder's "method of operator expansions". Our spectrally accurate approach is a natural extension of the "method of transformed field expansions" originally described by Nicholls and Reitich (and later refined to other geometries by the authors) in the single-layer case.

  7. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by vortex density structures associated with interchange instability: Analytical and large scale plasma simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J.; Paraschiv, I.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2014-05-15

    The presence of plasma turbulence can strongly influence propagation properties of electromagnetic signals used for surveillance and communication. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of coherent vortex structures. Interchange or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. These types of density irregularities play an important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics, and in many other applications. We will discuss scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves on low frequency density irregularities due to the presence of vortex density structures associated with interchange instability. We will also present particle-in-cell simulation results of electromagnetic scattering on vortex type density structures using the large scale plasma code LSP and compare them with analytical results.

  8. Gravitational instability of filamentary molecular clouds, including ambipolar diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinirad, Mohammad; Naficy, Kazem; Abbassi, Shahram; Roshan, Mahmood

    2017-02-01

    The gravitational instability of a filamentary molecular cloud in non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics is investigated. The filament is assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium. We add the effect of ambipolar diffusion to the filament which is threaded by an initial uniform axial magnetic field along its axis. We write down the fluid equations in cylindrical coordinates and perform linear perturbation analysis. We integrate the resultant differential equations and then derive the numerical dispersion relation. We find that a more efficient ambipolar diffusion leads to an enhancement of the growth of the most unstable mode, and to the increase of the fragmentation scale of the filament.

  9. The Electrical Characteristics of a Filamentary Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, W. H.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2010-07-07

    The electrical characteristics of a filamentary dielectric barrier discharge using parallel-plate electrodes geometry were statistically studied. The DBD's system was powered by a 50 Hz power supply and operated at atmospheric pressure. The influence of the air gap and position of dielectric on the discharge had been investigated. It was found that the air gap distance and position of dielectric had significant influence on the discharge current pulse. The results showed that discharge with large distance between the high voltage electrode and the dielectric would generate higher current pulses during the positive cycle. The discharge energy of single pulse was also determined.

  10. Theoretical investigations of energy harvesting efficiency from structural vibrations using piezoelectric and electromagnetic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Harne, Ryan L

    2012-07-01

    Conversion of ambient vibrational energy into electric power has been the impetus of much modern research. The traditional analysis has focused on absolute electrical power output from the harvesting devices and efficiency defined as the convertibility of an infinite resource of vibration excitation into power. This perspective has limited extensibility when applying resonant harvesters to host resonant structures when the inertial influence of the harvester is more significant. Instead, this work pursues a fundamental understanding of the coupled dynamics of a main mass-spring-damper system to which an electromagnetic or piezoelectric mass-spring-damper is attached. The governing equations are derived, a metric of efficiency is presented, and analysis is undertaken. It is found that electromagnetic energy harvesting efficiency and maximum power output is limited by the strength of the coupling such that no split system resonances are induced for a given mass ratio. For piezoelectric harvesters, only the coupling strength and certain design requirements dictate maximum power and efficiency achievable. Since the harvesting circuitry must "follow" the split resonances as the piezoelectric harvesters become more massive, the optimum design of piezoelectric harvesters appears to be more involved than for electromagnetic devices.

  11. Electromagnetic-field effects on structure and dynamics of amyloidogenic peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorova, Nevena; Bentvelzen, Alan; English, Niall J.; Yarovsky, Irene

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ever-present, and so is the need to better understand their influence on human health and biological matter in general. The interaction between a molecular system and external EMF can alter the structure, and dynamical behaviour, and, hence, biological function of proteins with uncertain health consequences. This urges a detailed investigation of EMF-induced effects on basic protein biophysics. Here, we used all-atom non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to understand and quantify the response mechanisms of the amyloidogenic apoC-II(60-70) peptides to non-ionising radiation by modelling their behaviour under external electromagnetic and electric fields of different strengths. Our simulations show high strength fields (>0.04 V/nm) cause structural changes in apoC-II(60-70) due to the peptide dipole alignment along the applied field direction, which disrupts the inherent β-hairpin conformation known to be the intermediate state for fibril formation. The intermediate field-strength range (0.04-0.004 V/nm) causes a significant acceleration in peptide dynamics, which leads to the increased population of structures with fibril-inhibiting characteristics, such as the separated N- and C-termini and colocation of the aromatic residues at the same peptide face. In contrast, lower field strengths (<0.004 V/nm) promote the formation of the amyloid-prone hairpin structures relative to the ambient conditions. These findings suggest that intermediate-strength electromagnetic fields could be considered for designing alternative treatments of amyloid diseases, while the very high and low field strengths could be employed for engineering well-ordered fibrillar aggregates for non-medicinal applications.

  12. A New Method for Design of Geometrically Shaped Structures for Prescribed Electromagnetic Field Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Carlos Manuel

    The contribution of this research work to the body of existing knowledge is a novel design (inverse) method to compute the distribution of fields when electromagnetic waves interact with surfaces. If given a desired distribution of electromagnetic fields (radiation pattern), the design (inverse) method developed will rapidly allow a designer to determine a unique geometric solution which will provide the desired radiation pattern, which is an inverse problem. The method developed can also be used as an analysis tool to analyze radiating or receiving structures with simple and complex non-linear geometric features. In the extensive literature search provided in this work, others have used analytical methods for computing the distribution of electromagnetic fields when waves propagate and interact with structures. This requires a mathematical framework to be developed using time-harmonic and magnetic fields to solve boundary value problems using closed-form mathematical relationships that only have closed-form solutions for a few simple geometrical shapes. When the geometrical features of a structure contain arbitrary shapes with irregular geometries, finite element methods can also be used as analysis tools to handle any type of geometrical features, however, both of these methods are used to perform analysis of these types of problems and are very time consuming and not suited as design tools to rapidly provide design information on the geometry features that provide a desired electric field distribution. This revolutionary methodology provides a design tool which currently does not exist in the reviewed published literature. It overcomes deficiencies presented by current analysis tools, such as theoretical, analytical and numerical methods which are capable of analyzing wave propagation and interaction problems, but are not suited to rapidly design geometrical features of radiating or receiving structures.

  13. BMFO-PVDF electrospun fiber based tunable metamaterial structures for electromagnetic interference shielding in microwave frequency region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revathi, Venkatachalam; Dinesh Kumar, Sakthivel; Subramanian, Venkatachalam; Chellamuthu, Muthamizhchelvan

    2015-11-01

    Metamaterial structures are artificial structures that are useful in controlling the flow of electromagnetic radiation. In this paper, composite fibers of sub-micron thickness of barium substituted magnesium ferrite (Ba0.2Mg0.8Fe2O4) - polyvinylidene fluoride obtained by electrospinning is used as a substrate to design electromagnetic interference shielding structures. While electrospinning improves the ferroelectric properties of the polyvinylidene fluoride, the presence of barium magnesium ferrite modifies the magnetic property of the composite fiber. The dielectric and magnetic properties at microwave frequency measured using microwave cavity perturbation technique are used to design the reflection as well as absorption based tunable metamaterial structures for electromagnetic interference shielding in microwave frequency region. For one of the structures, the simulation indicates that single negative metamaterial structure becomes a double negative metamaterial under the external magnetic field.

  14. Dynamics of the large-scale ULF electromagnetic wave structures in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, Z. Kh.

    2007-12-01

    The present article displays the results of theoretical investigation of the planetary ultra-low-frequency (ULF) electromagnetic wave structure, generation and propagation dynamics in the dissipative ionosphere. These waves are stipulated by a spatial inhomogeneous geomagnetic field. The waves propagate in different ionospheric layers along the parallels to the east as well as to the west and their frequencies vary in the range of (10 10-6) s-1 with a wavelength of order 103 km. The fast disturbances are associated with oscillations of the ionospheric electrons frozen in the geomagnetic field. The large-scale waves are weakly damped. They generate the geomagnetic field adding up to several tens of nanotesla (nT) near the Earth's surface. It is prescribed that the planetary ULF electromagnetic waves preceding their nonlinear interaction with the local shear winds can self-localize in the form of nonlinear long-living solitary vortices, moving along the latitude circles westward as well as eastward with a velocity different from the phase velocity of the corresponding linear waves. The vortex structures transfer the trapped particles of medium, as well as energy and heat. That is why such nonlinear vortex structures can be the structural elements of the ionospheric strong macro-turbulences.

  15. Novel Compact Mushroom-Type EBG Structure for Electromagnetic Coupling Reduction of Microstrip Antenna array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lizhong; Wang, Guangming; Liang, Jiangang; Zhang, Chenxin

    2015-03-01

    A novel compact electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure consisting of two turns complementary spiral resonator (CSR) and conventional mushroom EBG (CM-EBG) structure is introduced to suppress the mutual coupling in antenna arrays for multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) applications. Eigenmode calculation is used to investigate the proposed CSR-loaded mushroom-type EBG (MT-EBG), which proved to exhibit bandgap property and a miniaturization of 48.9% is realized compared with the CM-EBG. By inserting the proposed EBG structure between two E-plane coupled microstrip antennas, a mutual coupling reduction of 8.13 dB has been achieved numerically and experimentally. Moreover, the EBG-loaded antenna has better far-field radiation patterns compared with the reference antenna. Thus, this novel EBG structure with advantages of compactness and high decoupling efficiency opens an avenue to new types of antennas with super performances.

  16. A concept for improving the dimensional stability of filamentary composites in one direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, N. F.; Rosen, B. W.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of filamentary composites having high strength and stiffness and a zero thermal coefficient of expansion in one direction shows that advanced filament materials, such as boron, have substantial advantages over conventional filamentary composites. Various other results are discussed, including guidelines and analysis methods for further evaluation.

  17. Electromagnetic fields generated by constrained rotation of structural blocks in the Earth’s crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losseva, T. V.; Kuzmicheva, M. Y.; Spivak, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Specific features of low frequency electromagnetic impulses in the subsurface Earth’s crust with a low moisture content are defined by the tectonic activity of the region and its structure as well as the stressed-strained state. Electromagnetic effects related to seismic and deformation processes in rocks are very diverse and their physical nature is different. The electric polarization of rocks deserves special attention, since this mechanism is implied in an explosive loading of rocks or relaxation processes in any hierarchic block geophysical medium [1]. The amplitudes of electromagnetic pulses generated by electric currents in a relaxing block-structured stress-strained medium have been obtained by 3D numerical modeling. The source of currents is formed by electric polarization of solids filled inter-block gaps on the active face of a block which, in turn, rotates constrainedly under relaxation. The electric current impulse is defined by the shape of the seismic impulse of the block under relaxation. The block is embedded in the crust. The full system of Maxwell equations in a conductive medium has been solved. The numerical method used has been developed to describe properly the geometry of strain as well as impressed current and conductivity profiles at every time. The figure below presents the maximal amplitudes of electric fields Emax for different active block sizes L (curves 1, 2, 3) versus the relative distances from the source epicenter x/L. Here circles denote the experimental data obtained for the Kurai tectonic structure [1]. We see that the results of numerical simulations are in good agreement with the results of measurements. This proves the validity of our model for the estimation of electric effects in the low moisture rock medium. References: [1] S.P. Soloviev and A.A. Spivak, Doklady Earth Sciences, 2007, Vol. 417A, No. 9, pp. 1449-1453.

  18. Star Formation in the Filamentary Dark Cloud GF-9: a Multi-Wavelength Intra-Cloud Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciardi, David Robert

    Filamentary dark clouds (FDCs) are a subclass of small molecular clouds containing small numbers of somewhat regularly spaced dense cores connected by lower density gas and dust. Most of the previous work performed on FDCs has concerned the star formation properties of individual dense cores within the FDCs and has not concerned the FDCs as entities of their own. As a result little is known about the general star formation properties of FDCs. The primary question addressed in this work is 'Within filamentary dark clouds, how does the star formation process within a core region compare to that within a filamentary region?' In order to address the above question, a multi-wavelength observational comparative study has been performed upon a representative dense core (hereafter, GF9-Core) and filamentary region (hereafter, GF9-Fila) within the FDC GF-9 (LDN 1082). At the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory, the core and filamentary region were observed in the rotational transitions of 12CO/ (J=1/to0),/ 13CO/ (J=1/to0)/ and/ CS/ (J=2/to1) covering a region of 10' x 8'. The temperature, density and kinematic structures of the two regions were deduced from the radio imaging spectroscopy data and were used to estimate the energy balance of the regions. We also obtained 70, 100, 135 and 200 μm images from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) covering approximately 12' x 9' which were used to investigate the temperature and density distributions of the dust within the two regions. Finally, at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory using the Aerospace Corporation NICMOS3 camera, the core and filament were imaged in the near-infrared broadband filters J, H, and K-short covering a slightly smaller region of 7' x 7'. The near-infrared survey data were used to search for embedded Class I and Class II protostars and to investigate the density distribution of the dust. We have found that the evolutionary processes of the core region and the filament region proceed along similar

  19. Broadband impedance-matched electromagnetic structured ferrite composite in the megahertz range

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, L.; Hibbins, A. P.; Sambles, J. R.; Youngs, I. J.

    2014-06-02

    A high refractive-index structured ferrite composite is designed to experimentally demonstrate broadband impedance matching to free-space. It consists of an array of ferrite cubes that are anisotropically spaced, thereby allowing for independent control of the effective complex permeability and permittivity. Despite having a refractive index of 9.5, the array gives less than 1% reflection and over 90% transmission of normally incident radiation up to 70 MHz for one of the orthogonal linear polarisations lying in a symmetry plane of the array. This result presents a route to the design of MHz-frequency ferrite composites with bespoke electromagnetic parameters for antenna miniaturisation.

  20. Vibration and shape control of hinged light structures using electromagnetic forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Yuji; Miyachi, Shigenobu; Sasaki, Toshiyuki

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes a new electromagnetic device for vibration control of a light-weighted deployable/retractable structure which consists of many small units connected with mechanical hinges. A typical example of such a structure is a solar cell paddle of an artificial satellite which is composed of many thin flexible blankets connected in series. Vibration and shape control of the paddle is not easy, because control force and energy do not transmit well between the blankets which are discretely connected by hinges with each other. The new device consists of a permanent magnet glued along an edge of a blanket and an electric current-conducting coil glued along an adjoining edge of another adjacent blanket. Conduction of the electric current in a magnetic field from the magnet generates an electromagnetic force on the coil. By changing the current in the coil, therefore, we may control the vibration and shape of the blankets. To confirm the effectiveness of the new device, constructing a simple paddle model consisting eight hinge- panels, we have carried out a model experiment of vibration and shape control of the paddle. In addition, a numerical simulation of vibration control of the hinge structure is performed to compare with measured data.

  1. Coupling of electromagnetic and structural dynamics for a wind turbine generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzke, D.; Rick, S.; Hollas, S.; Schelenz, R.; Jacobs, G.; Hameyer, K.

    2016-09-01

    This contribution presents a model interface of a wind turbine generator to represent the reciprocal effects between the mechanical and the electromagnetic system. Therefore, a multi-body-simulation (MBS) model in Simpack is set up and coupled with a quasi-static electromagnetic (EM) model of the generator in Matlab/Simulink via co-simulation. Due to lack of data regarding the structural properties of the generator the modal properties of the MBS model are fitted with respect to results of an experimental modal analysis (EMA) on the reference generator. The used method and the results of this approach are presented in this paper. The MB S model and the interface are set up in such a way that the EM forces can be applied to the structure and the response of the structure can be fed back to the EM model. The results of this cosimulation clearly show an influence of the feedback of the mechanical response which is mainly damping in the torsional degree of freedom and effects due to eccentricity in radial direction. The accuracy of these results will be validated via test bench measurements and presented in future work. Furthermore it is suggested that the EM model should be adjusted in future works so that transient effects are represented.

  2. Electromagnetic-thermal-structural coupling analysis of the ITER edge localized mode coil with flexible supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanwen; Song, Yuntao; Tang, Linlin; Wang, Zhongwei; Ji, Xiang; Du, Shuangsong

    2017-05-01

    In a fusion reactor, the edge localized mode (ELM) coil has a mitigating effect on the ELMs of the plasma. The coil is placed close to the plasma between the vacuum vessel and the blanket to reduce its design power and improve its mitigating ability. The coil works in a high-temperature, high-nuclear-heat and high-magnetic-field environment. Due to the existence of outer superconducting coils, the coil is subjected to an alternating electromagnetic force induced by its own alternating current and the outer magnetic field. The design goal for the ELM coil is to maintain its structural integrity in the multi-physical field. Taking as an example the middle ELM coil (with flexible supports) of ITER (the International Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor), an electromagnetic-thermal-structural coupling analysis is carried out using ANSYS. The results show that the flexible supports help the three-layer casing meet the static and fatigue design requirements. The structural design of the middle ELM coil is reasonable and feasible. The work described in this paper provides the theoretical basis and method for ELM coil design.

  3. Spirulina-Templated Metal Microcoils with Controlled Helical Structures for THz Electromagnetic Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Kaori; Piao, Zhenzi; Suzuki, Soichiro; Fujimori, Takahiro; Tajiri, Wataru; Nagai, Keiji; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Yamada, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Toshiaki; Ishiwara, Mitsuteru; Horaguchi, Satoshi; Belay, Amha; Tanaka, Takuo; Takano, Keisuke; Hangyo, Masanori

    2014-05-01

    Microstructures in nature are ultrafine and ordered in biological roles, which have attracted material scientists. Spirulina forms three-dimensional helical microstructure, one of remarkable features in nature beyond our current processing technology such as lithography in terms of mass-productivity and structural multiplicity. Spirulina varies its diameter, helical pitch, and/or length against growing environment. This unique helix is suggestive of a tiny electromagnetic coil, if composed of electro-conductive metal, which brought us main concept of this work. Here, we describe the biotemplating process onto Spirulina surface to fabricate metal microcoils. Structural parameters of the microcoil can be controlled by the cultivation conditions of Spirulina template and also purely one-handed microcoil can be fabricated. A microcoil dispersion sheet exhibited optically active response attributed to structural resonance in terahertz-wave region.

  4. Spirulina-Templated Metal Microcoils with Controlled Helical Structures for THz Electromagnetic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, Kaori; Piao, Zhenzi; Suzuki, Soichiro; Fujimori, Takahiro; Tajiri, Wataru; Nagai, Keiji; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Yamada, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Toshiaki; Ishiwara, Mitsuteru; Horaguchi, Satoshi; Belay, Amha; Tanaka, Takuo; Takano, Keisuke; Hangyo, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Microstructures in nature are ultrafine and ordered in biological roles, which have attracted material scientists. Spirulina forms three-dimensional helical microstructure, one of remarkable features in nature beyond our current processing technology such as lithography in terms of mass-productivity and structural multiplicity. Spirulina varies its diameter, helical pitch, and/or length against growing environment. This unique helix is suggestive of a tiny electromagnetic coil, if composed of electro-conductive metal, which brought us main concept of this work. Here, we describe the biotemplating process onto Spirulina surface to fabricate metal microcoils. Structural parameters of the microcoil can be controlled by the cultivation conditions of Spirulina template and also purely one-handed microcoil can be fabricated. A microcoil dispersion sheet exhibited optically active response attributed to structural resonance in terahertz-wave region. PMID:24815190

  5. Spirulina-templated metal microcoils with controlled helical structures for THz electromagnetic responses.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Kaori; Piao, Zhenzi; Suzuki, Soichiro; Fujimori, Takahiro; Tajiri, Wataru; Nagai, Keiji; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Yamada, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Toshiaki; Ishiwara, Mitsuteru; Horaguchi, Satoshi; Belay, Amha; Tanaka, Takuo; Takano, Keisuke; Hangyo, Masanori

    2014-05-12

    Microstructures in nature are ultrafine and ordered in biological roles, which have attracted material scientists. Spirulina forms three-dimensional helical microstructure, one of remarkable features in nature beyond our current processing technology such as lithography in terms of mass-productivity and structural multiplicity. Spirulina varies its diameter, helical pitch, and/or length against growing environment. This unique helix is suggestive of a tiny electromagnetic coil, if composed of electro-conductive metal, which brought us main concept of this work. Here, we describe the biotemplating process onto Spirulina surface to fabricate metal microcoils. Structural parameters of the microcoil can be controlled by the cultivation conditions of Spirulina template and also purely one-handed microcoil can be fabricated. A microcoil dispersion sheet exhibited optically active response attributed to structural resonance in terahertz-wave region.

  6. Kinetic structure of slow shocks - Effects of the electromagnetic ion/ion cyclotron instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidi, N.; Winske, D.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of slow magnetosonic shocks in the low beta regime is analyzed with attention given to ion heating and the effects of waves upstream of the electromagnetic ion/ion cyclotron (EMIIC) instability. Shock formation is assessed by means of three methods - a relaxation method and two based on dynamic flow interactions - to determine the effects of initialization and boundary conditions on the formation. Good solutions are found with the piston method and the similar flow-flow method in which the plasma is injected from two boundaries to form two slow shocks. Plasma parameters and shock normal angle are found to be the key variables dictating the structure of the magnetosonic shocks. Four unique classes of resultant shock structures are described in which classical, steady, or nonsteady behavior is found. The analysis also yields insight into the relationship between EMIIC instability and ion dissipation.

  7. Tailor-Made Distribution of Nanoparticles in Blend Structure toward Outstanding Electromagnetic Interference Shielding.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sourav; Kar, Goutam Prasanna; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2015-11-18

    Engineering blend structure with tailor-made distribution of nanoparticles is the prime requisite to obtain materials with extraordinary properties. Herein, a unique strategy of distributing nanoparticles in different phases of a blend structure has resulted in >99% blocking of incoming electromagnetic (EM) radiation. This is accomplished by designing a ternary polymer blend structure using polycarbonate (PC), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to simultaneously improve the structural, electrical, and electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI). The blend structure was made conducting by preferentially localizing the multi-wall nanotubes (MWNTs) in the PVDF phase. By taking advantage of "π-π stacking" MWNTs was noncovalently modified with an imidazolium based ionic liquid (IL). Interestingly, the enhanced dispersion of IL-MWNTs in PVDF improved the electrical conductivity of the blends significantly. While one key requisite to attenuate EM radiation (i.e., electrical conductivity) was achieved using MWNTs, the magnetic properties of the blend structure was tuned by introducing barium ferrite (BaFe) nanoparticles, which can interact with the incoming EM radiation. By suitably modifying the surface of BaFe nanoparticles, we can tailor their localization under the macroscopic processing condition. The precise localization of BaFe nanoparticles in the PC phase, due to nucleophilic substitution reaction, and the MWNTs in the PVDF phase not only improved the conductivity but also facilitated in absorption of the incoming microwave radiation due to synergetic effect from MWNT and BaFe. The shielding effectiveness (SE) was measured in X and Ku band, and an enhanced SE of -37 dB was noted at 18 GHz frequency. PMMA, which acted as an interfacial modifier in PC/PVDF blends further, resulting in a significant enhancement in the mechanical properties besides retaining high SE. This study opens a new avenue in designing mechanically strong

  8. Generation of Non-Propagating Electromagnetic-Plasma Structures and Formation of Quasi-Static and Alfvenic Discrete Auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Lysak, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The nonlinear interaction of incident and reflected Alfven wave packets in auroral acceleration regions can create non-propagating electromagnetic-plasma structures, such as transverse Alfvenic double layers and charge holes. These dynamical structures are often characterized by localized strong electrostatic electric fields, localized density cavities and enhanced magnetic or mechanical stresses, and are responsible for auroral particle acceleration and the formation of both Alfvenic and quasi-static inverted-V discrete auroras. Similar electromagnetic-plasma structures should also be generated in other cosmic plasmas, and would constitute effective high energy accelerators of charged particles in cosmic plasmas.

  9. Influence analysis of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS linear induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Sheng, L.; Li, D.; Zhao, J.; Li, Sh.; Qin, W.; Fan, Y.; Zheng, Q. L.; Zhang, W.

    A novel High Temperature Superconductor Linear Induction Motor (HTS LIM) is researched in this paper. Since the critical current and the electromagnetic force of the motor are determined mainly by the primary slot leakage flux, the main magnetic flux and eddy current respectively, in order to research the influence of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS LIM, the motor was analyzed by 2D transient Finite Element Method (FEM). The properties of the motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux density, motor thrust, motor vertical force and critical current are analyzed with different structural parameters and operating parameters. In addition, an experimental investigation was carried out on prototype HTS motor. Electrical parameters were deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM. AC losses of one HTS coil in the motor were measured and AC losses of all HTS coils in HTS LIM were estimated. The results in this paper could provide reference for the design and research on the HTS LIM.

  10. Coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves by self-organized dust structures: Degree of coherence

    SciTech Connect

    Tsytovich, Vadim; Gusein-zade, Namik; Ignatov, Alexander

    2015-02-15

    It is demonstrated explicitly that the scattering of electromagnetic waves by dust structures can be strongly enhanced as compared to incoherent scattering by random electrons. If the size of the dust structure is much less than the wavelength of the incident radiation, the scattering is coherent. In this case, the scattering is proportional to the square of the total number of electrons in the structure. In the opposite limit, the scattering is incoherent being proportional to the total number of electrons in the structure. The factor describing the degree of coherency is calculated numerically for several models of self-organized structures. It is demonstrated in general way that for sudden heating of electrons, the factor of coherency in scattering by structures can decrease by several orders of magnitude with subsequent increase after the heating is switched off. In laboratory dusty plasmas, the coherent scattering is proposed for diagnostics of universal structuring instability and as a probe for determining the properties typical for self-organized nature of structures that are observed in recent experiments.

  11. On the filamentary structures in the Lick galaxy catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzycki, Adam

    1989-01-01

    The positions of the filaments observed by Moody et al. (1983) are discussed with respect to the arrangement of the plates in the Lick galaxy survey. An apparent difficiency of filaments near the plate centers is noted. Although the most prominent filaments appear to pass through the areas in the sky where the Lick survey plates overlap, on the whole there is no statistical tendency for the filaments to lie only on the overlapping areas.

  12. The Peculiar Filamentary H i Structure of NGC 6145

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Enci; Wang, Jing; Kong, Xu; Guo, Fulai; Lin, Lin; Mou, Guobin; Li, Cheng; Xiao, Ting

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we report the peculiar H i morphology of the cluster spiral galaxy NGC 6145, which has a 150 kpc H i filament on one side that is nearly parallel to its major axis. This filament is made up of several H i clouds and the diffuse H i gas between them, with no optical counterparts. We compare its H i distribution with other one-sided H i distributions in the literature and find that the overall H i distribution is very different from the typical tidal and ram-pressure stripped H i shape, and that its morphology is inconsistent with that of a pure accretion event. Only ˜30% of the total H i gas is anchored on the stellar disk, while most of the H i gas forms the filament in the west. At a projected distance of 122 kpc, we find a massive elliptical companion (NGC 6146) with extended radio emission whose axis points to an H i gap in NGC 6145. The velocity of the H i filament shows an overall line-of-sight motion of 80-180 km s-1 with respect to NGC 6145. Using the long-slit spectra of NGC 6145 along its major stellar axis, we find that some outer regions show enhanced star formation, while in contrast, almost no star formation activities are found in its center (<2 kpc). Pure accretion, tidal, or ram-pressure stripping are not likely to produce the observed H i filament. An alternative explanation is the jet stripping from NGC 6146, although direct evidence for a jet-cold gas interaction has not been found.

  13. Optical emission spectrum of filamentary nanosecond surface dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbanev, S. A.; Khomenko, A. Yu; Stepanyan, S. A.; Popov, N. A.; Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2017-02-01

    Streamer-to-filament transition is a general feature of high pressure high voltage (HV) nanosecond surface dielectric barrier discharges. The transition was studied experimentally using time- and space-resolved optical emission in UV and visible parts of spectra. The discharge was initiated by HV pulses 20 ns in duration and 2 ns rise time, positive or negative polarity, 20-60 kV in amplitude on the HV electrode. The experiments were carried out in a single-shot regime at initial pressures P  >  3 bar and ambient initial temperature in air, N2, H2:N2 and O2:Ar mixtures. It was shown that the transition to filamentary mode is accompanied by the appearance of intense continuous radiation and broad atomic lines. Electron density calculated from line broadening is characterized by high absolute values and long decay in the afterglow. The possible reasons for the continuous spectra were analyzed.

  14. Investigation of low velocity impact damage on filamentary composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are the results of an investigation of the effect of low velocity impact on the residual modulus and residual strength of flat filamentary composite materials. Theoretical analysis of composite materials indicates that the modulus of the material must decrease as impact damage increases. This decrease must also correlate to the decrease in residual strength. This study attempts to verify these hypotheses. Graphite/epoxy laminates (AS4/3501-6) of various fiber orientations (8 (0 deg), 2 (+ or - 45 deg)sub 8) were impacted using a falling weight impact tester. Impact energies ranged from 0.42 to 1.55 ft-lb, with impact velocities from 2.03 to 3.98 ft/sec. The results show that there is a reduction in residual modulus of the plate as the impact energy increases.

  15. Formation of filamentary sublimate residues (FSR) from mineral grains

    SciTech Connect

    Storrs, A.D.; Fanale, F.P.; Saunders, R.S.; Stephens, J.B.

    1988-12-01

    The significant interparticle forces observed between solar system dust grains upon desorption or sublimation of excess volatiles in simulated Martian or cometary environments are presently investigated, in order to more precisely define these mechanisms and to simulate the types of deposits thereby formed. Some classes of phyllosilicate mineral grains are noted to bond together to form a highly porous filamentary sublimate residue (FSR) exhibiting an exceptionally high tensile strength for its density; this may be important in its control of erosion and sublimation in Martian and cometary environments. It is concluded that FSR formation from clean mineral grains in water ice may be important in the formation of the Martian polar layered terrain. 41 references.

  16. Bound state structure and electromagnetic form factor beyond the ladder approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigante, V.; Nogueira, J. H. Alvarenga; Ydrefors, E.; Gutierrez, C.; Karmanov, V. A.; Frederico, T.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the response of the bound state structure of a two-boson system, within a Yukawa model with a scalar boson exchange, to the inclusion of the cross-ladder contribution to the ladder kernel of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The equation is solved by means of the Nakanishi integral representation and light-front projection. The valence light-front wave function and electromagnetic form factor, considering both ladder and ladder plus cross-ladder kernels, are studied in detail. Their asymptotic forms are found to be quite independent of the inclusion of the cross-ladder kernel, for a given binding energy. The asymptotic decrease of form factor agrees with the counting rules. This analysis can be generalized to fermionic systems, with a wide application in the study of the meson structure.

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATIONS OF DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR STRUCTURES FOR ELECTRON BEAM ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S D; Poole, B R

    2005-05-05

    Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA) technology incorporates the energy storage mechanism, the switching mechanism, and the acceleration mechanism for electron beams. Electromagnetic simulations of DWA structures includes these effects and also details of the switch configuration and how that switch time affects the electric field pulse which accelerates the particle beam. DWA structures include both bi-linear and bi-spiral configurations with field gradients on the order of 20MV/m and the simulations include the effects of the beampipe, the beampipe walls, the DWA High Gradient Insulator (HGI) insulating stack, wakefield impedance calculations, and test particle trajectories with low emittance gain. Design trade-offs include the transmission line impedance (typically a few ohms), equilibration ring optimization, driving switch inductances, and layer-to-layer coupling effects and the associated affect on the acceleration pulse's peak value.

  18. Fragmentation of Filamentary Molecular Clouds Threaded by Perpendicular Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Kudoh, Takahiro; Tomisaka, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Filamentary clouds are ubiquitously seen in the star forming regions and the fragmentation of them are thought to result in star formation. Some of them are threaded by magnetic field parallel to the cloud axis and some others are thread by perpendicular ones. The effects of the parallel magnetic field on fragmentation have been studied well. However we know little about the effects of the perpendicular magnetic field on fragmentation. A strong perpendicular magnetic field is likely to suspend the fragmentation. In order to assess this effect, we have performed a linear stability analysis of an isothermal filamentary cloud while taking account of a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the cloud axis. We have used the ideal MHD approximation in the stability analysis for simplicity. Then the analysis is formulated to be an eigenvalue problem in which each eigenmode has either a real frequency (stable) or a pure imaginary one (unstable). The growth rate of the instability as well as the eigenmode is obtained numerically as a function of the wavelength and magnetic field strength.The magnetic field suppresses gas motion perpendicular to it. Accordingly, the growth rate of an unstable eigenmode decreases monotonically as the magnetic field is strengthened. The wavelength of the most unstable mode is slightly increased by the magnetic field. When the plasma beta at the cloud center is slightly below 2, the fragmentation instability is completely suppressed. When the unstable mode is excited, only the magnetic field lines that thread the high region near the cloud axis move appreciably. We compare our analysis with those for magnetized sheet-like clouds.

  19. A spiral passive electromagnetic sensor (SPES) for wireless and wired structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iervolino, Onorio; Meo, Michele

    2016-04-01

    A major goal of structural health monitoring (SHM) in the past decade has been to improve crack detection and monitoring while reducing maintenance and installation costs. This would normally require placing many sensors over a large area, powering and interrogating them. On the other hand, operational aspects such as the temperature effects, battery life, and weight penalties have fundamental roles in the sensor design. In addition, small dimension of the sensors, low cost, and non-contact measurement system for data retrieval are very often required. We present a non-destructive evaluation/structural health monitoring (NDE/SHM) sensor that can be remotely interrogated without any wiring for data transmission or power supply. A spiral passive electromagnetic sensor (SPES) was designed and fabricated. The sensor is a planar 2D inductor circuit of scalable size that resonates at a characteristic frequency when exposed to an electromagnetic field. The specific frequency is dependent on the inductance of the inductor, its parasitic capacitance and resistance, and the electrical properties of the surrounding area. A change in a material’s permittivity or permeability due to damage can be sensed through the SPES device. The sensor was tested by using a passive wireless resonant telemetry scheme and a wired interrogation method. Both conductive (i.e. carbon fiber) and non-conductive (i.e. fiber glass) structures were monitored showing very promising capabilities and accuracy in detecting defects/damage in composite structures. The use of the proposed sensor eliminates the need for on-board power and exposed interconnects, reduces the instrumentation mass and volume, increases the reliability due to the continuous operation even in case of a damaged sensor, and increases the life of the device.

  20. Manipulated transformation of filamentary and homogeneous resistive switching on ZnO thin film memristor with controllable multistate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Hsin; Huang, Jian-Shiou; Lai, Chih-Chung; Huang, Hsin-Wei; Lin, Su-Jien; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2013-07-10

    A bias polarity-manipulated transformation from filamentary to homogeneous resistive switching was demonstrated on a Pt/ZnO thin film/Pt device. Two types of switching behaviors, exhibiting different resistive switching characteristics and memory performances were investigated in detail. The detailed transformation mechanisms are systematically proposed. By controlling different compliance currents and RESET-stop voltages, controllable multistate resistances in low resistance states and a high resistance states in the ZnO thin film metal-insulator-metal structure under the homogeneous resistive switching were demonstrated. We believe that findings would open up opportunities to explore the resistive switching mechanisms and performance memristor with multistate storage.

  1. Advanced 3D electromagnetic and particle-in-cell modeling on structured/unstructured hybrid grids

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, D.B.; Pasik, M.F.; Kiefer, M.L.; Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    New techniques have been recently developed that allow unstructured, free meshes to be embedded into standard 3-dimensional, rectilinear, finite-difference time-domain grids. The resulting hybrid-grid modeling capability allows the higher resolution and fidelity of modeling afforded by free meshes to be combined with the simplicity and efficiency of rectilinear techniques. Integration of these new methods into the full-featured, general-purpose QUICKSILVER electromagnetic, Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code provides new modeling capability for a wide variety of electromagnetic and plasma physics problems. To completely exploit the integration of this technology into QUICKSILVER for applications requiring the self-consistent treatment of charged particles, this project has extended existing PIC methods for operation on these hybrid unstructured/rectilinear meshes. Several technical issues had to be addressed in order to accomplish this goal, including the location of particles on the unstructured mesh, adequate conservation of charge, and the proper handling of particles in the transition region between structured and unstructured portions of the hybrid grid.

  2. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat liver influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Holovská, K; Almášiová, V; Cigánková, V; Beňová, K; Račeková, E; Martončíková, M

    2015-01-01

    Mobile communication systems are undoubtedly an environmental source of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). There is an increasing concern regarding the interactions of EMR with the humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of EMR on Wistar rat liver. Mature rats were exposed to electromagnetic field of frequency 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm2 for 3 h/d for 3 wk. Samples of the liver were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed histologically for light and transmission electron microscopy. Data demonstrated the presence of moderate hyperemia, dilatation of liver sinusoids, and small inflammatory foci in the center of liver lobules. Structure of hepatocytes was not altered and all described changes were classified as moderate. Electron microscopy of hepatocytes revealed vesicles of different sizes and shapes, lipid droplets, and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Occasionally necrotizing hepatocytes were observed. Our observations demonstrate that EMR exposure produced adverse effects on rat liver.

  3. Gigahertz Electromagnetic Structures via Direct Ink Writing for Radio-Frequency Oscillator and Transmitter Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nanjia; Liu, Chengye; Lewis, Jennifer A; Ham, Donhee

    2017-04-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) electronics, which combine passive electromagnetic devices and active transistors to generate and process gigahertz (GHz) signals, provide a critical basis of ever-pervasive wireless networks. While transistors are best realized by top-down fabrication, relatively larger electromagnetic passives are within the reach of printing techniques. Here, direct writing of viscoelastic silver-nanoparticle inks is used to produce a broad array of RF passives operating up to 45 GHz. These include lumped devices such as inductors and capacitors, and wave-based devices such as transmission lines, their resonant networks, and antennas. Moreover, to demonstrate the utility of these printed RF passive structures in active RF electronic circuits, they are combined with discrete transistors to fabricate GHz self-sustained oscillators and synchronized oscillator arrays that provide RF references, and wireless transmitters clocked by the oscillators. This work demonstrates the synergy of direct ink writing and RF electronics for wireless applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Electromagnetic and thermal properties of three-dimensional printed multilayered nano-carbon/poly(lactic) acid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paddubskaya, A.; Valynets, N.; Kuzhir, P.; Batrakov, K.; Maksimenko, S.; Kotsilkova, R.; Velichkova, H.; Petrova, I.; Biró, I.; Kertész, K.; Márk, G. I.; Horváth, Z. E.; Biró, L. P.

    2016-04-01

    A new type of light-weight material produced by 3D printing consisting of nano-carbon doped polymer layer followed by a dielectric polymer layer is proposed. We performed temperature dependent characterization and measured the electromagnetic (EM) response of the samples in the GHz and THz range. The temperature dependent structural characteristics, crystallization, and melting were observed to be strongly affected by the presence and the number of nano-carbon doped layers in the sandwich structure. The electromagnetic measurements show a great potential of such a type of periodic material for electromagnetic compatibility applications in microwave frequency range. Sandwich structures containing only two nano-carbon layers already become not transparent to the microwaves, giving an electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency at the level of 8-15 dB. A sandwich consisting of one nano-carbon doped and one polymer layer is opaque for THz radiation, because of 80% of absorption. These studies serve as a basis for design and realization of specific optimal geometries of meta-surface type with the 3D printing technique, in order to reach a high level of electromagnetic interference shielding performance for real world EM cloaking and EM ecology applications.

  5. Electromagnetic and thermal properties of three-dimensional printed multilayered nano-carbon/poly(lactic) acid structures

    SciTech Connect

    Paddubskaya, A.; Valynets, N.; Batrakov, K.; Kuzhir, P. Maksimenko, S.; Kotsilkova, R.; Velichkova, H.; Petrova, I.; Biró, I.

    2016-04-07

    A new type of light-weight material produced by 3D printing consisting of nano-carbon doped polymer layer followed by a dielectric polymer layer is proposed. We performed temperature dependent characterization and measured the electromagnetic (EM) response of the samples in the GHz and THz range. The temperature dependent structural characteristics, crystallization, and melting were observed to be strongly affected by the presence and the number of nano-carbon doped layers in the sandwich structure. The electromagnetic measurements show a great potential of such a type of periodic material for electromagnetic compatibility applications in microwave frequency range. Sandwich structures containing only two nano-carbon layers already become not transparent to the microwaves, giving an electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency at the level of 8–15 dB. A sandwich consisting of one nano-carbon doped and one polymer layer is opaque for THz radiation, because of 80% of absorption. These studies serve as a basis for design and realization of specific optimal geometries of meta-surface type with the 3D printing technique, in order to reach a high level of electromagnetic interference shielding performance for real world EM cloaking and EM ecology applications.

  6. Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced Electromagnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Mario J.-E.

    Spontaneous electromagnetic fields can be important to the dynamic evolution of a plasma by directing heat flow as well as providing additional pressures on the conducting fluids through the Lorentz force. Electromagnetic fields are predicted to affect fluid behavior during the core-collapse of supernovae through generation of fields due to hydrodynamic instabilities. In the coronae of stars, self-generated magnetic fields lead to filamentary structure in the hot plasma. Recent experiments by Gregori et al. investigated sources of protogalactic magnetic fields generated by laser-produced shock waves. In inertial confinement fusion experiments, self-generated electromagnetic fields can also play a role and have recently become of great interest to the community. Present day laser facilities provide a unique opportunity to study spontaneous field-generation in these extreme environments under controlled conditions. Instability-induced electromagnetic fields were investigated using a novel monoenergetic-proton radiography system. Fusion protons generated by an 'exploding-pusher' implosion were used to probe laser-irradiated plastic foils with various preimposed surface perturbations. Imaging protons are sensitive to electromagnetic fields and density modulations in the plasma through the Lorentz force and Coulomb collisions, respectively. Corresponding x-ray radiographs of these targets provided mass density distributions and Coulomb effects on protons were assessed using a Monte Carlo code written using the Geant4 framework. Proton fluence distributions were recorded on CR-39 detectors and Fourier analyzed to infer path-integrated field strengths. Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth of preimposed surface perturbations generated magnetic fields by the RT-induced Biermann battery and were measured for the first time. Good data were obtained during linear growth and when compared to ideal calculations, demonstrated that field diffusion near the source played an important role

  7. Kinetics of the growth of filamentary KH2PO4 crystals on a seed crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titaeva, E. K.; Kuritsyn, M. S.; Noskova, A. N.; Portnov, V. N.

    2017-08-01

    At oversaturations exceeding the inert range end for face {101} due to the presence of admixture Al(NO3)3 · 9H2O, a new phase is observed during the growth of this face in the form of filamentary crystals. Some experimental dependences of the growth rate of filamentary potassium dihydrophosphate (KH2PO4) crystals on the oversaturation have been obtained at different admixture concentrations. The growth of filamentary crystals occurs by the mechanism of two-dimensional nucleation. Their formation is governed by the effect of [AlHPO4]+ complexes in the form of Cabrera and Vermilyea stoppers.

  8. Investigations of the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, D. R.

    1991-07-01

    In order to make it easy for the reader to see the specific research carried out and the progress made, the following report of progress is done by topic. Each item has a format layout of Topic, Investigators, Objective, Significance, and Description of Progress, followed at the end by the relevant references. As is clear from the topics listed, the emphasis of the GWU theory group has been on the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body nuclei. Both low- and intermediate-energy electromagnetic disintegration of these nuclei is considered. When the excitation energy of the target nucleus is low, the aim has been to carry out the continuum part of the theoretical work exactly, this is, by means of exact three- and four-body dynamics. When structure questions are the issue, exact calculations are always carried through, limited only by the underlying two-body or three-body interactions used as input. Implicit in our work is the question of how far one can go within the traditional nuclear physics framework, i.e., nucleons and mesons in a nonrelativistic setting. Our central goal is to carry through state-of-the-art few-body calculations that will serve as an unambiguous means of determining at what point standard nuclear physics requires quark degrees of freedom in order to understand the phenomena in question. So far, in the problems considered, there has been no evidence of the necessity to go beyond the traditional approach, though we always keep in mind that possibility. As our work is involved with questions in the intermediate-energy realm, moving from a nonrelativistic framework to a relativistic one is always a consideration. Currently, for the problems that have been pursued in this domain of energy, the issues concern far more the mechanisms of the reactions and structural questions than the need to move to relativistic dynamics.

  9. Investigations of the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, D. R.; Haberzettl, H.; Maximon, L. C.; Parke, W. C.

    1992-07-01

    In order to make it easy for the reader to see the specific research carried out and the progress made, the report of progress is done by topic. Each item has a format layout of Topic, Investigators, Objective, Significance, and Description of Progress, followed at the end by the relevant references. The emphasis of the George Washington University (GWU) theory group has been on the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body nuclei. Both low- and intermediate-energy electromagnetic disintegration of these nuclei is considered. When the excitation energy of the target nucleus is low, the aim has been to handle the continuum part of the theoretical work numerically with no approximations, that is, by means of full three- or four-body dynamics. When structure questions axe the issue, numerically accurate calculations axe always carried through, limited only by the underlying two-body or three-body interactions used as input. Implicit in our work is the question of how far one can go within the traditional nuclear physics framework, i.e., nucleons and mesons in a nonrelativistic setting. Our central goal is to carry through state-of-the-art fewbody calculations that wig serve as a means of determining at what point standard nuclear physics requires quark degrees of freedom in order to understand the phenomena in question. So far, in the problems considered, there has been no evidence of the necessity to go beyond the traditional approach, though we always keep in mind that possibility. As our work is involved with questions in the intermediate-energy realm, moving from a nonrelativistic framework to a relativistic one is always a consideration. Currently, for the problems that have been pursued in this domain of energy, the issues concern far more the mechanisms of the reactions and structural questions than the need to move to relativistic dynamics.

  10. Investigations of the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, D.R.; Haberzettl, H.; Maximon, L.C.; Parke, W.C.

    1992-07-01

    In order to make it easy for the reader to see the specific research carried out and the progress made, the following report of progress is done by topic. Each item has a format layout of Topic, Investigators, Objective, Significance, and Description of Progress, followed at the end by the relevant references. As is clear from the topics listed, the emphasis of the George Washington University (GWU) theory group has been on the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body nuclei. Both low- and intermediate-energy electromagnetic disintegration of these nuclei is considered. When the excitation energy of the target nucleus is low, the aim has been to handle the continuum part of the theoretical work numerically with no approximations, that is, by means of full three- or four-body dynamics. When structure questions axe the issue, numerically accurate calculations axe always carried through, limited only by the underlying two-body or three-body interactions used as input. Implicit in our work is the question of how far one can go within the traditional nuclear physics framework, i.e., nucleons and mesons in a nonrelativistic setting. Our central goal is to carry through state-of-the-art fewbody calculations that wig serve as a means of determining at what point standard nuclear physics requires quark degrees of freedom in order to understand the phenomena in question. So far, in the problems considered, there has been no evidence of the necessity to go beyond the traditional approach, though we always keep in mind that possibility. As our work is involved with questions in the intermediate-energy realm, moving from a nonrelativistic framework to a relativistic one is always a consideration. Currently, for the problems that have been pursued in this domain of energy, the issues concern far more the mechanisms of the reactions and structural questions than the need to move to relativistic dynamics.

  11. Identification and monitoring of subsurface structure of tunnel using electromagnetic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalia, Nadia; Husaini, Muhammad; Ngurah Ade, K.; Probo Mukti, N.; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Since ITB-Saraga tunnel was built in 1997, there was no such a monitoring ever took to investigate the internal structure. In contrast, the information of internal structure is needed to identify the self-defect of tunnel caused by the active traffic on the upside of tunnel. The aim of this survey is to identify and monitor the internal structure of ITB-Saraga tunnel using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). GPR is chosen because it can detect defects of tunnel using electromagnetic wave which is showed in the existence of contrast anomalies of magnetic permeability, dielectric constant, and resistivity. To fulfil the requirements, acquisition along the surface, processing and interpretation data, and analyzing the results are necessary. The 100 MHz antenna is chosen from forward modeling, and sampling rate value is 850 MHz with trace interval 0.1 meter. The data then is processed with ReflexW software. The result is radargrams that shows the upper structure of the tunnel (0-8.5 meters), and further analysis could give more detailed structures, even the self-defect tunnel itself. The results can be used as additional information to minimize the casualties if disaster occurs.

  12. Summary Report on Working Group 5: Electromagnetic Structure-Based Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, John G.; Kimura, Wayne D.

    2002-12-01

    Recent progress and new developments in Electromagnetic Structure-Based Acceleration were presented in this Working Group (WG). The presentations made to the WG were separated into two categories: slow-wave and fast-wave accelerating structures. The slow-wave talks included a theoretical study of accelerators at optical frequencies that showed there are important and surprising differences between optical structures and traditional microwave accelerators. Practical issues for dielectric loaded accelerators were also addressed including a novel method for frequency tuning of dielectric structures and, in a joint session with the mm-wave sources WG, dielectric high power test results were presented. Theory and simulation results were presented for both laser-driven and beam-driven (i.e., wakefield) novel structures including cylindrical and planar dielectric devices and photonic band gap (PBG) devices including a scheme to mimic a plasma channel with a PBG. In the fast-wave talks, progress in developing highly-tapered inverse free electron lasers (IFEL), staging IFELs for monoenergetic laser acceleration, and generating attosecond electron pulses were presented. New designs and applications of cyclotron-based devices driven by laser or RF energy were also discussed.

  13. Improved Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Properties of MWCNT–PMMA Composites Using Layered Structures

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of multi-walled carbon nanotubes–polymethyl methacrylate (MWCNT–PMMA) composites prepared by two different techniques was measured. EMI SE up to 40 dB in the frequency range 8.2–12.4 GHz (X-band) was achieved by stacking seven layers of 0.3-mm thick MWCNT–PMMA composite films compared with 30 dB achieved by stacking two layers of 1.1-mm thick MWCNT–PMMA bulk composite. The characteristic EMI SE graphs of the composites and the mechanism of shielding have been discussed. SE in this frequency range is found to be dominated by absorption. The mechanical properties (tensile, flexural strength and modulus) of the composites were found to be comparable or better than the pure polymer. The studies therefore show that the composite can be used as structurally strong EMI shielding material. PMID:20596500

  14. Multiband frequency-reconfigurable antenna using metamaterial structure of electromagnetic band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewan, Raimi; Rahim, M. K. A.; Himdi, Mohamed; Hamid, M. R.; Majid, H. A.; Jalil, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    A metamaterial of electromagnetic band gap (EBG) is incorporated to an antenna for frequency reconfigurability is proposed. The EBG consists of two identical unit cells that provide multiple band gaps at 1.88-1.94, 2.25-2.44, 2.67-2.94, 3.52-3.54, and 5.04-5.70 GHz with different EBG configurations. Subsequently, the antenna is incorporated with EBG. The corresponding incorporated structure successfully achieves various reconfigurable frequencies at 1.60, 1.91, 2.41, 3.26, 2.87, 5.21, and 5.54 GHz. The antenna has the potential to be implemented for Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, WiMAX, LTE, and cognitive radio applications.

  15. Making structured metals transparency for broadband and wide-incidence-angle electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Renhao; Peng, Ruwen; Huang, Xianrong; Wang, Mu

    2014-03-01

    Very recently, we have demonstrated that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic (EM) waves under oblique incidence. However, the oblique-incidence geometry, is inconvenient for the technological applications. To overcome this drawback, here we instead use oblique metal gratings with optimal tilt angles to achieve normal-incidence broadband transparence for EM waves. Further we use two-dimensional periodic metallic cuboids to achieve broadband and broad-angle high transmission and antireflection. By introducing such metallic cuboids arrays into silicon solar cells, we find that high performance of light trapping in the cells can be obtained with a significant enhancement of the ultimate quantum efficiency. The structured metals, which achieve broadband and broad-angle high transmission for EM waves, may have many other potential applications, such as transparent conducting panels, white-beam polarizers, and stealth objects.

  16. Finite element modeling of magnetic compression using coupled electromagnetic-structural codes

    SciTech Connect

    Hainsworth, G.; Leonard, P.J.; Rodger, D.; Leyden, C.

    1996-05-01

    A link between the electromagnetic code, MEGA, and the structural code, DYNA3D has been developed. Although the primary use of this is for modelling of Railgun components, it has recently been applied to a small experimental Coilgun at Bath. The performance of Coilguns is very dependent on projectile material conductivity, and so high purity aluminium was investigated. However, due to its low strength, it is crushed significantly by magnetic compression in the gun. Although impractical as a real projectile material, this provides useful benchmark experimental data on high strain rate plastic deformation caused by magnetic forces. This setup is equivalent to a large scale version of the classic jumping ring experiment, where the ring jumps with an acceleration of 40 kG.

  17. Propagation and localization of electromagnetic waves in quasiperiodic serial loop structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aynaou, H.; El Boudouti, E. H.; El Hassouani, Y.; Akjouj, A.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Vasseur, J.; Benomar, A.; Velasco, V. R.

    2005-11-01

    We study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional quasiperiodic photonic band gap structures made of serial loop structures separated by segments. Different quasiperiodic structures such as Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, Rudin-Shapiro, and double period are investigated with special focus on the Fibonacci structure. Depending on the lengths of the two arms constituting the loops, one can distinguish two particular cases. (i) There are symmetric loop structures, which are shown to be equivalent to impedance-modulated mediums. In this case, it is found that besides the existence of extended and forbidden modes, some narrow frequency bands appear as defect modes in the transmission spectrum inside the gaps. These modes are shown to be localized within only one of the two types of blocks constituting the structure. An analysis of the transmission phase time enables us to derive the group velocity as well as the density of states in these structures. In particular, the stop bands (localized modes) may give rise to unusual (strong normal) dispersion in the gaps, yielding fast (slow) group velocities above (below) the velocity of light. (ii) There are also asymmetric loop structures, where the loops play the role of resonators that may introduce transmission zeros and hence additional gaps unnoticed in the case of simple impedance-modulated mediums. A comparison of the transmission amplitude and phase time of Fibonacci systems with those of other quasiperiodic systems is also outlined. In particular, it was shown that these structures present similar behaviors in the transmission spectra inside the regions of extended modes, whereas they present different localized modes inside the gaps. Experiments and numerical calculations are in very good agreement.

  18. Electromagnetic structure of the proton within the CP-violation hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Krutov, A. F. Kudinov, M. Yu.

    2013-11-15

    The so-called non-Rosenbluth behavior of the proton electromagnetic form factors can be explained within the hypothesis of CP violation in electromagnetic processes involving composite systems of strongly interacting particles. It is shown that this hypothesis leads to the appearance of an additional, anapole, form factor of the proton. The proton electromagnetic form factors, including the anapole form factor, are estimated on the basis of experimental data on elastic electron-proton scattering.

  19. Kinetic description of the 3D electromagnetic structures formation in flows of expanding plasma coronas. Part 1: General

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubchenko, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    In part I of the work, the physical effects responsible for the formation of low-speed flows in plasma coronas, coupled with formation of coronas magnetosphere-like structures, are described qualitatively. Coronal domain structures form if we neglect scales of spatial plasma dispersion: high-speed flows are accumulated in magnetic tubes of the open domains, while magnetic structures and low-speed flows are concentrated within boundaries of domains. The inductive electromagnetic process occurring in flows of the hot collisionless plasma is shown to underlie the formation of magnetosphere-like structures. Depending on the form of the velocity distribution function of particles (PDF), a hot flow differently reveals its electromagnetic properties, which are expressed by the induction of resistive and diamagnetic scales of spatial dispersion. These determine the magnetic structure scales and structure reconstruction. The inductive electromagnetic process located in lines of the plasma nontransparency and absorption, in which the structures of excited fields are spatially aperiodic and skinned to the magnetic field sources. The toroidal and dipole magnetic sources of different configurations are considered for describing the corona structures during the solar maximum and solar minimum.

  20. From problem solving to a knowledge structure: An example from the domain of electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagno, Esther; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

    1997-08-01

    An investigation of students' knowledge after a traditional advanced high-school course in electromagnetism shows deficiencies of their knowledge in three major areas: (1) the structure of knowledge—e.g., realizing the importance of central ideas, such as Maxwell's equations (expressed qualitatively); (2) conceptual understanding—e.g., understanding the relationships between the electric field and its sources; and (3) application of central relationships in problem solving. To remedy these deficiencies we propose an instructional model which integrates problem solving, conceptual understanding and the construction of the knowledge structure. The central activity of the students is a gradual construction of a hierarchical concept map organized around Maxwell's equations as central ideas of the domain. The students construct the map in five stages: (1) SOLVE—they solve a set of problems that highlight the central ideas in the domain; (2) REFLECT—they reflect on the conceptual basis of their solutions; (3) CONCEPTUALIZE—they perform activities that deal with relevant conceptual difficulties; (4) APPLY—they carry out complex applications; (5) LINK—they link their activities to the evolving concept map. This integrative model (experimental treatment) was compared to an isolated treatment of drill and practice or treatment of conceptual difficulties without linkage to the proposed knowledge structure. The comparison shows that students in the experimental treatment performed better than the other students on measures of recall, conceptual knowledge and problem solving. Students in the experimental treatment were also able to transfer and extract central ideas in a domain different than physics.

  1. Broadband superior electromagnetic absorption of a discrete-structure microwave coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yuping; Xi, Qun; Liu, Wei; Wang, Tongmin

    2016-10-01

    A method of improving the electromagnetic (EM) absorption property of conventional microwave absorber (CMA) is proposed here. The structural design process was mainly concerned with systematic analysis and research into the impedance matching characteristic and induced current. By processing a CMA-carbonyl-iron powder (CIP) coating into many isolated regions, the discrete-structure microwave absorber (DMA) had a much better absorption property than the corresponding CMA. When the thickness was only 2.0 mm and the component content was 33 wt%, the loss of reflection was less than -10 dB shifted from 6-7 GHz to 7-13 GHz and the loss of minimum reflection decreased from 12.5 dB lost to 32 dB lost through a discrete-structure process. The microwave absorption properties of coatings with different component contents and thicknesses were investigated. The minimum reflection peaks tended to shift towards the lower frequency region as CIP content or coating thickness increased. By adjusting these three factors, a high-performance broadband absorber was produced.

  2. Electromagnetic imaging of the deep Campi Flegrei caldera structure (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Isaia, Roberto; Patella, Domenico; Piochi, Monica; Troiano, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) is the most hazardous volcano in Europe. Enormous investigative efforts have been done aimed to share its inner structure and to understand its unrest dynamics, making the CFc one of the main subjects of interest of modern volcanology. Due to the destructive potential and the active geothermal system, the CFc geological structures have been investigated through many different methodologies. A key role belongs to the applied geophysics that allows to gain knowledge about the volcanic setting and consequently to understand the dynamics of this active caldera system. So far, the main CFc structures have been not yet clearly defined. The strong heterogeneity of the territory associated to the composite coastal morphology and the extreme urbanization represent a major obstacle to apply the geophysical techniques. Therefore the geometry and configuration of the CFc plumbing system are still largely undefined, although seismic surveys nowadays detected findings of melt-bearing rocks, at least locally. Here a deep electromagnetic (EM) imaging the CFc is presented. A Magnetotelluric (MT) profile has been carried out across a 12 km-long transect, ideally intersecting the main recent volcano-tectonic structures. The peculiar sensitivity to subsurface fluids and melts, associated with huge electric conductivity contrasts, make the MT particularly well suited to be applied in active volcanic settings. The obtained results highlight the buried structures down to 10 km of depth providing an interpretative key into the overall caldera dynamics. In particular, the deep magmatic source is revealed, as well as the main ascent pathway of magmatic fluids and the related structures which critically contributing to the shallower-level of deformation at CFc.

  3. FILAMENTARY ACCRETION FLOWS IN THE EMBEDDED SERPENS SOUTH PROTOCLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Helen; Myers, Philip C.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Wilson, Grant W.; Hedden, Abigail

    2013-04-01

    One puzzle in understanding how stars form in clusters is the source of mass-is all of the mass in place before the first stars are born, or is there an extended period when the cluster accretes material which can continuously fuel the star formation process? We use a multi-line spectral survey of the southern filament associated with the Serpens South embedded cluster-forming region in order to determine if mass is accreting from the filament onto the cluster, and whether the accretion rate is significant. Our analysis suggests that material is flowing along the filament's long axis at a rate of {approx}30 M{sub Sun} Myr{sup -1} (inferred from the N{sub 2}H{sup +} velocity gradient along the filament), and radially contracting onto the filament at {approx}130 M{sub Sun} Myr{sup -1} (inferred from HNC self-absorption). These accretion rates are sufficient to supply mass to the central cluster at a similar rate to the current star formation rate in the cluster. Filamentary accretion flows may therefore be very important in the ongoing evolution of this cluster.

  4. Polarization independent and tunable plasmonic structure for mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency in the reflectance spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B. S.; Loo, Y. L.; Ong, C. K.

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a plasmonic metamaterial that is able to mimic electromagnetically induced transparency in the reflectance spectrum within the GHz frequency range. Each meta-atom consists of a cross-slot structure as the bright resonator positioned on one side of the FR-4 substrate, and four spiral structures as the dark resonator located on the opposite side. Free space experimental results demonstrate that at normal incidence of plane wave, the metamaterial possesses the properties of tunability and polarization independence. In addition, based on simulation results the metamaterial also possesses slow wave property, with group refractive index of 56; and refractive-index-based sensing capability, with figure of merit of 6.1. In the strong coupling configuration, the plasma frequency and coupling constant of the metamaterial were calculated to be approximately 5.4 × 1010 rad s-1 and 9.8 × 109 rad s-1 respectively. While the respective damping constants of the bright resonator and dark resonator were calculated to be approximately 4.6 × 1010 rad s-1 and 1.9 × 1010 rad s-1.

  5. Design of UWB monopole antenna with dual notched bands using one modified electromagnetic-bandgap structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Xu, Ziqiang

    2013-01-01

    A modified electromagnetic-bandgap (M-EBG) structure and its application to planar monopole ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna are presented. The proposed M-EBG which comprises two strip patch and an edge-located via can perform dual notched bands. By properly designing and placing strip patch near the feedline, the proposed M-EBG not only possesses a simple structure and compact size but also exhibits good band rejection. Moreover, it is easy to tune the dual notched bands by altering the dimensions of the M-EBG. A demonstration antenna with dual band-notched characteristics is designed and fabricated to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed antenna can satisfy the requirements of VSWR < 2 over UWB 3.1-10.6 GHz, except for the rejected bands of the world interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) and the wireless local area network (WLAN) at 3.5 GHz and 5.5 GHz, respectively.

  6. Structural-electromagnetic bidirectional coupling analysis of space large film reflector antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Zhang, Shuxin; Cheng, ZhengAi; Duan, Baoyan; Yang, Chen; Li, Meng; Hou, Xinbin; Li, Xun

    2017-10-01

    As used for energy transmission, a space large film reflector antenna (SLFRA) is characterized by large size and enduring high power density. The structural flexibility and the microwave radiation pressure (MRP) will lead to the phenomenon of structural-electromagnetic bidirectional coupling (SEBC). In this paper, the SEBC model of SLFRA is presented, then the deformation induced by the MRP and the corresponding far field pattern deterioration are simulated. Results show that, the direction of the MRP is identical to the normal of the reflector surface, and the magnitude is proportional to the power density and the square of cosine incident angle. For a typical cosine function distributed electric field, the MRP is a square of cosine distributed across the diameter. The maximum deflections of SLFRA linearly increase with the increasing microwave power densities and the square of the reflector diameters, and vary inversely with the film thicknesses. When the reflector diameter becomes 100 m large and the microwave power density exceeds 102 W/cm2, the gain loss of the 6.3 μm-thick reflector goes beyond 0.75 dB. When the MRP-induced deflection degrades the reflector performance, the SEBC should be taken into account.

  7. Study of Electromagnetic Properties of Nuclei and Structural Changes at High Spins in Yb Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, N.; Awwad, Z.; Bayomy, T.; Diab, A.

    High-spin states of nuclei, populated by heavy-ion reactions, are of interest because they reveal changes in the structur of nuclei under stress. In the first part much of our insight into the structure of high-spin states is being provided by electromagnetic strength functions. In the second part, the level scheme of 158Yb has been extended to I = 37 by using the 98Mo (64Ni, 4n) reaction, and the backbending phenomena in Yb isotopes has been discussed.Translated AbstractUntersuchungen der elektromagnetischen Eigenschaften an Kernen von Yb-Isotopen und ihren Strukturänderungen bei hohem SpinDurch Schwerionenreaktionen erhaltene Kernzustände mit hohen Spinwerten sind von Interesse, weil sie Änderungen der Kernstruktur unter Beanspruchung aufzeigen. Ein Großteil unseres Verständnisses der Struktur dieser Zustände großen Spins resultiert aus den elektromagnetischen Feldstärkefunktionen. Wir erweitern das Zustandsschema von 158Yb bis zu I = 37 unter Benutzung der Reaktion 98Mo (64Ni, 4n) und diskutieren das Phänomen der Rückbiegung an Yb-Isotopen.

  8. Framing the structural role of mathematics in physics lectures: A case study on electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Physics education research has shown that students tend to struggle when trying to use mathematics in a meaningful way in physics (e.g., mathematizing a physical situation or making sense of equations). Concerning the possible reasons for these difficulties, little attention has been paid to the way mathematics is treated in physics instruction. Starting from an overall distinction between a technical approach, which involves an instrumental (tool-like) use of mathematics, and a structural one, focused on reasoning about the physical world mathematically, the goal of this study is to characterize the development of the latter in didactic contexts. For this purpose, a case study was conducted on the electromagnetism course given by a distinguished physics professor. The analysis of selected teaching episodes with the software Videograph led to the identification of a set of categories that describe different strategies used by the professor to emphasize the structural role of mathematics in his lectures. As a consequence of this research, an analytic tool to enable future comparative studies between didactic approaches regarding the way mathematics is treated in physics teaching is provided.

  9. Electromagnetic fields as structure-function zeitgebers in biological systems: environmental orchestrations of morphogenesis and consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Nicolas; Dotta, Blake T.

    2014-01-01

    Within a cell system structure dictates function. Any interaction between cells, or a cell and its environment, has the potential to have long term implications on the function of a given cell and emerging cell aggregates. The structure and function of cells are continuously subjected to modification by electrical and chemical stimuli. However, biological systems are also subjected to an ever-present influence: the electromagnetic (EM) environment. Biological systems have the potential to be influenced by subtle energies which are exchanged at atomic and subatomic scales as EM phenomena. These energy exchanges have the potential to manifest at higher orders of discourse and affect the output (behavior) of a biological system. Here we describe theoretical and experimental evidence of EM influence on cells and the integration of whole systems. Even weak interactions between EM energies and biological systems display the potential to affect a developing system. We suggest the growing literature of EM effects on biological systems has significant implications to the cell and its functional aggregates. PMID:25426035

  10. Design of UWB Monopole Antenna with Dual Notched Bands Using One Modified Electromagnetic-Bandgap Structure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ziqiang

    2013-01-01

    A modified electromagnetic-bandgap (M-EBG) structure and its application to planar monopole ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna are presented. The proposed M-EBG which comprises two strip patch and an edge-located via can perform dual notched bands. By properly designing and placing strip patch near the feedline, the proposed M-EBG not only possesses a simple structure and compact size but also exhibits good band rejection. Moreover, it is easy to tune the dual notched bands by altering the dimensions of the M-EBG. A demonstration antenna with dual band-notched characteristics is designed and fabricated to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed antenna can satisfy the requirements of VSWR < 2 over UWB 3.1–10.6 GHz, except for the rejected bands of the world interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) and the wireless local area network (WLAN) at 3.5 GHz and 5.5 GHz, respectively. PMID:24170984

  11. Effect of cooling rate on structural and electromagnetic properties of high-carbon ferrochrome powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian-ping; Chen, Jin; Hao, Jiu-jiu; Guo, Li-na; Liu, Jin-ying

    2016-03-01

    The structural and electromagnetic properties of high-carbon ferrochrome powders (HCFCP) obtained at different cooling rates were respectively investigated by means of optical microscope, X-ray diffractometer, electron probe as well as the vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 1-18 GHz. The results show that the cell structure of main phase, (Cr,Fe)7C3, transforms from hexagonal to orthogonal with the improvement of cooling rate. Meanwhile the mass ratio of Cr to Fe in (Cr,Fe)7C3 gradually declines, while that for CrFe goes up. Both the real part and the imaginary part of relative complex permittivity of HCFCP are in an increasing order with cooling rate rising in most frequencies. For comparison, the relative complex permeability presents an opposite changing tendency. The peaks of the imaginary part of relative complex permeability appearing in low and high frequencies are attributed to nature resonance. The reflection loss of HCFCP gradually decreases as cooling rate reduces and frequency enhances. At 2.45 GHz, the algebraic sum of dielectric loss factor and magnetic loss factor increases first and then decreases in the temperature extent from 298 K to 1273 K.

  12. Computational modeling of the electromagnetic characteristics of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites with different weave structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, A. M.; Douglas, J. F.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-02-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRPC) are of great interest in the aerospace and automotive industries due to their exceptional mechanical properties. Carbon fibers are typically woven and inter-laced perpendicularly in warps and wefts to form a carbon fabric that can be embedded in a binding matrix. The warps and wefts can be interlaced in different patterns called weaving structures. The primary weaving structures are the plain, twill, and satin weaves, which give different mechanical composite properties. The goal of this work is to computationally investigate the dependence of CFRPC microwave and terahertz electromagnetic characteristics on weave structure. These bands are good candidates for the Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of CFRPC since their wavelengths are comparable to the main weave features. 3D full wave electromagnetic simulations of several different weave models have been performed using a finite element (FEM) simulator, which is able to accurately model the complex weave structure. The computational experiments demonstrate that the reflection of electromagnetic waves from CFRPC depend sensitively on weave structure. The reflection spectra calculated in this work can be used to identify the optimal frequencies for the NDE of each weave structure.

  13. Integrated design method of MR damper and electromagnetic induction system for structural control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Heon-Jae; Moon, Seok-Jun; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Huh, Young-Cheol; Jang, Dong-Doo

    2008-03-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are one of the most advantageous control devices for civil engineering applications to natural hazard mitigation due to many good features such as small power requirement, reliability, and low price to manufacture. To reduce the responses of a structural system by using MR dampers, a control system including a power supply, control algorithm, and sensors is needed. The control system becomes complex, however, when a lot of MR dampers are applied to large-scale civil structures, such as cable-stayed bridges and high-rise buildings. Thus, it is difficult to install and/or maintain the MR damper-based control system. To overcome the above difficulties, a smart passive system was proposed, which is based on an MR damper system. The smart passive system consists of an MR damper and an electromagnetic induction (EMI) system that uses a permanent magnet and a coil. According to the Faraday law of induction, the EMI system that is attached to the MR damper can produce electric energy and the produced energy is applied to the MR damper to vary the damping characteristics of the damper. Thus, the smart passive system does not require any power at all. Besides the output of electric energy is proportional to input loads such as earthquakes, which means the smart passive system has adaptability by itself without any controller or sensors. In this paper, the integrated design method of a large-scale MR damper and Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) system is presented. Since the force of an MR damper is controllable by altering the input current generated from an EMI part, it is necessary to design an MR damper and an EMI part simultaneously. To do this, design parameters of an EMI part consisting of permanent magnet and coil as well as those of an MR damper consisting of a hydraulic-type cylinder and a magnetic circuit that controls the magnetic flux density in a fluid-flow path are considered in the integrated design procedure. As an example, a

  14. Spiral Passive Electromagnetic Sensor (SPES) for composite structural changes in aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iervolino, Onorio; Meo, Michele

    2016-04-01

    A major goal of structural health monitoring (SHM) is to provide accurate and responsive detection and monitoring of flaws. This research work reports an investigation of SPES sensors for damage detection, investigating different sensor sizes and how they affect the sensor's signal. A sensor able to monitor structural change that can be remotely interrogated and does not need a power supply is presented in this work. The SPES-sensor presents the great advantage of monitoring conductive and non-conductive structures such as fiberglass-reinforced composites (FRC) and carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP). Any phenomena that affect the magnetic field of the SPES can be detected and monitored. A study was conducted to investigate the capability of sensor to give information on structural changes, simulated by the presence of an external mass placed in the proximity of sensor. Effect of different positions of the SPES within the sample, and how to extend the area of inspection using multiple sensors was investigated. The sensor was tested embedded in the samples, simulating the structural change on both sides of the sample. In both configurations the sensor described herein demonstrated a great potential to monitor structural changes.

  15. Acceleration of solar wind ions to 1 MeV by electromagnetic structures upstream of the Earth's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiewicz, K.; Markidis, S.; Eliasson, B.; Strumik, M.; Yamauchi, M.

    2013-05-01

    We present measurements from the ESA/NASA Cluster mission that show in situ acceleration of ions to energies of 1 MeV outside the bow shock. The observed heating can be associated with the presence of electromagnetic structures with strong spatial gradients of the electric field that lead to ion gyro-phase breaking and to the onset of chaos in ion trajectories. It results in rapid, stochastic acceleration of ions in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The electric potential of the structures can be compared to a field of moguls on a ski slope, capable of accelerating and ejecting the fast running skiers out of piste. This mechanism may represent the universal mechanism for perpendicular acceleration and heating of ions in the magnetosphere, the solar corona and in astrophysical plasmas. This is also a basic mechanism that can limit steepening of nonlinear electromagnetic structures at shocks and foreshocks in collisionless plasmas.

  16. Scattering and Diffraction of Electromagnetic Radiation: An Effective Probe to Material Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Scattered electromagnetic waves from material bodies of different forms contain, in an intricate way, precise information on the intrinsic, geometrical and physical properties of the objects. Scattering theories, ever deepening, aim to provide dependable interpretation and prediction to the complicated interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. There are well-established multiple-scattering formulations based on classical electromagnetic theories. An example is the Generalized Multi-particle Mie-solution (GMM), which has recently been extended to a special version ? the GMM-PA approach, applicable to finite periodic arrays consisting of a huge number (e.g., >>106) of identical scattering centers [1]. The framework of the GMM-PA is nearly complete. When the size of the constituent unit scatterers becomes considerably small in comparison with incident wavelength, an appropriate array of such small element volumes may well be a satisfactory representation of a material entity having an arbitrary structure. X-ray diffraction is a powerful characterization tool used in a variety of scientific and technical fields, including material science. A diffraction pattern is nothing more than the spatial distribution of scattered intensity, determined by the distribution of scattering matter by way of its Fourier transform [1]. Since all linear dimensions entered into Maxwell's equations are normalized by wavelength, an analogy exists between optical and X-ray diffraction patterns. A large set of optical diffraction patterns experimentally obtained can be found in the literature [e.g., 2,3]. Theoretical results from the GMM-PA have been scrutinized using a large collection of publically accessible, experimentally obtained Fraunhofer diffraction patterns. As far as characteristic structures of the patterns are concerned, theoretical and experimental results are in uniform agreement; no exception has been found so far. Closely connected with the spatial distribution of

  17. Gravitational fragmentation caught in the act: the filamentary Musca molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kainulainen, J.; Hacar, A.; Alves, J.; Beuther, H.; Bouy, H.; Tafalla, M.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Filamentary structures are common in molecular clouds. Explaining how they fragment to dense cores is a missing step in understanding their role in star formation. Aims: We perform a case study of whether low-mass filaments are close to hydrostatic prior to their fragmentation, and whether their fragmentation agrees with gravitational fragmentation models. To accomplish this, we study the ~6.5 pc long Musca molecular cloud, which is an ideal candidate for a filament at an early stage of fragmentation. Methods: We employ dust extinction mapping, in conjunction with near-infrared JHKS-band data from the CTIO/NEWFIRM instrument, and 870 μm dust continuum emission data from the APEX/LABOCA instrument to estimate column densities in Musca. We use the data to identify fragments from the cloud and to determine the radial density distribution of its filamentary part. We compare the cloud's morphology with 13CO and C18O line emission observed with the APEX/SHeFI instrument. Results: The Musca cloud is pronouncedly fragmented at its ends, but harbors a remarkably well-defined, ~1.6 pc long filament in its center region. The line mass of the filament is 21-31 M⊙ pc-1 and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) 0.07 pc. The radial profile of the filament can be fitted with a Plummer profile, which has the power-index of 2.6 ± 11% and is flatter than that of an infinite hydrostatic filament. The profile can also be fitted with a hydrostatic cylinder truncated by external pressure. These models imply a central density of ~5-10 × 104 cm-3. The fragments in the cloud have a mean separation of ~0.4 pc, in agreement with gravitational fragmentation. These properties, together with the subsonic and velocity-coherent nature of the cloud, suggest a scenario in which an initially hydrostatic cloud is currently gravitationally fragmenting. The fragmentation started a few tenths of a Myr ago from the ends of the cloud, leaving its center still relatively nonfragmented

  18. Electromagnetic studies in the Parnaiba Basin: Structural characterization by magnetotelluric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solon, F. F.; Fontes, S. L.; La Terra, E. F.

    2016-12-01

    A magnetotelluric profile (MT) of approximately 1430 km long, EW direction,crossing the Parnaíba Basin was conducted in order to characterize the main structural featuresthat can be enhanced through the electromagnetic imaging. This profile is coincident with aseismic reflection profile acquired by BP Energy do Brasil, and it is included in amultidisciplinary study which is being conducted in the Parnaíba Basin between ObservatórioNacional/MCTI, University of Oxford and BP Energy. The study aims to review the evolutionmodels of the Parnaiba basin and to provide an exploratory context. The MT study comprises220 broadband MT stations and 57 long-period MT stations along the profile. The investigationdepth varies from a couple of hundred meters to approximately 40 km, allowing thecharacterization of deep structures of the crust. Some attributes, such as phase tensor andinduction vectors were also analyzed in order to characterize preferential geoelectric strikedirections (directions of electric currents) and dimensionality of the MT data. Induction vectors,are often used to infer the presence or absence of lateral variations in conductivity. The phasetensor provides information about both the dimensionality and directionality of the structures inthe subsurface. The analysis of these two attributes pointed to the presence of a conductivebody at the lower crust. This body has been interpreted as a mid-crustal reflector in the seismicreflection section. It is characterized by a high amplitude seismic reflector at the lower crust andlocated in the central region of the Parnaíba basin. Modeling and inversion routines are beingapplied to better understand the relation between conductor bodies in the crust and the mid-crustal reflector. The modelling and the analysis of the induction vectors suggests the presenceof anomalous conductivity concentrations in the crust region, while the phase sensor confirmsthe hypothesis of a conductive body with three

  19. Nonlinear current-voltage behavior of the isolated resistive switching filamentary channels in CuC nanolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Doo-In; Yoon, Jaesik; Kim, Young Moon; Kwon, Se Hun; Kim, Kwang Ho; Park, Ju-Bong; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2011-04-11

    Copper-doped amorphous carbon film was prepared by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering and their resistive switching behaviors were studied under a conductive atomic force microscope (cAFM). The repetitive scanning over the same area using cAFM with various bias voltages revealed that most of the isolated conductive paths were involved in resistive switching with asymmetric nonlinear I-V characteristics. The observed I-V behavior of nanoscale filamentary channels indicates that electron transfer mechanism of resistive switching filamentary channel in Pt/CuC/Pt is a tunneling between Cu filamentary channel and electrode through the solid electrolyte rather than conduction through fully connected Cu filamentary channel.

  20. Effect of aluminum substitution on structural and electromagnetic properties of nanocrystalline MgCuMn ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, T. E-mail: ramanasarabu@gmail.com; Kumar, S. Senthil; Shinde, R. S.; Murthy, S. R.

    2015-06-24

    The effect of substitution of nonmagnetic Al{sup 3+} ions on the structural and electromagnetic properties were studied in nanocrystalline ferrite series of Mg{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}Al{sub x}Fe{sub 1.95-x}Mn{sub 0.05}O{sub 4} where x varies 0-0.4 in steps of 0.1. This series was synthesized by using microwave hydrothermal method. The nanocrystalline ferrite phase was observed at temperature 150°C/40 min. Synthesized powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized powders were densified using microwave sintering method at 950°C/40 min. The sintered samples were characterized using XRD. Surface morphology was observed by using field effective scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The electrical and magnetic properties were measured at room temperature. These results led us to interfere that the values of d.c resistivity increases and dielectric constant, initial permeability, saturation magnetization and Curie temperature were observed to be decreased with the substitution of Al{sup 3+} ions with those of Fe{sup 3+}. The low dielectric and magnetic losses and low magnetization exhibited by aluminum substituted MgCuMn ferrites makes them find applications in microwave devices.

  1. Final report of LDRD project: Electromagnetic impulse radar for detection of underground structures

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.; Aurand, J.; Buttram, M.; Zutavern, F.; Brown, D.; Helgeson, W.

    1998-03-01

    This report provides a summary of the LDRD project titled: Electromagnetic impulse radar for the detection of underground structures. The project met all its milestones even with a tight two year schedule and total funding of $400 k. The goal of the LDRD was to develop and demonstrate a ground penetrating radar (GPR) that is based on high peak power, high repetition rate, and low center frequency impulses. The idea of this LDRD is that a high peak power, high average power radar based on the transmission of short impulses can be utilized effect can be utilized for ground penetrating radar. This direct time-domain system the authors are building seeks to increase penetration depth over conventional systems by using: (1) high peak power, high repetition rate operation that gives high average power, (2) low center frequencies that better penetrate the ground, and (3) short duration impulses that allow for the use of downward looking, low flying platforms that increase the power on target relative to a high flying platform. Specifically, chirped pulses that are a microsecond in duration require (because it is difficult to receive during transmit) platforms above 150 m (and typically 1 km) while this system, theoretically could be at 10 m above the ground. The power on target decays with distance squared so the ability to use low flying platforms is crucial to high penetration. Clutter is minimized by time gating the surface clutter return. Short impulses also allow gating (out) the coupling of the transmit and receive antennas.

  2. Electromagnetic emissions and fine structures observed near main ionospheric trough during geomagnetic storms and their interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przepiórka, Dorota; Marek, Michał; Matyjasiak, Barbara; Rothkaehl, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic conditions triggered by the solar activity affect the ionosphere, its fine and global structures. Very intense magnetic storms substantially change the plasma density, concentration and circulation. Especially sensitive region is located near auroral oval, where most energy is deposited during geomagnetic storms. In this region and just below it, where the main ionospheric trough is located, we observe enhanced electromagnetic emissions in different frequency ranges. In particular the AKR-like (Auroral Kilometric Radiation) emissions are seen at frequencies of the order of hundreds of kHz in the ionosphere, just below the auroral oval. Analyzing spectrograms from DEMETER mission and comparing them with electron density measurements from DEMETER, we found that AKR-like emissions are seen near poleward wall of the main ionospheric trough, during geomagnetic storms. Main ionospheric trough is known as a turbulent region which properties change as the geomagnetic storm evolves. This work is an attempt to determine how the presence of the different emissions affect main ionospheric trough parameters such as location, width and depth. Data used in this study come from DEMETER and RELEC missions. This work was partly supported by NCN grant Rezonans 2012/07/B/ST9/04414.

  3. Incorporation of dielectric constituents to construct ternary heterojunction structures for high-efficiency electromagnetic response.

    PubMed

    Quan, Bin; Xu, Guoyue; Li, Daoran; Liu, Wei; Ji, Guangbin; Du, Youwei

    2017-03-14

    To satisfy the diverse requirements of low reflection and high absorption of microwave attenuation, the construction of multiple heterojunction structure is imperative. On the one hand, the impedance mismatching could be ameliorated via the addition of new component; on the other hand, the multiple interface polarizations derived from the architecture of heterojunction make for the dissipation of microwave. In this work, the ternary TiO2/RGO/Fe2O3 composites exhibit tremendous superiority compared with single TiO2 or RGO no matter the absorption coefficient or effective bandwidth. The maximum absorption value of the TiO2/RGO/Fe2O3 composites is -44.05dB at 14.48GHz with a low thickness of 2.0mm. In addition, the effective bandwidth (RL<-10dB) reaches 5.6GHz from 11.96 to 17.56GHz. The superior electromagnetic wave absorbing performance of the TiO2/RGO/Fe2O3 composites derived from the appropriate impedance matching as well as the multiple polarization effect. The results adequately demonstrate the accessibility of the prepared TiO2/RGO/Fe2O3 composites as a preeminent absorber.

  4. A theoretical model for electromagnetic characterization of a spherical dust molecular cloud equilibrium structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, B.; Karmakar, P. K.

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical model is developed to study the equilibrium electromagnetic properties of a spherically symmetric dust molecular cloud (DMC) structure on the Jeans scales of space and time. It applies a new technique based on the modified Lane-Emden equation (m-LEE) of polytropic configuration. We consider a spatially inhomogeneous distribution of the massive dust grains in hydrodynamic equilibrium in the framework of exact gravito-electrostatic pressure balancing condition. Although weak relative to the massive grains, but non-zero finite, the efficacious inertial roles of the thermal species (electrons and ions) are included. A full portrayal of the lowest-order cloud surface boundary (CSB) and associated significant parameters is numerically presented. The multi-order extremization of the m-LEE solutions specifies the CSB existence at a radial point 8.58 ×1012 m relative to the center. It is shown that the CSB gets biased negatively due to the interplay of plasma-boundary wall interaction (global) and plasma sheath-sheath coupling (local) processes. It acts as an interfacial transition layer coupling the bounded and unbounded scale-dynamics of the cloud. The geometrical patterns of the bi-scale plasma coupling are elaborately analyzed. Application of our technique to neutron stars, other observed DMCs and double layers is stressed together with possible future expansion.

  5. Impact of Electromagnetic Stirring on Grain Structure of Electroslag Remelting Ingot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Yan, Hongguang; Wang, Fang; Li, Baokuan

    2015-08-01

    A transient, two-dimensional axisymmetric model was developed to understand the effect of the electromagnetic stirring (EMS) on the grain morphology of the electroslag remelting ingot. The cellular automaton-finite element technique was employed to describe the nucleation and growth of the grain. The Joule heating and Lorentz force created by the current of the furnace, as well as the Lorentz force induced by the EMS device, are included. The effect of the EMS current on the grain structure was investigated using the model. A reasonable agreement between the experiment and simulation was obtained. The growth direction of the upper grain without the EMS is approximately 45° with respect to the vertical axis, while changes to the radial were caused by EMS. The grain was considerably refined by the EMS, and the average area of the grain decreased from 9.381 × 10-7 m2 to 6.781 × 10-7 m2 with the current of the EMS ranging from 0 A to 500 A. Both the local solidification time and second dendrite arm spacing decreased with the increasing stirring intensity. The metal pool depth, however, increased with the EMS, which definitely contributed to the macrosegregation formation. The upper ingot with EMS was darker than that without EMS in the experiment. The EMS technique should be used with caution.

  6. Petascale self-consistent electromagnetic computations using scalable and accurate algorithms for complex structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, John R.; Abell, D.; Amundson, J.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Busby, R.; Carlsson, J. A.; Dimitrov, D. A.; Kashdan, E.; Messmer, P.; Nieter, C.; Smithe, D. N.; Spentzouris, P.; Stoltz, P.; Trines, R. M.; Wang, H.; Werner, G. R.

    2006-09-01

    As the size and cost of particle accelerators escalate, high-performance computing plays an increasingly important role; optimization through accurate, detailed computermodeling increases performance and reduces costs. But consequently, computer simulations face enormous challenges. Early approximation methods, such as expansions in distance from the design orbit, were unable to supply detailed accurate results, such as in the computation of wake fields in complex cavities. Since the advent of message-passing supercomputers with thousands of processors, earlier approximations are no longer necessary, and it is now possible to compute wake fields, the effects of dampers, and self-consistent dynamics in cavities accurately. In this environment, the focus has shifted towards the development and implementation of algorithms that scale to large numbers of processors. So-called charge-conserving algorithms evolve the electromagnetic fields without the need for any global solves (which are difficult to scale up to many processors). Using cut-cell (or embedded) boundaries, these algorithms can simulate the fields in complex accelerator cavities with curved walls. New implicit algorithms, which are stable for any time-step, conserve charge as well, allowing faster simulation of structures with details small compared to the characteristic wavelength. These algorithmic and computational advances have been implemented in the VORPAL7 Framework, a flexible, object-oriented, massively parallel computational application that allows run-time assembly of algorithms and objects, thus composing an application on the fly.

  7. Controlling electromagnetic fields using periodic structures: Gratings, metamaterials, and photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memarian, Mohammad

    This thesis presents novel devices and techniques that enable new methods for enhancement, concentration, refraction, shaping, collimation, and directive beaming of electromagnetic fields. These unprecedented methods to control electromagnetic fields are achieved by exploring and harnessing the unique wave-interactions in periodic gratings, metamaterials, and photonic crystals, with emphasis on Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) metamaterials and zero-index media. The presented solutions impact a wide variety of applications ranging from microwave to optical frequencies. A discovery of dramatic radiation enhancement of an invisible array of sources next to a sub-wavelength periodic metal strip grating is reported, both theoretically and experimentally. The phenomenon is first systematically theorized by introducing the 'spectral impulse response' approach for the aperiodic excitation problem, followed by the 'spectral array factor' approach for designing the near-field of array of sources. Such radiation enhancement has applications in sensing, detection, and accurate measurement of distance. The shaping and collimation of radiation of a simple dipole source near or buried inside a general anisotropic ENZ half-space is then systematically studied using the Lorentz reciprocity method. Various elliptic and hyperbolic anisotropic ENZ media are considered, showing how the air-side radiation can be enhanced and shaped using certain ENZs. A novel device and technique is proposed for collecting, refracting and concentrating incident waves into an area of high power concentration, at extremely short distances. This flat low-profile light-concentrator comprises a hetero-junction of anisotropic ENZ metamaterials (hyperbolic or elliptic), and is realized with plasmonic layered media at optical frequencies. By harnessing an extremely oblique refraction process in ENZs, the light-concentrator significantly outperforms the size requirements of existing thick high curvature lenses, useful

  8. Electromagnetically Inferred Structure of the Caja del Rio Plateau, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, M. E.; Speed, C.; Shukla, M.; Vila, A.; Chon, E.; Kitamikado, C.; Feucht, D. W.; Bedrosian, P.; Pellerin, L.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired by students from the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) to construct structural models in and around the Caja del Rio Plateau, New Mexico. The Caja del Rio is located on the La Bajada-Jemez constriction that separates the Española and Santa Domingo basins in the Rio Grande Rift. The Rio Grande Rift, the result of tectonic extensional forces, extends approximately north-south across northern New Mexico. MT data collected in 2016 were merged with that from previous years to make up an 11 km north line and a 16 km south line extending from the west side of the Caja Del Rio to the east off the plateau in the Old Buckman Road area. The resistivity distributions revealed in one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) inverse models show some robust features. Models of the north are interpreted as a top resistive layer (<500m) of Tertiary volcanoclastic rock, to a central conductive layer (600-200m) of Mesozoic and Paleozoic sediments of the Santa Fe group to crystalline basement rock. Models for the south line show low resistivity for the first 3 to 5 km and then transitions into higher resistivity values consistent with the models for the north line. At a period of 100 seconds induction arrows (Parkinson's convention) point in the northwest direction towards the conductive Valles Caldera. The MT models are consistent with geologic interpretations of the stratigraphic units. In addition, models disclose an additional conductive layer below the basement that we interpret as the mid-crustal conductor. Transient electromagnetic (TEM) data were collected in seven locations atop the Caja del Rio plateau in an attempt to identify the basal contact of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field, which, in turn, allow for the thickness of these basaltic and andesitic deposits to be mapped across the plateau. One-dimensional inverse models produced from the TEM data were aligned and interpreted

  9. A morphological and structural approach to evaluate the electromagnetic performances of composites based on random networks of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vivo, B.; Lamberti, P.; Spinelli, G.; Tucci, V.

    2014-04-01

    Small quantities of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in polymer resins allow to obtain new lightweight nanocomposites suitable for microwave applications, such as efficient electromagnetic shielding or radar absorbing materials. The availability of appropriate simulation models taking into account the morphological and physical features of such very interesting composites is very important for design and performance optimization of devices and systems. In this study, a 3-dimensional (3D) numerical structure modeling the morphology of a CNT-based composite is considered in order to carry out a computational analysis of their electromagnetic performances. The main innovative features of the proposed model consists in the identification of a resistance and capacitance network whose values depend on the filler geometry and loading and whose complexity is associated with the percolation paths. Tunneling effect and capacitive interactions between the individual conductive particles are properly taken into account. The obtained network allows an easy calculation in a wide frequency range of the complex permittivity and others electromagnetic parameters. Moreover, a reliable sensitivity analysis concerning the impact of some crucial parameters, such as the CNTs properties and the dielectric permittivity of the neat resin, on the electromagnetic features of the resulting composites can be carried out. The model predictions are in good agreement with existing experimental data, suggesting that the proposed model can be a useful tool for their design and performance optimization in the microwave range.

  10. Properties of Filamentary Sublimation Residues from Dispersions of Clay in Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B.; Parker, T. J.; Saunders, R. S.; Laue, E. G.; Fanale, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of sublimate residues are of considerable interest in studies of the thermal modeling of Martian and cometary ice surfaces. The study of the formation of sand grains from this mantle on Martian polar ice is also supported by these experiments. To understand these properties, a series of low temperature vacuum experiments were run during which dirty ices that might be expected to be found in Martian polar caps and in comet nuclei were made and then freeze dried. In addition to using particulate material of appropriate grain size and minerology, particle nucleated ices were simulated by dispersing the particulates in the ice so that they did not contact one another. This noncontact dispersion was the most difficult requirement to achieve but the most rewarding in that it produced a new filamentary sublimate residue that was not a relic of the frozen dispersion. If the siliceous particles are allowed to touch one another in the ice the structure of the contacting particles in the ice will remain as a relic after the ice is sublimed away.

  11. Properties of Filamentary Sublimation Residues from Dispersions of Clay in Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B.; Parker, T. J.; Saunders, R. S.; Laue, E. G.; Fanale, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of sublimate residues are of considerable interest in studies of the thermal modeling of Martian and cometary ice surfaces. The study of the formation of sand grains from this mantle on Martian polar ice is also supported by these experiments. To understand these properties, a series of low temperature vacuum experiments were run during which dirty ices that might be expected to be found in Martian polar caps and in comet nuclei were made and then freeze dried. In addition to using particulate material of appropriate grain size and minerology, particle nucleated ices were simulated by dispersing the particulates in the ice so that they did not contact one another. This noncontact dispersion was the most difficult requirement to achieve but the most rewarding in that it produced a new filamentary sublimate residue that was not a relic of the frozen dispersion. If the siliceous particles are allowed to touch one another in the ice the structure of the contacting particles in the ice will remain as a relic after the ice is sublimed away.

  12. Study of a Filamentary Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celestin, Sebastien; Zeghondy, Barbar; Guaitella, Olivier; Bourdon, Anne; Rousseau, Antoine

    2006-10-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBD) at atmospheric pressure have many applications, for instance ozone production, surface treatment, and waste gas treatment. Generally, such a discharge is filamentary but it can be diffuse under particular conditions. Understanding the formation of the filament, which is an ionization wave or so-called ``streamer'', is very hard theoretically, numerically, and experimentally. This is due, first, to the non-linearity of the equations concerned, and second, because of the scaling in space and time of this phenomenon: a streamer has a radius on the order of a few microns, and propagates through distances of several centimeters in a few nanoseconds. In this study we will present the results obtained in experiments and in simulations for a plane-to-plane DBD. We electrically characterized this device and have observed collective effects that are still poorly understood. A point-to-plane DBD has also been studied for producing a much more localized discharge. In parallel with the experimental study we have developed a numerical model based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) to introduce an electrode having a complex geometry into a structured Cartesian mesh. The first results of the code will be discussed.

  13. [Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions]. [Nuclear Physics Group, Univ. of New Hampshire

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The experimental goals are focused on developing an understanding of strong interactions and the structure of hadronic systems by determination of the electromagnetic response; these goals will be accomplished through coincidence detection of final states. Nuclear modeling objectives are to organize and interpret the data through a consistent description of a broad spectrum of reaction observables; calculations are performed in a nonrelativistic diagrammatic framework as well as a relativistic QHD approach. Work is described according to the following arrangement: direct knockout reactions (completion of [sup 16]O(e,e[prime]p), [sup 12]C(e,e[prime]pp) progress, large acceptance detector physics simulations), giant resonance studies (intermediate-energy experiments with solid-state detectors, the third response function in [sup 12]C(e,e[prime]p[sub 0]) and [sup 16]O(e,e[prime]p[sub 0]), comparison of the [sup 12]C(e, e[prime]p[sub 0]) and [sup 16]O(e,e[prime]p[sub 3]) reactions, quadrupole strength in the [sup 16]O(e,e[prime][alpha][sub 0]) reaction, quadrupole strength in the [sup 12]C(e,e[prime][alpha]) reaction, analysis of the [sup 12]C(e,e[prime]p[sub 1]) and [sup 16]O(e,e[prime]p[sub 3]) angular distributions, analysis of the [sup 40]Ca(e,e[prime]x) reaction at low q, analysis of the higher-q [sup 12]C(e,e[prime]x) data from Bates), models of nuclear structure (experimental work, Hartree-Fock calculations, phonon excitations in spherical nuclei, shell model calculations, variational methods for relativistic fields), and instrumentation development efforts (developments at CEBAF, CLAS contracts, BLAST developments).

  14. [Effects on structure and secretion of pituitary gland in rats after electromagnetic pulse exposure].

    PubMed

    Fang, Heng-hu; Zeng, Gui-ying; Nie, Qing; Kang, Jing-bo; Ren, Dong-qing; Zhou, Jia-xing; Li, Yun-ming

    2010-12-07

    To investigate the exposure effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the structure and secretion of pituitary gland in rats. Forty-eight male SD rats were randomly divided into eight groups. Four groups were subject to the EMP exposure of 200 kV/m and the others received a sham exposure. At different time points (12, 24, 48 & 96 h) post-exposure, the pathological changes of pituitary gland were observed by light and transmission electron microscope. And the serum levels of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured dynamically by radioimmunoassay. At 12 h post-exposure, swollen mitochondria with cristae loss, dilatation of Golgi complex and diffusive lysosomes were found in endocrine cells of pituitary gland. The above changes became gradually worse. Mitochondrial vacuolization, the formation of myelin figures, distinct dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum, the occurrence of numerous secondary lysosomes and the clustering of heterochromatin under the nuclear membranes could be observed at 48 h. These lesions were alleviated to some degree at 96 h. The serum levels of PRL and ACTH both increased significantly at 12 h (P < 0.01, P < 0.05) and returned to normal at 24 h. The level of GH decreased significantly at 12 h and then returned gradually to normal at 48 h. The level of TSH decreased at 12 h and reached the lowest point at 24 h, then returned to normal at 96 h. LH increased significantly from 24 h to 96 h. The EMP exposure of 200 kV/m may induce the changes of the structure and secretion of pituitary gland in rats.

  15. Interaction of High Frequency Electromagnetic Waves with Vortex Density Structures: Comparison of Analytical and LSP Simulation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J.; Paraschiv, I.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2014-10-01

    Interchange or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of flute type vortex density structures and interaction of high frequency electromagnetic waves used for surveillance and communication with such structures. These types of density irregularities play an important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics (HEDP), and in many other applications. We will present PIC simulation results of EM scattering on vortex type density structures using the LSP code and compare them with analytical results. Two cases will be analyzed. In the first case electromagnetic wave scattering will take place in the ionospheric plasma. In the second case laser probing in a high-beta Z-pinch plasma will be presented. This work was supported by the Air Force Research laboratory, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Naval Research Laboratory and NNSA/DOE Grant No. DE-FC52-06NA27616 at the University of Nevada at Reno.

  16. Filamentary electrical conduction in polyimide films detected by infrared thermography before thermal breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaham, S.; Belijar, G.; Locatelli, M.-L.; Lebey, T.

    2017-04-01

    An experimental evidence of filamentary electrical conduction existence in polyimide (PI) films under DC voltage just prior to thermal breakdown is reported. This was achieved by real-time surface temperature mapping of PI-metallized samples initially at 300 °C using fast infrared thermography coupled to current-voltage measurements until the breakdown. The transition from a full-electrode conduction to a filamentary conduction is clearly identified through the detection of a localized hot spot within the PI samples in the last 100-150 ms before breakdown. A conduction path, with values inferior to 500 μm in the few ms before the breakdown, was estimated leading to temperature rising up to 100 K above the initial temperature. This work confirms the existence of a filamentary conduction in thermoset polymers prior thermal breakdown.

  17. Crustal and uppermost mantle structures of Atlas Mountains of Morocco inferred from electromagnetic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyan, D.; Jones, A. G.; Fullea, J.; Ledo, J.; Siniscalchi, A.; Romano, G.

    2012-12-01

    The second phase of the PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) project and the concomitant TopoMed (Plate re-organization in the western Mediterranean: Lithospheric causes and topographic consequences - an ESF EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE Collaborative Research Project) is designed to determine the internal structure of the crust and lithosphere of the Atlas Mountains of Morocco. A multi-institutional magnetotelluric (MT) experiment across the Atlas Mountains region comprises the acquisition of broadband and long period MT data along two profiles: a N-S oriented profile through Middle Atlas to the east and a NE-SW profile through Marrakech to the west. The preliminary results of interpretation of the MT data collected over the first profile were presented in the paper by Ledo et al. (2011). In this study, we present the results from 3D MT inversion using the codes WSINV3DMT (Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005) and Modular system for Electromagnetic Inversion (ModEM; Egbert and Kelbert, 2012). There is a general good agreement between the main features obtained from the 2D models and the new results of the 3D modelling. Models inverting for only off-diagonal tensor components showed a distinct conductivity contrast between Middle-High Atlas and Anti Atlas correlates with the South Atlas Front fault, the depth extent of which appears to be limited to uppermost mantle (approximately 55 km). The resistivity of the lithosphere is gradually increasing towards Anti Atlas. Beside this, a prominent conducting anomaly at the lower crust/uppermost mantle is imaged west of the profile in the junction between the High and Middle Atlas (Moulouya plain). The conductive body, which extends from the southern boundary of Middle Atlas to the northern boundary of High Atlas, is interpreted as due to the presence of partial melt and/or migrated fluids.

  18. Electric and electromagnetic outline of the Mount Somma Vesuvius structural setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Maio, R.; Mauriello, P.; Patella, D.; Petrillo, Z.; Piscitelli, S.; Siniscalchi, A.

    1998-06-01

    We present and discuss the results of an integrated electrical and electromagnetic survey in the active volcanic area of Mount Somma-Vesuvius (Naples, Italy). Dipolar geoelectrics (DG), self-potential (SP) and magnetotellurics (MT) were used to investigate the shallow and deep regions of the volcanic area. The DG apparent resistivity pseudosection along a N-S profile across the Vesuvius cone showed the existence of a largely extended conductive zone, closely in correspondence to the Somma caldera, including in the middle the top terminal part of the Vesuvius main plumbing system. The SP data, collected over the whole volcanic area, showed the existence of a W-E-directed wide band of weak positive anomalies, indicating again a conductive zone, not only including the whole Somma caldera but also extending towards the Tyrrhenian sea. A roughly N-S-trending narrow fracture system, cutting the lowest Mount Somma eastern slopes, was further evident from the SP data. A new SP tomographic inversion procedure allowed to detect a large positively charged nucleus in the depth range 600-2200 m b.g.l., located beneath the westernmost portion of a former caldera, related to the Avellino plinian eruption. The geophysical interpretation of this large positive anomaly was made using Onsager's theory of coupled electrokinetic and thermoelectric flows. The final interpretation was that the shallow, conductive central zone is very likely made up of an intensively altered and mineralised block of cemented volcanic breccia. Finally, the MT data, distributed along two perpendicular profiles, enabled us to obtain the first significant picture of the deep electrical structure of the volcano. The Bostick inversion revealed the existence of a conductive intracrustal layer, including a perched more conductive zone located roughly beneath the central-western sector of the Vesuvius apparatus.

  19. A Dry Powder Process for Preparing Uni-Tape Prepreg from Polymer Powder Coated Filamentary Towpregs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Steven P. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Marchello, Joseph M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A process for preparing uni-tape prepreg from polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs is provided. A plurality of polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs are provided. The towpregs are collimated so that each towpreg is parallel. The sandwich is heated to a temperature wherein the polymer flows and intimately contacts the filaments and pressure is repeatedly applied perpendicularly to the sandwich with a longitudinal oscillating action wherein the filaments move apart and the polymer wets the filaments forming a uni-tape prepreg. The uni-tape prepreg is subsequently cooled.

  20. Dry powder process for preparing uni-tape prepreg from polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Steven P. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Marchello, Joseph M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A process for preparing uni-tape prepreg from polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs is provided. A plurality of polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs are provided. The towpregs are collimated so that each towpreg is parallel. A material is applied to each side of the towpreg to form a sandwich. The sandwich is heated to a temperature wherein the polymer flows and intimately contacts the filaments and pressure is repeatedly applied perpendicularly to the sandwich with a longitudinal oscillating action wherein the filaments move apart and the polymer wets the filaments forming a uni-tape prepreg. The uni-tape prepreg is subsequently cooled.

  1. Structure and electromagnetic properties of FeSiAl particles coated by MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Ting-dong

    2017-03-01

    FeSiAl particles with a layer of MgO surface coating have excellent soft magnetic and electromagnetic properties. In order to obtain the FeSiAl/MgO composites, Mg(OH)2 sol prepared by sol-gel process was well-mixed with FeSiAl flake particles, and then treated by calcination at 823 K in vacuum. The microstructural, morphological and electromagnetic parameters of FeSiAl/MgO particles were tested. Accordingly, the electromagnetic wave reflection loss in the frequency range of 0.5-18 GHz was calculated. The results show that the surface coating increases coercivity Hc and decreases complex permittivity, leading to a good impedance matching. When the coating amount was 7.5%, reflection loss of the composite particles can reach to -33 dB.

  2. Filamentary superhydrophobic Teflon surfaces: Moderate apparent contact angle but superior air-retaining properties.

    PubMed

    Di Mundo, Rosa; Bottiglione, Francesco; Palumbo, Fabio; Notarnicola, Michele; Carbone, Giuseppe

    2016-11-15

    Micro-scale textured Teflon surfaces, resulting from plasma etching modification, show extremely high water contact angle values and fairly good resistance to water penetration when hit by water drops at medium-high speed. This behavior is more pronounced when these surfaces present denser and smaller micrometric reliefs. Tailoring the top of these reliefs with a structure which further stabilizes the air may further increase resistance to wetting (water penetration) under static and dynamic conditions. Conditions of the oxygen fed plasma were tuned in order to explore the possibility of obtaining differently topped structures on the surface of the polymer. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to explore topography and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to assess chemical similarity of the modified surfaces. Beside the usual advancing and receding water contact angle (WCA) measurements, surfaces were subjected to high speed impacting drops and immersion in water. At milder, i.e. shorter time and lower input power, plasma conditions formation of peculiar filaments is observed on the top of the sculpted reliefs. Filamentary topped surfaces result in a lower WCA than the spherical ones, appearing in this sense less superhydrophobic. However, these surfaces give rise to the formation of a more pronounced air layer when placed underwater. Further, when hit by water drops falling at medium/high speed, they show a higher resistance to water penetration and a sensitively lower surface-liquid contact time. The contact time is as low as previously observed only on heated solids. This behavior may be ascribed to the cavities formed beneath the filaments which, similarly with the salvinia leaf structures, require a surplus of pressure to be filled by water. Also, it suggests a different concept of superhydrophobicity, which cannot be expected on the basis of the conventional water contact angle characterization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of one-way and two-way coupled analyses of electromagnetic machines considering magnetic and structural interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Jahyun; Kang, Chiho; Song, Jeongyong; Jang, Gunhee

    2017-05-01

    We compared one-way and two-way coupled analyses of electromagnetic machines considering magnetic and structural interaction to identify the frequency components of magnetic excitation and to determine the structural coupling effects predicted only by the two-way coupled analysis. We developed finite element models of a C-core switch and an electric motor. In the two-way coupled analysis method, the magnetic force calculated by using the Maxwell stress tensor was applied to the structural finite element model to determine the elastic deformation, and the magnetic finite element model was rearranged by means of the moving mesh method to represent the structural elastic deformation. We showed that two-way coupled analysis predicted the excitation frequency of 80 Hz (4 times the input current frequency) of magnetic force in the C-core switch and the excitation frequency of 667 Hz (the first natural frequency of the rotor, corresponding to the translational mode) of magnetic force in the electric motor undergoing rotor eccentricity. We showed that two-way coupled analysis predicted magnetic excitation and its corresponding structural response more accurately than the one-way coupled analysis, especially for electromagnetic machines in which the structural deformation affects magnetic field through variation of the air gap length.

  4. Graphene based silicon-air grating structure to realize electromagnetically-induced-transparency and slow light effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Buzheng; Liu, Huaiqing; Ren, Guobin; Yang, Yuguang; Ye, Shen; Pei, Li; Jian, Shuisheng

    2017-01-01

    A broad band tunable graphene based silicon-air grating structure is proposed. Electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) window can be successfully tuned by virtually setting the desired Fermi energy levels on graphene sheets. Carrier mobility plays an important role in modulating the resonant depth. Furthermore, by changing the grating periods, light can be trapped at corresponding resonant positions where slow down factor is relatively larger than in the previous works. This structure can be used as a highly tunable optoelectronic device such as optical filter, broad-band modulator, plasmonic switches and buffers.

  5. Fields and permeances of flat rectangular and cylindrical DC electromagnetic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zayirnyak, M.V.; Nasar, S.A.

    1985-03-01

    Analytical solutions to the field problem of flat rectangular and axially symmetric cylindrical dc electromagnetic systems are presented. It is shown that the flat configuration is a special case of the general solution. The results are presented in normalized forms as permeance functions. Calculated results are compared with those obtained experimentally.

  6. From Fragmented Knowledge to a Knowledge Structure: Linking the Domains of Mechanics and Electromagnetism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagno, Esther; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Ganiel, Uri

    2000-01-01

    Describes the MAOF physics education program which is designed to relate large parts of mechanics and electromagnetism to each other via the key concepts of field and potential, while at the same time treat students' conceptual difficulties. Finds that students who studied with the MAOF program significantly improved their physics knowledge…

  7. Coupled structural, thermal, phase-change and electromagnetic analysis for superconductors, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Farhat, Charbel; Park, K. C.; Militello, Carmelo; Schuler, James J.

    1993-01-01

    This research program has dealt with the theoretical development and computer implementation of reliable and efficient methods for the analysis of coupled mechanical problems that involve the interaction of mechanical, thermal, phase-change and electromagnetic subproblems. The focus application has been the modeling of superconductivity and associated quantum-state phase-change phenomena. In support of this objective the work has addressed the following issues: (1) development of variational principles for finite elements; (2) finite element modeling of the electromagnetic problem; (3) coupling of thermal and mechanical effects; and (4) computer implementation and solution of the superconductivity transition problem. The research was carried out over the period September 1988 through March 1993. The main accomplishments have been: (1) the development of the theory of parametrized and gauged variational principles; (2) the application of those principled to the construction of electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical finite elements; and (3) the coupling of electromagnetic finite elements with thermal and superconducting effects; and (4) the first detailed finite element simulations of bulk superconductors, in particular the Meissner effect and the nature of the normal conducting boundary layer. The grant has fully supported the thesis work of one doctoral student (James Schuler, who started on January 1989 and completed on January 1993), and partly supported another thesis (Carmelo Militello, who started graduate work on January 1988 completing on August 1991). Twenty-three publications have acknowledged full or part support from this grant, with 16 having appeared in archival journals and 3 in edited books or proceedings.

  8. Coupled Structural, Thermal, Phase-Change and Electromagnetic Analysis for Superconductors. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, C. A.; Farhat, C.; Park, K. C.; Militello, C.; Schuler, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Described are the theoretical development and computer implementation of reliable and efficient methods for the analysis of coupled mechanical problems that involve the interaction of mechanical, thermal, phase-change and electromagnetic subproblems. The focus application has been the modeling of superconductivity and associated quantum-state phase-change phenomena. In support of this objective the work has addressed the following issues: (1) development of variational principles for finite elements, (2) finite element modeling of the electromagnetic problem, (3) coupling of thermal and mechanical effects, and (4) computer implementation and solution of the superconductivity transition problem. The main accomplishments have been: (1) the development of the theory of parametrized and gauged variational principles, (2) the application of those principled to the construction of electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical finite elements, and (3) the coupling of electromagnetic finite elements with thermal and superconducting effects, and (4) the first detailed finite element simulations of bulk superconductors, in particular the Meissner effect and the nature of the normal conducting boundary layer. The theoretical development is described in two volumes. This volume, Volume 1, describes mostly formulations for specific problems. Volume 2 describes generalization of those formulations.

  9. From Fragmented Knowledge to a Knowledge Structure: Linking the Domains of Mechanics and Electromagnetism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagno, Esther; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Ganiel, Uri

    2000-01-01

    Describes the MAOF physics education program which is designed to relate large parts of mechanics and electromagnetism to each other via the key concepts of field and potential, while at the same time treat students' conceptual difficulties. Finds that students who studied with the MAOF program significantly improved their physics knowledge…

  10. Filamentary flow and magnetic geometry in evolving cluster-forming molecular cloud clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Kirk, Helen

    2017-02-01

    We present an analysis of the relationship between the orientation of magnetic fields and filaments that form in 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of cluster-forming, turbulent molecular cloud clumps. We examine simulated cloud clumps with size scales of L ∼ 2-4 pc and densities of n ∼ 400-1000 cm-3 with Alfvén Mach numbers near unity. We simulated two cloud clumps of different masses, one in virial equilibrium, the other strongly gravitationally bound, but with the same initial turbulent velocity field and similar mass-to-flux ratio. We apply various techniques to analyse the filamentary and magnetic structure of the resulting cloud, including the DISPERSE filament-finding algorithm in 3D. The largest structure that forms is a 1-2 parsec-long filament, with smaller connecting sub-filaments. We find that our simulated clouds, wherein magnetic forces and turbulence are comparable, coherent orientation of the magnetic field depends on the virial parameter. Sub-virial clumps undergo strong gravitational collapse and magnetic field lines are dragged with the accretion flow. We see evidence of filament-aligned flow and accretion flow on to the filament in the sub-virial cloud. Magnetic fields oriented more parallel in the sub-virial cloud and more perpendicular in the denser, marginally bound cloud. Radiative feedback from a 16 M⊙ star forming in a cluster in one of our simulation's ultimately results in the destruction of the main filament, the formation of an H II region, and the sweeping up of magnetic fields within an expanding shell at the edges of the H II region.

  11. Frequency Domain Criterion of Appearance of an Electromagnetic Surface Wave Above the Laminar Ice—Salt Water Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkuyev, Yu. B.; Angarkhaeva, L. Kh.; Naguslayeva, I. B.; Khaptanov, V. B.; Dembelov, M. G.; Buyanova, D. G.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a frequency domain criterion for appearance of an electromagnetic surface wave above the laminar ice—salt water structure and substantiate it theoretically and experimentally. It is found that an ice layer on the ocean surface increases the surface impedance modulus and shifts its phase to the domain corresponding to strongly inductive impedances (with a phase of up to -88°). We show that due to the presence of a thin low-conductivity ice layer on the ocean surface, an additive component appears in the ocean water impedance, which depends on the thickness of the ice layer linearly and shifts the impedance phase to the region corresponding to strong inductance. In this case, electric properties of the ice layer have almost no influence on the change in the impedance. The ice layer has a great influence on the electromagnetic field, which can be greater over the ice-covered ocean compared with the field over an infinitely conducting plane. The field increase effect is due to the electromagnetic surface wave.

  12. Geophysical imaging of near-surface structure using electromagnetic and seismic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongping

    of tomograms to interpret plume morphology. In my second study I developed a passive-seismic method to image shear-wave velocity, which is an important geotechnical property commonly correlated with soil type or lithology. I inverted shear-wave velocity profiles from the phase velocity dispersion of Rayleigh waves based on passive seismic observations (microtremors). I used several sets of microtremor data which were collected at different sites. I obtained the phase velocity dispersion curve by the Extended Spatial Autocorrelation (ESPAC) method. I used simulated annealing method is used to invert the subsurface shear-wave velocity profile from the fundamental phase velocity dispersion curve. The field-experimental and synthetic results indicated that the microtremor approach can provide valuable information for quantitative geotechnical and hydrologic characterization. In my third study I developed a method to image vadose-zone dynamics using GPR. Flow in the unsaturated zone is important for predicting groundwater recharge, contaminant migration, and chemical/microbiological processes. However, it is difficult to characterize or monitor with conventional hydrologic measurements, which provide information at sparse locations. The purpose of this study was to image changes in moisture content, as well as aquifer structure based on the relation between dielectric constant and water content. The objective was to calibrate a flow model to field-experimental, time-lapse GPR data collected during an infiltration experiment. To this end, (1) I constructed a VS2DT model based on aquifer structure interpreted from static GPR reflection profiles; (2) I manually calibrated the model to reproduce observed changes in GPR data during infiltration; and (3) I used a time-domain electromagnetic finite-difference model to simulate experimental observations for comparison. The results of this work indicate that time-lapse GPR can monitor changes in water content on the order of a few

  13. Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on histopathology and structures of brains of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Lahijani, Maryam Shams; Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza; Kalantary, Sima

    2011-09-01

    There are several reports indicating linkages between exposures to 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields and abnormalities in the early stages of chicken embryonic development. Based on our previous published research carried out at the Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on histopathology and structures of brains of preincubated white leghorn hen eggs were investigated. Three hundred healthy fresh fertilized eggs (55-65 gr) were divided into three groups of experimental (n = 50), control (n = 75), and sham (n = 75). Experimental eggs (inside the coil) were exposed to 3 different intensities of 1.33, 2.66, and 7.32 mT and sham groups were located inside the same coil with no exposure, for 24 h before incubation. Control, sham, and experimental groups were all incubated in an incubator (38 ± 0.5(°)C, 60% humidity) for 14 days. 14-day old chicken embryos were removed by C-sections, and the brains of all embryos of all groups were fixed in formalin(10%), stained with H&E and TUNEL assay, for studying the histopatholog and process of apoptosis. The brains of other embryos were prepared for Scanning Electeron Microscope. Results showed electromagnetic fields have toxic effects on brain cells by increasing the number of apoptotic cells and degeneration of brains' tissues of exposed chicken embryos. These findings suggest that the electromagnetic fields induce brain damages at different levels.

  14. Study on the Microwave Transmission Characteristics of a Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Bandgap Structure with Coupled Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shibin; Li, Dichen; Tian, Xiaoyong; Han, Haoxue; Wu, Haihua

    2012-03-01

    The influence of a vertical coupled defect on the localized properties of a diamond electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure has been studied in the present research. The diamond EBG structure with a cavity defect was fabricated by stereolithography and gel-casting processes with alumina slurry. The resonant peaks of two kinds of defects were compared by measuring their microwave transmission characteristics using a network analyzer. A higher quality factor ( Q) was obtained for the diamond EBG structure with a vertical coupled defect, and the transmission efficiency of resonant peak was improved by 29.6% in comparison with a single defect. Experimental results agreed with the simulation results. These microwave transmission characteristics of the three-dimensional (3D) EBG structures indicate that they can be applied in microwave devices to improve transmission efficiency.

  15. Electromagnetic turbulent structures: A ubiquitous feature of the edge region of toroidal plasma configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Spolaore, M. Vianello, N.; Agostini, M.; Cavazzana, R.; De Masi, G.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Scaggion, A.; Scarin, P.; Spagnolo, S.; Spizzo, G.; Zuin, M.; Furno, I.; Avino, F.; Fasoli, A.; Theiler, C.; Carralero, D.; Alonso, J. A.; Hidalgo, C.

    2015-01-15

    Electromagnetic features of turbulent filaments, emerging from a turbulent plasma background, have been studied in four different magnetic configurations: the stellarator TJ-II, the Reversed Field Pinch RFX-mod, a device that can be operated also as a ohmic tokamak, and the Simple Magnetized Torus, TORPEX. By applying an analogous diagnostic concept in all cases, direct measurements of both field-aligned current density and vorticity were performed inside the filament. The inter-machine comparison reveals a clear dependence of the filament vorticity upon the local time-averaged E × B flow shear. Furthermore, a wide range of local beta was explored allowing concluding that this parameter plays a fundamental role in the appearance of filament electromagnetic features.

  16. The Electromagnetic and Mechanical Properties of Structural Composites: A Theoretical and Experimental Design Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-22

    presented. unidirectional glass fiber bundles polymer stitching thread elliptical fiber bundle cross section Az, _^%i Unidirectional fabrics...Figure 2a shows a typical unidirectional composite fabric. It also shows the thin polymer stitching thread used to hold the fiber bundles in place. The...stitching thread takes up less than 2% of the total fabric volume and, as a result, its contribution to the fabric’s electromagnetic properties

  17. Coupled Structural, Thermal, Phase-change and Electromagnetic Analysis for Superconductors, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, C. A.; Farhat, C.; Park, K. C.; Militello, C.; Schuler, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Described are the theoretical development and computer implementation of reliable and efficient methods for the analysis of coupled mechanical problems that involve the interaction of mechanical, thermal, phase-change and electromag subproblems. The focus application has been the modeling of superconductivity and associated quantum-state phase change phenomena. In support of this objective the work has addressed the following issues: (1) development of variational principles for finite elements, (2) finite element modeling of the electromagnetic problem, (3) coupling of thermel and mechanical effects, and (4) computer implementation and solution of the superconductivity transition problem. The main accomplishments have been: (1) the development of the theory of parametrized and gauged variational principles, (2) the application of those principled to the construction of electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical finite elements, and (3) the coupling of electromagnetic finite elements with thermal and superconducting effects, and (4) the first detailed finite element simulations of bulk superconductors, in particular the Meissner effect and the nature of the normal conducting boundary layer. The theoretical development is described in two volumes. Volume 1 describes mostly formulation specific problems. Volume 2 describes generalization of those formulations.

  18. Electromagnetic Structure of Two- and Three-Nucleon Systems: An Effective Field Theory Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Daniel R.

    2016-10-01

    I discuss the use of chiral effective field theory (χEFT) to describe electromagnetic reactions in the two- and three-nucleon systems. I review the results of χEFT power counting for charge and current operators up to [Formula: see text] relative to leading order, before showing that renormalization-group arguments imply that short-distance electromagnetic operators play a larger role than suggested by this standard counting. A detailed examination of χEFT's predictions for the electromagnetic form factors of deuterium and the trinucleons, and for the threshold captures np→dγ and nd→tγ, enables a critical appraisal of the theory's performance in these contexts. Recent χEFT calculations using the [Formula: see text] chiral perturbation theory (χPT) potential yielded both form factors that agree with experimental data for Q2<0.25 GeV2 and an excellent description of the challenging threshold captures. Short-distance M1 operators are essential to this success, and the addition of a short-distance part of the nucleon-nucleon charge operator produces precise predictions of the deuteron charge and quadrupole form factors in this kinematic domain.

  19. Effect of Nd-doping on structure and microwave electromagnetic properties of BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng; Luo, Heng; Yan, Shuoqing; Yao, Lingling; He, Jun; Li, Yuhan; He, Longhui; Huang, Shengxiang; Deng, Lianwen

    2017-03-01

    The single-phase Bi1-xNdxFeO3 (x=0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Their crystal structure and microwave electromagnetic property in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz were investigated. The XRD patterns and Raman spectra showed that structural transition from rhombohedral (x=0, 0.05, 0.1) to triclinic (x=0.15) and tetragonal structure (x=0.20) appeared in the Bi1-xNdxFeO3. Electromagnetic measurement suggested that both microwave permeability μ‧ and magnetic loss tanδm increased remarkably over 2-18 GHz by doping Nd. Strong dielectric loss peak was observed on the samples of Bi1-xNdxFeO3 (x=0.15) and Bi1-xNdxFeO3 (x=0.2). Results show that Nd substitution is an effective way to push BiFeO3 to become microwave absorbing materials with high performance.

  20. Selective reinforcement of wing structure for flutter prevention.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, P. A.; Stroud, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an analytical study are presented on the use of boron polyimide filamentary composite material for the purpose of increasing the flutter speed of a simple titanium full depth sandwich wing structure designed for strength. The results clearly demonstrate that selective reinforcement of wing surfaces, using judiciously placed filamentary composites, promises sizable mass savings in the design of advanced aircraft structures.

  1. Obtaining source current density related to irregularly structured electromagnetic target field inside human body using hybrid inverse/FDTD method.

    PubMed

    Han, Jijun; Yang, Deqiang; Sun, Houjun; Xin, Sherman Xuegang

    2017-01-01

    Inverse method is inherently suitable for calculating the distribution of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field. However, the present form of inverse method cannot calculate complex field-tissue interactions. A novel hybrid inverse/finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method that can calculate the complex field-tissue interactions for the inverse design of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field is proposed. A Huygens' equivalent surface is established as a bridge to combine the inverse and FDTD method. Distribution of the radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field on the Huygens' equivalent surface is obtained using the FDTD method by considering the complex field-tissue interactions within the human body model. The obtained magnetic field distributed on the Huygens' equivalent surface is regarded as the next target. The current density on the designated source surface is derived using the inverse method. The homogeneity of target magnetic field and specific energy absorption rate are calculated to verify the proposed method.

  2. Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearities in Composite Media and Structures via Local Fields and Electromagnetic Coupling Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.

    2002-01-01

    This talk will review the linear and nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles and dielectric microparticles, with an emphasis on local field effects, and whispering gallery modes (WGMs), as well as the conjunction of these two effects for enhanced Raman. In particular, enhanced optical properties that result from electromagnetic coupling effects will be discussed in the context of Mie scattering from concentric spheres and bispheres. Predictions of mode splitting and photonic bandgaps in micro-spheres will be presented and will be shown to be analogous to effects that occur in coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW). Slow and fast light in SCISSOR / CROW configurations will also be discussed.

  3. Polarization-independent electromagnetically induced transparency-like transmission in coupled guided-mode resonance structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun-Goo; Kim, Seong-Han; Kim, Kap-Joong; Kee, Chul-Sik

    2017-03-01

    We present two photonic systems that make it possible to realize polarization-independent electromagnetically induced transparency based on guided-mode resonances. Each system is composed of two planar dielectric waveguides and a two-dimensional photonic crystal. Using finite-difference time-domain simulations, we demonstrate that by coupling the two guided-mode resonances with low- and high-quality factors, a narrow transparency window is generated inside a broad background transmission dip produced by the guided-mode resonances. We also show that the time delay that occurs when light beams pass through the proposed systems can be controlled by adjusting the distance between the two waveguides.

  4. Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearities in Composite Media and Structures via Local Fields and Electromagnetic Coupling Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.

    2002-01-01

    This talk will review the linear and nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles and dielectric microparticles, with an emphasis on local field effects, and whispering gallery modes (WGMs), as well as the conjunction of these two effects for enhanced Raman. In particular, enhanced optical properties that result from electromagnetic coupling effects will be discussed in the context of Mie scattering from concentric spheres and bispheres. Predictions of mode splitting and photonic bandgaps in micro-spheres will be presented and will be shown to be analogous to effects that occur in coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW). Slow and fast light in SCISSOR / CROW configurations will also be discussed.

  5. Study of coupled-cluster correlations on electromagnetic transitions and hyperfine structure constants of W VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Anal; Roy, Sourav; Nath Dutta, Narendra; Majumder, Sonjoy

    2017-06-01

    This work presents precise calculations of important electromagnetic transition amplitudes along with details of their many-body correlations using the relativistic coupled-cluster method. Studies of hyperfine interaction constants, useful for plasma diagnostics, with this correlation exhaustive many-body approach, are another important area of this work. The calculated oscillator strengths of allowed transitions, amplitudes of forbidden transitions and lifetimes are compared with the other theoretical results wherever available and they show a good agreement. Hyperfine constants of different isotopes of W VI, presented in this paper, will be helpful in gaining an accurate picture of the abundances of this element in different astronomical bodies.

  6. Human motion energy harvesting: numerical analysis of electromagnetic swing-excited structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, K.; Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Energy harvesting from human motion has constantly attracted scientific interest over recent years. A location where a harvesting device can easily and unobtrusively be integrated is the shoe sole, which also protects the device from exterior influences. In this work a numerical system model is developed, which can be used to simulate different inductive harvester geometries and predict their power output. Real world acceleration data is used as a model input. The model is implemented in Matlab/Simulink and subdivided into a mechanical and an electromagnetic model. The key features including the motion model and the calculation of the electromagnetic coupling coefficient are explained in detail and the model is briefly evaluated experimentally. A total of six inductive architectures, i.e. different cylindrical and rectangular magnet-coil arrangements, are then investigated in detail. The geometrical parameters are optimized for each architecture to find the best geometry within the size of 71 mm × 37.5 mm × 12.5 mm, which can be integrated into the sole. With the best overall design an average power output of 42.7 mW is simulated across an ohmic load of 41 Ohms. In addition to the respective best designs, the (dis-)advantages of each architecture are explained.

  7. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat testes influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Almášiová, Viera; Holovská, Katarína; Cigánková, Viera; Račeková, Enikö; Fabianová, Kamila; Martončíková, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of whole-body electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on testicular parenchyma of Wistar rats. Sexually mature rats were subjected to pulsed electromagnetic field at frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density 2.8 mW/cm(2) by 3-h daily applications for 3 wk. Tissue samples were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed by histological techniques for light and transmission electron microscopy. Testes showed apparent degenerative changes of seminiferous epithelium. The seminiferous tubules were mostly irregular in shape, and seminiferous epithelium contained a number of empty spaces of different size. Subsequently, groups of sloughed epithelial cells were often found inside the lumina of tubules. Except for relatively unchanged Sertoli cells, some locations of basal compartment of seminiferous epithelium contained shriveled Sertoli cells with dark cytoplasm. These areas showed degenerative features including necrotizing and shriveled spermatogonia surrounded by empty irregular spaces, and undulating basement membrane. The intertubular spaces were enlarged but interstitial Leydig cells did not show any marked morphological changes. Evidence demonstrates the adverse effects of EMR on testicular parenchyma in rats.

  8. Electromagnetic wave absorption of polymeric nanocomposites based on ferrite with a spinel and hexagonal crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drmota, A.; Koselj, J.; Drofenik, M.; Žnidaršič, A.

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated composites designed for microwave absorption based on magnetic filler, composed of phases within the SrO-Fe2O3 system, embedded in a polyphenylene sulfide matrix with a concentration ratio of 80:20 by weight. The formation of the nanosized particles of SrFe12O19 and Fe3O4, as the principal magnetic phases was achieved via the co-precipitation of Sr2+/Fe3+ ions using different molar ratios. The various precursors obtained were calcined between 600 °C and 900 °C in air. The electromagnetic parameters of the composites were measured with a vector network analyzer at 400 MHz to 32 GHz. The results show that with a composite composed of a complex magnetic filler comprising the nanoparticles of two magnetically diverse phases, i.e., a spinel phase as the electromagnetic wave absorber in the lower GHz range and a hexagonal phase operating at a higher GHz range, above 32 GHz, a microwave absorber with an broad absorption range can be prepared.

  9. DOD-SBIR Structured Multi-Resolution PIC Code for Electromagnetic Plasma Simulations, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J L; Grote, D P; Friedman, A

    2010-04-22

    A novel electromagnetic solver with mesh refinement capability was implemented in Warp. The solver allows for calculations in 2-1/2 and 3 dimensions, includes the standard Yee stencil, and the Cole-Karkkainen stencil for lower numerical dispersion along the principal axes. Warp implementation of the Cole-Karkkainen stencil includes an extension to perfectly matched layers (PML) for absorption of waves, and is preserving the conservation property of charge conserving current deposition schemes, like the Buneman-Villanesor and Esirkepov methods. Warp's mesh refinement framework (originally developed for electrostatic calculations) was augmented to allow for electromagnetic capability, following the methodology presented in [1] extended to an arbitrary number of refinement levels. Other developments include a generalized particle injection method, internal conductors using stair-cased approximation, and subcycling of particle pushing. The solver runs in parallel using MPI message passing, with a choice at runtime of 1D, 2D and 3D domain decomposition, and is shown to scale linearly on a test problem up-to 32,768 CPUs. The novel solver was tested on the modeling of filamentation instability, fast ignition, ion beam induced plasma wake, and laser plasma acceleration.

  10. Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendickson, Jon M.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Scalora, Michael

    1996-04-01

    We derive an exact expression for the electromagnetic mode density, and hence the group velocity, for a finite, N-period, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structure. We begin by deriving a general formula for the mode density in terms of the complex transmission coefficient of an arbitrary index profile. Then we develop a specific formula that gives the N-period mode density in terms of the complex transmission coefficient of the unit cell. The special cases of mode-density enhancement and suppression at the photonic band edge and also at midgap, respectively, are derived. The specific example of a quarter-wave stack is analyzed, and applications to three-dimensional structures, spontaneous emission control, delay lines, band-edge lasers, and superluminal tunneling times are discussed.

  11. Electromagnetic microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttgenbach, S.; Al-Halhouli, A. T.; Feldmann, M.; Seidemann, V.; Waldschik, A.

    2013-05-01

    High precision microactuators have become key elements for many applications of MEMS, for example for positioning and handling systems as well as for microfluidic devices. Electromagnetic microactuators exhibit considerable benefits such as high forces, large deflections, low input impedances and thus, the involvement of only low voltages. Most of the magnetic microactuators developed so far are based on the variable reluctance principle and use soft magnetic materials. Since the driving force of such actuators is proportional to their volume, they require structures with rather great heights and aspect ratios. Therefore, the development of new photo resists, which allow UV exposure of thick layers of resist, has been essential for the advancement of variable reluctance microactuators. On the other hand, hard magnetic materials have the potential for larger forces and larger deflections. Accordingly, polymer magnets, in which micro particles of hard magnetic material are suspended in a polymer matrix, have been used to fabricate permanent magnet microactuators. In this paper we give an overview of sophisticated electromagnetic microactuators which have been developed in our laboratory in the framework of the Collaborative Research Center "Design and Manufacturing of Active Microsystems". In particular, concept, fabrication and test of variable reluctance micro stepper motors, of permanent magnet synchronous micromotors and of microactuators based on the Lorentz force principle will be described. Special emphasis will be given to applications in lab-on-chip systems.

  12. Theory of hysteresis during electron heating of electromagnetic wave scattering by self-organized dust structures in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tsytovich, Vadim; Gusein-zade, Namik; Ignatov, Alexander

    2015-07-15

    Dust structuring is a natural and universal process in complex plasmas. The scattering of electromagnetic waves by dust structures is governed by the factor of coherency, i.e., the total number of coherent electrons in a single structure. In the present paper, we consider how the factor of coherency changes due to additional pulse electron heating and show that it obeys a hysteresis. After the end of the pulse heating, the scattering intensity differs substantially from that before heating. There are three necessary conditions for scattering hysteresis: first, the radiation wavelength should be larger than the pattern (structure) size; second, the total number of coherent electrons confined by the structure should be large; and third, the heating pulse duration should be shorter than the characteristic time of dust structure formation. We present the results of numerical calculations using existing models of self-consistent dust structures with either positively or negatively charged dust grains. It is shown that, depending on the grain charge and the ionization rate, two types of hysteresis are possible: one with a final increase of the scattering and the other with a final decrease of the scattering. It is suggested that the hysteresis of coherent scattering can be used as a tool in laboratory experiments and that it can be a basic mechanism explaining the observed hysteresis in radar scattering by noctilucent clouds during active experiments on electron heating in mesosphere.

  13. Seismic electromagnetic study in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Seismo-electromagnetism is becoming a hot interdisciplinary study in both geosciences and electromagnetism. Numerous electromagnetic changes at a broad range of frequencies associated with earthquakes have been reported independently. There are some attempts of applying such electromagnetic data to short-term earthquake prediction. Although due to the complexity of seismogenic process and underground structure, the seismic electromagnetic phenomena cannot be fully understood, the seismic electromagnetic study plays a key role in the mitigation of seismic hazard. China is one of the countries which have the earliest reports on seismo-electromagnetic phenomena. The seismic electromagnetic study in China started in late 1960's. There are almost 50 years continuous observation data up to now, which provides a unique database for seismo-electromagnetic study not only in China, but also in the world. Therefore, seismo-electromagnetic study in China is interested broadly by international communities of geosciences and electromagnetism. I present here a brief review on seismic electromagnetic study in China, especially focusing on geo-electromagnetic observation and empirical prediction based on the observation data. After summarizing various electromagnetic observations such as apparent resistivity, geoelectric potential, geomagnetic field, electromagnetic disturbance, and so on, I show the cases of the empirical prediction based on the observed electromagnetic data associated with some earthquakes in China. Finally, based on the above review, I propose an integrated research scheme of earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena, which includes the interaction between appropriate observations, robust methodology of data processing, and theoretical model analysis. This study is supported partially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41274075) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB845903).

  14. DBD plasma source operated in single-filamentary mode for therapeutic use in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini; Mertmann, Philipp; Bibinov, Nikita; Wandke, Dirk; Viöl, Wolfgang; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-11-01

    Our dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma source for bio-medical application comprises a copper electrode covered with ceramic. Objects of high capacitance such as the human body can be used as the opposite electrode. In this study, the DBD source is operated in single-filamentary mode using an aluminium spike as the opposite electrode, to imitate the conditions when the discharge is ignited on a raised point, such as hair, during therapeutic use on the human body. The single-filamentary discharge thus obtained is characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, numerical simulation, voltage-current measurements and microphotography. For characterization of the discharge, averaged plasma parameters such as electron distribution function and electron density are determined. Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O3) and photons reaching the treated surface are simulated. The calculated fluxes are finally compared with corresponding fluxes used in different bio-medical applications.

  15. Comparison between structurally connected propellant formation flying and electromagnetic formation flying spacecraft configurations for Gen-X mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsun, Umair; Rodgers, Lennon; Miller, David W.

    2005-08-01

    Gen-X is a next generation concept x-ray telescope that would be approximately 1000-times more sensitive than current x-ray telescopes such as Chandra. Since Gen-X will require focal lengths greater than 50 meters, formation flying the detector module behind the primary mirror is a feasible option. This study investigates the viability of a novel approach referred to as Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF). EMFF uses High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) coils to generate force and torque between the primary and detector modules. EMFF subsystems such as coils, thermal control and power are sized as a function of different system parameters such as slew rate, focal length and detector mass. To investigate the viability of EMFF, a comparison is made between three different techniques for keeping the detector at the focal length distance behind the primary mirror assembly. The first architecture uses a deployable truss to create a Structurally Connected X-ray telescope (SCX), the second uses propellant-based formation flying (PFF) and the third uses Electromagnetic Formation Flying (EMFF).

  16. Combined Electromagnetic and Magnetic Survey To Study The Basement Structure Of The Neogene Philippi Basin (Northern Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurk, M.; Maith, I.; Tougiannidis, N.; Tezkan, B.; Melles, M.; Weber, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    During 2009 and 2010 geophysical soundings have been conducted to study the basement structure of the Neogene Philippi Basin in Northern Greece. Primary task was to give an estimate of the top of basement distribution along a 12 km transect through the basin and then to choose the most promising drilling location for a climate change study. Different electromagnetic methods, each sensitive for different exploration depth, were applied to obtain a dataset suitable for a later joint inversion. Those methods are supporting each other to overcome resolution problems laterally and horizontally. During the first campaign we stated that the Time Domain Electromagnetic Soundings (TEM) did not succeed in reaching the basement in the centre of the basin, consequently we used, in a second stage, a combined set of radiomagnetotelluric (RMT) and audiomagnetotelluric soundings (AMT) to estimate a first 2D conductivity model. Since the scalar RMT data are measured solely in TM-mode configuration, we confine ourselves to this mode in the modeling. The obtained TM-mode resistivity model was then in turn the starting model for a 2.5D forward modeling of high resolution magnetic field anomaly data. Both individual methods support each other and can have jointly been analyzed.

  17. Study of Mechanisms of Filamentary Pulse Electric Discharge Interaction with Gaseous Flow of Nonuniform Composition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    filamentary plasma dynamics in static gas and in high-speed flow; analytical and computational models of the jet -type gasdynamic instability due to pulse ... jets in the direction opposite to pressure gradients. A “cumulative” jets formation is being also studied numerically using a commercial CFD ++ flow...As it was mentioned above the pulse discharge in co-flowing gas jets has a trend to develop along the boundary between jets composed of two

  18. Potential of glassy carbon and silicon carbide photonic structures as electromagnetic radiation shields for atmospheric re-entry.

    PubMed

    Komarevskiy, Nikolay; Shklover, Valery; Braginsky, Leonid; Hafner, Christian; Lawson, John

    2012-06-18

    During high-velocity atmospheric entries, space vehicles can be exposed to strong electromagnetic radiation from ionized gas in the shock layer. Glassy carbon (GC) and silicon carbide (SiC) are candidate thermal protection materials due to their high melting point and also their good thermal and mechanical properties. Based on data from shock tube experiments, a significant fraction of radiation at hypersonic entry conditions is in the frequency range from 215 to 415 THz. We propose and analyze SiC and GC photonic structures to increase the reflection of radiation in that range. For this purpose, we performed numerical optimizations of various structures using an evolutionary strategy. Among the considered structures are layered, porous, woodpile, inverse opal and guided-mode resonance structures. In order to estimate the impact of fabrication inaccuracies, the sensitivity of the reflectivity to structural imperfections is analyzed. We estimate that the reflectivity of GC photonic structures is limited to 38% in the aforementioned range, due to material absorption. However, GC material can be effective for photonic reflection of individual, strong spectral line. SiC on the other hand can be used to design a good reflector for the entire frequency range.

  19. Potential of Glassy Carbon and Silicon Carbide Photonic Structures as Electromagnetic Radiation Shields for Atmospheric Re-entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komarevskiy,Nikolay; Shklover, Valery; Braginsky, Leonid; Hafner, Christian; Lawson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    During high-velocity atmospheric entries, space vehicles can be exposed to strong electromagnetic radiation from ionized gas in the shock layer. Glassy carbon (GC) and silicon carbide (SiC) are candidate thermal protection materials due to their high melting point and also their good thermal and mechanical properties. Based on data from shock tube experiments, a significant fraction of radiation at hypersonic entry conditions is in the frequency range from 215 to 415 THz. We propose and analyze SiC and GC photonic structures to increase the reflection of radiation in that range. For this purpose, we performed numerical optimizations of various structures using an evolutionary strategy. Among the considered structures are layered, porous, woodpile, inverse opal and guided-mode resonance structures. In order to estimate the impact of fabrication inaccuracies, the sensitivity of the reflectivity to structural imperfections is analyzed. We estimate that the reflectivity of GC photonic structures is limited to 38% in the aforementioned range, due to material absorption. However, GC material can be effective for photonic reflection of individual, strong spectral line. SiC on the other hand can be used to design a good reflector for the entire frequency range.

  20. Gas Kinematics and Star Formation in the Filamentary IRDC G34.43+0.24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin-Long; Li, Di; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Jun-Jie; Ning, Chang-Chun; Ju, Bing-Gang

    2016-03-01

    We performed a multiwavelength study toward the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G34.43+0.24. New maps of 13CO J = 1-0 and C18O J = 1-0 were obtained from the Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) 13.7 m radio telescope. At 8 μm (Spitzer-IRAC), IRDC G34.43+0.24 appears to be a dark filament extended by 18‧ along the north-south direction. Based on the association with the 870 μm and C18O J = 1-0 emission, we suggest that IRDC G34.43+0.24 should not be 18‧ in length, but extend to 34‧. IRDC G34.43+0.24 contains some massive protostars, UC H ii regions, and infrared bubbles. The spatial extend of IRDC G34.43+0.24 is about 37 pc, assuming a distance of 3.7 kpc. IRDC G34.43+0.24 has a linear mass density of ˜1.6 × 103 M⊙ pc-1, which is roughly consistent with its critical mass to length ratio. The turbulent motion may help stabilize the filament against the radial collapse. Both infrared bubbles N61 and N62 show a ringlike structure at 8 μm. In particular, N61 has a double-shell structure that has expanded into IRDC G34.43+0.24. The outer shell is traced by 8 μm and 13CO J = 1-0 emission, while the inner shell is traced by 24 μm and 20 cm emission. We suggest that the outer shell (9.9 × 105 years) is created by the expansion of H ii region G34.172+0.175, while the inner shell (4.1 ˜ 6.3 × 105 years) may be produced by the energetic stellar wind of its central massive star. From the GLIMPSE I catalog, we selected some Class I sources with an age of ˜105 years. These Class I sources are clustered along the filamentary molecular cloud.

  1. GAS KINEMATICS AND STAR FORMATION IN THE FILAMENTARY IRDC G34.43+0.24

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jin-Long; Li, Di; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Jun-Jie; Ning, Chang-Chun; Ju, Bing-Gang

    2016-03-10

    We performed a multiwavelength study toward the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G34.43+0.24. New maps of {sup 13}CO J = 1–0 and C{sup 18}O J = 1–0 were obtained from the Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) 13.7 m radio telescope. At 8 μm (Spitzer-IRAC), IRDC G34.43+0.24 appears to be a dark filament extended by 18′ along the north–south direction. Based on the association with the 870 μm and C{sup 18}O J = 1–0 emission, we suggest that IRDC G34.43+0.24 should not be 18′ in length, but extend to 34′. IRDC G34.43+0.24 contains some massive protostars, UC H ii regions, and infrared bubbles. The spatial extend of IRDC G34.43+0.24 is about 37 pc, assuming a distance of 3.7 kpc. IRDC G34.43+0.24 has a linear mass density of ∼1.6 × 10{sup 3} M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −1}, which is roughly consistent with its critical mass to length ratio. The turbulent motion may help stabilize the filament against the radial collapse. Both infrared bubbles N61 and N62 show a ringlike structure at 8 μm. In particular, N61 has a double-shell structure that has expanded into IRDC G34.43+0.24. The outer shell is traced by 8 μm and {sup 13}CO J = 1–0 emission, while the inner shell is traced by 24 μm and 20 cm emission. We suggest that the outer shell (9.9 × 10{sup 5} years) is created by the expansion of H ii region G34.172+0.175, while the inner shell (4.1 ∼ 6.3 × 10{sup 5} years) may be produced by the energetic stellar wind of its central massive star. From the GLIMPSE I catalog, we selected some Class I sources with an age of ∼10{sup 5} years. These Class I sources are clustered along the filamentary molecular cloud.

  2. Kinetic approach to the formation of 3D electromagnetic structures in flows of expanding plasma coronas. II. flow anisotropy parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubchenko, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    The formation of magnetic structures in moving hot solar coronal plasma and hot collisionless laser-produced plasma, as determined by nonlinear criteria for weak and strong magnetization on the basis of the friction parameter Γ B and Alfven number M A, is considered within the Vlasov and Maxwell equations in the second part of the work. The flow velocities are lower then the thermal electron velocity. The energy and pulse anisotropy parameters of a flow, which determine its electromagnetic properties in the Cherenkov resonance line, are calculated by shape of particle distribution function (PDF). The ratio of these parameters is the Q-factor G V ; it characterizes the electromagnetic properties of a plasma flow and is expressed via the ratio of diamagnetic and resistive current densities or via the ratio of irregular and diamagnetic plasma scales. A particle flow is similar to a conductive medium at G V ≪ 1 and a diamagnetic medium at G V ≫ 1. The following cases are considered. (1) A plasma flow is specified by an isotropic PDF and interacts with distributed magnetization. Expressions for anisotropy parameters are derived, 3D field structures in the tail wake are found, and a possibility of topological reconstruction into a compact state under variation in the parameter G V is shown. (2) A plasma flow is specified by an isotropic PDF; a steady-state diamagnetic current layer, characterized by an anisotropic PDF, is immersed inside it. The system is in the diamagnetic state G ≫ 1. The generalized anisotropy parameter is calculated and a possibility of the excitation of three types of diamagnetic structures with low resistive currents is shown. (3) The nonlinear dynamics of anisotropic quasi-current-free plasma ( G =-1), in which the diamagnetic and resistive current densities locally compensate each other in the phase space of particle velocities, is studied. This dynamics is implemented in the long wavelength limit in plasma with an anisotropic PDF.

  3. Fabrication of filamentary potassium-doped C 60 superconductors by suspension spinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, T.; Maezawa, M.

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes the preparation of filamentary potassium-doped C 60 superconductors prepared by the suspension spinning method. Commercial C 60 powder was suspended in mixed poly(vinyl alcohol) solution of dimethyl sulfoxide and hexamethylphosphoric triamide (sample A). The viscous suspension was extruded as a filament into a precipitating medium of methyl alcohol and coiled on a drum. The filamentary sample was also prepared by the suspension spinning by using polyacrylonitrile solution of N, N-dimethylformamide (sample B). The samples were pyrolyzed to remove volatile components. Doping of potassium for the samples was prepared as following: At first, powder samples of nominal composition K 6C 60 was prepared by reaction of C 60 with excess potassium. The K 6C 60 powder and filamentary sample with stoichiometric ratio of K 3C 60 were placed in Pyrex glass tubes and vacuum-sealed and heated at 250 °C for 36 h. SQUID measurement shows the superconductivity of sample B with Tc=18 K. On the other hand, the superconductivity more than 2 K was not detected for sample A.

  4. Optical characteristics of the filamentary and diffuse modes in surface dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Jie; Jiang, Nan; Shang, Ke-Feng; Lu, Na; Wu, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas generally exhibits filamentary and diffuse discharges at atmospheric air. The focus of this investigation is on the different optical characteristics and quantitative research about morphological features of two discharge modes. The temporally and spatially resolved characteristics of discharge phenomenon together with the gas temperature are presented with microsecond time scale. Discharge area is estimated by the sum of pixels that equal to "1" in MATLAB software. The formation of diffuse plasma mainly depends on an increase of the ionization coefficient and a creation of sufficient seed electrons by the Penning effect at low electric fields. Accordingly, experimental measurements show that diffuse discharge during the negative half cycle has good uniformity and stability compared with filamentary discharge during the positive half cycle. The rotational temperatures of plasma are determined by comparing the experimental spectra with the simulated spectra that have been investigated. The plasma gas temperature keeps almost constant in the filamentary discharge phase and subsequently increased by about 115 K during the diffuse discharge. In addition, it is shown to be nearly identical in the axial direction. Non-uniform temperature distribution can be observed in the radial direction with large fluctuations. The plasma length is demonstrated almost the same between two discharge modes.

  5. Accurate modeling and reconstruction of three-dimensional percolating filamentary microstructures from two-dimensional micrographs via dilation-erosion method

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, En-Yu; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Jing, Tao; Torquato, Salvatore; Jiao, Yang

    2014-03-01

    Heterogeneous materials are ubiquitous in nature and synthetic situations and have a wide range of important engineering applications. Accurate modeling and reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of topologically complex materials from limited morphological information such as a two-dimensional (2D) micrograph is crucial to the assessment and prediction of effective material properties and performance under extreme conditions. Here, we extend a recently developed dilation–erosion method and employ the Yeong–Torquato stochastic reconstruction procedure to model and generate 3D austenitic–ferritic cast duplex stainless steel microstructure containing percolating filamentary ferrite phase from 2D optical micrographs of the material sample. Specifically, the ferrite phase is dilated to produce a modified target 2D microstructure and the resulting 3D reconstruction is eroded to recover the percolating ferrite filaments. The dilation–erosion reconstruction is compared with the actual 3D microstructure, obtained from serial sectioning (polishing), as well as the standard stochastic reconstructions incorporating topological connectedness information. The fact that the former can achieve the same level of accuracy as the latter suggests that the dilation–erosion procedure is tantamount to incorporating appreciably more topological and geometrical information into the reconstruction while being much more computationally efficient. - Highlights: • Spatial correlation functions used to characterize filamentary ferrite phase • Clustering information assessed from 3D experimental structure via serial sectioning • Stochastic reconstruction used to generate 3D virtual structure 2D micrograph • Dilation–erosion method to improve accuracy of 3D reconstruction.

  6. Transparent multi-layer graphene/polyethylene terephthalate structures with excellent microwave absorption and electromagnetic interference shielding performance.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhengang; Ma, Limin; Tan, Jiubin; Wang, Heyan; Ding, Xuemei

    2016-09-22

    A high-performance electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding structure based on pure graphene (without doping) consists of several graphene sheets separated by transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. We report the theoretical and experimental design, and characterization of the multi-layer graphene/PET structures. With a total graphene thickness of only 4 nm, the graphene/PET sample demonstrated an average shielding effectiveness of 19.14 dB at 18-26.5 GHz, with a maximum microwave absorbance of 95.82% at 25.7 GHz, while maintaining a normalized visible transmittance of 80.5%. For the multi-layer graphene/PET samples, the contribution of absorption to the total shielding exceeds 96%, indicating that absorption is the dominant shielding mechanism, instead of reflection. The microwave absorbance of the multi-layer graphene/PET structure increases rapidly from the mono- to the four-layer structures, and then more gradually as the number of layers continues to increase when the thickness of PET is 1 mm. In addition, the microwave absorbance can be improved two-fold by increasing the separation between graphene layers. We believe that this multi-layer graphene/PET structure, which exhibits high-performance microwave absorption and shielding, has great potential for applications in transparent EMI shielding devices, especially if EMI absorption is required.

  7. Electromagnetism, Second Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, I. S.; Phillips, W. R.

    2003-09-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scientists R. J. Barlow and A. R. Barnett Electromagnetism, Second Edition is suitable for a first course in electromagnetism, whilst also covering many topics frequently encountered in later courses. The material has been carefully arranged and allows for flexi-bility in its use for courses of different length and structure. A knowledge of calculus and an elementary knowledge of vectors is assumed, but the mathematical properties of the differential vector operators are described in sufficient detail for an introductory course, and their physical significance in the context of electromagnetism is emphasised. In this Second Edition the authors give a fuller treatment of circuit analysis and include a discussion of the dispersion of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetism, Second Edition features: The application of the laws of electromagnetism to practical problems such as the behaviour of antennas, transmission lines and transformers. Sets of problems at the end of each chapter to help student understanding, with hints and solutions to the problems given at the end of the book. Optional "starred" sections containing more specialised and advanced material for the more ambitious reader. An Appendix with a thorough discussion of electromagnetic standards and units. Recommended by many institutions. Electromagnetism. Second Edition has also been adopted by the Open University as the

  8. Filamentary field-aligned currents at the polar cap region during northward interplanetary magnetic field derived with the Swarm constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühr, Hermann; Huang, Tao; Wing, Simon; Kervalishvili, Guram; Rauberg, Jan; Korth, Haje

    2016-10-01

    ESA's Swarm constellation mission makes it possible for the first time to determine field-aligned currents (FACs) in the ionosphere uniquely. In particular at high latitudes, the dual-satellite approach can reliably detect some FAC structures which are missed by the traditional single-satellite technique. These FAC events occur preferentially poleward of the auroral oval and during times of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. Most events appear on the nightside. They are not related to the typical FAC structures poleward of the cusp, commonly termed NBZ. Simultaneously observed precipitating particle spectrograms and auroral images from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites are consistent with the detected FACs and indicate that they occur on closed field lines mostly adjacent to the auroral oval. We suggest that the FACs are associated with Sun-aligned filamentary auroral arcs. Here we introduce in an initial study features of the high-latitude FAC structures which have been observed during the early phase of the Swarm mission. A more systematic survey over longer times is required to fully characterize the so far undetected field aligned currents.

  9. Photonic bands in two-dimensional microplasma arrays. I. Theoretical derivation of band structures of electromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Osamu; Sakaguchi, Takui; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2007-04-01

    Two theoretical approaches appropriate for two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals reveal dispersions of propagating waves including photonic (electromagnetic) band gaps and multiflatbands. A modified plane-wave expansion method yields dispersions of collisional periodical plasmas, and the complex-value solution of a wave equation by a finite difference method enables us to obtain dispersions with structure effects in an individual microplasma. Periodical plasma arrays form band gaps as well as normal photonic crystals, and multiflatbands are present below the electron plasma frequency in the transverse electric field mode. Electron elastic collisions lower the top frequency of the multiflatbands but have little effect on band gap properties. The spatial gradient of the local dielectric constant resulting from an electron density profile widens the frequency region of the multiflatbands, as demonstrated by the change of surface wave distributions. Propagation properties described in dispersions including band gaps and flatbands agree with experimental observations of microplasma arrays.

  10. Flexible transparent PES/silver nanowires/PET sandwich-structured film for high-efficiency electromagnetic interference shielding.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingjun; Gao, Jiefeng; Dong, Yucheng; Li, Kai; Shan, Guangcun; Yang, Shiliu; Li, Robert Kwok-Yiu

    2012-05-08

    We have developed a kind of high-yield synthesis strategy for silver nanowires by a two-step injection polyol method. Silver nanowires and polyethylene oxide (PEO) (M(w) = 900,000) were prepared in a homogeneous-coating ink. Wet composite films with different thicknesses were fabricated on a PET substrate by drawn-down rod-coating technology. Silver nanowires on PET substrates present a homogeneous distribution under the assistance of PEO. Then PEO was thermally removed in situ at a relatively low temperature attributed to its special thermal behavior under atmospheric conditions. As-prepared metallic nanowire films on PET substrates show excellent stability and a good combination of conductivity and light transmission. A layer of transparent poly(ethersulfones) (PESs) was further coated on silver nanowire networks by the same coating method to prevent the shedding and corrosion of silver nanowires. Sandwich-structured flexible transparent films were obtained and displayed excellent electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness.

  11. The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array Dish. II. Characterization of Spectral Structure with Electromagnetic Simulations and Its Science Implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Bradley, Richard; Deboer, David; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Parsons, Aaron; Aguirre, James; Ali, Zaki S.; Bowman, Judd; Cheng, Carina; Neben, Abraham R.; Patra, Nipanjana; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Venter, Mariet; de Lera Acedo, Eloy; Dillon, Joshua S.; Dickenson, Roger; Doolittle, Phillip; Egan, Dennis; Hedrick, Mike; Klima, Patricia; Kohn, Saul; Schaffner, Patrick; Shelton, John; Saliwanchik, Benjamin; Taylor, H. A.; Taylor, Rusty; Tegmark, Max; Wirt, Butch

    2016-11-01

    We use time-domain electromagnetic simulations to determine the spectral characteristics of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA) antenna. These simulations are part of a multi-faceted campaign to determine the effectiveness of the dish’s design for obtaining a detection of redshifted 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization. Our simulations show the existence of reflections between HERA’s suspended feed and its parabolic dish reflector that fall below -40 dB at 150 ns and, for reasonable impedance matches, have a negligible impact on HERA’s ability to constrain EoR parameters. It follows that despite the reflections they introduce, dishes are effective for increasing the sensitivity of EoR experiments at a relatively low cost. We find that electromagnetic resonances in the HERA feed’s cylindrical skirt, which is intended to reduce cross coupling and beam ellipticity, introduces significant power at large delays (-40 dB at 200 ns), which can lead to some loss of measurable Fourier modes and a modest reduction in sensitivity. Even in the presence of this structure, we find that the spectral response of the antenna is sufficiently smooth for delay filtering to contain foreground emission at line-of-sight wave numbers below k ∥ ≲ 0.2 h Mpc-1, in the region where the current PAPER experiment operates. Incorporating these results into a Fisher Matrix analysis, we find that the spectral structure observed in our simulations has only a small effect on the tight constraints HERA can achieve on parameters associated with the astrophysics of reionization.

  12. Mapping subtrappean sediments and delineating structure with the aid of heliborne time domain electromagnetics: Case study from Kaladgi Basin, Karnataka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, M.; Markandeyulu, A.; Chaturvedi, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Mapping of subtrappean sediments is a complex geological problem attempted by many interpreters applying different geophysical techniques. Variations in thickness and resistivity of traps and underlying sediments, respectively, results in considerable uncertainty in the interpretation of geophysical data. It is proposed that the transient electromagnetic technique is an effective geophysical tool for delineation of the sub-trappean sediments, due to marked resistivity contrast between the Deccan trap, and underlying sediments and/or basement. The northern margin of the Kaladgi basin is covered under trap. A heliborne time domain electromagnetic survey was conducted to demarcate the basin extent and map the sub-trappean sediments. Conductivity depth transformations were used to map the interface between conductive trap and resistive 'basement'. Two resistivity contrast boundaries are picked: the first corresponds to the bottom of the shallow conductive unit interpreted as the base of the Deccan Volcanics and the second - picked at the base of a deeper subsurface conductive zone - is interpreted as the weathered paleo-surface of the crystalline basement. This second boundary can only be seen in areas where the volcanics are thin or absent, suggesting that the volcanics are masking the EM signal preventing deeper penetration. An interesting feature, which shows prominently in the EM data but less clearly imaged in the magnetic data, is observed in the vicinity of Mudhol. The surface geology interpreted from satellite imagery show Deccan trap cover around Mudhol. Modelling of TDEM data suggest the presence of synclinal basin structure. The depth of penetration of the heliborne TDEM data is estimated to be approximately 350 m for the study area. This suggests that heliborne TDEM could penetrate significant thicknesses of conductive Deccan trap cover to delineate structure below in the Bagalkot Group.

  13. ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Pulley, O.O.

    1954-08-17

    This patent reiates to electromagnetic pumps for electricity-conducting fluids and, in particular, describes several modifications for a linear conduction type electromagnetic interaction pump. The invention resides in passing the return conductor for the current traversing the fiuid in the duct back through the gap in the iron circuit of the pump. Both the maximum allowable pressure and the efficiency of a linear conduction electromagnetic pump are increased by incorporation of the present invention.

  14. Graphene, microscale metallic mesh, and transparent dielectric hybrid structure for excellent transparent electromagnetic interference shielding and absorbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhengang; Ma, Limin; Tan, Jiubin; Wang, Heyan; Ding, Xuemei

    2017-06-01

    A high-performance transparent electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding material based on a graphene/metallic mesh/transparent dielectric (GMTD) hybrid structure is designed and characterized. It consists of stacked graphene and metallic mesh layers, with neighboring layers separated by a quartz-glass substrsate. The GMTD hybrid structure combines the microwave-reflecting characteristics of the metallic mesh and the microwave-absorbing characteristics of graphene to achieve simultaneously high visible transmittance, strong microwave shielding effectiveness (SE), and low microwave reflection. Experiments show that a double-graphene and double-metallic mesh GMTD hybrid structure with a mesh periodicity of 160 µm provides microwave SE exceeding 47.79 dB in the K u-band, and an SE exceeding 32.12 dB in the K a-band, with a maximum value of 37.78 dB at 26.5 GHz. SE by absorption exceeds 30.78 dB in the K a-band, with a maximum value of 34.55 dB at 26.5 GHz, while maintaining a normalized visible transmittance of ~85% at 700 nm. This remarkable performance favors the application of the proposed structure as a transparent microwave shield and absorber, and offers a new strategy for transparent EMI shielding.

  15. Electromagnetic Structure of A=2 and 3 Nuclei and the Nuclear Current Operator

    SciTech Connect

    Rocco Schiavilla

    2005-02-01

    Different models for conserved two- and three-body electromagnetic currents are constructed from two- and three-nucleon interactions, using either meson-exchange mechanisms or minimal substitution in the momentum dependence of these interactions. The connection between these two different schemes is elucidated. A number of low-energy electronuclear observables, including (i) np radiative capture at thermal neutron energies and deuteron photodisintegration at low energies, (ii) nd and pd radiative capture reactions, and (iii) isoscalar and isovector magnetic form factors of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He, are calculated in order to make a comparative study of these models for the current operator. The realistic Argonne v{sub 18} two-nucleon and Urbana IX or Tucson-Melbourne three-nucleon interactions are taken as a case study. For A=3 processes, the bound and continuum wave functions, both below and above deuteron breakup threshold, are obtained with the correlated hyperspherical-harmonics method. Three-body currents give small but significant contributions to some of the polarization observables in the {sup 2}H(p,{gamma}){sup 3}He process and the {sup 2}H(n,{gamma}){sup 3}H cross section at thermal neutron energies. It is shown that the use of a current which did not exactly satisfy current conservation with the two- and three-nucleon interactions in the Hamiltonian was responsible for some of the discrepancies reported in previous studies between the experimental and theoretical polarization observables in pd radiative capture.

  16. Structure-preserving second-order integration of relativistic charged particle trajectories in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuera, A. V.; Cary, J. R.

    2017-05-01

    Time-centered, hence second-order, methods for integrating the relativistic momentum of charged particles in an electromagnetic field are derived. A new method is found by averaging the momentum before use in the magnetic rotation term, and an implementation is presented that differs from the relativistic Boris Push only in the method for calculating the Lorentz factor. This is shown to have the same second-order accuracy in time as that found by splitting the electric acceleration and magnetic rotation (Boris Push) and that found by averaging the velocity in the magnetic rotation term (Vay's method) [J.-L. Vay, Phys. Plasmas 15, 056701 (2008)]. All three methods are shown to conserve energy when there is no electric field. The Boris Push and the current method are shown to be volume-preserving, while Vay's method and the current method preserve the E →×B → velocity. Thus, of these second-order relativistic momentum integrations, only the integrator introduced here both preserves volume and gives the correct E →×B → velocity. While all methods have error that is second-order in time, they deviate from each other by terms that increase as the motion becomes relativistic. Numerical results show that Vay's method develops energy errors near resonant orbits of a test problem that neither volume-preserving integrator does.

  17. Magnetotellurics and Transient Electromagnetics to Investigate the Geoelectric Structure of Southern Aegean, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makris, J. P.; Kalisperi, D.; Smirnov, M.; Rigakis, H.; Romano, G.; Kokologiannakis, A.; Pentes, G.; Pentaris, F.; Skoulakis, A.; Perrone, A.; Kouli, M.; Vallianatos, F.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2012 a great number of onshore magnetotelluric (MT) and Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) measurements have been conducted in Southern Aegean, Greece. The survey included Crete, almost all the islands of Dodecanese and Southern Cyclades, Southern Peloponnese, and the islands Kithira, Antikithira and Gavdos. Southern Aegean Sea, featuring the Southern Hellenic Arc (HA) of the Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ) and the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA), depicts complex geotectonics and the most intense seismicity and geodynamics of Western Eurasia. In this work we summarize the most important results of the MT and TEM combined analysis and modelling. Furthermore, two permanent telemetric MT stations were installed and operated in Western Crete and Rhodes, respectively, to be used as remote reference and to investigate possible transient seismoelectromagnetic signals. The case of the October 12, 2013 strong earthquake (Mb6.4) is discussed. The research was conducted in the framework of the project entitled "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic Arc (MT-GEAR)", co-funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and National Resources within the context of the Action "Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers" of the Operational Programme 'Education and Lifelong Learning'.

  18. Electromagnetic structure of A=2 and 3 nuclei and the nuclear current operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, L. E.; Viviani, M.; Schiavilla, R.; Kievsky, A.; Rosati, S.

    2005-07-01

    Different models for conserved two- and three-body electromagnetic currents are constructed from two- and three-nucleon interactions, using either meson-exchange mechanisms or minimal substitution in the momentum dependence of these interactions. The connection between these two different schemes is elucidated. A number of low-energy electronuclear observables, including (i) np radiative capture at thermal neutron energies and deuteron photodisintegration at low energies, (ii) nd and pd radiative capture reactions, and (iii) isoscalar and isovector magnetic form factors of 3H and 3He, are calculated to make a comparative study of these models for the current operator. The realistic Argonne v18 two-nucleon and Urbana IX or Tucson-Melbourne three-nucleon interactions are taken as a case study. For A=3 processes, the bound and continuum wave functions, both below and above deuteron breakup threshold, are obtained with the correlated hyperspherical harmonics method. Three-body currents give small but significant contributions to some of the polarization observables in the 2H(p,γ)3He process and the 2H(n,γ)3H cross section at thermal neutron energies. It is shown that the use of a current that did not exactly satisfy current conservation with the two- and three-nucleon interactions in the Hamiltonian was responsible for some of the discrepancies reported in previous studies between the experimental and theoretical polarization observables in pd radiative capture.

  19. C/NOFS observations of electromagnetic coupling between magnetically conjugate MSTID structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, W. J.; Martinis, C. R.; Lai, P. C.; Gentile, L. C.; Sullivan, C.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2016-03-01

    This report demonstrates empirically that couplings between magnetically conjugate medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) are electromagnetic in nature. This is accomplished by comparing plasma density, electric, and magnetic perturbations sampled simultaneously by sensors on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite. During the period of interest on 17 February 2010, C/NOFS made three consecutive orbits while magnetically conjugate to the field of view of an all-sky imager located at El Leoncito, Argentina (31.8°S, 69.3°W). Imaged 630.0 nm airglow was characterized by alternating bands of relatively bright and dark emissions that were aligned from northeast to southwest and propagated toward the northwest, characteristic of MSTIDs in the southern hemisphere. Measurable Poynting fluxes flow along the Earth's magnetic field (S||) from "generator" to "load" hemispheres. While S|| was predominantly away from the ionosphere above El Leoncito, interhemispheric energy flows were not one-way streets. Measured Poynting flux intensities diminished with time over the three C/NOFS passes, suggesting that source mechanisms of MSTIDs were absent or that initial impedance mismatches between the two hemispheres approached an equilibrium status.

  20. Electromagnetic responses of curved fishnet structures: near-zero refractive index with lower loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soemphol, Chaiyong; Kitchin, Steven F.; Fiddy, Michael A.; Wongkasem, Nantakan

    2016-02-01

    Fishnet structure metamaterials are modified by introducing some curvature at the corners of the slabs and the neck lines in order to tailor a uniform current distribution as well as field concentration in the microwave regime. The results obtained show that these modified fishnet structures can generate 20% broader low loss near-zero index bandwidth as compared to that of the original fishnet structures. The majority of the near-zero bands of the modified fishnet structures produce lower loss than those of the original fishnet structures at the same frequency.

  1. Controlled-source electromagnetic and seismic delineation of subseafloor fluid flow structures in a gas hydrate province, offshore Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attias, Eric; Weitemeyer, Karen; Minshull, Tim A.; Best, Angus I.; Sinha, Martin; Jegen-Kulcsar, Marion; Hölz, Sebastian; Berndt, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Deep sea pockmarks underlain by chimney-like or pipe structures that contain methane hydrate are abundant along the Norwegian continental margin. In such hydrate provinces the interaction between hydrate formation and fluid flow has significance for benthic ecosystems and possibly climate change. The Nyegga region, situated on the western Norwegian continental slope, is characterized by an extensive pockmark field known to accommodate substantial methane gas hydrate deposits. The aim of this study is to detect and delineate both the gas hydrate and free gas reservoirs at one of Nyegga's pockmarks. In 2012, a marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) survey was performed at a pockmark in this region, where high-resolution 3-D seismic data were previously collected in 2006. 2-D CSEM inversions were computed using the data acquired by ocean bottom electrical field receivers. Our results, derived from unconstrained and seismically constrained CSEM inversions, suggest the presence of two distinctive resistivity anomalies beneath the pockmark: a shallow vertical anomaly at the underlying pipe structure, likely due to gas hydrate accumulation, and a laterally extensive anomaly attributed to a free gas zone below the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. This work contributes to a robust characterization of gas hydrate deposits within subseafloor fluid flow pipe structures.

  2. Cone structure and focusing of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves at high altitudes in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, Ya. L.; Green, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and angle dependencies of the electric field radiated by an electric dipole E = E(sub 0) cos omega(t) are studied through numerical calculations of absolute value of E in the VLF and LF frequency bands where F is less than or equal 0.02 to 0.05 f(sub b) in a model ionosphere over an altitude region of 800-6000 km where the wave frequency and electron gyrofrequency varies between F approximately 4-500 kHz and f(sub b) is approximately equal (1.1 to 0.2) MHz respectively. It is found that the amplitudes of the electric field have large maxima in four regions: close to the direction of the Earth magnetic field line B(sub 0) (it is called the axis field E(sub 0), in the Storey E(sub St), reversed Storey E(sub RevSt), and resonance E(sub Res) cones. The maximal values of E(sub 0), E(sub Res), and E(sub RevSt) are the most pronounced close to the lower hybrid frequency, F approximately F(sub L). The flux of the electric field is concentrated in very narrow regions, with the apex angles of the cones Delta-B is approximately (0.1-1) deg. The enhancement and focusing of the electric field increases with altitude starting at Z greater than 800 km. At Z greater than or equal to 1000 up to 6000 km, the relative value of absolute value of E, in comparison with its value at Z = 800 km is about (10(exp 2) to 10(exp 4)) times larger. Thus the flux of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves generated at high altitudes in the Earth's ionosphere are trapped into very narrow conical beams similar to laser beams.

  3. Cone structure and focusing of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves at high altitudes in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, Ya. L.; Green, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and angle dependencies of the electric field radiated by an electric dipole E = E(sub 0) cos omega(t) are studied through numerical calculations of absolute value of E in the VLF and LF frequency bands where F is less than or equal 0.02 to 0.05 f(sub b) in a model ionosphere over an altitude region of 800-6000 km where the wave frequency and electron gyrofrequency varies between F approximately 4-500 kHz and f(sub b) is approximately equal (1.1 to 0.2) MHz respectively. It is found that the amplitudes of the electric field have large maxima in four regions: close to the direction of the Earth magnetic field line B(sub 0) (it is called the axis field E(sub 0), in the Storey E(sub St), reversed Storey E(sub RevSt), and resonance E(sub Res) cones. The maximal values of E(sub 0), E(sub Res), and E(sub RevSt) are the most pronounced close to the lower hybrid frequency, F approximately F(sub L). The flux of the electric field is concentrated in very narrow regions, with the apex angles of the cones Delta-B is approximately (0.1-1) deg. The enhancement and focusing of the electric field increases with altitude starting at Z greater than 800 km. At Z greater than or equal to 1000 up to 6000 km, the relative value of absolute value of E, in comparison with its value at Z = 800 km is about (10(exp 2) to 10(exp 4)) times larger. Thus the flux of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves generated at high altitudes in the Earth's ionosphere are trapped into very narrow conical beams similar to laser beams.

  4. Electromagnetic penetration through narrow slots in conducting surfaces and coupling to structures on the shadow side

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, E.K.; Butler, C.M. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1990-07-01

    Electromagnetic field penetration through a curved narrow slot in a planar conducting surface and coupling to a curved, loaded thin wire on the shadow side are determined in the time domain (TD) and the frequency domain (FD) by integral equation methods. Coupled integral equations are derived and solved numerically for the equivalent magnetic current in the slot and the electric current on the wire, from which the field that penetrates the slotted surface is determined. One employs a piecewise linear approximation of the unknown currents and performs equation enforcement by pulse testing. The resulting TD equations are solved by a scheme incorporating a finite-difference approximation for a second partial time derivative which allows one to solve for the unknown currents at a discrete time instant t + 1 in terms of the known excitation and currents calculated at a discrete time instant t and earlier. The FD equations are solved by the method of moments. A hybrid time-domain integral equation -- finite-difference time-domain solution technique is described whereby one solves for the field which penetrates a slotted cavity-backed surface. One models the fields in the exterior region and in the slot with integral operators and models the fields inside the cavity with a discretized form of Maxwell's equations. Narrow slots following various contours were chemically etched in thin bass sheets and an apparatus was fabricated to measure shadow-side fields, electric current on a thin wire on the shadow side, and, separately, fields inside a rectangular cavity which backed the slotted brass sheet. The experimentation was conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on a frequency-domain test range employing a monocone source over a large ground plane. One observes very good agreement among the experimental and theoretical results.

  5. Electromagnetic Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Three activities involving electromagnetism are presented. Discussed are investigations involving the construction of an electromagnet, the effect of the number of turns of wire in the magnet, and the effect of the number of batteries in the circuit. Extension activities are suggested. (CW)

  6. Electromagnetic Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Three activities involving electromagnetism are presented. Discussed are investigations involving the construction of an electromagnet, the effect of the number of turns of wire in the magnet, and the effect of the number of batteries in the circuit. Extension activities are suggested. (CW)

  7. Efficient Modeling of Electromagnetic Scattering by Symmetric Lamellar Periodic Structures at Normal Incidence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    SYMMETRIZED MODAL-FIELD METHOD We are interested in a biaxial lamellar structure that is periodic along the x-direction. If a is the size of the primitive cell , then...structure must be symmetric about the center of each primitive cell . Thus if the origin in x is chosen to be at the center of one of the primitive cells

  8. Analysis of Wave Propagation in Stratified Structures Using Circuit Analogues, with Application to Electromagnetic Absorbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjoberg, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of how circuit models can be used for analysing wave propagation in stratified structures. Relatively complex structures can be analysed using models which are accessible to undergraduate students. Homogeneous slabs are modelled as transmission lines, and thin sheets between the slabs are modelled as lumped…

  9. Analysis of Wave Propagation in Stratified Structures Using Circuit Analogues, with Application to Electromagnetic Absorbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjoberg, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of how circuit models can be used for analysing wave propagation in stratified structures. Relatively complex structures can be analysed using models which are accessible to undergraduate students. Homogeneous slabs are modelled as transmission lines, and thin sheets between the slabs are modelled as lumped…

  10. Investigation of the structure of the electromagnetic field and related phenomena, generated by the active satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, Yakov L.

    1992-01-01

    A short review is given for the general frequency and angle distribution of the electric field radiated by an electric dipole E = E(sub 0)cos(omega)t, in a magnetoplasma. Detailed results of numerical calculations of (E) were made in the Very Low Frequency (VLF) and the Low Frequency (LF) bands 0.02f(sub b) is less than or equal to F is less than or equal to 0.5f(sub b) (F is approximately (4-500) kHz) in the ionosphere and magnetosphere in the altitude region Z = (800-6000) km; f(sub b) is the electron gyro-frequency of the plasmas in the discussed region f(sub b) is approximately equal to (1.1 to 0.2) MHz. The amplitudes of the electric field have large maxima in four regions: close to the direction of the Earth's magnetic field line (B(sub 0)), it is the so called Axis field (E(sub 0)) and in the Storey (E(sub St)), Reversed Storey (E(sub RevSt)), and Resonance (E(sub Res)) Cones. The maximal values of E(sub 0), E(sub Res), and E(sub RevSt) are very pronounced close to the low hybrid frequency, F approximately F(sub L). The flux of the electric field is concentrated in very narrow regions, the apex angles of the cones delta(beta) is approximately equal to (0.1 - 1) degree. The enhancement and focusing of the electric field is growing up, especially quickly at Z greater than 800 km. At Z is greater than 1000 up to 6000 km, the relative value of (E), in comparison with its value at Z = 800 km is about (10(exp 2) to 10(exp 4)) times larger. Thus, the flux of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves in the Earth magnetoplasma produces and is guided by very narrow pencil beams, similar, let us say, to laser beams.

  11. Model for multi-filamentary conduction in graphene/hexagonal-boron-nitride/graphene based resistive switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chengbin; Miranda, Enrique; Villena, Marco A.; Xiao, Na; Jing, Xu; Xie, Xiaoming; Wu, Tianru; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario

    2017-06-01

    Despite the enormous interest raised by graphene and related materials, recent global concern about their real usefulness in industry has raised, as there is a preoccupying lack of 2D materials based electronic devices in the market. Moreover, analytical tools capable of describing and predicting the behavior of the devices (which are necessary before facing mass production) are very scarce. In this work we synthesize a resistive random access memory (RRAM) using graphene/hexagonal-boron-nitride/graphene (G/h-BN/G) van der Waals structures, and we develop a compact model that accurately describes its functioning. The devices were fabricated using scalable methods (i.e. CVD for material growth and shadow mask for electrode patterning), and they show reproducible resistive switching (RS). The measured characteristics during the forming, set and reset processes were fitted using the model developed. The model is based on the nonlinear Landauer approach for mesoscopic conductors, in this case atomic-sized filaments formed within the 2D materials system. Besides providing excellent overall fitting results (which have been corroborated in log-log, log-linear and linear-linear plots), the model is able to explain the dispersion of the data obtained from cycle-to-cycle in terms of the particular features of the filamentary paths, mainly their confinement potential barrier height.

  12. THE 'NESSIE' NEBULA: CLUSTER FORMATION IN A FILAMENTARY INFRARED DARK CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, James M.; Finn, Susanna C.; Chambers, Edward T.; Rathborne, Jill M.; Simon, Robert E-mail: sfinn@bu.ed E-mail: rathborn@das.uchile.c

    2010-08-20

    The 'Nessie' Nebula is a filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC) with a large aspect ratio of over 150:1 (1.{sup 0}5 x 0.{sup 0}01 or 80 pc x 0.5 pc at a kinematic distance of 3.1 kpc). Maps of HNC (1-0) emission, a tracer of dense molecular gas, made with the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra telescope, show an excellent morphological match to the mid-IR extinction. Moreover, because the molecular line emission from the entire nebula has the same radial velocity to within {+-}3.4 km s{sup -1}, the nebula is a single, coherent cloud and not the chance alignment of multiple unrelated clouds along the line of sight. The Nessie Nebula contains a number of compact, dense molecular cores which have a characteristic projected spacing of {approx}4.5 pc along the filament. The theory of gravitationally bound gaseous cylinders predicts the existence of such cores, which, due to the 'sausage' or 'varicose' fluid instability, fragment from the cylinder at a characteristic length scale. If turbulent pressure dominates over thermal pressure in Nessie, then the observed core spacing matches theoretical predictions. We speculate that the formation of high-mass stars and massive star clusters arises from the fragmentation of filamentary IRDCs caused by the 'sausage' fluid instability that leads to the formation of massive, dense molecular cores. The filamentary molecular gas clouds often found near high-mass star-forming regions (e.g., Orion, NGC 6334, etc.) may represent a later stage of IRDC evolution.

  13. Scalability of surrogate-assisted multi-objective optimization of antenna structures exploiting variable-fidelity electromagnetic simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Bekasiewicz, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Multi-objective optimization of antenna structures is a challenging task owing to the high computational cost of evaluating the design objectives as well as the large number of adjustable parameters. Design speed-up can be achieved by means of surrogate-based optimization techniques. In particular, a combination of variable-fidelity electromagnetic (EM) simulations, design space reduction techniques, response surface approximation models and design refinement methods permits identification of the Pareto-optimal set of designs within a reasonable timeframe. Here, a study concerning the scalability of surrogate-assisted multi-objective antenna design is carried out based on a set of benchmark problems, with the dimensionality of the design space ranging from six to 24 and a CPU cost of the EM antenna model from 10 to 20 min per simulation. Numerical results indicate that the computational overhead of the design process increases more or less quadratically with the number of adjustable geometric parameters of the antenna structure at hand, which is a promising result from the point of view of handling even more complex problems.

  14. The theory of electro-magnetic radiation of electron transiting through the resonance-tunnel structure

    SciTech Connect

    Tkach, M.; Seti, Ju.; Voitsekhivska, O.; Fartushynsky, R.

    2009-12-14

    The quasi-stationary electron states are studied in the three-barrier resonance-tunnel structure which is the basic element of coherent quantum cascade lasers. In the models of rectangular and delta-barrier potentials there is established theory of evolution and collapse of double resonance complexes in a symmetric resonance-tunnel structure. The induced conductivity of nano-system is calculated within the both models. It is shown that the negative induced conductivity of three-barrier resonance-tunnel structure in delta-barrier model is dozens times smaller than more realistic magnitudes obtained within the rectangular potentials model.

  15. Radial wave crystals: radially periodic structures from anisotropic metamaterials for engineering acoustic or electromagnetic waves.

    PubMed

    Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2009-08-07

    We demonstrate that metamaterials with anisotropic properties can be used to develop a new class of periodic structures that has been named radial wave crystals. They can be sonic or photonic, and wave propagation along the radial directions is obtained through Bloch states like in usual sonic or photonic crystals. The band structure of the proposed structures can be tailored in a large amount to get exciting novel wave phenomena. For example, it is shown that acoustical cavities based on radial sonic crystals can be employed as passive devices for beam forming or dynamically orientated antennas for sound localization.

  16. Local Inhomogeneity and Filamentary Superconductivity in Pr-Doped CaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gofryk, Krzysztof; Pan, Minghu; Cantoni, Claudia; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Mitchell, Jonathan E.; Sefat, Athena S.

    2014-01-01

    We use multiscale techniques to determine the extent of local inhomogeneity and superconductivity in Ca0.86Pr0.14Fe2As2 single crystal. The inhomogeneity is manifested as a spatial variation of the praseodymium concentration, local density of states, and superconducting order parameter. We show that the high-Tc superconductivity emerges from cloverlike defects associated with Pr dopants. The highest Tc is observed in both the tetragonal and collapsed tetragonal phases, and its filamentary nature is a consequence of nonuniform Pr distribution that develops localized, isolated superconducting regions within the crystals.

  17. Thermodynamics of Phase Transitions and Bipolar Filamentary Switching in Resistive Random-Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, V. G.; Niraula, D.; Karpov, I. V.; Kotlyar, R.

    2017-08-01

    We present a phenomenological theory of bipolar filamentary resistive random-access memory describing the commonly observed features of their current-voltage characteristics. Our approach follows the approach of a thermodynamic theory developed earlier for chalcogenide memory and threshold switches and largely independent of their microscopic details. It explains, without adjustable parameters, such features as the domains of filament formation and switching, voltage-independent current in set and current-independent voltage in reset regimes, the relation between the set and reset voltages, filament resistance independent of its length, etc. Furthermore, it expresses the observed features through the material and circuitry parameters, thus paving the way to device improvements.

  18. High-Temperature Superconductors as Electromagnetic Deployment and Support Structures in Spacecraft. [NASA NIAC Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getliffe, Gwendolyn V.; Inamdar, Niraj K.; Masterson, Rebecca; Miller, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This report, concluding a one-year NIAC Phase I study, describes a new structural and mechanical technique aimed at reducing the mass and increasing the deployed-to-stowed length and volume ratios of spacecraft systems. This technique uses the magnetic fields generated by electrical current passing through coils of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to support spacecraft structures and deploy them to operational configurations from their stowed positions inside a launch vehicle fairing.

  19. Electromagnetic fasteners

    DOEpatents

    Crane, Randolph W.; Marts, Donna J.

    1994-01-01

    An electromagnetic fastener for manipulating objects in space uses the matic attraction of various metals. An end effector is attached to a robotic manipulating system having an electromagnet such that when current is supplied to the electromagnet, the object is drawn and affixed to the end effector, and when the current is withheld, the object is released. The object to be manipulated includes a multiplicity of ferromagnetic patches at various locations to provide multiple areas for the effector on the manipulator to become affixed to the object. The ferromagnetic patches are sized relative to the object's geometry and mass.

  20. Electromagnetic fasteners

    DOEpatents

    Crane, Randolph W.; Marts, Donna J.

    1994-11-01

    An electromagnetic fastener for manipulating objects in space uses the matic attraction of various metals. An end effector is attached to a robotic manipulating system having an electromagnet such that when current is supplied to the electromagnet, the object is drawn and affixed to the end effector, and when the current is withheld, the object is released. The object to be manipulated includes a multiplicity of ferromagnetic patches at various locations to provide multiple areas for the effector on the manipulator to become affixed to the object. The ferromagnetic patches are sized relative to the object's geometry and mass.

  1. Electromagnetic power absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaki, R. S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A structure is presented with a surface portion of dielectric material which passes electromagnetic radiation and with a portion below the surface which includes material that absorbs the radiation, the face of the structure being formed with numerous steep ridges. The steepness of the dielectric material results in a high proportion of the electromagnetic energy passing through the surface for absorption by the absorbing material under the surface. A backing of aluminum or other highly heat-conductive and reflective material lies under the face and has very steep protuberances supporting the absorbing and dielectric materials.

  2. Can electromagnetic fields influence the structure and enzymatic digest of proteins? A critical evaluation of microwave-assisted proteomics protocols

    PubMed Central

    Damm, Markus; Nusshold, Christoph; Cantillo, David; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Gruber, Karl; Sattler, Wolfgang; Kappe, C. Oliver

    2012-01-01

    This study reevaluates the putative advantages of microwave-assisted tryptic digests compared to conventionally heated protocols performed at the same temperature. An initial investigation of enzyme stability in a temperature range of 37–80 °C demonstrated that trypsin activity declines sharply at temperatures above 60 °C, regardless if microwave dielectric heating or conventional heating is employed. Tryptic digests of three proteins of different size (bovine serum albumin, cytochrome c and β-casein) were thus performed at 37 °C and 50 °C using both microwave and conventional heating applying accurate internal fiber-optic probe reaction temperature measurements. The impact of the heating method on protein degradation and peptide fragment generation was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Time-dependent tryptic digestion of the three proteins and subsequent analysis of the corresponding cleavage products by MALDI-TOF provided virtually identical results for both microwave and conventional heating. In addition, the impact of electromagnetic field strength on the tertiary structure of trypsin and BSA was evaluated by molecular mechanics calculations. These simulations revealed that the applied field in a typical laboratory microwave reactor is 3–4 orders of magnitude too low to induce conformational changes in proteins or enzymes. PMID:22889711

  3. Analysis of low F-number dual micro-axilens array with binary structures by rigorous electromagnetic theory.

    PubMed

    Feng, Di; Feng, Li-Shuang; Zhang, Chun-Xi

    2011-05-23

    We investigate a two-dimensional low F-number dual micro-axilens array with binary structures based on a rigorous electromagnetic theory. The focal characteristics of a binary dual micro-axilens array (BDMA), including axial performances (focal depth and focal shift) and transverse performances (focal spot size and diffraction efficiency), have been analyzed in detail for different F-numbers, different incident polarization (TE and TM) waves, and different distances between micro-axilens. Numerical results reveal that the interference effect of a BDMA is not very evident, which is useful for building a BDMA with a high fill factor, and the focal characteristics of a BDMA are sensitive to the polarization of an incident wave. The comparative results have also shown that the diffraction efficiency of a BDMA will increase and the focal spot size of a BDMS will decrease when the F-number increases, for both TE polarization and TM polarization, respectively. It is expected that this investigation will provide useful insight into the design of micro-optical elements with high integration.

  4. Can electromagnetic fields influence the structure and enzymatic digest of proteins? A critical evaluation of microwave-assisted proteomics protocols.

    PubMed

    Damm, Markus; Nusshold, Christoph; Cantillo, David; Rechberger, Gerald N; Gruber, Karl; Sattler, Wolfgang; Kappe, C Oliver

    2012-10-22

    This study reevaluates the putative advantages of microwave-assisted tryptic digests compared to conventionally heated protocols performed at the same temperature. An initial investigation of enzyme stability in a temperature range of 37-80 °C demonstrated that trypsin activity declines sharply at temperatures above 60 °C, regardless if microwave dielectric heating or conventional heating is employed. Tryptic digests of three proteins of different size (bovine serum albumin, cytochrome c and β-casein) were thus performed at 37 °C and 50 °C using both microwave and conventional heating applying accurate internal fiber-optic probe reaction temperature measurements. The impact of the heating method on protein degradation and peptide fragment generation was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Time-dependent tryptic digestion of the three proteins and subsequent analysis of the corresponding cleavage products by MALDI-TOF provided virtually identical results for both microwave and conventional heating. In addition, the impact of electromagnetic field strength on the tertiary structure of trypsin and BSA was evaluated by molecular mechanics calculations. These simulations revealed that the applied field in a typical laboratory microwave reactor is 3-4 orders of magnitude too low to induce conformational changes in proteins or enzymes.

  5. Magnetic structure and electromagnetic properties of LnCrAsO with a ZrCuSiAs-type structure (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, and Nd).

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Won; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Kodama, Katsuaki; Shamoto, Shin-ichi; Otomo, Toshiya; Matsuishi, Satoru; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2013-12-02

    We report the synthesis, structure, and electromagnetic properties of Cr-based layered oxyarsenides LnCrAsO (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, and Nd) with a ZrCuSiAs-type structure. All LnCrAsO samples showed metallic electronic conduction. Electron doping in LaCrAsO by Mn-substitution for the Cr sites gave rise to a metal-insulator transition. Analysis of powder neutron diffraction data revealed that LaCrAsO had G-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering, i.e., a checkerboard-type AFM ordering in the CrAs plane and antiparallel spin coupling between the adjacent CrAs planes, at 300 K with a large spin moment of 1.57 μB along the c axis. The magnetic susceptibility of LaCrAsO was very small (on the order of 10(-3) emu/mol) and showed a broad hump at ∼550 K. First-principles density functional theory calculations of LaCrAsO explained its crystal structure and metallic nature well, but could not replicate the antiparallel spin coupling between the CrAs layers. The electronic structure of LaCrAsO is discussed with regard to those of related compounds LaFeAsO and LaMnAsO.

  6. Filamentary pattern in the cosmic web: galaxy filaments as pearl necklaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempel, Elmo; Bussov, Maarja

    2016-10-01

    Galaxies form chains (filaments) that connect groups and clusters of galaxies. The filamentary network includes nearly half of the galaxies and is visually the most striking feature in cosmological maps. We study the distribution of galaxies along such a filamentary network, trying to find specific patterns. Our galaxy filaments are defined using the Bisous process. We use the two-point correlation function and the Rayleigh $Z$-squared statistic to study how the galaxies are distributed along the filaments. We show that galaxies and galaxy groups are not uniformly distributed along filaments, but tend to form a regular pattern. The characteristic length of the pattern is 7~$h-1$Mpc. A slightly smaller characteristic length 4~$h-1$Mpc can also be found, using the $Z$-squared statistic. One can say that galaxy filaments are like pearl necklaces, where the pearls are galaxy groups distributed more or less regularly along the filaments. We propose that this well defined characteristic scale could be used as a cosmological test.

  7. Neuromorphic crossbar circuit with nanoscale filamentary-switching binary memristors for speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Truong, Son Ngoc; Ham, Seok-Jin; Min, Kyeong-Sik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a neuromorphic crossbar circuit with binary memristors is proposed for speech recognition. The binary memristors which are based on filamentary-switching mechanism can be found more popularly and are easy to be fabricated than analog memristors that are rare in materials and need a more complicated fabrication process. Thus, we develop a neuromorphic crossbar circuit using filamentary-switching binary memristors not using interface-switching analog memristors. The proposed binary memristor crossbar can recognize five vowels with 4-bit 64 input channels. The proposed crossbar is tested by 2,500 speech samples and verified to be able to recognize 89.2% of the tested samples. From the statistical simulation, the recognition rate of the binary memristor crossbar is estimated to be degraded very little from 89.2% to 80%, though the percentage variation in memristance is increased very much from 0% to 15%. In contrast, the analog memristor crossbar loses its recognition rate significantly from 96% to 9% for the same percentage variation in memristance.

  8. Signatures of filamentary superconductivity in antiferromagnetic BaFe2As2 single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Moseley, D. A.; Yates, K. A.; Branford, W. R.; ...

    2015-08-24

    In this paper, we present ac susceptibility and magnetotransport measurements on aged single crystals of the ferropnictide parent compound, BaFe2As2 with a paramagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic transition temperature of 134 K. The ac susceptibility shows the clear onset of a partial diamagnetic response with an onset temperature, commensurate with a subtle downturn in resistivity at approximately 20 K. Below 20 K the magnetotransport shows in-plane anisotropy, magnetic-field history dependence and a hysteretic signature. Above 20 K the crystals show the widely reported high-field linear magnetoresistance. An enhanced noise signature in ac susceptibility is observed above 20 K, which varies in character with amplitude and frequency of the ac signal. The hysteresis in magnetoresistance and the observed sensitivity of the superconducting phase to the amplitude of the ac signal are indicative characteristics of granular or weakly linked filamentary superconductivity. Furthermore, these features taken together with the observed noise signature abovemore » $$T_{\\mathrm{c}}$$ suggests a link between the formation of the superconducting filamentary phase and the freezing of antiphase domain walls, known to exist in these materials.« less

  9. Effects of H2 on Ar plasma jet: From filamentary to diffuse discharge mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Lu, X.; Zou, D.; Pan, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets have recently attracted significant interest for its widespread applications in many fields from medicine to nanotechnology, yet the issue of the controlling the stability of Ar plasma jets remains a major challenge. In this paper, when 3% or more H2 is added to working gas Ar, it is found that the Ar plasma transits from filamentary mode to diffuse mode. In addition, the electric characteristics and the dynamics of the plasmas are studied. It is found that the peak current flowing through the ground electrode for the filament mode is about 0.5 A, which is much higher than 0.05 A for the diffuse mode. Furthermore, similar with those reported, 100 shots integrated photographs on dynamic of the diffuse discharge are taken, the photographs reveal that the plasma plume propagation appears like a "plasma bullet." On the other hand, a single shot photographs of the plasma in the diffuse mode show the "plasma bullet" is actually composed of several interacting streamers. Detailed analysis shows that the slow ionization is responsible for the generation of the filamentary-to-diffuse mode transition.

  10. Summary Report of Working Group 7: Electromagnetic-Structure Based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, E.; Musumeci, P.; /INFN, Rome

    2007-04-02

    We detail the most pressing physics and technical issues confronting short-wavelength acceleration. We review new acceleration concepts that are proposed and under development, and recent progress on technical issues such as structure fabrication and material damage. We outline key areas where work is still needed before a reliable assessment of the value of working at wavelengths below 1 cm can be made. Possible ways to enhance collaboration and progress in this important area are also discussed.

  11. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  12. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  13. Fluctuations of the electromagnetic local density of states as a probe for structural phase switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, N.; Sáenz, J. J.; Scheffold, F.; García-Martín, A.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.

    2016-10-01

    We study the statistics of the fluorescence decay rates for single quantum emitters embedded in a scattering medium undergoing a phase transition. Under certain circumstances, the structural properties of the scattering medium explore a regime in which the system dynamically switches between two different phases. While in that regime the light-scattering properties of both phases are hardly distinguishable, we demonstrate that the lifetime statistics of single emitters with low diffusivity is clearly dependent on the dynamical state in which the medium evolves. Hence, lifetime statistics provides clear signatures of phase switching in systems where light scattering does not.

  14. Investigations of the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body systems. Progress report, 1 July 1992--30 June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, D.R.; Haberzettl, H.; Maximon, L.C.; Parke, W.C.; Bennhold, C.; Ito, Hiroshi; Pratt, R.K.; Najmeddine, M.; Rakei, A.

    1993-07-01

    The emphasis of the nuclear theory group has been on the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body nuclei. Both low- and intermediate-energy electromagnetic disintegration of these nuclei is considered, including coherent photoproduction of {pi} mesons. When the excitation energy of the target nucleus is low, the aim is to handle the continuum part of the theoretical work numerically with no approximations, that is, by means of full three- or four-body dynamics. When structure questions are the issue, numerically accurate calculations are always carried through, limited only by the underlying two-body or three-body interactions used as input. A central goal is to carry through state-of-the-art few-body calculations that will serve as a means of determining at what point standard nuclear physics requires introduction of relativity and/or quark degrees of freedom in order to understand the phenomena in question.

  15. [Changes in the chromatin structure of lymphoid cells under the influence of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation against the background of inflammatory process].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Romanova, N A; Chemeris, N K

    2011-01-01

    Using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay), changes in chromatin structure of peripheral blood leukocytes and peritoneal neutrophils have been studied in mice exposed to low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20 min at 1 h after induction of inflammation) against the background of the systemic inflammatory process. It was revealed that the exposure of mice with the developing inflammation leads to a pronounced decrease in the level of DNA damage to peripheral blood leukocytes and peritoneal neutrophils. It is supposed that the changes in the chromatin structure of lymphoid cells have a genoprotective character in the inflammatory process and can underlie the mechanisms of realization of antiinflammatory effects of the electromagnetic radiation.

  16. Fraunhofer diffraction of electromagnetic radiation by finite periodic structures with regular or irregular overall shapes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Based on an essentially different theoretical foundation than common classical diffraction theories that remain in extensive use, this paper discusses from a fresh perspective the theoretical interpretation and prediction of the far-field diffraction of a plane monochromatic wave by a finite periodic array (PA) of identical obstacles. The theoretical treatment rests on the PA extension of the rigorous generalized multiparticle Mie solution (GMM). The truncated periodic structures may have an irregular overall shape with an arbitrary spatial orientation with respect to the incident beam. It is shown that the overall shape and intrinsic geometrical structure of a finite PA play a decisive role in giving rise to an associated far-field diffraction pattern. It is also shown that, when the physical dimensions of individual component units are much smaller than the incident wavelength, the extracted diffraction pattern of a densely packed PA of such small volumes in forward directions exhibits the distinct features predicted from classical diffraction theories for an aperture with the same shape as the overall finite PA. Several typical examples are presented, including two complementary arrays used in the specific discussion concerning Babinet's principle. There are brief preliminary discussions on some fundamental concepts in connection with the involved theoretical basis and on potential further development and application of the present GMM-PA approach.

  17. Nonlocal extensions of the electromagnetic response of plasmonic and metamaterial structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvonski, Alexander J.; Kong, Jiantao; Kempa, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Nonlocal effects, requiring wave-vector- (q -) dependent dielectric response functions, are becoming increasingly important in studies of plasmonic and metamaterial structures. The phenomenological hydrodynamic approximation is the simplest and most often used model but with limited applicability to problems involving surface plasmons. We show here that the d -function formalism, exact to first order in q , is a powerful and simple-to-use alternative, which allows for exact nonlocal extensions of local calculation schemes, e.g., finite-difference time-domain methods, without code changes. It is also extendable to order q2, and we demonstrate this by comparing with various earlier ab initio calculations and experiments as well as by performing our own random-phase-approximation calculations (valid for all q ) of the surface-plasmon dispersions for simple metals with various electron-gas densities. Finally we show that this hydrodynamic-extended d -function formalism can also be applied to arbitrary plasmonic/metamaterial structures as long as the nonflat interfaces can be modeled as effective media films.

  18. Electromagnetic structure of A=2 and 3 nuclei in chiral effective field theory

    SciTech Connect

    M. Piarulli, L. Girlanda, L.E. Marcucci, S. Pastore, R. Schiavilla, M. Viviani

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present work are twofold. The first is to address and resolve some of the differences present in independent, chiral-effective-field-theory ({chi}EFT) derivations up to one loop, recently appeared in the literature, of the nuclear charge and current operators. The second objective is to provide a complete set of {chi}EFT predictions for the structure functions and tensor polarization of the deuteron, for the charge and magnetic form factors of {sup 3}He and {sup 3}H, and for the charge and magnetic radii of these few-nucleon systems. The calculations use wave functions derived from high-order chiral two- and three-nucleon potentials and Monte Carlo methods to evaluate the relevant matrix elements. Predictions based on conventional potentials in combination with {chi}EFT charge and current operators are also presented. There is excellent agreement between theory and experiment for all these observables for momentum transfers up to q {<=} 2.0--2.5 fm{sup -1}; for a subset of them, this agreement extends to momentum transfers as high as q ~ 5--6 fm{sup -1}. A complete analysis of the results is provided.

  19. Bedrock morphology and structure, upper Santa Cruz Basin, south-central Arizona, with transient electromagnetic survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bultman, Mark W.; Page, William R.

    2016-10-31

    The upper Santa Cruz Basin is an important groundwater basin containing the regional aquifer for the city of Nogales, Arizona. This report provides data and interpretations of data aimed at better understanding the bedrock morphology and structure of the upper Santa Cruz Basin study area which encompasses the Rio Rico and Nogales 1:24,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey quadrangles. Data used in this report include the Arizona Aeromagnetic and Gravity Maps and Data referred to here as the 1996 Patagonia Aeromagnetic survey, Bouguer gravity anomaly data, and conductivity-depth transforms (CDTs) from the 1998 Santa Cruz transient electromagnetic survey (whose data are included in appendixes 1 and 2 of this report).Analyses based on magnetic gradients worked well to identify the range-front faults along the Mt. Benedict horst block, the location of possibly fault-controlled canyons to the west of Mt. Benedict, the edges of buried lava flows, and numerous other concealed faults and contacts. Applying the 1996 Patagonia aeromagnetic survey data using the horizontal gradient method produced results that were most closely correlated with the observed geology.The 1996 Patagonia aeromagnetic survey was used to estimate depth to bedrock in the upper Santa Cruz Basin study area. Three different depth estimation methods were applied to the data: Euler deconvolution, horizontal gradient magnitude, and analytic signal. The final depth to bedrock map was produced by choosing the maximum depth from each of the three methods at a given location and combining all maximum depths. In locations of rocks with a known reversed natural remanent magnetic field, gravity based depth estimates from Gettings and Houser (1997) were used.The depth to bedrock map was supported by modeling aeromagnetic anomaly data along six profiles. These cross sectional models demonstrated that by using the depth to bedrock map generated in this study, known and concealed faults, measured and estimated magnetic

  20. Ion Gyro-Harmonic Structuring in the Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission Spectrum During Second Electron Gyro-Harmonic Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, Wayne; Bernhardt, Paul; Samimi, Alireza; Bricinsky, Stanley; Selcher, Craig

    2012-07-01

    Recent observations of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions SEEs have shown structures ordered by the ion gyro-frequency. In particular, during experiments in which the heating frequency is near the second electron gyro-harmonic, unique discrete spectral features separated by the ion gyro-frequency have been observed within about 1 kHz of the pump frequency. On occasion, a broadband spectral feature near 500 Hz is observed that coexists with the ion gyro-harmonic spectral features. Explanations for these spectral features have been based on parametric decay of the pump field into upper hybrid/electron Bernstein and ion Bernstein and oblique ion acoustic waves at the upper hybrid layer. This presentation will first review important characteristics of these ion gyro-harmonic spectral features obtained during some recent experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research HAARP facility. These characteristics are then compared to predications of an analytical model for three-wave parametric decay of the pump field into upper hybrid/electron Bernstein and ion Bernstein and oblique ion acoustic waves. It is shown from the analytical theory that important pump field parameters that influence the spectral characteristics include the angle of the pump field relative the background magnetic field, the frequency of the pump relative to the second gyro-harmonic, and the pump field strength. Two Dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations are used to investigate aspects of the nonlinear evolution such as irregularity development and field aligned electron heating in more detail. These simulations show favorable comparisons with the analytical theory predications as well as the experimental observations. Finally, possibilities for utilizing the experimentally observed SEE spectra for diagnostic purposes are discussed.

  1. An accurate and fast forward model of three-dimensional electromagnetic wave scattering in a layered structure with multilayer rough interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Fang, Guangyou; Shi, Jiancheng; Liu, Shiyin

    2015-03-01

    We develop an accurate and fast forward model for calculating the compact closed-form high-order perturbative solutions of the problem of three-dimensional (3-D) radiation and propagation electromagnetic fields in a layered structure with multilayer rough interfaces. The proposed method for the fast forward model is first demonstrated by strictly theoretical formulas derivation in the framework of classical small perturbation method (SPM) without other else approximation and equivalent process. The kernel functions of high order are proposed for calculating the radar cross sections with more efficiency and clear physical meanings for better use in practice. What is more, we give the clear physical interpretation of the first-order fully polarimetric electromagnetic wave scattering mechanism in the layered structure with multilayer rough interfaces. The proposed forward model is necessary to insure a successful inversion process. Furthermore, the high-order SPM solutions derived by employing the proposed method are validated with existing methods and numerical results. Finally, we study the performance of the high-order fully polarimetric electromagnetic wave scattering according to the numerical results and analyze the scattering enhancement phenomena.

  2. Nuclear weapons effects studies for the 5ESS (trademark) switch. Volume 2. EM (electromagnetic) shielding characteristics of structures. Final report, 1 July 1985-30 September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, N.A.; Farber, L.; Federico, S.S.

    1986-09-01

    As part of its Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Mitigation Program, the National Communications System (NCS) funded ATandT to study the ability of the ATandT 5ESS(TM) Switch to withstand the potentially disabling effects of EMP from high-altitude nuclear bursts and fallout radiation from distant near-surface bursts. This volume documents the study to characterize the electromagnetic (EM) shielding effectiveness of the trailer used to shelter the test switch during simulated-EMP testing and of central-office buildings in which 5ESS Switches might be housed in the Public Switched Network. The results were used to estimate the attenuated fields incident upon n installed switch and its associated intra-office cabling. Because the building types examined can provide a wide range of EM shielding values, no single set of attenuation curves will suffice to characterize central-office structures.

  3. Intra-wire resistance and AC loss in multi-filamentary MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Offringa, W.; Bergen, A.; Wessel, W. A. J.; Krooshoop, H. J. G.; Dhallé, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Nijhuis, A.

    2013-02-01

    Intra-wire resistance and AC loss of various multi-filamentary MgB2 wires with filaments surrounded by Nb barriers have been measured and analyzed. The intra-wire resistance is measured with a direct four-probe voltage-current method at various temperatures. The AC loss is acquired by both vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and magnetization measurements at 4.2 K. With the aid of finite element method simulations, the filament-to-matrix contact resistance and effective transverse resistivity are derived from direct intra-wire resistance measurements. The effective transverse resistivity values are in good agreement with those analytically derived from the AC coupling loss measurements. Surprisingly, very high values of filament-to-matrix contact resistivity are found, being 2 or 3 orders higher than commonly found for NbTi or Nb3Sn wires.

  4. Grain Alignment and the Magnetic Field Geometry in the Filamentary Dark Cloud GF 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Terry Jay

    2003-06-01

    We present measurements of the interstellar polarization at 1.65 μm of stars shining through the filamentary dark cloud GF 9. Unlike many dark clouds, the interstellar polarization through GF 9 increases significantly with increasing extinction through the cloud. We find the magnetic field geometry in GF 9-core is very smooth, in agreement with results from far-infrared polarimetry by Clemens, Kraemer, & Ciardi (published in 1999). Our much more limited results for GF 9-filament are consistent with a disordered field, also in agreement with the far-infrared polarimetry. Comparison of the near-infrared and far-infrared position angles suggests that there is a moderate rotation in the projected magnetic field direction from the exterior to the interior of GF 9-core.

  5. Rectifying filamentary resistive switching in ion-exfoliated LiNbO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xinqiang; Shuai, Yao; Wu, Chuangui; Luo, Wenbo; Sun, Xiangyu; Zeng, Huizhong; Zhou, Shengqiang; Böttger, Roman; Ou, Xin; Mikolajick, Thomas; Zhang, Wanli; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we report the resistive switching properties of ion-exfoliated LiNbO3 thin films. After annealing in Ar or in vacuum, electro-forming has been observed on the thin films, and the oxygen gas bubbles can be eliminated by tuning the annealing conditions in order to prevent the destruction of top electrodes. The thin films show rectifying filamentary resistive switching after forming, which is interpreted by a simplified model that the local filament does not penetrate throughout the LiNbO3 thin film, resulting in asymmetric contact barriers at the two interfaces. The well controlled electro-forming step and the highly reproducible switching properties are attributed to the more homogeneous distribution of defects in single crystalline materials and the specific geometry of filament.

  6. Self-organization of large-scale ULF electromagnetic wave structures in their interaction with nonuniform zonal winds in the ionospheric E region

    SciTech Connect

    Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, Kh. Z.

    2011-02-15

    A study is made of the generation and subsequent linear and nonlinear evolution of ultralow-frequency planetary electromagnetic waves in the E region of a dissipative ionosphere in the presence of a nonuniform zonal wind (a sheared flow). Hall currents flowing in the E region and such permanent global factors as the spatial nonuniformity of the geomagnetic field and of the normal component of the Earth's angular velocity give rise to fast and slow planetary-scale electromagnetic waves. The efficiency of the linear amplification of planetary electromagnetic waves in their interaction with a nonuniform zonal wind is analyzed. When there are sheared flows, the operators of linear problems are non-self-conjugate and the corresponding eigenfunctions are nonorthogonal, so the canonical modal approach is poorly suited for studying such motions and it is necessary to utilize the so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis. It is shown that, in the linear evolutionary stage, planetary electromagnetic waves efficiently extract energy from the sheared flow, thereby substantially increasing their amplitude and, accordingly, energy. The criterion for instability of a sheared flow in an ionospheric medium is derived. As the shear instability develops and the perturbation amplitude grows, a nonlinear self-localization mechanism comes into play and the process ends with the self-organization of nonlinear, highly localized, solitary vortex structures. The system thus acquires a new degree of freedom, thereby providing a new way for the perturbation to evolve in a medium with a sheared flow. Depending on the shape of the sheared flow velocity profile, nonlinear structures can be either purely monopole vortices or vortex streets against the background of the zonal wind. The accumulation of such vortices can lead to a strongly turbulent state in an ionospheric medium.

  7. Impact of electromagnetic radiation emitted by monitors on changes in the cellular membrane structure and protective antioxidant effect of vitamin A - In vitro study.

    PubMed

    Lewicka, Małgorzata; Henrykowska, Gabriela; Zawadzka, Magdalena; Rutkowski, Maciej; Pacholski, Krzysztof; Buczyński, Andrzej

    2017-07-14

    The increasing number of devices emitting electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in people's everyday life attracted the attention of researchers because of possible adverse effects of this factor on living organisms. One of the EMR effect may be peroxidation of lipid membranes formed as a result of free radical process. The article presents the results of in vitro studies aimed at identifying changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration - a marker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant role of vitamin A during the exposure of blood platelets to electromagnetic radiation generated by liquid-crystal-display (LCD) monitors. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by LCD monitors is characterized by parameters: 1 kHz frequency and 220 V/m intensity (15 cm from display screen). The time of exposure was 30 and 60 min. The study was conducted on porcine blood platelets. The samples were divided into 6 groups: unexposed to radiation, unexposed + vitamin A, exposed for 30 min, exposed for 30 min + vitamin A, exposed for 60 min, exposed for 60 min + vitamin A. The MDA concentration in blood platelets increases significantly as compared to control values after 60 min of exposure to EMR. A significant decrease in MDA concentration after the addition of vitamin A was noticed. In the blood samples exposed to EMR for 30 and 60 min the MDA concentration was significantly increased by addition of vitamin A. The results show the possibly negative effect of electromagnetic radiation on the cellular membrane structure manifested by changes in malondialdehyde concentration and indicate a possible protective role of vitamin A in this process. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):695-703.

  8. The basement structure below the peat-lignite deposit in the Philippi sub-basin (Northern Greece) inferred by electromagnetic and magnetic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurk, M.; Tougiannidis, N.; Oikonomopoulos, I. K.; Kalisperi, D.

    2015-04-01

    During 2009 and 2010 electromagnetic (EM) soundings and a high-resolution magnetic survey were conducted to study the deeper structure of the peat-lignite deposit in the Philippi sub-basin in Northern Greece. The primary intention of investigating the basement structure of the Philippi sub-basin is to propose the ideal location for a deep and continuous paleoclimate drill site. Data were collected along a 12 km transect (NNE-SSW) through the largest extension of the basin from Krinides at the North to Eleftheroupolis at the South. We used a combined set of Radiomagnetotelluric (RMT), Time Domain Electromagnetic (TEM) and Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) soundings to derive a 2D model of the electrical resistivity distribution versus depth using a joint inversion approach. This model was then cross correlated with a 2D forward model of magnetic anomaly data. The magnetic survey detected strong anomalies in the North that appeared to have been generated by the Philippi granitoid pluton. All three individual data sets support each other and have jointly been analyzed. From this study we yield an asymmetric graben model of the basin structure that shows maximum thickness (ca. 500 m) in the northern part of the basin leading to a reduction of the thickness to the South. The interface between the basin fill and the bedrock ascend steeply in the North. The overall assessment of the deeper basin structure reveals a detachment system that is in good accordance with previous findings.

  9. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories and now a

  10. Increasing of the endurance of polymeric construction materials with the multilevel hierarchical structure in the microwave electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlobina, I. V.; Muldasheva, G. K.; Bekrenev, N. V.

    2016-11-01

    Here are shown the results of the effect of the microwave electromagnetic field frequency 2450 MHz and the power density 4-5, 17-18, and 30-32 W/cm3 on properties of composite materials, reinforced plastics, and additive rubber. It is found that the microwave processing with the specific power 17-18 W/cm3 increases the duration of the operation of a rod carbon construction under a load by 1.5-4.5 times. The endurance of rods made of MBS plastics increases by 2-3 times under load. The yielding of sealing rubber after the treatment in the microwave electromagnetic field increases from 18 to 70% with the applied load. This increases the stability of the specimen characteristics after putting them at temperatures from -25 to +40°C.

  11. Morphology-Control Synthesis of a Core-Shell Structured NiCu Alloy with Tunable Electromagnetic-Wave Absorption Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Biao; Zhao, Wanyu; Shao, Gang; Fan, Bingbing; Zhang, Rui

    2015-06-17

    In this work, dendritelike and rodlike NiCu alloys were prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal process at various reaction temperatures (120, 140, and 160 °C). The structure and morphology were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy, which that demonstrate NiCu alloys have core-shell heterostructures with Ni as the shell and Cu as the core. The formation mechanism of the core-shell structures was also discussed. The uniform and perfect dendritelike NiCu alloy obtained at 140 °C shows outstanding electromagnetic-wave absorption properties. The lowest reflection loss (RL) of -31.13 dB was observed at 14.3 GHz, and the effective absorption (below -10 dB, 90% attenuation) bandwidth can be adjusted between 4.4 and 18 GHz with a thin absorber thickness in the range of 1.2-4.0 mm. The outstanding electromagnetic-wave-absorbing properties are ascribed to space-charge polarization arising from the heterogeneous structure of the NiCu alloy, interfacial polarization between the alloy and paraffin, and continuous micronetworks and vibrating microcurrent dissipation originating from the uniform and perfect dendritelike shape of NiCu prepared at 140 °C.

  12. Gravitational Contraction and Fragmentation of Filamentary Molecular Clouds: Breakdown of Isothermality and Appearance of Two- Dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetsu, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    & Rachford (1956) (DROS), and linearizing the Planck function (LIN). From some numerical tests, we find that DROS and LIN can be chosen as the alternative scheme. Third, using DROS, we perform two-dimensional RHD calculations with the FLD approximation to investigate the fragmentation process of radially contracting filamentary clouds. As a result, we find when the fragmentation occurs, which cannot be determined by one-dimensional approaches. We define the criteria for judging the appearance of two-dimensionality using the mean central density, which was approximately one order of magnitude higher than previous implicit understandings. The density when fragmentations appear is corresponding to several Jupiter mass, which is several times smaller than previously predicted. The mass is in agreement with planet mass objects observed using the microlensing effect and the candidates of the first hydrostatic cores observed by ALMA along filamentary clouds.

  13. Electromagnetic Hammer for Metalworking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. A.; Brunet, F.; Dowd, A.; Durham, R.; Ezell, J.; Gorr, G.; Hartley, D.; Jackson, F.; Marchand, J.; Macfarlane, W.; Nameth, P.; Okelly, K.; Phillips, H.; Rollo, J.; Rupert, E.; Sykes, H.; Vitrano, E.; Woods, M.

    1986-01-01

    High eddy currents apply pressure for cold-forming. Coil housing constructed for mechanical strength to hold coil against magnetic force, to maintain electrical contact with coil ends, and to maintain insulation between coil turns. Drilled holes placed to facilitate release of bubbles during potting. In contrast with mechanical hammers, electromagnetic hammer requires no dynamic material contact with workpiece; consequently, produces almost no change in metal grain structure.

  14. An Ad-hoc Satellite Network to Measure Filamentary Current Structures in the Auroral Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabong, C.; Fritz, T. A.; Semeter, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    An ad-hoc cubesat-based satellite network project known as ANDESITE is under development at Boston University. It aims to develop a dense constellation of easy-to-use, rapidly-deployable low-cost wireless sensor nodes in space. The objectives of the project are threefold: 1) Demonstrate viability of satellite based sensor networks by deploying an 8-node miniature sensor network to study the filamentation of the field aligned currents in the auroral zones of the Earth's magnetosphere. 2) Test the scalability of proposed protocols, including localization techniques, tracking, data aggregation, and routing, for a 3 dimensional wireless sensor network using a "flock" of nodes. 3) Construct a 6U Cube-sat running the Android OS as an integrated constellation manager, data mule and sensor node deplorer. This small network of sensor nodes will resolve current densities at different spatial resolutions in the near-Earth magnetosphere using measurements from magnetometers with 1-nT sensitivities and 0.2 nT/√Hz self-noise. Mapping of these currents will provide new constraints for models of auroral particle acceleration, wave-particle interactions, ionospheric destabilization, and other kinetic processes operating in the low-beta plasma of the near Earth magnetosphere.

  15. Evidence for Filamentary Jet Structure: The Light Curve of GRB 011211

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakobsson, P.; Hjorth, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pedersen, K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gorosabel, J.; Watson, D.; Jensen, B. L.; Gray, T.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the discovery of the optical afterglow of the X-ray rich, long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 011211, and the oscillatory behavior present in its optical and X-ray afterglow light curve. The time scale of the fluctuations, -1 hour, is much smaller than the time of the observations, -12 hours from the onset of the gamma-ray burst. The character and strength of the fluctuations visible in the optical data are unprecedented, and are inconsistent with causally connected variations in the emission of a symmetric, relativistic blast wave. Moreover, the differential time lag between the short-term variations in X-ray and optical energies suggests they do not arise from the same emitting region. Such variability may imply that local spherical symmetry is broken because the energy content across the jet-emitting surface is not uniform, indicating the detection of a small scale substructure within the jet itself.

  16. Filamentary structures in dense plasma focus: Current filaments or vortex filaments?

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Leopoldo Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, José; Castillo, Fermin; Veloso, Felipe; Auluck, S. K. H.

    2014-07-15

    Recent observations of an azimuthally distributed array of sub-millimeter size sources of fusion protons and correlation between extreme ultraviolet (XUV) images of filaments with neutron yield in PF-1000 plasma focus have re-kindled interest in their significance. These filaments have been described variously in literature as current filaments and vortex filaments, with very little experimental evidence in support of either nomenclature. This paper provides, for the first time, experimental observations of filaments on a table-top plasma focus device using three techniques: framing photography of visible self-luminosity from the plasma, schlieren photography, and interferometry. Quantitative evaluation of density profile of filaments from interferometry reveals that their radius closely agrees with the collision-less ion skin depth. This is a signature of relaxed state of a Hall fluid, which has significant mass flow with equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy, supporting the “vortex filament” description. This interpretation is consistent with empirical evidence of an efficient energy concentration mechanism inferred from nuclear reaction yields.

  17. Electromagnetic leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nicole F.; Law, Sandy S. C.; Kayser, Boris J.

    2008-10-15

    We present a new leptogenesis scenario, where the lepton asymmetry is generated by CP-violating decays of heavy electroweak singlet neutrinos via electromagnetic dipole moment couplings to the ordinary light neutrinos. Akin to the usual scenario where the decays are mediated through Yukawa interactions, we have shown, by explicit calculations, that the desired asymmetry can be produced through the interference of the corresponding tree-level and one-loop decay amplitudes involving the effective dipole moment operators. We also find that the relationship of the leptogenesis scale to the light neutrino masses is similar to that for the standard Yukawa-mediated mechanism.

  18. Deformation processed Al/Ca nano-filamentary composite conductors for HVDC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czahor, C. F.; Anderson, I. E.; Riedemann, T. M.; Russell, A. M.

    2017-07-01

    Efficient long-distance power transmission is necessary as the world continues to implement renewable energy sources, often sited in remote areas. Light, strong, high-conductivity materials are desirable for this application to reduce both construction and operational costs. In this study an Al/Ca (11.5% vol.) composite with nano-filamentary reinforcement was produced by powder metallurgy then extruded, swaged, and wire drawn to a maximum true strain of 12.7. The tensile strength increased exponentially as the filament size was reduced to the sub-micron level. In an effort to improve the conductor’s ability to operate at elevated temperatures, the deformation-processed wires were heat-treated at 260°C to transform the Ca-reinforcing filaments to Al2Ca. Such a transformation raised the tensile strength by as much as 28%, and caused little change in ductility, while the electrical conductivity was reduced by only 1% to 3%. Al/Al2Ca composites are compared to existing conductor materials to show how implementation could affect installation and performance.

  19. Filamentary pulse self-compression: The impact of the cell windows

    SciTech Connect

    Bree, Carsten; Demircan, Ayhan; Bethge, Jens; Nibbering, Erik T. J.; Skupin, Stefan; Berge, Luc; Steinmeyer, Guenter

    2011-04-15

    Self-compression of multi-millijoule laser pulses during filamentary propagation is usually explained by the interplay of self-focusing and defocusing effects, causing a substantial concentration of energy on the axis of the propagating optical pulse. Recently, it has been argued that cell windows may play a decisive role in the self-compression mechanism. As such windows have to be used for media other than air their presence is often unavoidable, yet they present a sudden nonadiabatic change in dispersion and nonlinearity that should lead to a destruction of the temporal and spatial integrity of the light bullets generated in the self-compression mechanism. We now experimentally prove that there is, in fact, a self-healing mechanism that helps to overcome the potentially destructive consequences of the cell windows. We show in two carefully conducted experiments that the cell window position decisively influences activation or inhibition of the self-healing mechanism. A comparison with a windowless cell shows that the presence of this mechanism is an important prerequisite for the exploitation of self-compression effects in windowed cells filled with inert gases.

  20. Computational simulation of the creep-rupture process in filamentary composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slattery, Kerry T.; Hackett, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    A computational simulation of the internal damage accumulation which causes the creep-rupture phenomenon in filamentary composite materials is developed. The creep-rupture process involves complex interactions between several damage mechanisms. A statistically-based computational simulation using a time-differencing approach is employed to model these progressive interactions. The finite element method is used to calculate the internal stresses. The fibers are modeled as a series of bar elements which are connected transversely by matrix elements. Flaws are distributed randomly throughout the elements in the model. Load is applied, and the properties of the individual elements are updated at the end of each time step as a function of the stress history. The simulation is continued until failure occurs. Several cases, with different initial flaw dispersions, are run to establish a statistical distribution of the time-to-failure. The calculations are performed on a supercomputer. The simulation results compare favorably with the results of creep-rupture experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  1. Understanding the Star Formation Process in the Filamentary Dark Cloud GF 9: Near-Infrared Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardi, David R.; Woodward, Charles E.; Clemens, Dan P.; Harker, David E.; Rudy, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    We have performed a near-infrared JHK survey of a dense core and a diffuse filament region within the filamentary dark cloud GF 9 (LDN 1082). The core region is associated with the IRAS point source PSC 20503+6006 and is suspected of being a site of star formation. The diffuse filament region has no associated IRAS point sources and is likely quiescent. We find that neither the core nor the filament region appears to contain a Class I or Class II young stellar object. As traced by the dust extinction, the core and filament regions contain 26 and 22 solar mass, respectively, with an average H2 volume density for both regions of approximately 2500/cu cm. The core region contains a centrally condensed extinction maximum with a peak extinction of A(sub v) greater than or approximately equal to 10 mag that appears to be associated with the IRAS point source. The average H2 volume density of the extinction core is approximately 8000/cu cm. The dust within the filament, however, shows no sign of a central condensation and is consistent with a uniform-density cylindrical distribution.

  2. Imaging the Three-Dimensional Conductive Channel in Filamentary-Based Oxide Resistive Switching Memory.

    PubMed

    Celano, Umberto; Goux, Ludovic; Degraeve, Robin; Fantini, Andrea; Richard, Olivier; Bender, Hugo; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2015-12-09

    Filamentary-based oxide resistive memory is considered as a disruptive technology for nonvolatile data storage and reconfigurable logic. Currently accepted models explain the resistive switching in these devices through the presence/absence of a conductive filament (CF) that is described as a reversible nanosized valence-change in an oxide material. During device operation, the CF cycles billion of times at subnanosecond speed, using few tens of microamperes as operating current and thus determines the whole device's performance. Despite its importance, the CF observation is hampered by the small filament size and its minimal compositional difference with the surrounding material. Here we show an experimental solution to this problem and provide the three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the CF in a scaled device. For this purpose we have recently developed a tomography technique which combines the high spatial resolution of scanning probe microscopy with subnanometer precision in material removal, leading to a true 3D-probing metrology concept. We locate and characterize in three-dimensions the nanometric volume of the conductive filament in state-of-the-art bipolar oxide-based devices. Our measurements demonstrate that the switching occurs through the formation of a single conductive filament. The filaments exhibit sizes below 10 nm and present a constriction near the oxygen-inert electrode. Finally, different atomic-size contacts are observed as a function of the programming current, providing evidence for the filament's nature as a defects modulated quantum contact.

  3. Fragmentation of a Filamentary Cloud Permeated by a Perpendicular Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Kudoh, Takahiro; Tomisaka, Kohji

    2017-10-01

    We examine the linear stability of an isothermal filamentary cloud permeated by a perpendicular magnetic field. Our model cloud is assumed to be supported by gas pressure against self-gravity in the unperturbed state. For simplicity, the density distribution is assumed to be symmetric around the axis. Also for simplicity, the initial magnetic field is assumed to be uniform, and turbulence is not taken into account. The perturbation equation is formulated to be an eigenvalue problem. The growth rate is obtained as a function of the wavenumber for fragmentation along the axis and the magnetic field strength. The growth rate depends critically on the outer boundary. If the displacement vanishes in regions very far from the cloud axis (fixed boundary), cloud fragmentation is suppressed by a moderate magnetic field, which means the plasma beta is below 1.67 on the cloud axis. If the displacement is constant along the magnetic field in regions very far from the cloud, the cloud is unstable even when the magnetic field is infinitely strong. The cloud is deformed by circulation in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The unstable mode is not likely to induce dynamical collapse, since it is excited even when the whole cloud is magnetically subcritical. For both boundary conditions, the magnetic field increases the wavelength of the most unstable mode. We find that the magnetic force suppresses compression perpendicular to the magnetic field especially in regions of low density.

  4. Understanding the Star Formation Process in the Filamentary Dark Cloud GF 9: Near-Infrared Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardi, David R.; Woodward, Charles E.; Clemens, Dan P.; Harker, David E.; Rudy, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    We have performed a near-infrared JHK survey of a dense core and a diffuse filament region within the filamentary dark cloud GF 9 (LDN 1082). The core region is associated with the IRAS point source PSC 20503+6006 and is suspected of being a site of star formation. The diffuse filament region has no associated IRAS point sources and is likely quiescent. We find that neither the core nor the filament region appears to contain a Class I or Class II young stellar object. As traced by the dust extinction, the core and filament regions contain 26 and 22 solar mass, respectively, with an average H2 volume density for both regions of approximately 2500/cu cm. The core region contains a centrally condensed extinction maximum with a peak extinction of A(sub v) greater than or approximately equal to 10 mag that appears to be associated with the IRAS point source. The average H2 volume density of the extinction core is approximately 8000/cu cm. The dust within the filament, however, shows no sign of a central condensation and is consistent with a uniform-density cylindrical distribution.

  5. Filamentary MgB2 wires manufactured by different processes subjected to tensile loading and unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, P.; Kulich, M.; Kopera, L.; Melišek, T.; Kováč, J.; Hušek, I.

    2017-06-01

    A reversible strain effect on the transport critical current (I c) of filamentary MgB2 wires manufactured by three different processes has been examined at 4.2 K and under an external field of 5 T. MgB2 wires with a Nb barrier and a Monel® outer sheath made by powder-in-tube ex situ, in situ and by diffusion of magnesium into the boron process, have been examined. The wire samples were loaded and partially unloaded at progressively higher strain levels to determine the irreversible strain limit (ε irr), which is defined as the ultimate strain where the critical current (I c) is still reversible. It was found that the strain tolerances of the tested MgB2 wires are affected by the production process. The highest annealing temperature (>900 °C), applied in the ex situ process, causes an apparent softening of the Monel® and, together with the poor grain connectivity of MgB2 filaments, leads to the lowest strain tolerance (ε irr = 0.20%). The best grain connectivity, in internal Mg diffusion (IMD)-made MgB2, combined with a stronger Monel® sheath (heat treated at a lower temperature ∼640 °C) results in the best strain tolerance (ε irr = 0.55%).

  6. Electric field strength determination in filamentary DBDs by CARS-based four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Patrick; Kettlitz, Manfred; Brandenburg, Ronny; Hoeft, Hans; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    The electric field strength is a basic parameter of non-thermal plasmas. Therefore, a profound knowledge of the electric field distribution is crucial. In this contribution a four wave mixing technique based on Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is used to measure electric field strengths in filamentary dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs). The discharges are operated with a pulsed voltage in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Small amounts hydrogen (10 vol%) are admixed as tracer gas to evaluate the electric field strength in the 1 mm discharge gap. Absolute values of the electric field strength are determined by calibration of the CARS setup with high voltage amplitudes below the ignition threshold of the arrangement. Alteration of the electric field strength has been observed during the internal polarity reversal and the breakdown process. In this case the major advantage over emission based methods is that this technique can be used independently from emission, e.g. in the pre-phase and in between two consecutive, opposite discharge pulses where no emission occurs at all. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Forschergruppe FOR 1123 and Sonderforschungsbereich TRR 24 ``Fundamentals of complex plasmas''.

  7. What Are Electromagnetic Fields?

    MedlinePlus

    ... sources of electromagnetic fields Besides natural sources the electromagnetic spectrum also includes fields generated by human-made sources: ... ability to break bonds between molecules. In the electromagnetic spectrum, gamma rays given off by radioactive materials, cosmic ...

  8. Radiation and scattering by thin-wire structures in the complex frequency domain. [electromagnetic theory for thin-wire antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Piecewise-sinusoidal expansion functions and Galerkin's method are employed to formulate a solution for an arbitrary thin-wire configuration in a homogeneous conducting medium. The analysis is performed in the real or complex frequency domain. In antenna problems, the solution determines the current distribution, impedance, radiation efficiency, gain and far-field patterns. In scattering problems, the solution determines the absorption cross section, scattering cross section and the polarization scattering matrix. The electromagnetic theory is presented for thin wires and the forward-scattering theorem is developed for an arbitrary target in a homogeneous conducting medium.

  9. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field (1.8/0.9 GHz) on testicular function and structure in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Ozlem Nisbet, H; Nisbet, Cevat; Akar, Aysegul; Cevik, Mesut; Karayigit, M Onder

    2012-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible effects of whole-body electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on reproduction in growing male rats. Male albino Wistar rats (2 days old) were exposed to EMF 1800 and 900 MHz for 2 h continuously per day for 90 days. Sham control was kept under similar conditions except that the field was not applied for the same period. After blood samples were collected, the animals were sacrificed 24 h after the last exposure and the tissues of interest were harvested. The mean plasma total testosterone showed similarity among the two study groups and was significantly higher than the sham control rats. The percentage of epididymal sperm motility was significantly higher in the 1800 MHz group (P<0.05). The morphologically normal spermatozoa rates were higher and the tail abnormality and total percentage abnormalities were lower in the 900 MHz group (P<0.05). Histopathologic parameters in the 1800 MHz group were significantly higher (P<0.05). In conclusion, the present study indicated that exposure to electromagnetic wave caused an increase in testosterone level, epididymal sperm motility (forward), and normal sperm morphology of rats. As a consequences, 1800 and 900 MHz EMF could be considered to be a cause of precocious puberty in growing rats.

  10. Earth's Electromagnetic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constable, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The natural spectrum of electromagnetic variations surrounding Earth extends across an enormous frequency range and is controlled by diverse physical processes. Electromagnetic (EM) induction studies make use of external field variations with frequencies ranging from the solar cycle which has been used for geomagnetic depth sounding through the 10^{-4}-10^4 Hz frequency band widely used for magnetotelluric and audio-magnetotelluric studies. Above 10^4 Hz, the EM spectrum is dominated by man-made signals. This review emphasizes electromagnetic sources at ˜1 Hz and higher, describing major differences in physical origin and structure of short- and long-period signals. The essential role of Earth's internal magnetic field in defining the magnetosphere through its interactions with the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field is briefly outlined. At its lower boundary, the magnetosphere is engaged in two-way interactions with the underlying ionosphere and neutral atmosphere. Extremely low-frequency (3 Hz-3 kHz) electromagnetic signals are generated in the form of sferics, lightning, and whistlers which can extend to frequencies as high as the VLF range (3-30 kHz).The roughly spherical dielectric cavity bounded by the ground and the ionosphere produces the Schumann resonance at around 8 Hz and its harmonics. A transverse resonance also occurs at 1.7-2.0 kHz arising from reflection off the variable height lower boundary of the ionosphere and exhibiting line splitting due to three-dimensional structure. Ground and satellite observations are discussed in the light of their contributions to understanding the global electric circuit and for EM induction studies.

  11. Structural, magnetic and microwave absorption behavior of Co-Zr substituted strontium hexaferrites prepared using tartaric acid fuel for electromagnetic interference suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Prabhjyot; Chawla, S. K.; Narang, Sukhleen Bindra; Pubby, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    Strontium hexaferrites, doped with varying Co-Zr content (x) have been synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion route using tartaric acid as fuel at 800 °C. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform Infra-red have been carried out to confirm the phase formation, particle size (average 21.9-36.8 nm) and the bond formation respectively. Magnetic properties are scrutinized using vibrating sample magnetometer. Techniques like scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive scattering have been employed to explore the surface morphology, particle size and composition of the nano-powders. Electromagnetic characterization of the prepared ferrites has been done using Vector Network Anlyzer in 12.4-18 GHz frequency range. The effect of calcination temperature (500-1000 °C) on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties has also been studied for x=0.2 and 800 °C has been found to be the most suitable temperature with the best magnetic properties. Increase in doping has resulted in resonance peaks in dielectric and magnetic loss spectra, leading to microwave absorption peaks. Ferrites with x=0.2, 0.8 and 1.0 have appropriate reflection loss less than -10 dB and bandwidth in Ku-band, hence can be used as effective absorbers in suppression of electromagnetic interference (EMI). The governance of impedance matching in deciding the absorption properties has been proved by using input impedance calculations.

  12. Electromagnetic Radiation System (EMRS) for Susceptibility Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, *ELECTROMAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY, COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT, ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , ANTENNAS, ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE, RADAR SIGNALS, RADIO SIGNALS, FIELD INTENSITY.

  13. 3-D imaging of large scale buried structure by 1-D inversion of very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aydmer, A.A.; Chew, W.C.; Cui, T.J.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.; Abraham, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for large scale three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface imaging of inhomogeneous background is presented. One-dimensional (1-D) multifrequency distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) is employed in the inversion. Simulation results utilizing synthetic scattering data are given. Calibration of the very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) experimental waveforms is detailed along with major problems encountered in practice and their solutions. This discussion is followed by the results of a large scale application of the method to the experimental data provided by the VETEM system of the U.S. Geological Survey. The method is shown to have a computational complexity that is promising for on-site inversion.

  14. The carbon inventory in a quiescent, filamentary molecular cloud in G328

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, Michael G.; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Braiding, Catherine; Storey, John W. V.; Kulesa, Craig; Hollenbach, David J.; Wolfire, Mark; Glück, Christian; Rowell, Gavin

    2014-02-20

    We present spectral line images of [C I] 809 GHz, CO J = 1-0 115 GHz and H I 1.4 GHz line emission, and calculate the corresponding C, CO and H column densities, for a sinuous, quiescent giant molecular cloud about 5 kpc distant along the l = 328° sightline (hereafter G328) in our Galaxy. The [C I] data comes from the High Elevation Antarctic Terahertz telescope, a new facility on the summit of the Antarctic plateau where the precipitable water vapor falls to the lowest values found on the surface of the Earth. The CO and H I data sets come from the Mopra and Parkes/ATCA telescopes, respectively. We identify a filamentary molecular cloud, ∼75 × 5 pc long with mass ∼4 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} and a narrow velocity emission range of just 4 km s{sup –1}. The morphology and kinematics of this filament are similar in CO, [C I], and H I, though in the latter appears as self-absorption. We calculate line fluxes and column densities for the three emitting species, which are broadly consistent with a photodissociation region model for a GMC exposed to the average interstellar radiation field. The [C/CO] abundance ratio averaged through the filament is found to be approximately unity. The G328 filament is constrained to be cold (T {sub Dust} < 20 K) by the lack of far-IR emission, to show no clear signs of star formation, and to only be mildly turbulent from the narrow line width. We suggest that it may represent a GMC shortly after formation, or perhaps still in the process of formation.

  15. Strong Magnetic Field Fluctuations within Filamentary Auroral Density Cavities Interpreted as VLF Saucer Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, D. L.; Kabirzadeh, R.; Burchill, J. K.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Wallis, D. D.; Bounds, S. R.; Clemmons, J. H.; Pincon, J.-L.

    2012-01-01

    The Geoelectrodynamics and Electro-Optical Detection of Electron and SuprathermalIon Currents (GEODESIC) sounding rocket encountered more than 100 filamentary densitycavities associated with enhanced plasma waves at ELF (3 kHz) and VLF (310 kHz)frequencies and at altitudes of 800990 km during an auroral substorm. These cavities weresimilar in size (20 m diameter in most cases) to so-called lower-hybrid cavities (LHCs)observed by previous sounding rockets and satellites; however, in contrast, many of theGEODESIC cavities exhibited up to tenfold enhancements in magnetic wave powerthroughout the VLF band. GEODESIC also observed enhancements of ELF and VLFelectric fields both parallel and perpendicular to the geomagnetic field B0 within cavities,though the VLF E field increases were often not as large proportionally as seen in themagnetic fields. This behavior is opposite to that predicted by previously published theoriesof LHCs based on passive scattering of externally incident auroral hiss. We argue thatthe GEODESIC cavities are active wave generation sites capable of radiating VLF wavesinto the surrounding plasma and producing VLF saucers, with energy supplied by cold,upward flowing electron beams composing the auroral return current. This interpretation issupported by the observation that the most intense waves, both inside and outside cavities,occurred in regions where energetic electron precipitation was largely inhibited orabsent altogether. We suggest that the wave-enhanced cavities encountered by GEODESICwere qualitatively different from those observed by earlier spacecraft because of thefortuitous timing of the GEODESIC launch, which placed the payload at apogee within asubstorm-related return current during its most intense phase, lasting only a few minutes.

  16. Pondermotive versus mirror force in creation of the filamentary cavities in auroral plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra

    1994-01-01

    Recently rocket observations on spikelets of lower-hybrid waves along with strong density cavities and transversely heated ions were reported. The observed thin filamentary cavities oriented along the magnetic field in the auroral plasma have density depletions up to several tens of percent. These observations have been interpreted in terms of a theory for lower-hybrid wave condensation and collapse. The modulational instability leading to the wave consensation of the lower-hybrid waves yields only weak density perturbations, which cannot explain the above strong density depletions. The wave collapse theory is based on the nonlinear pondermotive force in a homogeneous ambient plasma and the density depletion is determined by the balance between the wave pressure (pondermotive force) and the plasma pressure. In the auroral plasma, the balance is achieved in a time tau(sub wc) equal to or less than 1 ms. It is shown here that the mirror force, acting on the transversely heated ions at a relatively long time scale, is an effective mechanism for creating the strong plasma cavities. We suggest that the process of wave condensation, through the pondermotive force causing generation of short wavelength waves from relatively long wavelength waves, is a dominant process until the former waves evolve and become effective in the transverse heating of ions. As soon as this happens, mirror force on ions becomes an important factor in the creation of the density cavities, which may further trap and enhance the waves. Results from a model of cavity formation by transverse ion heating show that the observed depletions in the density cavities can be produced by the heating rates determined by the observed wave amplitudes near the lower-hybrid frequency. It is found that the creation of a strong density cavity takes a few minutes.

  17. Electromagnetic topology: Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.

    1991-01-01

    The main principles are presented of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: Electromagnetic Topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of the Electromagnetic Topology: the BLT equation. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.

  18. Investigations of the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body systems. Progress report, 1 August 1991--31 July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, D.R.; Haberzettl, H.; Maximon, L.C.; Parke, W.C.

    1992-07-01

    In order to make it easy for the reader to see the specific research carried out and the progress made, the following report of progress is done by topic. Each item has a format layout of Topic, Investigators, Objective, Significance, and Description of Progress, followed at the end by the relevant references. As is clear from the topics listed, the emphasis of the George Washington University (GWU) theory group has been on the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body nuclei. Both low- and intermediate-energy electromagnetic disintegration of these nuclei is considered. When the excitation energy of the target nucleus is low, the aim has been to handle the continuum part of the theoretical work numerically with no approximations, that is, by means of full three- or four-body dynamics. When structure questions axe the issue, numerically accurate calculations axe always carried through, limited only by the underlying two-body or three-body interactions used as input. Implicit in our work is the question of how far one can go within the traditional nuclear physics framework, i.e., nucleons and mesons in a nonrelativistic setting. Our central goal is to carry through state-of-the-art fewbody calculations that wig serve as a means of determining at what point standard nuclear physics requires quark degrees of freedom in order to understand the phenomena in question. So far, in the problems considered, there has been no evidence of the necessity to go beyond the traditional approach, though we always keep in mind that possibility. As our work is involved with questions in the intermediate-energy realm, moving from a nonrelativistic framework to a relativistic one is always a consideration. Currently, for the problems that have been pursued in this domain of energy, the issues concern far more the mechanisms of the reactions and structural questions than the need to move to relativistic dynamics.

  19. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Spin-dependent electron transport of a waveguide with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in an electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xian-Bo; Li, Xiao-Mao; Chen, Yu-Guang

    2009-12-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin-dependent electron transport in a straight waveguide with Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) under the irradiation of a transversely polarized electromagnetic (EM) field. Spin-dependent electron conductance and spin polarization are calculated as functions of the emitting energy of electrons or the strength of the EM field by adopting the mode matching approach. It is shown that the spin polarization can be manipulated by external parameters when the strength of Rashba SOC is strong. Furthermore, a sharp step structure is found to exist in the total electron conductance. These results can be understood by the nontrivial Rashba subbands intermixing and the electron intersubband transition when a finite-range transversely polarized EM field irradiates a straight waveguide.

  20. Preparation of SiC doped In-Situ MgB2 mono- and 7-filamentary wires by continuous tube forming and filling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Suo, H. L.; Zhang, Z. L.; Gao, T. Y.; Liu, M.; Zhao, Y.; Zhou, M. L.; Flükiger, R.

    2008-02-01

    Long lengths of in-situ SiC doped MgB2/Fe mono- filamentary wires with high critical current densities and 7- filamentary MgB2/Nb/Cu/Fe wires with better thermal stability have been fabricated by either continuous tube forming & filling (CTFF) technique or combining both powder in tube (PIT) and CTFF process, respectively. Particular efforts were made in view of the optimization of the manufacturing and annealing processes of the wires. The as obtained wires were sintered under a vacuum furnace at different sintering temperatures and the optimized sintering of the MgB2 wires were investigated by the analysis of optical microscope, XRD, SEM, and the transport Jc measurements. The Jc value in a 8 at.% SiC doped MgB2/Fe mono- filamentary wire is more than 104A/cm2 at 4.2 K and a field of 11 T. While in doped 7- filamentary wire, the similar Jc value (104A/cm2) is obtained at 4.2 K and a field of 7.5 T. Moreover, the n factors are determined to be 33 and 10 at 11 T in the mono- and 7- filamentary MgB2wires with SiC doping, respectively, indicating the possibility to use the as fabricated MgB2 wires in the persistent mode for fields from 0.5 T to 10 T at 4.2 K.

  1. Investigations of the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body systems. Progress report, 1 July 1991--30 June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, D.R.; Haberzettl, H.; Maximon, L.C.; Parke, W.C.; Bennhold, C.; Ito, Hiroshi; Pratt, R.K.; Najmeddine, M.; Rakei, A.

    1994-07-01

    In order to make it easy for the reader to see the specific research carried out and the progress made, the following report of progress is done by topic. Each item has a format layout of Topic, Investigators, Objective, Significance, and Description of Progress, followed at the end by the relevant references. As is clear from the topics listed, the emphasis of the GW nuclear theory group has been on the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body nuclei. Both low- and intermediate-energy electromagnetic disintegration of these nuclei is considered, including coherent photoproduction of {pi} mesons. When the excitation energy of the target nucleus is low, the aim has been to handle the continuum part of the theoretical work numerically with no approximations, that is, by means of full three- or four-body dynamics. When structure questions are the issue, numerically accurate calculations are always carried through, limited only by the underlying two-body or three-body interactions used as input. Implicit in our work is the question of how far one can go within the traditional nuclear physics framework i.e., nucleons and mesons in a nonrelativistic setting. Our central goal is to carry through state-of-the-art few-body calculations that will serve as a means of determining at what point standard nuclear physics requires introduction of relativity and/or quark degrees of freedom in order to understand the phenomena in question. So far, the problems considered were mostly concerned with low- to medium-energy regimes where little evidence was found that requires going beyond the traditional approach.

  2. Electromagnetic launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolm, H.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.

    1980-09-01

    Recent advances in energy storage, switching and magnet technology make electromagnetic acceleration a viable alternative to chemical propulsion for certain tasks, and a means to perform other tasks not previously feasible. Applications include the acceleration of gram-size particles for hypervelocity research and the initiation of fusion by impact, a replacement for chemically propelled artillery, the transportation of cargo and personnel over inaccessible terrain, and the launching of space vehicles to supply massive space operations, and for the disposal of nuclear waste. The simplest launcher of interest is the railgun, in which a short-circuit slide or an arc is driven along two rails by direct current. The most sophisticated studied thus far is the mass driver, in which a superconducting shuttle bucket is accelerated by a line of pulse coils energized by capacitors at energy conversion efficiencies better than 90%. Other accelerators of interest include helical, brush-commutated motors, discrete coil arc commutated drivers, flux compression momentum transformers, and various hybrid electrochemical devices.

  3. Electromagnetic launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Laskaris, E.T.; Chari, M.V.K.

    1990-11-20

    This paper describes an electromagnetic launcher. It comprises: a stationary superconductive coil situated coaxially in a cylindrical vacuum vessel for providing a magnetic field. The superconductive coil having a central aperture, the vacuum vessel having an axially extending bore passing through the central aperture of the superconducting coil; a resistive coil situated coaxially with the superconductive coil and movable axially relative to the stationary superconductive coil, the outer diameter of the resistive coil being smaller than the inner diameter of the bore permitting the resistive coil to pass therethrough; launch activating means coupled to the resistive coil. The launch activating means comprising a shaft joined at one end to the resistive coil, a tube open at both ends, a sliding piston situated in the tube and connected to the other end of the shaft; and power supply means coupled to the resistive coil for providing current of a desired direction and magnitude, so that energization of the resistive coil in the presence of the radial field component of the magnetic field of the superconductive coil creates an axial force on the movable coil, the direction and magnitude of which is dependent on the direction and magnitude of the current in the resistive coil.

  4. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    PubMed

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  5. Estimation of Prestress Force Distribution in Multi-Strand System of Prestressed Concrete Structures Using Field Data Measured by Electromagnetic Sensor.

    PubMed

    Cho, Keunhee; Cho, Jeong-Rae; Kim, Sung Tae; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Young-Hwan

    2016-08-18

    The recently developed smart strand can be used to measure the prestress force in the prestressed concrete (PSC) structure from the construction stage to the in-service stage. The higher cost of the smart strand compared to the conventional strand renders it unaffordable to replace all the strands by smart strands, and results in the application of only a limited number of smart strands in the PSC structure. However, the prestress forces developed in the strands of the multi-strand system frequently adopted in PSC structures differ from each other, which means that the prestress force in the multi-strand system cannot be obtained by simple proportional scaling using the measurement of the smart strand. Therefore, this study examines the prestress force distribution in the multi-strand system to find the correlation between the prestress force measured by the smart strand and the prestress force distribution in the multi-strand system. To that goal, the prestress force distribution was measured using electromagnetic sensors for various factors of the multi-strand system adopted on site in the fabrication of actual PSC girders. The results verified the possibility to assume normal distribution for the prestress force distribution per anchor head, and a method computing the mean and standard deviation defining the normal distribution is proposed. This paper presents a meaningful finding by proposing an estimation method of the prestress force based upon field-measured data of the prestress force distribution in the multi-strand system of actual PSC structures.

  6. Investigation and optimization of intraband electromagnetically induced transparency in strained InAs quantum dot/wetting layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvizi, R.; Rezaei, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, effects of the shape and size on the optical properties and optimization of the intersubband electromagnetically induced transparency in the Infra-red region of three-dimensional strained truncated pyramid-shaped InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) were investigated in detail. More precisely, within the density matrix approach, the probe absorption and group velocity along with the refractive index of the medium were studied with respect to their dependence on the dephasing rates and the Rabi frequencies of the probe and coupling fields for different QD heights and wetting layer (WL) thicknesses. It is found that the slow-down factors, group index, and absorption coefficient are inversely proportional to the width of the transparency window and proportional to the depth of the transparency window. The optimized transparency window can be achieved by varying the dot height and the WL thickness such that the tall dots with thin WL thickness induce significant enhancements at a fixed resonant peak position of Rabi frequency of the coupling field. The physical reasons behind these interesting phenomena were also explained based on the polarized features of intersubband transitions.

  7. Growth and Filling Regularities of Filamentary Channels in Non-Metallic Inorganic Coatings Under Anodic Oxidation of Valve Metals. Mathematical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamaev, A. I.; Mamaeva, V. A.; Kolenchin, N. F.; Chubenko, A. K.; Kovalskaya, Ya. B.; Dolgova, Yu. N.; Beletskaya, E. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Theoretical models are developed for growth and filling processes in filamentary channels of nanostructured non-metallic coatings produced by anodizing and microplasma oxidation. Graphical concentration distributions are obtained for channel-reacting anions, cations, and sparingly soluble reaction products depending on the time of electric current transmission and the length of the filamentary channel. Graphical distributions of the front moving velocity for the sparingly soluble compound are presented. The resulting model representation increases the understanding of the anodic process nature and can be used for a description and prediction of porous anodic film growth and filling. It is shown that the character of the filamentary channel growth and filling causes a variety of processes determining the textured metal - nonmetallic inorganic coating phase boundary formation.

  8. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  9. New results on the resistivity structure of Merapi Volcano(Indonesia), derived from 3D restricted inversion of long-offsettransient electromagnetic data

    SciTech Connect

    Commer, Michael; Helwig, Stefan, L.; Hordt, Andreas; Scholl,Carsten; Tezkan, Bulent

    2006-06-14

    Three long-offset transient electromagnetic (LOTEM) surveyswerecarried out at the active volcano Merapi in Central Java (Indonesia)during the years 1998, 2000, and 2001. The measurements focused on thegeneral resistivity structure of the volcanic edifice at depths of 0.5-2km and the further investigation of a southside anomaly. The measurementswere insufficient for a full 3D inversion scheme, which could enable theimaging of finely discretized resistivity distributions. Therefore, astable, damped least-squares joint-inversion approach is used to optimize3D models with a limited number of parameters. The mode ls feature therealistic simulation of topography, a layered background structure, andadditional coarse 3D blocks representing conductivity anomalies.Twenty-eight LOTEM transients, comprising both horizontal and verticalcomponents of the magnetic induction time derivative, were analyzed. Inview of the few unknowns, we were able to achieve reasonable data fits.The inversion results indicate an upwelling conductor below the summit,suggesting hydrothermal activity in the central volcanic complex. Ashallow conductor due to a magma-filled chamber, at depths down to 1 kmbelow the summit, suggested by earlier seismic studies, is not indicatedby the inversion results. In conjunction with an anomalous-density model,derived from arecent gravity study, our inversion results provideinformation about the southern geological structure resulting from amajor sector collapse during the Middle Merapi period. The density modelallows to assess a porosity range andthus an estimated vertical salinityprofile to explain the high conductivities on a larger scale, extendingbeyond the foothills of Merapi.

  10. Spheroidal Wave Functions in Electromagnetic Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Le-Wei; Kang, Xiao-Kang; Leong, Mook-Seng

    2001-11-01

    The flagship monograph addressing the spheroidal wave function and its pertinence to computational electromagnetics Spheroidal Wave Functions in Electromagnetic Theory presents in detail the theory of spheroidal wave functions, its applications to the analysis of electromagnetic fields in various spheroidal structures, and provides comprehensive programming codes for those computations. The topics covered in this monograph include: Spheroidal coordinates and wave functions Dyadic Green's functions in spheroidal systems EM scattering by a conducting spheroid EM scattering by a coated dielectric spheroid Spheroid antennas SAR distributions in a spheroidal head model The programming codes and their applications are provided online and are written in Mathematica 3.0 or 4.0. Readers can also develop their own codes according to the theory or routine described in the book to find subsequent solutions of complicated structures. Spheroidal Wave Functions in Electromagnetic Theory is a fundamental reference for scientists, engineers, and graduate students practicing modern computational electromagnetics or applied physics.

  11. Effect of nitrogen addition to ozone generation characteristics by diffuse and filamentary dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Naoki; Tsuji, Takafumi; Ogiso, Ryota; Yoshioka, Yoshio

    2017-05-01

    Ozone is widely used for gas treatment, advanced oxidation processes, microorganisms inactivation, etc. In this research, we investigated the effect of nitrogen addition to ozone generation characteristics by atmospheric pressure Townsend discharge (APTD) type and filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) type ozone generators. The result showed that the ozone generated by the filamentary DBD increases rapidly with the increase of O2 content, and is higher than that by the APTD. On the other hand, it is interesting that the ozone generated by the APTD gradually decreases with the increase of O2 content. In order to clarify why the characteristics of ozone generation by the two kinds of discharge modes showed different dependency to the N2 content, we analyzed the exhaust gas composition using FTIR spectroscopy and calculated the rate coefficients using BOLSIG+ code. As a result, we found that although O2 content decreased with increasing N2 content, additional O atoms produced by excited N2 molecules contribute to ozone generation in case of APTD. Contribution to the topical issue "The 15th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi and Tomáš Hoder

  12. Identification of the formation phases of filamentary damage induced by nanosecond laser pulses in bulk fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Chao; Xu, Zhongjie; Chambonneau, Maxime E-mail: jiangtian198611@163.com; Cheng, Xiang'ai; Jiang, Tian E-mail: jiangtian198611@163.com

    2015-09-14

    Employing a pump-probe polarization-based two-frame shadowgraphy setup, the formation of filamentary damage induced in bulk fused silica by a nanosecond pulse at 1064 nm is investigated with a picosecond probe. Three different phases are exhibited in the damage experiments. The first phase is the formation of a micrometric plasma channel along the laser direction during the beginning of the pulse likely caused by multi-photon ionization. This channel exhibits growth during ∼400 ps, and the newly grown plasma is discrete. Then, during the end of the pulse, this channel evolves into a tadpole-like morphology showing an elliptical head upstream the laser flux followed by a thin tail. This observed asymmetry is attributed to shielding effects caused by both the plasma and hot modified silica. Once the damage shows its almost final morphology, a last phase consists in the launch of a pressure wave enlarging it after the laser pulse. The physical mechanisms that might be involved in the formation of plasma channels are discussed. The experimental data are first confronted to the moving breakdown model which overestimates the filamentary damage length. Finally, taking into account the temporal shape of the laser pulses, the coupling between Kerr-induced self-focusing and stimulated Brillouin scattering is discussed to interpret the observations.

  13. Signatures of filamentary superconductivity in antiferromagnetic BaFe2As2 single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, D. A.; Yates, K. A.; Branford, W. R.; Sefat, Athena Safa; Mandrus, David; Stuard, S. J.; Salem-Sugui, S.; Cohen, L. F.

    2015-08-24

    In this paper, we present ac susceptibility and magnetotransport measurements on aged single crystals of the ferropnictide parent compound, BaFe2As2 with a paramagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic transition temperature of 134 K. The ac susceptibility shows the clear onset of a partial diamagnetic response with an onset temperature, commensurate with a subtle downturn in resistivity at approximately 20 K. Below 20 K the magnetotransport shows in-plane anisotropy, magnetic-field history dependence and a hysteretic signature. Above 20 K the crystals show the widely reported high-field linear magnetoresistance. An enhanced noise signature in ac susceptibility is observed above 20 K, which varies in character with amplitude and frequency of the ac signal. The hysteresis in magnetoresistance and the observed sensitivity of the superconducting phase to the amplitude of the ac signal are indicative characteristics of granular or weakly linked filamentary superconductivity. Furthermore, these features taken together with the observed noise signature above $T_{\\mathrm{c}}$ suggests a link between the formation of the superconducting filamentary phase and the freezing of antiphase domain walls, known to exist in these materials.

  14. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    DOEpatents

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  15. Design of pressure vessel cascades for electromagnetic launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenthold, E.P. )

    1989-08-01

    The relatively recent development of very high-energy density pulsed power supplies has motivated a renewed interest in the structural design of electromagnetic launchers. Cascade design electromagnetic launcher pressure vessels offer convenient maintenance access to high wear rate components of the structure while satisfying an unusual combination of electromagnetic, strength, and preloading constraints imposed on the system designer. This analysis for design of such structures focuses on the accurate characterization of fluid-structure interaction under dynamic asymmetric loading.

  16. [Sanitary specification by electromagnetic factor for radiofrequency transmitters].

    PubMed

    Buzov, A L; Kol'chugin, Iu I; Pal'tsev, Iu P; Romanov, V A

    2004-01-01

    The article represents structure and contents of sanitary specification by electromagnetic factor to unify radio transmitter. The authors determined requirements to calculate intensity of radio frequency electromagnetic rays and to complete calculations in sanitary specification. Complete information on calculation of radio frequency electromagnetic rays intensity should be stored in electronic carrier (diskette). Notion is that using software complex analyzing electromagnetic situation could resolve many problems and discrepancies in coordination of sanitary specification by State Sanitary and Epidemiologic Supervision.

  17. Determination of near-surface, crustal and lithospheric structures in the Canadian Precambrian Shield using time-domain electromagnetic and magnetotelluric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xianghong

    Two electromagnetic methods were used to analyse the geoelectric structure of the subsurface of regions of the Precambrian Shield in Canada: the magnetotelluric (MT) and time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) methods. Magnetotelluric soundings were made at 60 sites in the southwestern Northwest Territories, Canada, along the LITHOPROBE SNORCLE Transect Corridor 1 and 1A, in the summer of 1996. The sites are located in southwestern Northwest Territories, Canada, between latitudes 60°--65°N and longitudes 110°--125°W, and cross the Archean Slave Province, the Proterozoic Buffalo Head, Great Bear Magmatic Arc, Hottah, Fort Simpson and Nahanni terranes, and the Great Slave Lake Shear Zone. Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks overlie the Proterozoic terranes. The main object of this project is to map the fracture zones and fresh/saline water interface in Precambrian granitic rocks using the surface TEM method. The TEM surveys were completed at Sites B, D, URL and A. A GEONICS PROTEM47 system with a 100 m transmitter loop was used. The data were collected for receiver offsets ranging from 0--280 m on four sides of transmitter loop. Analysis of the TEM and borehole log data indicates a basic three-layer structure: a thin conductive surface layer, a thick resistive second layer with an embedded conductive layer at some stations, and a conductive bottom layer. The results of this study show the TEM method can be used to investigate the fracture zones and groundwater salinity distribution in the Precambrian granitic rocks and contribute to site investigations for nuclear waste deposit. The TEM study in the Lac du Bonnet Batholith was successful in demonstrating the potential of the TEM methods in mapping groundwater salinity in granitic batholith. The PROTEM47 instrument, in combination with a 100 m transmitter loop, provides a suitable TEM system for mapping the resistivity structure of the Lac du Bonnet batholith down to a depth of 300--400 m. For deeper penetration and more

  18. Comment on: Polar Plumes and Fine-scale Coronal Structures - On the Interpretation of Coronal Radio Sounding Data by Patzold and Bird

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, R.; Habbal, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Radio occultation measurements, which probe electron density over a wide dynamic range with high sensitivity and high spatial and temporal resolution reveal a solar corona permeated by a hierarchy of filamentary structures.

  19. Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are in the ionizing radiation part of the electromagnetic spectrum and can damage DNA or cells directly. Low- ... in the non-ionizing radiation part of the electromagnetic spectrum and are not known to damage DNA or ...

  20. Electromagnetic induction methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Electromagnetic induction geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use for agricultural purposes. Electromagnetic induction methods measure the electrical conductivity (or resistivity) for a bulk volume of soil directly beneath the surface. An instrument called a ground conductivity meter...

  1. Tiny Electromagnetic Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    This paper considers electromagnetic transients of a modest total energy ({ E }≳ {10}40 erg) and small initial size ({ R }≳ {10}-1 cm). They could be produced during collisions between relativistic field structures (e.g., macroscopic magnetic dipoles) that formed around or before cosmic electroweak symmetry breaking. The outflowing energy has a dominant electromagnetic component; a subdominant thermal component (temperature > 1 GeV) supplies inertia in the form of residual {e}+/- . A thin shell forms, expanding subluminally and attaining a Lorentz factor ˜ {10}6{--7} before decelerating. Drag is supplied by the reflection of an ambient magnetic field and deflection of ambient free electrons. Emission of low-frequency (GHz-THz) superluminal waves takes place through three channels: (i) reflection of the ambient magnetic field; (ii) direct linear conversion of the embedded magnetic field into a superluminal mode; and (iii) excitation outside the shell by corrugation of its surface. The escaping electromagnetic pulse is very narrow (a few wavelengths), so the width of the detected transient is dominated by propagation effects. GHz radio transients are emitted from (i) the dark matter halos of galaxies and (ii) the near-horizon regions of supermassive black holes that formed via direct gas collapse and now accrete slowly. Brighter and much narrower 0.01-1 THz pulses are predicted at a rate at least comparable to fast radio bursts, experiencing weaker scattering and absorption. The same explosions also accelerate protons up to ˜ {10}19 eV, and heavier nuclei up to 1020-21 eV.

  2. COHERENCE PROPERTIES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , COHERENT SCATTERING), (*COHERENT SCATTERING, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), LIGHT, INTERFERENCE, INTENSITY, STATISTICAL FUNCTIONS, QUANTUM THEORY, BOSONS, INTERFEROMETERS, CHINA

  3. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, A.

    1997-07-01

    The progress on the design and construction of the BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter including its mechanical structure, the readout system, the mechanical and optical properties of the crystals, and the schedule for the final assembly and testing is summarized.

  4. Electromagnetic Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajpai, Shrish; Asif, Siddiqui Sajida; Akhtar, Syed Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases.…

  5. Electromagnetic Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajpai, Shrish; Asif, Siddiqui Sajida; Akhtar, Syed Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases.…

  6. Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrain, Paul; Corson, Dale R.; Lorrain, Francois

    Based on the classic Electromagnetic Fields and Waves by the same authors, Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Phenomena capitalizes on the older text's traditional strengths--solid physics, inventive problems, and an experimental approach--while offering a briefer, more accessible introduction to the basic principles of electromagnetism.

  7. THE NATURE OF FILAMENTARY COLD GAS IN THE CORE OF THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, N.; Canning, R. E. A.; Allen, S. W.; Simionescu, A.; Von der Linden, A.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Kos, J.; Van Weeren, R. J.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Edge, A. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Ruszkowski, M.

    2013-04-20

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the emission-line nebulae located {approx}38'' (3 kpc in projection) southeast of the nucleus of M87, the central dominant galaxy of the Virgo Cluster. We report the detection of far-infrared (FIR) [C II] line emission at 158 {mu}m from the nebulae using observations made with the Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The infrared line emission is extended and co-spatial with optical H{alpha}+ [N II], far-ultraviolet C IV lines, and soft X-ray emission. The filamentary nebulae evidently contain multi-phase material spanning a temperature range of at least five orders of magnitude, from {approx}100 K to {approx}10{sup 7} K. This material has most likely been uplifted by the active galactic nucleus from the center of M87. The thermal pressure of the 10{sup 4} K phase appears to be significantly lower than that of the surrounding hot intracluster medium (ICM), indicating the presence of additional turbulent and magnetic pressure in the filaments. If the turbulence in the filaments is subsonic then the magnetic field strength required to balance the pressure of the surrounding ICM is B {approx} 30-70 {mu}G. The spectral properties of the soft X-ray emission from the filaments indicate that it is due to thermal plasma with kT {approx} 0.5-1 keV, which is cooling by mixing with the cold gas and/or radiatively. Charge exchange can be ruled out as a significant source of soft X-rays. Both cooling and mixing scenarios predict gas with a range of temperatures. This is at first glance inconsistent with the apparent lack of X-ray emitting gas with kT < 0.5 keV. However, we show that the missing very soft X-ray emission could be absorbed by the cold gas in the filaments with an integrated hydrogen column density of N{sub H} {approx} 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, providing a natural explanation for the apparent temperature floor to the X-ray emission at kT {approx} 0.5 keV. The FIR through ultraviolet

  8. Estimation of Prestress Force Distribution in Multi-Strand System of Prestressed Concrete Structures Using Field Data Measured by Electromagnetic Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Keunhee; Cho, Jeong-Rae; Kim, Sung Tae; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Young-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The recently developed smart strand can be used to measure the prestress force in the prestressed concrete (PSC) structure from the construction stage to the in-service stage. The higher cost of the smart strand compared to the conventional strand renders it unaffordable to replace all the strands by smart strands, and results in the application of only a limited number of smart strands in the PSC structure. However, the prestress forces developed in the strands of the multi-strand system frequently adopted in PSC structures differ from each other, which means that the prestress force in the multi-strand system cannot be obtained by simple proportional scaling using the measurement of the smart strand. Therefore, this study examines the prestress force distribution in the multi-strand system to find the correlation between the prestress force measured by the smart strand and the prestress force distribution in the multi-strand system. To that goal, the prestress force distribution was measured using electromagnetic sensors for various factors of the multi-strand system adopted on site in the fabrication of actual PSC girders. The results verified the possibility to assume normal distribution for the prestress force distribution per anchor head, and a method computing the mean and standard deviation defining the normal distribution is proposed. This paper presents a meaningful finding by proposing an estimation method of the prestress force based upon field-measured data of the prestress force distribution in the multi-strand system of actual PSC structures. PMID:27548172

  9. Status of FED/INTOR electromagnetics

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.G.

    1983-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the electromagnetic studies, calculations, and conclusions in the evolution of the base design of FED/INTOR (Fusion Engineering Device/International Tokamak Reactor). The electromagnetic feastures include the startup, control, disruptions, and design of structures. This report provides information concerning the evolution of the electromagnetic studies on FED and the justification for the eddy current design feature. The report shows that a major design feature required is the provision of a low induction and resistive path for toroidal currents to flow in the structures in order to provide self-stabilization and to manage the disruption energy dissipation.

  10. Intergalactic medium emission observations with the cosmic web imager. I. The circum-QSO medium of QSO 1549+19, and evidence for a filamentary gas inflow

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D. Christopher; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.

    2014-05-10

    The Palomar Cosmic Web Imager (PCWI), an integral field spectrograph designed to detect and map low surface brightness emission, has obtained imaging spectroscopic maps of Lyα from the circum-QSO medium (CQM) of QSO HS1549+19 at redshift z = 2.843. Extensive extended emission is detected from the CQM, consistent with fluorescent and pumped Lyα produced by the ionizing and Lyα continuum of the QSO. Many features present in PCWI spectral images match those detected in narrow-band images. Filamentary structures with narrow line profiles are detected in several cases as long as 250-400 kpc. One of these is centered at a velocity redshifted with respect to the systemic velocity, and displays a spatially collimated and kinematically cold line profile increasing in velocity width approaching the QSO. This suggests that the filament gas is infalling onto the QSO, perhaps in a cold accretion flow. Because of the strong ionizing flux, the neutral column density is low, typically N(H I)∼10{sup 12}--10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}, and the line center optical depth is also low (typically τ{sub 0} < 10), insufficient to display well separated double peak emission characteristic of higher line optical depths. With a simple ionization and cloud model we can very roughly estimate the total gas mass (log M {sub gas} = 12.5 ± 0.5) and the total (log M {sub tot} = 13.3 ± 0.5). We can also calculate a kinematic mass from the total line profile (2 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}), which agrees with the mass estimated from the gas emission. The intensity-binned spectrum of the CQM shows a progression in kinematic properties consistent with heirarchical structure formation.

  11. Numerical evidence of undriven, fast reconnection in the solar-wind interaction with earth's magnetosphere: formation of electromagnetic coherent structures.

    PubMed

    Faganello, M; Califano, F; Pegoraro, F

    2008-09-05

    We give evidence for the first time of the onset of undriven fast, collisionless magnetic reconnection during the evolution of an initially homogeneous magnetic field advected in a sheared velocity field. We consider the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetospheric plasma at low latitude and show that reconnection takes place in the layer between adjacent vortices generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. This process generates coherent magnetic structures with a size comparable to the ion inertial scale, much smaller than the system dimensions but much larger than the electron inertial scale. These magnetic structures are further advected in the plasma in a complex pattern but remain stable over a time interval much longer than their formation time. These results can be crucial for the interpretation of satellite data showing coherent magnetic structures in the Earth's magnetosheath or the magnetotail.

  12. Diamagnetic composite material structure for reducing undesired electromagnetic interference and eddy currents in dielectric wall accelerators and other devices

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Poole, Brian R.; Hawkins, Steven A.

    2015-06-30

    The devices, systems and techniques disclosed here can be used to reduce undesired effects by magnetic field induced eddy currents based on a diamagnetic composite material structure including diamagnetic composite sheets that are separated from one another to provide a high impedance composite material structure. In some implementations, each diamagnetic composite sheet includes patterned conductor layers are separated by a dielectric material and each patterned conductor layer includes voids and conductor areas. The voids in the patterned conductor layers of each diamagnetic composite sheet are arranged to be displaced in position from one patterned conductor layer to an adjacent patterned conductor layer while conductor areas of the patterned conductor layers collectively form a contiguous conductor structure in each diamagnetic composite sheet to prevent penetration by a magnetic field.

  13. Spatial structure of the electromagnetic field inside the ionospheric Alfvén resonator excited by atmospheric lightning activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyasov, A. A.; Surkov, V. V.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Fedorov, E. N.; Ignatov, V. N.

    2012-09-01

    We have theoretically estimated ULF spectra on the ground and at ionospheric altitudes in the frequency range of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR). The IAR has been considered to be excited either by a separate lightning stroke or stochastic global thunderstorm activity. The spectra of both horizontal magnetic and electric components are shown to reveal the spectral resonant structure in the upper ionosphere. The IAR excitation for different ionospheric conditions has been compared. The IAR eigenfrequencies latitudinal inhomogeneity results in the smoothing and shift of the spectral resonance structure. The feasibility of the IAR signature detection by low-orbiting satellites with magnetic or electric sensors is discussed.

  14. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  15. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism.

    PubMed

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment-all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, 'space-coiling' metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials ('meta-liquids'), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  16. Principles of electromagnetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kovetz, A.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book emphasizes the fundamental understanding of the laws governing the behavior of charge and current carrying bodies. Electromagnetism is presented as a classical theory, based-like mechanics-on principles that are independent of the atomic constitution of matter. This book is unique among electromagnetic texts in its treatment of the precise manner in which electromagnetism is linked to mechanics and thermodynamics. Applications include electrostriction, piezoelectricity, ferromagnetism, superconductivity, thermoelectricity, magnetohydrodynamics, radiation from charged particles, electromagnetic wave propagation and guided waves. There are many worked examples of dynamical and thermal effects of electromagnetic fields, and of effects resulting from the motion of bodies.

  17. Lanthanum and Neodymium Doped Barium Ferrite-TiO2/MCNTs/poly(3-methyl thiophene) Composites with Nest Structures: Preparation, Characterization and Electromagnetic Microwave Absorption Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Yu, Jian; Xie, Yu; Le, Zhanggao; Hong, Xiaowei; Ci, Suqin; Chen, Junhong; Qing, Xiaoyan; Xie, Weijie; Wen, Zhenhai

    2016-02-01

    We report herein the synthesis of a novel nest structured electromagnetic composite through in-situ chemical polymerization of 3-methyl thiophene (3MT) in the presence of the BaFe11.92(LaNd)0.04O19-TiO2 (BFTO) nanoparticles and MCNTs. As an absorbing material, the BFTO/MCNTs/P3MT/wax composites were prepared at various loadings of BFTO/MCNTs/P3MT (0.2:0.10:1.0 ~ 0.2:0.30:1.0), and they exhibited strong microwave absorption properties in the range of 1.0-18 GHz. When the loading of BFTO/MCNTs/P3MT is 0.2:0.30:1.0, the composite has a strongest absorbing peak at 11.04 GHz, and achieves a maximum absorbing value of -21.56 dB. The absorbing peak position moves to higher frequencies with the increase of MCNTs content. The mechanism for microwave absorption of these composites has been explained in detail.

  18. The influence of oscillating electromagnetic fields on membrane structure and function: Synthetic liposome and natural membrane bilayer systems with direct application to the controlled delivery of chemical agents

    SciTech Connect

    Liburdy, R.P.; de Manincor, D.; Fingado, B.

    1989-09-01

    Investigations have been conducted to determine if an imposed electromagnetic field can influence membrane transport, and ion and drug permeability in both synthetic and natural cell membrane systems. Microwave fields enhance accumulation of sodium in the lymphocyte and induce protein shedding at Tc. Microwaves also trigger membrane permeability of liposome systems under specific field exposure conditions. Sensitivity varies in a defined way in bilayers displaying a membrane structural phase transition temperature, Tc; maximal release was observed at or near Tc. Significantly, liposome systems without a membrane phase transition were also found to experience permeability increases but, in contrast, this response was temperature independent. The above results indicate that field-enhanced drug release occurs in liposome vesicles that possess a Tc as well as non-Tc liposomes. Additional studies extend non-Tc liposome responses to the in vivo case in which microwaves trigger Gentamicin release from a liposome depot'' placed subcutaneously in the rat hind leg. In addition, evidence is provided that cell surface sequestered liposomes can be triggered by microwave fields to release drugs directly into target cells. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Lanthanum and Neodymium Doped Barium Ferrite-TiO2/MCNTs/poly(3-methyl thiophene) Composites with Nest Structures: Preparation, Characterization and Electromagnetic Microwave Absorption Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie; Yu, Jian; Xie, Yu; Le, Zhanggao; Hong, Xiaowei; Ci, Suqin; Chen, Junhong; Qing, Xiaoyan; Xie, Weijie; Wen, Zhenhai

    2016-01-01

    We report herein the synthesis of a novel nest structured electromagnetic composite through in-situ chemical polymerization of 3-methyl thiophene (3MT) in the presence of the BaFe11.92(LaNd)0.04O19-TiO2 (BFTO) nanoparticles and MCNTs. As an absorbing material, the BFTO/MCNTs/P3MT/wax composites were prepared at various loadings of BFTO/MCNTs/P3MT (0.2:0.10:1.0 ~ 0.2:0.30:1.0), and they exhibited strong microwave absorption properties in the range of 1.0–18 GHz. When the loading of BFTO/MCNTs/P3MT is 0.2:0.30:1.0, the composite has a strongest absorbing peak at 11.04 GHz, and achieves a maximum absorbing value of −21.56 dB. The absorbing peak position moves to higher frequencies with the increase of MCNTs content. The mechanism for microwave absorption of these composites has been explained in detail. PMID:26857939

  20. Lanthanum and Neodymium Doped Barium Ferrite-TiO₂/MCNTs/poly(3-methyl thiophene) Composites with Nest Structures: Preparation, Characterization and Electromagnetic Microwave Absorption Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Yu, Jian; Xie, Yu; Le, Zhanggao; Hong, Xiaowei; Ci, Suqin; Chen, Junhong; Qing, Xiaoyan; Xie, Weijie; Wen, Zhenhai

    2016-02-09

    We report herein the synthesis of a novel nest structured electromagnetic composite through in-situ chemical polymerization of 3-methyl thiophene (3MT) in the presence of the BaFe11.92(LaNd)0.04O19-TiO2 (BFTO) nanoparticles and MCNTs. As an absorbing material, the BFTO/MCNTs/P3MT/wax composites were prepared at various loadings of BFTO/MCNTs/P3MT (0.2:0.10:1.0 ~ 0.2:0.30:1.0), and they exhibited strong microwave absorption properties in the range of 1.0-18 GHz. When the loading of BFTO/MCNTs/P3MT is 0.2:0.30:1.0, the composite has a strongest absorbing peak at 11.04 GHz, and achieves a maximum absorbing value of -21.56 dB. The absorbing peak position moves to higher frequencies with the increase of MCNTs content. The mechanism for microwave absorption of these composites has been explained in detail.

  1. Electromagnetic modeling of periodically-structured fiber-reinforced single-layer laminate with multiple fibers missing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.-C.; Li, C.-Y.; Lesselier, D.; Zhong, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of periodically-structured, fiber-reinforced laminates with fibers missing is investigated, this applying as well to similarly disorganized photonic crystals at optical frequencies. Parallel cylindrical fibers are periodically embedded within a layer sandwiched between two half-spaces. Absent fibers destroy the periodicity. The supercell concept involving an auxiliary periodic structure provides subsidiary solutions, wherein plane-wave illumination can be analyzed with the help of the Floquet theorem, while the field response due to a line source can be calculated from the pertinent plane-wave expansion. Accuracy, computational efficacy and versatility of the above approaches are illustrated by comprehensive numerical simulations with in particular comparisons to results provided by a finite-element code, all-purpose but computationally demanding, this work seen as the first step to the localization of missing fibers in a damaged laminate and imaging thereof.

  2. Research Investigation Directed Toward Extending the Useful Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. [atomic spectra and electronic structure of alkali metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, S. R.; Happer, W.

    1974-01-01

    The report discusses completed and proposed research in atomic and molecular physics conducted at the Columbia Radiation Laboratory from July 1972 to June 1973. Central topics described include the atomic spectra and electronic structure of alkali metals and helium, molecular microwave spectroscopy, the resonance physics of photon echoes in some solid state systems (including Raman echoes, superradiance, and two photon absorption), and liquid helium superfluidity.

  3. Core/shell-structured nickel/nitrogen-doped onion-like carbon nanocapsules with improved electromagnetic wave absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Niandu; Liu, Xianguo; Or, Siu Wing

    2016-05-01

    Core/shell-structured nickel/nitrogen-doped onion-like carbon (Ni/(C, N)) nanocapsules are synthesized by a modified arc-discharge method using N2 gas as the source of N atoms. Core/shell-structured Ni/C nanocapsules are also prepared for comparison. The Ni/(C, N) nanocapsules with diameters of 10-80 nm exhibit a clear core/shell structure. The doping of N atoms introduces more lattice defects into the (C, N) shells and creates more disorderly C in the (C, N) shells. This leads to a slight shift in the dielectric resonance peak to the lower frequency side and an increase in the dielectric loss tangent for the Ni/(C, N) nanocapsules in comparison with the Ni/C nanocapsules. The magnetic permeability of both types of nanocapsules remains almost unaltered since the N atoms exist only in the (C, N) shells. The reflection loss (RL) of the Ni/(C, N) nanocapsules not only reaches a high value of -35 dB at 13.6 GHz, but also is generally improved in the low-frequency S and C microwave bands covering 2-8 GHz as a result of the N-doping-induced additional dipolar polarization and dielectric loss from the (C, N) shells.

  4. CAFM investigations of filamentary conduction in Cu2O ReRAM devices fabricated using stencil lithography technique.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bharti; Mehta, B R; Varandani, Deepak; Savu, Andreea Veronica; Brugger, Juergen

    2012-12-14

    With the objective of understanding the role of size and current level of filamentary regions on the resistive switching parameters, detailed conductive atomic force microscope investigations of resistive memory cells having different dimensions have been carried out in this study. Cu-Cu(2)O-Ti memory cells having dimensions of 150, 50 and 25 μm have been fabricated on the same substrate using a stencil lithography technique. The dependence of resistive switching parameters on the device dimensions can be directly related to the average size, current level of the filaments and difference in these parameters between the low resistance state (LRS) and high resistance state (HRS). It is observed that the large increase in the ratio of current in the two states in cells having lower dimensions is mainly due to the smaller number of conducting regions in the HRS, indicating efficient switching from the LRS to the HRS at lower dimensions.

  5. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  6. Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental data were combined with one-dimensional conservation relations to yield information on the energy deposition ratio in a parallel-plate accelerator, where the downstream flow was confined to a constant area channel. Approximately 70% of the total input power was detected in the exhaust flow, of which only about 20% appeared as directed kinetic energy, thus implying that a downstream expansion to convert chamber enthalpy into kinetic energy must be an important aspect of conventional high power MPD arcs. Spectroscopic experiments on a quasi-steady MPD argon accelerator verified the presence of A(III) and the absence of A(I), and indicated an azimuthal structure in the jet related to the mass injection locations. Measurements of pressure in the arc chamber and impact pressure in the exhaust jet using a piezocrystal backed by a Plexiglas rod were in good agreement with the electromagnetic thrust model.

  7. Effects of Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Structures on Resistive-Wall-Mode Stability of Reversed Field Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Villone, F.

    2008-06-27

    In this Letter, the linear stability of the resistive wall modes (RWMs) in toroidal geometry for a reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma is studied. Three computational models are used: the cylindrical code ETAW, the toroidal MHD code MARS-F, and the CarMa code, able to take fully into account the effects of a three-dimensional conducting structure which mimics the real shell geometry of a reversed field pinch experimental device. The computed mode growth rates generally agree with experimental data. The toroidal effects and the three-dimensional features of the shell, like gaps, allow a novel interpretation of the RWM spectrum in RFP's and remove its degeneracy. This shows the importance of making accurate modeling of conductors for the RWM predictions also in future devices such as ITER.

  8. Effects of electromagnetic extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on the fine structure of the liver and gallbladder of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Larriva-Sahd, J; Angeles Angeles, A; Bosques, F; Robledo, J; Acosta, V; Castorena, G; Sánchez, C; Uribe, M

    1990-07-01

    The fine structure of the liver and gallbladder of rabbits submitted to lithotripsy was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Alterations found in both organs involved capilaries, venules and small veins as well as neighboring tissues. In the liver the most important alterations were seen in those areas located about central veins. These consisted in mitochondrial vacuolation, increase in the cytoplasmic electrondensity, and necrosis. In the gallbladder different stages of epithelial damage and regeneration (i.e. mitoses) were observed. Vascular damage was characterized by mitochondrial swollen and increase of nuclear and cytoplasmic electrondensities. The gallbladder's stroma displayed cell vacuolation, pyknosis, and edema. It is proposed that the damage produced by lithotripsy results from a direct colision of red blood cells upon blood vessels. Tissue damage was considered focal and in most cases reversible.

  9. Knots in electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrayás, M.; Bouwmeester, D.; Trueba, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Maxwell equations in vacuum allow for solutions with a non-trivial topology in the electric and magnetic field line configurations at any given moment in time. One example is a space filling congruence of electric and magnetic field lines forming circles lying on the surfaces of nested tori. In this example the electric, magnetic and Poynting vector fields are orthogonal everywhere. As time evolves the electric and magnetic fields expand and deform without changing the topology and energy, while the Poynting vector structure remains unchanged while propagating with the speed of light. The topology is characterized by the concept of helicity of the field configuration. Helicity is an important fundamental concept and for massless fields it is a conserved quantity under conformal transformations. We will review several methods by which linked and knotted electromagnetic (spin-1) fields can be derived. A first method, introduced by A. Rañada, uses the formulation of the Maxwell equations in terms of differential forms combined with the Hopf map from the three-sphere S3 to the two-sphere S2. A second method is based on spinor and twistor theory developed by R. Penrose in which elementary twistor functions correspond to the family of electromagnetic torus knots. A third method uses the Bateman construction of generating null solutions from complex Euler potentials. And a fourth method uses special conformal transformations, in particular conformal inversion, to generate new linked and knotted field configurations from existing ones. This fourth method is often accompanied by shifting singularities in the field to complex space-time points. Of course the various methods must be closely related to one another although they have been developed largely independently and they suggest different directions in which to expand the study of topologically non-trivial field configurations. It will be shown how the twistor formulation allows for a direct extension to massless

  10. Electromagnetic and Mechanical Analysis of the Coil Structure for the CLAS12 Torus for 12 GeV Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoshal, P. K.; Pastor, O.; Kashy, D.; Schneider, W.; Wiseman, M.; Zarecky, M.; Young, G.; Rode, C.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Burkert, V.

    2014-12-18

    The torus magnet for the CLAS12 spectrometer is a 3.6 T superconducting magnet being designed and built as part of the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade. The magnet consists of six coil case assemblies mounted to a cold central hub. The coil case assembly consists of an aluminum case and cover enclosing an epoxy vacuum impregnated coil pack. The coil pack consists of a 117 turn double-pancake winding wrapped with 2 layers of 0.635 mm thick copper cooling sheets. The coil case assembly is cooled by supercritical helium at 4.6 K. This report details the structural analysis of the coil case assembly and the assessment of the coil pack stresses. For the normal operation of the torus magnet, the coil case assembly was analyzed for cool down to 4.6 K and the Lorentz forces at normal operating current. In addition to the normal operating configuration, the coil case assembly was analyzed for Lorentz forces arising from coil misalignment and current imbalances. The allowable stress criteria for the magnet followed the approach of the ASME codes. Primary stresses were limited to the lesser of 2/3 times the yield strength or 1/3 times the ultimate tensile strength. Primary plus secondary stresses were limited to 3 times the primary stress allowable. The analysis was performed using ANSYS Maxwell to calculate the magneto-static loads and ANSYS Mechanical to calculate the stresses.

  11. Electromagnetic and Mechanical Analysis of the Coil Structure for the CLAS12 Torus for 12 GeV Upgrade

    DOE PAGES

    Ghoshal, P. K.; Pastor, O.; Kashy, D.; ...

    2014-12-18

    The torus magnet for the CLAS12 spectrometer is a 3.6 T superconducting magnet being designed and built as part of the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade. The magnet consists of six coil case assemblies mounted to a cold central hub. The coil case assembly consists of an aluminum case and cover enclosing an epoxy vacuum impregnated coil pack. The coil pack consists of a 117 turn double-pancake winding wrapped with 2 layers of 0.635 mm thick copper cooling sheets. The coil case assembly is cooled by supercritical helium at 4.6 K. This report details the structural analysis of the coilmore » case assembly and the assessment of the coil pack stresses. For the normal operation of the torus magnet, the coil case assembly was analyzed for cool down to 4.6 K and the Lorentz forces at normal operating current. In addition to the normal operating configuration, the coil case assembly was analyzed for Lorentz forces arising from coil misalignment and current imbalances. The allowable stress criteria for the magnet followed the approach of the ASME codes. Primary stresses were limited to the lesser of 2/3 times the yield strength or 1/3 times the ultimate tensile strength. Primary plus secondary stresses were limited to 3 times the primary stress allowable. The analysis was performed using ANSYS Maxwell to calculate the magneto-static loads and ANSYS Mechanical to calculate the stresses.« less

  12. Electromagnetic eigenstates and the field of an oscillating point electric dipole in a flat-slab composite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhi, Asaf; Bergman, David J.

    2016-06-01

    An exact calculation of the local electric field E (r ) is described for the case of a time-dependent point electric dipole p e-i ω t in the top layer of an ɛ2, ɛ1, ɛ2 three parallel slabs composite structure, where the ɛ1 layer has a finite thickness 2 d but the ɛ2 layers are infinitely thick. For this purpose we first calculate all the eigenstates of the full Maxwell equations for the case where μ =1 everywhere in the system. The eigenvalues appear as special, nonphysical values of ɛ1 when ɛ2 is given. These eigenstates are then used to develop an exact expansion for the physical values of E (r ) in the system characterized by physical values of ɛ1(ω ) and ɛ2(ω ) . Results are compared with those of a previous calculation of the local field of a time-dependent point charge in the quasistatic regime. Numerical results are shown for the local electric field in practically important configurations where attaining an optical image with subwavelength resolution has practical significance.

  13. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    PubMed

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating.

  14. Electromagnetic Radiation Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-10

    A methodology is given for determining whether electromagnetic radiation of sufficient strength to cause performance degradation to the test item...exists at the test item location. The results of an electromagnetic radiation effects test are used to identify the radio frequencies and electromagnetic ... radiation levels to which the test item is susceptible. Further, using a test bed, comparisons are made with the representative signal levels to

  15. Solidification Structure and Macrosegregation of Billet Continuous Casting Process with Dual Electromagnetic Stirrings in Mold and Final Stage of Solidification: A Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, D.; Zhu, M.

    2016-12-01

    Coupling macroscale heat transfer and fluid flow with microscale grain nucleation and crystal growth, a mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model was established to study the SWRT82B steel solidification structure and macrosegregation in 160 mm × 160 mm billet continuous casting with dual electromagnetic stirrings in mold and final stage of solidification (M-EMS and F-EMS). In the model, the phases of liquid, columnar, and equiaxed were treated separately and the initial growing equiaxed phase, which could move freely with liquid, was regarded as slurry. To obtain the equiaxed grains nucleation and columnar front evolution, the unit tracking method and the columnar front tracking model were built. The model was validated by magnetic induction intensity of stirrer, billet surface temperature, and carbon segregation. The equiaxed phase evolution and the solute transport with effect of fluid flow and grains transport were described in this article. The results show that the equiaxed phase ratio will not increase obviously with higher current intensity of M-EMS, while the negative segregation near the strand surface becomes more serious. The negative segregation zone near the billet center and the center positive segregation come into being with the effect of equiaxed grains sedimentation and liquid thermosolutal flow. It is also found that the liquid solute transport in the F-EMS zone becomes the main factor with higher current intensity rather than the solidification rate, and therefore, the final billet center segregation decreases first and then turns to rise with the current intensity. The optimal current intensities of M-EMS and F-EMS proposed for SWRT82B billet continuous casting are 200 and 400 A, respectively.

  16. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kees de Jager

    2004-08-01

    Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form factors (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form factors and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form factor.

  17. Structural and dynamic electromagnetic properties of Ni0.27 Cu0.10 Zn0.63 Alx Fe2-x O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossen, M. Belal; Hossain, A. K. M. Akther

    2015-08-01

    The influence of Al substitution on the structural and electromagnetic properties of Ni0.27Cu0.10Zn0.63AlxFe2 - xO4; (where x = 0.0 to x = 0.16 with step = 0.02) prepared by the combustion technique, has been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the presence of single phase cubic spinel structure without any secondary phase. The lattice constant, theoretical density, bulk density and average grain size decreases with increasing Al content. B-H loops have been traced for all the compositions and the various hysteresis parameters like saturation induction, coercivity, remanance, remanance ratio and power loss have been studied as a function of Al content. The saturation induction and the initial permeability increases with sintering temperature up to 1150 °C where the maximum bulk density is obtained, while for higher sintering temperature they decrease. The variation of complex initial permeability for Al substituted NiCuZn ferrites can be presented as a form of semicircle so called the Cole-Cole plot and the relaxation phenomena were explained with various shapes of the plots. The analysis of complex impedance spectra by an equivalent circuit model were used to separate the grain and grain boundary resistance of various Ni0.27 Cu0.10 Zn0.63 Alx Fe2 - x O4 . The impedance plot showed the first semicircle at high frequency which corresponds to grain effect and the second semicircle at lower frequency which corresponds to grain boundary (conduction phenomenon). Both grain and grain boundary resistance increases with increasing Al content and the relative increase of grain resistance is larger than the grain boundary resistance. The frequency dependent conductivity results support the double (Jonscher's modified) power law,σT (ω) = σ (o) +A1 ω n1 +A2 ω n2 , and the results showed evidence of three types of conduction process at room temperature: (i) low frequency conductivity is due to long-range ordering (frequency independent or its tendency

  18. Electromagnetically Operated Counter

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, H D; Goldberg, M I

    1951-12-18

    An electromagnetically operated counter wherein signals to be counted are applied to cause stepwise rotation of a rotatable element which is connected to a suitable register. The mechanism involved consists of a rotatable armature having three spaced cores of magnetic material and a pair of diametrically opposed electromagnets with a suitable pulsing circuit to actuate the magnets.

  19. Electromagnetic nonuniformly correlated beams.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhisong; Korotkova, Olga

    2012-10-01

    A class of electromagnetic sources with nonuniformly distributed field correlations is introduced. The conditions on source parameters guaranteeing that the source generates a physical beam are derived. It is shown that the new sources are capable of producing beams with polarization properties that evolve on propagation in a manner much more complex compared to the well-known electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams.

  20. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  1. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Schlueter, R.D.; Deis, G.A.

    1992-03-24

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles. 14 figs.

  2. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Schlueter, Ross D.; Deis, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles.

  3. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  4. Electromagnetic Structure of the Deuteron

    SciTech Connect

    Franz Gross

    2002-06-01

    Recent high energy measurements of elastic ed scattering support the use of a relativistic theory based on an accurate description of the NN channel, but theory needed for an understanding of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration cross sections and polarized observables is not yet mature.

  5. Computer Code Validation in Electromagnetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    modeling code. This user perception of validity is based on documentation, peer review, user experience and computer resource management. Keywords: Electromagnetic environment effects; Electromagnetic interference; Reprints. (jhd)

  6. Effect of Co doping on the transport critical current density of rapidly heat-treated filamentary (Nd,Sm,Gd)-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikebe, Y.; Awaji, S.; Ban, E.

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the effect of Co doping on the superconducting properties and microstructure of ternary (Nd0.33Sm0.33Gd0.33)1.18Ba2.12Cu3.09O7-δ (NSG123) filaments. Filamentary NSG123 superconductors chemically doped with a nominal Co concentration between 0 and 0.5 at% were prepared by a solution spinning method. Filamentary samples were partially melted at 1050 °C for 30 min and rapidly cooled to 910 °C at a rate of 60 °C h-1 under an atmosphere of flowing 0.1% O2 + Ar gas. The filamentary NSG123 superconductor with 0.05 at% Co exhibited a high critical current density (Jc) of 2.0 × 104 A cm-2, whereas the pure NSG123 sample exhibited a maximum transport Jc value of 3.0 × 103 A cm-2. Furthermore, the sample doped with 0.05 at% Co maintained a high transport Jc value of 4.5 × 103 A cm-2 under an applied magnetic field up to 17 T at 77 K, whereas the superconductivity of the pure sample disappeared at approximately 11 T. The Co-doped samples also exhibited low electrical resistivity at normal state compared to that of the pure sample. These results confirm that Co doping effectively enhances the Jc and connectivity in the microstructure of filamentary NSG123 samples subjected to a heat treatment with rapid cooling.

  7. Kinetics of density striations excited by powerful electromagnetic waves in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomin, Ya. N.; Leyser, T. B.

    2010-03-01

    One of the most important effects observed when pumping ionospheric plasma by powerful radio waves from the ground is the excitation of filamentary density striations that are stretched along the ambient geomagnetic field. The kinetics of the striations present in the pump electromagnetic field is studied theoretically. The density irregularities cause inhomogeneities in the pump field, which result in a ponderomotive force acting on the striations that makes the density depressions move perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. Striations moving with different velocities can collide, thereby merging to produce larger scale striations. The merging of striations constitutes a cascade process that distributes the energy over the spatial spectrum of the striations. The resulting inhomogeneity spectrum as well as the obtained outward radial drift of a few meters per second is consistent with experimental results.

  8. Time-resolved characterization of a filamentary argon discharge at atmospheric pressure in a capillary using emission and absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Sandra; Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Awakowicz, Peter; Bibinov, Nikita; Böke, Marc; Niermann, Benedikt; Winter, Jörg

    2013-11-01

    An argon/nitrogen (0.999/0.001) filamentary pulsed discharge operated at atmospheric pressure in a quartz tube is characterized using voltage-current measurements, microphotography, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and absorption spectroscopy. Nitrogen is applied as a sensor gas for the purpose of OES diagnostic. The density of argon metastable atoms Ar(3P2) is determined using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Using a plasma chemical model the measured OES data are applied for the characterization of the plasma conditions. Between intense positive pulses the discharge current oscillates with a damped amplitude. It is established that an electric current flows in this discharge not only through a thin plasma filament that is observed in the discharge image but also through the whole cross section of the quartz tube. A diffuse plasma fills the quartz tube during a time between intense current pulses. Ionization waves are propagating in this plasma between the spike and the grounded area of the tube producing thin plasma channels. The diameter of these channels increases during the pause between the propagation of ionization waves probably because of thermal expansion and diffusion. Inside the channels electron densities of ˜2 × 1013 cm-3, argon metastable densities ˜1014 cm-3 and a reduced electric field about 10 Td are determined.

  9. Properties of filamentary sublimation residues from dispersions of clay in ice. [on Martian poles, comet nuclei, and icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Parker, T. J.; Stephens, J. B.; Fanale, F. P.; Sutton, S.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from experimental studies of the formation of ice mixed with mineral particles in an effort to simulate similar processes on natural surfaces such as at the Martian poles, on comet nuclei and on icy satellites. The study consisted of low-pressure, low-temperature sublimations of water ice from dilutions of water-clay (montmorillonite and Cabosil) dispersions of various component ratios. Liquid dispersions were sprayed into liquid nitrogen to form droplets at about -50 C. Both clay-water dispersions left a filamentary residue on the bottom of the Dewar after the water ice had sublimated off. The residue was studied with optical and SEM microscopy, the latter method revealing a high electrical conductivity in the residue. The results suggest that the sublimation of the water ice can leave a surface crust, which may be analogous to processes at the Martian poles and on comet nuclei. The process could proceed by the attachment of water molecules to salt crystals during the hottest part of the Martian year. The residue remaining was found to remain stable up to 370 C, be porous, and remain resilient, which could allow it to insulate ice bodies such as comets in space.

  10. Evidence of Filamentary Switching in Oxide-based Memory Devices via Weak Programming and Retention Failure Analysis.

    PubMed

    Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei; Li, Sean

    2015-09-01

    Further progress in high-performance microelectronic devices relies on the development of novel materials and device architectures. However, the components and designs that are currently in use have reached their physical limits. Intensive research efforts, ranging from device fabrication to performance evaluation, are required to surmount these limitations. In this paper, we demonstrate that the superior bipolar resistive switching characteristics of a CeO2:Gd-based memory device can be manipulated by means of UV radiation, serving as a new degree of freedom. Furthermore, the metal oxide-based (CeO2:Gd) memory device was found to possess electrical and neuromorphic multifunctionalities. To investigate the underlying switching mechanism of the device, its plasticity behaviour was studied by imposing weak programming conditions. In addition, a short-term to long-term memory transition analogous to the forgetting process in the human brain, which is regarded as a key biological synaptic function for information processing and data storage, was realized. Based on a careful examination of the device's retention behaviour at elevated temperatures, the filamentary nature of switching in such devices can be understood from a new perspective.

  11. Evidence of Filamentary Switching in Oxide-based Memory Devices via Weak Programming and Retention Failure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei; Li, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Further progress in high-performance microelectronic devices relies on the development of novel materials and device architectures. However, the components and designs that are currently in use have reached their physical limits. Intensive research efforts, ranging from device fabrication to performance evaluation, are required to surmount these limitations. In this paper, we demonstrate that the superior bipolar resistive switching characteristics of a CeO2:Gd-based memory device can be manipulated by means of UV radiation, serving as a new degree of freedom. Furthermore, the metal oxide-based (CeO2:Gd) memory device was found to possess electrical and neuromorphic multifunctionalities. To investigate the underlying switching mechanism of the device, its plasticity behaviour was studied by imposing weak programming conditions. In addition, a short-term to long-term memory transition analogous to the forgetting process in the human brain, which is regarded as a key biological synaptic function for information processing and data storage, was realized. Based on a careful examination of the device’s retention behaviour at elevated temperatures, the filamentary nature of switching in such devices can be understood from a new perspective. PMID:26324073

  12. MMS Observations of Electron-Scale Filamentary Currents in the Reconnection Exhaust and Near the X Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, T. D.; Eastwood, J. P.; Cassak, P. A.; Oieroset, M.; Gosling, J. T.; Gershman, D. J.; Mozer, F. S.; Shay, M. A.; Fujimoto, M.; Daughton, W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of macroscopic and electron-scale current layers in asymmetric reconnection. By intercomparing plasma, magnetic, and electric field data at multiple crossings of a reconnecting magnetopause on 22 October 2015, when the average interspacecraft separation was approximately 10 km, we demonstrate that the ion and electron moments are sufficiently accurate to provide reliable current density measurements at 30ms cadence. These measurements, which resolve current layers narrower than the interspacecraft separation, reveal electron-scale filamentary Hall currents and electron vorticity within the reconnection exhaust far downstream of the X line and even in the magnetosheath. Slightly downstream of the X line, intense (up to 3 µA/m2) electron currents, a super-Alfvenic outflowing electron jet, and nongyrotropic crescent shape electron distributions were observed deep inside the ion-scale magnetopause current sheet and embedded in the ion diffusion region. These characteristics are similar to those attributed to the electron dissipation/diffusion region around the X line.

  13. Determination of the electric field strength of filamentary DBDs by CARS-based four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, P.; Kettlitz, M.; Brandenburg, R.; Höft, H.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2016-10-01

    It is demonstrated that a four-wave mixing technique based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) can determine the electric field strength of a pulsed-driven filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) of 1 mm gap, using hydrogen as a tracer medium in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. The measurements are presented for a hydrogen admixture of 10%, but even 5% H2 admixture delivers sufficient infrared signals. The lasers do not affect the discharge by photoionization or by other radiation-induced processes. The absolute values of the electric field strength can be determined by the calibration of the CARS setup with high voltage amplitudes below the ignition threshold of the arrangement. This procedure also enables the determination of the applied breakdown voltage. The alteration of the electric field is observed during the internal polarity reversal and the breakdown process. One advantage of the CARS technique over emission-based methods is that it can be used independently of emission, e.g. in the pre-phase and in between two consecutive discharges, where no emission occurs at all.

  14. Evidence of Filamentary Switching in Oxide-based Memory Devices via Weak Programming and Retention Failure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei; Li, Sean

    2015-09-01

    Further progress in high-performance microelectronic devices relies on the development of novel materials and device architectures. However, the components and designs that are currently in use have reached their physical limits. Intensive research efforts, ranging from device fabrication to performance evaluation, are required to surmount these limitations. In this paper, we demonstrate that the superior bipolar resistive switching characteristics of a CeO2:Gd-based memory device can be manipulated by means of UV radiation, serving as a new degree of freedom. Furthermore, the metal oxide-based (CeO2:Gd) memory device was found to possess electrical and neuromorphic multifunctionalities. To investigate the underlying switching mechanism of the device, its plasticity behaviour was studied by imposing weak programming conditions. In addition, a short-term to long-term memory transition analogous to the forgetting process in the human brain, which is regarded as a key biological synaptic function for information processing and data storage, was realized. Based on a careful examination of the device’s retention behaviour at elevated temperatures, the filamentary nature of switching in such devices can be understood from a new perspective.

  15. Mapping hydrogeophysical structures with time--domain electromagnetic methods: Resolving small-scale details with large loops and three--component measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, C. J.; Li, Y.; Nabighian, M.

    2004-12-01

    One of the outstanding problems in managing water resources in geologically complex aquifers is to develop improved techniques for mapping compartmentalization due to faulting. And although the role of faults in aquifer dynamics can vary considerably, knowledge of their location is key to understanding aquifer recharge and developing a sensible model for predicting aquifer response due to anthropogenic loads. We have explored the application of time--domain electromagnetic methods for mapping shallow aquifer faults on the western flanks of the Estancia Basin, central New Mexico. The field site is underlain by massive Pennsylvanian limestones (Madera Group) subsequently faulted by Laramide tectonics of the Ancestral Rockies and Neogene extension of the Rio Grande Rift. Two experimental configurations were deployed: a large 50 × 40 m transmitter loop with receiver stations located on a 5 m grid over the loop's interior; and an azimuthal survey consisting of a smaller fixed transmitter with receiver stations at ˜2 m intervals along a 30 m radius circle centered on the transmitter. Three--component transients of magnetic field due to a fast linear ramp--off in the transmitter were recorded at each station. As a rapid reconnaisance tool, the azimuthal experiment is well--suited for identification of subsurface fault planes since symmetry constraints require a vanishing azimuthal ̂ φ component of magnetic field when the electrical strike, or fault plane, lies in the ̂ φ direction. However, each of the experimental configurations revealed that the site's electrical structure is far more three--dimensional than previously believed and is not dominated by the response of a previously identified fault plane. Instead, we have observed spatially coherent transient signals which may indicate compartmentalization over length scales as small as a few tens of meters. Sections of this work were performed at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multi--program laboratory

  16. Controlling the Electromagnetic Field Confinement with Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bonache, Jordi; Zamora, Gerard; Paredes, Ferran; Zuffanelli, Simone; Aguilà, Pau; Martín, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    The definition of a precise illumination region is essential in many applications where the electromagnetic field should be confined in some specific volume. By using conventional structures, it is difficult to achieve an adequate confinement distance (or volume) with negligible levels of radiation leakage beyond it. Although metamaterial structures and metasurfaces are well-known to provide high controllability of their electromagnetic properties, this feature has not yet been applied to solve this problem. We present a method of electromagnetic field confinement based on the generation of evanescent waves by means of metamaterial structures. With this method, the confinement volume can be controlled, namely, it is possible to define a large area with an intense field without radiation leakage. A prototype working in the microwave region has been implemented, and very good agreement between the measurements and the theoretical prediction of field distribution has been obtained. PMID:27886230

  17. Controlling the Electromagnetic Field Confinement with Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonache, Jordi; Zamora, Gerard; Paredes, Ferran; Zuffanelli, Simone; Aguilà, Pau; Martín, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    The definition of a precise illumination region is essential in many applications where the electromagnetic field should be confined in some specific volume. By using conventional structures, it is difficult to achieve an adequate confinement distance (or volume) with negligible levels of radiation leakage beyond it. Although metamaterial structures and metasurfaces are well-known to provide high controllability of their electromagnetic properties, this feature has not yet been applied to solve this problem. We present a method of electromagnetic field confinement based on the generation of evanescent waves by means of metamaterial structures. With this method, the confinement volume can be controlled, namely, it is possible to define a large area with an intense field without radiation leakage. A prototype working in the microwave region has been implemented, and very good agreement between the measurements and the theoretical prediction of field distribution has been obtained.

  18. Broadband electromagnetic analysis of compacted kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Cai, Caifang; Scheuermann, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical compaction of soil influences not only the mechanical strength and compressibility but also the hydraulic behavior in terms of hydraulic conductivity and soil suction. At the same time, electric and dielectric parameters are increasingly used to characterize soil and to relate them with mechanic and hydraulic parameters. In the presented study electromagnetic soil properties and suction were measured under defined conditions of standardized compaction tests. The impact of external mechanical stress conditions of nearly pure kaolinite was analyzed on soil suction and broadband electromagnetic soil properties. An experimental procedure was developed and validated to simultaneously determine mechanical, hydraulic and broadband (1 MHz-3 GHz) electromagnetic properties of the porous material. The frequency dependent electromagnetic properties were modeled with a classical mixture equation (advanced Lichtenecker and Rother model, ALRM) and a hydraulic-mechanical-electromagnetic coupling approach was introduced considering water saturation, soil structure (bulk density, porosity), soil suction (pore size distribution, water sorption) as well as electrical conductivity of the aqueous pore solution. Moreover, the relaxation behavior was analyzed with a generalized fractional relaxation model concerning a high-frequency water process and two interface processes extended with an apparent direct current conductivity contribution. The different modeling approaches provide a satisfactory agreement with experimental data for the real part. These results show the potential of broadband electromagnetic approaches for quantitative estimation of the hydraulic state of the soil during densification.

  19. Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the axial velocity profile and electromagnetic structure of a high power, quasi-steady MPD discharge are used to formulate a gasdynamic model of the acceleration process. Conceptually dividing the accelerated plasma into an inner flow and an outer flow, it is found that more than two-thirds of the total power in the plasma is deposited in the inner flow, accelerating it to an exhaust velocity of 12.5 km/sec. The outer flow, which is accelerated to a velocity of only 6.2 km/sec, appears to provide a current conduction path between the inner flow and the anode. Related cathode studies have shown that the critical current for the onset of terminal voltage fluctuations, which was recently shown to be a function of the cathode area, appears to reach an asymptote for cathodes of very large surface area. Detailed floating potential measurements show that the fluctuations are confined to the vicinity of the cathode and hence reflect a cathode emission process rather than a fundamental limit on MPD performance.

  20. Device and method for redirecting electromagnetic signals

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    1999-01-01

    A device fabricated to redirect electromagnetic signals, the device including a primary driver adapted to provide a predetermined force, a linkage system coupled to the primary driver, a pusher rod rotationally coupled to the linkage system, a flexible rod element attached to the pusher rod and adapted to buckle upon the application of the predetermined force, and a mirror structure attached to the flexible rod element at one end and to the substrate at another end. When the predetermined force buckles the flexible rod element, the mirror structure and the flexible rod element both move to thereby allow a remotely-located electromagnetic signal directed towards the device to be redirected.