Rethinking Faraday's Law for Teaching Motional Electromotive Force
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; Michelini, Marisa; Santi, Lorenzo
2012-01-01
This study shows physicists' discussions on the meaning of Faraday's law where situations involving extended conductors or moving contact points are particularly troublesome. We raise questions to test students' difficulties in applying Faraday's law in motional electromotive force phenomena. We suggest the benefit of analysing these phenomena…
Ohshima, Ryo; Emoto, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Teruya; Ando, Yuichiro; Shiraishi, Masashi
2015-05-07
Temperature evolution of electromotive force from Pt due to the inverse spin Hall effect is studied. Pure spin current is injected from yttrium-iron-garnet by using spin pumping technique. The electromotive force from the Pt monotonically decreases with decreasing temperature, and it is showed that there is a deviation between the measured and the calculated electromotive forces.
Thermo-Electromotive Force and Electrical Resistivity of Hydrogenated VT1-0 Titanium Alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lider, A.; Larionov, V.; Kroening, M.; Kudiiarov, V.
2016-06-01
The method for measuring the structure transition of hydrogenated titanium from one state to another is suggested. The method is based on the comparison of thermo-electromotive force (thermo-emf), DC electrical resistance and the results of X-ray diffraction analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis is applied for identifying the quantity of defects in titanium structure. The authors have also identified the identical dependence of thermo-electromotive force and electrical resistivity on hydrogen concentration in titanium. The effect can be used for hydrogenated titanium structure control.
Emergence of electromotive force in precession-less rigid motion of deformed domain wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farajollahpour, Tohid; Darmiani, Narges; Phirouznia, Arash
2016-08-01
Recently it has been recognized that the electromotive force (emf) can be induced just by the spin precession where the generation of the electromotive force has been considered as a real-space topological pumping effect. It has been shown that the amount of the electromotive force is independent of the functionality of the localized moments. It was also demonstrated that the rigid domain wall (DW) motion cannot generate electromotive force in the system. Based on real-space topological pumping approach in the current study we show that the electromotive force can be induced by rigid motion of a deformed DW. We also demonstrate that the generated electromotive force strongly depends on the DW bulging. Meanwhile results show that the DW bulging leads to generation of the electromotive force both along the axis of the DW motion and normal to the direction of motion.
Electromotive force due to magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in sheared rotating turbulence
Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2015-11-02
Here, this article presents a calculation of the mean electromotive force arising from general small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence, within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. With the goal of improving understanding of the accretion disk dynamo, effects arising through small-scale magnetic fluctuations, velocity gradients, density and turbulence stratification, and rotation, are included. The primary result, which supplements numerical findings, is that an off-diagonal turbulent resistivity due to magnetic fluctuations can produce large-scale dynamo action-the magnetic analog of the "shear-current" effect. In addition, consideration of alpha effects in the stratified regions of disks gives the puzzling result that there is no strong prediction for a sign of alpha, since the effects due to kinetic and magnetic fluctuations, as well as those due to shear and rotation, are each of opposing signs and tend to cancel each other.
Electromotive force due to magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in sheared rotating turbulence
Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2015-11-02
Here, this article presents a calculation of the mean electromotive force arising from general small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence, within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. With the goal of improving understanding of the accretion disk dynamo, effects arising through small-scale magnetic fluctuations, velocity gradients, density and turbulence stratification, and rotation, are included. The primary result, which supplements numerical findings, is that an off-diagonal turbulent resistivity due to magnetic fluctuations can produce large-scale dynamo action-the magnetic analog of the "shear-current" effect. In addition, consideration of alpha effects in the stratified regions of disks gives the puzzling result that there is nomore » strong prediction for a sign of alpha, since the effects due to kinetic and magnetic fluctuations, as well as those due to shear and rotation, are each of opposing signs and tend to cancel each other.« less
Electromotive force due to magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in sheared rotating turbulence.
Squire, J; Bhattacharjee, A
2015-11-01
This article presents a calculation of the mean electromotive force arising from general small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence, within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. With the goal of improving understanding of the accretion disk dynamo, effects arising through small-scale magnetic fluctuations, velocity gradients, density and turbulence stratification, and rotation, are included. The primary result, which supplements numerical findings, is that an off-diagonal turbulent resistivity due to magnetic fluctuations can produce large-scale dynamo action-the magnetic analog of the "shear-current" effect. In addition, consideration of α effects in the stratified regions of disks gives the puzzling result that there is no strong prediction for a sign of α, since the effects due to kinetic and magnetic fluctuations, as well as those due to shear and rotation, are each of opposing signs and tend to cancel each other. PMID:26651796
The Mean Electromotive Force Resulting from Magnetic Buoyancy Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, C. R.; Hughes, D. W.
2011-02-01
Motivated both by considerations of the generation of large-scale astrophysical magnetic fields and by potential problems with mean magnetic field generation by turbulent convection, we investigate the mean electromotive force (emf) resulting from the magnetic buoyancy instability of a rotating layer of stratified magnetic field, considering both unidirectional and sheared fields. We discuss why the traditional decomposition into α and β effects is inappropriate in this case, and that it is only consideration of the entire mean emf that is meaningful. By considering a weighted average of the unstable linear eigenmodes, and averaging over the horizontal plane, we obtain depth-dependent emfs. For the simplified case of isothermal, ideal MHD, we are able to obtain an analytic expression for the emf; more generally, the emf has to be determined numerically. We calculate how the emf depends on the various parameters of the problem, particularly the rotation rate and the latitude of the magnetic layer.
An Electromotive Force Measurement System for Alloy Fuels
Changhu Xing; Colby Jensen; Heng Ban; Robert Mariani; J. Rory Kennedy
2010-11-01
The development of advanced nuclear fuels requires a better understanding of the transmutation and micro-structural evolution of the materials. Alloy fuels have the advantage of high thermal conductivity and improved characteristics in fuel-cladding chemical reaction. However, information on thermodynamic and thermophysical properties is limited. The objective of this project is to design and build an experimental system to measure the thermodynamic properties of solid materials from which the understanding of their phase change can be determined. The apparatus was used to measure the electromotive force (EMF) of several materials in order to calibrate and test the system. The EMF of chromel was measured from 100°C to 800°C and compared with theoretical values. Additionally, the EMF measurement of Ni-Fe alloy was performed and compared with the Ni-Fe phase diagram. The prototype system is to be modified eventually and used in a radioactive hot-cell in the future.
Electromotive force due to magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in sheared rotating turbulence
Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2015-11-01
This article presents a calculation of the mean electromotive force arising from general small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence, within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. With the goal of improving understanding of the accretion disk dynamo, effects arising through small-scale magnetic fluctuations, velocity gradients, density and turbulence stratification, and rotation, are included. The primary result, which supplements numerical findings, is that an off-diagonal turbulent resistivity due to magnetic fluctuations can produce large-scale dynamo action-the magnetic analog of the "shear-current" effect. In addition, consideration of alpha effects in the stratified regions of disks gives the puzzling result that there is no strong prediction for a sign of alpha, since the effects due to kinetic and magnetic fluctuations, as well as those due to shear and rotation, are each of opposing signs and tend to cancel each other.
Probing university students' understanding of electromotive force in electricity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garzón, Isabel; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; van Kampen, Paul; Guisasola, Jenaro
2014-01-01
The goal of this study is to identify students' difficulties with learning the concepts of electromotive force (emf) and potential difference in the context of transitory currents and resistive direct-current circuits. To investigate these difficulties, we developed a questionnaire based on an analysis of the theoretical and epistemological framework of physics, which was then administered to first-year engineering and physics students at universities in Spain, Colombia, and Belgium. The results of the study show that student difficulties seem to be strongly linked to the absence of an analysis of the energy balance within the circuit and that most university students do not clearly understand the usefulness of and the difference between the concepts of potential difference and emf.
An electromotive force series in a borosilicate glass-forming melt
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schreiber, H. D.; Balazs, G. B.; Carpenter, B. E.; Kirkley, J. E.; Minnix, L. M.; Jamison, P. L.
1984-01-01
An electromotive force series for redox couples was defined as a function of oxygen fugacity in a borosilicate melt at 1150 C. The resulting order of relative reduction potentials can be used to estimate the amounts of redox species in glass during processing. The electromotive force series in this melt is comparable to those in other silicate glass-forming melts and in aqueous systems but differs in detail because of interaction of the solvents with individual redox couples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patiño Lopez, Luis-David; Dilhaire, Stefan; Grauby, Stéphane; Amine Salhi, M.; Ezzahri, Younès; Claeys, Wilfrid; Batsale, Jean-Christophe
2005-05-01
An in-depth study related to a new method of characterizing properties in thermoelectrics is proposed in this paper. This technique is appropriate for single or multi-layered thermoelectric devices. A modulated laser beam is used as a heater in order to generate a Seebeck electromotive force (EMF). The laser beam, line shaped, can be focused at any location along the sample surface, allowing spatially resolved measurements. Seebeck EMF measurements, associated with a versatile model based on the thermal quadrupoles method, allow determination of the sample Seebeck EMF profile and identifying of the sample thermal contact resistances, and should be useful for identification of devices and material thermoelectric properties.
Thermodynamic properties of liquid Au–Cu–Sn alloys determined from electromotive force measurements
Guo, Zhongnan; Hindler, Michael; Yuan, Wenxia; Mikula, Adolf
2011-01-01
The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Au–Cu–Sn system were determined with the electromotive force (EMF) method using a liquid electrolyte. Three different cross-sections with constant Au:Cu ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 were applied to measure the thermodynamic properties of the ternary system in the temperature range between the liquidus temperature of the alloys and 1023 K. The partial free energies of Sn in liquid Au–Cu–Sn alloys were obtained from EMF data. The integral Gibbs free energy and the integral enthalpy at 900 K were calculated by Gibbs–Duhem integration. The ternary interaction parameters were evaluated using the Redlich–Kister–Muggianu polynomial. PMID:22039311
Experimental Study of a Single-Coil Induced-Electromotive-Force Plasma Accelerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matthews, Clarence W.; Cuddihy, William F.
1961-01-01
An experimental study was made of a single-coil induced-electromotive-force plasma accelerator which used a capacitor discharge for the driving force. A strong shock was observed from the first pulse with a velocity of 10(exp 6) centimeters per second. This shock was followed by three or four discharges which produced plasmoids moving at about 5 x 10(exp 6) centimeters per second. The efficiency of the accelerator was estimated to be about 3 percent in the production of the high-velocity plasmoids. Suggestions are made for the improvement of this type of accelerator.
Dember and photo-electromotive-force currents in silicon photoconductive detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dikmelik, Yamaç; Davidson, Frederic M.
2004-09-01
Dember and photo-electromotive-force (PEMF) currents are investigated in silicon photoconductive detectors both theoretically and experimentally. Dember photocurrents were found to dominate the response of high-purity silicon samples with top-surface electrodes to a moving interference pattern. The use of surface electrodes leads to shadowed regions beneath the electrodes, and Dember photocurrents appear under short-circuit conditions. A single-charge-carrier model of the Dember effect is in good qualitative agreement with experimental results. We also show theoretically that the PEMF effect in silicon is weak compared with other semiconductors because of its relatively high intrinsic conductivity.
The nonequilibrium electromotive force. I. Measurements in a continuously stirred tank reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keizer, Joel; Chang, On-Kok
1987-10-01
Based on a statistical thermodynamic theory, it has been predicted [J. Keizer, J. Chem. Phys. 82, 2751 (1985)] that at nonequilibrium steady states the electromotive force (EMF) of an electrochemical cell will differ from the local equilibrium value given by the Nernst equation. We describe here experiments designed to test this prediction for aqueous solutions of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in sulfate buffer. Using a continuously stirred tank reactor driven by a peristaltic pump, a feed solution containing Fe2+ and Fe3+ was mixed with a second feed solution containing the oxidant sodium peroxydisulfate Na2S2O8. The reaction leads to a steady nonequilibrium mixture, which at acidic pH in sulfate buffer is composed of Fe2+ and the ferric sulfate complexes FeSO+4 and Fe(SO4)-2. The EMF of this half-cell was measured vs a saturated calomel reference electrode as a function of residence time in the reactor. These potentials were compared to the Nernst potential calculated on the basis of the concentration ratio of Fe2+ to total Fe3+ at the steady states. The Nernst potential was reproducibly larger than the measured EMF by values that depended on the concentration ratio of Fe2+/Fe3+ in the feed solution and the residence time. The largest deviations were -1.8 mV, which occurred when the Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio was small and the residence time was about 40 s. We have ruled out streaming potentials, junction potentials, and incomplete mixing as the origin of this effect. We show that the dependence of the nonequilibrium portion of the EMF on feed concentrations and residence time is in good agreement with calculations based on methods that are described in the second paper in this series.
Fluctuations of the proton-electromotive force across the inner mitochondrial membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Procopio, Joaquim; Fornés, José A.
1997-05-01
The intermembrane mitochondrial space (IMMS) is delimited by the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes and defines a region of molecular dimension where fluctuations of the number of free protons and of transmembrane voltage can give rise to fluctuations in the proton-electromotive force EPMF across the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). We have applied the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to an electrical equivalent circuit consisting of a resistor Rm in parallel with a capacitor Cm representing the passive electrical properties of the IMM, in series with another capacitor Cb representing the proton-buffering power of the IMMS fluid. An access resistance Ra was defined as a link between the capacitor Cb and the membrane. Average EPMF fluctuations across the IMM were calculated for different assumptions concerning the intermembrane space dimensions. The calculated average EPMF fluctuations were in the vicinity of 100 mV for relaxation times in the few-microseconds range. The corresponding fluctuational protonic free energy is about 10 kJ/mole, which is comparable to the binding energy for protons in different transporters. This suggests that fluctuations in EPMF can be of relevance in the universe of forces influencing the molecular machinery embedded in the IMM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rüdiger, G.; Küker, M.
2016-07-01
Motivated by the empirical finding that the known hemispheric rules for the current helicity at the solar surface are not strict, we demonstrate the excitation of small-scale current helicity by the influence of large-scale helical magnetic background fields on nonrotating magnetoconvection. This is shown within a quasilinear analytic theory of driven turbulence and by nonlinear simulations of magnetoconvection that the resulting small-scale current helicity has the same sign as the large-scale current helicity, while the ratio of both pseudoscalars is of the order of the magnetic Reynolds number of the convection. The same models do not provide finite values of the small-scale kinetic helicity. On the other hand, a turbulence-induced electromotive force is produced including the diamagnetic pumping term, as well as the eddy diffusivity but, however, no α effect. It has thus been argued that the relations for the simultaneous existence of small-scale current helicity and α effect do not hold for the model of nonrotating magnetoconvection under consideration. Calculations for various values of the magnetic Prandtl number demonstrate that, for the considered diffusivities, the current helicity increases for growing magnetic Reynolds number, which is not true for the velocity of the diamagnetic pumping, which is in agreement with the results of the quasilinear analytical approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Quang-Dich; Ueno, Satoshi
Axial-gap self-bearing motor (AGBM) is an electrical combination of an axial flux motor and a thrust magnetic bearing, hence it can support rotation and magnetic levitation without any additional windings. The goal of this paper is utilization of the state observer to research a new capability of sensorless speed control of a salient AGBM. First, analytical and theoretical evaluation for a sensorless speed vector control of a salient AGBM is presented. The approach is based on the estimation of the extended electromotive force (EEMF) through a Luenberger Observer (LO) with help of reference stator voltages, measured stator currents and measured axial displacement. Then, experiment is implemented based on dSpace1104 with two three-phase inverters. The experimental results confirm that the AGBM can simultaneously produce levitation force and rotational torque. Moreover, speed and axial displacement can be independently controlled without speed sensor.
On the nonlinear on-off dynamics of a butterfly valve actuated by an induced electromotive force
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwuimy, C. A. Kitio; Ramakrishnan, S.; Nataraj, C.
2013-11-01
In this paper, we study the nonlinear dynamics of a butterfly valve actuated by the induced electromotive force (emf) of a permanent magnet, with a focus on the on-off dynamics of the valve and its nonlinear response under ambient perturbation. The complex interplay between the electromagnetic, hydrodynamic and mechanical forces leads to a fundamentally multiphysical, nonlinear dynamical model for the problem. First, we analyze the stability of the on-off conditions in terms of three critical dynamical parameters - the actuating DC voltage, inlet velocity and the opening angle. Next, the response of the system to perturbations around the equilibrium points is studied in terms of the frequency response using the method of multiple scales. Finally, evidence of fractality is established using Melnikov analysis and a plot of the basins of attraction. The results reported in the article, in addition to being of fundamental theoretical interest, are expected to impact practical design considerations of electromechanical butterfly valves. For a voltage ve>vc, theoretically, the system may undergo bifurcations into the physically infeasible domain α>αm (beyond the physical boundary). Practically however, this jump cannot be realized due to the stopper in the plunger. In other words, the valve will completely close the pipe under this condition, leading to catastrophic behavior. For a voltage ve
Speckle photo-electromotive force in Bi12SiO20: Effect of the speckle size
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salazar, Ángel
2013-07-01
A study of the speckle photo-electromotive force (PEMF) in a photorefractive sensor of amplitudes of micro-oscillations is presented. The experimental behavior of the first harmonic of the photocurrent generated as a function of the average speckle diameter and the oscillation amplitude of the speckle pattern is analyzed for a sensor implemented with a Bi12SiO20 (BSO) crystal. For a given light intensity, a nearly constant value of the maximum amplitude of the first harmonic was experimentally observed for the range of speckle sizes considered. This experimental result and the linear dependence of the vibration amplitude yielding the maximum of the photocurrent as a function of the speckle diameter were appropriately described by the mathematical model considered. Results show the possibility of adequately selecting the speckle size to optimize the output of speckle PEMF-based sensors depending on the oscillation amplitude to be measured.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Morishita, Masao; Yamamoto, Takeo; Furukawa, Kazuma
2011-02-01
The standard Gibbs energies of formation of Mo2B, αMoB, Mo2B5, and MoB4 in the molybdenum-boron binary system were determined by measuring electromotive forces of galvanic cells using an Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 solid oxide electrolyte. The results are as follows: begin{aligned} Updelta_{{f}} {{G}}^circ ( {{{Mo}}2 {{B}}} )/{{J}} {{mol}}^{ - 1} & = - 193100 + 44.10T ± 700( {1198{{ K to }}1323{{ K}}( {925^circ {{C to }}1050^circ {{C}}} )} ) \\ Updelta_{{f}} {{G}}^circ (α {{MoB}})/{{J}} {{mol}}^{ - 1} & = - 164000 + 26.45T ± 700( {1213{{ K to }}1328{{ K}}( {940^circ {{C to }}1055^circ {{C}}} )} ) \\ Updelta_{{f}} {{G}}^circ ( {{{Mo}}2 {{B}}5 } )/{{J}} {{mol}}^{ - 1} & = - 622500 + 117.0T ± 3000( {1205{{ K to }}1294{{ K}}( {932^circ {{C to }}1021^circ {{C}}} )} ) \\ Updelta_{{f}} {{G}}^circ ( {{{MoB}}4 } )/{{J}} {{mol}}^{ - 1} & = - 387300 + 93.53T ± 3000( {959{{ K to }}1153{{ K}}( {686^circ {{C to }}880^circ {{C}}} )} ) \\ where the standard pressure is 1 bar (100 kPa).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Lianxi
The magnetic flux ΦB, electromotive force, EMF, and current Iin, induced by a moving magnetic bar and an imaginary magnetic monopole in a superconducting solenoid of multiple turns and length L, are numerically calculated. The magnetic field of the bar magnet is approximated with the magnetic field along z axis of a solenoid with length l and radius a and current I, while the magnetic field of the monopole is supposed to be inversely proportional to r2. Calculations show that, for a bar magnet, ΦB and Iin essentially saturate when the bar moves inside superconducting solenoid, so EMF is zero while Iin is constant. EMF is only induced when the bar enters and exits the solenoid and Iin is zero after the bar leaves the solenoid. For a magnetic monopole, ΦB is discontinuous (from positive maximum to negative maximum) when the it moves through each turn of the superconducting solenoid, but EMF caused by dΦB /dt is continuous while the EMF induced by the a moving monopole is a delta function (moving monopole produces a ring-shaped E field). The total EMFTot in solenoid is the superposition of EMF of each turn of coil and the plateau appears. The current Iin continues to grow while the monopole leaves the solenoid. Thanks to Dr. Liancun Zheng and Mr. Lin Liu for verifying my calculation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobrovskiy, Vadim
2016-04-01
We explore the results of the subterranean electric measurements obtained by exploiting of multi-electrode systems at the division of atmosphere and tectonosphere. Subterranean electromotive forces have been recorded in the surface soils during thunderstorm, one of which is the rarest phenomena in the territory of the Avacha Bay. Lightning occurred at distances of 15-18 km from subterranean electric stations. From WWLLN sferics we've got the lightning locations and time of registration. Pulse variations of the subterranean electromotive forces have been observed 1-15 minutes before the lightning strikes in the territory of Avacha Bay. We have investigated variations of subterranean electromotive forces and concluded that there is sufficiently distinct dependence between location of a subterranean electric station and location of a lightning strike. A peak in subterranean electric signals has been found 1-15 minutes prior to self-organization of lightning phenomena. The report sums recent activities in the field and propose the necessity to set subterranean multi-electrode systems for further research in thunderstorm/lightning active regions of the Earth as Kamchatka peninsula is not an active lightning region to make a progress in fulfilling such a task.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichikawa, Shinji; Tomita, Mutuwo; Doki, Shinji; Okuma, Shigeru
In this paper, sensorless control for synchronous reluctance motors (SynRMs) without signal injection and an inductance measurement for position estimation are proposed. In the case of SynRMs, accuracy of inductances is the most important thing to realize precise position estimation because inductances are largely varied by a magnetic saturation phenomenon. Therefore, the inductance measurement method, which can measure appropriate inductances for position estimation, is important as well as a sensorless control method. The inductance measurement based on the observer is discussed, and the measurement method and the parameter adjustment method for improvement in stability of the closed loop are proposed. The proposed method can measure inductances easily and be applied for permanent magnet synchronous motors, too. Finally, the proposed sensorless control method is verified by experiments.
Investigation of the mechanisms of action behind Electromotive Drug Administration (EMDA)
Vásquez, Juan Luis; Miklavčič, Damijan; Hermann, Gregers G.G.; Gehl, Julie
2016-01-01
Objective Bladder cancer is a cause of considerable morbidity worldwide. Electromotive Drug Administration is a method that combines intravesical chemotherapy with local electric field application. Electroporation has been suggested among other mechanisms as having a possible role in the therapy, so the goal of the present study was to investigate the electric fields present in the bladder wall during the treatment to determine which mechanisms might be involved. Material and Methods Electromotive Drug Administration involves applying intravesical mitomycin C with direct current of 20 mA delivered through a catheter electrode for 30 min. For numerical electric field computation we built a 3-D nonhomogeneous patient specific model based on CT images and used finite element method simulations to determine the electric fields in the whole body. Results Results indicate that highest electric field in the bladder wall was 37.7 V/m. The mean electric field magnitude in the bladder wall was 3.03 V/m. The mean magnitude of the current density in the bladder wall was 0.61 A/m2. Conclusions The present study shows that electroporation is not the mechanism of action in EMDA. A more likely explanation of the mechanism of action is iontophoretic forces increasing the mitomycin C concentration in the bladder wall.
Method of Calibrating a Force Balance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, Peter A. (Inventor); Rhew, Ray D. (Inventor); Johnson, Thomas H. (Inventor); Landman, Drew (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A calibration system and method utilizes acceleration of a mass to generate a force on the mass. An expected value of the force is calculated based on the magnitude and acceleration of the mass. A fixture is utilized to mount the mass to a force balance, and the force balance is calibrated to provide a reading consistent with the expected force determined for a given acceleration. The acceleration can be varied to provide different expected forces, and the force balance can be calibrated for different applied forces. The acceleration may result from linear acceleration of the mass or rotational movement of the mass.
Dynamic atomic force microscopy methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García, Ricardo; Pérez, Rubén
2002-09-01
In this report we review the fundamentals, applications and future tendencies of dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods. Our focus is on understanding why the changes observed in the dynamic properties of a vibrating tip that interacts with a surface make possible to obtain molecular resolution images of membrane proteins in aqueous solutions or to resolve atomic-scale surface defects in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Our description of the two major dynamic AFM modes, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) and frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) emphasises their common points without ignoring the differences in experimental set-ups and operating conditions. Those differences are introduced by the different feedback parameters, oscillation amplitude in AM-AFM and frequency shift and excitation amplitude in FM-AFM, used to track the topography and composition of a surface. The theoretical analysis of AM-AFM (also known as tapping-mode) emphasises the coexistence, in many situations of interests, of two stable oscillation states, a low and high amplitude solution. The coexistence of those oscillation states is a consequence of the presence of attractive and repulsive components in the interaction force and their non-linear dependence on the tip-surface separation. We show that key relevant experimental properties such as the lateral resolution, image contrast and sample deformation are highly dependent on the oscillation state chosen to operate the instrument. AM-AFM allows to obtain simultaneous topographic and compositional contrast in heterogeneous samples by recording the phase angle difference between the external excitation and the tip motion (phase imaging). Significant applications of AM-AFM such as high-resolution imaging of biomolecules and polymers, large-scale patterning of silicon surfaces, manipulation of single nanoparticles or the fabrication of single electron devices are also reviewed. FM-AFM (also called non
Detection of electromotive force induced by domain wall motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beach, Geoffrey
2010-03-01
A magnetic domain wall can be displaced by current via the transfer of spin angular momentum from conduction electrons to the local magnetization. The capacity of spin-transfer torque to drive domain wall motion is now well established experimentally and theoretically [1], and is a central topic in the growing field of spintronics. This talk will describe the first experimental evidence [2] that the coupling between spin and charge also works in reverse; namely, that a domain wall driven by a field through a stationary electron gas generates an experimentally-detectible voltage. This new spintronic effect [3] was measured by precisely controlling the motion of a single domain wall in a Permalloy nanowire and isolated from other sources using a field modulation scheme to differentiate between the small domain wall-induced voltage and conventional inductive voltages. The domain wall-induced voltage was found to scale in proportion to the driving field magnitude, and its sign depends only on the direction of domain wall motion. These results are consistent with theoretical predictions [2, 4, 5], and will be discussed in terms of a generalized two-dimensional topological framework [2] capable of treating vortex DWs. [4pt] [1] G.S.D. Beach, M. Tsoi, and J.L. Erskine, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 1272 (2008). [0pt] [2] S. Yang, G.S.D. Beach, C. Knutson, D. Xiao, Q. Niu, M. Tsoi, and J.L. Erskine, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 067201 (2009). [0pt] [3]. R. McMichael, and M. Stiles, Physics 2, 11 (2009). [0pt] [4] L. Berger, Phys. Rev. B 33, 1572 (1986) [0pt] [5] S. E. Barnes and S. Maekawa, Appl. Phys. 89, 122507 (2006).
The Electromotive Series and Other Non-Absolute Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peckham, Gavin D.
1998-01-01
This article describes an analogy which may be used to illustrate the principles that underlie the establishment of non-absolute scales of measurements that are evaluated relative to a chosen reference point. The analogy is interwoven with the establishment of the electromotive series, but may be extended to other parameters such as the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales, potential energies, formation and reaction enthalpies, etc.
Measuring Cell Forces by a Photoelastic Method
Curtis, Adam; Sokolikova-Csaderova, Lucia; Aitchison, Gregor
2007-01-01
A new method for measuring the mechanical forces exerted by cells on the substratum and through the substratum to act on other cells is described. This method depends upon the growth of cells on a photoelastic substratum, polydimethylsiloxane coated with a near monolayer of fibronectin. Changes in the forces applied by the cells to the substratum lead to changes in birefringence, which can be measured and recorded by the Polscope computer-controlled polarizing microscope. The changes in azimuth and retardance can be measured. A method for calibrating the stress is described. The method is sensitive down to forces of 1 pN per square microns. Fairly rapid changes with time can be recorded with a time resolution of ∼1 s. The observations show that both isolated adhering, spread cells and also cells close to contact exert stresses on the substratum and that the stresses are those that would be produced by forces of 10–1000 pN per cell. The forces are almost certainly exerted on nearby cells since movement of one cell causes strains to appear around other nearby cells. The method has the defect that strains under the cells, though detectable in principle, are unclear due to birefringence of the components of the cytoplasm and nucleus. It is of special interest that the strains on the substratum can change in the time course of a few seconds and appear to be concentrated near the base of the lamellopodium of the cell as though they originated there. As well as exerting forces on the substratum in the direction of the long axis of the cell, appreciable forces are exerted from the lateral sides of the cell. The observations and measurements tend to argue that microtopography and embedded beads can concentrate the forces. PMID:17189310
Integrated force method versus displacement method for finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, S. N.; Berke, L.; Gallagher, R. H.
1991-01-01
A novel formulation termed the integrated force method (IFM) has been developed in recent years for analyzing structures. In this method all the internal forces are taken as independent variables, and the system equilibrium equations (EEs) are integrated with the global compatibility conditions (CCs) to form the governing set of equations. In IFM the CCs are obtained from the strain formulation of St. Venant, and no choices of redundant load systems have to be made, in constrast to the standard force method (SFM). This property of IFM allows the generation of the governing equation to be automated straightforwardly, as it is in the popular stiffness method (SM). In this report IFM and SM are compared relative to the structure of their respective equations, their conditioning, required solution methods, overall computational requirements, and convergence properties as these factors influence the accuracy of the results. Overall, this new version of the force method produces more accurate results than the stiffness method for comparable computational cost.
Integrated force method versus displacement method for finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Berke, Laszlo; Gallagher, Richard H.
1990-01-01
A novel formulation termed the integrated force method (IFM) has been developed in recent years for analyzing structures. In this method all the internal forces are taken as independent variables, and the system equilibrium equations (EE's) are integrated with the global compatibility conditions (CC's) to form the governing set of equations. In IFM the CC's are obtained from the strain formulation of St. Venant, and no choices of redundant load systems have to be made, in constrast to the standard force method (SFM). This property of IFM allows the generation of the governing equation to be automated straightforwardly, as it is in the popular stiffness method (SM). In this report IFM and SM are compared relative to the structure of their respective equations, their conditioning, required solution methods, overall computational requirements, and convergence properties as these factors influence the accuracy of the results. Overall, this new version of the force method produces more accurate results than the stiffness method for comparable computational cost.
Fidelity of the Integrated Force Method Solution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hopkins, Dale; Halford, Gary; Coroneos, Rula; Patnaik, Surya
2002-01-01
The theory of strain compatibility of the solid mechanics discipline was incomplete since St. Venant's 'strain formulation' in 1876. We have addressed the compatibility condition both in the continuum and the discrete system. This has lead to the formulation of the Integrated Force Method. A dual Integrated Force Method with displacement as the primal variable has also been formulated. A modest finite element code (IFM/Analyzers) based on the IFM theory has been developed. For a set of standard test problems the IFM results were compared with the stiffness method solutions and the MSC/Nastran code. For the problems IFM outperformed the existing methods. Superior IFM performance is attributed to simultaneous compliance of equilibrium equation and compatibility condition. MSC/Nastran organization expressed reluctance to accept the high fidelity IFM solutions. This report discusses the solutions to the examples. No inaccuracy was detected in the IFM solutions. A stiffness method code with a small programming effort can be improved to reap the many IFM benefits when implemented with the IFMD elements. Dr. Halford conducted a peer-review on the Integrated Force Method. Reviewers' response is included.
Recent Advances in the Method of Forces: Integrated Force Method of Structural Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.
1998-01-01
Stress that can be induced in an elastic continuum can be determined directly through the simultaneous application of the equilibrium equations and the compatibility conditions. In the literature, this direct stress formulation is referred to as the integrated force method. This method, which uses forces as the primary unknowns, complements the popular equilibrium-based stiffness method, which considers displacements as the unknowns. The integrated force method produces accurate stress, displacement, and frequency results even for modest finite element models. This version of the force method should be developed as an alternative to the stiffness method because the latter method, which has been researched for the past several decades, may have entered its developmental plateau. Stress plays a primary role in the development of aerospace and other products, and its analysis is difficult. Therefore, it is advisable to use both methods to calculate stress and eliminate errors through comparison. This paper examines the role of the integrated force method in analysis, animation and design.
BOFFO - BOUNDARY FORCE METHOD FOR ORTHOTROPIC MATERIALS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bigelow, C. A.
1994-01-01
In the field of fracture mechanics, stress-intensity factors are important parameters for predicting fracture strengths and fatigue lives. BOFFO performs stress analysis of two-dimensional linear elastic orthotropic or composite bodies with or without cracks using the Boundary Force Method. The Boundary Force Method is versatile since complex geometries, crack configurations, and load distributions can be analyzed with ease. The BOFFO program is easy to use because only the boundaries of the region of interest are modeled using a built-in mesh generator. Stresses can be computed at any specified point in the body. Stress-intensity factor solutions and strain-energy release rates are computed for both mode I and mixed mode fracture problems. The Boundary Force Method is a numerical technique that uses the fundamental solutions for concentrated forces and moments in an infinite sheet to obtain the solution to the boundary value problem of interest. These fundamental solutions are used in the BOFFO program to exactly satisfy the stress-free conditions on the crack faces. The other boundary conditions are approximately satisfied by applying the appropriate sets of concentrated horizontal and vertical forces and moments along the boundary. The problem configuration is defined using two sets of axes. The global X- and Y-axes define the specimen boundaries, loads, and material properties. The local axes define the crack length and orientation. The user can specify four types of symmetry conditions: symmetry about the X-axis, symmetry about the Y-axis, symmetry about the X- and Y-axes, or no symmetry. The lines of symmetry are not modeled as boundaries. The accuracy of the solution depends on how well the boundary conditions are approximated, which in turn depends on the refinement of the boundary mesh. BOFFO uses the radial-line method for element mesh generation. BOFFO is written in FORTRAN V for execution on CDC CYBER 170 Series computers running NOS. The execution time
Integrated Force Method for Indeterminate Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hopkins, Dale A.; Halford, Gary R.; Patnaik, Surya N.
2008-01-01
Two methods of solving indeterminate structural-mechanics problems have been developed as products of research on the theory of strain compatibility. In these methods, stresses are considered to be the primary unknowns (in contrast to strains and displacements being considered as the primary unknowns in some prior methods). One of these methods, denoted the integrated force method (IFM), makes it possible to compute stresses, strains, and displacements with high fidelity by use of modest finite-element models that entail relatively small amounts of computation. The other method, denoted the completed Beltrami Mitchell formulation (CBMF), enables direct determination of stresses in an elastic continuum with general boundary conditions, without the need to first calculate displacements as in traditional methods. The equilibrium equation, the compatibility condition, and the material law are the three fundamental concepts of the theory of structures. For almost 150 years, it has been commonly supposed that the theory is complete. However, until now, the understanding of the compatibility condition remained incomplete, and the compatibility condition was confused with the continuity condition. Furthermore, the compatibility condition as applied to structures in its previous incomplete form was inconsistent with the strain formulation in elasticity.
Multilevel summation method for electrostatic force evaluation.
Hardy, David J; Wu, Zhe; Phillips, James C; Stone, John E; Skeel, Robert D; Schulten, Klaus
2015-02-10
The multilevel summation method (MSM) offers an efficient algorithm utilizing convolution for evaluating long-range forces arising in molecular dynamics simulations. Shifting the balance of computation and communication, MSM provides key advantages over the ubiquitous particle–mesh Ewald (PME) method, offering better scaling on parallel computers and permitting more modeling flexibility, with support for periodic systems as does PME but also for semiperiodic and nonperiodic systems. The version of MSM available in the simulation program NAMD is described, and its performance and accuracy are compared with the PME method. The accuracy feasible for MSM in practical applications reproduces PME results for water property calculations of density, diffusion constant, dielectric constant, surface tension, radial distribution function, and distance-dependent Kirkwood factor, even though the numerical accuracy of PME is higher than that of MSM. Excellent agreement between MSM and PME is found also for interface potentials of air–water and membrane–water interfaces, where long-range Coulombic interactions are crucial. Applications demonstrate also the suitability of MSM for systems with semiperiodic and nonperiodic boundaries. For this purpose, simulations have been performed with periodic boundaries along directions parallel to a membrane surface but not along the surface normal, yielding membrane pore formation induced by an imbalance of charge across the membrane. Using a similar semiperiodic boundary condition, ion conduction through a graphene nanopore driven by an ion gradient has been simulated. Furthermore, proteins have been simulated inside a single spherical water droplet. Finally, parallel scalability results show the ability of MSM to outperform PME when scaling a system of modest size (less than 100 K atoms) to over a thousand processors, demonstrating the suitability of MSM for large-scale parallel simulation. PMID:25691833
Multilevel Summation Method for Electrostatic Force Evaluation
2015-01-01
The multilevel summation method (MSM) offers an efficient algorithm utilizing convolution for evaluating long-range forces arising in molecular dynamics simulations. Shifting the balance of computation and communication, MSM provides key advantages over the ubiquitous particle–mesh Ewald (PME) method, offering better scaling on parallel computers and permitting more modeling flexibility, with support for periodic systems as does PME but also for semiperiodic and nonperiodic systems. The version of MSM available in the simulation program NAMD is described, and its performance and accuracy are compared with the PME method. The accuracy feasible for MSM in practical applications reproduces PME results for water property calculations of density, diffusion constant, dielectric constant, surface tension, radial distribution function, and distance-dependent Kirkwood factor, even though the numerical accuracy of PME is higher than that of MSM. Excellent agreement between MSM and PME is found also for interface potentials of air–water and membrane–water interfaces, where long-range Coulombic interactions are crucial. Applications demonstrate also the suitability of MSM for systems with semiperiodic and nonperiodic boundaries. For this purpose, simulations have been performed with periodic boundaries along directions parallel to a membrane surface but not along the surface normal, yielding membrane pore formation induced by an imbalance of charge across the membrane. Using a similar semiperiodic boundary condition, ion conduction through a graphene nanopore driven by an ion gradient has been simulated. Furthermore, proteins have been simulated inside a single spherical water droplet. Finally, parallel scalability results show the ability of MSM to outperform PME when scaling a system of modest size (less than 100 K atoms) to over a thousand processors, demonstrating the suitability of MSM for large-scale parallel simulation. PMID:25691833
Are shear force methods adequately reported?
Holman, Benjamin W B; Fowler, Stephanie M; Hopkins, David L
2016-09-01
This study aimed to determine the detail to which shear force (SF) protocols and methods have been reported in the scientific literature between 2009 and 2015. Articles (n=734) published in peer-reviewed animal and food science journals and limited to only those testing the SF of unprocessed and non-fabricated mammal meats were evaluated. It was found that most of these SF articles originated in Europe (35.3%), investigated bovine species (49.0%), measured m. longissimus samples (55.2%), used tenderometers manufactured by Instron (31.2%), and equipped with Warner-Bratzler blades (68.8%). SF samples were also predominantly thawed prior to cooking (37.1%) and cooked sous vide, using a water bath (50.5%). Information pertaining to blade crosshead speed (47.5%), recorded SF resistance (56.7%), muscle fibre orientation when tested (49.2%), sub-section or core dimension (21.8%), end-point temperature (29.3%), and other factors contributing to SF variation were often omitted. This base failure diminishes repeatability and accurate SF interpretation, and must therefore be rectified. PMID:27107727
A polygonal method for haptic force generation
Anderson, T. |
1996-12-31
Algorithms for computing forces and associated surface deformations (graphical and physical) are given, which, together with a force feedback device can be used to haptically display virtual objects. The Bendable Polygon algorithm, created at Sandia National Labs and the University of New Mexico, for visual rendering of computer generated surfaces is also presented. An implementation using the EIGEN virtual reality environment, and the PHANToM (Trademark) haptic interface, is reported together with suggestions for future research.
Electromotive Triggering and Single Sweep Analysis of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMPs).
Hecker, Dietmar J; Lohscheller, Joerg; Schorn, Bianca; Koch, Klaus Peter; Schick, Bernhard; Dlugaiczyk, Julia
2014-01-01
Cervical (c) and ocular (o) vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) provide important tools for measuring otolith function. However, two major drawbacks of this method are encountered in clinical practice. First, recording of oVEMPs is compromised by small n10 amplitudes. Second, VEMP analysis is currently based on the averaging technique, resulting in a loss of information compared to single sweep analysis. Here, we: 1) developed a novel electromotive trigger mechanism for evoking VEMPs by bone-conducted vibration to the forehead and 2) established maximum entropy extraction of complex wavelet transforms for calculation of phase synchronization between VEMP single sweeps. Both c- and oVEMPs were recorded for n=10 healthy individuals. The oVEMP n10 amplitude was consistently higher (right: 24.84±9.71 μV; left: 27.40±14.55 μV) than previously described. Stable VEMP signals were reached after a smaller number of head taps (oVEMPs 6; cVEMPs 11) compared to current recommendations. Phase synchronization vectors and phase shift values were successfully determined for simulated and clinically recorded VEMPs, providing information about the impact of noise and phase jitter on the VEMP signal. Thus, the proposed method constitutes an easy-to-use approach for the fast detection and analysis of VEMPs in clinical practice. PMID:23529108
A New Method of Comparing Forcing Agents in Climate Models
Kravitz, Benjamin S.; MacMartin, Douglas; Rasch, Philip J.; Jarvis, Andrew
2015-10-14
We describe a new method of comparing different climate forcing agents (e.g., CO2, CH4, and solar irradiance) that avoids many of the ambiguities introduced by temperature-related climate feedbacks. This is achieved by introducing an explicit feedback loop external to the climate model that adjusts one forcing agent to balance another while keeping global mean surface temperature constant. Compared to current approaches, this method has two main advantages: (i) the need to define radiative forcing is bypassed and (ii) by maintaining roughly constant global mean temperature, the effects of state dependence on internal feedback strengths are minimized. We demonstrate this approach for several different forcing agents and derive the relationships between these forcing agents in two climate models; comparisons between forcing agents are highly linear in concordance with predicted functional forms. Transitivity of the relationships between the forcing agents appears to hold within a wide range of forcing. The relationships between the forcing agents obtained from this method are consistent across both models but differ from relationships that would be obtained from calculations of radiative forcing, highlighting the importance of controlling for surface temperature feedback effects when separating radiative forcing and climate response.
A Simple Method for Measuring Linguopalatal Contact Force During Speech
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuji, Ryunosuke; Matsumuta, Masafumi; Niikawa, Takuya; Nohara, Kanji; Tachimura, Takashi; Wada, Takeshi; Chihara, Kunihiro
This paper proposes a using probe for measuring of contact force between tongue and palatal, during speech. We developed a 0.03 mm-thick stainless steel tongue force probe with a 3x5 mm force sensor at the tip. Linguopalatal contact force was measured by inserting the probe into the oral cavity. Contact force was measured at the following three locations. Based on the coordinate and measurement obtained at the three points, the action point of tongue force was calculated by the weighted mean. Linguopalatal contact force was measured in four adult men and women without articulation disorder and in three adult men with articulation disorders. Results showed that the action point of tongue force in subjects with articulation disorders was further toward the pharynx than that in subjects without articulation disorders. Linguopalatal contact pressure was then measured again by asking the subjects with articulation disorders to wear a palatal augmentation prosthesis (PAP) to compensate for insufficient linguopalatal contact force. The action point of tongue force became better approximated to that of subjects without articulation disorders. Given these results, our simple method for measuring linguopalatal contact force using a tongue force probe appears to be a promising tool for speech therapists treating articulation disorders.
Double Force Compensation Method to Enhance the Performance of a Null Balance Force Sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, In-Mook; Choi, Dong-June; Kim, Soo Hyun
2002-06-01
Microforce measurement is becoming more essential as precision industries such as biomedicine, precision chemistry, semiconductor manufacturing, and so forth develop. A null balance method has been introduced in order to improve on force measurement performances involving a loadcell. The null-balance type force sensor is analyzed and designed for the improvement of measurement performances. The measurement range and the resolution are dependent on the force generation capacity and the various error sources. These characteristics are estimated and verified according to the mechanical sensitivity and the force compensation sensitivity. Two different coil systems are designed and tested experimentally. Double force compensation is proposed in order to obtain a large range and high resolution. The measurement range of the large coil system and the resolution of the small one are fully realized by the double compensation method. After manufacturing, a range over 300 gf and resolution under ± 0.1 mgf were obtained by the double compensation method.
Integrated Force Method Solution to Indeterminate Structural Mechanics Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Halford, Gary R.
2004-01-01
Strength of materials problems have been classified into determinate and indeterminate problems. Determinate analysis primarily based on the equilibrium concept is well understood. Solutions of indeterminate problems required additional compatibility conditions, and its comprehension was not exclusive. A solution to indeterminate problem is generated by manipulating the equilibrium concept, either by rewriting in the displacement variables or through the cutting and closing gap technique of the redundant force method. Compatibility improvisation has made analysis cumbersome. The authors have researched and understood the compatibility theory. Solutions can be generated with equal emphasis on the equilibrium and compatibility concepts. This technique is called the Integrated Force Method (IFM). Forces are the primary unknowns of IFM. Displacements are back-calculated from forces. IFM equations are manipulated to obtain the Dual Integrated Force Method (IFMD). Displacement is the primary variable of IFMD and force is back-calculated. The subject is introduced through response variables: force, deformation, displacement; and underlying concepts: equilibrium equation, force deformation relation, deformation displacement relation, and compatibility condition. Mechanical load, temperature variation, and support settling are equally emphasized. The basic theory is discussed. A set of examples illustrate the new concepts. IFM and IFMD based finite element methods are introduced for simple problems.
Analysis of force-deconvolution methods in frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy
Illek, Esther; Giessibl, Franz J
2012-01-01
Summary In frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy the direct observable is the frequency shift of an oscillating cantilever in a force field. This frequency shift is not a direct measure of the actual force, and thus, to obtain the force, deconvolution methods are necessary. Two prominent methods proposed by Sader and Jarvis (Sader–Jarvis method) and Giessibl (matrix method) are investigated with respect to the deconvolution quality. Both methods show a nontrivial dependence of the deconvolution quality on the oscillation amplitude. The matrix method exhibits spikelike features originating from a numerical artifact. By interpolation of the data, the spikelike features can be circumvented. The Sader–Jarvis method has a continuous amplitude dependence showing two minima and one maximum, which is an inherent property of the deconvolution algorithm. The optimal deconvolution depends on the ratio of the amplitude and the characteristic decay length of the force for the Sader–Jarvis method. However, the matrix method generally provides the higher deconvolution quality. PMID:22496997
a Method for Determining the Impact Force in Crash Testing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujii, Y.; Isobe, D.; Saito, S.; Fujimoto, H.; Miki, Y.
2000-11-01
A method for measuring the impact force in crash testing is developed. In this method, a mass is made to collide with the object being tested and the instantaneous value of the impact force is measured as the inertial force acting on the mass. To realise linear motion with sufficiently small friction acting on the mass, a pneumatic linear bearing is used, and the velocity and acceleration of the mass, the moving part of the bearing, are measured using an optical interferometer. The relative combined standard uncertainty in determining the impact force in a three-point bending test is estimated to be 0.5×10 -2(0.5%) of the maximum value of the impact force.
A Method for Implementing Force-Limited Vibration Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Worth, Daniel B.
1997-01-01
NASA/GSFC has implemented force-limited vibration control on a controller which can only accept one profile. The method uses a personal computer based digital signal processing board to convert force and/or moment signals into what appears to he an acceleration signal to the controller. This technique allows test centers with older controllers to use the latest force-limited control techniques for random vibration testing. The paper describes the method, hardware, and test procedures used. An example from a test performed at NASA/GSFC is used as a guide.
A novel adaptive force control method for IPMC manipulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Lina; Sun, Zhiyong; Li, Zhi; Su, Yunquan; Gao, Jianchao
2012-07-01
IPMC is a type of electro-active polymer material, also called artificial muscle, which can generate a relatively large deformation under a relatively low input voltage (generally speaking, less than 5 V), and can be implemented in a water environment. Due to these advantages, IPMC can be used in many fields such as biomimetics, service robots, bio-manipulation, etc. Until now, most existing methods for IPMC manipulation are displacement control not directly force control, however, under most conditions, the success rate of manipulations for tiny fragile objects is limited by the contact force, such as using an IPMC gripper to fix cells. Like most EAPs, a creep phenomenon exists in IPMC, of which the generated force will change with time and the creep model will be influenced by the change of the water content or other environmental factors, so a proper force control method is urgently needed. This paper presents a novel adaptive force control method (AIPOF control—adaptive integral periodic output feedback control), based on employing a creep model of which parameters are obtained by using the FRLS on-line identification method. The AIPOF control method can achieve an arbitrary pole configuration as long as the plant is controllable and observable. This paper also designs the POF and IPOF controller to compare their test results. Simulation and experiments of micro-force-tracking tests are carried out, with results confirming that the proposed control method is viable.
Intravesical electromotive drug administration for the treatment of non-infectious chronic cystitis.
Riedl, C R; Knoll, M; Plas, E; Stephen, R L; Pflüger, H
1997-01-01
Seventeen patients with non-infectious chronic cystitis (NICC) (9 with interstitial cystitis, 6 patients with radiation cystitis, 1 with chemocystitis and 1 with lupoid cystitis) were treated with electromotive administration of intravesical lidocaine and dexamethasone followed by hydrodistension of the bladder. Complete resolution of symptoms for an average of 7.5 months was observed in 11 patients (65%), partial improvement in 4 (23.5%). In this series no complications occurred. Electromotive drug administration (EMDA) and cystodistension were well tolerated by all patients. The treatment was performed on an outpatient basis, thus reducing therapeutic costs. The results presented demonstrate that the combination of EMDA and bladder hydrodistension is an effective first-line treatment for NICC patients. PMID:9449584
Acoustic radiation force-based elasticity imaging methods
Palmeri, Mark L.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.
2011-01-01
Conventional diagnostic ultrasound images portray differences in the acoustic properties of soft tissues, whereas ultrasound-based elasticity images portray differences in the elastic properties of soft tissues (i.e. stiffness, viscosity). The benefit of elasticity imaging lies in the fact that many soft tissues can share similar ultrasonic echogenicities, but may have different mechanical properties that can be used to clearly visualize normal anatomy and delineate pathological lesions. Acoustic radiation force-based elasticity imaging methods use acoustic radiation force to transiently deform soft tissues, and the dynamic displacement response of those tissues is measured ultrasonically and is used to estimate the tissue's mechanical properties. Both qualitative images and quantitative elasticity metrics can be reconstructed from these measured data, providing complimentary information to both diagnose and longitudinally monitor disease progression. Recently, acoustic radiation force-based elasticity imaging techniques have moved from the laboratory to the clinical setting, where clinicians are beginning to characterize tissue stiffness as a diagnostic metric, and commercial implementations of radiation force-based ultrasonic elasticity imaging are beginning to appear on the commercial market. This article provides an overview of acoustic radiation force-based elasticity imaging, including a review of the relevant soft tissue material properties, a review of radiation force-based methods that have been proposed for elasticity imaging, and a discussion of current research and commercial realizations of radiation force based-elasticity imaging technologies. PMID:22419986
Easy and direct method for calibrating atomic force microscopy lateral force measurements
Liu, Wenhua; Bonin, Keith; Guthold, Martin
2010-01-01
We have designed and tested a new, inexpensive, easy-to-make and easy-to-use calibration standard for atomic force microscopy (AFM) lateral force measurements. This new standard simply consists of a small glass fiber of known dimensions and Young’s modulus, which is fixed at one end to a substrate and which can be bent laterally with the AFM tip at the other end. This standard has equal or less error than the commonly used method of using beam mechanics to determine a cantilever’s lateral force constant. It is transferable, thus providing a universal tool for comparing the calibrations of different instruments. It does not require knowledge of the cantilever dimensions and composition or its tip height. This standard also allows direct conversion of the photodiode signal to force and, thus, circumvents the requirement for a sensor response (sensitivity) measurement. PMID:17614616
New force replica exchange method and protein folding pathways probed by force-clamp technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouza, Maksim; Hu, Chin-Kun; Li, Mai Suan
2008-01-01
We have developed a new extended replica exchange method to study thermodynamics of a system in the presence of external force. Our idea is based on the exchange between different force replicas to accelerate the equilibrium process. This new approach was applied to obtain the force-temperature phase diagram and other thermodynamical quantities of the three-domain ubiquitin. Using the Cα-Go model and the Langevin dynamics, we have shown that the refolding pathways of single ubiquitin depend on which terminus is fixed. If the N end is fixed then the folding pathways are different compared to the case when both termini are free, but fixing the C terminal does not change them. Surprisingly, we have found that the anchoring terminal does not affect the pathways of individual secondary structures of three-domain ubiquitin, indicating the important role of the multidomain construction. Therefore, force-clamp experiments, in which one end of a protein is kept fixed, can probe the refolding pathways of a single free-end ubiquitin if one uses either the polyubiquitin or a single domain with the C terminus anchored. However, it is shown that anchoring one end does not affect refolding pathways of the titin domain I27, and the force-clamp spectroscopy is always capable to predict folding sequencing of this protein. We have obtained the reasonable estimate for unfolding barrier of ubiquitin, using the microscopic theory for the dependence of unfolding time on the external force. The linkage between residue Lys48 and the C terminal of ubiquitin is found to have the dramatic effect on the location of the transition state along the end-to-end distance reaction coordinate, but the multidomain construction leaves the transition state almost unchanged. We have found that the maximum force in the force-extension profile from constant velocity force pulling simulations depends on temperature nonlinearly. However, for some narrow temperature interval this dependence becomes linear, as
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, C. R.; Hughes, D. W.
2011-03-01
Due to a technical error during the production process, several vector symbols were omitted from the published version of this paper. A full corrected version of the paper is included with this Erratum. See the accompanying PDF and HTML files. IOP Publishing sincerely regrets this error.
Electromotive force measurements on cells involving beta-alumina solid electrolyte
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhury, N.
1973-01-01
Open circuit emf measurements have been made to demonstrate that a two-phase, polycrystalline mixture of beta- alumina and alpha-alumina could be used as a solid electrolyte in galvanic cells with reversible electrodes fixing oxygen or aluminum chemical potentials. These measurements indicate that such a two phase solid electrolyte can be used to monitor oxygen chemical potentials as low as that corresponding to Al, Al2O3 coexistence. The activity of Na2O in beta-alumina in coexistence with alpha-alumina was also determined by emf measurements.
Electromotive force measurements on cells involving beta-alumina solid electrolyte
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhury, N. S.
1973-01-01
Open-circuit emf measurements have been made to demonstrate that a two-phase, polycrystalline mixture of beta-alumina and alpha-alumina could be used as a solid electrolyte in galvanic cells with reversible electrodes fixing oxygen or aluminum chemical potentials. These measurements indicate that such a two-phase solid electrolyte may be used to monitor oxygen chemical potentials as low as that corresponding to Al and Al2O3 coexistence (potentials of about 10 to the minus 47th power atm at 1000 K). The activity of Na2O in beta-alumina in coexistence with alpha-alumina was also determined by emf measurements.
Force-coupling method for flows with ellipsoidal particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, D.; Keaveny, E. E.; Maxey, M. R.; Karniadakis, G. E.
2009-06-01
The force-coupling method, previously developed for spherical particles suspended in a liquid flow, is extended to ellipsoidal particles. In the limit of Stokes flow, there is an exact correspondence with known analytical results for isolated particles. More generally, the method is shown to provide good approximate results for the particle motion and the flow field both in viscous Stokes flow and at finite Reynolds number. This is demonstrated through comparison between fully resolved direct numerical simulations and results from the numerical implementation of the force-coupling method with a spectral/hp element scheme. The motion of settling ellipsoidal particles and neutrally buoyant particles in a Poiseuille flow are discussed.
An improved method for determining force balance calibration accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferris, Alice T.
The results of an improved statistical method used at Langley Research Center for determining and stating the accuracy of a force balance calibration are presented. The application of the method for initial loads, initial load determination, auxiliary loads, primary loads, and proof loads is described. The data analysis is briefly addressed.
Efficient forced vibration reanalysis method for rotating electric machines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Akira; Suzuki, Hiromitsu; Kuroishi, Masakatsu; Nakai, Hideo
2015-01-01
Rotating electric machines are subject to forced vibration by magnetic force excitation with wide-band frequency spectrum that are dependent on the operating conditions. Therefore, when designing the electric machines, it is inevitable to compute the vibration response of the machines at various operating conditions efficiently and accurately. This paper presents an efficient frequency-domain vibration analysis method for the electric machines. The method enables the efficient re-analysis of the vibration response of electric machines at various operating conditions without the necessity to re-compute the harmonic response by finite element analyses. Theoretical background of the proposed method is provided, which is based on the modal reduction of the magnetic force excitation by a set of amplitude-modulated standing-waves. The method is applied to the forced response vibration of the interior permanent magnet motor at a fixed operating condition. The results computed by the proposed method agree very well with those computed by the conventional harmonic response analysis by the FEA. The proposed method is then applied to the spin-up test condition to demonstrate its applicability to various operating conditions. It is observed that the proposed method can successfully be applied to the spin-up test conditions, and the measured dominant frequency peaks in the frequency response can be well captured by the proposed approach.
Detection of forced oscillations in power systems with multichannel methods
Follum, James D.
2015-09-30
The increasing availability of high fidelity, geographically dispersed measurements in power systems improves the ability of researchers and engineers to study dynamic behaviors in the grid. One such behavior that is garnering increased attention is the presence of forced oscillations. Power system engineers are interested in forced oscillations because they are often symptomatic of the malfunction or misoperation of equipment. Though the resulting oscillation is not always large in amplitude, the root cause may be serious. In this report, multi-channel forced oscillation detection methods are developed. These methods leverage previously developed detection approaches based on the periodogram and spectral-coherence. Making use of geographically distributed channels of data is shown to improved detection performance and shorten the delay before an oscillation can be detected in the online environment. Results from simulated and measured power system data are presented.
Initial testing of two DEMI (Driesbach Electromotive Inc. ) Model 4E zinc-air rechargeable cells
Hardin, J.E.; Martin, M.E.
1989-10-23
The purpose of this document is to report the results of INEL laboratory testing of two DEMI 4E Aerobic Power Battery Cells (collectively designated Pack 46 in INEL records). The 4E Aerobic Power Battery is a secondary battery developed privately by Driesbach Electromotive Inc. (DEMI). The battery employs zinc as the anode and a bifunctional air cathode. This testing was performed as the first phase of a cooperative agreement between INEL and DEMI leading to the construction and testing of electric vehicle-size cells, to be followed eventually by a battery pack. 3 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.
A moiré method of visualizing electromagnetic force lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuk, K. C.; Lee, T. H.; Chang, S.
2008-08-01
We propose a simple moiré method of visualizing electromagnetic force lines. The indicial equation is first derived for the tangent (or normal) curve to the electric field (or magnetic induction) around two parallel-line charges (or currents). The derived equation is then shown to have a one-to-one correspondence with that of the moiré fringe formed by two overlapped radial gratings. Since the tangent (or normal) curve to the electric field (or the magnetic induction) corresponds to the direction of the electric (or magnetic) force on a test charge (or current), the radial grating moirés can be used for the visualization of electric (or magnetic) force lines.
A calibration method for lateral forces for use with colloidal probe force microscopy cantilevers
Quintanilla, M. A. S.; Goddard, D. T.
2008-02-15
A calibration method is described for colloidal probe cantilevers that enables friction force measurements obtained using lateral force microscopy (LFM) to be quantified. The method is an adaptation of the lever method of Feiler et al. [A. Feiler, P. Attard, and I. Larson, Rev. Sci. Instum. 71, 2746 (2000)] and uses the advantageous positioning of probe particles that are usually offset from the central axis of the cantilever. The main sources of error in the calibration method are assessed, in particular, the potential misalignment of the long axis of the cantilever that ideally should be perpendicular to the photodiode detector. When this is not taken into account, the misalignment is shown to have a significant effect on the cantilever torsional stiffness but not on the lateral photodiode sensitivity. Also, because the friction signal is affected by the topography of the substrate, the method presented is valid only against flat substrates. Two types of particles, 20 {mu}m glass beads and UO{sub 3} agglomerates attached to silicon tapping mode cantilevers were used to test the method against substrates including glass, cleaved mica, and UO{sub 2} single crystals. Comparisons with the lateral compliance method of Cain et al. [R. G. Cain, S. Biggs, and N. W. Page, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 227, 55 (2000)] are also made.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witzke, V.; Silvers, L. J.; Favier, B.
2016-08-01
Shear flows are ubiquitous in astrophysical objects including planetary and stellar interiors, where their dynamics can have significant impact on thermo-chemical processes. Investigating the complex dynamics of shear flows requires numerical calculations that provide a long time evolution of the system. To achieve a sufficiently long lifetime in a local numerical model the system has to be forced externally. However, at present, there exist several different forcing methods to sustain large-scale shear flows in local models. In this paper we examine and compare various methods used in the literature in order to resolve their respective applicability and limitations. These techniques are compared during the exponential growth phase of a shear flow instability, such as the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, and some are examined during the subsequent non-linear evolution. A linear stability analysis provides reference for the growth rate of the most unstable modes in the system and a detailed analysis of the energetics provides a comprehensive understanding of the energy exchange during the system's evolution. Finally, we discuss the pros and cons of each forcing method and their relation with natural mechanisms generating shear flows.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gamble, Reed
1989-01-01
Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)
An improved boundary force method for analysing cracked anisotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, P. W.; Bigelow, C. A.
1989-01-01
The Boundary Force Method (BFM), a form of indirect boundary element method, is used to analyze composite laminates with cracks. The BFM uses the orthotropic elasticity solution for a concentrated horizontal and vertical force and a moment applied at a point in a cracked, infinite sheet as the fundamental solution. The necessary stress functions for this fundamental solution were formulated using the complex variables theory of orthotropic elasticity. The current method is an improvement over a previous method using only forces and no moment. The improved method was verified by comparing it to accepted solutions for a finite-width, center-crack specimen subjected to uniaxial tension. Four graphite/epoxy laminates were used: (0 + or - 45/90)sub s, (0), (+ or - 45)sub s, and (+ or - 30)sub s. The BFM results agreed well with accepted solutions. Convergence studies showed that with the addition of the moment in the fundamental solution, the number of boundary elements required for a converged solution was significantly reduced. Parametric studies were done for two configurations for which no orthotropic solutions are currently available; a single edge crack and an inclined single edge crack.
An improved boundary force method for analyzing cracked anisotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, Paul W.; Bigelow, Catherine A.
1988-01-01
The Boundary Force Method (BFM), a form of indirect boundary element method, is used to analyze composite laminates with cracks. The BFM uses the orthotropic elasticity solution for a concentrated horizontal and vertical force and a moment applied at a point in a cracked, infinite sheet as the fundamental solution. The necessary stress functions for this fundamental solution were formulated using the complex variable theory of orthotropic elasticity. The current method is an improvement over a previous method using only forces and no moment. The improved method was verified by comparing it to accepted solutions for a finite-width, center-crack specimen subjected to uniaxial tension. Four graphite/epoxy laminates were used: (0 + or - 45/90)sub s, (0), (+ or - 45)sub s, and (+ or - 30)sub s. The BFM results agreed well with accepted solutions. Convergence studies showed that with the addition of the moment in the fundamental solution, the number of boundary elements required for a converged solution was significantly reduced. Parametric studies were done for two configurations for which no orthotropic solutions are currently available; a single edge crack and an inclined single edge crack.
Forced vibration of flexible body systems. A dynamic stiffness method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, T. S.; Lin, J. C.
1993-10-01
Due to the development of high speed machinery, robots, and aerospace structures, the research of flexible body systems undergoing both gross motion and elastic deformation has seen increasing importance. The finite element method and modal analysis are often used in formulating equations of motion for dynamic analysis of the systems which entail time domain, forced vibration analysis. This study develops a new method based on dynamic stiffness to investigate forced vibration of flexible body systems. In contrast to the conventional finite element method, shape functions and stiffness matrices used in this study are derived from equations of motion for continuum beams. Hence, the resulting shape functions are named as dynamic shape functions. By applying the dynamic shape functions, the mass and stiffness matrices of a beam element are derived. The virtual work principle is employed to formulate equations of motion. Not only the coupling of gross motion and elastic deformation, but also the stiffening effect of axial forces is taken into account. Simulation results of a cantilever beam, a rotating beam, and a slider crank mechanism are compared with the literature to verify the proposed method.
Force-free magnetic fields - The magneto-frictional method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, W. H.; Sturrock, P. A.; Antiochos, S. K.
1986-01-01
The problem under discussion is that of calculating magnetic field configurations in which the Lorentz force j x B is everywhere zero, subject to specified boundary conditions. We choose to represent the magnetic field in terms of Clebsch variables in the form B = grad alpha x grad beta. These variables are constant on any field line so that each field line is labeled by the corresponding values of alpha and beta. When the field is described in this way, the most appropriate choice of boundary conditions is to specify the values of alpha and beta on the bounding surface. We show that such field configurations may be calculated by a magneto-frictional method. We imagine that the field lines move through a stationary medium, and that each element of magnetic field is subject to a frictional force parallel to and opposing the velocity of the field line. This concept leads to an iteration procedure for modifying the variables alpha and beta, that tends asymptotically towards the force-free state. We apply the method first to a simple problem in two rectangular dimensions, and then to a problem of cylindrical symmetry that was previously discussed by Barnes and Sturrock (1972). In one important respect, our new results differ from the earlier results of Barnes and Sturrock, and we conclude that the earlier article was in error.
Choosing the forcing terms in an inexact Newton method
Eisenstat, S.C.; Walker, H.F.
1994-12-31
An inexact Newton method is a generalization of Newton`s method for solving F(x) = 0, F: {Re}{sup n} {r_arrow} {Re}{sup n}, in which each step reduces the norm of the local linear model of F. At the kth iteration, the norm reduction is usefully expressed by the inexact Newton condition where x{sub k} is the current approximate solution and s{sub k} is the step. In many applications, an {eta}{sub k} is first specified, and then an S{sub k} is found for which the inexact Newton condition holds. Thus {eta}{sub k} is often called a {open_quotes}forcing term{close_quotes}. In practice, the choice of the forcing terms is usually critical to the efficiency of the method and can affect robustness as well. Here, the authors outline several promising choices, discuss theoretical support for them, and compare their performance in a Newton iterative (truncated Newton) method applied to several large-scale problems.
Satellite methods underestimate indirect climate forcing by aerosols
Penner, Joyce E.; Xu, Li; Wang, Minghuai
2011-01-01
Satellite-based estimates of the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) are consistently smaller than the estimates from global aerosol models, and, partly as a result of these differences, the assessment of this climate forcing includes large uncertainties. Satellite estimates typically use the present-day (PD) relationship between observed cloud drop number concentrations (Nc) and aerosol optical depths (AODs) to determine the preindustrial (PI) values of Nc. These values are then used to determine the PD and PI cloud albedos and, thus, the effect of anthropogenic aerosols on top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes. Here, we use a model with realistic aerosol and cloud processes to show that empirical relationships for ln(Nc) versus ln(AOD) derived from PD results do not represent the atmospheric perturbation caused by the addition of anthropogenic aerosols to the preindustrial atmosphere. As a result, the model estimates based on satellite methods of the AIE are between a factor of 3 to more than a factor of 6 smaller than model estimates based on actual PD and PI values for Nc. Using ln(Nc) versus ln(AI) (Aerosol Index, or the optical depth times angstrom exponent) to estimate preindustrial values for Nc provides estimates for Nc and forcing that are closer to the values predicted by the model. Nevertheless, the AIE using ln(Nc) versus ln(AI) may be substantially incorrect on a regional basis and may underestimate or overestimate the global average forcing by 25 to 35%. PMID:21808047
Force method in a pseudo-potential lattice Boltzmann model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Anjie; Li, Longjian; Uddin, Rizwan
2015-08-01
Single component pseudo-potential lattice Boltzmann models have been widely studied due to their simplicity and stability in multiphase simulations. While numerous models have been proposed, comparative analysis and advantages and disadvantages of different force schemes are often lacking. A pseudo-potential model to simulate large density ratios proposed by Kupershtokh et al. [1] is analyzed in detail in this work. Several common used force schemes are utilized and results compared. Based on the numerical results, the relatively most accurate force scheme proposed by Guo et al. [2] is selected and applied to improve the accuracy of Kupershtokh et al.'s model. Results obtained using the modified Kupershtokh et al.'s model [1] for different value of τ are compared with those obtained using Li et al.'s model [3]. Effect of relaxation time τ on the accuracy of the results is reported. Moreover, it is noted that the error in the density ratio predicted by the model is directly correlated with the magnitude of the spurious velocities on (curved) interfaces. Simulation results show that, the accuracy of Kupershtokh et al.'s model can be improved with Guo et al.'s force scheme [2]. However, the errors and τ's effects are still noticeable when density ratios are large. To improve the accuracy of the pseudo-potential model and to reduce the effects of τ, two possible methods were discussed in the present work. Both, a rescaling of the equation of state and multi-relaxation time, are applied and are shown to improve the prediction of the density ratios.
Numerical method for wave forces acting on partially perforated caisson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Feng; Tang, Xiao-cheng; Jin, Zhao; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hong-zhou
2015-04-01
The perforated caisson is widely applied to practical engineering because of its great advantages in effectively wave energy consumption and cost reduction. The attentions of many scientists were paid to the fluid-structure interaction between wave and perforated caisson studies, but until now, most concerns have been put on theoretical analysis and experimental model set up. In this paper, interaction between the wave and the partial perforated caisson in a 2D numerical wave flume is investigated by means of the renewed SPH algorithm, and the mathematical equations are in the form of SPH numerical approximation based on Navier-Stokes equations. The validity of the SPH mathematical method is examined and the simulated results are compared with the results of theoretical models, meanwhile the complex hydrodynamic characteristics when the water particles flow in or out of a wave absorbing chamber are analyzed and the wave pressure distribution of the perforated caisson is also addressed here. The relationship between the ratio of total horizontal force acting on caisson under regular waves and its influence factors is examined. The data show that the numerical calculation of the ratio of total horizontal force meets the empirical regression equation very well. The simulations of SPH about the wave nonlinearity and breaking are briefly depicted in the paper, suggesting that the advantages and great potentiality of the SPH method is significant compared with traditional methods.
Primal and Dual Integrated Force Methods Used for Stochastic Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.
2005-01-01
At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the primal and dual integrated force methods are being extended for the stochastic analysis of structures. The stochastic simulation can be used to quantify the consequence of scatter in stress and displacement response because of a specified variation in input parameters such as load (mechanical, thermal, and support settling loads), material properties (strength, modulus, density, etc.), and sizing design variables (depth, thickness, etc.). All the parameters are modeled as random variables with given probability distributions, means, and covariances. The stochastic response is formulated through a quadratic perturbation theory, and it is verified through a Monte Carlo simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Xiangdong; Ba, Kaixian; Yu, Bin; Cao, Yuan; Zhu, Qixin; Zhao, Hualong
2016-05-01
Each joint of hydraulic drive quadruped robot is driven by the hydraulic drive unit (HDU), and the contacting between the robot foot end and the ground is complex and variable, which increases the difficulty of force control inevitably. In the recent years, although many scholars researched some control methods such as disturbance rejection control, parameter self-adaptive control, impedance control and so on, to improve the force control performance of HDU, the robustness of the force control still needs improving. Therefore, how to simulate the complex and variable load characteristics of the environment structure and how to ensure HDU having excellent force control performance with the complex and variable load characteristics are key issues to be solved in this paper. The force control system mathematic model of HDU is established by the mechanism modeling method, and the theoretical models of a novel force control compensation method and a load characteristics simulation method under different environment structures are derived, considering the dynamic characteristics of the load stiffness and the load damping under different environment structures. Then, simulation effects of the variable load stiffness and load damping under the step and sinusoidal load force are analyzed experimentally on the HDU force control performance test platform, which provides the foundation for the force control compensation experiment research. In addition, the optimized PID control parameters are designed to make the HDU have better force control performance with suitable load stiffness and load damping, under which the force control compensation method is introduced, and the robustness of the force control system with several constant load characteristics and the variable load characteristics respectively are comparatively analyzed by experiment. The research results indicate that if the load characteristics are known, the force control compensation method presented in this
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Xiangdong; Ba, Kaixian; Yu, Bin; Cao, Yuan; Zhu, Qixin; Zhao, Hualong
2016-04-01
Each joint of hydraulic drive quadruped robot is driven by the hydraulic drive unit (HDU), and the contacting between the robot foot end and the ground is complex and variable, which increases the difficulty of force control inevitably. In the recent years, although many scholars researched some control methods such as disturbance rejection control, parameter self-adaptive control, impedance control and so on, to improve the force control performance of HDU, the robustness of the force control still needs improving. Therefore, how to simulate the complex and variable load characteristics of the environment structure and how to ensure HDU having excellent force control performance with the complex and variable load characteristics are key issues to be solved in this paper. The force control system mathematic model of HDU is established by the mechanism modeling method, and the theoretical models of a novel force control compensation method and a load characteristics simulation method under different environment structures are derived, considering the dynamic characteristics of the load stiffness and the load damping under different environment structures. Then, simulation effects of the variable load stiffness and load damping under the step and sinusoidal load force are analyzed experimentally on the HDU force control performance test platform, which provides the foundation for the force control compensation experiment research. In addition, the optimized PID control parameters are designed to make the HDU have better force control performance with suitable load stiffness and load damping, under which the force control compensation method is introduced, and the robustness of the force control system with several constant load characteristics and the variable load characteristics respectively are comparatively analyzed by experiment. The research results indicate that if the load characteristics are known, the force control compensation method presented in this
Force Evaluation in the Lattice Boltzmann Method Involving Curved Geometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Renwei; Yu, Dazhi; Shyy, Wei; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The present work investigates two approaches for force evaluation in the lattice Boltzmann equation: the momentum- exchange method and the stress-integration method on the surface of a body. The boundary condition for the particle distribution functions on curved geometries is handled with second order accuracy based on our recent works. The stress-integration method is computationally laborious for two-dimensional flows and in general difficult to implement for three-dimensional flows, while the momentum-exchange method is reliable, accurate, and easy to implement for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows. Several test cases are selected to evaluate the present methods, including: (i) two-dimensional pressure-driven channel flow; (ii) two-dimensional uniform flow past a column of cylinders; (iii) two-dimensional flow past a cylinder asymmetrically placed in a channel (with vortex shedding); (iv) three-dimensional pressure-driven flow in a circular pipe; and (v) three-dimensional flow past a sphere. The drag evaluated by using the momentum-exchange method agrees well with the exact or other published results.
Force evaluation in the lattice Boltzmann method involving curved geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Renwei; Yu, Dazhi; Shyy, Wei; Luo, Li-Shi
2002-04-01
The present work investigates two approaches for force evaluation in the lattice Boltzmann equation: the momentum-exchange method and the stress-integration method on the surface of a body. The boundary condition for the particle distribution functions on curved geometries is handled with second-order accuracy based on our recent works [Mei et al., J. Comput. Phys. 155, 307 (1999); ibid. 161, 680 (2000)]. The stress-integration method is computationally laborious for two-dimensional flows and in general difficult to implement for three-dimensional flows, while the momentum-exchange method is reliable, accurate, and easy to implement for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows. Several test cases are selected to evaluate the present methods, including: (i) two-dimensional pressure-driven channel flow; (ii) two-dimensional uniform flow past a column of cylinders; (iii) two-dimensional flow past a cylinder asymmetrically placed in a channel (with vortex shedding); (iv) three-dimensional pressure-driven flow in a circular pipe; and (v) three-dimensional flow past a sphere. The drag evaluated by using the momentum-exchange method agrees well with the exact or other published results.
Gap engineering using Hellmann-Feynmann forces: method and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasai, Kiran; Biawas, Parthapratim; Drabold, D. A.
Materials with optimized band gap are needed in many specialized applications. In this talk, we demonstrate that Hellmann-Feynman forces associated with the gap states can be used to find atomic coordinates that yield desired electronic density of states. Using tight-binding models, we show that this approach may be used to arrive at electronically designed models of amorphous silicon and carbon. We provide a simple recipe to include a priori electronic information in the formation of computer models of materials, and prove that this information may have profound structural consequences. We'll briefly discuss implementation of the method in ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations and highlight the latest feats of the method ranging from modeling amorphous semi-conducting materials to understanding the structure and properties of memory materials. K. Prasai, P. Biswas, and D. A. Drabold, Scientific reports, 5 (2015).
Computational Catalysis Using the Artificial Force Induced Reaction Method.
Sameera, W M C; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji
2016-04-19
The artificial force induced reaction (AFIR) method in the global reaction route mapping (GRRM) strategy is an automatic approach to explore all important reaction paths of complex reactions. Most traditional methods in computational catalysis require guess reaction paths. On the other hand, the AFIR approach locates local minima (LMs) and transition states (TSs) of reaction paths without a guess, and therefore finds unanticipated as well as anticipated reaction paths. The AFIR method has been applied for multicomponent organic reactions, such as the aldol reaction, Passerini reaction, Biginelli reaction, and phase-transfer catalysis. In the presence of several reactants, many equilibrium structures are possible, leading to a number of reaction pathways. The AFIR method in the GRRM strategy determines all of the important equilibrium structures and subsequent reaction paths systematically. As the AFIR search is fully automatic, exhaustive trial-and-error and guess-and-check processes by the user can be eliminated. At the same time, the AFIR search is systematic, and therefore a more accurate and comprehensive description of the reaction mechanism can be determined. The AFIR method has been used for the study of full catalytic cycles and reaction steps in transition metal catalysis, such as cobalt-catalyzed hydroformylation and iron-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation reactions in aqueous media. Some AFIR applications have targeted the selectivity-determining step of transition-metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions, including stereoselective water-tolerant lanthanide Lewis acid-catalyzed Mukaiyama aldol reactions. In terms of establishing the selectivity of a reaction, systematic sampling of the transition states is critical. In this direction, AFIR is very useful for performing a systematic and automatic determination of TSs. In the presence of a comprehensive description of the transition states, the selectivity of the reaction can be calculated more accurately
Slater, SE; Patel, P; Viney, R; Foster, M; Porfiri, E; James, ND; Montgomery, B
2014-01-01
Introduction Preliminary studies show that device assisted intravesical therapies appear more effective than passive diffusion intravesical therapy for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in specific settings, and phase III studies are now being conducted. Consequently, we have undertaken a non-systematic review with the objective of describing the scientific basis and mechanisms of action of electromotive drug administration (EMDA) and chemohyperthermia (CHT). Methods PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane Library were searched to source evidence for this non-systematic review. Randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were evaluated. Publications regarding the scientific basis and mechanisms of action of EMDA and CHT were identified, as well as clinical studies to date. Results EMDA takes advantage of three phenomena: iontophoresis, electro-osmosis and electroporation. It has been found to reduce recurrence rates in NMIBC patients and has been proposed as an addition or alternative to bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) therapy in the treatment of high risk NMIBC. CHT improves the efficacy of mitomycin C by three mechanisms: tumour cell cytotoxicity, altered tumour blood flow and localised immune responses. Fewer studies have been conducted with CHT than with EMDA but they have demonstrated utility for increasing disease-free survival, especially in patients who have previously failed BCG therapy. Conclusions It is anticipated that EMDA and CHT will play important roles in the management of NMIBC in the future. Techniques of delivery should be standardised, and there is a need for more randomised controlled trials to evaluate the benefits of the treatments alongside quality of life and cost-effectiveness. PMID:25198970
A contoured continuum surface force model for particle methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Guangtao; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Chen, Bin
2015-10-01
A surface tension model is essential to simulate multiphase flows with deformed interfaces. This study develops a contoured continuum surface force (CCSF) model for particle methods. A color function that varies sharply across the interface to mark different fluid phases is smoothed in the transition region, where the local contour curvature can be regarded as the interface curvature. The local contour passing through each reference particle in the transition region is extracted from the local profile of the smoothed color function. The local contour curvature is calculated based on the Taylor series expansion of the smoothed color function, whose derivatives are calculated accurately according to the definition of the smoothed color function. Two schemes are proposed to specify the smooth radius: fixed scheme, where 2 ×re (re = particle interaction radius) is assigned to all particles in the transition region; and varied scheme, where re and 2 ×re are assigned to the central and edged particles in the transition region respectively. Numerical examples, including curvature calculation for static circle and ellipse interfaces, deformation of square droplet to a circle (2D and 3D), droplet deformation in shear flow, and droplet coalescence, are simulated to verify the CCSF model and compare its performance with those of other methods. The CCSF model with the fixed scheme is proven to produce the most accurate curvature and lowest parasitic currents among the tested methods.
Novel scanning force microscopy methods for investigation of transcription complexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guthold, Martin
1997-11-01
Scanning force microscopy (SFM) methods were developed to investigate the structure and the dynamics of E. coli transcription complexes. The described techniques will also be applicable to the study of other protein-nucleic acid complexes. First, the deposition process of DNA molecules onto a mica surface was investigated using polymer chain statistics. Conditions were found in which DNA molecules, and also protein-DNA complexes, are able to equilibrate on the surface. These findings imply that DNA and protein-DNA complexes attain a lowest energy state on the surface, and that meaningful structural information can, therefore, be obtained from the corresponding SFM images. Using these imaging conditions, SFM was then used to investigate various transcription complexes. The structures of crucial intermediates in the transcriptional activation of RNA polymeraseċsigma54 by NtrC were visualized and analyzed. Moreover, a new method was pioneered to identify the position of specific subunits in multi- protein assemblies. In this method, a specific subunit is tagged with a short piece of DNA which renders it easily recognizable in SFM images. This technique was employed to determine the positions of the two α subunits and the βsp/prime subunit in RNA polymerase-DNA complexes. Finally, SFM imaging in liquid was used to investigate the dynamics of the specific and non-specific interactions between RNA polymerase and DNA. Image sequences of an RNA polymerase actively transcribing a DNA template were obtained and analyzed. Image sequences of non-specific complexes were also obtained, and showed the RNA polymerase moving along the DNA in a one- dimensional random walk. The latter experiments provide some of the first direct evidence that RNA polymerase diffuses along DNA to facilitate promoter location. Chapters II, III, V and VI of this dissertation include material which has been previously published with co- authors. The co-authors are acknowledged at the beginning of
Method of generating and measuring static small force using down-slope component of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujii, Yusaku
2007-06-01
A method of generating and measuring static small forces at the micro-Newton level is proposed. In the method, the down-slope component of gravity acting on a mass on an inclined plane is used as a static force. To realize a linear motion of the mass with a small friction, an aerostatic linear bearing is used. The forces acting on the mass, such as the down-slope component of gravity and the dynamic frictional force, are determined by the levitation mass method. In an experiment, a static small force of approximately 183μN is generated and measured with a standard uncertainty of approximately 2μN.
Geometrical force constraint method for vessel and x-ray angiogram simulation.
Song, Shuang; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Cong, Weijian; Ai, Danni; Zhao, Yitian; Wang, Yongtian
2016-01-01
This study proposes a novel geometrical force constraint method for 3-D vasculature modeling and angiographic image simulation. For this method, space filling force, gravitational force, and topological preserving force are proposed and combined for the optimization of the topology of the vascular structure. The surface covering force and surface adhesion force are constructed to drive the growth of the vasculature on any surface. According to the combination effects of the topological and surface adhering forces, a realistic vasculature can be effectively simulated on any surface. The image projection of the generated 3-D vascular structures is simulated according to the perspective projection and energy attenuation principles of X-rays. Finally, the simulated projection vasculature is fused with a predefined angiographic mask image to generate a realistic angiogram. The proposed method is evaluated on a CT image and three generally utilized surfaces. The results fully demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:26890908
A non-invasive method of tendon force measurement.
Pourcelot, Philippe; Defontaine, Marielle; Ravary, Bérangère; Lemâtre, Mickaël; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie
2005-10-01
The ability to measure the forces exerted in vivo on tendons and, consequently, the forces produced by muscles on tendons, offers a unique opportunity to investigate questions in disciplines as varied as physiology, biomechanics, orthopaedics and neuroscience. Until now, tendon loads could be assessed directly only by means of invasive sensors implanted within or attached to these collagenous structures. This study shows that the forces acting on tendons can be measured, in a non-invasive way, from the analysis of the propagation of an acoustic wave. Using the equine superficial digital flexor tendon as a model, it is demonstrated that the velocity of an ultrasonic wave propagating along the main axis of a tendon increases with the force applied to this tendon. Furthermore, we show that this velocity measurement can be performed even in the presence of skin overlying the tendon. To validate this measurement technique in vivo, the ultrasonic velocity plots obtained in the Achilles tendon at the walk were compared to the loads plots reported by other authors using invasive transducers. PMID:16084214
Lomboy, Gilson; Sundararajan, Sriram; Wang Kejin; Subramaniam, Shankar
2011-11-15
A method for determining Hamaker constant of cementitious materials is presented. The method involved sample preparation, measurement of adhesion force between the tested material and a silicon nitride probe using atomic force microscopy in dry air and in water, and calculating the Hamaker constant using appropriate contact mechanics models. The work of adhesion and Hamaker constant were computed from the pull-off forces using the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts and Derjagin-Muller-Toropov models. Reference materials with known Hamaker constants (mica, silica, calcite) and commercially available cementitious materials (Portland cement (PC), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS)) were studied. The Hamaker constants of the reference materials obtained are consistent with those published by previous researchers. The results indicate that PC has a higher Hamaker constant than GGBFS. The Hamaker constant of PC in water is close to the previously predicted value C{sub 3}S, which is attributed to short hydration time ({<=} 45 min) used in this study.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakano, Katsushi; Suzuki, Yoshihiko
1999-04-01
For inspection of high aspect ratio structures like narrow semiconductor trenches, a thin membrane probe and a new force detection method have been proposed. Instead of conventional conical and pyramidal tips, a thin silicon nitride cantilever was set up vertically, and its edge was used as a tip. The membrane probe named as twist-probe (TP) was oscillated in the twisting resonance to detect a force from both vertical and lateral directions. About 100 μm long, 0.7 μm thick TP was fabricated as a trial. Amplitude versus distance curve measurements showed that the TP has a high spacing change sensitivity between the tip and a sample in both vertical and lateral directions. A trench cross-section imaging was demonstrated successfully with a TP and the twist resonant force detection method.
Systems and methods of detecting force and stress using tetrapod nanocrystal
Choi, Charina L.; Koski, Kristie J.; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Alivisatos, A. Paul
2013-08-20
Systems and methods of detecting force on the nanoscale including methods for detecting force using a tetrapod nanocrystal by exposing the tetrapod nanocrystal to light, which produces a luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal. The method continues with detecting a difference in the luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal relative to a base luminescent response that indicates a force between a first and second medium or stresses or strains experienced within a material. Such systems and methods find use with biological systems to measure forces in biological events or interactions.
Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods
DeWall, Kevin George; Garcia, Humberto Enrique; McKellar, Michael George
2012-04-17
Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.
Assigning a Price to Radiative Forcing: Methods, Results, and Implications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lutz, D. A.; Howarth, R. B.
2015-12-01
Climate change mitigation frameworks have increasingly begun to include components that involve active management of the land surface. Predominantly, these programs focus on the sequestration of greenhouse gasses in vegetation and soils, generating offset credits for projects which demonstrate considerable storage. However, it is widely known that biogeophysical interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere, such as latent and sensible heat flux, albedo radiative forcing, and surface roughness, can in many cases outweigh the influence of greenhouse gas storage on global and local climate. Surface albedo, in particular, has attracted attention in the context of these frameworks because it has been shown to influence the overall climate benefits of high-latitude forest growth through tradeoffs between carbon sequestration and radiative forcing from seasonal snow cover albedo. Here we review a methodology for pricing albedo-related radiative forcing through the use of an integrated assessment model, present the results under several emissions and social preference scenarios, and describe the implications that this pricing methodology may have on forest land management in the Northeastern United States. Additionally, we investigate the consequences of projected decreased winter precipitation on the net climate benefits of snow albedo throughout the state of New Hampshire, USA.
Samozino, P; Rabita, G; Dorel, S; Slawinski, J; Peyrot, N; Saez de Villarreal, E; Morin, J-B
2016-06-01
This study aimed to validate a simple field method for determining force- and power-velocity relationships and mechanical effectiveness of force application during sprint running. The proposed method, based on an inverse dynamic approach applied to the body center of mass, estimates the step-averaged ground reaction forces in runner's sagittal plane of motion during overground sprint acceleration from only anthropometric and spatiotemporal data. Force- and power-velocity relationships, the associated variables, and mechanical effectiveness were determined (a) on nine sprinters using both the proposed method and force plate measurements and (b) on six other sprinters using the proposed method during several consecutive trials to assess the inter-trial reliability. The low bias (<5%) and narrow limits of agreement between both methods for maximal horizontal force (638 ± 84 N), velocity (10.5 ± 0.74 m/s), and power output (1680 ± 280 W); for the slope of the force-velocity relationships; and for the mechanical effectiveness of force application showed high concurrent validity of the proposed method. The low standard errors of measurements between trials (<5%) highlighted the high reliability of the method. These findings support the validity of the proposed simple method, convenient for field use, to determine power, force, velocity properties, and mechanical effectiveness in sprint running. PMID:25996964
Prediction of Ground Surface Temperature and Soil Moisture Content by the Force-Restore Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zhenglin; Islam, Shafiqul
1995-10-01
The parsimony and computational efficiency offered by the force-restore approximation of the diffusion equation have motivated its widespread application in modeling ground surface temperature. Different assumptions regarding the definition of ground surface temperature have resulted in different versions of the force-restore method. Here, four existing versions of the force-restore method for ground surface temperature are compared and contrasted. An improved version of the force-restore method is developed by minimizing the error produced by the force-restore approximation of the heat diffusion equation. The proposed model performs well for the physically realistic ranges of scaled soil thickness and reproduces amplitude and phase that are quite close to the exact solution of the diffusion equation under a single periodic forcing. It is shown that neglect of higher harmonics can produce appreciable errors in the force-restore method if the upper soil thickness is less than the damping depth of the diurnal forcing. The success of the force-restore approximation in modeling ground surface temperature has prompted its application in the prediction of soil moisture content. However, extension of the force-restore method for the prediction of soil moisture content is not straightforward. There are two major difficulties in modeling soil moisture content by the force-restore method. One is the situation-dependent relative importance of the suction term and gravity term in the Richards equation and the other is the choice of state variable, moisture content versus suction head, in the solution of the force-restore method for soil moisture prediction. Both of these could produce appreciable errors in the force-restore treatment of soil moisture evolution.
Methods for Manipulating CaF Using Optical Polychromatic Forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyler, Edward E.; Galica, Scott E.; Aldridge, Leland M.
2013-06-01
We are undertaking theoretical and experimental studies of laser deceleration and cooling of molecules using coherent multi-frequency optical forces. A primary objective is to reduce radiative loss into dark states when a pure two-level cycling transition is unavailable. The optical bichromatic force (BCF) can multiply the available velocity change for a given number of radiative cycles, by employing alternating cycles of excitation and stimulated emission from opposing directions. Tests in atomic helium show that when the BCF is combined with frequency chirping, very large decelerations are achieved. We report numerical studies of variations intended to further optimize deceleration, including a 4-color version. We describe progress on experimental tests using the 531 nm B ^2Σ^+leftrightarrow X ^2Σ^+ transition in CaF. We also describe low-cost lasers and electronics developed for these experiments. Several versatile new instruments are based on 32-bit microcontrollers, interfaced to an Android tablet that provides a touch-screen graphical interface. These include a timing/ramp generator, a PZT driver, a temperature controller, and even a phase-synchronized dual 35-4000 MHz rf synthesizer that fits on a 2 1/4" × 4 3/4" board. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation. M.A. Chieda and E.E. Eyler, Phys. Rev. A 86, 053415 (2012); also Phys. Rev. A 84, 063401 (2011).
[Methods of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces].
Fisun, A Ia; Shamreĭ, V K; Marchenko, A A; Sinenchenko, A G; Pastushenkov, A V
2013-09-01
Dynamics of substance abuse morbidity in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation during the last 10 years (2002-2012) was analyzed. Results of performed analysis showed decreasing tendency since 2007 in conscripts (0.07% in 2012) and in contract soldiers (0.3% in 2012). Alcoholism prevailed in the structure of substance abuse in conscripts (0.05%), drug abuses were diagnosed 2,5 times less often (0.02%). In contract soldiers non-alcohol abuses were diagnosed in 0.004% of cases. It is stated that the major aims of substance abuse prevention are qualitative recruiting of military units (especially in troops maintaining the combat readiness) and departments (subunits) of military education, creating conditions for propaganda for healthy lifestyle, prohibition of drugs and psychopharmaceuticals in military units. For early detection of persons liable to substance abuse and facts of drug consumption it is necessary to perform a medical examination with the help of special program apparatus complex (such as "Addicts") and take into account clinical signs of addiction. Besides, it is necessary to introduce planned and unexpected medical examinations of servicemen. Algorithm of measures in case of detection of serviceman with alcohol or drug intoxication is given. In conclusion the main organizational principals of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces are given. PMID:24341196
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, E. A.
1983-04-01
A method is proposed for the analysis of the stationary regime of an electric circuit with nonlinearities described by arbitrary analytic functions under the effect of a finite number of harmonic electromotive forces. The method makes it possible to determine the complex amplitudes of harmonics on circuit elements as a power series of the emf amplitudes with coefficients that are functions of circuit-element parameters. The method can easily be programmed, and, on a digital computer, can be used to analyze relatively complex circuits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Boudou, L.; Makasheva, K.; Teyssedre, G.
2014-11-01
Charges injection and accumulation in the dielectric remains a critical issue, mainly because these phenomena are involved in a great number of failure mechanisms in cables or electronic components. Achieving a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to charge injection, transport and trapping under electrical stress and of the relevant interface phenomena is a high priority. The classical methods used for space charge density profile measurements have a limited spatial resolution, which prevents them being used for investigating thin dielectric layers or interface processes. Thus, techniques derived from atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been investigated more and more for this kind of application, but so far they have been limited by their lack of in-depth sensitivity. In this paper a new method for space charge probing is described, the electrostatic force distance curve (EFDC), which is based on electrostatic force measurements using AFM. A comparison with the results obtained using kelvin force microscopy (KFM) allowed us to highlight the fact that EFDC is sensitive to charges localized in the third-dimension.
Cutting Force Predication Based on Integration of Symmetric Fuzzy Number and Finite Element Method
Wang, Zhanli; Hu, Yanjuan; Wang, Yao; Dong, Chao; Pang, Zaixiang
2014-01-01
In the process of turning, pointing at the uncertain phenomenon of cutting which is caused by the disturbance of random factors, for determining the uncertain scope of cutting force, the integrated symmetric fuzzy number and the finite element method (FEM) are used in the prediction of cutting force. The method used symmetric fuzzy number to establish fuzzy function between cutting force and three factors and obtained the uncertain interval of cutting force by linear programming. At the same time, the change curve of cutting force with time was directly simulated by using thermal-mechanical coupling FEM; also the nonuniform stress field and temperature distribution of workpiece, tool, and chip under the action of thermal-mechanical coupling were simulated. The experimental result shows that the method is effective for the uncertain prediction of cutting force. PMID:24790556
Cutting force predication based on integration of symmetric fuzzy number and finite element method.
Wang, Zhanli; Hu, Yanjuan; Wang, Yao; Dong, Chao; Pang, Zaixiang
2014-01-01
In the process of turning, pointing at the uncertain phenomenon of cutting which is caused by the disturbance of random factors, for determining the uncertain scope of cutting force, the integrated symmetric fuzzy number and the finite element method (FEM) are used in the prediction of cutting force. The method used symmetric fuzzy number to establish fuzzy function between cutting force and three factors and obtained the uncertain interval of cutting force by linear programming. At the same time, the change curve of cutting force with time was directly simulated by using thermal-mechanical coupling FEM; also the nonuniform stress field and temperature distribution of workpiece, tool, and chip under the action of thermal-mechanical coupling were simulated. The experimental result shows that the method is effective for the uncertain prediction of cutting force. PMID:24790556
Savelberg, H H; Kooloos, J G; Huiskes, R; Kauer, J M
1993-11-01
A method has been developed to calculate the forces that are developed in the ligaments of a joint specimen during motions. This indirect method is needed since direct measurements fail in the case of small ligaments. As an example the small ligaments of the carpal joint are considered. The rationale of the method is that the force generated in a ligament depends on the amount of strain to which it is subjected and on its material characteristics. In the method presented the lengths of the ligaments are determined in vitro at several joint positions by means of röntgenstereophotogrammetry. The zero-force length and the force-elongation relationship are determined on the same ligaments isolated in a materials testing machine. Over a considerable part of the strain range the measurement errors are relatively small compared to the forces determined, less than 10%. The method is applicable to joints in situations where other measuring methods cannot be used. The present analysis shows, however, that the force values determined are susceptible to preconditioning of the ligaments. In preconditioned ligaments the forces could be up to 50% lower than in the non-preconditioned situation. This suggests that ligament forces may vary considerably in vivo, depending on the extent of preconditioning provoked by a particular function. PMID:8262996
Accurate force fields and methods for modelling organic molecular crystals at finite temperatures.
Nyman, Jonas; Pundyke, Orla Sheehan; Day, Graeme M
2016-06-21
We present an assessment of the performance of several force fields for modelling intermolecular interactions in organic molecular crystals using the X23 benchmark set. The performance of the force fields is compared to several popular dispersion corrected density functional methods. In addition, we present our implementation of lattice vibrational free energy calculations in the quasi-harmonic approximation, using several methods to account for phonon dispersion. This allows us to also benchmark the force fields' reproduction of finite temperature crystal structures. The results demonstrate that anisotropic atom-atom multipole-based force fields can be as accurate as several popular DFT-D methods, but have errors 2-3 times larger than the current best DFT-D methods. The largest error in the examined force fields is a systematic underestimation of the (absolute) lattice energy. PMID:27230942
A method of evaluating the dynamic response of materials to forced oscillation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujii, Yusaku
2006-07-01
An optical method of evaluating the dynamic response of materials to forced oscillation is proposed. The force acting on the material being tested is measured as the inertial force of the mass levitated with sufficiently small friction using an aerostatic linear bearing. The material is sandwiched between the mass and a linear actuator, which generates the oscillating force. During the oscillation measurement, the Doppler shift frequency of the laser beam reflected by the mass is measured with high accuracy using an optical interferometer. Then, the velocity, the position, the acceleration and the inertial force of the mass are calculated from the frequency. The velocity and position of the linear actuator are also measured using the optical interferometer. The dynamic response of a gel block to an oscillating force is determined by means of the proposed method.
Study on the Calculation of Magnetic Force Based on the Equivalent Magnetic Charge Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jiangang; Tan, Qingchang; Zhang, Yongqi; Zhang, Kuo
Magnetic drivers have been used widely in the pharmaceutical, chemical, petroleum, food and other industries with its perfect sealing without contact. Common method of calculating of the magnetic force are the Maxwell equations, empirical formulas, and he equivalent magnetic charge method as well. The Maxwell equations method is the most complicated and the empirical formulas method is the simplest with low accuracy. The equivalent magnetic charge method is simpler than the Maxwell equations method and more accurate than the empirical formulas method. In this paper, the magnetic force of the magnetic driver of reciprocate in line is calculated with the equivalent magnetic charge method and was compared with the experiment.
Method of generating and measuring static small force using down-slope component of gravity.
Fujii, Yusaku
2007-06-01
A method of generating and measuring static small forces at the micro-Newton level is proposed. In the method, the down-slope component of gravity acting on a mass on an inclined plane is used as a static force. To realize a linear motion of the mass with a small friction, an aerostatic linear bearing is used. The forces acting on the mass, such as the down-slope component of gravity and the dynamic frictional force, are determined by the levitation mass method. In an experiment, a static small force of approximately 183 microN is generated and measured with a standard uncertainty of approximately 2 microN. PMID:17614648
A rapid method for the evaluation of the ionic permeabilities across epithelial cell membranes.
Movileanu, L
1999-02-01
This short note presents a recipe for the calculation of the ionic permeabilities across epithelial cell membranes. The method requires the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz formalism as well as the consideration of the equivalent electrical circuit for an epithelial cell. The equivalent electrical circuit is solved in terms of the equivalent electromotive forces coupled in series with the ionic resistances of both cell membranes (apical and basolateral). The present procedure is feasible for any leaky epithelial cell membrane with the condition that this membrane (apical or basolateral) does not contain primary or secondary mechanisms for active transport. PMID:10100952
Improved accuracy for finite element structural analysis via a new integrated force method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Aiello, Robert A.; Berke, Laszlo
1992-01-01
A comparative study was carried out to determine the accuracy of finite element analyses based on the stiffness method, a mixed method, and the new integrated force and dual integrated force methods. The numerical results were obtained with the following software: MSC/NASTRAN and ASKA for the stiffness method; an MHOST implementation method for the mixed method; and GIFT for the integrated force methods. The results indicate that on an overall basis, the stiffness and mixed methods present some limitations. The stiffness method generally requires a large number of elements in the model to achieve acceptable accuracy. The MHOST method tends to achieve a higher degree of accuracy for course models than does the stiffness method implemented by MSC/NASTRAN and ASKA. The two integrated force methods, which bestow simultaneous emphasis on stress equilibrium and strain compatibility, yield accurate solutions with fewer elements in a model. The full potential of these new integrated force methods remains largely unexploited, and they hold the promise of spawning new finite element structural analysis tools.
Improved accuracy for finite element structural analysis via an integrated force method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, S. N.; Hopkins, D. A.; Aiello, R. A.; Berke, L.
1992-01-01
A comparative study was carried out to determine the accuracy of finite element analyses based on the stiffness method, a mixed method, and the new integrated force and dual integrated force methods. The numerical results were obtained with the following software: MSC/NASTRAN and ASKA for the stiffness method; an MHOST implementation method for the mixed method; and GIFT for the integrated force methods. The results indicate that on an overall basis, the stiffness and mixed methods present some limitations. The stiffness method generally requires a large number of elements in the model to achieve acceptable accuracy. The MHOST method tends to achieve a higher degree of accuracy for course models than does the stiffness method implemented by MSC/NASTRAN and ASKA. The two integrated force methods, which bestow simultaneous emphasis on stress equilibrium and strain compatibility, yield accurate solutions with fewer elements in a model. The full potential of these new integrated force methods remains largely unexploited, and they hold the promise of spawning new finite element structural analysis tools.
Measurement of Vocal Fold Collision Forces during Phonation: Methods and Preliminary Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gunter, Heather E.; Howe, Robert D.; Zeitels, Steven M.; Kobler, James B.; Hillman, Robert E.
2005-01-01
Forces applied to vocal fold tissue as the vocal folds collide may cause tissue injury that manifests as benign organic lesions. A novel method for measuring this quantity in humans in vivo uses a low-profile force sensor that extends along the length and depth of the glottis. Sensor design facilitates its placement and stabilization so that…
Extensions of the Ritz-Galerkin method for the forced, damped vibrations of structural elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leissa, A. W.; Young, T. H.
1984-01-01
The Ritz-Galerkin methods were used to obtain approximate solutions for free undamped, vibration problems. It is demonstrated that these same methods may be used straightforwardly to analyze forced vibrations with damping without requiring the free vibration eigenfunctions. It was shown that the Galerkin method is an effective technique for these types of problems. The Ritz method has the advantage that it does not need to satisfy the force-type boundary conditions, which is particularly important for plates and shells. Proper functionals representing the forcing and damping terms were developed. Two types of damping--viscous and material (hysteretic) are discussed. Distributed and concentrated exciting forces are treated. Numerical results are obtained for cantilevered beams and rectangular plates. The rates of convergence of the solutions are shown. Approximate solutions from the present methods are compared with the exact solutions for the cantilever beam.
Karatay, Durmus U; Zhang, Jie; Harrison, Jeffrey S; Ginger, David S
2016-04-25
Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) measurements on biomolecules typically require classifying thousands of repeated force spectra prior to data analysis. Here, we study classification of atomic force microscope-based DFS measurements using machine-learning algorithms in order to automate selection of successful force curves. Notably, we collect a data set that has a testable positive signal using photoswitch-modified DNA before and after illumination with UV (365 nm) light. We generate a feature set consisting of six properties of force-distance curves to train supervised models and use principal component analysis (PCA) for an unsupervised model. For supervised classification, we train random forest models for binary and multiclass classification of force-distance curves. Random forest models predict successful pulls with an accuracy of 94% and classify them into five classes with an accuracy of 90%. The unsupervised method using Gaussian mixture models (GMM) reaches an accuracy of approximately 80% for binary classification. PMID:27010122
Electrochemical methods for generation of a biological proton motive force
Zeikus, Joseph Gregory; Shin, Hyoun S.; Jain, Mahendra K.
2008-12-02
Disclosed are methods using neutral red to mediate the interconversion of chemical and electrical energy. Electrically reduced neutral red has been found to promote cell growth and formation of reduced products by reversibly increasing the ratio of the reduced:oxidized forms of NAD(H) or NADP(H). Electrically reduced neutral red is able to serve as the sole source of reducing power for microbial cell growth. Neutral red is also able to promote conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy by facilitating the transfer of electrons from microbial reducing power to a fuel cell cathode.
New method for assessment of gait variability based on wearable ground reaction force sensor.
Liu, Tao; Inoue, Yoshio; Shibata, Kyoko
2008-01-01
In this paper, a new quantitative method of analyzing gait variability using a developed wearable ground reaction force (GRF) sensor system is presented. The design of the sensor system is based on the use of five small 3-axial sensors distributed on the underside of a shoe, so that in human dynamics analysis this system can continuously measure vertical pressure force and bio-directional friction forces referring to anterior-posterior friction force and mediolateral friction force. Compared to existing spatio-temporal evaluation methods using traditional force plates or instrumented treadmills, the new method was developed based on measurements of ambulatory or wearable force sensor which can continuously measure ground reaction force in various environments not limited to the laboratory environment. The area of the center of pressure (CoP) distribution on the foot-plate and the average coefficient of variation of the 3-axial GRF, which correlate strongly with the distribution of CoP, are suggested parameters for quantifying gait variability. To certify the effectiveness of these parameters, we conducted an experimental study on a group of volunteer subjects who walked under a designed experimental protocol. PMID:19163171
A local damage detection approach based on restoring force method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, Chao; Li, Dongsheng; Li, Hongnan
2014-09-01
Chain-like systems have been studied by many researchers for their simple structure and wide range of application. Previously, the damage in a chain-like system was detected by the reduction of the mass-normalized stiffness coefficient for certain elements as reported by Nayeri et al. (2008 [16]). However, some shortcomings exist in that approach and for overcoming them; an improved approach is derived and presented in this paper. In our improved approach, the mass normalized stiffness coefficients under two states (baseline state and potentially damaged state) are first estimated by a least square method, then these mass-stiffness coupled coefficients are decoupled to derive stiffness and mass relative change ratios for individual elements. These ratios are assembled in a vector, which is defined as damage indication vector (DIV). Each component in DIV is normalized individually to one to get multiple solutions. These solutions are averaged for estimating relative system changes, while abnormal solutions are discarded. The work of judging a solution as normal or abnormal is done by a cluster analysis algorithm. The most intriguing merit of this improved approach is that the relative stiffness and mass changes, which are coupled in the previous approach, can be separately identified. By this approach, the damage (single or multiple) extent and location can be correctly detected under operational conditions, meanwhile the proposed damage index has a clear physical meaning and is directly related to the stiffness reduction of corresponding structural elements. For illustrating the effectiveness and robustness of the improved approach, numerical simulation of a four floor building was carried out and experimental data from a structure tested at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was employed. Identified structural changes with both simulation and experimental data properly indicated the location and extent of actual structural damage, which validated the proposed
Mundy, Peter D; Lake, Jason P; Carden, Patrick J C; Smith, Neal A; Lauder, Mike A
2016-03-01
There are two perceived criterion methods for measuring power output during the loaded countermovement jump (CMJ): the force platform method and the combined method (force platform + optoelectronic motion capture system). Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to assess agreement between the force platform method and the combined method measurements of peak power and mean power output during the CMJ across a spectrum of loads. Forty resistance-trained team sport athletes performed maximal effort CMJ with additional loads of 0 (body mass only), 25, 50, 75 and 100% of body mass (BM). Bias was present for peak velocity, mean velocity, peak power and mean power at all loads investigated, and present for mean force up to 75% of BM. Peak velocity, mean velocity, peak power and mean power 95% ratio limits of agreement were clinically unacceptable at all loads investigated. The 95% ratio limits of agreement were widest at 0% of BM and decreased linearly as load increased. Therefore, the force platform method and the combined method cannot be used interchangeably for measuring power output during the loaded CMJ. As such, if power output is to be meaningfully investigated, a standardised method must be adopted. PMID:27075378
Prediction of metallic nano-optical trapping forces by finite element-boundary integral method.
Pan, Xiao-Min; Xu, Kai-Jiang; Yang, Ming-Lin; Sheng, Xin-Qing
2015-03-01
The hybrid of finite element and boundary integral (FE-BI) method is employed to predict nano-optical trapping forces of arbitrarily shaped metallic nanostructures. A preconditioning strategy is proposed to improve the convergence of the iterative solution. Skeletonization is employed to speed up the design and optimization where iteration has to be repeated for each beam configuration. The radiation pressure force (RPF) is computed by vector flux of the Maxwell's stress tensor. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the developed method in analyzing the plasmonic effects as well as the optical trapping forces. It is shown that the proposed method is capable of predicting the trapping forces of complex metallic nanostructures accurately and efficiently. PMID:25836836
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akin-Ojo, Omololu; Song, Yang; Wang, Feng
2008-08-01
A new method called adaptive force matching (AFM) has been developed that is capable of producing high quality force fields for condensed phase simulations. This procedure involves the parametrization of force fields to reproduce ab initio forces obtained from condensed phase quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. During the procedure, the MM part of the QM/MM is iteratively improved so as to approach ab initio quality. In this work, the AFM method has been tested to parametrize force fields for liquid water so that the resulting force fields reproduce forces calculated using the ab initio MP2 and the Kohn-Sham density functional theory with the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) and Becke three-parameter LYP (B3LYP) exchange correlation functionals. The AFM force fields generated in this work are very simple to evaluate and are supported by most molecular dynamics (MD) codes. At the same time, the quality of the forces predicted by the AFM force fields rivals that of very expensive ab initio calculations and are found to successfully reproduce many experimental properties. The site-site radial distribution functions (RDFs) obtained from MD simulations using the force field generated from the BLYP functional through AFM compare favorably with the previously published RDFs from Car-Parrinello MD simulations with the same functional. Technical aspects of AFM such as the optimal QM cluster size, optimal basis set, and optimal QM method to be used with the AFM procedure are discussed in this paper.
An Energy Conservative Ray-Tracing Method With a Time Interpolation of the Force Field
Yao, Jin
2015-02-10
A new algorithm that constructs a continuous force field interpolated in time is proposed for resolving existing difficulties in numerical methods for ray-tracing. This new method has improved accuracy, but with the same degree of algebraic complexity compared to Kaisers method.
Thermal imbalance force modelling for a GPS satellite using the finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vigue, Yvonne; Schutz, Bob E.
1991-01-01
Methods of analyzing the perturbation due to thermal radiation and determining its effects on the orbits of GPS satellites are presented, with emphasis on the FEM technique to calculate satellite solar panel temperatures which are used to determine the magnitude and direction of the thermal imbalance force. Although this force may not be responsible for all of the force mismodeling, conditions may work in combination with the thermal imbalance force to produce such accelerations on the order of 1.e-9 m/sq s. If submeter accurate orbits and centimeter-level accuracy for geophysical applications are desired, a time-dependent model of the thermal imbalance force should be used, especially when satellites are eclipsing, where the observed errors are larger than for satellites in noneclipsing orbits.
A comparison of force reconstruction methods for a lumped mass beam
Bateman, V.I.; Mayes, R.L.; Carne, T.G.
1992-11-01
Two extensions of the force reconstruction method, the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT), are presented in this paper; and the results are compared to those obtained using SWAT. SWAT requires the use of the structure`s elastic mode shapes for reconstruction of the applied force. Although based on the same theory, the two, new techniques do not rely on mode shapes to reconstruct the applied force and may be applied to structures whose mode shapes are not available. One technique uses the measured force and acceleration responses with the rigid body mode shapes to calculate the scalar weighting vector, so the technique is called SWAT-CAL (SWAT using a CALibrated force input). The second technique uses only the free-decay time response of the structure with the rigid body mode shapes to calculate the scalar weighting vector and is called SWAT-TEEM (SWAT using Time Eliminated Elastic Modes).
A comparison of force reconstruction methods for a lumped mass beam
Bateman, V.I.; Mayes, R.L.; Carne, T.G.
1992-01-01
Two extensions of the force reconstruction method, the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT), are presented in this paper; and the results are compared to those obtained using SWAT. SWAT requires the use of the structure's elastic mode shapes for reconstruction of the applied force. Although based on the same theory, the two, new techniques do not rely on mode shapes to reconstruct the applied force and may be applied to structures whose mode shapes are not available. One technique uses the measured force and acceleration responses with the rigid body mode shapes to calculate the scalar weighting vector, so the technique is called SWAT-CAL (SWAT using a CALibrated force input). The second technique uses only the free-decay time response of the structure with the rigid body mode shapes to calculate the scalar weighting vector and is called SWAT-TEEM (SWAT using Time Eliminated Elastic Modes).
Borštnik, Urban; Miller, Benjamin T; Brooks, Bernard R; Janežič, Dušanka
2011-11-15
Parallelization is an effective way to reduce the computational time needed for molecular dynamics simulations. We describe a new parallelization method, the distributed-diagonal force decomposition method, with which we extend and improve the existing force decomposition methods. Our new method requires less data communication during molecular dynamics simulations than replicated data and current force decomposition methods, increasing the parallel efficiency. It also dynamically load-balances the processors' computational load throughout the simulation. The method is readily implemented in existing molecular dynamics codes and it has been incorporated into the CHARMM program, allowing its immediate use in conjunction with the many molecular dynamics simulation techniques that are already present in the program. We also present the design of the Force Decomposition Machine, a cluster of personal computers and networks that is tailored to running molecular dynamics simulations using the distributed diagonal force decomposition method. The design is expandable and provides various degrees of fault resilience. This approach is easily adaptable to computers with Graphics Processing Units because it is independent of the processor type being used. PMID:21793007
Estimation of cable tension force using the frequency-based system identification method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Byeong Hwa; Park, Taehyo
2007-07-01
This work proposes a new technique to estimate cable tension force from measured natural frequencies. The proposed method is able to simultaneously identify tension force, flexural rigidity, and axial rigidity of a cable system. Firstly, a finite element model that can consider both sag-extensibility and flexural rigidity is constructed for a target cable system. Next, a frequency-based sensitivity-updating algorithm is applied to identify the model. The proposed approach is applicable to a wide range of a cable system that is beyond the applicable limits of the existing methods. From the experimental works, it is seen that the tension force is determined with an accuracy of 3% by the proposed approach. Furthermore, it is observed that the flexural rigidity of cable with high bending stiffness is proportional to the applied tension force.
Dielectric Boundary Forces in Numerical Poisson-Boltzmann Methods: Theory and Numerical Strategies.
Cai, Qin; Ye, Xiang; Wang, Jun; Luo, Ray
2011-10-01
Continuum modeling of electrostatic interactions based upon the numerical solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation has been widely adopted in biomolecular applications. To extend their applications to molecular dynamics and energy minimization, robust and efficient methodologies to compute solvation forces must be developed. In this study, we have first reviewed the theory for the computation of dielectric boundary forces based on the definition of the Maxwell stress tensor. This is followed by a new formulation of the dielectric boundary force suitable for the finite-difference Poisson-Boltzmann methods. We have validated the new formulation with idealized analytical systems and realistic molecular systems. PMID:22125339
Dielectric boundary force in numerical Poisson-Boltzmann methods: Theory and numerical strategies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Qin; Ye, Xiang; Wang, Jun; Luo, Ray
2011-10-01
Continuum modeling of electrostatic interactions based upon the numerical solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation has been widely adopted in biomolecular applications. To extend their applications to molecular dynamics and energy minimization, robust and efficient methodologies to compute solvation forces must be developed. In this study, we have first reviewed the theory for the computation of dielectric boundary force based on the definition of the Maxwell stress tensor. This is followed by a new formulation of the dielectric boundary force suitable for the finite-difference Poisson-Boltzmann methods. We have validated the new formulation with idealized analytical systems and realistic molecular systems.
Apparatus and method for continuous electroplating. [Patent application
Conlon, T.P. Jr.; Holmes, S.D.
1981-11-19
An apparatus and method are disclosed for performing a continuous electroplating process upon an elongate conductive stock article. A closed housing assembly retaining an electroplating solution and having a conductive housing body and flexible, nonconductive end walls is connected to the positive pole of a source of electromotive force. The end walls have an aperture for receiving the conducting stock article in sliding and sealing contact. The stock article is connected to the negative pole of the source of electromotive force. The conductive housing body and the section of the conductive stock article within the housing body are coextensive, coaxial and spaced a uniform distance apart. The housing body has an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top allowing the housing assembly to fill completely with plating solution. The inlet has a reduced nozzle to create turbulence and spiral circulating motion of the plating solution moved by a pump connected by nonconductive conduits. The solution is circulated through an open reservoir. A coolant may be conveyed through the interior in a hollow stock article to cool the surface being electroplated. Different sizes of coaxial metal insert sleeves may be telescopically received in the housing body.
Element Library for Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis by the Integrated Force Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaljevic, Igor; Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.
1996-01-01
The Integrated Force Method, a recently developed method for analyzing structures, is extended in this paper to three-dimensional structural analysis. First, a general formulation is developed to generate the stress interpolation matrix in terms of complete polynomials of the required order. The formulation is based on definitions of the stress tensor components in term of stress functions. The stress functions are written as complete polynomials and substituted into expressions for stress components. Then elimination of the dependent coefficients leaves the stress components expressed as complete polynomials whose coefficients are defined as generalized independent forces. Such derived components of the stress tensor identically satisfy homogenous Navier equations of equilibrium. The resulting element matrices are invariant with respect to coordinate transformation and are free of spurious zero-energy modes. The formulation provides a rational way to calculate the exact number of independent forces necessary to arrive at an approximation of the required order for complete polynomials. The influence of reducing the number of independent forces on the accuracy of the response is also analyzed. The stress fields derived are used to develop a comprehensive finite element library for three-dimensional structural analysis by the Integrated Force Method. Both tetrahedral- and hexahedral-shaped elements capable of modeling arbitrary geometric configurations are developed. A number of examples with known analytical solutions are solved by using the developments presented herein. The results are in good agreement with the analytical solutions. The responses obtained with the Integrated Force Method are also compared with those generated by the standard displacement method. In most cases, the performance of the Integrated Force Method is better overall.
A calibration method for optical trap force by use of electrokinetic phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Youli; Zhang, Zhenxi; Zhang, Xiaolin
2006-09-01
An experimental method for calibration of optical trap force upon cells by use of electrokinetic phenomena is demonstrated. An electronkinetic sample chamber system (ESCS) is designed instead of a common sample chamber and a costly automatism stage, thus the experimental setup is simpler and cheaper. Experiments indicate that the range of the trap force measured by this method is piconewton and sub-piconewton, which makes it fit for study on non-damage interaction between light and biological particles with optical tweezers especially. Since this method is relevant to particle electric charge, by applying an alternating electric field, the new method may overcome the problem of correcting drag force and allow us to measure simultaneously optical trap stiffness and particle electric charge.
Multiple-mode nonlinear free and forced vibrations of beams using finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Chuh; Decha-Umphai, Kamolphan
1987-01-01
Multiple-mode nonlinear free and forced vibration of a beam is analyzed by the finite element method. The geometric nonlinearity is investigated. Inplane displacement and inertia (IDI) are also considered in the formulation. Harmonic force matrix is derived and explained. Nonlinear free vibration can be simply treated as a special case of the general forced vibration by setting the harmonic force matrix equal to zero. The effect of the higher modes is more pronouced for the clamped supported beam than the simply supported one. Beams without IDI yield more effect of the higher modes than the one with IDI. The effects of IDI are to reduce nonlinearity. For beams with end supports restrained from axial movement (immovable cases), only the hardening type nonlinearity is observed. However, beams of small slenderness ratio (L/R = 20) with movable end supports, the softening type nonlinearity is found. The concentrated force case yields a more severe response than the uniformly distributed force case. Finite element results are in good agreement with the solution of simple elliptic response, harmonic balance method, and Runge-Kutte method and experiment.
Zhu, X. S.; Wang, H. N.; Du, Z. L.; Fan, Y. L.
2013-05-10
We undertake an attempt to reconstruct the Sun's non-force-free magnetic field. The solar corona is often considered to be magnetohydrostatic. We solve the full MHD equations with a semi-realistic atmosphere model to attain this stationary state. Our method is tested with a Sun-like model which simulates the emergence of a magnetic flux rope passing from below the photosphere into the corona. Detailed diagnostics shows that our method can model the forced field more successfully than the optimization and potential method, but it still needs to be applied to real data.
Method for Six-Legged Robot Stepping on Obstacles by Indirect Force Estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yilin; Gao, Feng; Pan, Yang; Chai, Xun
2016-04-01
Adaptive gaits for legged robots often requires force sensors installed on foot-tips, however impact, temperature or humidity can affect or even damage those sensors. Efforts have been made to realize indirect force estimation on the legged robots using leg structures based on planar mechanisms. Robot Octopus III is a six-legged robot using spatial parallel mechanism(UP-2UPS) legs. This paper proposed a novel method to realize indirect force estimation on walking robot based on a spatial parallel mechanism. The direct kinematics model and the inverse kinematics model are established. The force Jacobian matrix is derived based on the kinematics model. Thus, the indirect force estimation model is established. Then, the relation between the output torques of the three motors installed on one leg to the external force exerted on the foot tip is described. Furthermore, an adaptive tripod static gait is designed. The robot alters its leg trajectory to step on obstacles by using the proposed adaptive gait. Both the indirect force estimation model and the adaptive gait are implemented and optimized in a real time control system. An experiment is carried out to validate the indirect force estimation model. The adaptive gait is tested in another experiment. Experiment results show that the robot can successfully step on a 0.2 m-high obstacle. This paper proposes a novel method to overcome obstacles for the six-legged robot using spatial parallel mechanism legs and to avoid installing the electric force sensors in harsh environment of the robot's foot tips.
Melnikov's method at a saddle-node and the dynamics of the forced Josephson junction
Schecter, S.
1987-11-01
A version of Melnikov's method is developed for time-periodic perturbations of a planar vector field having a separatrix loop at a saddle-node. The method is applied to the forced pendulum, or josephson junction, equation ..beta..phi+phi+sin=rho+epsilonsin..omega..t.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Hyunwook; Pan, Xiaomin; Lee, Changhoon; Choi, Jung-Il
2016-06-01
A novel immersed boundary (IB) method based on an implicit direct forcing (IDF) scheme is developed for incompressible viscous flows. The key idea for the present IDF method is to use a block LU decomposition technique in momentum equations with Taylor series expansion to construct the implicit IB forcing in a recurrence form, which imposes more accurate no-slip boundary conditions on the IB surface. To accelerate the IB forcing convergence during the iterative procedure, a pre-conditioner matrix is introduced in the recurrence formulation of the IB forcing. A Jacobi-type parameter is determined in the pre-conditioner matrix by minimizing the Frobenius norm of the matrix function representing the difference between the IB forcing solution matrix and the pre-conditioner matrix. In addition, the pre-conditioning parameter is restricted due to the numerical stability in the recurrence formulation. Consequently, the present pre-conditioned IDF (PIDF) enables accurate calculation of the IB forcing within a few iterations. We perform numerical simulations of two-dimensional flows around a circular cylinder and three-dimensional flows around a sphere for low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The result shows that PIDF yields a better imposition of no-slip boundary conditions on the IB surfaces for low Reynolds number with a fairly larger time step than IB methods with different direct forcing schemes due to the implicit treatment of the diffusion term for determining the IB forcing. Finally, we demonstrate the robustness of the present PIDF scheme by numerical simulations of flow around a circular array of cylinders, flows around a falling sphere, and two sedimenting spheres in gravity.
[Comparison of cell elasticity analysis methods based on atomic force microscopy indentation].
Wang, Zhe; Hao, Fengtao; Chen, Xiaohu; Yang, Zhouqi; Ding, Chong; Shang, Peng
2014-10-01
In order to investigate in greater detail the two methods based on Hertz model for analyzing force-distance curve obtained by atomic force microscopy, we acquired the force-distance curves of Hela and MCF-7 cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation in this study. After the determination of contact point, Young's modulus in different indentation depth were calculated with two analysis methods of "two point" and "slope fitting". The results showed that the Young's modulus of Hela cell was higher than that of MCF-7 cell,which is in accordance with the F-actin distribution of the two types of cell. We found that the Young's modulus of the cells was decreased with increasing indentation depth and the curve trends by "slope fitting". This indicated that the "slope fitting" method could reduce the error caused by the miscalculation of contact point. The purpose of this study was to provide a guidance for researcher to choose an appropriate method for analyzing AFM indentation force-distance curve. PMID:25764725
Yang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lei; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Bo
2016-01-01
This paper presents an induced voltage linear extraction method for disturbing force self-sensing in the application of giant magnetostrictive actuators (GMAs). In this method, a Kelvin bridge combined with an active device is constructed instead of a conventional Wheatstone bridge for extraction of the induced voltage, and an additional GMA is adopted as a reference actuator in the self-sensing circuit in order to balance the circuit bridge. The linear fitting of the measurement data is done according to the linear relationship between the disturbing forces and the integral of the induced voltage. The experimental results confirm the good performance of the proposed method, and the self-sensitivity of the disturbing forces is better than 2.0 (mV·s)/N. PMID:27213399
Dynamic Analysis With Stress Mode Animation by the Integrated Force Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.
1997-01-01
Dynamic animation of stresses and displacements, which complement each other, can be a useful tool in the analysis and design of structural components. At the present time only displacement-mode animation is available through the popular stiffness formulation. This paper attempts to complete this valuable visualization tool by augmenting the existing art with stress mode animation. The reformulated method of forces, which in the literature is known as the integrated force method (IFM), became the analyzer of choice for the development of stress mode animation because stresses are the primary unknowns of its dynamic analysis. Animation of stresses and displacements, which have been developed successfully through the IFM analyzers, is illustrated in several examples along with a brief introduction to IFM dynamic analysis. The usefulness of animation in design optimization is illustrated considering the spacer structure component of the International Space Station as an example. An overview of the integrated force method analysis code (IFM/ANALYZERS) is provided in the appendix.
A new facility to realize a nanonewton force standard based on electrostatic methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesterov, V.; Mueller, M.; Frumin, L. L.; Brand, U.
2009-06-01
A new differential nanoforce facility, based on a disc-pendulum with electrostatic stiffness reduction and an electrostatic force compensation for the measurement of horizontal forces in the range below 1 µN, is presented. First measurements in air over an averaging time of 50 s show a noise level of the facility of 42 pN. The method and the results of measuring the light pressure of a red He-Ne laser with a power of 7 mW (FL = 47 pN) are presented. The force measurement uncertainty of the device is below 5%, for a force to be measured of 1 nN and a measuring duration of 50 s.
Isospin-violating nucleon-nucleon forces using the method of unitary transformation
Evgeny Epelbaum; Ulf-G. Meissner
2005-02-01
Recently, we have derived the leading and subleading isospin-breaking three-nucleon forces using the method of unitary transformation. In the present work we extend this analysis and consider the corresponding two-nucleon forces using the same approach. Certain contributions to the isospin-violating one- and two-pion exchange potential have already been discussed by various groups within the effective field theory framework. Our findings agree with the previously obtained results. In addition, we present the expressions for the subleading charge-symmetry-breaking two-pion exchange potential which were not considered before. These corrections turn out to be numerically important. Together with the three-nucleon force results presented in our previous work, the results of the present study specify completely isospin-violating nuclear force up to the order {Lambda}{sup 5}.
Method and apparatus for adaptive force and position control of manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)
1989-01-01
The present invention discloses systematic methods and apparatus for the design of real time controllers. Real-time control employs adaptive force/position by use of feedforward and feedback controllers, with the feedforward controller being the inverse of the linearized model of robot dynamics and containing only proportional-double-derivative terms is disclosed. The feedback controller, of the proportional-integral-derivative type, ensures that manipulator joints follow reference trajectories and the feedback controller achieves robust tracking of step-plus-exponential trajectories, all in real time. The adaptive controller includes adaptive force and position control within a hybrid control architecture. The adaptive controller, for force control, achieves tracking of desired force setpoints, and the adaptive position controller accomplishes tracking of desired position trajectories. Circuits in the adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers are varied by adaptation laws.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wijesinghe, Philip; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.
2016-03-01
Accurate quantification of forces, applied to, or generated by, tissue, is key to understanding many biomechanical processes, fabricating engineered tissues, and diagnosing diseases. Many techniques have been employed to measure forces; in particular, tactile imaging - developed to spatially map palpation-mimicking forces - has shown potential in improving the diagnosis of cancer on the macro-scale. However, tactile imaging often involves the use of discrete force sensors, such as capacitive or piezoelectric sensors, whose spatial resolution is often limited to 1-2 mm. Our group has previously presented a type of tactile imaging, termed optical palpation, in which the change in thickness of a compliant layer in contact with tissue is measured using optical coherence tomography, and surface forces are extracted, with a micro-scale spatial resolution, using a one-dimensional spring model. We have also recently combined optical palpation with compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) to quantify stiffness. A main limitation of this work, however, is that a one-dimensional spring model is insufficient in describing the deformation of mechanically heterogeneous tissue with uneven boundaries, generating significant inaccuracies in measured forces. Here, we present a computational, finite-element method, which we term computational optical palpation. In this technique, by knowing the non-linear mechanical properties of the layer, and from only the axial component of displacement measured by phase-sensitive OCE, we can estimate, not only the axial forces, but the three-dimensional traction forces at the layer-tissue interface. We use a non-linear, three-dimensional model of deformation, which greatly increases the ability to accurately measure force and stiffness in complex tissues.
Gatti, Christopher J.; Doro, Lisa Case; Langenderfer, Joseph E.; Mell, Amy G.; Maratt, Joseph D.; Carpenter, James E.; Hughes, Richard E.
2008-01-01
Background Accurate prediction of in vivo muscle forces is essential for relevant analyses of musculoskeletal biomechanics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three methods for predicting muscle forces of the shoulder by comparing calculated muscle parameters, which relate electromyographic activity to muscle forces. Methods Thirteen subjects performed sub-maximal, isometric contractions consisting of six actions about the shoulder and two actions about the elbow. Electromyography from 12 shoulder muscles and internal shoulder moments were used to determine muscle parameters using traditional multiple linear regression, principal-components regression, and a sequential muscle parameter determination process using principal-components regression. Muscle parameters were evaluated based on their sign (positive or negative), standard deviations, and error between the measured and predicted internal shoulder moments. Findings It was found that no method was superior with respect to all evaluation criteria. The sequential principal-components regression method most frequently produced muscle parameters that could be used to estimate muscle forces, multiple regression best predicted the measured internal shoulder moments, and the results of principal-components regression fell between those of sequential principal-components regression and multiple regression. Interpretation The selection of a muscle parameter estimation method should be based on the importance of the evaluation criteria. Sequential principal-components regression should be used if a greater number of physiologically accurate muscle forces are desired, while multiple regression should be used for a more accurate prediction of measured internal shoulder moments. However, all methods produced muscle parameters which can be used to predict in vivo muscle forces of the shoulder. PMID:17945401
Finite Element Method Based Modeling for Prediction of Cutting Forces in Micro-end Milling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pratap, Tej; Patra, Karali
2016-04-01
Micro-end milling is one of the widely used processes for producing micro features/components in micro-fluidic systems, biomedical applications, aerospace applications, electronics and many more fields. However in these applications, the forces generated in the micro-end milling process can cause tool vibration, process instability and even cause tool breakage if not minimized. Therefore, an accurate prediction of cutting forces in micro-end milling is essential. In this work, a finite element method based model is developed using ABAQUS/Explicit 6.12 software for prediction of cutting forces in micro-end milling with due consideration of tool edge radius effect, thermo-mechanical properties and failure parameters of the workpiece material including friction behaviour at tool-chip interface. Experiments have been performed for manufacturing of microchannels on copper plate using 500 µm diameter tungsten carbide micro-end mill and cutting forces are acquired through a dynamometer. Predicted cutting forces in feed and cross feed directions are compared with experimental results and are found to be in good agreements. Results also show that FEM based simulations can be applied to analyze size effects of specific cutting forces in micro-end milling process.
Proteus: a direct forcing method in the simulations of particulate flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhi-Gang; Michaelides, Efstathios E.
2005-01-01
A new and efficient direct numerical method for the simulation of particulate flows is introduced. The method combines desired elements of the immersed boundary method, the direct forcing method and the lattice Boltzmann method. Adding a forcing term in the momentum equation enforces the no-slip condition on the boundary of a moving particle. By applying the direct forcing scheme, Proteus eliminates the need for the determination of free parameters, such as the stiffness coefficient in the penalty scheme or the two relaxation parameters in the adaptive-forcing scheme. The method presents a significant improvement over the previously introduced immersed-boundary-lattice-Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) where the forcing term was computed using a penalty method and a user-defined parameter. The method allows the enforcement of the rigid body motion of a particle in a more efficient way. Compared to the "bounce-back" scheme used in the conventional LBM, the direct-forcing method provides a smoother computational boundary for particles and is capable of achieving results at higher Reynolds number flows. By using a set of Lagrangian points to track the boundary of a particle, Proteus eliminates any need for the determination of the boundary nodes that are prescribed by the "bounce-back" scheme at every time step. It also makes computations for particles of irregular shapes simpler and more efficient. Proteus has been developed in two- as well as three-dimensions. This new method has been validated by comparing its results with those from experimental measurements for a single sphere settling in an enclosure under gravity. As a demonstration of the efficiency and capabilities of the present method, the settling of a large number (1232) of spherical particles is simulated in a narrow box under two different boundary conditions. It is found that when the no-slip boundary condition is imposed at the front and rear sides of the box the particles motion is significantly hindered
Guo, Ying; Lu, Qingyou; Hou, Yubin
2014-05-15
We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is <10% of the total static friction force, which can help increase output force greatly. The piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope.
A self-force approach to the two-body problem: The Green function method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casals, Marc
2016-06-01
The inspiral of a stellar-mass astrophysical object into a massive black hole may be modeled within perturbation theory of General Relativity via the so-called self-force. In this paper, we present a novel method for the calculation of the self-force which is based on the Green function (GF) of the wave equation satisfied by the field created by the smaller object. We review the results in [M. Casals, S. Dolan, A. C. Ottewill and B. Wardell, Phys. Rev. D 88 (2013) 044022; B. Wardell, C. R. Galley, A. Zenginoğlu, M. Casals, S. R. Dolan and A. C. Ottewill, Phys. Rev. D 89 (2014) 084021] on the GF and the self-force on a scalar charge (as a model for the gravitational case) moving on a Schwarzschild black hole spacetime. This GF method offers an appealing geometrical insight into the origin of the self-force and is a promising candidate for practical self-force calculations.
A general method for computing the total solar radiation force on complex spacecraft structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, F. K.
1981-01-01
The method circumvents many of the existing difficulties in computational logic presently encountered in the direct analytical or numerical evaluation of the appropriate surface integral. It may be applied to complex spacecraft structures for computing the total force arising from either specular or diffuse reflection or even from non-Lambertian reflection and re-radiation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaljevic, Igor; Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.
1996-01-01
The Integrated Force Method has been developed in recent years for the analysis of structural mechanics problems. This method treats all independent internal forces as unknown variables that can be calculated by simultaneously imposing equations of equilibrium and compatibility conditions. In this paper a finite element library for analyzing two-dimensional problems by the Integrated Force Method is presented. Triangular- and quadrilateral-shaped elements capable of modeling arbitrary domain configurations are presented. The element equilibrium and flexibility matrices are derived by discretizing the expressions for potential and complementary energies, respectively. The displacement and stress fields within the finite elements are independently approximated. The displacement field is interpolated as it is in the standard displacement method, and the stress field is approximated by using complete polynomials of the correct order. A procedure that uses the definitions of stress components in terms of an Airy stress function is developed to derive the stress interpolation polynomials. Such derived stress fields identically satisfy the equations of equilibrium. Moreover, the resulting element matrices are insensitive to the orientation of local coordinate systems. A method is devised to calculate the number of rigid body modes, and the present elements are shown to be free of spurious zero-energy modes. A number of example problems are solved by using the present library, and the results are compared with corresponding analytical solutions and with results from the standard displacement finite element method. The Integrated Force Method not only gives results that agree well with analytical and displacement method results but also outperforms the displacement method in stress calculations.
Flow force and torque on submerged bodies in lattice-Boltzmann methods via momentum exchange.
Giovacchini, Juan P; Ortiz, Omar E
2015-12-01
We review the momentum exchange method to compute the flow force and torque on a submerged body in lattice-Boltzmann methods by presenting an alternative derivation. Our derivation does not depend on a particular implementation of the boundary conditions at the body surface, and it relies on general principles. After the introduction of the momentum exchange method in lattice-Boltzmann methods, some formulations were introduced to compute the fluid force on static and moving bodies. These formulations were introduced in a rather intuitive, ad hoc way. In our derivation, we recover the proposals most frequently used, in some cases with minor corrections, gaining some insight into the two most used formulations. At the end, we present some numerical tests to compare different approaches on a well-known benchmark test that support the correctness of the formulas derived. PMID:26764848
Flow force and torque on submerged bodies in lattice-Boltzmann methods via momentum exchange
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovacchini, Juan P.; Ortiz, Omar E.
2015-12-01
We review the momentum exchange method to compute the flow force and torque on a submerged body in lattice-Boltzmann methods by presenting an alternative derivation. Our derivation does not depend on a particular implementation of the boundary conditions at the body surface, and it relies on general principles. After the introduction of the momentum exchange method in lattice-Boltzmann methods, some formulations were introduced to compute the fluid force on static and moving bodies. These formulations were introduced in a rather intuitive, ad hoc way. In our derivation, we recover the proposals most frequently used, in some cases with minor corrections, gaining some insight into the two most used formulations. At the end, we present some numerical tests to compare different approaches on a well-known benchmark test that support the correctness of the formulas derived.
Simulation method of Kelvin probe force microscopy at nanometer range and its application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masago, A.; Tsukada, M.; Shimizu, M.
2010-11-01
The partitioned-real-space density-functional-based tight-binding (PR-DFTB) method is proposed as a simulation method for calculating the quantum electronic states in Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). This method can be used when a tip is set on a sample surface with a nonorbital-hybridization distance and an applied bias voltage. The PR-DFTB method can perform self-consistent calculations of a system that consists of two subsystems (the tip and the sample). Each subsystem is expressed by a block element of the Fock matrix and thus is characterized by the Fermi level in the block element. Consequently, charge distributions on the two subsystems can be calculated individually. Furthermore, charge redistributions in the subsystems induced by approach of them under an applied bias voltage can also be calculated. Using the proposed PR-DFTB method, we can clarify the mechanism by observing the local contact potential difference (LCPD). Unlike the conventional description of the Kelvin force, the force acting between a biased tip and a sample depends not only on the net charge transferred between the tip and the sample but also on the multipole forces generated by the microscopic charge distribution within the tip and the sample. This is the mechanism responsible for observing the “apparent” LCPD. KPFM images generated from the minimum bias voltage in the force-bias curve (i.e., LCPD images) are theoretically simulated using tip models for a Si or hydrogenated Si cluster for simple models of a Si(111)-c(4×2) surface, a monohydride Si(001) surface with/without a defect, and a Si(111)-(5×5) dimer-adatom-stacking fault (DAS) surface.
Equation-of-motion approach of spin-motive force
Yamane, Yuta; Ieda, Jun'ichi; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Barnes, Stewart E.
2011-04-01
We formulate a quantitative theory of an electromotive force of spin origin, i.e., spin-motive force, by the equation-of-motion approach. In a ferromagnetic metal, electrons couple to the local magnetization via the exchange interaction. The electrons are affected by spin dependent forces due to this interaction and the spin-motive force and the anomalous Hall effect appears. We have revealed that the origin of these phenomena is a misalignment between the conduction electron spin and the local magnetization.
Joint strength measurements of individual fiber-fiber bonds: An atomic force microscopy based method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmied, Franz J.; Teichert, Christian; Kappel, Lisbeth; Hirn, Ulrich; Schennach, Robert
2012-07-01
We are introducing a method to measure tensile strength of individual fiber-fiber bonds within a breaking force range of 0.01 mN-1 mN as well as the energy consumed during breaking. Until now, such a method was not available. Using a conventional atomic force microscope and a specifically designed sample holder, the desired force and the breaking behavior can be analyzed by two different approaches. First, dynamic loading can be applied, where force-versus-distance curves are employed to determine the proportions of elastic energy and energy dissipated in the bond. Second, static loading is utilized to study viscoelastic behavior and calculate viscoelastic energy contributions. To demonstrate the capability of the proposed method, we are presenting results for breaking strength of kraft pulp fiber-fiber bonds in tensile opening mode. The procedure is by no means restricted to cellulose fibers, it has the potential to quantify joint strength of micrometer-sized fibers in general.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xueyong; Ma, Jianguo
2006-11-01
A new method for simultaneous measuring the applanation force and area and a device based on this method are presented for intraocular pressure measurement. A photoelectric probe transducer acting as applalation area detector converted the diminished quantity of light returned from applanation surface of the cone prism into one electronic signal, and a micro strain gauge acting as applation force detector converted changing load related to the resilient force of the eye into another electronic signal. A 16-bit single-chip microprocessor with E2PROM in the electronic circuit played the role of a nucleus, which stored the program instructions and the interrelated data. Laboratory experiments were carried out on a stimulated cornea clamped in a Perspex chamber connected to a hydraulic manometer to obtain intraocular pressure at different levels. Preliminary trials were carried out comparing the values obtained with those of the Goldmann tonometer. Diminished quantity of the light is directly proportional to the applanation area of the cornea and the changing load detected by strain gauge is equated to the resilient force of the eye. A new kind of tonometer can be constructed based on this principle. Experimental results on a stimulated eyeball showed the present tonometer reading has good agreement with that of the Goldmann tonometer. Further study including clinical trials and application is required to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of this method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xin; Mares, Jesus; Groven, Lori J.; Son, Steven F.; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Raman, Arvind
2015-01-01
Most explosives are micro- and nanoscale composite material systems consisting of energetic crystals, amorphous particles, binders, and additives whose response to mechanical, thermal, or electromagnetic insults is often controlled by submicrometer-scale heterogeneities and interfaces. Several advanced dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, including phase imaging, force volume mode, and Kelvin probe force microscopy with resonance enhancement for dielectric property mapping, have been used to map the local physical properties of mock explosive materials systems, allowing the identification of submicrometer heterogeneities in electrical and mechanical properties that could lead to the formation of hotspots under electromagnetic or mechanical stimuli. The physical interpretation of the property maps and the methods of image formation are presented. Possible interpretations of the results and future applications to energetic material systems are also discussed.
A method of improving the dynamic response of 3D force/torque sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osypiuk, Rafał; Piskorowski, Jacek; Kubus, Daniel
2016-02-01
In the paper attention is drawn to adverse dynamic properties of filters implemented in commercial measurement systems, force/torque sensors, which are increasingly used in industrial robotics. To remedy the problem, it has been proposed to employ a time-variant filter with appropriately modulated parameters, owing to which it is possible to suppress the amplitude of the transient response and, at the same time, to increase the pulsation of damped oscillations; this results in the improvement of dynamic properties in terms of reducing the duration of transients. This property plays a key role in force control and in the fundamental problem of the robot establishing contact with rigid environment. The parametric filters have been verified experimentally and compared with filters available for force/torque sensors manufactured by JR3. The obtained results clearly indicate the advantages of the proposed solution, which may be an interesting alternative to the classic methods of filtration.
Validation of engineering methods for predicting hypersonic vehicle controls forces and moments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maughmer, M.; Straussfogel, D.; Long, L.; Ozoroski, L.
1991-01-01
This work examines the ability of the aerodynamic analysis methods contained in an industry standard conceptual design code, the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS II), to estimate the forces and moments generated through control surface deflections from low subsonic to high hypersonic speeds. Predicted control forces and moments generated by various control effectors are compared with previously published wind-tunnel and flight-test data for three vehicles: the North American X-15, a hypersonic research airplane concept, and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Qualitative summaries of the results are given for each force and moment coefficient and each control derivative in the various speed ranges. Results show that all predictions of longitudinal stability and control derivatives are acceptable for use at the conceptual design stage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunc, K.
1983-02-01
It is shown how the variation of lattice dynamical force constants caused by substitutional isoelectronic impurities can be evaluated ab initio. The approach, illustrated on the example of Al in GaAs, is based on local density functional and uses ionic pseudopotentials of Al, Ga, As as the only input; Hellmann-Feynman theorem is applied in order to extract from self-consistent electronic charge densities the forces acting on atoms in periodic patterns in which entire planes of impurities are displaced. The defect-induced variations of inter planar force constants are converted into the inter atomic ones, which can be compared with those determined by phenomenological models from the measured local mode frequencies. A method is presented which allows to account for the effect of relaxation without requiring an explicit determination of the latter. Particular problems resulting from dealing with entire plane of defects are discussed and an estimate for relaxation is given.
Prediction of atomic force microscope probe dynamics through the receptance coupling method
Mehrpouya, M.; Park, S. S.
2011-12-15
The increased growth in the use of tip-based sensing, manipulations, and fabrication of devices in atomic force microscopy (AFM) necessitates the accurate prediction of the dynamic behavior of the AFM probe. The chip holder, to which the micro-sensing device is attached, and the rest of the AFM system can affect the overall dynamics of the probe. In order to consider these boundary effects, we propose a novel receptance coupling method to mathematically combine the dynamics of the AFM setup and probe, based on the equilibrium and compatibility conditions at the joint. Once the frequency response functions of displacement over force at the tool tip are obtained, the dynamic interaction forces between the tip and the sample in nanoscale can be determined by measuring the probe tip displacement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Luca, R.
2009-01-01
It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity v[subscript A] under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B[subscript 0], an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force…
The effect of acceleration versus displacement methods on steady-state boundary forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcghee, D. S.
1992-01-01
This study describes the acceleration and displacement methods for use in the recovery of coupled system boundary forces. A simple two degree of freedom system has been used for illustration. The effect of the choice of method for use with indeterminate or over-constrained boundaries has been investigated. It has specifically looked at results from a simple two dimensional beam problem using both methods. Much work has been done on the effect of Craig-Bampton modal truncation system displacements and forces, however, little work has been done on system level modal truncation. The findings of this study indicate that the effect of this system level truncation is significant. This may be particularly true for the 35 Hz system cutoff frequency that is required by the space shuttle. From this study's findings, recommendations for areas of study with space shuttle payload systems are made.
A fast high-order method to calculate wakefield forces in an electron beam
Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad; Ryne, Robert D.
2012-03-22
In this paper we report on a high-order fast method to numerically calculate wakefield forces in an electron beam given a wake function model. This method is based on a Newton-Cotes quadrature rule for integral approximation and an FFT method for discrete summation that results in an O(Nlog(N)) computational cost, where N is the number of grid points. Using the Simpson quadrature rule with an accuracy of O(h4), where h is the grid size, we present numerical calculation of the wakefields from a resonator wake function model and from a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wake model. Besides the fast speed and high numerical accuracy, the calculation using the direct line density instead of the first derivative of the line density avoids numerical filtering of the electron density function for computing the CSR wakefield force. I. INTRODUCTION
New method of space debris cleaning based on light negative force: tractor laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Qiongge; Gao, Long; Li, Chen
2016-01-01
This paper presents a new way of space debris removal and protection, that is, using tractor laser, which based on light negative force, to achieve space debris cleaning and shielded. Tractor laser is traceable from the theory of optical tweezers, accompanied with non-diffraction beam. These kind of optical beams have the force named negative force pointing to optical source, this will bring the object along the trajectory of laser beam moving to the optical source. The negative force leads to the new method to convey and sampling the space micro-objects. In this paper, the application of tractor laser in the space debris collection and protection of 1cm is studied. The application of the several tractor beams in the space debris and sample collection is discussed. The proposed method can reduce the requirements of the laser to the satellite platform, and realize the collection of space debris, make the establishment of the space garbage station possible, and help to study the spatial non contact sample transmission and reduce the risk of space missions.
Accurate computation of surface stresses and forces with immersed boundary methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goza, Andres; Liska, Sebastian; Morley, Benjamin; Colonius, Tim
2016-09-01
Many immersed boundary methods solve for surface stresses that impose the velocity boundary conditions on an immersed body. These surface stresses may contain spurious oscillations that make them ill-suited for representing the physical surface stresses on the body. Moreover, these inaccurate stresses often lead to unphysical oscillations in the history of integrated surface forces such as the coefficient of lift. While the errors in the surface stresses and forces do not necessarily affect the convergence of the velocity field, it is desirable, especially in fluid-structure interaction problems, to obtain smooth and convergent stress distributions on the surface. To this end, we show that the equation for the surface stresses is an integral equation of the first kind whose ill-posedness is the source of spurious oscillations in the stresses. We also demonstrate that for sufficiently smooth delta functions, the oscillations may be filtered out to obtain physically accurate surface stresses. The filtering is applied as a post-processing procedure, so that the convergence of the velocity field is unaffected. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method by computing stresses and forces that converge to the physical stresses and forces for several test problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenke, Martin Günter; Santschi, Christian; Hoffmann, Patrik
2008-02-01
Accurate simultaneous measurements on the topography and electrostatic force field of 500nm pitch interdigitated electrodes embedded in a thin SiO2 layer in a plane perpendicular to the orientation of the electrodes are shown for the first time. A static force distance curve (FDC) based method has been developed, which allows a lateral and vertical resolution of 25 and 2nm, respectively. The measured force field distribution remains stable as result of the well controlled fabrication procedure of Pt cantilever tips that allows thousands of FDC measurements. A numerical model is established as well which demonstrates good agreement with the experimental results.
Daniell method for power spectral density estimation in atomic force microscopy.
Labuda, Aleksander
2016-03-01
An alternative method for power spectral density (PSD) estimation--the Daniell method--is revisited and compared to the most prevalent method used in the field of atomic force microscopy for quantifying cantilever thermal motion--the Bartlett method. Both methods are shown to underestimate the Q factor of a simple harmonic oscillator (SHO) by a predictable, and therefore correctable, amount in the absence of spurious deterministic noise sources. However, the Bartlett method is much more prone to spectral leakage which can obscure the thermal spectrum in the presence of deterministic noise. By the significant reduction in spectral leakage, the Daniell method leads to a more accurate representation of the true PSD and enables clear identification and rejection of deterministic noise peaks. This benefit is especially valuable for the development of automated PSD fitting algorithms for robust and accurate estimation of SHO parameters from a thermal spectrum. PMID:27036781
Structure prediction of an S-layer protein by the mean force method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horejs, C.; Pum, D.; Sleytr, U. B.; Tscheliessnig, R.
2008-02-01
S-layer proteins have a wide range of application potential due to their characteristic features concerning self-assembling, assembling on various surfaces, and forming of isoporous structures with functional groups located on the surface in an identical position and orientation. Although considerable knowledge has been experimentally accumulated on the structure, biochemistry, assemble characteristics, and genetics of S-layer proteins, no structural model at atomic resolution has been available so far. Therefore, neither the overall folding of the S-layer proteins—their tertiary structure—nor the exact amino acid or domain allocations in the lattices are known. In this paper, we describe the tertiary structure prediction for the S-layer protein SbsB from Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2. This calculation was based on its amino acid sequence using the mean force method (MF method) achieved by performing molecular dynamic simulations. This method includes mainly the thermodynamic aspects of protein folding as well as steric constraints of the amino acids and is therefore independent of experimental structure analysis problems resulting from biochemical properties of the S-layer proteins. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed in vacuum using the simulation software NAMD. The obtained tertiary structure of SbsB was systematically analyzed by using the mean force method, whereas the verification of the structure is based on calculating the global free energy minimum of the whole system. This corresponds to the potential of mean force, which is the thermodynamically most favorable conformation of the protein. Finally, an S-layer lattice was modeled graphically using CINEMA4D and compared with scanning force microscopy data down to a resolution of 1nm. The results show that this approach leads to a thermodynamically favorable atomic model of the tertiary structure of the protein, which could be verified by both the MF Method and the lattice model.
A novel measuring method of clamping force for electrostatic chuck in semiconductor devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kesheng, Wang; Jia, Cheng; Yin, Zhong; Linhong, Ji
2016-04-01
Electrostatic chucks are one of the core components of semiconductor devices. As a key index of electrostatic chucks, the clamping force must be controlled within a reasonable range. Therefore, it is essential to accurately measure the clamping force. To reduce the negative factors influencing measurement precision and repeatability, this article presents a novel method to measure the clamping force and we elaborate both the principle and the key procedure. A micro-force probe component is introduced to monitor, adjust, and eliminate the gap between the wafer and the electrostatic chuck. The contact force between the ruby probe and the wafer is selected as an important parameter to characterize de-chucking, and we have found that the moment of de-chucking can be exactly judged. Moreover, this article derives the formula calibrating equivalent action area of backside gas pressure under real working conditions, which can effectively connect the backside gas pressure at the moment of de-chucking and the clamping force. The experiments were then performed on a self-designed measuring platform. The de-chucking mechanism is discussed in light of our analysis of the experimental data. Determination criteria for de-chucking point are summed up. It is found that the relationship between de-chucking pressure and applied voltage conforms well to quadratic equation. Meanwhile, the result reveals that actual de-chucking behavior is much more complicated than the description given in the classical empirical formula. Project supported by No. 02 National Science and Technology Major Project of China (No. 2011ZX02403-004).
Study on Two Methods for Nonlinear Force-Free Extrapolation Based on Semi-Analytical Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, S.; Zhang, H. Q.; Su, J. T.; Song, M. T.
2011-03-01
In this paper, two semi-analytical solutions of force-free fields (Low and Lou, Astrophys. J. 352, 343, 1990) have been used to test two nonlinear force-free extrapolation methods. One is the boundary integral equation (BIE) method developed by Yan and Sakurai ( Solar Phys. 195, 89, 2000), and the other is the approximate vertical integration (AVI) method developed by Song et al. ( Astrophys. J. 649, 1084, 2006). Some improvements have been made to the AVI method to avoid the singular points in the process of calculation. It is found that the correlation coefficients between the first semi-analytical field and extrapolated field using the BIE method, and also that obtained by the improved AVI method, are greater than 90% below a height 10 of the 64×64 lower boundary. For the second semi-analytical field, these correlation coefficients are greater than 80% below the same relative height. Although differences between the semi-analytical solutions and the extrapolated fields exist for both the BIE and AVI methods, these two methods can give reliable results for heights of about 15% of the extent of the lower boundary.
Method of simultaneous measurement of two direction force and temperature using FBG sensor head.
Kisała, Piotr; Cięszczyk, Sławomir
2015-04-01
This paper presents a method for measuring two components of bending force and temperature using one sensor head. Indirect inference based on the spectra of two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) placed on a cantilever beam is used. The method was developed during work on the inverse problem of determining a nonuniform stress distribution based on FBG spectra. A gradient in the FBG stress profile results in a characteristic shape of its reflective spectrum. The simultaneous measurements of force and temperature were possible through the use of an appropriate layout of the sensor head. The spectral characteristics of the sensor's gratings do not retain full symmetry, which is due to the geometry of the sensor's head and the related difference in the distribution of the axial stress of the gratings. In the proposed approach, the change in width of the sum of the normalized transmission spectra was used to determine the value of the applied force. In the presented method, an increase in the sensitivity of this change to the force is obtained relative to the other known systems. A change in the spectral width was observed for an increase in bending forces from 0 to 150 N. The sensitivity coefficient of the spectral width to force, defined as the ratio of the change of the spectral half-width to the change in force was 2.6e-3 nm/N for the first grating and 1.2e-3 nm/N for the second grating. However, the sensitivity of the whole sensor system was 5.8e-3 nm/N, which is greater than the sum of the sensitivities of the individual gratings. For the purpose of this work, a station with a thermal chamber has been designed with a bracket on which fiber optic transducers have been mounted for use in further measurements. The sensor head in this experiment is considered to be a universal device with potential applications in other types of optical sensors, and it can be treated as a module for development through its multiplication on a single optical fiber. PMID
Another method to compute the thermodynamic Casimir force in lattice models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasenbusch, Martin
2009-12-01
We discuss a method that allows us to compute the thermodynamic Casimir force at a given temperature in lattice models by performing a single Monte Carlo simulation. It is analogous to the one used by de Forcrand and co-workers in the study of ‘t Hooft loops and the interface tension in SU(N) lattice gauge models in four dimensions. We test the method at the example of thin films in the XY universality class. In particular we simulate the improved two-component ϕ4 model on the simple cubic lattice. This allows us to compare with our previous study, where we have computed the Casimir force by numerically integrating energy densities over the inverse temperature.
The fast multipole method and point dipole moment polarizable force fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coles, Jonathan P.; Masella, Michel
2015-01-01
We present an implementation of the fast multipole method for computing Coulombic electrostatic and polarization forces from polarizable force-fields based on induced point dipole moments. We demonstrate the expected O(N) scaling of that approach by performing single energy point calculations on hexamer protein subunits of the mature HIV-1 capsid. We also show the long time energy conservation in molecular dynamics at the nanosecond scale by performing simulations of a protein complex embedded in a coarse-grained solvent using a standard integrator and a multiple time step integrator. Our tests show the applicability of fast multipole method combined with state-of-the-art chemical models in molecular dynamical systems.
Another method to compute the thermodynamic Casimir force in lattice models.
Hasenbusch, Martin
2009-12-01
We discuss a method that allows us to compute the thermodynamic Casimir force at a given temperature in lattice models by performing a single Monte Carlo simulation. It is analogous to the one used by de Forcrand and co-workers in the study of 't Hooft loops and the interface tension in SU(N) lattice gauge models in four dimensions. We test the method at the example of thin films in the XY universality class. In particular we simulate the improved two-component phi4 model on the simple cubic lattice. This allows us to compare with our previous study, where we have computed the Casimir force by numerically integrating energy densities over the inverse temperature. PMID:20365131
The fast multipole method and point dipole moment polarizable force fields.
Coles, Jonathan P; Masella, Michel
2015-01-14
We present an implementation of the fast multipole method for computing Coulombic electrostatic and polarization forces from polarizable force-fields based on induced point dipole moments. We demonstrate the expected O(N) scaling of that approach by performing single energy point calculations on hexamer protein subunits of the mature HIV-1 capsid. We also show the long time energy conservation in molecular dynamics at the nanosecond scale by performing simulations of a protein complex embedded in a coarse-grained solvent using a standard integrator and a multiple time step integrator. Our tests show the applicability of fast multipole method combined with state-of-the-art chemical models in molecular dynamical systems. PMID:25591340
The Adaptive Biasing Force Method: Everything You Always Wanted To Know but Were Afraid To Ask
2014-01-01
In the host of numerical schemes devised to calculate free energy differences by way of geometric transformations, the adaptive biasing force algorithm has emerged as a promising route to map complex free-energy landscapes. It relies upon the simple concept that as a simulation progresses, a continuously updated biasing force is added to the equations of motion, such that in the long-time limit it yields a Hamiltonian devoid of an average force acting along the transition coordinate of interest. This means that sampling proceeds uniformly on a flat free-energy surface, thus providing reliable free-energy estimates. Much of the appeal of the algorithm to the practitioner is in its physically intuitive underlying ideas and the absence of any requirements for prior knowledge about free-energy landscapes. Since its inception in 2001, the adaptive biasing force scheme has been the subject of considerable attention, from in-depth mathematical analysis of convergence properties to novel developments and extensions. The method has also been successfully applied to many challenging problems in chemistry and biology. In this contribution, the method is presented in a comprehensive, self-contained fashion, discussing with a critical eye its properties, applicability, and inherent limitations, as well as introducing novel extensions. Through free-energy calculations of prototypical molecular systems, many methodological aspects are examined, from stratification strategies to overcoming the so-called hidden barriers in orthogonal space, relevant not only to the adaptive biasing force algorithm but also to other importance-sampling schemes. On the basis of the discussions in this paper, a number of good practices for improving the efficiency and reliability of the computed free-energy differences are proposed. PMID:25247823
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piche, Steffanie
Understanding the impact of coastal forests on the propagation of rapidly advancing onshore tsunami bores is difficult due to complexity of this phenomenon and the large amount of parameters which must be considered. The research presented in the thesis focuses on understanding the protective effect of the coastal forest on the forces generated by the tsunami and its ability to reduce the propagation and velocity of the incoming tsunami bore. Concern for this method of protecting the coast from tsunamis is based on the effectiveness of the forest and its ability to withstand the impact forces caused by both the bore and the debris carried along by it. The devastation caused by the tsunami has been investigated in recent examples such as the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in Japan and the Indian Ocean Tsunami which occurred in 2004. This research examines the reduction of the spatial extent of the tsunami bore inundation and runup due to the presence of the coastal forest, and attempts to quantify the impact forces induced by the tsunami bores and debris impact on the structures. This research work was performed using a numerical model based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method which is a single-phase three-dimensional model. The simulations performed in this study were separated into three sections. The first section focused on the reduction of the extent of the tsunami inundation and the magnitude of the bore velocity by the coastal forest. This section included the analysis of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the individual trees. The second section involved the numerical modeling of some of the physical laboratory experiments performed by researchers at the University of Ottawa, in cooperation with colleagues from the Ocean, Coastal and River Engineering Lab at the National Research Council, Ottawa, in an attempt to validate the movement and impact forces of floating driftwood on a column. The final section modeled the movement and impact of floating debris
Daniell method for power spectral density estimation in atomic force microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labuda, Aleksander
2016-03-01
An alternative method for power spectral density (PSD) estimation—the Daniell method—is revisited and compared to the most prevalent method used in the field of atomic force microscopy for quantifying cantilever thermal motion—the Bartlett method. Both methods are shown to underestimate the Q factor of a simple harmonic oscillator (SHO) by a predictable, and therefore correctable, amount in the absence of spurious deterministic noise sources. However, the Bartlett method is much more prone to spectral leakage which can obscure the thermal spectrum in the presence of deterministic noise. By the significant reduction in spectral leakage, the Daniell method leads to a more accurate representation of the true PSD and enables clear identification and rejection of deterministic noise peaks. This benefit is especially valuable for the development of automated PSD fitting algorithms for robust and accurate estimation of SHO parameters from a thermal spectrum.
Mochizuki, Masahito; Oguchi, Masahiro; Kim, Seong-Oh; Jackman, Joshua A; Ogawa, Tetsu; Lkhamsuren, Ganchimeg; Cho, Nam-Joon; Hayashi, Tomohiro
2015-07-28
Peptide coatings on material surfaces have demonstrated wide application across materials science and biotechnology, facilitating the development of nanobio interfaces through surface modification. A guiding motivation in the field is to engineer peptides with a high and selective binding affinity to target materials. Herein, we introduce a quantitative force mapping method in order to evaluate the binding affinity of peptides to various hydrophilic oxide materials by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Statistical analysis of adhesion forces and probabilities obtained on substrates with a materials contrast enabled us to simultaneously compare the peptide binding affinity to different materials. On the basis of the experimental results and corresponding theoretical analysis, we discuss the role of various interfacial forces in modulating the strength of peptide attachment to hydrophilic oxide solid supports as well as to gold. The results emphasize the precision and robustness of our approach to evaluating the adhesion strength of peptides to solid supports, thereby offering guidelines to improve the design and fabrication of peptide-coated materials. PMID:26125092
A method to study precision grip control in viscoelastic force fields using a robotic gripper.
Lambercy, Olivier; Metzger, Jean-Claude; Santello, Marco; Gassert, Roger
2015-01-01
Instrumented objects and multipurpose haptic displays have commonly been used to investigate sensorimotor control of grasping and manipulation. A major limitation of these devices, however, is the extent to which the experimenter can vary the interaction dynamics to fully probe sensorimotor control mechanisms. We propose a novel method to study precision grip control using a grounded robotic gripper with two moving, mechanically coupled finger pads instrumented with force sensors. The device is capable of stably rendering virtual mechanical properties with a wide dynamic range of achievable impedances. Eight viscoelastic force fields with different combinations of stiffness and damping parameters were implemented, and tested on eight healthy subjects performing 30 consecutive repetitions of a grasp, hold, and release task with time and position constraints. Rates of thumb and finger force were found to be highly correlated (r>0.9) during grasping, revealing that, despite the mechanical coupling of the two finger pads, subjects performed grasping movements in a physiological fashion. Subjects quickly adapted to the virtual dynamics (within seven trials), but, depending on the presented force field condition, used different control strategies to correctly perform the task. The proof of principle presented in this paper underscores the potential of such a one-degree-of-freedom robotic gripper to study neural control of grasping, and to provide novel insights on sensorimotor control mechanisms. PMID:25014953
Generalization of Faraday's Law to include nonconservative spin forces.
Barnes, S E; Maekawa, S
2007-06-15
The usual Faraday's Law E=-dPhi/dt determines an electromotive force E which accounts only for forces resulting from the charge of electrons. In ferromagnetic materials, in general, there exist nonconservative spin forces which also contribute to E. These might be included in Faraday's Law if the magnetic flux Phi is replaced by [Planck's constant/(-e)]gamma, where gamma is a Berry phase suitably averaged over the electron spin direction. These contributions to E represent the requirements of energy conservation in itinerant ferromagnets with time dependent order parameters. PMID:17677979
Inoue, S.; Magara, T.; Choe, G. S.; Kim, K. S.; Pandey, V. S.; Shiota, D.; Kusano, K.
2014-01-01
We develop a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation code based on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) relaxation method. We extend the classical MHD relaxation method in two important ways. First, we introduce an algorithm initially proposed by Dedner et al. to effectively clean the numerical errors associated with ∇ · B . Second, the multigrid type method is implemented in our NLFFF to perform direct analysis of the high-resolution magnetogram data. As a result of these two implementations, we successfully extrapolated the high resolution force-free field introduced by Low and Lou with better accuracy in a drastically shorter time. We also applied our extrapolation method to the MHD solution obtained from the flux-emergence simulation by Magara. We found that NLFFF extrapolation may be less effective for reproducing areas higher than a half-domain, where some magnetic loops are found in a state of continuous upward expansion. However, an inverse S-shaped structure consisting of the sheared and twisted loops formed in the lower region can be captured well through our NLFFF extrapolation method. We further discuss how well these sheared and twisted fields are reconstructed by estimating the magnetic topology and twist quantitatively.
Bouchard, Richard R.; Hsu, Stephen J.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Rouze, Ned C.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.; Trahey, Gregg E.
2011-01-01
A noninvasive method of characterizing myocardial stiffness could have significant implications in diagnosing cardiac disease. Acoustic radiation force (ARF)–driven techniques have demonstrated their ability to discern elastic properties of soft tissue. For the purpose of myocardial elasticity imaging, a novel ARF-based imaging technique, the displacement ratio rate (DRR) method, was developed to rank the relative stiffnesses of dynamically varying tissue. The basis and performance of this technique was demonstrated through numerical and phantom imaging results. This new method requires a relatively small temporal (<1 ms) and spatial (tenths of mm2) sampling window and appears to be independent of applied ARF magnitude. The DRR method was implemented in two in vivo canine studies, during which data were acquired through the full cardiac cycle by imaging directly on the exposed epicardium. These data were then compared with results obtained by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and shear wave velocimetry, with the latter being used as the gold standard. Through the cardiac cycle, velocimetry results portray a range of shear wave velocities from 0.76–1.97 m/s, with the highest velocities observed during systole and the lowest observed during diastole. If a basic shear wave elasticity model is assumed, such a velocity result would suggest a period of increased stiffness during systole (when compared with diastole). Despite drawbacks of the DRR method (i.e., sensitivity to noise and limited stiffness range), its results predicted a similar cyclic stiffness variation to that offered by velocimetry while being insensitive to variations in applied radiation force. PMID:21645966
Estimation of tensile force in tie-rods using a frequency-based identification method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amabili, M.; Carra, S.; Collini, L.; Garziera, R.; Panno, A.
2010-05-01
A technique is developed to identify in-situ the tensile force in tie-rods which are used in ancient monumental masonry buildings to eliminate the lateral load exercised by the vaults and arcs. The technique is based on a frequency-based identification method that allows to minimize the measurement error and that is of simple execution. In particular, the first natural frequencies of the tie-rods are experimentally identified by measuring the frequency response functions (FRFs) with instrumented hammer excitation; four to six natural frequencies can be easily identified with a simple test. Then, a numerical model, based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method, is developed for the axially loaded tie-rod by using the Timoshenko beam theory retaining shear deformation and rotary inertia. Non-uniform section of the rod is considered since this is often the case for hand-made tie-rods in old buildings. The part of the tie-rod inserted inside the masonry wall is also modeled and a simple support is assumed at the extremities inside the walls. The constraints given to the part of the tie-rod inserted inside the masonry structure are assumed to be elastic foundations. The tensile force and the stiffness of the foundation are the unknowns. In some cases, the length of the rod inside the masonry wall can be also assumed as unknown. The numerical model is used to calculate the natural frequencies for a given set of unknowns. Then, a weighted difference between the calculated and identified natural frequencies is calculated and this difference is minimized in order to identify the unknowns, and in particular the tensile force. An estimation of the error in the identification of the force is given. The technique has been tested on five tie-rods at the ground floor of the famous castle of Fontanellato, Italy.
Magnetic Forces Simulation of Bulk HTS over Permanent Magnetic Railway with Numerical Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yiyun; Zhuang, Shujun
2012-10-01
Magnetic levitation forces of bulk high temperature superconductor (HTS) above two types permanent magnet railway (PMR) is simulated using finite element method (FEM). The models are formulated by H-formulation and resolving codes is developed using Finite Element Program Generator (FEPG). The E- J power law is used to describe the electrical field vs. current density nonlinear characteristic of HTS. The applied magnetic fields induced by the PMR are calculated by the standard analysis method with the equivalent surface current model. By the method, the calculation formulation of magnetic fields generated by Halbach PMR and symmetrical PMR is derived respectively. The simulation results show that the finite element dynamic mesh rebuilding problem of HTS magnetic levitation transportation system comprised of bulk HTS and PMR can be easily avoided by the methods.
A direct micropipette-based calibration method for atomic force microscope cantilevers
Liu, Baoyu; Yu, Yan; Yao, Da-Kang; Shao, Jin-Yu
2009-01-01
In this report, we describe a direct method for calibrating atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers with the micropipette aspiration technique (MAT). A closely fitting polystyrene bead inside a micropipette is driven by precisely controlled hydrostatic pressures to apply known loads on the sharp tip of AFM cantilevers, thus providing a calibration at the most functionally relevant position. The new method is capable of calibrating cantilevers with spring constants ranging from 0.01 to hundreds of newtons per meter. Under appropriate loading conditions, this new method yields measurement accuracy and precision both within 10%, with higher performance for softer cantilevers. Furthermore, this method may greatly enhance the accuracy and precision of calibration for colloidal probes. PMID:19566228
Perspectives on the simulation of protein-surface interactions using empirical force field methods.
Latour, Robert A
2014-12-01
Protein-surface interactions are of fundamental importance for a broad range of applications in the fields of biomaterials and biotechnology. Present experimental methods are limited in their ability to provide a comprehensive depiction of these interactions at the atomistic level. In contrast, empirical force field based simulation methods inherently provide the ability to predict and visualize protein-surface interactions with full atomistic detail. These methods, however, must be carefully developed, validated, and properly applied before confidence can be placed in results from the simulations. In this perspectives paper, I provide an overview of the critical aspects that I consider being of greatest importance for the development of these methods, with a focus on the research that my combined experimental and molecular simulation groups have conducted over the past decade to address these issues. These critical issues include the tuning of interfacial force field parameters to accurately represent the thermodynamics of interfacial behavior, adequate sampling of these types of complex molecular systems to generate results that can be comparable with experimental data, and the generation of experimental data that can be used for simulation results evaluation and validation. PMID:25028242
A method for embedding circular force-free flux ropes in potential magnetic fields
Titov, V. S.; Török, T.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.
2014-08-01
We propose a method for constructing approximate force-free equilibria in pre-eruptive configurations in which a thin force-free flux rope is embedded into a locally bipolar-type potential magnetic field. The flux rope is assumed to have a circular-arc axis, a circular cross-section, and electric current that is either concentrated in a thin layer at the boundary of the rope or smoothly distributed across it with a maximum of the current density at the center. The entire solution is described in terms of the magnetic vector potential in order to facilitate the implementation of the method in numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) codes that evolve the vector potential rather than the magnetic field itself. The parameters of the flux rope can be chosen so that its subsequent MHD relaxation under photospheric line-tied boundary conditions leads to nearly exact numerical equilibria. To show the capabilities of our method, we apply it to several cases with different ambient magnetic fields and internal flux-rope structures. These examples demonstrate that the proposed method is a useful tool for initializing data-driven simulations of solar eruptions.
A method for atomic force microscopy cantilever stiffness calibration under heavy fluid loading
Kennedy, Scott J.; Cole, Daniel G.; Clark, Robert L.
2009-12-15
This work presents a method for force calibration of rectangular atomic force microscopy (AFM) microcantilevers under heavy fluid loading. Theoretical modeling of the thermal response of microcantilevers is discussed including a fluid-structure interaction model of the cantilever-fluid system that incorporates the results of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. This model is curve fit to the measured thermal response of a cantilever in de-ionized water and a cost function is used to quantify the difference between the theoretical model and measured data. The curve fit is performed in a way that restricts the search space to parameters that reflect heavy fluid loading conditions. The resulting fitting parameters are used to calibrate the cantilever. For comparison, cantilevers are calibrated using Sader's method in air and the thermal noise method in both air and water. For a set of eight cantilevers ranging in stiffness from 0.050 to 5.8 N/m, the maximum difference between Sader's calibration performed in air and the new method performed in water was 9.4%. A set of three cantilevers that violate the aspect ratio assumption associated with the fluid loading model (length-to-width ratios less than 3.5) ranged in stiffness from 0.85 to 4.7 N/m and yielded differences as high as 17.8%.
Roush, James R.; Davies, George J.; Ellenbecker, Todd S.; Rauh, Mitchell J.
2009-01-01
Background The importance of the scapular stabilizing muscles has led to an increased interest in quantitative measurements of their strength. Few studies have measured isometric or concentric isokinetic forces. Additionally, limited reports exist on the reliability of objective measures for testing scapular protraction and retraction muscle strength or scapular testing that does not involve the glenohumeral joint. Objective To determine the reliability of four new methods of measuring the maximal isometric strength of key scapular stabilizing muscles for the actions of protraction and retraction, both with and without the involvement of the glenohumeral (GH) joint. Methods The Isobex® stationary tension dynamometer was used to measure the maximal isometric force (kg) on thirty healthy females (ages 22–26 years). Three measures were taken for each method that was sequentially randomized for three separate testing sessions on three nonconsecutive days. Results Intraclass correlations (ICC2,3) for intrasession reliability and (ICC3,3) for intersession reliability ranged from 0.95 to 0.98, and 0.94 to 0.96 respectively. The standard errors of measurement (95% confidence interval [CI]) were narrow. Scatter grams for both protraction and retraction testing methods demonstrated a significant relationship, 0.92 for protraction (95% CI 0.83 to 0.96) and 0.93 for retraction (95% CI 0.87 to 0.97). Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement between the two methods for measuring protraction strength but a weaker agreement for the two methods measuring retraction strength. Discussion/Conclusion The four new methods assessed in this study indicate reliable options for measuring scapular protraction or retraction isometric strength with or without involving the GH joint for young healthy females. PMID:21509104
Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Stieg, Adam Z; Gimzewski, James K
2012-06-15
A general method based on the combination of electrostatic force microscopy with thermal cycling of the substrate holder is presented for direct, nanoscale characterization of the pyroelectric effect in a range of materials and sample configurations using commercial atomic force microscope systems. To provide an example of its broad applicability, the technique was applied to the examination of natural tourmaline gemstones. The method was validated using thermal cycles similar to those experienced in ambient conditions, where the induced pyroelectric response produced localized electrostatic surface charges whose magnitude demonstrated a correlation with the iron content and heat dissipation of each gemstone variety. In addition, the surface charge was shown to persist even at thermal equilibrium. This behavior is attributed to constant, stochastic cooling of the gemstone surface through turbulent contact with the surrounding air and indicates a potential utility for energy harvesting in applications including environmental sensors and personal electronics. In contrast to previously reported methods, ours has a capacity to carry out such precise nanoscale measurements with little or no restriction on the sample of interest, and represents a powerful new tool for the characterization of pyroelectric materials and devices. PMID:22595697
A body-force based method to generate supersonic equilibrium turbulent boundary layer profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waindim, M.; Gaitonde, D. V.
2016-01-01
We further develop a simple counterflow body force-based approach to generate an equilibrium spatially developing turbulent boundary layer suitable for Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) or Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of viscous-inviscid interactions. The force essentially induces a small separated region in an incoming specified laminar boundary layer. The resulting unstable shear layer then transitions and breaks down to yield the desired unsteady profile. The effects of wall thermal conditions are explored to demonstrate the capability of the method for both fixed wall and adiabatic wall conditions. We then describe an efficient method to select parameters that ensure transition by examining precursor signatures using generalized stability variables. These precursors are shown to be evident in a computational domain spanning only a small region around the trip and can also be detected using 2D simulations. Finally, the method is tested for different Mach numbers ranging from 1.7 to 2.9, with emphasis on flow field surveys, Reynolds stresses, and energy spectra. These results provide guidance on boundary conditions for desired boundary layer thickness at each Mach number. The consequences of using a much lower Reynolds number in computation relative to experiment are evident at the higher Mach number, where a self sustaining turbulent boundary layer is more difficult to obtain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.
2012-06-01
A general method based on the combination of electrostatic force microscopy with thermal cycling of the substrate holder is presented for direct, nanoscale characterization of the pyroelectric effect in a range of materials and sample configurations using commercial atomic force microscope systems. To provide an example of its broad applicability, the technique was applied to the examination of natural tourmaline gemstones. The method was validated using thermal cycles similar to those experienced in ambient conditions, where the induced pyroelectric response produced localized electrostatic surface charges whose magnitude demonstrated a correlation with the iron content and heat dissipation of each gemstone variety. In addition, the surface charge was shown to persist even at thermal equilibrium. This behavior is attributed to constant, stochastic cooling of the gemstone surface through turbulent contact with the surrounding air and indicates a potential utility for energy harvesting in applications including environmental sensors and personal electronics. In contrast to previously reported methods, ours has a capacity to carry out such precise nanoscale measurements with little or no restriction on the sample of interest, and represents a powerful new tool for the characterization of pyroelectric materials and devices.
Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits
Campbell, Ann. N.; Anderson, Richard E.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.
1995-01-01
A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits.
Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits
Campbell, A.N.; Anderson, R.E.; Cole, E.I. Jr.
1995-11-07
A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits are disclosed. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits. 17 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pamadi, Bandu N.; Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.
1987-01-01
A semi-empirical method is presented for the estimation of aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a steadily spinning (rotating) light airplane. The airplane is divided into wing, body, and tail surfaces. The effect of power is ignored. The strip theory is employed for each component of the spinning airplane to determine its contribution to the total aerodynamic coefficients. Then, increments to some of the coefficients which account for centrifugal effect are estimated. The results are compared to spin tunnel rotary balance test data.
Quasi-ellipsoidal heads to ASME Code under internal pressure stress analysis by the Force Method
Guedes, E.
1996-12-01
Torispherically-dished pressure vessel heads that meet Section VIII of the ASME Code can be completely analyzed by means of the so-called Force Method. Thus combined normal stresses (pressure plus radial growth plus bending) at the shell junctures that make up those heads may be determined to a good degree of accuracy, along with the ideal bending-free location of the welding line (circumferential joint that connects head to shell). As a useful consequence, head skirt is kept to a safe minimum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdevicius, Marijonas; Zygiene, Rasa; Bureika, Gintautas; Dailydka, Stasys
2016-05-01
The simplified method to determine a vertical impact force of wheel with flat and rail interaction is presented in this article. The presented simplified method can be used to identify maximum contact force and its distribution in the contact length between the damaged wheel and the rail. The vertical impact force depends on geometrical parameters of the rail and wheel with flat, speed of vehicle and the angle of deviation of rail. This article demonstrates the influence of wheel with flat geometrical parameters, speed of vehicle to maximum contact force and its distribution in the contact zone. The obtained values of the simplified method for determination of a vertical contact force are compared with the results obtained from field measurements.
Evaluation of slice shear force as an objective method of assessing beef longissimus tenderness.
Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M
1999-10-01
Experiments were conducted to develop an optimal protocol for measurement of slice shear force (SSF) and to evaluate SSF as an objective method of assessing beef longissimus tenderness. Whereas six cylindrical, 1.27-cm-diameter cores are typically removed from each steak for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determination, a single 1-cm-thick, 5-cm-long slice is removed from the lateral end of each longissimus steak for SSF. For either technique, samples are removed parallel to the muscle fiber orientation and sheared across the fibers. Whereas WBSF uses a V-shaped blade, SSF uses a flat blade with the same thickness (1.016 mm) and degree of bevel (half-round) on the shearing edge. In Exp. 1, longissimus steaks were acquired from 60 beef carcasses to determine the effects of belt grill cooking rate (very rapid vs. rapid) and conditions of SSF measurement (hot vs cold) on the relationship of SSF with trained sensory panel (TSP) tenderness rating. Slice shear force was more strongly correlated with TSP tenderness rating when SSF measurement was conducted immediately after cooking (r = -.74 to -.76) than when steaks were chilled (24 h, 4 degrees C) before SSF measurement (r = -.57 to -.72). When SSF measurement was conducted immediately after cooking, the relationship of SSF with TSP tenderness rating did not differ among the belt grill cooking protocols used to cook the SSF steak. In Exp. 2, longissimus steaks were acquired from 479 beef carcasses to compare the ability of SSF and WBSF of 1.27-cm-diameter cores to predict TSP tenderness ratings. Slice shear force was more strongly correlated with sensory panel tenderness rating than was WBSF (r = -.82 vs -.77). In Exp. 3, longissimus steaks were acquired from 110 beef carcasses to evaluate the repeatability (.91) of SSF over a broad range of tenderness. Slice shear force is a more rapid, more accurate, and technically less difficult technique than WBSF. Use of the SSF technique could facilitate the collection of
The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods
Hooff, Miranda Van; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Davies, Christopher E.; Searle, Amelia K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Verhagen, Alan; Benassi, Helen; Hodson, Stephanie E.
2014-01-01
Background The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. Objective The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening methods, and identify specific occupational factors that influence mental health. This paper describes the design, sampling strategies, and methodology used in this study. Method At Phase 1, approximately half of all regular Navy, Army, and Air Force personnel (n=24,481) completed self-report questionnaires. At Phase 2, a stratified sub-sample (n=1,798) completed a structured diagnostic interview to detect mental disorder. Based on data from non-responders, data were weighted to represent the entire ADF population (n=50,049). Results One in five ADF members met criteria for a 12-month mental disorder (22%). The most common disorder category was anxiety disorders (14.8%), followed by affective (9.5%) and alcohol disorders (5.2%). At risk ADF sub-groups were Army personnel, and those in the lower ranks. Deployment status did not have an impact on mental disorder rates. Conclusion This study has important implications for mental health service delivery for Australian and international military personnel as well as contemporary veterans. PMID:25206944
A multipole accelerated desingularized method for computing nonlinear wave forces on bodies
Scorpio, S.M.; Beck, R.F.
1996-12-31
Nonlinear wave forces on offshore structures are investigated. The fluid motion is computed using an Euler-Lagrange time domain approach. Nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are stepped forward in time using an accurate and stable integration technique. The field equation with mixed boundary conditions that result at each time step are solved at N nodes using a desingularized boundary integral method with multipole acceleration. Multipole accelerated solutions require O(N) computational effort and computer storage while conventional solvers require O(N{sup 2}) effort and storage for an iterative solution and O(N{sup 3}) effort for direct inversion of the influence matrix. These methods are applied to the three dimensional problem of wave diffraction by a vertical cylinder.
A finite-volume numerical method to calculate fluid forces and rotordynamic coefficients in seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Athavale, M. M.; Przekwas, A. J.; Hendricks, R. C.
1992-01-01
A numerical method to calculate rotordynamic coefficients of seals is presented. The flow in a seal is solved by using a finite-volume formulation of the full Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate turbulence models. The seal rotor is perturbed along a diameter such that the position of the rotor is a sinusoidal function of time. The resulting flow domain changes with time, and the time-dependent flow in the seal is solved using a space conserving moving grid formulation. The time-varying fluid pressure reaction forces are then linked with the rotor center displacement, velocity and acceleration to yield the rotordynamic coefficients. Results for an annular seal are presented, and compared with experimental data and other more simplified numerical methods.
Wave system fitting: A new method for force measurements in shock tunnels with long test duration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Changtong; Wang, Yunpeng; Wang, Chun; Jiang, Zonglin
2015-10-01
Force measurements in shock tunnels are difficult due to the existence of vibrations excited by a sudden aerodynamic loading. Accelerometer inertia compensation could reduce its negative effect to some extent, but has inherent problems. A new signal decomposition method, wave system fitting (WSF), is proposed to remove vibration waves of low frequency. The WSF is accelerometer-free. It decomposes the balance signal and can separate vibration waves without the influence on the DC component, and it does work no matter the cycle of the sample signal is complete or not. As a standard signal post-processing tool in JF-12, the application results show that it works reliably with high accuracy, and it can also explain puzzling signals encountered in JF-12. WSF method is especially useful and irreplaceable whenever only a few cycles of a periodic signal could be obtained, as is usual for shock tunnels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Jianping; Zhu, Zhanxia; Ming, Zhenfeng; Luo, Qiuyue
2015-07-01
This paper proposes an innovative method for simulating space microgravity effects. The new approach combines the neutral buoyancy and the electromagnetic force on the tested-body to balance the gravity and simulate the microgravity effects. In the paper, we present in some detail the magnetism-buoyancy hybrid microgravity simulation system, its components, functions and verification. We describe some key techniques such as ground-space similarity, the homogenization of electromagnetic field, the precise control of microgravity effects in dynamic environment, measurement in the hybrid suspension system. With this innovative microgravity simulation system, we prove through experiments and tests that our innovative method is feasible and effective and that the simulation fidelity is even higher than the neutral buoyancy system.
An efficient algorithm using matrix methods to solve wind tunnel force-balance equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, D. L.
1972-01-01
An iterative procedure applying matrix methods to accomplish an efficient algorithm for automatic computer reduction of wind-tunnel force-balance data has been developed. Balance equations are expressed in a matrix form that is convenient for storing balance sensitivities and interaction coefficient values for online or offline batch data reduction. The convergence of the iterative values to a unique solution of this system of equations is investigated, and it is shown that for balances which satisfy the criteria discussed, this type of solution does occur. Methods for making sensitivity adjustments and initial load effect considerations in wind-tunnel applications are also discussed, and the logic for determining the convergence accuracy limits for the iterative solution is given. This more efficient data reduction program is compared with the technique presently in use at the NASA Langley Research Center, and computational times on the order of one-third or less are demonstrated by use of this new program.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
The grant closure report is organized in the following four chapters: Chapter describes the two research areas Design optimization and Solid mechanics. Ten journal publications are listed in the second chapter. Five highlights is the subject matter of chapter three. CHAPTER 1. The Design Optimization Test Bed CometBoards. CHAPTER 2. Solid Mechanics: Integrated Force Method of Analysis. CHAPTER 3. Five Highlights: Neural Network and Regression Methods Demonstrated in the Design Optimization of a Subsonic Aircraft. Neural Network and Regression Soft Model Extended for PX-300 Aircraft Engine. Engine with Regression and Neural Network Approximators Designed. Cascade Optimization Strategy with Neural network and Regression Approximations Demonstrated on a Preliminary Aircraft Engine Design. Neural Network and Regression Approximations Used in Aircraft Design.
Imposing the free-slip condition with a continuous forcing immersed boundary method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempe, Tobias; Lennartz, Matthias; Schwarz, Stephan; Fröhlich, Jochen
2015-02-01
The numerical simulation of spherical and ellipsoidal bubbles in purified fluids requires the imposition of the free-slip boundary condition at the bubble surface. This paper describes a numerical method for the implementation of free-slip boundary conditions in the context of immersed boundary methods. In contrast to other numerical approaches for multiphase flows, the realization is not straightforward. The reason is that the immersed boundary method treats the liquid as well as the gas phase as a field of constant density and viscosity with a fictitious fluid inside the bubble. The motion of the disperse phase is computed explicitly by solving the momentum balance for each of its elements and is coupled to the continuous phase via additional source terms in the Navier-Stokes equations. The paper starts with illustrating that an ad hoc method is unsuccessful. On this basis, a new method is proposed employing appropriate direct forcing at the bubble surface. A central finding is that with common ratios between the step size of the grid and the bubble diameter, curvature terms need to be accounted for to obtain satisfactory results. The new method is first developed for spherical objects and then extended to generally curved interfaces. This is done by introducing a local coordinate system which approximates the surface in the vicinity of a Lagrangian marker with the help of the two principal curvatures of the surface at this point. The numerical scheme is then validated for spherical and ellipsoidal objects with or without prescribed constant angular velocity. It is shown that the proposed method achieves similar convergence behavior as the method for no-slip boundaries. The results are compared to analytical solutions for creeping flow around a sphere and to numerical reference data obtained on a body-fitted grid. The numerical tests confirm the excellent performance of the proposed method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Wright, Jan R.
1989-01-01
Force appropriation methods aim to provide an estimate for the force pattern required to excite a 'pure' normal mode in a vibration test where multiple exciters are available. In this paper, a new method based upon a Singular Value Decompositon approach is presented. The appropriated force vector which minimizes the in-plane response components while maximizing the required quadrature components is found, subject to a fixed force norm. The method can accommodate more transducers than exciters and also more exciters than effective degrees of freedom. The method is demonstrated upon a six degree of freedom theoretical model and it is shown that an estimate for the effective degrees of freedom can be obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdel-Jaber, H.; Glisic, B.
2014-07-01
Structural health monitoring (SHM) consists of the continuous or periodic measurement of structural parameters and their analysis with the aim of deducing information about the performance and health condition of a structure. The significant increase in the construction of prestressed concrete bridges motivated this research on an SHM method for the on-site determination of the distribution of prestressing forces along prestressed concrete beam structures. The estimation of the distribution of forces is important as it can give information regarding the overall performance and structural integrity of the bridge. An inadequate transfer of the designed prestressing forces to the concrete cross-section can lead to a reduced capacity of the bridge and consequently malfunction or failure at lower loads than predicted by design. This paper researches a universal method for the determination of the distribution of prestressing forces along concrete beam structures at the time of transfer of the prestressing force (e.g., at the time of prestressing or post-tensioning). The method is based on the use of long-gauge fiber optic sensors, and the sensor network is similar (practically identical) to the one used for damage identification. The method encompasses the determination of prestressing forces at both healthy and cracked cross-sections, and for the latter it can yield information about the condition of the cracks. The method is validated on-site by comparison to design forces through the application to two structures: (1) a deck-stiffened arch and (2) a curved continuous girder. The uncertainty in the determination of prestressing forces was calculated and the comparison with the design forces has shown very good agreement in most of the structures’ cross-sections, but also helped identify some unusual behaviors. The method and its validation are presented in this paper.
Forced degradation of nepafenac: Development and validation of stability indicating UHPLC method.
Runje, Mislav; Babić, Sandra; Meštrović, Ernest; Nekola, Irena; Dujmić-Vučinić, Željka; Vojčić, Nina
2016-05-10
This paper presents stability study of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) nepafenac. In order to investigate stability of nepafenac, it was subjected to forced degradation under different stress conditions: acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, humidity, heat and light. A novel stability indicating reverse phase ultra high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method coupled to ultraviolet detector has been developed to separate nepafenac and all related compounds (2-aminobenzophenone, Cl-thionepafenac, thionepafenac, Cl-nepafenac, hydroxy-nepafenac, and cyclic-nepafenac). Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 stationary phase with a gradient elution. Quantification was carried out at 235 nm at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min(-1). The resolution between nepafenac and six potential impurities is found to be greater than 2.0. The developed method was validated with respect to specificity, LOD, LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness. The r(2) values for nepafenac and six potential impurities were all greater than 0.999. The developed method is capable to detect impurities of nepafenac at a level of 0.005% with respect to test concentration of 1.0mg/mL. Significant degradation is observed in acid, base and oxidative degradation conditions and degradation products (DPs) were identified using mass spectrometry analysis; two of them were found to be a known process related impurities (hydroxy- and cyclic-nepafenac) whereas four degradation products were identified as new degradation impurities. The forced degradation samples were assayed against a qualified reference standard and the mass balance was found to be close to 99.5%. PMID:26871279
Non-specific binding of Na+ and Mg2+ to RNA determined by force spectroscopy methods.
Bizarro, C V; Alemany, A; Ritort, F
2012-08-01
RNA duplex stability depends strongly on ionic conditions, and inside cells RNAs are exposed to both monovalent and multivalent ions. Despite recent advances, we do not have general methods to quantitatively account for the effects of monovalent and multivalent ions on RNA stability, and the thermodynamic parameters for secondary structure prediction have only been derived at 1M [Na(+)]. Here, by mechanically unfolding and folding a 20 bp RNA hairpin using optical tweezers, we study the RNA thermodynamics and kinetics at different monovalent and mixed monovalent/Mg(2+) salt conditions. We measure the unfolding and folding rupture forces and apply Kramers theory to extract accurate information about the hairpin free energy landscape under tension at a wide range of ionic conditions. We obtain non-specific corrections for the free energy of formation of the RNA hairpin and measure how the distance of the transition state to the folded state changes with force and ionic strength. We experimentally validate the Tightly Bound Ion model and obtain values for the persistence length of ssRNA. Finally, we test the approximate rule by which the non-specific binding affinity of divalent cations at a given concentration is equivalent to that of monovalent cations taken at 100-fold concentration for small molecular constructs. PMID:22492710
Multi-Sphere Method for modeling spacecraft electrostatic forces and torques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevenson, Daan; Schaub, Hanspeter
2013-01-01
The use of electrostatic (Coulomb) actuation for formation flying is attractive because non-renewable fuel reserves are not depleted and plume impingement issues are avoided. Prior analytical electrostatic force models used for Coulomb formations assume spherical spacecraft shapes, which include mutual capacitance and induced effects. However, this framework does not capture any orientation-dependent forces or torques on generic spacecraft geometries encountered during very close operations and docking scenarios. The Multi-Sphere Method (MSM) uses a collection of finite spheres to represent a complex shape and analytically approximate the Coulomb interaction with other charged bodies. Finite element analysis software is used as a truth model to determine the optimal sphere locations and radii. The model is robust to varying system parameters such as prescribed voltages and external shape size. Using the MSM, faster-than-realtime electrostatic simulation of six degree of freedom relative spacecraft motion is feasible, which is crucial for the development of robust relative position and orientation control algorithms in local space situational awareness applications. To demonstrate this ability, the rotation of a cylindrical craft in deep space is simulated, while charge control from a neighboring spacecraft is used to de-spin the object. Using a 1 m diameter craft separated by 10 m from a 3 by 1 m cylindrical craft in deep space, a 2 °/s initial rotation rate can be removed from the cylinder within 3 days, using electric potentials up to 30 kV.
Study of New Start Method for Position Sensorless Brushless DC Motor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawabata, Yukio; Endo, Tsunehiro; Takakura, Yuhachi; Ishii, Makoto
The position sensor-less drive technique based on the back electromotive force (EMF) has been widely used for brush-less DC motor drives. However, it is impossible to detect the rotor position at low-speed by using this technique. Therefore, the motor must be accelerated by the open loop based synchronous drive up to the middle speed. The open loop based synchronous drive extremely influences the motor performance. The torque pulsation and the over current can be occurred by using that. This paper proposes a new start method for the brush-less DC motors. In this method, the rotor position can be detected the moment the motor is driven. As a result, the open loop based synchronous drive can be eliminated, rapid acceleration and high performance of the motor drives are achieved. Effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by experimental results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Adams, William M., Jr.
1988-01-01
The approximation of unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion of a flexible aircraft are discussed. Two methods of formulating these approximations are extended to include the same flexibility in constraining the approximations and the same methodology in optimizing nonlinear parameters as another currently used extended least-squares method. Optimal selection of nonlinear parameters is made in each of the three methods by use of the same nonlinear, nongradient optimizer. The objective of the nonlinear optimization is to obtain rational approximations to the unsteady aerodynamics whose state-space realization is lower order than that required when no optimization of the nonlinear terms is performed. The free linear parameters are determined using the least-squares matrix techniques of a Lagrange multiplier formulation of an objective function which incorporates selected linear equality constraints. State-space mathematical models resulting from different approaches are described and results are presented that show comparative evaluations from application of each of the extended methods to a numerical example.
Grundlingh, A A; Grossman, E S; Shrivastava, S; Witcomb, M J
2013-10-01
This study compared digital and visual colour tooth colour assessment methods in a sample of 99 teeth consisting of incisors, canines and pre-molars. The teeth were equally divided between Control, Ozicure Oxygen Activator bleach and Opalescence Quick bleach and subjected to three treatments. Colour readings were recorded at nine intervals by two assessment methods, VITA Easyshade and VITAPAN 3D MASTER TOOTH GUIDE, giving a total of 1782 colour readings. Descriptive and statistical analysis was undertaken using a GLM test for Analysis of Variance for a Fractional Design set at a significance of P < 0.05. Atomic force micros copy was used to examine treated ename surfaces and establish surface roughness. Visual tooth colour assessment showed significance for the independent variables of treatment, number of treatments, tooth type and the combination tooth type and treatment. Digital colour assessment indicated treatment and tooth type to be of significance in tooth colour change. Poor agreement was found between visual and digital colour assessment methods for Control and Ozicure Oxygen Activator treatments. Surface roughness values increased two-fold for Opalescence Quick specimens over the two other treatments, implying that increased light scattering improved digital colour reading. Both digital and visual colour matching methods should be used in tooth bleaching studies to complement each other and to compensate for deficiencies. PMID:24660413
Specific force field parameters determination for the hybrid ab initio QM/MM LSCF method.
Ferré, Nicolas; Assfeld, Xavier; Rivail, Jean-Louis
2002-04-30
The pure quantum mechanics method, called Local Self-Consistent Field (LSCF), that allows to optimize a wave function within the constraint that some predefined spinorbitals are kept frozen, is discussed. These spinorbitals can be of any shape, and their occupation numbers can be 0 or 1. Any post-Hartree-Fock method, based on the restricted or unrestricted Hartree-Fock Slater determinant, and Kohn-Sham-based DFT method are available. The LSCF method is easily applied to hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) procedure where the quantum and the classical parts are covalently bonded. The complete methodology of our hybrid QM/MM scheme is detailed for studies of macromolecular systems. Not only the energy but also the gradients are derived; thus, the full geometry optimization of the whole system is feasible. We show that only specific force field parameters are needed for a correct description of the molecule, they are given for some general chemical bonds. A careful analysis of the errors induced by the use of molecular mechanics in hybrid computation show that a general procedure can be derived to obtain accurate results at low computation effort. The methodology is applied to the structure determination of the crambin protein and to Menshutkin reactions between primary amines and chloromethane. PMID:11939595
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grim, Nancy C.
This paper reports on a study that used Hestenes' Force Concept Inventory (FCI) to describe Newtonian force concepts and misconception belief systems held by preservice teachers in physical science and physics students attending an urban university in Chicago, Illinois. Results indicate that constructivist instruction in force concepts was of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mo, M. Y.; Kantorovich, L.
2001-02-01
We apply the non-equilibrium statistical operator method to non-contact atomic force microscopy, considering explicitly the statistical effects of (classical) vibrations of surface atoms and associated energy transfer from the tip to the surface. We derive several, physically and mathematically equivalent, forms of the equation of motion for the tip, each containing a friction term due to the so-called intrinsic mechanism of energy dissipation first suggested by Gauthier and Tsukada. Our exact treatment supports the results of some earlier work which were all approximate. We also demonstrate, using the same theory, that the distribution function of the tip in the coordinate-momentum phase subspace is governed by the Fokker-Planck equation and should be considered as strongly peaked around the exact values t and t of the momentum and the position of the tip, respectively.
Piezoelectrically forced vibrations of electroded doubly rotated quartz plates by state space method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chander, R.
1990-01-01
The purpose of this investigation is to develop an analytical method to study the vibration characteristics of piezoelectrically forced quartz plates. The procedure can be summarized as follows. The three dimensional governing equations of piezoelectricity, the constitutive equations and the strain-displacement relationships are used in deriving the final equations. For this purpose, a state vector consisting of stresses and displacements are chosen and the above equations are manipulated to obtain the projection of the derivative of the state vector with respect to the thickness coordinate on to the state vector itself. The solution to the state vector at any plane is then easily obtained in a closed form in terms of the state vector quantities at a reference plane. To simplify the analysis, simple thickness mode and plane strain approximations are used.
Campo, A.; Tebeest, K.; Lacoa, U.; Morales, J.C.
1996-10-01
A semianalytic analysis of in-tube turbulent forced convection is performed whose special computational feature is the combination of the method of lines, the finite volume technique, and a radial coordinate transformation. First, a numerical solution of the momentum equation was obtained by a simple Runge-Kutta integration scheme. Second, the energy equation was reformulated into a system of ordinary differential equations of first order. Each equation in the system controls the temperature along a line in a mesh consisting of concentric lines. Reliable analytic solutions for the temperature distribution of fluids in the region of thermal development can be determined for combinations of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. Predicted results for the distributions of mean bulk temperature and local Nusselt numbers for air, water, and oils compare satisfactorily with the available experimental data.
Outcome of the First wwPDB Hybrid/Integrative Methods Task Force Workshop
Sali, Andrej; Berman, Helen M.; Schwede, Torsten; Trewhella, Jill; Kleywegt, Gerard; Burley, Stephen K.; Markley, John; Nakamura, Haruki; Adams, Paul; Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Chiu, Wah; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Di Maio, Frank; Ferrin, Thomas E.; Grünewald, Kay; Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Henderson, Richard; Hummer, Gerhard; Iwasaki, Kenji; Johnson, Graham; Lawson, Catherine L.; Meiler, Jens; Marti-Renom, Marc A.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Nilges, Michael; Nussinov, Ruth; Patwardhan, Ardan; Rappsilber, Juri; Read, Randy J.; Saibil, Helen; Schröder, Gunnar F.; Schwieters, Charles D.; Seidel, Claus A. M.; Svergun, Dmitri; Topf, Maya; Ulrich, Eldon L.; Velankar, Sameer; Westbrook, John D.
2016-01-01
Summary Structures of biomolecular systems are increasingly computed by integrative modeling that relies on varied types of experimental data and theoretical information. We describe here the proceedings and conclusions from the first wwPDB Hybrid/Integrative Methods Task Force Workshop held at the European Bioinformatics Institute in Hinxton, UK, October 6 and 7, 2014. At the workshop, experts in various experimental fields of structural biology, experts in integrative modeling and visualization, and experts in data archiving addressed a series of questions central to the future of structural biology. How should integrative models be represented? How should the data and integrative models be validated? What data should be archived? How should the data and models be archived? What information should accompany the publication of integrative models? PMID:26095030
Method and apparatus for simulating gravitational forces on a living organism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, W. E. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
A method and apparatus for simulating gravitational forces on a living organism wherein a series of negative pressures are externally applied to successive length-wise sections of a lower limb of the organism. The pressures decreasing progressively with distance of said limb sections from the heart of the organism. A casing defines a chamber adapted to contain the limb of the organism and is rigidified to resist collapse upon the application of negative pressures to the interior of the chamber. Seals extend inwardly from the casing for effective engagement with the limb of the organism and, in cooperation with the limb, subdivide the chamber into a plurality of compartments each in negative pressure communicating relation with the limb.
Nuclear spin imaging with hyperpolarized nuclei created by brute force method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Masayoshi; Kunimatsu, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Kohri, Hideki; Ohta, Takeshi; Utsuro, Masahiko; Yosoi, Masaru; Ono, Satoshi; Fukuda, Kohji; Takamatsu, Kunihiko; Ueda, Kunihiro; Didelez, Jean-P.; Prossati, Giorgio; de Waard, Arlette
2011-05-01
We have been developing a polarized HD target for particle physics at the SPring-8 under the leadership of the RCNP, Osaka University for the past 5 years. Nuclear polarizaton is created by means of the brute force method which uses a high magnetic field (~17 T) and a low temperature (~ 10 mK). As one of the promising applications of the brute force method to life sciences we started a new project, "NSI" (Nuclear Spin Imaging), where hyperpolarized nuclei are used for the MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). The candidate nuclei with spin ½hslash are 3He, 13C, 15N, 19F, 29Si, and 31P, which are important elements for the composition of the biomolecules. Since the NMR signals from these isotopes are enhanced by orders of magnitudes, the spacial resolution in the imaging would be much more improved compared to the practical MRI used so far. Another advantage of hyperpolarized MRI is that the MRI is basically free from the radiation, while the problems of radiation exposure caused by the X-ray CT or PET (Positron Emission Tomography) cannot be neglected. In fact, the risk of cancer for Japanese due to the radiation exposure through these diagnoses is exceptionally high among the advanced countries. As the first step of the NSI project, we are developing a system to produce hyperpolarized 3He gas for the diagnosis of serious lung diseases, for example, COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). The system employs the same 3He/4He dilution refrigerator and superconducting solenoidal coil as those used for the polarized HD target with some modification allowing the 3He Pomeranchuk cooling and the following rapid melting of the polarized solid 3He to avoid the depolarization. In this report, the present and future steps of our project will be outlined with some latest experimental results.
Multipolar Ewald Methods, 2: Applications Using a Quantum Mechanical Force Field
2015-01-01
A fully quantum mechanical force field (QMFF) based on a modified “divide-and-conquer” (mDC) framework is applied to a series of molecular simulation applications, using a generalized Particle Mesh Ewald method extended to multipolar charge densities. Simulation results are presented for three example applications: liquid water, p-nitrophenylphosphate reactivity in solution, and crystalline N,N-dimethylglycine. Simulations of liquid water using a parametrized mDC model are compared to TIP3P and TIP4P/Ew water models and experiment. The mDC model is shown to be superior for cluster binding energies and generally comparable for bulk properties. Examination of the dissociative pathway for dephosphorylation of p-nitrophenylphosphate shows that the mDC method evaluated with the DFTB3/3OB and DFTB3/OPhyd semiempirical models bracket the experimental barrier, whereas DFTB2 and AM1/d-PhoT QM/MM simulations exhibit deficiencies in the barriers, the latter for which is related, in part, to the anomalous underestimation of the p-nitrophenylate leaving group pKa. Simulations of crystalline N,N-dimethylglycine are performed and the overall structure and atomic fluctuations are compared with the experiment and the general AMBER force field (GAFF). The QMFF, which was not parametrized for this application, was shown to be in better agreement with crystallographic data than GAFF. Our simulations highlight some of the application areas that may benefit from using new QMFFs, and they demonstrate progress toward the development of accurate QMFFs using the recently developed mDC framework. PMID:25691830
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Jae-Hoon
2016-09-01
Hysterically damped free and forced vibrations of axial and torsional bars are investigated using a closed form exact method. The method is exact and yields closed form expressions for the vibratory displacements. This is in contrast with the well known eigenfunction superposition method which requires expressing the distributed forcing functions and the displacement response functions as infinite sums of free vibration eigenfunctions. The hysterically damped free vibration frequencies and corresponding damped mode shapes are calculated and plotted instead of undamped free vibration and mode shapes which is typically computed and applied in vibration problems. The hysterically damped natural frequency equations are exactly derived. Accurate axial or torsional amplitude vs. forcing frequency curves showing the forced response due to distributed loading are displayed with various hysteretic damping parameters.
Method to measure the force to pull and to break pin bones of fish.
Balaban, Murat O; Jie, Hubert; Yin Yee, Yin; Alçiçek, Zayde
2015-02-01
A texture measurement device was modified to measure the force required to pull pin bones from King salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), snapper (Pagrus auratus), and kahawai (Arripis trutta). Pulled bones were also subjected to tension to measure the breaking force. For all fish, the pulling force depended on the size of the fish, and on the length of the pin bone (P < 0.05). In general, larger fish required greater pulling force to remove pin bones. For example, fresh small salmon (about 1500 g whole) required 600 g on average to pull pin bones, and large fish (about 3700 g whole) required 850 g. Longer bones required greater pulling force. The breaking force followed the same trend. In general, the breaking force was greater than the pulling force. This allows the removal of the bones without breaking them. There was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference between the forces (both pulling and breaking) from fresh and frozen/thawed samples, although in general frozen/thawed samples required less force to pull. With the quantification of pulling and breaking forces for pin bones, it is possible to design and build better, "more intelligent" pin bone removal equipment. PMID:25604165
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, G. Q.; To, S.
2014-08-01
Cutting force and its power spectrum analysis was thought to be an effective method monitoring tool wear in many cutting processes and a significant body of research has been conducted on this research area. However, relative little similar research was found in ultra-precision fly cutting. In this paper, a group of experiments were carried out to investigate the cutting forces and its power spectrum characteristics under different tool wear stages. Result reveals that the cutting force increases with the progress of tool wear. The cutting force signals under different tool wear stages were analyzed using power spectrum analysis. The analysis indicates that a characteristic frequency does exist in the power spectrum of the cutting force, whose power spectral density increases with the increasing of tool wear level, this characteristic frequency could be adopted to monitor diamond tool wear in ultra-precision fly cutting.
Efficient evaluation of the Coulomb force in the Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurashige, Yuki; Nakajima, Takahito; Sato, Takeshi; Hirao, Kimihiko
2010-06-01
We propose an efficient method for evaluating the Coulomb force in the Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb (GFC) method, which is a linear-scaling approach for evaluating the Coulomb matrix and energy in large molecular systems. The efficient evaluation of the analytical gradient in the GFC is not straightforward as well as the evaluation of the energy because the SCF procedure with the Coulomb matrix does not give a variational solution for the Coulomb energy. Thus, an efficient approximate method is alternatively proposed, in which the Coulomb potential is expanded in the Gaussian and finite-element auxiliary functions as done in the GFC. To minimize the error in the gradient not just in the energy, the derived functions of the original auxiliary functions of the GFC are used additionally for the evaluation of the Coulomb gradient. In fact, the use of the derived functions significantly improves the accuracy of this approach. Although these additional auxiliary functions enlarge the size of the discretized Poisson equation and thereby increase the computational cost, it maintains the near linear scaling as the GFC and does not affects the overall efficiency of the GFC approach.
Identifying a robust method to build RCMs ensemble as climate forcing for hydrological impact models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmos Giménez, P.; García Galiano, S. G.; Giraldo-Osorio, J. D.
2016-06-01
The regional climate models (RCMs) improve the understanding of the climate mechanism and are often used as climate forcing to hydrological impact models. Rainfall is the principal input to the water cycle, so special attention should be paid to its accurate estimation. However, climate change projections of rainfall events exhibit great divergence between RCMs. As a consequence, the rainfall projections, and the estimation of uncertainties, are better based in the combination of the information provided by an ensemble approach from different RCMs simulations. Taking into account the rainfall variability provided by different RCMs, the aims of this work are to evaluate the performance of two novel approaches based on the reliability ensemble averaging (REA) method for building RCMs ensembles of monthly precipitation over Spain. The proposed methodologies are based on probability density functions (PDFs) considering the variability of different levels of information, on the one hand of annual and seasonal rainfall, and on the other hand of monthly rainfall. The sensitivity of the proposed approaches, to two metrics for identifying the best ensemble building method, is evaluated. The plausible future scenario of rainfall for 2021-2050 over Spain, based on the more robust method, is identified. As a result, the rainfall projections are improved thus decreasing the uncertainties involved, to drive hydrological impacts models and therefore to reduce the cumulative errors in the modeling chain.
An Improved Calibration Method for Hydrazine Monitors for the United States Air Force
Korsah, K
2003-07-07
This report documents the results of Phase 1 of the ''Air Force Hydrazine Detector Characterization and Calibration Project''. A method for calibrating model MDA 7100 hydrazine detectors in the United States Air Force (AF) inventory has been developed. The calibration system consists of a Kintek 491 reference gas generation system, a humidifier/mixer system which combines the dry reference hydrazine gas with humidified diluent or carrier gas to generate the required humidified reference for calibrations, and a gas sampling interface. The Kintek reference gas generation system itself is periodically calibrated using an ORNL-constructed coulometric titration system to verify the hydrazine concentration of the sample atmosphere in the interface module. The Kintek reference gas is then used to calibrate the hydrazine monitors. Thus, coulometric titration is only used to periodically assess the performance of the Kintek reference gas generation system, and is not required for hydrazine monitor calibrations. One advantage of using coulometric titration for verifying the concentration of the reference gas is that it is a primary standard (if used for simple solutions), thereby guaranteeing, in principle, that measurements will be traceable to SI units (i.e., to the mole). The effect of humidity of the reference gas was characterized by using the results of concentrations determined by coulometric titration to develop a humidity correction graph for the Kintek 491 reference gas generation system. Using this calibration method, calibration uncertainty has been reduced by 50% compared to the current method used to calibrate hydrazine monitors in the Air Force inventory and calibration time has also been reduced by more than 20%. Significant findings from studies documented in this report are the following: (1) The Kintek 491 reference gas generation system (generator, humidifier and interface module) can be used to calibrate hydrazine detectors. (2) The Kintek system output
The adaptive buffered force QM/MM method in the CP2K and AMBER software packages
Mones, Letif; Jones, Andrew; Götz, Andreas W; Laino, Teodoro; Walker, Ross C; Leimkuhler, Ben; Csányi, Gábor; Bernstein, Noam
2015-01-01
The implementation and validation of the adaptive buffered force (AdBF) quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics (QM/MM) method in two popular packages, CP2K and AMBER are presented. The implementations build on the existing QM/MM functionality in each code, extending it to allow for redefinition of the QM and MM regions during the simulation and reducing QM-MM interface errors by discarding forces near the boundary according to the buffered force-mixing approach. New adaptive thermostats, needed by force-mixing methods, are also implemented. Different variants of the method are benchmarked by simulating the structure of bulk water, water autoprotolysis in the presence of zinc and dimethyl-phosphate hydrolysis using various semiempirical Hamiltonians and density functional theory as the QM model. It is shown that with suitable parameters, based on force convergence tests, the AdBF QM/MM scheme can provide an accurate approximation of the structure in the dynamical QM region matching the corresponding fully QM simulations, as well as reproducing the correct energetics in all cases. Adaptive unbuffered force-mixing and adaptive conventional QM/MM methods also provide reasonable results for some systems, but are more likely to suffer from instabilities and inaccuracies. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25649827
Comparative analysis of methods for determining bite force in the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias.
Huber, Daniel Robert; Motta, Philip Jay
2004-01-01
Many studies have identified relationships between the forces generated by the cranial musculature during feeding and cranial design. Particularly important to understanding the diversity of cranial form amongst vertebrates is knowledge of the generated magnitudes of bite force because of its use as a measure of ecological performance. In order to determine an accurate morphological proxy for bite force in elasmobranchs, theoretical force generation by the quadratomandibularis muscle of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias was modeled using a variety of morphological techniques, and lever-ratio analyses were used to determine resultant bite forces. These measures were compared to in vivo bite force measurements obtained with a pressure transducer during tetanic stimulation experiments of the quadratomandibularis. Although no differences were found between the theoretical and in vivo bite forces measured, modeling analyses indicate that the quadratomandibularis muscle should be divided into its constituent divisions and digital images of the cross-sections of these divisions should be used to estimate cross-sectional area when calculating theoretical force production. From all analyses the maximum bite force measured was 19.57 N. This relatively low magnitude of bite force is discussed with respect to the ecomorphology of the feeding mechanism of S. acanthias to demonstrate the interdependence of morphology, ecology, and behavior in organismal design. PMID:14695686
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuolo, M. R.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Takemura, T.
2014-01-01
The quantification and understanding of direct aerosol forcing is essential in the study of climate. One of the main issues that makes its quantification difficult is the lack of a complete understanding of the role of the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds. This work aims at reducing the uncertainty of aerosol top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) forcing due to the vertical superposition of several short-lived atmospheric components, in particular different aerosol species and clouds. We propose a method to quantify the contribution of different parts of the atmospheric column to the TOA forcing as well as to evaluate the contribution to model differences that is exclusively due to different spatial distributions of aerosols and clouds. We investigate the contribution of aerosol above, below and in clouds by using added diagnostics in the aerosol-climate model LMDz. We also compute the difference between the TOA forcing of the ensemble of the aerosols and the sum of the forcings from individual species in clear sky. This difference is found to be moderate for the global average (14%) but can reach high values regionally (up to 100%). Nonlinear effects are even more important when superposing aerosols and clouds. Four forcing computations are performed: one where the full aerosol 3-D distribution is used, and then three where aerosols are confined to regions above, inside and below clouds, respectively. We find that the TOA forcing of aerosols depends crucially on the presence of clouds and on their position relative to that of the aerosol, in particular for black carbon (BC). We observe a strong enhancement of the TOA forcing of BC above clouds, attenuation for BC below clouds, and a moderate enhancement when BC is found within clouds. BC above clouds accounts for only about 30% of the total BC optical depth but for 55% of the forcing, while forcing efficiency increases by a factor of 7.5 when passing from below to above clouds. The different behaviour of forcing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesterov, Vladimir
2009-08-01
A nanonewton force facility, based on a disk-pendulum with electrostatic stiffness reduction and electrostatic force compensation, for the measurement of horizontal forces in the range below 1 µN, is presented. It consists of a measuring system and an identical reference system. Recent experiments with the nanonewton force facility have achieved agreement between an electrostatic force and a gravitational force of 80 nN with an uncertainty of less than 3%. A novel method for measurements of the air (vacuum) permittivity at zero frequencies by means of the nanonewton force facility is presented. First measurements in air show a permittivity of the air ɛ ≈ 8.71 × 10-12 F m-1 with an uncertainty of 3%. From a theoretical analysis, it follows that this method can be used for the measurement of the vacuum permittivity ɛ0 at zero frequencies with a relative uncertainty of about 10-5. The precise measurement of the vacuum permittivity ɛ0 for an electrostatic field would be another test for the correctness of Maxwell's equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parvanova, Sonia
2012-03-01
An idea related to the calculation of stress intensity factors based on the standard appearance of the force-displacement curve is developed in this paper. The presented procedure predicts the shape of the graphics around the point under consideration form where indirectly the stress intensity factors are obtained. The numerical implementation of the new approach is achieved by using element free Galerkin method, which is a variant of meshless methods and requires only nodal data for a domain discretization without a finite element mesh. A MATLAB software code for two dimensional elasticity problems has been worked out, along with intrinsic basis enrichment for precise modelling of the singular stress field around the crack tip. One numerical example of a rectangular plate with different lengths of a symmetric edge crack is portrayed. The stress intensity factors obtained by the present numerical approach are compared with analytical solutions. The errors in the stress intensity factors for opening fracture mode I are less than 1% although the model mesh is relatively coarse.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Berke, Laszlo; Gallagher, Richard H.
1991-01-01
The equilibrium equations and the compatibility conditions are fundamental to the analyses of structures. However, anyone who undertakes even a cursory generic study of the compatibility conditions can discover, with little effort, that historically this facet of structural mechanics had not been adequately researched by the profession. Now the compatibility conditions (CC's) have been researched and are understood to a great extent. For finite element discretizations, the CC's are banded and can be divided into three distinct categories: (1) the interface CC's, (2) the cluster or field CC's, and (3) the external CC's. The generation of CC's requires the separating of a local region, then writing the deformation displacement relation (ddr) for the region, and finally, the eliminating of the displacements from the ddr. The procedure to generate all three types of CC's is presented and illustrated through examples of finite element models. The uniqueness of the CC's thus generated is shown. The utilization of CC's has resulted in the novel integrated force method (IFM). The solution that is obtained by the IFM converges with a significantly fewer number of elements, compared to the stiffness and the hybrid methods.
Effective method to measure back emfs and their harmonics of permanent magnet ac motors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Q.; Bi, C.; Lin, S.
2006-04-01
As the HDD spindle motors become smaller and smaller, the back electromotive forces (emfs) measurement faces the new challenges due to their low inertias and small sizes. This article proposes a novel method to measure the back emfs and their harmonic components of PM ac motors only through a freewheeling procedure. To eliminate the influence of the freewheeling deceleration, the phase flux linkages are employed to obtain the back emf amplitudes and phases of the fundamental and harmonic components by using finite Fourier series analysis. The proposed method makes the freewheeling measurement of the back emfs and their harmonics accurate and fast. It is especially useful for the low inertia PM ac motors, such as spindle motors for small form factor HDDs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maughmer, Mark D.; Ozoroski, L.; Ozoroski, T.; Straussfogel, D.
1990-01-01
Many types of hypersonic aircraft configurations are currently being studied for feasibility of future development. Since the control of the hypersonic configurations throughout the speed range has a major impact on acceptable designs, it must be considered in the conceptual design stage. The ability of the aerodynamic analysis methods contained in an industry standard conceptual design system, APAS II, to estimate the forces and moments generated through control surface deflections from low subsonic to high hypersonic speeds is considered. Predicted control forces and moments generated by various control effectors are compared with previously published wind tunnel and flight test data for three configurations: the North American X-15, the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and a hypersonic research airplane concept. Qualitative summaries of the results are given for each longitudinal force and moment and each control derivative in the various speed ranges. Results show that all predictions of longitudinal stability and control derivatives are acceptable for use at the conceptual design stage. Results for most lateral/directional control derivatives are acceptable for conceptual design purposes; however, predictions at supersonic Mach numbers for the change in yawing moment due to aileron deflection and the change in rolling moment due to rudder deflection are found to be unacceptable. Including shielding effects in the analysis is shown to have little effect on lift and pitching moment predictions while improving drag predictions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anker, Richard
1983-01-01
This article discusses the difficulties involved in obtaining accurate labor force data for Third World women, from the point of view of interviewers, respondents, and labor statisticians or economists. Suggestions are then made regarding alternative definitions of the labor force and survey questionnaire structures in order to overcome some of…
Method for imaging liquid and dielectric materials with scanning polarization force microscopy
Hu, Jun; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miguel; Xiao, Xudong
1999-01-01
The invention images dielectric polarization forces on surfaces induced by a charged scanning force microscope (SFM) probe tip. On insulators, the major contribution to the surface polarizability at low frequencies is from surface ions. The mobility of these ions depends strongly on the humidity. Using the inventive SFM, liquid films, droplets, and other weakly adsorbed materials have been imaged.
Method for imaging liquid and dielectric materials with scanning polarization force microscopy
Hu, J.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.; Xiao, X.
1999-03-09
The invention images dielectric polarization forces on surfaces induced by a charged scanning force microscope (SFM) probe tip. On insulators, the major contribution to the surface polarizability at low frequencies is from surface ions. The mobility of these ions depends strongly on the humidity. Using the inventive SFM, liquid films, droplets, and other weakly adsorbed materials have been imaged. 9 figs.
Seru, Surbhi; Romanyk, Dan L; Toogood, Roger W; Carey, Jason P; Major, Paul W
2014-01-01
Introduction: The objectives of this study were to determine whether there is a difference in the magnitude of forces and moments produced by elastic ligation when compared to passive ligation, and whether these forces and moments propagate differently along the arch for the two ligation types. A lingual incisor malalignment was used in this study. Methods: The Orthodontic Simulator (OSIM) was used to quantify the three-dimensional forces and moments applied on the teeth given a lingually displaced incisor. A repeated measures MANOVA was performed to statistically analyze the data. Results: The interaction factor illustrated convincing evidence that there is a difference in maximum force and moment values for all outcome variables between ligation types considering all tooth positions along the arch. The mean differences for FX and FY between ligation types were found to be clinically significant, with values for elastic ligation consistently higher than passive ligation. Conclusion: It was found that the maximum forces and moments produced by elastic ligation are greater than those produced by passive ligation and that the magnitude of this difference for the mesiodistal and buccolingual forces is clinically relevant. Additionally, it was determined that elastic ligation causes forces and moments to propagate further along the arch than passive ligation for all outcome variables. PMID:25400715
Active Design Method for the Static Characteristics of a Piezoelectric Six-Axis Force/Torque Sensor
Liu, Jun; Li, Min; Qin, Lan; Liu, Jingcheng
2014-01-01
To address the bottleneck issues of an elastic-style six-axis force/torque sensor (six-axis force sensor), this work proposes a no-elastic piezoelectric six-axis force sensor. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-axis force sensor is analyzed, and a structural model is constructed. The static-active design theory of the piezoelectric six-axis force sensor is established, including a static analytical/mathematical model and numerical simulation model (finite element model). A piezoelectric six-axis force sensor experimental prototype is developed according to the analytical mathematical model and numerical simulation model, and selected static characteristic parameters (including sensitivity, isotropic degree and cross-coupling) are tested using this model with three approaches. The measured results are in agreement with the analytical results from the static-active design method. Therefore, this study has successfully established a foundation for further research into the piezoelectric multi-axis force sensor and an overall design approach based on static characteristics. PMID:24451460
Active design method for the static characteristics of a piezoelectric six-axis force/torque sensor.
Liu, Jun; Li, Min; Qin, Lan; Liu, Jingcheng
2014-01-01
To address the bottleneck issues of an elastic-style six-axis force/torque sensor (six-axis force sensor), this work proposes a no-elastic piezoelectric six-axis force sensor. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-axis force sensor is analyzed, and a structural model is constructed. The static-active design theory of the piezoelectric six-axis force sensor is established, including a static analytical/mathematical model and numerical simulation model (finite element model). A piezoelectric six-axis force sensor experimental prototype is developed according to the analytical mathematical model and numerical simulation model, and selected static characteristic parameters (including sensitivity, isotropic degree and cross-coupling) are tested using this model with three approaches. The measured results are in agreement with the analytical results from the static-active design method. Therefore, this study has successfully established a foundation for further research into the piezoelectric multi-axis force sensor and an overall design approach based on static characteristics. PMID:24451460
Comparisons of Force Measurement Methods for DBD Plasma Actuators in Quiescent Air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoskinson, Alan R.; Hershkowitz, Noah; Ashpis, David E.
2009-01-01
We have performed measurements of the force induced by both single (one electrode insulated) and double (both electrodes insulated) dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators in quiescent air. We have shown that, for single barrier actuators with cylindrical exposed electrodes, as the electrode diameter decrease the force efficiencies increase much faster than a previously reported linear trend. This behavior has been experimentally verified using two different measurement techniques: stagnation probe measurements of the induced flow velocity and direct measurement of the force using an electronic balance. Actuators with rectangular cross-section exposed electrodes do not show the same rapid increase at small thicknesses. We have also shown that the induced force is independent of the material used for the exposed electrode. The same techniques have shown that the induced force of a double barrier actuator increases with decreasing narrow electrode diameter.
Davtyan, Aram; Dama, James F.; Voth, Gregory A.; Andersen, Hans C.
2015-04-21
Coarse-grained (CG) models of molecular systems, with fewer mechanical degrees of freedom than an all-atom model, are used extensively in chemical physics. It is generally accepted that a coarse-grained model that accurately describes equilibrium structural properties (as a result of having a well constructed CG potential energy function) does not necessarily exhibit appropriate dynamical behavior when simulated using conservative Hamiltonian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom on the CG potential energy surface. Attempts to develop accurate CG dynamic models usually focus on replacing Hamiltonian motion by stochastic but Markovian dynamics on that surface, such as Langevin or Brownian dynamics. However, depending on the nature of the system and the extent of the coarse-graining, a Markovian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom may not be appropriate. In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing dynamic CG models within the context of the Multi-Scale Coarse-graining (MS-CG) method of Voth and coworkers. We propose a method of converting a MS-CG model into a dynamic CG model by adding degrees of freedom to it in the form of a small number of fictitious particles that interact with the CG degrees of freedom in simple ways and that are subject to Langevin forces. The dynamic models are members of a class of nonlinear systems interacting with special heat baths that were studied by Zwanzig [J. Stat. Phys. 9, 215 (1973)]. The properties of the fictitious particles can be inferred from analysis of the dynamics of all-atom simulations of the system of interest. This is analogous to the fact that the MS-CG method generates the CG potential from analysis of equilibrium structures observed in all-atom simulation data. The dynamic models generate a non-Markovian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom, but they can be easily simulated using standard molecular dynamics programs. We present tests of this method on a series of simple examples that demonstrate that
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagasaka, Y.; Hatakeyama, T.; Okuda, M.; Nagashima, A.
1988-07-01
This article is devoted to the theory and experiment of the forced Rayleigh scattering method for measurement of thermal diffusivity of liquids which can be employed in the form of an instrument operated optically in a contact-free manner. The theoretical considerations included are: (1) effect of cell wall, (2) effect of dye, (3) effect of Gaussian beam intensity distribution, (4) effect of heating duration time, and (5) effect of coupled dye and wall for a heavily absorbing sample. The errors caused by inadequate setting of optical conditions are also analyzed: (1) effects of grating thickness and (2) effects of initial temperature amplitude. Experimental verifications of the theory have been carried out through the measurements on toluene and water as standard reference substances. As a result of these experiments and theory, the criteria for optimum measuring conditions became available. To demonstrate the applicability of the present theory and the apparatus, the thermal diffusivities of toluene and methanol have been measured near room temperature under atmospheric pressure. The accuracy of the present measurement is estimated to be ±3%.
Usukura, Eiji; Narita, Akihiro; Yagi, Akira; Ito, Shuichi; Usukura, Jiro
2016-01-01
An improved unroofing method enabled the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM) to reach directly into a cell to visualize the intracellular cytoskeletal actin filaments, microtubules, clathrin coats, and caveolae in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at a higher resolution than conventional electron microscopy. All of the actin filaments clearly exhibited a short periodicity of approximately 5–6 nm, which was derived from globular actins linked to each other to form filaments, as well as a long helical periodicity. The polarity of the actin filaments appeared to be determined by the shape of the periodic striations. Microtubules were identified based on their thickness. Clathrin coats and caveolae were observed on the cytoplasmic surface of cell membranes. The area containing clathrin molecules and their terminal domains was directly visualized. Characteristic ridge structures located at the surface of the caveolae were observed at high resolution, similar to those observed with electron microscopy (EM). Overall, unroofing allowed intracellular AFM imaging in a liquid environment with a level of quality equivalent or superior to that of EM. Thus, AFMs are anticipated to provide cutting-edge findings in cell biology and histology. PMID:27273367
Pomeranchuk cell for hyperpolarized 3He based on the brute force method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makino, Seiji; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Ueda, Kunihiro; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Fujimura, Hisako; Yosoi, Masaru; Ohta, Takeshi; Frossati, Giorgio; de Waard, Arlette; Rouille, Gerard
2014-09-01
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) has been used for the medical diagnosis as a radiation-free imaging equipment. Since the proton has been mainly used for medical MRI, usefulness has been rather restrictive. As an example for expanding the range of applicability, MRI with hyperpolarized 3He gas has been used for the lung disease. Here, ``hyperpolarized'' means ``polarized higher than the thermal equilibrium polarization.'' For producing a large amount of hyperpolarized 3He gas at a time, we have been developing a hyperpolarization technique based on the brute force method which uses an ultralow temperature of a few mK and a strong magnetic field around 17 T in combination with the principle of the Pomeranchuk cooling. The Pomeranchuk cell made with non-metallic materials of small heat capacity is attached to the 3He/4He dilution refrigerator using a sintered silver allowing large heat conduction. After the sensors to monitor the temperature and pressure of 3He are calibrated and the Pomeranchuk cell is constructed, the system is tested. Then, the solidification of 3He and the measurement of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) signals of 3He under the magnetic field of 17 T are carried out. The current status is reported in this talk.
Usukura, Eiji; Narita, Akihiro; Yagi, Akira; Ito, Shuichi; Usukura, Jiro
2016-01-01
An improved unroofing method enabled the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM) to reach directly into a cell to visualize the intracellular cytoskeletal actin filaments, microtubules, clathrin coats, and caveolae in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at a higher resolution than conventional electron microscopy. All of the actin filaments clearly exhibited a short periodicity of approximately 5-6 nm, which was derived from globular actins linked to each other to form filaments, as well as a long helical periodicity. The polarity of the actin filaments appeared to be determined by the shape of the periodic striations. Microtubules were identified based on their thickness. Clathrin coats and caveolae were observed on the cytoplasmic surface of cell membranes. The area containing clathrin molecules and their terminal domains was directly visualized. Characteristic ridge structures located at the surface of the caveolae were observed at high resolution, similar to those observed with electron microscopy (EM). Overall, unroofing allowed intracellular AFM imaging in a liquid environment with a level of quality equivalent or superior to that of EM. Thus, AFMs are anticipated to provide cutting-edge findings in cell biology and histology. PMID:27273367
A comparison of reconstruction methods for undersampled atomic force microscopy images.
Luo, Yufan; Andersson, Sean B
2015-12-18
Non-raster scanning and undersampling of atomic force microscopy (AFM) images is a technique for improving imaging rate and reducing the amount of tip-sample interaction needed to produce an image. Generation of the final image can be done using a variety of image processing techniques based on interpolation or optimization. The choice of reconstruction method has a large impact on the quality of the recovered image and the proper choice depends on the sample under study. In this work we compare interpolation through the use of inpainting algorithms with reconstruction based on optimization through the use of the basis pursuit algorithm commonly used for signal recovery in compressive sensing. Using four different sampling patterns found in non-raster AFM, namely row subsampling, spiral scanning, Lissajous scanning, and random scanning, we subsample data from existing images and compare reconstruction performance against the original image. The results illustrate that inpainting generally produces superior results when the image contains primarily low frequency content while basis pursuit is better when the images have mixed, but sparse, frequency content. Using support vector machines, we then classify images based on their frequency content and sparsity and, from this classification, develop a fast decision strategy to select a reconstruction algorithm to be used on subsampled data. The performance of the classification and decision test are demonstrated on test AFM images. PMID:26585418
A comparison of reconstruction methods for undersampled atomic force microscopy images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Yufan; Andersson, Sean B.
2015-12-01
Non-raster scanning and undersampling of atomic force microscopy (AFM) images is a technique for improving imaging rate and reducing the amount of tip-sample interaction needed to produce an image. Generation of the final image can be done using a variety of image processing techniques based on interpolation or optimization. The choice of reconstruction method has a large impact on the quality of the recovered image and the proper choice depends on the sample under study. In this work we compare interpolation through the use of inpainting algorithms with reconstruction based on optimization through the use of the basis pursuit algorithm commonly used for signal recovery in compressive sensing. Using four different sampling patterns found in non-raster AFM, namely row subsampling, spiral scanning, Lissajous scanning, and random scanning, we subsample data from existing images and compare reconstruction performance against the original image. The results illustrate that inpainting generally produces superior results when the image contains primarily low frequency content while basis pursuit is better when the images have mixed, but sparse, frequency content. Using support vector machines, we then classify images based on their frequency content and sparsity and, from this classification, develop a fast decision strategy to select a reconstruction algorithm to be used on subsampled data. The performance of the classification and decision test are demonstrated on test AFM images.
Hasan, Md. Sharif; Kayesh, Ruhul; Begum, Farida; Rahman, S. M. Abdur
2016-01-01
The aim of our current research was to synthesize some transition metal complexes of Naproxen, determine their physical properties, and examine their relative stability under various conditions. Characterizations of these complexes were done by 1H-NMR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR, HPLC, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Complexes were subjected to acidic, basic, and aqueous hydrolysis as well as oxidation, reduction, and thermal degradation. Also the reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method of Naproxen outlined in USP was verified for the Naproxen-metal complexes, with respect to accuracy, precision, solution stability, robustness, and system suitability. The melting points of the complexes were higher than that of the parent drug molecule suggesting their thermal stability. In forced degradation study, complexes were found more stable than the Naproxen itself in all conditions: acidic, basic, oxidation, and reduction media. All the HPLC verification parameters were found within the acceptable value. Therefore, it can be concluded from the study that the metal complexes of Naproxen can be more stable drug entity and offer better efficacy and longer shelf life than the parent Naproxen. PMID:27034891
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carney, G. D.; Adler-Golden, S. M.; Lesseski, D. C.
1986-04-01
This paper reports (1) improved values for low-lying vibration intervals of H3(+), H2D(+), D2H(+), and D3(+) calculated using the variational method and Simons-Parr-Finlan (1973) representations of the Carney-Porter (1976) and Dykstra-Swope (1979) ab initio H3(+) potential energy surfaces, (2) quartic normal coordinate force fields for isotopic H3(+) molecules, (3) comparisons of variational and second-order perturbation theory, and (4) convergence properties of the Lai-Hagstrom internal coordinate vibrational Hamiltonian. Standard deviations between experimental and ab initio fundamental vibration intervals of H3(+), H2D(+), D2H(+), and D3(+) for these potential surfaces are 6.9 (Carney-Porter) and 1.2/cm (Dykstra-Swope). The standard deviations between perturbation theory and exact variational fundamentals are 5 and 10/cm for the respective surfaces. The internal coordinate Hamiltonian is found to be less efficient than the previously employed 't' coordinate Hamiltonian for these molecules, except in the case of H2D(+).
Hasan, Md Sharif; Kayesh, Ruhul; Begum, Farida; Rahman, S M Abdur
2016-01-01
The aim of our current research was to synthesize some transition metal complexes of Naproxen, determine their physical properties, and examine their relative stability under various conditions. Characterizations of these complexes were done by 1H-NMR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR, HPLC, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Complexes were subjected to acidic, basic, and aqueous hydrolysis as well as oxidation, reduction, and thermal degradation. Also the reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method of Naproxen outlined in USP was verified for the Naproxen-metal complexes, with respect to accuracy, precision, solution stability, robustness, and system suitability. The melting points of the complexes were higher than that of the parent drug molecule suggesting their thermal stability. In forced degradation study, complexes were found more stable than the Naproxen itself in all conditions: acidic, basic, oxidation, and reduction media. All the HPLC verification parameters were found within the acceptable value. Therefore, it can be concluded from the study that the metal complexes of Naproxen can be more stable drug entity and offer better efficacy and longer shelf life than the parent Naproxen. PMID:27034891
Pre-employment screening and health management for safety forces-methods and techniques.
Mostardi, R A; Porterfield, J A; King, S; Urycki, S
1990-01-01
The purpose of this clinical report is to describe the process by which safety forces (police and fire) are tested prior to employment (pre-employment screening) and the periodic evaluations used to maintain such standards. The process began by testing 350 male police volunteers and developing a series of age stratified norms. These norms are used to compare incoming recruits such that candidates of a given age are compared to norms developed from police officers of the same age. The purposes of this report are to describe the clinical tests used in the pre-employment screening, to report the normative data and to describe the methods of comparing data obtained from applicants to the established norms. The proper management of high risk employees through pre-employment screening and intervention programs has been viewed as being necessary both for the individual employee in reducing injury and disease and for the municipality for cost saving purposes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1990;11(9):398-401. PMID:18787271
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xing; Zhu, Xiaojue
2012-11-01
We present an improved immersed boundary method for the simulation of fluid structure interaction (FSI) of a slender body. Our numerical method is based on the one proposed by Wang and Zhang (J. Comput. Phys. 30:3479-3499, 2011). Although an accurate prediction of total force can be achieved by using this method, unphysical spatial oscillation is observed in the force distribution. This oscillation is detrimental to the prediction of structure response in FSI. In this work, several modifications are made to improve this method. Firstly, the implicit forcing is replaced by an explicit forcing. Secondly, a more consistent way of computing each component of the forcing on a staggered mesh is proposed. Thirdly, for a slender body of zero thickness, the discrete delta-function with a ``negative-tail'' is adopted for the interpolation at the endpoints. Numerical simulations are performed to test the efficacy of the modifications. It is found that the measures taken successfully reduce the oscillation and the results obtained agree well with those from the literatures. This work was supported by NSFC 10872201.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karpel, M.
1994-01-01
Various control analysis, design, and simulation techniques of aeroservoelastic systems require the equations of motion to be cast in a linear, time-invariant state-space form. In order to account for unsteady aerodynamics, rational function approximations must be obtained to represent them in the first order equations of the state-space formulation. A computer program, MIST, has been developed which determines minimum-state approximations of the coefficient matrices of the unsteady aerodynamic forces. The Minimum-State Method facilitates the design of lower-order control systems, analysis of control system performance, and near real-time simulation of aeroservoelastic phenomena such as the outboard-wing acceleration response to gust velocity. Engineers using this program will be able to calculate minimum-state rational approximations of the generalized unsteady aerodynamic forces. Using the Minimum-State formulation of the state-space equations, they will be able to obtain state-space models with good open-loop characteristics while reducing the number of aerodynamic equations by an order of magnitude more than traditional approaches. These low-order state-space mathematical models are good for design and simulation of aeroservoelastic systems. The computer program, MIST, accepts tabular values of the generalized aerodynamic forces over a set of reduced frequencies. It then determines approximations to these tabular data in the LaPlace domain using rational functions. MIST provides the capability to select the denominator coefficients in the rational approximations, to selectably constrain the approximations without increasing the problem size, and to determine and emphasize critical frequency ranges in determining the approximations. MIST has been written to allow two types data weighting options. The first weighting is a traditional normalization of the aerodynamic data to the maximum unit value of each aerodynamic coefficient. The second allows weighting the
Alexeev, A. V.; Maltseva, D. V.; Ivanov, V. A.; Klushin, L. I.; Skvortsov, A. M.
2015-04-28
We study force-extension curves of a single semiflexible chain consisting of several rigid rods connected by flexible spacers. The atomic force microscopy and laser optical or magnetic tweezers apparatus stretching these rod-coil macromolecules are discussed. In addition, the stretching by external isotropic force is analyzed. The main attention is focused on computer simulation and analytical results. We demonstrate that the force-extension curves for rod-coil chains composed of two or three rods of equal length differ not only quantitatively but also qualitatively in different probe methods. These curves have an anomalous shape for a chain of two rods. End-to-end distributions of rod-coil chains are calculated by Monte Carlo method and compared with analytical equations. The influence of the spacer’s length on the force-extension curves in different probe methods is analyzed. The results can be useful for interpreting experiments on the stretching of rod-coil block-copolymers.
The Hopf's limiting cycle -- A method to measure the electron cooling force
King-Yuen Ng
2002-09-30
The longitudinal phase space structure of protons in the presence of an electron drag force is studied. Depending on the relative difference in average proton velocity and electron velocity, the fixed point near the center of the phase space can be stable or unstable. When it is unstable, a stable Hopf's limit cycle exists. By measuring the appearance and size of the Hopf's limit cycle, the electron cooling force can be deduced.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niwa, Yuta; Akiyama, Yuji; Naruta, Tomokazu
We carried out FEM simulations for modeling ultra-high-speed universal motors by using the state function method and analyzed the phenomenon of commutator sparking, the characteristics of the air gap surface, and the contact condition or contact resistance of the brushes and commutator bars. Thus, we could quantitatively analyze commutator sparking and investigate the configuration of the iron core. The results of FEM analysis were used to develop a model for predicting the configuration of the iron core and for estimating the electromotive force generated by the transformer, armature reaction field, spark voltage, contact resistance between the rotating brushes, and changes in the gap permeance. The results of our simulation were experimental results. This confirmed the validity of our analysis method. Thus, an ultra-high-speed, high-capacity of 1.5kw motor rotating at 30,000rpm can be designed for use in vacuum cleaners.
Series-connected multi-cell operation of lithium-ion cells by floating method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takei, Katsuhito; Kobayashi, Yo; Miyashiro, Hajime; Kumai, Kazuma; Terada, Nobuyuki; Iwahori, Toru; Tanaka, Toshikatsu
The resistance to damage during overcharge and overdischarge of a single cell and the possibility of series-connected multi-cell operation have been investigated using a commercialized lithium-ion cell. The single cell showed sufficient cycleability in overcharge up to 4.5 V and small reversible capacity in overdischarge under 2.5 V. An overdischarged cell below 0 V did not generate subsequent electromotive force and behaved like a resistor of an electron conductor. Multi-cell operations including imbalanced cells both in a preshifted state-of-charge between +30 and -5% and in various ambient temperatures were performed for over 1000 cycles of charge/discharge by the floating method.
Macias-Melo, E V; Aguilar-Castro, K M; Alvarez-Lemus, M A; Flores-Prieto, J J
2015-09-01
In this work, we describe a methodology for developing a mathematical model based on infrared (IR) detection to determine the moisture content (M) in solid samples. For this purpose, an experimental setup was designed, developed and calibrated against the gravimetric method. The experimental arrangement allowed for the simultaneous measurement of M and the electromotive force (EMF), fitting the experimental variables as much as possible. These variables were correlated by a mathematical model, and the obtained correlation was M=1.12×exp(3.47×EMF), ±2.54%. This finding suggests that it is feasible to measure the moisture content when it has greater values than 2.54%. The proposed methodology could be used for different conditions of temperature, relative humidity and drying rates to evaluate the influence of these variables on the amount of energy received by the IR detector. PMID:25887842
Behavior analysis of quenching ununiformity by JIS-method cooling curve
Nakamura, E.; Uchida, H.; Koyama, S.
1996-12-31
The authors measured cooling speed of quenching oil by JIS-Method cooling curve test which thermocouple was silver-alumel and that electromotive force was differentiated by differential calculus unit. From the results, the following things are found: (1) The authors measure a detailed cooling curve of the surface of a silver rod. These data show a surface like a vapor bubble. (2) Vapor film at the vapor blanket cooling stage was unstable if the quenching oil contains a liter component or water. (3) Carbon or Sludge on the metal surface effects not only brightness but also quenching nonuniformity because of delay for coming out of vapor bubbles at the vapor transport cooling stage. (4) In the case of Water born type quenching oil, at the vapor transport cooling stage, nonuniformity by unstable of bubble coming out is more happen compared to mineral type quenching oil.
Siebert, T; Sust, M; Thaller, S; Tilp, M; Wagner, H
2007-04-01
We evaluate an improved method for individually determining neuromuscular properties in vivo. The method is based on Hill's equation used as a force law combined with Newton's equation of motion. To ensure the range of validity of Hill's equation, we first perform detailed investigations on in vitro single muscles. The force-velocity relation determined with the model coincides well with results obtained by standard methods (r=.99) above 20% of the isometric force. In addition, the model-predicted force curves during work loop contractions very well agree with measurements (mean difference: 2-3%). Subsequently, we deduce theoretically under which conditions it is possible to combine several muscles of the human body to model muscles. This leads to a model equation for human leg extension movements containing parameters for the muscle properties and for the activation. To numerically determine these invariant neuromuscular properties we devise an experimental method based on concentric and isometric leg extensions. With this method we determine individual muscle parameters from experiments such that the simulated curves agree well with experiments (r=.99). A reliability test with 12 participants revealed correlations r=.72-.91 for the neuromuscular parameters (p<.01). Predictions of similar movements under different conditions show mean errors of about 5%. In addition, we present applications in sports practise and theory. PMID:17343950
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rashid, Tariq; Shahinpoor, Mohsen
1999-05-01
Ionic polymer platinum composite (IPPC) artificial muscles have been the subject of research activities at AMRI (Artificial Muscle Research Institute) and have been identified as smart intelligent material. The potential for such artificial muscles is so vast that muscles of different enhanced characteristics will be required in the future to accomplish different desired tasks. However the immediate challenges are to identify, control and enhance different desired characteristics of artificial muscles (IPPC). One important milestone that may be regarded, as the most critical one is to enhance force produced by these artificial muscles. Obviously force enhancement if successful may put these artificial muscles into one-to-one competition against the available line of traditional force actuators which fall in the same category. In order to experimentally approach the process of optimizing the force output of ionic polymeric platinum composite (IPPC) artificial muscles, an orthogonal array method was used to identify potential specific manufacturing procedures. These sets of procedures will eventually be helpful to identify the different desired characteristics of manufactured artificial muscles. One manufactured artificial muscles are tested for force outputs, the best ones would then be easily traced back to manufacturing procedure and will be further enhanced up to the desired levels by further refining the underlying manufacturing procedures. The measure chosen for optimization process was basically the force generated by a specific piece of muscle of specific geometry.
Equivalent Body Force Finite Elements Method and 3-D Earth Model Applied In 2004 Sumatra Earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, W.; Cheng, H.; Shi, Y.
2015-12-01
The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 9.1 to 9.3 is the first great earthquake recorded by digital broadband, high-dynamic-range seismometers and global positioning system (GPS) equipment, which recorded many high-quality geophysical data sets. The spherical curvature is not negligible in far field especially for large event and the real Earth is laterally inhomogeneity and the analytical results still are difficult to explain the geodetic measurements. We use equivalent body force finite elements method Zhang et al. (2015) and mesh the whole earth, to compute global co-seismic displacements using four fault slip models of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake provided by different authors. Comparisons of calculated co-seismic displacements and GPS show that the confidences are well in near field for four models, and the confidences are according to different models. In the whole four models, the Chlieh model (Chlieh et al., 2007) is the best as this slip model not only accord well with near field data but also far field data. And then we use the best slip model, Chlieh model to explore influence of three dimensional lateral earth structure on both layered spherically symmetric (PREM) and real 3-D heterogeneous earth model (Crust 1.0 model and GyPSuM). Results show that the effects of 3-D heterogeneous earth model are not negligible and decrease concomitantly with increasing distance from the epicenter. The relative effects of 3-D crust model are 23% and 40% for horizontal and vertical displacements, respectively. The effects of the 3-D mantle model are much smaller than that of 3-D crust model but with wider impacting area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuolo, M. R.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Takemura, T.
2013-07-01
The quantification and understanding of direct aerosol forcing is essential in the study of climate. One of the main issues that makes its quantification difficult is the lack of a complete comprehension of the role of the aerosol and clouds vertical distribution. This work aims at reducing the incertitude of aerosol forcing due to the vertical superposition of several short-lived atmospheric components, in particular different aerosols species and clouds. We propose a method to quantify the contribution of different parts of the atmospheric column to the forcing, and to evaluate model differences by isolating the effect of radiative interactions only. Any microphysical or thermo-dynamical interactions between aerosols and clouds are deactivated in the model, to isolate the effects of radiative flux coupling. We investigate the contribution of aerosol above, below and in clouds, by using added diagnostics in the aerosol-climate model LMDz. We also compute the difference between the forcing of the ensemble of the aerosols and the sum of the forcings from individual species, in clear-sky. This difference is found to be moderate on global average (14%) but can reach high values regionally (up to 100%). The non-additivity of forcing already for clear-sky conditions shows, that in addition to represent well the amount of individual aerosol species, it is critical to capture the vertical distribution of all aerosols. Nonlinear effects are even more important when superposing aerosols and clouds. Four forcing computations are performed, one where the full aerosol 3-D distribution is used, and then three where aerosols are confined to regions above, inside and below clouds respectively. We find that the forcing of aerosols depends crucially on the presence of clouds and on their position relative to that of the aerosol, in particular for black carbon (BC). We observe a strong enhancement of the forcing of BC above clouds, attenuation for BC below clouds, and a moderate
Pork tenderness estimation by taste panel, Warner-Bratzler shear force and on-line methods.
Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V
1999-12-01
The extent to which modification of Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations, relating to storage and preparation of the meat, aperture of the V-shaped cutting blade and shearing velocity, improve the relationship with sensory tenderness perception of pork was studied. Additionally four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1 (light scattering), PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission), were evaluated for their ability to predict tenderness. Sensory tenderness evaluation was conducted on 120 frozen (at -18°C for several months) samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum. After overnight thawing, the meat was grilled to an internal temperature of 74°C and scored on an eight-point scale, from extremely tough to extremely tender. The standard WBSF procedure (protocol A) consisted of heating fresh meat samples (stored for 48 h at 4°C post slaughter) at 75°C for 50 min, cooling in cold tap water for 40 min, taking cylindrical cores parallel to the fibre direction, and shearing at a velocity of 200 mm/min with a blade aperture of 60°. For the prediction of sensory tenderness, the WBSF standard procedure (protocol A) showed the lowest variance (R(2)=15%) and the highest standard error of the estimate (SEE=0.97 N) compared to the other WBSF protocols. A decrease in shearing velocity, from 200 to 100 mm/min and, a replacement of the cutting blade with an aperture of 60° by one with an aperture of 30° led to improvements of R(2) (respectively, 19% vs. 13% and 47% vs. 23%) and SEE (respectively, 0.93 N vs. 0.97 N and 0.80 N vs. 0.97 N) and thus were better predictors of tenderness. A blade aperture of 30° instead of 60° also led to considerably lower WBSF values (22.1 N vs. 30.0 N). Freezing, frozen storage and thawing of the meat, prior to WBSF measurement, resulted in higher shear force values (32.7 N vs. 28.7 N) and a better prediction of tenderness, R(2) (25% vs. 15%) and SEE (0.94 N vs. 1.00 N). Furthermore, preparing the frozen stored
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ko, William L.
1987-01-01
Accuracies of the Southwell method and the force/stiffness (F/S) method are examined when the methods were used in the prediction of buckling loads of hypersonic aircraft wing tubular panels, based on nondestructive buckling test data. Various factors affecting the accuracies of the two methods were discussed. Effects of load cutoff point in the nondestructive buckling tests on the accuracies of the two methods were discussed in great detail. For the tubular panels under pure compression, the F/S method was found to give more accurate buckling load predictions than the Southwell method, which excessively overpredicts the buckling load. It was found that the Southwell method required a higher load cutoff point, as compared with the F/S method. In using the F/S method for predicting the buckling load of tubular panels under pure compression, the load cutoff point of approximately 50 percent of the critical load could give reasonably accurate predictions.
Method and Apparatus for the Quantification of Particulate Adhesion Forces on Various Substrates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wohl, Christopher J.; Atkins, Brad M.; Connell, John W.
2011-01-01
Mitigation strategies for lunar dust adhesion have typically been limited to qualitative analysis. This technical memorandum describes the generation and operation of an adhesion testing device capable of quantitative assessment of adhesion forces between particulates and substrates. An aerosolization technique is described to coat a surface with a monolayer of particulates. Agitation of this surface, via sonication, causes particles to dislodge and be gravitationally fed into an optical particle counter. Experimentally determined adhesion force values are compared to forces calculated from van der Waals interactions and are used to calculate the work of adhesion using Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory. Preliminary results indicate that a reduction in surface energy and available surface area, through topographical modification, improve mitigation of particulate adhesion.
Method and apparatus for hybrid position/force control of multi-arm cooperating robots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayati, Samad A. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
Two or more robotic arms having end effectors rigidly attached to an object to be moved are disclosed. A hybrid position/force control system is provided for driving each of the robotic arms. The object to be moved is represented as having a total mass that consists of the actual mass of the object to be moved plus the mass of the moveable arms that are rigidly attached to the moveable object. The arms are driven in a positive way by the hybrid control system to assure that each arm shares in the position/force applied to the object. The burden of actuation is shared by each arm in a non-conflicting way as the arm independently control the position of, and force upon, a designated point on the object.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blum, P. W.; Harris, I.
1973-01-01
The equations of horizontal motion of the neutral atmosphere between 120 and 500 km are integrated with the inclusion of all the nonlinear terms of the convective derivative and the viscous forces due to vertical and horizontal velocity gradients. Empirical models of the distribution of neutral and charged particles are assumed to be known. The model of velocities developed is a steady state model. In part 1 the mathematical method used in the integration of the Navier-Stokes equations is described and the various forces are analysed.
A novel method for the calculation of bond stretching force constants of diatomic molecules.
Kaya, Savaş; Kaya, Cemal; Obot, I B; Islam, Nazmul
2016-02-01
Chemical hardness is one of the chemical reactivity descriptors of chemical species and this concept has widely benefited from the development of Density Functional Theory (DFT). In the present report, chemical hardness values for approximately fifty diatomic molecules have been calculated using a new molecular hardness (η(M)) equation derived by us in recent times. Then, correlation between force constant (k) and chemical hardness for the above mentioned diatomic molecules that situate hydrides, halides, oxides and sulfides among them has been investigated. Consequently, a relation that can be presented by a simple equation between chemical hardness with bond stretching force constants has been found. PMID:26519917
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, R. D.; Anderson, L. R.
1979-01-01
The LOADS program L218, a digital computer program that calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; panel aerodynamic forces; net panel forces; shears and moments. Program usage and a brief description of the analysis used are presented. A description of the design and structure of the program to aid those who will maintain and/or modify the program in the future is included.
Method for preparing ultra-pure zirconium and hafnium tetrafluorides
Pastor, R.C.; Robinson, M.
1986-03-25
A method is described for separating iron impurities from an impure metal halide in which the impure metal halide is heated to a temperature sufficient to form a metal halide vapor, the vapor being separated from the impure metal halide and condensed to form purified metal halide having a reduced iron contant. The improvement described here consists of: utilizing electromotive series displacement by contacting a melt containing the impure metal halide with a pure metal, the electromotive series displacement causing the plating out of 3d metal impurities.
High-sensitivity in-plane vector magnetometry using the alternating gradient force method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Luc; Rahmani, Anas; Renaudin, Patrice; Wack, André
2003-05-01
The alternating gradient force magnetometer is a highly sensitive tool particularly suited for thin films magnetometry. The measurement technique is based upon the alternating force generated on a magnetized sample by a set of field-gradient coils. The so-induced sample oscillation is directly proportional to the sample's magnetization. High sensitivity measurements are achieved by mounting the sample at the end of a cantilever attached to a piezoelectric bimorph element, and by tuning the excitation frequency close to the mechanical resonance of the sample-cantilever assembly. Here we describe a new design that allows to measure both in-plane components of the magnetization of a thin film sample, for any direction of the external magnetic field within the sample's plane. By rotating the sample-probe assembly, we find the output signal to be proportional to the projection of the alternating force along the sense axis of the piezoelectric bimorph. Besides, the resonance frequency of the system remains unchanged. Thus, hysteresis loops can be measured accurately for various angles between the applied field and an in-plane anisotropy axis. The signal only vanishes when the alternating force is orthogonal to the bimorph axis. Moreover, we have designed a set of two pairs of gradient coils, whose axis are orthogonal to one another. By varying the excitation current within these two pairs of coils, it is possible to rotate the alternating gradient direction, to detect magnetization components along or perpendicular to the external field.
Method and system for measuring gate valve clearances and seating force
Casada, D.A.; Haynes, H.D.; Moyers, J.C.; Stewart, B.K.
1996-01-30
Valve clearances and seating force, as well as other valve operational parameters, are determined by measuring valve stem rotation during opening and closing operations of a translatable gate valve. The magnitude of the stem rotation, and the relative difference between the stem rotation on opening and closing provides valuable data on the valve internals in a non-intrusive manner. 8 figs.
Method and system for measuring gate valve clearances and seating force
Casada, Donald A.; Haynes, Howard D.; Moyers, John C.; Stewart, Brian K.
1996-01-01
Valve clearances and seating force, as well as other valve operational parameters, are determined by measuring valve stem rotation during opening and closing operations of a translatable gate valve. The magnitude of the stem rotation, and the relative difference between the stem rotation on opening and closing provides valuable data on the valve internals in a non-intrusive manner.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Peng-Tao; Yang, Wan-Min; Wang, Miao; Li, Jia-Wei; Guo, Yu-Xia
2015-11-01
The influence of the width of the middle magnet in the permanent magnet guideways (PMGs) on the levitation force and the levitation height of single-domain yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) bulks has been investigated at 77 K under the zero field cooled (ZFC) state. It is found that the largest levitation force can be obtained in the system with the width of the middle magnet of the PMG equal to the size of the YBCO bulk when the gap between the YBCO bulk and PMG is small. Both larger levitation force and higher levitation height can be obtained in the system with the width of the middle magnet of the PMG larger than the size of the YBCO bulk. The stiffness of the levitation force between the PMG and the YBCO bulk is higher in the system with a smaller width of the middle magnet in the PMG. These results provide an effective way to control the levitation force and the levitation height for the superconducting maglev design and applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51342001 and 50872079), the Key-grant Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Grant No. 311033), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120202110003), the Innovation Team in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014KTC-18), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. GK201101001 and GK201305014), and the Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Foundation Project of Shaanxi Normal University, China (Grant Nos. X2011YB08 and X2012YB05).
Jarząbek, D. M.
2015-01-15
A direct method for the evaluation of the torsional spring constants of the atomic force microscope cantilevers is presented in this paper. The method uses a nanoindenter to apply forces at the long axis of the cantilever and in the certain distance from it. The torque vs torsion relation is then evaluated by the comparison of the results of the indentations experiments at different positions on the cantilever. Next, this relation is used for the precise determination of the torsional spring constant of the cantilever. The statistical analysis shows that the standard deviation of the calibration measurements is equal to approximately 1%. Furthermore, a simple method for calibration of the photodetector’s lateral response is proposed. The overall procedure of the lateral calibration constant determination has the accuracy approximately equal to 10%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R.
2011-11-01
The self-guided Langevin dynamics (SGLD) is a method to accelerate conformational searching. This method is unique in the way that it selectively enhances and suppresses molecular motions based on their frequency to accelerate conformational searching without modifying energy surfaces or raising temperatures. It has been applied to studies of many long time scale events, such as protein folding. Recent progress in the understanding of the conformational distribution in SGLD simulations makes SGLD also an accurate method for quantitative studies. The SGLD partition function provides a way to convert the SGLD conformational distribution to the canonical ensemble distribution and to calculate ensemble average properties through reweighting. Based on the SGLD partition function, this work presents a force-momentum-based self-guided Langevin dynamics (SGLDfp) simulation method to directly sample the canonical ensemble. This method includes interaction forces in its guiding force to compensate the perturbation caused by the momentum-based guiding force so that it can approximately sample the canonical ensemble. Using several example systems, we demonstrate that SGLDfp simulations can approximately maintain the canonical ensemble distribution and significantly accelerate conformational searching. With optimal parameters, SGLDfp and SGLD simulations can cross energy barriers of more than 15 kT and 20 kT, respectively, at similar rates for LD simulations to cross energy barriers of 10 kT. The SGLDfp method is size extensive and works well for large systems. For studies where preserving accessible conformational space is critical, such as free energy calculations and protein folding studies, SGLDfp is an efficient approach to search and sample the conformational space.
Herrnstadt, Gil; Alavi, Nezam; Randhawa, Bubblepreet Kaur; Boyd, Lara A.; Menon, Carlo
2015-01-01
Modern rehabilitation practices have begun integrating robots, recognizing their significant role in recovery. New and alternative stroke rehabilitation treatments are essential to enhance efficacy and mitigate associated health costs. Today’s robotic interventions can play a significant role in advancing rehabilitation. In addition, robots have an inherent ability to perform tasks accurately and reliably and are typically well suited to measure and quantify performance. Most rehabilitation strategies predominantly target activation of the paretic arm. However, bimanual upper-limb rehabilitation research suggests potential in enhancing functional recovery. Moreover, studies suggest that limb coordination and synchronization can improve treatment efficacy. In this preliminary study, we aimed to investigate and validate our user-driven bimanual system in a reduced intensity rehab practice. A bimanual wearable robotic device (BWRD) with a Master–Slave configuration for the elbow joint was developed to carry out the investigation. The BWRD incorporates position and force sensors for which respective control loops are implemented, and offers varying modes of operation ranging from passive to active training. The proposed system enables the perception of the movements, as well as the forces applied by the hemiparetic arm, with the non-hemiparetic arm. Eight participants with chronic unilateral stroke were recruited to participate in a total of three 1-h sessions per participant, delivered in a week. Participants underwent pre- and post-training functional assessments along with proprioceptive measures. The post-assessment was performed at the end of the last training session. The protocol was designed to engage the user in an assortment of static and dynamic arm matching and opposing tasks. The training incorporates force-feedback movements, force-feedback positioning, and force matching tasks with same and opposite direction movements. We are able to suggest
A method to determine the two-point contact zone and transfer of wheel-rail forces in a turnout
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Zunsong; Sun, Shouguang; Xie, Gang
2010-10-01
A practical method to determine the zone of two contact points and the transfer of wheel-rail forces between two rails in a turnout is presented in this paper. The method is based on a wheel-rail elastic penetration assumption and used to study a turnout system for a 200 km/h high-speed railway in China. Rail profiles in a number of key sections in the turnout are identified first, and profiles in other sections are then obtained by interpolation between key sections. The track is modelled as flexible with rails and sleepers represented by beams and the interaction between the vehicle and turnout is simulated for cases of the vehicle passing the turnout. Results are mainly presented for two-point contact positions and the characteristics of the wheel-rail forces transference. It is found that the heights of the switch and crossing rail top have significant effects on the wheel-rail contact forces. Finally, the optimised top height for the crossing rails is proposed to reduce the system dynamic force in the turnout system.
A Single-Vector Force Calibration Method Featuring the Modern Design of Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, P. A.; Morton, M.; Draper, N.; Line, W.
2001-01-01
This paper proposes a new concept in force balance calibration. An overview of the state-of-the-art in force balance calibration is provided with emphasis on both the load application system and the experimental design philosophy. Limitations of current systems are detailed in the areas of data quality and productivity. A unique calibration loading system integrated with formal experimental design techniques has been developed and designated as the Single-Vector Balance Calibration System (SVS). This new concept addresses the limitations of current systems. The development of a quadratic and cubic calibration design is presented. Results from experimental testing are compared and contrasted with conventional calibration systems. Analyses of data are provided that demonstrate the feasibility of this concept and provide new insights into balance calibration.
Tracking Unfolding and Refolding Reactions of Single Proteins using Atomic Force Microscopy Methods
Bujalowski, Paul J.; Oberhauser, Andres F.
2013-01-01
During the last two decades single-molecule manipulation techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) has risen to prominence through their unique capacity to provide fundamental information on the structure and function of biomolecules. Here we describe the use of single-molecule AFM to track protein unfolding and refolding pathways, enzymatic catalysis and the effects of osmolytes and chaperones on protein stability and folding. We will outline the principles of operation for two different AFM pulling techniques: length clamp and force-clamp discuss prominent applications. We provide protocols for the construction of polyproteins which are amenable for AFM experiments, the preparation of different coverslips, choice and calibration of AFM cantilevers. We also discuss the selection criteria for AFM recordings, the calibration of AFM cantilevers, protein sample preparations and analysis of the obtained data. PMID:23523554
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Soma; Sreeram, P. A.; Raychaudhuri, A. K.
2007-01-01
We find that the 'jump-into-contact' of the cantilever in the atomic force microscope (AFM) is caused by an inherent instability in the motion of the AFM cantilever. The analysis is based on a simple model of the cantilever moving in a nonlinear force field. We show that the 'jump-into-contact' distance can be used to find the interaction of the cantilever tip with the surface. In the specific context of the attractive van der Waals interaction, this method can be realized as a new method of measuring the Hamaker constant for materials. The Hamaker constant is determined from the deflection of the cantilever at the 'jump-into-contact' using the force constant of the cantilever and the tip radius of curvature, all of which can be obtained by measurements. The results have been verified experimentally on a sample of cleaved mica, a sample of Si wafer with natural oxide and a silver film, using a number of cantilevers with different spring constants. We emphasize that the method described here is applicable only to surfaces that have van der Waals interaction as the tip-sample interaction. We also find that the tip to sample separation at the 'jump-into-contact' is simply related to the cantilever deflection at this point, and this provides a method to exactly locate the surface.
Zhou, Y.; Ojeda-May, P.; Nagaraju, M.; Pu, J.
2016-01-01
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ubiquitous ATP-dependent membrane proteins involved in translocations of a wide variety of substrates across cellular membranes. To understand the chemomechanical coupling mechanism as well as functional asymmetry in these systems, a quantitative description of how ABC transporters hydrolyze ATP is needed. Complementary to experimental approaches, computer simulations based on combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potentials have provided new insights into the catalytic mechanism in ABC transporters. Quantitatively reliable determination of the free energy requirement for enzymatic ATP hydrolysis, however, requires substantial statistical sampling on QM/MM potential. A case study shows that brute force sampling of ab initio QM/MM (AI/MM) potential energy surfaces is computationally impractical for enzyme simulations of ABC transporters. On the other hand, existing semiempirical QM/MM (SE/MM) methods, although affordable for free energy sampling, are unreliable for studying ATP hydrolysis. To close this gap, a multiscale QM/MM approach named reaction path–force matching (RP–FM) has been developed. In RP–FM, specific reaction parameters for a selected SE method are optimized against AI reference data along reaction paths by employing the force matching technique. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated for a proton transfer reaction in the gas phase and in solution. The RP–FM method may offer a general tool for simulating complex enzyme systems such as ABC transporters. PMID:27498639
Zhou, Y; Ojeda-May, P; Nagaraju, M; Pu, J
2016-01-01
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ubiquitous ATP-dependent membrane proteins involved in translocations of a wide variety of substrates across cellular membranes. To understand the chemomechanical coupling mechanism as well as functional asymmetry in these systems, a quantitative description of how ABC transporters hydrolyze ATP is needed. Complementary to experimental approaches, computer simulations based on combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potentials have provided new insights into the catalytic mechanism in ABC transporters. Quantitatively reliable determination of the free energy requirement for enzymatic ATP hydrolysis, however, requires substantial statistical sampling on QM/MM potential. A case study shows that brute force sampling of ab initio QM/MM (AI/MM) potential energy surfaces is computationally impractical for enzyme simulations of ABC transporters. On the other hand, existing semiempirical QM/MM (SE/MM) methods, although affordable for free energy sampling, are unreliable for studying ATP hydrolysis. To close this gap, a multiscale QM/MM approach named reaction path-force matching (RP-FM) has been developed. In RP-FM, specific reaction parameters for a selected SE method are optimized against AI reference data along reaction paths by employing the force matching technique. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated for a proton transfer reaction in the gas phase and in solution. The RP-FM method may offer a general tool for simulating complex enzyme systems such as ABC transporters. PMID:27498639
Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging Reveals Artifacts Produced by Commonly Used Analytical Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veisfeld, Nina
1995-08-01
The atomic force microscopy is increasingly being used in analytical laboratories to study material surface phenomena. Whereas its use is not free of artifacts itself, the AFM, because of the ways it produces topography images, can shed some light on problems associated with other analytical techniques. This article describes the use of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in visualizing and evaluating the extent of some well-known artifacts produced by three techniques widely used in analytical laboratories. The three different types of artifacts demonstrated here are caused, respectively, (1) by a stylus profilometer used for topography characterization of the pole tip area of magnetic heads, (2) by an accumulation of an organic contamination caused by a stationary electron beam positioned on an analyzed surface during SEM/EDX analysis, (3) by an enhancement of aluminum grain structure produced by a rastered monodirectional sputtering ion beam during Auger depth profile analysis. The analytical consequences of each of the presented artifacts are discussed. The images were collected on the TOPOMETRIX TX 2000 “Discoverer” AFM, using standard 4-[mu]m pyramidal tips and forces within a few nanometers.
A method for measuring vertical forces applied to the upper limb during sit-to-stand.
Turner, H C; Yate, R M; Giddins, G E B; Miles, A W
2004-01-01
The aim of this study was to develop a basic measurement system to estimate the vertical loading of the upper limb during the sit-to-stand activity, with a view to increasing the understanding of the loading of the wrist in daily living activities. A chair was adapted and instrumented with strain gauges and position sensors so that the force applied through the upper limbs to the arms of the chair could be calculated. Four aspects of the chair's geometry could be varied. A force plate was positioned on the floor between the legs of the chair to record the corresponding foot loading. Twenty normal subjects (22-56 years, mean 32.7 years) participated in a pilot study in which loading through the upper and lower limbs was recorded for a range of chair geometries. The vertical force transmitted through each upper limb was typically 20-30 per cent of bodyweight. The vertical upper limb load averaged across all subjects showed a small reduction when either the seat height or the height of the chair arms was increased. PMID:15648670
Turbulence model choice for the calculation of drag forces when using the CFD method.
Zaïdi, H; Fohanno, S; Taïar, R; Polidori, G
2010-02-10
The aim of this work is to specify which model of turbulence is the most adapted in order to predict the drag forces that a swimmer encounters during his movement in the fluid environment. For this, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has been undertaken with a commercial CFD code (Fluent). The problem was modelled as 3D and in steady hydrodynamic state. The 3D geometry of the swimmer was created by means of a complete laser scanning of the swimmer's body contour. Two turbulence models were tested, namely the standard k-epsilon model with a specific treatment of the fluid flow area near the swimmer's body contour, and the standard k-omega model. The comparison of numerical results with experimental measurements of drag forces shows that the standard k-omega model accurately predicts the drag forces while the standard k-epsilon model underestimates their values. The standard k-omega model also enabled to capture the vortex structures developing at the swimmer's back and buttocks in underwater swimming; the same vortices had been visualized by flow visualization experiments carried out at the INSEP (National Institute for Sport and Physical Education in Paris) with the French national swimming team. PMID:19889420
Method and apparatus for adaptive force and position control of manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)
1995-01-01
The described and improved multi-arm invention of this application presents three strategies for adaptive control of cooperative multi-arm robots which coordinate control over a common load. In the position-position control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that the end-effector positions of both arms track desired trajectories in Cartesian space despite unknown time-varying interaction forces exerted through a load. In the position-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controller of one arm controls end-effector motions in the free directions and applied forces in the constraint directions; while the adaptive controller of the other arm ensures that the end-effector tracks desired position trajectories. In the hybrid-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that both end-effectors track reference position trajectories while simultaneously applying desired forces on the load. In all three control strategies, the cross-coupling effects between the arms are treated as disturbances which are compensated for by the adaptive controllers while following desired commands in a common frame of reference. The adaptive controllers do not require the complex mathematical model of the arm dynamics or any knowledge of the arm dynamic parameters or the load parameters such as mass and stiffness. Circuits in the adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers are varied by novel adaptation laws.
Kreuzer, Stefan W.; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Leffers, Kevin J.; Johnson, Clint W.; Dettmer, Marius
2016-01-01
Rotation of the femoral component is an important aspect of knee arthroplasty, due to its effects on postsurgery knee kinematics and associated functional outcomes. It is still debated which method for establishing rotational alignment is preferable in orthopedic surgery. We compared force sensing based femoral component rotation with traditional anatomic landmark methods to investigate which method is more accurate in terms of alignment to the true transepicondylar axis. Thirty-one patients underwent computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis with femoral rotation established via a force sensor. During surgery, three alternative hypothetical femoral rotational alignments were assessed, based on transepicondylar axis, anterior-posterior axis, or the utilization of a posterior condyles referencing jig. Postoperative computed tomography scans were obtained to investigate rotation characteristics. Significant differences in rotation characteristics were found between rotation according to DKB and other methods (P < 0.05). Soft tissue balancing resulted in smaller deviation from anatomical epicondylar axis than any other method. 77% of operated knees were within a range of ±3° of rotation. Only between 48% and 52% of knees would have been rotated appropriately using the other methods. The current results indicate that force sensors may be valuable for establishing correct femoral rotation. PMID:26881086
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yong-Gang; Lin, Wen-Hui; Liu, Ning
2012-05-01
The large deflection problem of a uniform cantilever beam subjected to a terminal concentrated follower force is investigated. The governing equations, which characterize a two-point boundary value problem, are transformed into an initial-value problem. A new algorithm based on the homotopy perturbation method is proposed and applied to the resulting problem and the characteristics of load versus displacement are obtained analytically. The convergence of this method is discussed and the details of load-deflection curves are present. Compared with other existing methods, the present scheme is shown to be highly accurate, while only lower order perturbation is required.
Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Kawakami, Masayoshi; Kang, Yu B.; Tsutsumi, Sadami; Kirita, Tadaaki
2013-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of clenching on the biomechanical response of human mandible and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) to traumatic force by the finite element (FE) method. Material and Methods: FE models of the mandible and the TMJ in resting and clenching positions were prepared. Distribution and magnitude of von Mises stress were analyzed by applying force as a point load in the symphyseal, canine, body and angle regions of the mandible. In addition, strain energy density (SED) at the articular disc and in posterior connective tissue of TMJ was analyzed. Results: In the resting position, von Mises stress was mainly concentrated at the condylar neck and in the retromolar region of the mandible. In the clenching position, the stress at the condylar neck decreased in all loadings. The stress in the retromolar region similary decreased in the symphyseal, canine and body loading, respectively; however, higher stress was observed in the retromolar region on the loading side in the angle loading. High SED was generated at the articular disc and in posterior connective tissues of TMJ in the resting position. The SED in these tissues decreased in all loadings in the clenching position. Conclusions: Clenching generally reduces stress at the condylar neck and in the retromolar region of the mandible, and strain energy at the articular disc and in posterior connective tissue of TMJ by traumatic forces on the mandible; however, clenching induces greater stress in the retromolar region on the loading side by traumatic force to the angle region. Key words:Mandibular, temporomandibular joint, traumatic force, clenching, finite element analysis. PMID:23524422
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, Herbert
1929-01-01
The following examples do not take up the discussion of viewpoints to be heeded in determining the design of a framework for given external conditions. Rather they are methods for determining the forces in airplane fuselages and wings, though similar considerations are applied to certain simple cases of a different kind. The object of this treatise is to summarize and amplify these considerations from definite viewpoints.
Uniform-acceptance force-bias Monte Carlo method with time scale to study solid-state diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mees, Maarten J.; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Neyts, Erik C.; Thijsse, Barend J.; Stesmans, André
2012-04-01
Monte Carlo (MC) methods have a long-standing history as partners of molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate the evolution of materials at the atomic scale. Among these techniques, the uniform-acceptance force-bias Monte Carlo (UFMC) method [G. Dereli, Mol. Simul.10.1080/08927029208022490 8, 351 (1992)] has recently attracted attention [M. Timonova , Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.81.144107 81, 144107 (2010)] thanks to its apparent capacity of being able to simulate physical processes in a reduced number of iterations compared to classical MD methods. The origin of this efficiency remains, however, unclear. In this work we derive a UFMC method starting from basic thermodynamic principles, which leads to an intuitive and unambiguous formalism. The approach includes a statistically relevant time step per Monte Carlo iteration, showing a significant speed-up compared to MD simulations. This time-stamped force-bias Monte Carlo (tfMC) formalism is tested on both simple one-dimensional and three-dimensional systems. Both test-cases give excellent results in agreement with analytical solutions and literature reports. The inclusion of a time scale, the simplicity of the method, and the enhancement of the time step compared to classical MD methods make this method very appealing for studying the dynamics of many-particle systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rival, D.; Schoenweitz, D.; Tropea, C.
2009-11-01
It is often very challenging or even impossible to measure the forces directly on swimming or flying animals. For this reason traditional control-volume methods are used to estimate the unsteady forces on the body in question. TR-PIV systems allow for the measurement of the full spatial and temporal velocity field in the control volume as well as along the bounding control surfaces. The corresponding pressure field can be integrated from the complete velocity-field data set. However, the measurement of the velocity field in the proximity of the body’s surface is at times cumbersome due to shadows and reflections. An alternate control-volume formulationfootnotetextJ. Z. Wu, Z.-L. Pan and X.-Y. Lu, ``Unsteady fluid-dynamic force solely in terms of control-surface integral,” Phys. of Fluids 17, 098102 (2005) eliminates the need for velocity measurements in the proximity of the body. This method has been tested and compared to the traditional control-volume technique for a generic pitching and plunging flat plate in a hover chamber. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed in the context of their measurement accuracy.
Jiang, Shan; Li, Pan; Yu, Yan; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhiyong
2014-10-17
A thorough understanding of needle-tissue interaction mechanics is necessary to optimize needle design, achieve robotically needle steering, and establish surgical simulation system. It is obvious that the interaction is influenced by numerous variable parameters, which are divided into three categories: needle geometries, insertion methods, and tissue characteristics. A series of experiments are performed to explore the effect of influence factors (material samples n=5 for each factor) on the insertion force. Data were collected from different biological tissues and a special tissue-equivalent phantom with similar mechanical properties, using a 1-DOF mechanical testing system instrumented with a 6-DOF force/torque (F/T) sensor. The experimental results indicate that three basic phases (deformation, insertion, and extraction phase) are existent during needle penetration. Needle diameter (0.7-3.2mm), needle tip (blunt, diamond, conical, and beveled) and bevel angle (10-85°) are turned out to have a great influence on insertion force, so do the insertion velocity (0.5-10mm/s), drive mode (robot-assisted and hand-held), and the insertion process (interrupted and continuous). Different tissues such as skin, muscle, fat, liver capsule and vessel are proved to generate various force cures, which can contribute to the judgement of the needle position and provide efficient insertion strategy. PMID:25169657
Measurement of intrinsic properties of amyloid fibrils by the peak force QNM method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamcik, Jozef; Lara, Cecile; Usov, Ivan; Jeong, Jae Sun; Ruggeri, Francesco S.; Dietler, Giovanni; Lashuel, Hilal A.; Hamley, Ian W.; Mezzenga, Raffaele
2012-07-01
We report the investigation of the mechanical properties of different types of amyloid fibrils by the peak force quantitative nanomechanical (PF-QNM) technique. We demonstrate that this technique correctly measures the Young's modulus independent of the polymorphic state and the cross-sectional structural details of the fibrils, and we show that values for amyloid fibrils assembled from heptapeptides, α-synuclein, Aβ(1-42), insulin, β-lactoglobulin, lysozyme, ovalbumin, Tau protein and bovine serum albumin all fall in the range of 2-4 GPa.
Force and deflection sensor with shell membrane and optical gratings and method of manufacture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Yong-Lae (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Cutkosky, Mark R. (Inventor); Chau, Kelvin K (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A sensor for force is formed from an elastomeric cylinder having a region with apertures. The apertures have passageways formed between them, and an optical fiber is introduced into these passageways, where the optical fiber has a grating for measurement of tension positioned in the passageways between apertures. Optionally, a temperature measurement sensor is placed in or around the elastomer for temperature correction, and if required, a copper film may be deposited in the elastomer for reduced sensitivity to spot temperature variations in the elastomer near the sensors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandu, Adrian; Schlick, Tamar
1999-05-01
Numerical resonance artifacts have become recognized recently as a limiting factor to increasing the timestep in multiple-timestep (MTS) biomolecular dynamics simulations. At certain timesteps correlated to internal motions (e.g., 5 fs, around half the period of the fastest bond stretch, Tmin), visible inaccuracies or instabilities can occur. Impulse-MTS schemes are vulnerable to these resonance errors since large energy pulses are introduced to the governing dynamics equations when the slow forces are evaluated. We recently showed that such resonance artifacts can be masked significantly by applying extrapolative splitting to stochastic dynamics. Theoretical and numerical analyses of force-splitting integrators based on the Verlet discretization are reported here for linear models to explain these observations and to suggest how to construct effective integrators for biomolecular dynamics that balance stability with accuracy. Analyses for Newtonian dynamics demonstrate the severe resonance patterns of the Impulse splitting, with this severity worsening with the outer timestep, Δ t; Constant Extrapolation is generally unstable, but the disturbances do not grow with Δ t. Thus, the stochastic extrapolative combination can counteract generic instabilities and largely alleviate resonances with a sufficiently strong Langevin heat-bath coupling (γ), estimates for which are derived here based on the fastest and slowest motion periods. These resonance results generally hold for nonlinear test systems: a water tetramer and solvated protein. Proposed related approaches such as Extrapolation/Correction and Midpoint Extrapolation work better than Constant Extrapolation only for timesteps less than Tmin/2. An effective extrapolative stochastic approach for biomolecules that balances long-timestep stability with good accuracy for the fast subsystem is then applied to a biomolecule using a three-class partitioning: the medium forces are treated by Midpoint Extrapolationvia
Sertić, Josip; Kozak, Dražan; Samardžić, Ivan
2014-01-01
The values of reaction forces in the boiler supports are the basis for the dimensioning of bearing steel structure of steam boiler. In this paper, the application of the method of equivalent stiffness of membrane wall is proposed for the calculation of reaction forces. The method of equalizing displacement, as the method of homogenization of membrane wall stiffness, was applied. On the example of “Milano” boiler, using the finite element method, the calculation of reactions in the supports for the real geometry discretized by the shell finite element was made. The second calculation was performed with the assumption of ideal stiffness of membrane walls and the third using the method of equivalent stiffness of membrane wall. In the third case, the membrane walls are approximated by the equivalent orthotropic plate. The approximation of membrane wall stiffness is achieved using the elasticity matrix of equivalent orthotropic plate at the level of finite element. The obtained results were compared, and the advantages of using the method of equivalent stiffness of membrane wall for the calculation of reactions in the boiler supports were emphasized. PMID:24959612
Mullin, Nic Hobbs, Jamie K.
2014-11-15
Calibration of lateral forces and displacements has been a long standing problem in lateral force microscopies. Recently, it was shown by Wagner et al. that the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode may be used to calibrate the deflection sensitivity of the detector. This method is quick, non-destructive and may be performed in situ in air or liquid. Here we make a full quantitative comparison of the lateral inverse optical lever sensitivity obtained by the lateral thermal noise method and the shape independent method developed by Anderson et al. We find that the thermal method provides accurate results for a wide variety of rectangular cantilevers, provided that the geometry of the cantilever is suitable for torsional stiffness calibration by the torsional Sader method, in-plane bending of the cantilever may be eliminated or accounted for and that any scaling of the lateral deflection signal between the measurement of the lateral thermal noise and the measurement of the lateral deflection is eliminated or corrected for. We also demonstrate that the thermal method may be used to characterize the linearity of the detector signal as a function of position, and find a deviation of less than 8% for the instrument used.
Sertić, Josip; Kozak, Dražan; Samardžić, Ivan
2014-01-01
The values of reaction forces in the boiler supports are the basis for the dimensioning of bearing steel structure of steam boiler. In this paper, the application of the method of equivalent stiffness of membrane wall is proposed for the calculation of reaction forces. The method of equalizing displacement, as the method of homogenization of membrane wall stiffness, was applied. On the example of "Milano" boiler, using the finite element method, the calculation of reactions in the supports for the real geometry discretized by the shell finite element was made. The second calculation was performed with the assumption of ideal stiffness of membrane walls and the third using the method of equivalent stiffness of membrane wall. In the third case, the membrane walls are approximated by the equivalent orthotropic plate. The approximation of membrane wall stiffness is achieved using the elasticity matrix of equivalent orthotropic plate at the level of finite element. The obtained results were compared, and the advantages of using the method of equivalent stiffness of membrane wall for the calculation of reactions in the boiler supports were emphasized. PMID:24959612
Continuous surface force based lattice Boltzmann equation method for simulating thermocapillary flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Lin; Zheng, Song; Zhai, Qinglan
2016-02-01
In this paper, we extend a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with continuous surface force (CSF) to simulate thermocapillary flows. The model is designed on our previous CSF LBE for athermal two phase flow, in which the interfacial tension forces and the Marangoni stresses as the results of the interface interactions between different phases are described by a conception of CSF. In this model, the sharp interfaces between different phases are separated by a narrow transition layers, and the kinetics and morphology evolution of phase separation would be characterized by an order parameter via Cahn-Hilliard equation which is solved in the frame work of LBE. The scalar convection-diffusion equation for temperature field is resolved by thermal LBE. The models are validated by thermal two layered Poiseuille flow, and two superimposed planar fluids at negligibly small Reynolds and Marangoni numbers for the thermocapillary driven convection, which have analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature. Then thermocapillary migration of two/three dimensional deformable droplet are simulated. Numerical results show that the predictions of present LBE agreed with the analytical solution/other numerical results.
Tseytlin, Yakov M.
2008-02-15
Our previous study of the particle mass sensor has shown a large ratio (up to thousands) between the spring constants of a rectangular cantilever in higher mode vibration and at the static bending or natural mode vibration. This has been proven by us through the derived nodal point position equation. That solution is good for a cantilever with the free end in noncontact regime and the probe shifted from the end to an effective section and contacting a soft object. Our further research shows that the same nodal position equation with the proper frequency equations may be used for the same spring constant ratio estimation if the vibrating at higher mode cantilever's free end has a significant additional mass clamped to it or that end is in permanent contact with an elastic or hard measurand object (reference cantilever). However, in the latter case, the spring constant ratio is much smaller (in tens) than in other mentioned cases at equal higher (up to fourth) vibration modes. We also present the spring constant ratio for a vibrating at higher eigenmode V-shaped cantilever, which is now in wide use for atomic force microscopy. The received results on the spring constant ratio are in good (within a few percent) agreement with the theoretical and experimental data published by other researchers. The knowledge of a possible spring constant transformation is important for the proper calibration and use of an atomic force microscope with vibrating cantilever in the higher eigenmodes for measurement and imaging with enlarged resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karasaka, Ayça
2015-06-01
A simple and rapid first order derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of benidipine hydrochloride in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations. For the first derivative spectrophotometric method, the distances between two extremum values l (peak-to-peak amplitudes), 230.2/241.5 nm. The proposed method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision (intra- and inter-day) and recovery were evaluated. The linearity of the method was in the range of 0.2-2.0 μg/mL. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.58 and 1.73 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations. In addition, forced degradation studies were performed on the benidipine hydrochloride drag substance. The drug substance was exposed to the stress conditions of hydrolysis (acid and base).
Ramos, A; Talaia, P; Queirós de Melo, F J
2016-01-01
The main goal of this work was to develop an approached model to study dynamic behavior and prediction of the stress distribution in an in vitro Charnley cemented hip arthroplasty. An alternative version of the described pseudo-dynamic procedure is proposed by using the time integration Newmark algorithm. An internal restoring force vector is numerically calculated from the displacement, velocity, and acceleration vectors. A numerical model of hip replacement was developed to analyze the deformation of a dynamically stressed structure for all time steps. The experimental measurement of resulting internal forces generated in the structure (internal restoring force vector) is the second fundamental step of the pseudo-dynamic procedure. These data (as a feedback) are used by the time integration algorithm, which allows updating of the structure's shape for the next displacement, velocity, and acceleration vectors. In the field of Biomechanics, the potentialities of this method contribute to the determination of a dynamically equivalent in vitro stress field of a cemented hip prosthesis; implant fitted in patients with a normal mobility or practice sports. Consequences of the stress distribution in the implant zone that underwent cyclic fatigue loads were also discussed by using a finite element model. Application of this method in Biomechanics appears as a useful tool in the approximate stress field characterization of the peak stress state. Results show a peak value around two times the static situation, more for making possible the prediction of future damage and a programed clinical examination in patients using hip prosthesis. PMID:25483822
Pan, Wenxiao; Bao, Jie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2014-02-15
Robin boundary condition for the Navier-Stokes equations is used to model slip conditions at the fluid-solid boundaries. A novel Continuous Boundary Force (CBF) method is proposed for solving the Navier-Stokes equations subject to Robin boundary condition. In the CBF method, the Robin boundary condition at boundary is replaced by the homogeneous Neumann boundary condition at the boundary and a volumetric force term added to the momentum conservation equation. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is used to solve the resulting Navier-Stokes equations. We present solutions for two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows in domains bounded by flat and curved boundaries subject to various forms of the Robin boundary condition. The numerical accuracy and convergence are examined through comparison of the SPH-CBF results with the solutions of finite difference or finite element method. Taken the no-slip boundary condition as a special case of slip boundary condition, we demonstrate that the SPH-CBF method describes accurately both no-slip and slip conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, W.; Li, L.; Zhang, D. G.; Hong, J. Z.
2016-08-01
A flexible beam with large overall rotating motion impacting with a rigid slope is studied in this paper. The tangential friction force caused by the oblique impact is analyzed. The tangential motion of the system is divided into a stick state and a slip state. The contact constraint model and Coulomb friction model are used respectively to deal with the two states. Based on this hybrid modeling method, dynamic equations of the system, which include all states (before, during, and after the collision) are obtained. Simulation results of a concrete example are compared with the results obtained from two other models: a nontangential friction model and a modified Coulomb model. Differences in the results from the three models are discussed. The tangential friction force cannot be ignored when an oblique impact occurs. In addition, the results obtained from the model proposed in this paper are more consistent with real movement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, W.; Li, L.; Zhang, D. G.; Hong, J. Z.
2016-06-01
A flexible beam with large overall rotating motion impacting with a rigid slope is studied in this paper. The tangential friction force caused by the oblique impact is analyzed. The tangential motion of the system is divided into a stick state and a slip state. The contact constraint model and Coulomb friction model are used respectively to deal with the two states. Based on this hybrid modeling method, dynamic equations of the system, which include all states (before, during, and after the collision) are obtained. Simulation results of a concrete example are compared with the results obtained from two other models: a nontangential friction model and a modified Coulomb model. Differences in the results from the three models are discussed. The tangential friction force cannot be ignored when an oblique impact occurs. In addition, the results obtained from the model proposed in this paper are more consistent with real movement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yaghoubi, S.; Shirani, E.; Pishevar, A. R.; Afshar, Y.
2015-04-01
To simulate liquid fluid flows with high Schmidt numbers (Sc), one needs to use a modified version of the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Recently the modifications made by others for the weight function of dissipative forces, enables DPD simulations for Sc, up to 10. In this paper, we introduce a different dissipative force weight function for DPD simulations that allows achieving a solution with higher values of Sc and improving the dynamic characteristics of the simulating fluid. Moreover, by reducing the energy of DPD particles, even higher values of Sc can be achieved. Finally, using the new proposed weight function and kBT =0.2 , the Sc values can reach up to 200.
Method for Cleanly and Precisely Breaking Off a Rock Core Using a Radial Compressive Force
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, Megan; Lin, Justin
2011-01-01
The Mars Sample Return mission has the goal to drill, break off, and retain rock core samples. After some results gained from rock core mechanics testing, the realization that scoring teeth would cleanly break off the core after only a few millimeters of penetration, and noting that rocks are weak in tension, the idea was developed to use symmetric wedging teeth in compression to weaken and then break the core at the contact plane. This concept was developed as a response to the break-off and retention requirements. The wedges wrap around the estimated average diameter of the core to get as many contact locations as possible, and are then pushed inward, radially, through the core towards one another. This starts a crack and begins to apply opposing forces inside the core to propagate the crack across the plane of contact. The advantage is in the simplicity. Only two teeth are needed to break five varieties of Mars-like rock cores with limited penetration and reasonable forces. Its major advantage is that it does not require any length of rock to be attached to the parent in order to break the core at the desired location. Test data shows that some rocks break off on their own into segments or break off into discs. This idea would grab and retain a disc, push some discs upward and others out, or grab a segment, break it at the contact plane, and retain the portion inside of the device. It also does this with few moving parts in a simple, space-efficient design. This discovery could be implemented into a coring drill bit to precisely break off and retain any size rock core.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jingzhi; Sun, Tao; Gu, Wei; Wen, Zhongpu; Guo, Tenghui
2015-02-01
With the fast development of the advanced equipment manufacturing toward precision and ultra-precision trend, especially with the continuously improving of the aviation engine's performance, the problem of high displacement resolution for the large-load two-dimension adjusting and positioning worktable used for the aeroengine assembling become evident. A method was proposed which is based on the invariable restoring force, and the adjusting and positioning physical model was established. The experiment results indicate that under the occasion of a load with 508 kilogram, the worktable has got a displacement resolution of 0.3μm after using the improved method compared to 1.4μm of the traditional method. The improved method could meet the requirements of aviation engine assembling worktable.
Comparison between Mean Forces and Swarms-of-Trajectories String Methods.
Maragliano, Luca; Roux, Benoît; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric
2014-02-11
The original formulation of the string method in collective variable space is compared with a recent variant called string method with swarms-of-trajectories. The assumptions made in the original method are revisited and the significance of the minimum free energy path (MFEP) is discussed in the context of reactive events. These assumptions are compared to those made in the string method with swarms-of-trajectories, and shown to be equivalent in a certain regime: in particular an expression for the path identified by the swarms-of-trajectories method is given and shown to be closely related to the MFEP. Finally, the algorithmic aspects of both methods are compared. PMID:26580029
Nategholeslam, Mostafa; Gray, C G; Tomberli, Bruno
2014-12-11
We present a new sampling and analysis scheme for calculating the potential of mean force (PMF) of systems studied by steered molecular dynamics simulations. This scheme, which we call the bin-passing method, is based on the forward-reverse (FR) method (due to I. Kosztin and co-workers, Kosztin et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124(6), 064106) and arguments based on the second law of thermodynamics. Applying the bin-passing method results in enhanced sampling, better separation of the reversible and irreversible work distributions, and faster convergence to the underlying PMF of the system under study. Post-simulation analysis is performed using a purpose-built software that we have made publicly available at https://github.com/1particle/bin-passing_analyzer under the terms of the GNU General Public License (version 3). Three examples are provided, for systems of varying sizes and complexities, to demonstrate the efficiency of this method and the quality of the results: for the dissociation PMF of NaCl in water, the bin-passing method obtains PMFs in excellent agreement with that obtained for the same system and using the same force-field through static (equilibrium) methods. The bin-passing method gives a very symmetric PMF for passage of a single water molecule through a DPPC bilayer, and the resultant PMF leads to permeability values in better agreement with experiments than those obtained through previous simulation studies. Finally, we consider the interaction of the antimicrobial peptide HHC-36 with two model membranes and employ the bin-passing method to obtain the PMFs for peptide adsorption to the membranes. The characteristics of these PMFs are consistent with the qualities established for the HHC-36 peptide through in vivo and in vitro experiments, as a non-toxic strong antimicrobial agent. PMID:25372312
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hritz, Andrew D.; Raymond, Timothy M.; Dutcher, Dabrina D.
2016-08-01
Accurate estimates of particle surface tension are required for models concerning atmospheric aerosol nucleation and activation. However, it is difficult to collect the volumes of atmospheric aerosol required by typical instruments that measure surface tension, such as goniometers or Wilhelmy plates. In this work, a method that measures, ex situ, the surface tension of collected liquid nanoparticles using atomic force microscopy is presented. A film of particles is collected via impaction and is probed using nanoneedle tips with the atomic force microscope. This micro-Wilhelmy method allows for direct measurements of the surface tension of small amounts of sample. This method was verified using liquids, whose surface tensions were known. Particles of ozone oxidized α-pinene, a well-characterized system, were then produced, collected, and analyzed using this method to demonstrate its applicability for liquid aerosol samples. It was determined that oxidized α-pinene particles formed in dry conditions have a surface tension similar to that of pure α-pinene, and oxidized α-pinene particles formed in more humid conditions have a surface tension that is significantly higher.
Patel, Kevin H; Evenhuis, Christopher J; Cherney, Leonid T; Krylov, Sergey N
2012-03-01
Temperature increase due to resistive electrical heating is an inherent limitation of capillary electrophoresis (CE). Active cooling systems are used to decrease the temperature of the capillary, but their capacity is limited; and in addition, they leave "hot spots" at the detection interface and at the capillary ends. Until recently, the matter was complicated by the lack of a fast and generic method for temperature determination in efficiently and inefficiently cooled regions of the capillary. Our group recently introduced such a method, termed "Universal Method for determining Electrolyte Temperatures" (UMET). UMET is a probe-less approach that requires only measuring current versus voltage for different voltages and processing the data using an iterative algorithm. Here, we apply UMET to develop a Simplified Universal Method of Temperature Determination (SUMET) for a CE instrument with a forced-air cooling system using an Agilent 7100 CE instrument (Agilent Technologies, Saint Laurent, Quebec, Canada) as an example. We collected a wide set of empirical voltage-current data for a variety of buffers and capillary diameters. We further constructed empirical equations for temperature calculation in efficiently and inefficiently cooled parts of the capillary that require only the data from a single 1-min voltage-current measurement. The equations are specific for the Agilent 7100 CE instrument (Agilent Technologies) but can be applied to all kinds of capillaries and buffers. Similar SUMET approaches can be developed for other CE instruments with forced-air cooling using our approach. PMID:22528428
Zhu, Jiang; Qu, Yueqiao; Ma, Teng; Li, Rui; Du, Yongzhao; Huang, Shenghai; Shung, K Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping
2015-05-01
We report on a novel acoustic radiation force orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE) technique for imaging shear wave and quantifying shear modulus under orthogonal acoustic radiation force (ARF) excitation using the optical coherence tomography (OCT) Doppler variance method. The ARF perpendicular to the OCT beam is produced by a remote ultrasonic transducer. A shear wave induced by ARF excitation propagates parallel to the OCT beam. The OCT Doppler variance method, which is sensitive to the transverse vibration, is used to measure the ARF-induced vibration. For analysis of the shear modulus, the Doppler variance method is utilized to visualize shear wave propagation instead of Doppler OCT method, and the propagation velocity of the shear wave is measured at different depths of one location with the M scan. In order to quantify shear modulus beyond the OCT imaging depth, we move ARF to a deeper layer at a known step and measure the time delay of the shear wave propagating to the same OCT imaging depth. We also quantitatively map the shear modulus of a cross-section in a tissue-equivalent phantom after employing the B scan. PMID:25927794
Zhu, Jiang; Qu, Yueqiao; Ma, Teng; Li, Rui; Du, Yongzhao; Huang, Shenghai; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping
2015-01-01
We report on a novel acoustic radiation force orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE) technique for imaging shear wave and quantifying shear modulus under orthogonal acoustic radiation force (ARF) excitation using the optical coherence tomography (OCT) Doppler variance method. The ARF perpendicular to the OCT beam is produced by a remote ultrasonic transducer. A shear wave induced by ARF excitation propagates parallel to the OCT beam. The OCT Doppler variance method, which is sensitive to the transverse vibration, is used to measure the ARF-induced vibration. For analysis of the shear modulus, the Doppler variance method is utilized to visualize shear wave propagation instead of Doppler OCT method, and the propagation velocity of the shear wave is measured at different depths of one location with the M scan. In order to quantify shear modulus beyond the OCT imaging depth, we move ARF to a deeper layer at a known step and measure the time delay of the shear wave propagating to the same OCT imaging depth. We also quantitatively map the shear modulus of a cross-section in a tissue-equivalent phantom after employing the B scan. PMID:25927794
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bassenne, Maxime; Urzay, Javier; Park, George I.; Moin, Parviz
2016-03-01
This study investigates control-based forcing methods for incompressible homogeneous-isotropic turbulence forced linearly in physical space which result in constant turbulent kinetic energy, constant turbulent dissipation (also constant enstrophy), or a combination of the two based on a least-squares error minimization. The methods consist of proportional controllers embedded in the forcing coefficients. During the transient, the controllers adjust the forcing coefficients such that the controlled quantity achieves very early a minimal relative error with respect to its target stationary value. Comparisons of these forcing methods are made with the non-controlled approaches of Rosales and Meneveau ["Linear forcing in numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence: Physical space implementations and convergence properties," Phys. Fluids 17, 095106 (2005)] and Carroll and Blanquart ["A proposed modification to Lundgren's physical space velocity forcing method for isotropic turbulence," Phys. Fluids 25, 105114 (2013)], using direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large-eddy simulations (LES). The results indicate that the proposed constant-energetics forcing methods shorten the transient period from a user-defined artificial flow field to Navier-Stokes turbulence while maintaining steadier statistics. Additionally, the proposed method of constant kinetic-energy forcing behaves more robustly in coarse LES when initial conditions are employed that favor the occurrence of subgrid-scale backscatter, whereas the other approaches fail to provide physical turbulent flow fields. For illustration, the proposed forcing methods are applied to dilute particle-laden homogeneous-isotropic turbulent flows; the results serve to highlight the influences of the forcing strategies on the disperse-phase statistics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Figueroa, Fernando
1999-01-01
It is hypothesized that bone loss experienced by astronauts in zero gravity conditions may be curtailed by appropriate exercise. According to Wolf's law, bone regenerates when muscles produce stresses by pulling on the bone during daily activity and/or exercise on Earth. To use this theory to prevent or decrease bone loss, one needs to quantify musculoskeletal loads and relate them to bone density changes. In the context of the space program, it is desirable to determine musculoskeletal loads during exercise so that one may make similar measurements on Earth and in space. In this manner, load measurements on Earth may be used as reference to generate similar loads during exercise in space. A research project to investigate the effects of high-resistive exercise to decrease bone density loss underzero-gravity conditions is being carried out in Life Sciences Research Laboratories at NASA JSC. The project consists of a bed-rest study whereby subjects remain in horizontal position for seventeen weeks. During the study, a subset of those subjects executes a regime of resistive exercises in the horizontal exercise machine (HEM). The HEM was designed so that subjects remain horizontal while exercising to minimize gravity loading even during exercise. Bone density of each subject is measured throughout the duration of their participation. The objective of the study is to determine if the resistive exercises are effective in diminishing or eliminating bone loss. My participation in this project relates to instrumentation, measurement, and processing of signals from displacement sensors (optical encoders) and load-cells. Measurement of displacements will be used to determine the motion of the body during exercise, and load measurements will be used (along with displacement data) to determine forces and torques exerted on each section of the body during exercise. Further, I have assisted in specifying new sensors to be added to the HEM and to a new prototype resistive
Driving force analysis of the agricultural water footprint in China based on the LMDI method.
Zhao, Chunfu; Chen, Bin
2014-11-01
China's water scarcity problems have become more severe because of the unprecedented economic development and population explosion. Considering agriculture's large share of water consumption, obtaining a clear understanding of Chinese agricultural consumptive water use plays a key role in addressing China's water resource stress and providing appropriate water mitigation policies. We account for the Chinese agricultural water footprint from 1990 to 2009 based on bottom up approach. Then, the underlying driving forces are decomposed into diet structure effect, efficiency effect, economic activity effect, and population effect, and analyzed by applying a log-mean Divisia index (LMDI) model. The results reveal that the Chinese agricultural water footprint has risen from the 94.1 Gm3 in 1990 to 141 Gm3 in 2009. The economic activity effect is the largest positive contributor to promoting the water footprint growth, followed by the population effect and diet structure effect. Although water efficiency improvement as a significant negative effect has reduced overall water footprint, the water footprint decline from water efficiency improvement cannot compensate for the huge increase from the three positive driving factors. The combination of water efficiency improvement and dietary structure adjustment is the most effective approach for controlling the Chinese agricultural water footprint's further growth. PMID:25289879
An atomic force microscopy-based method for line edge roughness measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fouchier, M.; Pargon, E.; Bardet, B.
2013-03-01
With the constant decrease of semiconductor device dimensions, line edge roughness (LER) becomes one of the most important sources of device variability and needs to be controlled below 2 nm for the future technological nodes of the semiconductor roadmap. LER control at the nanometer scale requires accurate measurements. We introduce a technique for LER measurement based upon the atomic force microscope (AFM). In this technique, the sample is tilted at about 45° and feature sidewalls are scanned along their length with the AFM tip to obtain three-dimensional images. The small radius of curvature of the tip together with the low noise level of a laboratory AFM result in high resolution images. Half profiles and LER values on all the height of the sidewalls are extracted from the 3D images using a procedure that we developed. The influence of sample angle variations on the measurements is shown to be small. The technique is applied to the study of a full pattern transfer into a simplified gate stack. The images obtained are qualitatively consistent with cross-section scanning electron microscopy images and the average LER values agree with that obtained by critical dimension scanning electron microscopy. In addition to its high resolution, this technique presents several advantages such as the ability to image the foot of photoresist lines, complex multi-layer stacks regardless of the materials, and deep re-entrant profiles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, S.; Zhang, M. H.
2014-12-01
Large-scale forcing data (vertical velocities and advective tendencies) are important atmospheric fields to drive single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulations (LES), but they are difficult to calculate accurately. The current 1-dimensional constrained variational analysis (1D CVA) method (Zhang and Lin, 1997) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is limited to represent the average of a sounding network domain. We extended the original 1D CVA algorithm into 3-dimensional along with other improvements, calculated gridded large-scale forcing data, apparent heating sources (Q1) and moisture sinks (Q2), and compared with 5 reanalyses: ERA-Interim, NCEP CFSR, MERRA, JRA55 and NARR for a mid-latitude spring cyclone case. The results from a case study for in March 3rd 2000 at the Southern Great Plain (SGP) show that reanalyses generally captured the structure of the mid-latitude cyclone, but they have serious biases in the 2nd order derivative terms (divergences and horizontal derivations) at regional scales of less than a few hundred kilometers. Our algorithm provides a set of atmospheric fields consistent with the observed constraint variables at the surface and top of the atmosphere better than reanalyses. The analyzed atmospheric fields can be used in SCM, CRM and LES to provide 3-dimensional dynamical forcing, or be used to evaluate reanalyses or model simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Min S.; Meshik, Xenia; Mukherjee, Souvik; Farid, Sidra; Doan, Samuel; Covnot, Leigha; Dutta, Mitra; Stroscio, Michael A.
2015-11-01
ZnO quantum dots (QDs) are used in a variety of applications due to several desirable characteristics, including a wide band gap, luminescence, and biocompatibility. Wurtzite ZnO QDs also exhibit a spontaneous polarization along the growth axis, leading to large electric fields. In this work, ZnO QDs around 7 nm in diameter are synthesized using the sol-gel method. Their size and structure are confirmed using photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to measure the amplitude change in the probe which is associated with the electric field produced by ZnO immobilized by layer-by-layer synthesis technique. The measured electrostatic field of 10 8 V/m is comparable to theoretically predicted value. Additionally, the strength of the electrostatic field is shown to depend on the orientation of the QD's c-axis. These results demonstrate a unique technique of quantifying ZnO's electric force using EFM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelly, James T.; Baker, Kirk R.; Napelenok, Sergey L.; Roselle, Shawn J.
2015-06-01
In regulatory assessments, there is a need for reliable estimates of the impacts of precursor emissions from individual sources on secondary PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns) and ozone. Three potential methods for estimating these impacts using Eulerian grid photochemical models are the brute-force (B-F) method, the decoupled direct method (DDM), and advanced plume treatment (APT). Here, we systematically inter-compare and assess the B-F, DDM, and APT approaches using hypothetical sources in a consistent modeling platform for a wide range of source conditions (i.e., emissions amount and composition, location within two California air basins, and stack parameters). The impacts of NOx and VOC sources on ozone and SO2 sources on PM2.5 sulfate calculated by these methods are in general agreement. The agreement is evident in the similar magnitudes, spatial patterns, and strong correlations among the impacts. This result, along with previous model evaluations based on similar Eulerian grid modeling, builds confidence in the reliability of the impact estimates. Disagreement among methods is evident in calculations of PM2.5 nitrate impacts associated with NH3 and NOx sources. Numerical instabilities in DDM sensitivity calculations compromise the nitrate impact estimates from that approach. The B-F and APT methods, which use brute-force differencing to identify impacts, are affected by numerical artifacts to a lesser degree than (H)DDM, with the artifacts being more prominent for APT than B-F. Overall, our results indicate that the (H)DDM, B-F, and APT approaches are viable for use in estimating single-source impacts for ozone and secondary PM2.5 sulfate, while the B-F method appears to be the most reliable for estimating nitrate impacts. There is a need for additional field study measurements to better constrain model estimates of single-source secondary impacts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yan; Li, DongXu; Liu, ZhiZhen; Liu, Liang
2013-03-01
The dexterous upper limb serves as the most important tool for astronauts to implement in-orbit experiments and operations. This study developed a simulated weightlessness experiment and invented new measuring equipment to quantitatively evaluate the muscle ability of the upper limb. Isometric maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) and surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of right-handed pushing at the three positions were measured for eleven subjects. In order to enhance the comprehensiveness and accuracy of muscle force assessment, the study focused on signal processing techniques. We applied a combination method, which consists of time-, frequency-, and bi-frequency-domain analyses. Time- and frequency-domain analyses estimated the root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MDF) of sEMG signals, respectively. Higher order spectra (HOS) of bi-frequency domain evaluated the maximum bispectrum amplitude ( B max), Gaussianity level (Sg) and linearity level (S l ) of sEMG signals. Results showed that B max, S l , and RMS values all increased as force increased. MDF and Sg values both declined as force increased. The research demonstrated that the combination method is superior to the conventional time- and frequency-domain analyses. The method not only described sEMG signal amplitude and power spectrum, but also deeper characterized phase coupling information and non-Gaussianity and non-linearity levels of sEMG, compared to two conventional analyses. The finding from the study can aid ergonomist to estimate astronaut muscle performance, so as to optimize in-orbit operation efficacy and minimize musculoskeletal injuries.
Fotos, P G; Spyrakos, C C; Bernard, D O
1990-01-01
The finite element method has been used to determine the stress distribution generated by the initial placement of a simulated preset bracket-type orthodontic appliance utilizing titanium-nickel alloy archwire. PMID:2256565
Numerical Manifold Method for the Forced Vibration of Thin Plates during Bending
Jun, Ding; Song, Chen; Wei-Bin, Wen; Shao-Ming, Luo; Xia, Huang
2014-01-01
A novel numerical manifold method was derived from the cubic B-spline basis function. The new interpolation function is characterized by high-order coordination at the boundary of a manifold element. The linear elastic-dynamic equation used to solve the bending vibration of thin plates was derived according to the principle of minimum instantaneous potential energy. The method for the initialization of the dynamic equation and its solution process were provided. Moreover, the analysis showed that the calculated stiffness matrix exhibited favorable performance. Numerical results showed that the generalized degrees of freedom were significantly fewer and that the calculation accuracy was higher for the manifold method than for the conventional finite element method. PMID:24883403
A Design Method of Force Dependent Velocity Bilateral Control Based on Gyrator Property
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizoguchi, Takahiro; Kuwahara, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Kouhei
This paper proposes a bilateral control method for a teleoperation system with different sizes and work volumes. In the proposed controller, transformer-type bilateral control and gyrator-type bilateral control are integrated. The proposed control method can be used for the control of the motion of a slave robot; this involves intuitive manipulation of the master robot despite the structural difference between the master and slave.
Grahn, Allen R.
1993-01-01
A force sensor and related method for determining force components. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.
Grahn, A.R.
1993-05-11
A force sensor and related method for determining force components is described. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.
A hybrid method for computing forces on curved dislocations threading to free surfaces
Tang, M; Cai, W; Xu, G; Bulatov, V V
2005-06-06
Dislocations threading to free surfaces present a challenge for numerical implementation of traction-free boundary conditions. The difficulty arises when canonical (singular) solutions of dislocation mechanics are used in combination with the Finite Element or Boundary Element (Green's function) methods. A new hybrid method is developed here in which the singular part and the non-singular (regular) part of the image stress are dealt with separately. A special analytical solution for a semi-infinite straight dislocation intersecting the surface of a half-space is used to account for the singular part of the image stress, while the remaining regular part of the image stress field is treated using the standard Finite Element Method. The numerical advantages of such regularization are demonstrated with examples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khare, H. S.; Burris, D. L.
2013-05-01
One of the major challenges in understanding and controlling friction is the difficulty in bridging the length and time scales of macroscale contacts and those of the single asperity interactions they comprise. While the atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a unique ability to probe tribological surfaces in a wear-free single-asperity contact, instrument calibration challenges have limited the usefulness of this technique for quantitative nanotribological studies. A number of lateral force calibration techniques have been proposed and used, but none has gained universal acceptance due to practical considerations, configuration limitations, or sensitivities to unknowable error sources. This paper describes a simple extension of the classic wedge method of AFM lateral force calibration which: (1) allows simultaneous calibration and measurement on any substrate, thus eliminating prior tip damage and confounding effects of instrument setup adjustments; (2) is insensitive to adhesion, PSD cross-talk, transducer/piezo-tube axis misalignment, and shear-center offset; (3) is applicable to integrated tips and colloidal probes; and (4) is generally applicable to any reciprocating friction coefficient measurement. The method was applied to AFM measurements of polished carbon (99.999% graphite) and single crystal MoS2 to demonstrate the technique. Carbon and single crystal MoS2 had friction coefficients of μ = 0.20 ± 0.04 and μ = 0.006 ± 0.001, respectively, against an integrated Si probe. Against a glass colloidal sphere, MoS2 had a friction coefficient of μ = 0.005 ± 0.001. Generally, the measurement uncertainties ranged from 10%-20% and were driven by the effect of actual frictional variation on the calibration rather than calibration error itself (i.e., due to misalignment, tip-offset, or probe radius).
Jiang Chaowei; Feng Xueshang E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn
2012-04-20
The magnetic field in the solar corona is usually extrapolated from a photospheric vector magnetogram using a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) model. NLFFF extrapolation needs considerable effort to be devoted to its numerical realization. In this paper, we present a new implementation of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) relaxation method for NLFFF extrapolation. The magnetofrictional approach, which is introduced for speeding the relaxation of the MHD system, is realized for the first time by the spacetime conservation-element and solution-element scheme. A magnetic field splitting method is used to further improve the computational accuracy. The bottom boundary condition is prescribed by incrementally changing the transverse field to match the magnetogram, and all other artificial boundaries of the computational box are simply fixed. We examine the code using two types of NLFFF benchmark tests, the Low and Lou semi-analytic force-free solutions and a more realistic solar-like case constructed by van Ballegooijen et al. The results show that our implementation is successful and versatile for extrapolations of either the relatively simple cases or the rather complex cases that need significant rebuilding of the magnetic topology, e.g., a flux rope. We also compute a suite of metrics to quantitatively analyze the results and demonstrate that the performance of our code in extrapolation accuracy basically reaches the same level of the present best-performing code, i.e., that developed by Wiegelmann.
Sader, John E.; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul
2014-11-15
Calibration of the optical lever sensitivities of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers is especially important for determining the force in AFM measurements. These sensitivities depend critically on the cantilever mode used and are known to differ for static and dynamic measurements. Here, we calculate the ratio of the dynamic and static sensitivities for several common AFM cantilevers, whose shapes vary considerably, and experimentally verify these results. The dynamic-to-static optical lever sensitivity ratio is found to range from 1.09 to 1.41 for the cantilevers studied – in stark contrast to the constant value of 1.09 used widely in current calibration studies. This analysis shows that accuracy of the thermal noise method for the static spring constant is strongly dependent on cantilever geometry – neglect of these dynamic-to-static factors can induce errors exceeding 100%. We also discuss a simple experimental approach to non-invasively and simultaneously determine the dynamic and static spring constants and optical lever sensitivities of cantilevers of arbitrary shape, which is applicable to all AFM platforms that have the thermal noise method for spring constant calibration.
Microfluidic devices, systems, and methods for quantifying particles using centrifugal force
Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory J.; Singh, Anup K.
2015-11-17
Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward microfluidic systems, apparatus, and methods for measuring a quantity of cells in a fluid. Examples include a differential white blood cell measurement using a centrifugal microfluidic system. A method may include introducing a fluid sample containing a quantity of cells into a microfluidic channel defined in part by a substrate. The quantity of cells may be transported toward a detection region defined in part by the substrate, wherein the detection region contains a density media, and wherein the density media has a density lower than a density of the cells and higher than a density of the fluid sample. The substrate may be spun such that at least a portion of the quantity of cells are transported through the density media. Signals may be detected from label moieties affixed to the cells.
Two-capacitor method for study of photoelectromotive force in semiconductors
Bodrova, T.K.; Davydov, I.A.; Protasov, Y.V.; Seregin, V.T.
1986-08-01
This paper presents a method for measurement of photo emf on the surface or within a semiconductor and in metal-semiconductor and metal dielectric-semiconductor structures that uses, instead of a single Kelvin vibrating capacitor, two capacitors in series: a fixed capacitor with the specimen on one of its plates and a vibrating capacitor, which converts the dc signal to ac. The sensitivity of the circuit which is determined by the ratio of the capacitor values and the noise level of the EVP-8M capacitive vibrating-reed converter (less than 50 uV) is equal to 0.3 mV. The method facilitates studies in the high vacuum and in various media.
Lesmes, Luis A.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Baek, Jongsoo; Tran, Nina; Dosher, Barbara A.; Albright, Thomas D.
2015-01-01
Motivated by Signal Detection Theory (SDT), we developed a family of novel adaptive methods that estimate the sensitivity threshold—the signal intensity corresponding to a pre-defined sensitivity level (d′ = 1)—in Yes-No (YN) and Forced-Choice (FC) detection tasks. Rather than focus stimulus sampling to estimate a single level of %Yes or %Correct, the current methods sample psychometric functions more broadly, to concurrently estimate sensitivity and decision factors, and thereby estimate thresholds that are independent of decision confounds. Developed for four tasks—(1) simple YN detection, (2) cued YN detection, which cues the observer's response state before each trial, (3) rated YN detection, which incorporates a Not Sure response, and (4) FC detection—the qYN and qFC methods yield sensitivity thresholds that are independent of the task's decision structure (YN or FC) and/or the observer's subjective response state. Results from simulation and psychophysics suggest that 25 trials (and sometimes less) are sufficient to estimate YN thresholds with reasonable precision (s.d. = 0.10–0.15 decimal log units), but more trials are needed for FC thresholds. When the same subjects were tested across tasks of simple, cued, rated, and FC detection, adaptive threshold estimates exhibited excellent agreement with the method of constant stimuli (MCS), and with each other. These YN adaptive methods deliver criterion-free thresholds that have previously been exclusive to FC methods. PMID:26300798
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Yanquan; Yan, Yongda; Hu, Zhenjiang; Zhao, Xuesen
2016-01-01
An atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based method to reveal the elastic recovery behavior of a polymer material after the nanoscratching process is presented. The machined depth during scratching is obtained by monitoring the position of the piezoceramic tube (PZT) of the AFM system. By comparison with the measured depth of the nanogroove, the elastic recovery of the machined depth can be achieved. Experiments are also undertaken to study the effects of the scratching velocity and the applied normal load on the elastic recovery of the machined depth when scratching on polycarbonate (PC). Results show that the elastic recovery rate has a logarithmically proportional relationship to the scratching velocity, while it has little change with the variation of the applied normal load. In addition, the constitutive model of the polymer material is also used to verify the obtained conclusions, indicating that this is a potential method for measuring the elastic recovery of the material under the mechanical process on the nanoscale.
Zeikus, Gregory J.; Shin, Hyoun S.; Jain, Mahendra K.
2002-01-01
Disclosed are methods using neutral red to mediate the interconversion of chemical and electrical energy. Electrically reduced neutral red has been found to promote cell growth and formation of reduced products by reversibly increasing the ratio of the reduced:oxidized forms of NAD(H) or NADP(H). Electrically reduced neutral red is able to serve as the sole source of reducing power for microbial, cell growth. Neutral red is also able to promote conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy by facilitating the transfer of electrons from microbial reducing power to a fuel cell cathode.
Zeikus, Joseph G.; Park, Doo
2001-01-01
Disclosed are methods using neutral red to mediate the interconversion of chemical and electrical energy. Electrically reduced neutral red has been found to promote cell growth and formation of reduced products by reversibly increasing the ratio of the reduced:oxidized forms of NAD(H) or NADP(H). Electrically reduced neutral red is able to serve as the sole source of reducing power for microbial cell growth. Neutral red is also able to promote conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy by facilitating the transfer of electrons from microbial reducing power to a fuel cell cathode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nivière, B.; Marquis, Guy
2000-06-01
We show that morphologic dating techniques that have been applied successfully in arid and semi-arid areas are also suitable for slowly evolving scarps that are usually found in temperate climate environments. We have attempted two morphologic approaches, based on diffusion, to relate the present-day shape of an abandoned terrace riser to its age. The first assumes a model of scarp degradation based on a diffusive process (the D method). The second evaluates the state of scarp degradation using the slope distribution (the SD method) along a topographic profile. By using a manmade scarp of known age, we have obtained a mass diffusivity close to 1.4m2ka-1 when the area experiences a temperate climate characterized by a continuous vegetation cover. However, this value decreases during glacial episodes, probably on account of the permafrost. Even though the SD method requires an age correction that can be easily computed, only this method reveals that at several profiles a later scarp reactivation event has occurred. Indeed, along several profiles, the slope distribution was best fitted by two offset Gaussian curves, suggesting that some scarps have undergone a complex evolution that cannot be modelled with a single diffusive process. This scarp reactivation may correspond to a new incisive episode and allows one to estimate the vertical incision rate along the terrace riser. Applied to a Wurmian terrace riser of the upper Rhine valley (NE France), this approach reveals that the vertical incision rate ranges from 0.2 to 0.85mmyr-1 between 35 and 15ka and that the terrace bevelling occurred during two episodes related to climatic forcing. Moreover, we can identify a component of tectonic forcing evidenced by an increase to the north of vertical incision rate and Rhine stream-power. Another major result is showing that this terrace riser is not isochronous along its strike and that younger portions result from lateral incision of a 30ka pre-existing scarp.
Jahan, Md Sarowar; Islam, Md Jahirul; Begum, Rehana; Kayesh, Ruhul; Rahman, Asma
2014-01-01
A rapid and stability-indicating reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous quantification of paracetamol and ibuprofen in their combined dosage form especially to get some more advantages over other methods already developed for this combination. The method was validated according to United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guideline with respect to accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, solution stability, robustness, sensitivity, and system suitability. Forced degradation study was validated according to International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). For this, an isocratic condition of mobile phase comprising phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) and acetonitrile in a ratio of 65:35, v/v at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/minute over RP C18 (octadecylsilane (ODS), 150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm, Phenomenex Inc.) column at ambient temperature was maintained. The method showed excellent linear response with correlation coefficient (R (2)) values of 0.999 and 1.0 for paracetamol and ibuprofen respectively, which were within the limit of correlation coefficient (R (2) > 0.995). The percent recoveries for two drugs were found within the acceptance limit of (97.0-103.0%). Intra-and inter-day precision studies of the new method were less than the maximum allowable limit percentage of relative standard deviation (%RSD) ≤ 2.0. Forced degradation of the drug product was carried out as per the ICH guidelines with a view to establishing the stability-indicating property of this method and providing useful information about the degradation pathways, degradation products, and how the quality of a drug substance and drug product changes with time under the influence of various stressing conditions. The degradation of ibuprofen was within the limit (5-20%, according to the guideline of ICH), while paracetamol showed <20% degradation in oxidation and basic condition. PMID:25452691
Jahan, Md. Sarowar; Islam, Md. Jahirul; Begum, Rehana; Kayesh, Ruhul; Rahman, Asma
2014-01-01
A rapid and stability-indicating reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous quantification of paracetamol and ibuprofen in their combined dosage form especially to get some more advantages over other methods already developed for this combination. The method was validated according to United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guideline with respect to accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, solution stability, robustness, sensitivity, and system suitability. Forced degradation study was validated according to International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). For this, an isocratic condition of mobile phase comprising phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) and acetonitrile in a ratio of 65:35, v/v at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/minute over RP C18 (octadecylsilane (ODS), 150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm, Phenomenex Inc.) column at ambient temperature was maintained. The method showed excellent linear response with correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.999 and 1.0 for paracetamol and ibuprofen respectively, which were within the limit of correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.995). The percent recoveries for two drugs were found within the acceptance limit of (97.0–103.0%). Intra-and inter-day precision studies of the new method were less than the maximum allowable limit percentage of relative standard deviation (%RSD) ≤ 2.0. Forced degradation of the drug product was carried out as per the ICH guidelines with a view to establishing the stability-indicating property of this method and providing useful information about the degradation pathways, degradation products, and how the quality of a drug substance and drug product changes with time under the influence of various stressing conditions. The degradation of ibuprofen was within the limit (5–20%, according to the guideline of ICH), while paracetamol showed <20% degradation in oxidation and basic condition. PMID:25452691
A Robot-Assisted Surgical System Using a Force-Image Control Method for Pedicle Screw Insertion
Tian, Wei; Han, Xiaoguang; Liu, Bo; Liu, Yajun; Hu, Ying; Han, Xiao; Xu, Yunfeng; Fan, Mingxing; Jin, Haiyang
2014-01-01
Objective To introduce a robot-assisted surgical system for spinal posterior fixation that can automatically recognize the drilling state and stop potential cortical penetration with force and image information and to further evaluate the accuracy and safety of the robot for sheep vertebra pedicle screw placement. Methods The Robotic Spinal Surgery System (RSSS) was composed of an optical tracking system, a navigation and planning system, and a surgical robot equipped with a 6-DOF force/torque sensor. The robot used the image message and force signals to sense the different operation states and to prevent potential cortical penetration in the pedicle screw insertion operation. To evaluate the accuracy and safety of the RSSS, 32 screw insertions were conducted. Furthermore, six trajectories were deliberately planned incorrectly to explore whether the robot could recognize the different drilling states and immediately prevent cortical penetration. Results All 32 pedicle screws were placed in the pedicle without any broken pedicle walls. Compared with the preoperative planning, the average deviations of the entry points in the axial and sagittal views were 0.50±0.33 and 0.65±0.40 mm, and the average deviations of the angles in the axial and sagittal views were 1.9±0.82° and 1.48±1.2°. The robot successfully recognized the different drilling states and prevented potential cortical penetration. In the deliberately incorrectly planned trajectory experiments, the robot successfully prevented the cortical penetration. Conclusion These results verified the RSSS’s accuracy and safety, which supported its potential use for the spinal surgery. PMID:24466043
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Wenxiao; Bao, Jie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre
2013-11-01
A Continuous Boundary Force (CBF) method was developed for implementing Robin (Navier) boundary condition (BC) that can describe no-slip or slip conditions (slip length from zero to infinity) at the fluid-solid interface. In the CBF method the Robin BC is replaced by a homogeneous Neumann BC and an additional volumetric source term in the governing momentum equation. The formulation is derived based on an approximation of the sharp boundary with a diffuse interface of finite thickness, across which the BC is reformulated by means of a smoothed characteristic function. The CBF method is easy to be implemented in Lagrangian particle-based methods. We first implemented it in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to solve numerically the Navier-Stokes equations subject to spatial-independent or dependent Robin BC in two and three dimensions. The numerical accuracy and convergence is examined through comparisons with the corresponding finite difference or finite element solutions. The CBF method is further implemented in smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD), a mesoscale scheme, for modeling slip flows commonly existent in micro/nano channels and microfluidic devices. The authors acknowledge the funding support by the ASCR Program of the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delmotte, Blaise; Keaveny, Eric E.; Plouraboué, Franck; Climent, Eric
2015-12-01
We present a new development of the force-coupling method (FCM) to address the accurate simulation of a large number of interacting micro-swimmers. Our approach is based on the squirmer model, which we adapt to the FCM framework, resulting in a method that is suitable for simulating semi-dilute squirmer suspensions. Other effects, such as steric interactions, are considered with our model. We test our method by comparing the velocity field around a single squirmer and the pairwise interactions between two squirmers with exact solutions to the Stokes equations and results given by other numerical methods. We also illustrate our method's ability to describe spheroidal swimmer shapes and biologically-relevant time-dependent swimming gaits. We detail the numerical algorithm used to compute the hydrodynamic coupling between a large collection (104-105) of micro-swimmers. Using this methodology, we investigate the emergence of polar order in a suspension of squirmers and show that for large domains, both the steady-state polar order parameter and the growth rate of instability are independent of system size. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach to achieve near continuum-level results, allowing for better comparison with experimental measurements while complementing and informing continuum models.
Method and apparatus for advanced staged combustion utilizing forced internal recirculation
Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Knight, Richard A.; Cygan, David F.; Nester, Serguei; Abbasi, Hamid A.
2003-12-16
A method and apparatus for combustion of a fuel in which a first-stage fuel and a first-stage oxidant are introduced into a combustion chamber and ignited, forming a primary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the total heat output produced by combustion of the first-stage fuel and the first-stage oxidant is removed from the primary combustion zone, forming cooled first-stage combustion products. A portion of the cooled first-stage combustion products from a downstream region of the primary combustion zone is recirculated to an upstream region of primary combustion zone. A second-stage fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the primary combustion zone and ignited, forming a secondary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the heat from the secondary combustion zone is removed. In accordance with one embodiment, a third-stage oxidant is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the secondary combustion zone, forming a tertiary combustion zone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Nessi, G. T.; Hole, M. J.; the MAST Team
2013-05-01
A new method, based on Bayesian analysis, is presented which unifies the inference of plasma equilibria parameters in a tokamak with the ability to quantify differences between inferred equilibria and Grad-Shafranov (GS) force-balance solutions. At the heart of this technique is the new concept of weak observation, which allows multiple forward models to be associated with a single diagnostic observation. This new idea subsequently provides a means by which the space of GS solutions can be efficiently characterized via a prior distribution. The posterior evidence (a normalization constant of the inferred posterior distribution) is also inferred in the analysis and is used as a proxy for determining how relatively close inferred equilibria are to force-balance for different discharges/times. These points have been implemented in a code called BEAST (Bayesian equilibrium analysis and simulation tool), which uses a special implementation of Skilling’s nested sampling algorithm (Skilling 2006 Bayesian Anal. 1 833-59) to perform sampling and evidence calculations on high-dimensional, non-Gaussian posteriors. Initial BEAST equilibrium inference results are presented for two high-performance MAST discharges.
Wen, L; Wang, T M; Wu, G H; Liang, J H
2012-09-01
We implement a mackerel (Scomber scombrus) body-shaped robot, programmed to display the three most typical body/caudal fin undulatory kinematics (i.e. anguilliform, carangiform and thunniform), in order to biomimetically investigate hydrodynamic issues not easily tackled experimentally with live fish. The robotic mackerel, mounted on a servo towing system and initially at rest, can determine its self-propelled speed by measuring the external force acting upon it and allowing for the simultaneous measurement of power, flow field and self-propelled speed. Experimental results showed that the robotic swimmer with thunniform kinematics achieved a faster final swimming speed (St = 0.424) relative to those with carangiform (St = 0.43) and anguilliform kinematics (St = 0.55). The thrust efficiency, estimated from a digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) flow field, showed that the robotic swimmer with thunniform kinematics is more efficient (47.3%) than those with carangiform (31.4%) and anguilliform kinematics (26.6%). Furthermore, the DPIV measurements illustrate that the large-scale characteristics of the flow pattern generated by the robotic swimmer with both anguilliform and carangiform kinematics were wedge-like, double-row wake structures. Additionally, a typical single-row reverse Karman vortex was produced by the robotic swimmer using thunniform kinematics. Finally, we discuss this novel force-feedback-controlled experimental method, and review the relative self-propelled hydrodynamic results of the robot when utilizing the three types of undulatory kinematics. PMID:22556135
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
澤田, 秀夫
The aerodynamic performance of an AGARD-B model, as an example of a winged model, was measured in a low-speed wind tunnel equipped with the JAXA 60cm Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS). The flow speed was in the range between 25m/s and 35m/s, and the angle of attack and the yaw angle were in the range of [- 8, 4] and [- 3, 3] degrees, respectively. Six components of the aerodynamic force were evaluated by using the control coil currents of the MSBS. In evaluating the drag, the effect of the lift on the drag must be evaluated at MSBS when the lift is much larger than drag. A new evaluation method for drag and lift was proposed and was examined successfully by subjecting the model to the same loads as in the wind tunnel test. The drag coefficient at zero lift and the derivatives of the lift and pitching moment coefficient with respect to the angle of attack were evaluated and compared with other source data sets. The obtained data agreed well with the corresponding values of the other sources. The side force, yawing moment and rolling moment coefficients were also evaluated on the basis of corresponding calibration test results, and reasonable results were obtained, although they could not be compared due to the lack of reliable data sets.
A Sensorless Starting Method for Self-Controlled Synchronous Motors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasegawa, Chihiro; Nishikata, Shoji
A self-controlled synchronous motor is being used as a variable speed motor in industries to date, and nowadays it is also used for propelling a ship. In this type of motor, the information of rotor position is needed to achieve stable operations. A simple sensorless starting method for this motor is studied in this paper. An initial rotor position detecting method without any position sensor is first discussed. It is shown that the position can be detected easily by observing the electromotive forces induced in the armature windings due to the change in the field current. Then, a new starting method for the motor is proposed on the basis of the DC link current chopping during the starting period. It is clarified that based on the proposed method the starting of the motor can be realized independently of the load conditions, supporting the usefulness of the proposed method. Finally, the effects of various parameters in the system on the responses of dc input current and motor speed during starting up are discussed.
Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C
2015-10-01
An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements. PMID:26292289
Brunner, Ralf; Talke, Frank E.; Etsion, Izhak
2009-05-15
A simple calibration method is described for the determination of surface energy by atomic force microscopy (AFM) pull-off force measurements on nanostructured surfaces covered with molecularly thin liquid films. The method is based on correlating pull-off forces measured in arbitrary units on a nanostructured surface with pull-off forces measured on macroscopically smooth dip-coated gauge surfaces with known surface energy. The method avoids the need for complex calibration of the AFM cantilever stiffness and the determination of the radius of curvature of the AFM tip. Both of the latter measurements are associated with indirect and less accurate measurements of surface energy based on various contact mechanics adhesion models.
Tochigi, Keisuke; Oda, Souichiro; Arai, Kazuhito
2015-01-01
The present study investigated the influence of archwire size and ligation method on the force magnitude delivered by nickel-titanium alloy archwires to 4 incisor brackets (42, 41, 31, and 32) in a simulation of mandibular right lateral incisor linguoversion. The force delivered by 0.014 and 0.016 inch nickel-titanium alloy archwires was measured using a newly developed multi-sensor measuring system and the mean force magnitudes were compared between different archwire sizes when using conventional ligation (CL) with elastic modules or self-ligating (SL) brackets by three-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni's tests. The mean force magnitudes for the brackets were significantly decreased in the order of 42, 41, 31, and 32 (p<0.01). The force magnitude was significantly larger in CL than SL at 42, 31, and 32 (p<0.05). In conclusion, the ligation method affected the force magnitude at 4 incisor brackets. Despite the ligation method, archwire size affected the force magnitude from 42 to 31. PMID:25948144
Liu Zhen; Jeong, Younkoo; Menq, Chia-Hsiang
2013-02-15
An accurate experimental method is proposed for on-spot calibration of the measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy. One of the key techniques devised for this method is a reliable contact detection mechanism that detects the tip-surface contact instantly. At the contact instant, the oscillation amplitude of the tip deflection, converted to that of the deflection signal in laser reading through the measurement sensitivity, exactly equals to the distance between the sample surface and the cantilever base position. Therefore, the proposed method utilizes the recorded oscillation amplitude of the deflection signal and the base position of the cantilever at the contact instant for the measurement sensitivity calibration. Experimental apparatus along with various signal processing and control modules was realized to enable automatic and rapid acquisition of multiple sets of data, with which the calibration of a single dynamic mode could be completed in less than 1 s to suppress the effect of thermal drift and measurement noise. Calibration of the measurement sensitivities of the first and second dynamic modes of three micro-cantilevers having distinct geometries was successfully demonstrated. The dependence of the measurement sensitivity on laser spot location was also experimentally investigated. Finally, an experiment was performed to validate the calibrated measurement sensitivity of the second dynamic mode of a micro-cantilever.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhen; Jeong, Younkoo; Menq, Chia-Hsiang
2013-02-01
An accurate experimental method is proposed for on-spot calibration of the measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy. One of the key techniques devised for this method is a reliable contact detection mechanism that detects the tip-surface contact instantly. At the contact instant, the oscillation amplitude of the tip deflection, converted to that of the deflection signal in laser reading through the measurement sensitivity, exactly equals to the distance between the sample surface and the cantilever base position. Therefore, the proposed method utilizes the recorded oscillation amplitude of the deflection signal and the base position of the cantilever at the contact instant for the measurement sensitivity calibration. Experimental apparatus along with various signal processing and control modules was realized to enable automatic and rapid acquisition of multiple sets of data, with which the calibration of a single dynamic mode could be completed in less than 1 s to suppress the effect of thermal drift and measurement noise. Calibration of the measurement sensitivities of the first and second dynamic modes of three micro-cantilevers having distinct geometries was successfully demonstrated. The dependence of the measurement sensitivity on laser spot location was also experimentally investigated. Finally, an experiment was performed to validate the calibrated measurement sensitivity of the second dynamic mode of a micro-cantilever.
Chang, Le; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Kuwata, Kazuo; Takada, Shoji
2013-05-30
Accurate computational estimate of the protein-ligand binding affinity is of central importance in rational drug design. To improve accuracy of the molecular mechanics (MM) force field (FF) for protein-ligand simulations, we use a protein-specific FF derived by the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method and by the restrained electrostatic potential (RESP) method. Applying this FMO-RESP method to two proteins, dodecin, and lysozyme, we found that protein-specific partial charges tend to differ more significantly from the standard AMBER charges for isolated charged atoms. We did not see the dependence of partial charges on the secondary structure. Computing the binding affinities of dodecin with five ligands by MM PBSA protocol with the FMO-RESP charge set as well as with the standard AMBER charges, we found that the former gives better correlation with experimental affinities than the latter. While, for lysozyme with five ligands, both charge sets gave similar and relatively accurate estimates of binding affinities. PMID:23420697
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neish, Calum S.; Martin, Ian L.; Davies, Martin; Henderson, Robert M.; Edwardson, J. Michael
2003-08-01
We have developed an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based method for the determination of the subunit architecture of ionotropic receptors, and tested the method using the GABAA receptor as a model system. The most common form of the GABAA receptor probably consists of 2alpha1-, 2beta2- and 1gamma2-subunits. We show here that the arrangement of subunits around the central Cl- ion channel can be deduced by AFM of receptors tagged with subunit-specific antibodies. Transfection of cells with DNA encoding alpha1-, beta2- and gamma2-subunits resulted in the production of receptors containing all three subunits, as judged by both immunoblot analysis and the binding of [3H]-Ro15-1788, a specific radioligand for the GABAA receptor. A His6-tag on the alpha1-subunit was used to purify the receptor from membrane fractions of transfected cells. After incubation with anti-His6 immunoglobulin G, some receptors became tagged with either one or two antibody molecules. AFM analysis of complexes containing two bound antibodies showed that the most common angle between the two tags was 135°, close to the value of 144° expected if the two alpha-subunits are separated by a third subunit. This method is applicable to the complete elucidation of the subunit arrangement around the GABAA receptor rosette, and can also be applied to other ionotropic receptors.
Method for recovering metal from waste stream
Greenberg, B.
1991-09-10
This patent describes a method for recovering metal from a waste stream to render the waste stream suitable for discharge. It comprises passing a waste stream comprised of heavy metal salts in dilute solution into a cathode chamber of an anion exchange membrane delineated electrolytic cell, wherein the metals are selected from the group having a standard reduction potential more negative than that of hydrogen in the electromotive force series and the heavy metal ion concentration of the solution is less than about 10,000 parts per million of dissolved material; subjecting the waste stream to high current density electrolysis at up to about 25 volts to enhance the controlled regular formation of a noncompressible metal hydrous oxide crystalline precipitate in the cathode chamber; separating the precipitate from the waste stream; and splitting the clarified liquid waste stream so that a portion of the clarified liquid waste stream is discharged and a portion is returned downstream for commingling with the metal ion-containing waste stream for further treatment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, L. R.; Miller, R. D.
1979-01-01
The LOADS computer program L218 which calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: (1) translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; (2) panel aerodynamic forces; (3) net panel forces; and (4) shears, bending moments, and torsions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibata, Takayuki; Ito, Yasuharu; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Nagai, Moeto; Kawashima, Takahiro
2014-02-01
The introduction of biological macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins into living cells plays a crucial role in the fundamental analysis of cellular functions and mechanisms in living systems. Therefore, we have been developing an effective platform for the in vitro manipulation and analysis of biological cells at the single-cells. In this paper, we successfully demonstrated a novel intracellular delivery method of DNA into living HeLa cells via a glass micropipette based on DC-biased AC electrokinetically driven forces. We also proposed a vibration-assisted insertion method for penetrating a cell membrane to reduce cell damage. Preliminary insertion tests on homemade SICM system and FEM simulations revealed that the application of the mechanical oscillation can reduce the deformation of cells probably due to an increase in their viscous resistance. Moreover, we also found that a change in the ion current during the insertion process allows us to detect the instant when the micropipette tip penetrates the cell membrane.
Mokhtarzadeh, Hossein; Perraton, Luke; Fok, Laurence; Muñoz, Mario A; Clark, Ross; Pivonka, Peter; Bryant, Adam L
2014-09-22
The aim of this paper was to compare the effect of different optimisation methods and different knee joint degrees of freedom (DOF) on muscle force predictions during a single legged hop. Nineteen subjects performed single-legged hopping manoeuvres and subject-specific musculoskeletal models were developed to predict muscle forces during the movement. Muscle forces were predicted using static optimisation (SO) and computed muscle control (CMC) methods using either 1 or 3 DOF knee joint models. All sagittal and transverse plane joint angles calculated using inverse kinematics or CMC in a 1 DOF or 3 DOF knee were well-matched (RMS error<3°). Biarticular muscles (hamstrings, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius) showed more differences in muscle force profiles when comparing between the different muscle prediction approaches where these muscles showed larger time delays for many of the comparisons. The muscle force magnitudes of vasti, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius were not greatly influenced by the choice of muscle force prediction method with low normalised root mean squared errors (<48%) observed in most comparisons. We conclude that SO and CMC can be used to predict lower-limb muscle co-contraction during hopping movements. However, care must be taken in interpreting the magnitude of force predicted in the biarticular muscles and the soleus, especially when using a 1 DOF knee. Despite this limitation, given that SO is a more robust and computationally efficient method for predicting muscle forces than CMC, we suggest that SO can be used in conjunction with musculoskeletal models that have a 1 or 3 DOF knee joint to study the relative differences and the role of muscles during hopping activities in future studies. PMID:25129166
Cell force mapping using a double-sided micropillar array based on the moiré fringe method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, F.; Anderson, S.; Zheng, X.; Roberts, E.; Qiu, Y.; Liao, R.; Zhang, X.
2014-07-01
The mapping of traction forces is crucial to understanding the means by which cells regulate their behavior and physiological function to adapt to and communicate with their local microenvironment. To this end, polymeric micropillar arrays have been used for measuring cell traction force. However, the small scale of the micropillar deflections induced by cell traction forces results in highly inefficient force analyses using conventional optical approaches; in many cases, cell forces may be below the limits of detection achieved using conventional microscopy. To address these limitations, the moiré phenomenon has been leveraged as a visualization tool for cell force mapping due to its inherent magnification effect and capacity for whole-field force measurements. This Letter reports an optomechanical cell force sensor, namely, a double-sided micropillar array (DMPA) made of poly(dimethylsiloxane), on which one side is employed to support cultured living cells while the opposing side serves as a reference pattern for generating moiré patterns. The distance between the two sides, which is a crucial parameter influencing moiré pattern contrast, is predetermined during fabrication using theoretical calculations based on the Talbot effect that aim to optimize contrast. Herein, double-sided micropillar arrays were validated by mapping mouse embryo fibroblast contraction forces and the resulting force maps compared to conventional microscopy image analyses as the reference standard. The DMPA-based approach precludes the requirement for aligning two independent periodic substrates, improves moiré contrast, and enables efficient moiré pattern generation. Furthermore, the double-sided structure readily allows for the integration of moiré-based cell force mapping into microfabricated cell culture environments or lab-on-a-chip devices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Chuh; Shen, Mo-How
1987-01-01
Multiple-mode nonlinear forced vibration of a beam was analyzed by the finite element method. Inplane (longitudinal) displacement and inertia (IDI) are considered in the formulation. By combining the finite element method and nonlinear theory, more realistic models of structural response are obtained more easily and faster.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orum, Aslihan; Takatori, Kazumasa; Hori, Shigeo; Ikeda, Tomiko; Yoshimura, Masamichi; Tani, Toshihiko
2016-08-01
Rectangular platelike particles of La2Ti2O7, a layered perovskite, were synthesized in KCl, NaCl, and LiCl by the molten flux method. The formation mechanism of the equilibrium shape in these alkali chloride fluxes was discussed in terms of the surface and interfacial energies of crystallographic planes. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations revealed that the developed plane of the platelike particles is along the interlayers in the {110}-type layered crystal structure, and is considered to represent the lowest surface energy plane in which strong, periodic Ti–O bond chains terminate. Herein, for the first time, a growth mechanism for La2Ti2O7 particles is proposed and discussed. Triangular prism structures along the c-axis were observed on the developed planes of KCl-grown particles whereas no such structures were found on those of LiCl-grown ones. AFM measurements suggest that the prism facets are {210}-La2Ti2O7, which results in lower interfacial energy within KCl.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atitoaie, Alexandru; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Tanasa, Radu; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian
2016-04-01
The scientific community is manifesting a high research interest on spin crossover compounds and their recently synthesized nanoparticles, due to their various appealing properties, such as the bistability between a diamagnetic low spin state and a paramagnetic high spin state (HS), inter-switchable by temperature or pressure changes, light irradiation or magnetic field. The utility of these compounds showing hysteresis covers a broad area of applications, from the development of more efficient designs of temperature and pressure sensors to automotive and aeronautic industries and even a new type of molecular actuators. We are proposing in this work a study regarding the kinetic effects and the distribution of reversible and irreversible components on the thermal hysteresis of spin crossover nanoparticulated systems. We are considering here tridimensional systems with different sizes and also systems of nanoparticles with a Gaussian size distribution. The correlations between the kinetics of the thermal hysteresis, the distributions of sizes and intermolecular interactions and the transition temperature distributions were established by using the FORC (First Order Reversal Curves) method using a Monte Carlo technique within an Ising-like system.
A force-based large increment method for 2D continuum solids and the mesh convergence study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Danbing; Guo, Zaoyang; Liu, Xila; Natarajan, Sundararajan; Bordas, Stéphane
2012-12-01
In this paper, a triangular plane stress element is implemented based on the large increment method (LIM) to solve 2D continuum mechanics problems. In the LIM, after the governing equations are established using the generalized elemental force variables as primary unknowns, an iteration procedure is employed to obtain an optimised approximate solution of the problem. Two numerical examples are investigated to study the mesh convergence of the proposed triangular LIM element. Structured meshes as well as unstructured meshes with different element densities are generated to illustrate the convergence of the total strain energy in both examples. The numerical results obtained from the LIM (including the total strain energy, the displacement and the stress) are compared with the analytical solutions as well as the results from the commercial FEM software ABAQUS. All the results show that the performance of the LIM is as good as the FEM in linear elastic problems. A simple elastoplastic example suggests that the LIM may obtain better result than the FEM.
Method of mechanical holding of cantilever chip for tip-scan high-speed atomic force microscope
Fukuda, Shingo; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Ando, Toshio
2015-06-15
In tip-scan atomic force microscopy (AFM) that scans a cantilever chip in the three dimensions, the chip body is held on the Z-scanner with a holder. However, this holding is not easy for high-speed (HS) AFM because the holder that should have a small mass has to be able to clamp the cantilever chip firmly without deteriorating the Z-scanner’s fast performance, and because repeated exchange of cantilever chips should not damage the Z-scanner. This is one of the reasons that tip-scan HS-AFM has not been established, despite its advantages over sample stage-scan HS-AFM. Here, we present a novel method of cantilever chip holding which meets all conditions required for tip-scan HS-AFM. The superior performance of this novel chip holding mechanism is demonstrated by imaging of the α{sub 3}β{sub 3} subcomplex of F{sub 1}-ATPase in dynamic action at ∼7 frames/s.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harimi, Iman; Saghafian, Mohsen
2012-01-01
Forced convection heat transfer from two and three isothermal circular cylinders in tandem arrangement is studied numerically. In addition, the flow field and the vortex shedding behavior in the wake of the cylinders are investigated. The governing equations consist of continuity, momentum and energy equations are solved for laminar unsteady flow regime. The numerical simulations are performed with a developed finite volume code using the overset grid method. A general orthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system is used for the grid generation. This simulation is performed for the Prandtl numbers of 0.7 and 7 at the Reynolds numbers of 100 and 200. The spacing ratio L/D is set at 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 10. In order to analyze the heat transfer from isothermal cylinders, the mean and local Nusselt numbers and isotherm plots are presented and discussed for different values of the problem parameters. In addition, the mean and instantaneous drag and lift coefficients and Strouhal numbers are computed to elucidate the role of the Reynolds number and spacing ratio. Furthermore, two new correlations for the calculation of the mean Nusselt number, in terms of the spacing ratio and the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers, is proposed. In order to validate the solution, the obtained results are compared with available results in the published literature.
Liu, Zhiguo; Xu, Fengjie; Zu, Yuangang; Meng, Ronghua; Wang, Wenjie
2016-06-01
Recent studies have revealed that water-dispersible colloids play an important role in the transport of nutrients and contaminants in soils. In this study, water-dispersible colloids extracted from saline-alkali soils have been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV absorption spectra. AFM observation indicated that the water-dispersible colloids contain some large plates and many small spherical particles. XRD, XPS, and UV absorption measurement revealed that the water-dispersible colloids are composed of kaolinite, illite, calcite, quartz and humic acid. In addition, UV absorption measurement demonstrated that the humic acids are associated with clay minerals. Water-dispersible colloids in the saline-alkali soils after hydrolyzed polymaleic anhydride treatment and an agricultural soil (nonsaline-alkali soil) were also investigated for comparison. The obtained results implied that the saline-alkali condition facilitates the formation of a large quantity of colloids. The use of AFM combined with spectrometric methods in the present study provides new knowledge on the colloid characteristics of saline-alkali soils. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:525-531, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27062427
Starmack, G.J.
1990-09-01
Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC), facing decreasing funds and aging utility systems, needed a method to objectively rate its central heating plants. Such a rating system would be used to compare heating plants throughout the command to identify potential problem areas and prioritize major repair projects. This thesis used a Delphi questionnaire to gather opinions from heating plant experts in order to identify and prioritize components considered most critical to overall plant operation. In addition, the experts suggested measurements which could be used to evaluate component conditions. By combining expert opinions and reading from technical literature, component model rating schemes were developed for AFLC's steam and high temperature hot water plants. Based on measurements and observations of critical components in the plant, a score between 0 and 100 is assigned to each component (for example, condensate piping, deaerator, etc.), each plant subsystem (distribution system, water treatment system, etc.), and to the plant as a whole. These component model rating schemes and the resultant overall condition index scores will enable AFLC to focus their management attention and allocate needed resources to the plants in greatest need of repair.
Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen
2016-01-01
In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline—soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West—East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements. PMID:26963097
Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen
2016-01-01
In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline-soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West-East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements. PMID:26963097
Modeling flows over gravel beds by a drag force method and a modified S-A turbulence closure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, C.; Li, C. W.
2012-09-01
A double-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (DANS) model has been developed for depth-limited open channel flows over gravels. Three test cases are used to validate the model: an open-channel flow over a densely packed gravel bed with small-scale uniform roughness (D/d50 ˜ 13, d50 = median diameter of roughness elements, D = water depth), open-channel flows over large-scale sparsely distributed roughness elements (D/Δ ˜ 2.3-8.7, Δ = roughness height) and steep slope gravel-bed river flows with D/d50 ˜ 7-25. Various methods of treatment of the gravel-induced resistance effect have been investigated. The results show that the wall function approach (WFA) is successful in simulating flows over small gravels but is not appropriate for large gravels since the vertical profile of the longitudinal velocity does not follow the logarithmic-linear relationship. The drag force method (DFM) performs better but the non-logarithmic velocity distribution generated by sparsely distributed gravels cannot be simulated accurately. Noting that the turbulence length scale within the gravel layer is governed by the gravel size, the DANS model incorporating the DFM and a modified Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) turbulence closure is proposed. The turbulence length scale parameter in the S-A model is modified to address the change in the turbulence structure within the gravel layer. The computed velocity profiles agree well with the corresponding measured profiles in all cases. Particularly, the model reproduces the S-shape velocity profile for sparsely distributed large size roughness elements. The modeling methodology is robust and can be easily integrated into the existing numerical models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Solomon, S. C.
1980-01-01
The measurability of changes in plate driving or resistive forces associated with plate boundary earthquakes by laser rangefinding or VLBI is considered with emphasis on those aspects of plate forces that can be characterized by such measurements. Topics covered include: (1) analytic solutions for two dimensional stress diffusion in a plate following earthquake faulting on a finite fault; (2) two dimensional finite-element solutions for the global state of stress at the Earth's surface for possible plate driving forces; and (3) finite-element solutions for three dimensional stress diffusion in a viscoelastic Earth following earthquake faulting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghalambaz, Mohammad; Ghalambaz, Mehdi; Edalatifar, Mohammad
2016-03-01
The energy balance method is utilized to analyze the oscillation of a nonlinear nanoelectro-mechanical system resonator. The resonator comprises an electrode, which is embedded between two substrates. Two types of clamped-clamped and cantilever nano-resonators are studied. The effects of the van der Waals attractions, Casimir force, the small size, the fringing field, the mid-plane stretching, and the axial load are taken into account. The governing partial differential equation of the resonator is reduced using the Galerkin method. The energy method is applied to obtain an analytical solution without considering any linearization or small parameter. The results of the present study are compared with the results available in the literature. In addition, the results of the present analytical solution are compared with the Runge-Kutta numerical results. An excellent agreement between the present analytical solution, numerical solution, and the results available in the literature was found. The influences of the van der Waals force, Casimir force, size effect, and fringing field effect on the oscillation frequency of resonators are studied. The results indicate that the presence of the intermolecular forces (van der Waals), Casimir force, and fringing field effect decreases the oscillation frequency of the resonator. In contrast, the presence of the size effect increases the oscillation frequency of the resonator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gusso, André; Burnham, Nancy A.
2016-09-01
It has long been recognized that stochastic surface roughness can considerably change the van der Waals (vdW) force between interacting surfaces and particles. However, few analytical expressions for the vdW force between rough surfaces have been presented in the literature. Because they have been derived using perturbative methods or the proximity force approximation the expressions are valid when the roughness correction is small and for a limited range of roughness parameters and surface separation. In this work, a nonperturbative approach, the effective density method (EDM) is proposed to circumvent some of these limitations. The method simplifies the calculations of the roughness correction based on pairwise summation (PWS), and allows us to derive simple expressions for the vdW force and energy between two semispaces covered with stochastic rough surfaces. Because the range of applicability of PWS and, therefore, of our results, are not known a priori, we compare the predictions based on the EDM with those based on the multilayer effective medium model, whose range of validity can be defined more properly and which is valid when the roughness correction is comparatively large. We conclude that the PWS can be used for roughness characterized by a correlation length of the order of its rms amplitude, when this amplitude is of the order of or smaller than a few nanometers, and only for typically insulating materials such as silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, diamond, and certain glasses, polymers and ceramics. The results are relevant for the correct modeling of systems where the vdW force can play a significant role such as micro and nanodevices, for the calculation of the tip-sample force in atomic force microscopy, and in problems involving adhesion.
Omanovic-Miklicanin, Enisa; Valzacchi, Sandro; Simoneau, Catherine; Gilliland, Douglas; Rossi, Francois
2014-10-01
A complete characterization of the different physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) is necessary for the evaluation of their impact on health and environment. Among these properties, the surface characterization of the nanomaterial is the least developed and in many cases limited to the measurement of surface composition and zetapotential. The biological surface adsorption index approach (BSAI) for characterization of surface adsorption properties of NPs has recently been introduced (Xia et al. Nat Nanotechnol 5:671-675, 2010; Xia et al. ACS Nano 5(11):9074-9081, 2011). The BSAI approach offers in principle the possibility to characterize the different interaction forces exerted between a NP's surface and an organic--and by extension biological--entity. The present work further develops the BSAI approach and optimizes a solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) method which, as an outcome, gives a better-defined quantification of the adsorption properties on NPs. We investigated the various aspects of the SPME/GC-MS method, including kinetics of adsorption of probe compounds on SPME fiber, kinetic of adsorption of probe compounds on NP's surface, and optimization of NP's concentration. The optimized conditions were then tested on 33 probe compounds and on Au NPs (15 nm) and SiO2 NPs (50 nm). The procedure allowed the identification of three compounds adsorbed by silica NPs and nine compounds by Au NPs, with equilibrium times which varied between 30 min and 12 h. Adsorption coefficients of 4.66 ± 0.23 and 4.44 ± 0.26 were calculated for 1-methylnaphtalene and biphenyl, compared to literature values of 4.89 and 5.18, respectively. The results demonstrated that the detailed optimization of the SPME/GC-MS method under various conditions is a critical factor and a prerequisite to the application of the BSAI approach as a tool to characterize surface adsorption properties of NPs and therefore to draw any further
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ridgely, Charles T.
2010-01-01
Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…
Spinmotive force due to motion of magnetic bubble arrays driven by magnetic field gradient
Yamane, Yuta; Hemmatiyan, Shayan; Ieda, Jun'ichi; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Sinova, Jairo
2014-01-01
Interaction between local magnetization and conduction electrons is responsible for a variety of phenomena in magnetic materials. It has been recently shown that spin current and associated electric voltage can be induced by magnetization that depends on both time and space. This effect, called spinmotive force, provides for a powerful tool for exploring the dynamics and the nature of magnetic textures, as well as a new source for electromotive force. Here we theoretically demonstrate the generation of electric voltages in magnetic bubble array systems subjected to a magnetic field gradient. It is shown by deriving expressions for the electric voltages that the present system offers a direct measure of phenomenological parameter β that describes non-adiabaticity in the current induced magnetization dynamics. This spinmotive force opens a door for new types of spintronic devices that exploit the field-gradient. PMID:25365971
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Third, J. R.; Chen, Y.; Müller, C. R.
2016-07-01
Lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) simulations of a gas-fluidised bed have been performed. In contrast to the current state-of-the-art coupled computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method (CFD-DEM) simulations, the LBM does not require a closure relationship for the particle-fluid interaction force. Instead, the particle-fluid interaction can be calculated directly from the detailed flow profile around the particles. Here a comparison is performed between CFD-DEM and LBM simulations of a small fluidised bed. Simulations are performed for two different values of the superficial gas velocity and it is found that the LBM predicts a larger bed expansion for both flowrates. Furthermore the particle-fluid interaction force obtained for LBM simulations is compared to the force which would be predicted by a CFD-DEM model under the same conditions. On average the force predicted by the CFD-DEM closure relationship is found to be significantly smaller than the force obtained from the LBM.
Sarshar, Mohammad; Wong, Winson T.; Anvari, Bahman
2014-01-01
Abstract. Optical tweezers have become an important instrument in force measurements associated with various physical, biological, and biophysical phenomena. Quantitative use of optical tweezers relies on accurate calibration of the stiffness of the optical trap. Using the same optical tweezers platform operating at 1064 nm and beads with two different diameters, we present a comparative study of viscous drag force, equipartition theorem, Boltzmann statistics, and power spectral density (PSD) as methods in calibrating the stiffness of a single beam gradient force optical trap at trapping laser powers in the range of 0.05 to 1.38 W at the focal plane. The equipartition theorem and Boltzmann statistic methods demonstrate a linear stiffness with trapping laser powers up to 355 mW, when used in conjunction with video position sensing means. The PSD of a trapped particle’s Brownian motion or measurements of the particle displacement against known viscous drag forces can be reliably used for stiffness calibration of an optical trap over a greater range of trapping laser powers. Viscous drag stiffness calibration method produces results relevant to applications where trapped particle undergoes large displacements, and at a given position sensing resolution, can be used for stiffness calibration at higher trapping laser powers than the PSD method. PMID:25375348
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polhamus, Edward C.; Geller, Edward W.; Grunwald, Kalman J.
1959-01-01
The low-speed pressure-distribution and force characteristics of several noncircular two-dimensional cylinders were measured in wind tunnel through a range of Reynolds numbers and flow incidences. A method of determining the potential-flow pressure distribution for arbitrary cross sections is described. Application of the data in predicting the spin characteristics of fuselages is briefly discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. E.; Mehrotra, S. C.
1979-01-01
Woodward's panel method for subsonic and supersonic flow was improved by employing control points determined by exactly matching two-dimensional pressure at a finite number of points. The results show great improvement in the predicted pressure distribution of a flapped airfoil. With the paneling scheme of cosine law in both chordwise and spanwise directions, the method is shown to accurately predict leading edge and side edge suction forces of various configurations in subsonic and supersonic flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klüppelberg, Daniel A.; Betzinger, Markus; Blügel, Stefan
2015-01-01
We analyze the accuracy of the atomic force within the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method using the force formalism of Yu et al. [Phys. Rev. B 43, 6411 (1991), 10.1103/PhysRevB.43.6411]. A refinement of this formalism is presented that explicitly takes into account the tail of high-lying core states leaking out of the muffin-tin sphere and considers the small discontinuities of LAPW wave function, density, and potential at the muffin-tin sphere boundaries. For MgO and EuTiO3 it is demonstrated that these amendments substantially improve the acoustic sum rule and the symmetry of the force constant matrix. Sum rule and symmetry are realized with an accuracy of μ Htr /aB .
Hou, Lizhen; Wang, Shiliang; Huang, Han
2015-04-24
A simple criterion was developed to assess the appropriateness of the currently available models that estimate the static friction force between nanowires and substrates using the 'most-bent-state' method. Our experimental testing of the static friction force between Al2O3 nanowires and Si substrate verified our theoretical analysis, as well as the establishment of the criterion. It was found that the models are valid only for the bent nanowires with the ratio of wire length over the minimum curvature radius [Formula: see text] no greater than 1. For the cases with [Formula: see text] greater than 1, the static friction force was overestimated as it neglected the effect of its tangential component. PMID:25815772
Knoll, Samantha G.; Ali, M. Yakut; Saif, M. Taher A.
2014-01-01
PA gels have long been used as a platform to study cell traction forces due to ease of fabrication and the ability to tune their elastic properties. When the substrate is coated with an extracellular matrix protein, cells adhere to the gel and apply forces, causing the gel to deform. The deformation depends on the cell traction and the elastic properties of the gel. If the deformation field of the surface is known, surface traction can be calculated using elasticity theory. Gel deformation is commonly measured by embedding fluorescent marker beads uniformly into the gel. The probes displace as the gel deforms. The probes near the surface of the gel are tracked. The displacements reported by these probes are considered as surface displacements. Their depths from the surface are ignored. This assumption introduces error in traction force evaluations. For precise measurement of cell forces, it is critical for the location of the beads to be known. We have developed a technique that utilizes simple chemistry to confine fluorescent marker beads, 0.1 and 1 µm in diameter, in PA gels, within 1.6 μm of the surface. We coat a coverslip with poly-D-lysine (PDL) and fluorescent beads. PA gel solution is then sandwiched between the coverslip and an adherent surface. The fluorescent beads transfer to the gel solution during curing. After polymerization, the PA gel contains fluorescent beads on a plane close to the gel surface. PMID:25286326
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hersam, Mark C. (Inventor); Pingree, Liam S. C. (Inventor)
2008-01-01
A conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) technique which can concurrently monitor topography, charge transport, and electroluminescence with nanometer spatial resolution. This cAFM approach is particularly well suited for probing the electroluminescent response characteristics of operating organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) over short length scales.
Unseren, M.A.
1997-04-20
The paper reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restrict the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system.
Sharp, Kelli G; Duarte, Jaime E; Gebrekristos, Berkenesh; Perez, Sergi; Steward, Oswald; Reinkensmeyer, David J
2016-03-01
Rodent models of spinal cord injury are critical for the development of treatments for upper limb motor impairment in humans, but there are few methods for measuring forelimb strength of rodents, an important outcome measure. We developed a novel robotic device--the Robotic Rehabilitator of the Rodent Upper Extremity (RUE)--that requires rats to voluntarily reach for and pull a bar to retrieve a food reward; the resistance of the bar can be programmed. We used RUE to train forelimb strength of 16 rats three times per week for 23 weeks before and 38 weeks after a mild (100 kdyne) unilateral contusion at the cervical level 5 (C5). We measured maximum force produced when RUE movement was unexpectedly blocked. We compared this blocked pulling force (BPF) to weekly measures of forelimb strength obtained with a previous, well-established method: the grip strength meter (GSM). Before injury, BPF was 2.6 times higher (BPF, 444.6 ± 19.1 g; GSM, 168.4 ± 3.1 g) and 4.9 times more variable (p < 0.001) than pulling force measured with the GSM; the two measurement methods were uncorrelated (R(2) = 0.03; p = 0.84). After injury, there was a significant decrease in BPF of 134.35 g ± 14.71 g (p < 0.001). Together, our findings document BPF as a repeatable measure of forelimb force production, sensitive to a mild spinal cord injury, which comes closer to measuring maximum force than the GSM and thus may provide a useful measure for quantifying the effects of treatment in rodent models of SCI. PMID:26414700
MEAMfit: A reference-free modified embedded atom method (RF-MEAM) energy and force-fitting code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duff, Andrew Ian
2016-06-01
MEAMfit v1.02. Changes: various bug fixes; speed of single-shot energy and force calculations (not optimization) increased by × 10; elements up to Cn (Z = 112) now correctly read from vasprun.xml files; EAM fits now produce Camelion output files; changed max number of vasprun.xml files to 10,000 (an unnecessary lower limit of 10 was allowed in the previous version).
Shi, Xing; Lin, Guang
2014-11-01
To model the sedimentation of the red blood cell (RBC) in a square duct and a circular pipe, the recently developed technique derived from the lattice Boltzmann method and the distributed Lagrange multiplier/fictitious domain method (LBM-DLM/FD) is extended to employ the mesoscopic network model for simulations of the sedimentation of the RBC in flow. The flow is simulated by the lattice Boltzmann method with a strong magnetic body force, while the network model is used for modeling RBC deformation. The fluid-RBC interactions are enforced by the Lagrange multiplier. The sedimentation of the RBC in a square duct and a circular pipe is simulated, revealing the capacity of the current method for modeling the sedimentation of RBC in various flows. Numerical results illustrate that that the terminal setting velocity increases with the increment of the exerted body force. The deformation of the RBC has significant effect on the terminal setting velocity due to the change of the frontal area. The larger the exerted force is, the smaller the frontal area and the larger deformation of the RBC are.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amiri Delouei, A.; Nazari, M.; Kayhani, M. H.; Succi, S.
2014-05-01
In this study, the immersed boundary-thermal lattice Boltzmann method has been used to simulate non-Newtonian fluid flow over a heated circular cylinder. The direct-forcing algorithm has been employed to couple the off-lattice obstacles and on-lattice fluid nodes. To investigate the effect of boundary sharpness, two different diffuse interface schemes are considered to interpolate the velocity and temperature between the boundary and computational grid points. The lattice Boltzmann equation with split-forcing term is applied to consider the effects of the discrete lattice and the body force to the momentum flux, simultaneously. A method for calculating the Nusselt number based on diffuse interface schemes is developed. The rheological and thermal properties of non-Newtonian fluids are investigated under the different power-law indices and Reynolds numbers. The effect of numerical parameters on the accuracy of the proposed method has been investigated in detail. Results show that the rheological and thermal properties of non-Newtonian fluids in the presence of a heated immersed body can be suitably captured using the immersed boundary thermal lattice Boltzmann method.
Kurmi, Moolchand; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Bhupinder; Singh, Saranjit
2014-08-01
The study involved optimization of forced degradation conditions and development of a stability-indicating method (SIM) for furosemide employing the design of experiment (DoE) concept. The optimization of forced degradation conditions, especially hydrolytic and oxidative, was done by application of 2(n) full factorial designs, which helped to obtain the targeted 20-30% drug degradation and also enriched levels of degradation products (DPs). For the selective separation of the drug and its DPs for the development of SIM, DoE was applied in three different stages, i.e., primary parameter selection, secondary parameter screening and method optimization. For these three, IV-optimal, Taguchi orthogonal array and face-centred central composite designs were employed, respectively. The organic modifier, buffer pH, gradient time and initial hold time were selected as primary parameters. Initial and final organic modifier percentage, and flow rate came out as critical parameters during secondary parameter screening, which were further evaluated during method optimization. Based on DoE results, an optimized method was obtained wherein a total of twelve DPs were separated successfully. The study also exposed the degradation behaviour of the drug in different forced degradation conditions. PMID:24742772
Yuqin, Li; Guirong, You; Zhen, Yang; Caihong, Liu; Baoxiu, Jia; Jiao, Chen; Yurong, Guo
2014-01-01
The interaction of patulin with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied in vitro under normal physiological conditions. The study was performed using fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), circular dichroism (CD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and molecular modeling techniques. The quenching mechanism was investigated using the association constants, the number of binding sites, and basic thermodynamic parameters. A dynamic quenching mechanism occurred between HSA and patulin, and the binding constants (K) were 2.60 × 104, 4.59 × 104, and 7.01 × 104 M−1 at 288, 300, and 310 K, respectively. Based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer, the distance between the HSA and patulin was determined to be 2.847 nm. The ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 values across various temperatures indicated that hydrophobic interaction was the predominant binding force. The UV-Vis and CD results confirmed that the secondary structure of HSA was altered in the presence of patulin. The AFM results revealed that the individual HSA molecule dimensions were larger after interaction with patulin. In addition, molecular modeling showed that the patulin-HSA complex was stabilized by hydrophobic and hydrogen bond forces. The study results suggested that a weak intermolecular interaction occurred between patulin and HSA. Overall, the results are potentially useful for elucidating the toxigenicity of patulin when it is combined with the biomolecular function effect, transmembrane transport, toxicological, testing and other experiments. PMID:25110690
Machleidt, R.
2013-06-10
These lectures present an introduction into the theory of nuclear forces. We focus mainly on the modern approach, in which the forces between nucleons emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012
2012-01-01
The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…
Strosher, M.; Chambers, A.K.; Kovacik, G.
1998-01-01
This study was undertaken to examine technologies that could be used or developed to enable the upstream oil and gas industry to reduce the hydrocarbon emissions in the flaring of solution gas. The study objectives are to examine and evaluate possible surrogate methods for monitoring flare performance, review gas-liquid separation technologies available for solution gas cleaning, examine the application of numerical simulation for improving separator design, and develop a strategy for field testing of existing and improved solution gas cleaning technologies. Surrogate methods reviewed included either in-line systems of measurement for the hydrocarbon components known to reduce combustion efficiency, or an external remote measurement system for hydrocarbons and combustion products in the flare emissions. Separator technologies studied in a literature review included those based on gravity, centrifugal force, impacting or interception, and electromotive force. The capabilities and limitations of computational fluid dynamics in gas-liquid separator design are then discussed, and a series of projects is proposed for testing separation equipment or combustion efficiency measurement devices.
Strosher, M.; Chambers, A.K.; Kovacik, G.
1998-12-31
This study was undertaken to examine technologies that could be used or developed to enable the upstream oil and gas industry to reduce the hydrocarbon emissions in the flaring of solution gas. The study objectives are to examine and evaluate possible surrogate methods for monitoring flare performance, review gas-liquid separation technologies available for solution gas cleaning, examine the application of numerical simulation for improving separator design, and develop a strategy for field testing of existing and improved solution gas cleaning technologies. Surrogate methods reviewed included either in-line systems of measurement for the hydrocarbon components known to reduce combustion efficiency, or an external remote measurement system for hydrocarbons and combustion products in the flare emissions. Separator technologies studied in a literature review included those based on gravity, centrifugal force, impacting or interception, and electromotive force. The capabilities and limitations of computational fluid dynamics in gas-liquid separator design are then discussed, and a series of projects is proposed for testing separation equipment or combustion efficiency measurement devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filimonenko, D. S.; Khairullina, A. Ya.; Yasinskii, V. M.; Kozlova, N. M.; Zubritskaja, G. P.; Slobozhanina, E. I.
2011-07-01
Changes in the surface structure of lymphocyte membranes exposed to various concentrations of zinc ions are studied. It is found by atomic force microscopy that increasing the concentration of zinc ions leads to a reduction in the correlation length of the autocorrelation function of the roughness profile of a lymphocyte compared to control samples; this may indicate the existence of fine structure in the membrane surface. Fluorescence markers are used to observe a reduction in the microviscosity of the lipids in the outer monolayer of the lipid bilayer after lymphocytes are exposed to Zn ions, as well as the exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface membrane, and the oxidation of HS-groups of membrane proteins. Calculations of the absorption coefficients of lymphocytes modified with zinc reveal the existence of absorption bands owing to the formation of metal-protein complexes and zinc oxide nanoparticles. These results indicate significant changes in the structural and functional state of lymphocyte membranes exposed to zinc ions.
Dou, Wenjie; Nitzan, Abraham; Subotnik, Joseph E
2016-02-21
We investigate equilibrium observables for molecules near metals by employing a potential of mean force (PMF) that takes level broadening into account. Through comparison with exact data, we demonstrate that this PMF approach performs quite well, even for cases where molecule-electrode couplings depend on nuclear position. As an application, we reexamine the possibility of hysteresis effects within the Anderson-Holstein model (i.e., an impurity coupled both to a metal surface and a nuclear oscillator). As compared against the standard mean field approach by Galperin et al. [Nano Lett. 5, 125 (2005)], our PMF approach agrees much better with exact results for average electronic populations both at zero and finite temperature; we find, however, that mean field theory can be very useful for predicting the onset of dynamical instabilities, metastable states, and hysteresis. PMID:26896978
Force Limited Vibration Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scharton, Terry; Chang, Kurng Y.
2005-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the concept and applications of Force Limited Vibration Testing. The goal of vibration testing of aerospace hardware is to identify problems that would result in flight failures. The commonly used aerospace vibration tests uses artificially high shaker forces and responses at the resonance frequencies of the test item. It has become common to limit the acceleration responses in the test to those predicted for the flight. This requires an analysis of the acceleration response, and requires placing accelerometers on the test item. With the advent of piezoelectric gages it has become possible to improve vibration testing. The basic equations have are reviewed. Force limits are analogous and complementary to the acceleration specifications used in conventional vibration testing. Just as the acceleration specification is the frequency spectrum envelope of the in-flight acceleration at the interface between the test item and flight mounting structure, the force limit is the envelope of the in-flight force at the interface . In force limited vibration tests, both the acceleration and force specifications are needed, and the force specification is generally based on and proportional to the acceleration specification. Therefore, force limiting does not compensate for errors in the development of the acceleration specification, e.g., too much conservatism or the lack thereof. These errors will carry over into the force specification. Since in-flight vibratory force data are scarce, force limits are often derived from coupled system analyses and impedance information obtained from measurements or finite element models (FEM). Fortunately, data on the interface forces between systems and components are now available from system acoustic and vibration tests of development test models and from a few flight experiments. Semi-empirical methods of predicting force limits are currently being developed on the basis of the limited flight and system test
ASTM standards on thermocouples, 2nd edition
Not Available
1986-01-01
This edition has been expanded to include sixteen selected ASTM methods and practices on thermocouples. It also contains a Temperature Electromotive Force (EMF) Table for the NICROSIL-NISIL Thermocouple System.
Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Hare, Marion E.; Talcott, Gerald W.; Johnson, Karen C.; Richey, Phyllis A.; Kocak, Mehmet; Balderas, Jennifer; Colvin, Lauren; Keller, Patrick L.; Waters, Teresa M.; Klesges, Robert C.
2014-01-01
Despite an increase in overweight and obesity similar to the civilian population, there have been few randomized controlled trials examining behavioral weight management interventions in the military settings. This paper describes the design, intervention development and analysis plan of the Fit Blue study, a randomized controlled behavioral weight loss trial taking place in the United States Air Force. This study compares two adapted versions of the efficacious Look AHEAD Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI), a counselor-initiated condition and a self-paced condition. Also described are the unique steps required when conducting military-based health promotion research and adaptations made to the Look AHEAD intervention to accommodate the military environment. To our knowledge, this is the first translation of the Look AHEAD ILI in the military setting and one of the first translations of the ILI in general. If successful, this intervention could be disseminated to the entire U.S. Military as this project is designed to overcome the barriers and utilize the facilitators for weight loss that are unique to a military population. Programs validated in military populations can have a major public health impact given that with 1.4 million active duty personnel, the Department of Defense is the nation’s largest employer. However, while this intervention is designed for a military population and there are unique aspects of the military that may enhance weight loss interventions, the diversity of the study population should help inform obesity efforts in both civilian and military settings. PMID:25545025
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Wenhua; Li, Nana; Chen, Yaowen; Xu, Yanping; Lin, Yuejuan; Yin, Yegao; Hu, Zhide
2010-11-01
The interaction between syringin and HSA has been studied by AFM, molecule modeling, fluorescence, UV-vis, FTIR and CD spectroscopy. Fluorescence results revealed that syringin can enhance the intensity of HSA fluorescence. The enhancement data was analyzed by the equation which developed by Bhattacharya et al. The results showed that there was one primary syringin binding site on HSA with a binding constant of 2.97 × 10 4 M -1 at 295 K. Thermodynamic analysis by Van Hoff equation found enthalpy change (Δ H0) and entropy change (Δ S0) were -5.23 kJ mol -1 and 103.34 J mol -1 K -1 respectively, which indicated the hydrophobic interaction was the predominant force in the binding process. Competitive experiments showed a displacement of warfarin by syringin, which indicated that the binding site was located at the drug site I. AFM results revealed that the dimension of the individual HSA molecules was larger after interaction with syringin. The secondary structure compositions of free HSA and HSA-syringin complex were estimated by FTIR and CD spectra.
Wouters, E F
1990-01-01
The forced oscillation technique is a noninvasive and effort-independent test to characterize the mechanical impedance of the respiratory system. By applying a complex signal, the frequency-dependent behavior of the respiratory system can be measured over an extended spectrum. For clinical practice, the input impedance is used most frequently; pressure and flow are measured at the same place. The impedance can be partitioned into a real part or resistance and an imaginary part or reactance. At low frequencies, reactance is determined by the capacitance of the system and at high frequencies by the inertial properties of the system. Equipment and impedance data in normal subjects and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are discussed. The frequency-dependent behavior of the respiratory system is described with the use of an electrical model characterized by partitioning of airway resistance and the presence of shunt compliance represented by the compliance of the intrathoracic airway walls. Influences of peripheral resistance, airway compliance, lung volumes, chest wall and pulmonary resistance, and resistance of the cheeks and upper airways are analyzed. Input impedance can be applied to the detection of bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation, but this technique is suitable for detecting early airway abnormalities caused by smoking or occupational hazards. PMID:2307147
2016-01-01
Summary We propose several new and promising antibacterial agents for the treatment of serious Gram-positive infections. Our predictions rely on force field simulations, supervised by first principle calculations and available experimental data. Different force fields were tested in order to reproduce linezolid's conformational space in terms of a) the isolated and b) the ribosomal bound state. In a first step, an all-atom model of the bacterial ribosome consisting of nearly 1600 atoms was constructed and evaluated. The conformational space of 30 different ribosomal/oxazolidinone complexes was scanned by stochastic methods, followed by an evaluation of their enthalpic penalties or rewards and the mechanical strengths of the relevant hydrogen bonds (relaxed force constants; compliance constants). The protocol was able to reproduce the experimentally known enantioselectivity favoring the S-enantiomer. In a second step, the experimentally known MIC values of eight linezolid analogues were used in order to crosscheck the robustness of our model. In a final step, this benchmarking led to the prediction of several new and promising lead compounds. Synthesis and biological evaluation of the new compounds are on the way. PMID:27340438
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesterov, V.; Belai, O.; Nies, D.; Buetefisch, S.; Mueller, M.; Ahbe, T.; Naparty, D.; Popadic, R.; Wolff, H.
2016-08-01
The PTB’s (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany) nanonewton force facility, first presented in work by Nesterov (2007 Meas. Sci. Technol. 18 360–6), Nesterov (2009 Meas. Sci. Technol. 20 084012) and Nesterov et al (2009 Metrologia 46 277–82), has been significantly improved and used to measure the stiffness of a cantilever. The facility is based on a disc pendulum with electrostatic reduction of its deflection and stiffness. In this paper, we will demonstrate that the facility is able to measure horizontal forces in the range below 1 μN with a resolution below 5 pN and an uncertainty below 2.7% for a measured force of 1 nN at a measurement duration of about 20 s. We will demonstrate the possibility of using this facility as a calibration device that can accurately determine spring constants of soft cantilevers (K ≲ 0.1 N m‑1) with traceability to the SI units. The method and the results of measuring the spring constant of a soft cantilever (K = 0.125 N m‑1) in air, in a medium vacuum, in a high vacuum and in nitrogen are presented. We will show that a relative standard uncertainty of the spring constant calibration of better than 0.3% (measurement in a medium vacuum) and a repeatability of better than 0.04% are achieved.
Method and apparatus for fast laser-pulse detection using gaseous plasmas
McLellan, E.J.; Webb, J.A.
1981-06-18
The method and device of the instant invention is a detector of pulsed laser radiation which utilizes the electromotive force generated by the plasma formed when such radiation is focused onto a surface. Measurements are made with a 10.6 ..mu..m CO/sub 2/ laser capable of producing peak intensities of 10/sup 13/ W/cm/sup 2/ when directed through a converging lens. Evacuated detector response to such laser intensity if 1 kV signal peak amplitude and subnanosecond risetimes into a 50 ..cap omega.. load. Detector performance is found to be greatly altered with the introduction of a background gas. For example, with one atmosphere of air, the detector produces prompt signals of the order of 1 V with subnanosecond response for pulse trains lasting 100 ns. With argon, krypton, or zenon at pressures of the order of 10 torr, the detector generates trigger pulses of about 250 V amplitude and 0.2 ns risetimes. Such detectors are quite robust when irradiated with high intensity laser radiation and are useful for qualitative laser beam monitoring.
Method and apparatus for fast laser pulse detection using gaseous plasmas
McLellan, Edward J.; Webb, John A.
1984-01-01
The method and device of the instant invention is a detector of pulsed laser radiation which utilizes the electromotive force generated by the plasma formed when such radiation is focused onto a surface (1). Measurements are made with a 10.6 .mu.m CO.sub.2 laser capable of producing peak intensities of 10.sup.13 W/cm.sup.2 when directed through a converging lens (2). Evacuated detector response to such laser intensity is 1 kV signal peak amplitude and subnanosecond risetimes into a 50.OMEGA. load (3). Detector performance is found to be greatly altered with the introduction of a background gas (4). For example, with one atmosphere of air, the detector produces prompt signals of the order of 1 V with subnanosecond response for pulse trains lasting 100 ns. With argon, krypton, or zenon at pressures of the order of 10 torr, the detector generates "trigger pulses" of about 250 V amplitude and 0.2 ns risetimes. Such detectors are quite robust when irradiated with high intensity laser radiation and are useful for qualitative laser beam monitoring.
The effect of fuel feeding method on performance of SOFC-PEFC system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoo, M.; Watanabe, K.; Arakawa, M.; Yamazaki, Y.
We evaluate two kinds of solid-oxide-fuel-cell (SOFC)-polymer-electrolyte-fuel-cell (PEFC) combined systems by numerical simulation to investigate the effect of the fuel feeding method. In one, fuel for the system is reformed by using exhaust heat from the SOFC and is separately supplied to the SOFC and PEFC (parallel SOFC-PEFC system). In the other, fuel is fed to the SOFC first and then SOFC exhaust fuel is fed to the PEFC (series SOFC-PEFC system). The quality of the fuel gas in the SOFC is better in the latter system, whereas the quality of the fuel gas in the PEFC is better in the former. We demonstrate that larger PEFC output can be obtained in the parallel SOFC-PEFC system, since more steam, which is included in the SOFC anode exhaust gas, can be used for the reforming of the fuel for the PEFC. We show that the series SOFC-PEFC system provides higher electrical efficiency because the fuel gas quality has a stronger influence on the electromotive force in the SOFC than in the PEFC.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010
2010-01-01
The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotas, Ronald R.
2002-04-01
There is only one entity that can extend force and couple through space; and it should be apparent that Electromagnetism is that entity. In the cases of the nuclear strong force and the nuclear weak force, this is the same fundamental Electromagnetism manifesting itself in two different ways in the nucleus. It remains the same basic Electromagnetism. On the other hand, General Relativity fails to produce force at a distance, fails the Cavendish experiment, and does not allow an apple to fall to the ground. The result shows there is only Electromagnetism that functions through physical nature providing gravity, actions in the nucleus, as well as all other physical actions universally, including Gravity and Gravitation. There are many direct proofs of this, the same proofs as in NUCLEAR QUANTUM GRAVITATION. In contrast, General Relativity plainly relies on fallacy abstract and incoherent proofs; proofs which have now been mostly disproved. In the past it was deemed necessary by some to have an "ether" to propagate Electromagnetic waves. The fallacy concept of time space needs "space distortions" in order to cause gravity. However, Electromagnetic gravity does not have this problem. Clearly there is only ONE FORCE that causes Gravity, Electromagnetism, the Nuclear Strong Force, and the Nuclear Weak Force, and that ONE FORCE is Electromagnetism.
Investigation of Calibrating Force Transducer Using Sinusoidal Force
Zhang Li; Wang Yu; Zhang Lizhe
2010-05-28
Sinusoidal force calibration method was studied several years before at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). A similar dynamic force calibration system is developed at Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement (CIMM). It uses electro-dynamic shakers to generate dynamic force in the range from 1 N to 20 kN, and heterodyne laser interferometers are used for acceleration measurement. The force transducer to be calibrated is mounted on the shaker, and a mass block is screwed on the top of force transducer, the sinusoidal forces realized by accelerated load masses are traceable to acceleration and mass according to the force definition. The methods of determining Spatial-dependent acceleration on mass block and measuring the end mass of force transducer in dynamic force calibration are discussed in this paper.
Liwo, Adam; Arłukowicz, Piotr; Czaplewski, Cezary; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Pillardy, Jarosław; Scheraga, Harold A.
2002-01-01
A method for optimizing potential-energy functions of proteins is proposed. The method assumes a hierarchical structure of the energy landscape, which means that the energy decreases as the number of native-like elements in a structure increases, being lowest for structures from the native family and highest for structures with no native-like element. A level of the hierarchy is defined as a family of structures with the same number of native-like elements (or degree of native likeness). Optimization of a potential-energy function is aimed at achieving such a hierarchical structure of the energy landscape by forcing appropriate free-energy gaps between hierarchy levels to place their energies in ascending order. This procedure is different from methods developed thus far, in which the energy gap and/or the Z score between the native structure and all non-native structures are maximized, regardless of the degree of native likeness of the non-native structures. The advantage of this approach lies in reducing the number of structures with decreasing energy, which should ensure the searchability of the potential. The method was tested on two proteins, PDB ID codes 1FSD and 1IGD, with an off-lattice united-residue force field. For 1FSD, the search of the conformational space with the use of the conformational space annealing method and the newly optimized potential-energy function found the native structure very quickly, as opposed to the potential-energy functions obtained by former optimization methods. After even incomplete optimization, the force field obtained by using 1IGD located the native-like structures of two peptides, 1FSD and betanova (a designed three-stranded β-sheet peptide), as the lowest-energy conformations, whereas for the 46-residue N-terminal fragment of staphylococcal protein A, the native-like conformation was the second-lowest-energy conformation and had an energy 2 kcal/mol above that of the lowest-energy structure. PMID:11854494
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rozvany, G. I. N.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.
1992-01-01
In new, iterative continuum-based optimality criteria (COC) methods, the strain in the adjoint structure becomes non-unique if the number of active local constraints is greater than the number of design variables for an element. This brief note discusses the use of smooth envelope functions (SEFs) in overcoming economically computational problems caused by the above non-uniqueness.
In regulatory assessments, there is a need for reliable estimates of the impacts of precursor emissions from individual sources on secondary PM_{2.5} (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns) and ozone. Three potential methods for estimating th...
Exploring the Use of iPads to Investigate Forces and Motion in an Elementary Science Methods Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, Rachel; Goodman, Jeff; Bradbury, Leslie; Gross, Lisa
2013-01-01
Many science educators emphasize the need for meaningful science learning experiences and promote the idea of social constructivism in their methods classes, usually with inquiry-based activities that include physical manipulatives. However, the proliferation of technology in the nation's schools suggests the need to incorporate this trend…
Noda, Nao-Aki; Oda, Kazuhiro
1995-11-01
In this study, numerical solution of singular integral equations is discussed in the analysis of interface cracks and angular corners. The problems are formulated as a system of singular integral equations on the basis of the body force method. In the analysis of interface cracks, the unknown functions of the body force densities which satisfy the boundary conditions are expressed by the products of fundamental density functions and power series. In the problem of angular corners, two types of fundamental density functions are chosen to express the symmetric type stress singularity of 1/r{sup 1{minus}{lambda}1} and the skew-symmetric type stress singularity of 1/r{sup 1{minus}{lambda}2}; then the unknown functions are expressed as a linear combination of the fundamental density functions and power series. The accuracy of the present analysis is verified by comparing the present results with the results obtained by other researchers and examining the compliance with boundary conditions. The calculation shows that the present method gives rapidly converging numerical results for those problems as well as ordinary crack problems in homogeneous materials.
Sonawane, Sandeep; Jadhav, Sneha; Rahade, Priya; Chhajed, Santosh; Kshirsagar, Sanjay
2016-01-01
Chlorthalidone was subjected to various forced degradation conditions. Substantial degradation of chlorthalidone was obtained in acid, alkali, and oxidative conditions. Further full factorial experimental design was applied for acid and alkali forced degradation conditions, in which strength of acid/alkali, temperature, and time of heating were considered as independent variables (factors) and % degradation was considered as dependent variable (response). Factors responsible for acid and alkali degradation were statistically evaluated using Yates analysis and Pareto chart. Furthermore, using surface response curve, optimized 10% degradation was obtained. All chromatographic separation was carried out on Phenomenex HyperClone C 18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μ), using mobile phase comprising methanol : acetonitrile : phosphate buffer (20 mM) (pH 3.0 adjusted with o-phosphoric acid): 30 : 10 : 60% v/v. The flow rate was kept constant at 1 mL/min and eluent was detected at 241 nm. In calibration curve experiments, linearity was found to be in the range of 2–12 μg/mL. Validation experiments proved good accuracy and precision of the method. Also there was no interference of excipients and degradation products at the retention time of chlorthalidone, indicating specificity of the method. PMID:27123364
van der Waals forces in density functional theory: a review of the vdW-DF method
Berland, Kristian; Cooper, Valentino R.; Lee, Kyuho; Schröder, Elsebeth; Thonhauser, T.; Hyldgaard, Per; Lundqvist, Bengt I.
2015-05-15
We review a density functional theory (DFT) that accounts for van der Waals (vdW) interactions in condensed matter, materials physics, chemistry, and biology. The insights that led to the construction of the Rutgers–Chalmers van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) are presented with the aim of giving a historical perspective, while also emphasizing more recent efforts which have sought to improve its accuracy. In addition to technical details, we discuss a range of recent applications that illustrate the necessity of including dispersion interactions in DFT. This review highlights the value of the vdW-DF method as a general-purpose method, not only for dispersion bound systems, but also in densely packed systems where these types of interactions are traditionally thought to be negligible.
van der Waals forces in density functional theory: a review of the vdW-DF method
Berland, Kristian; Cooper, Valentino R.; Lee, Kyuho; Schröder, Elsebeth; Thonhauser, T.; Hyldgaard, Per; Lundqvist, Bengt I.
2015-05-15
We review a density functional theory (DFT) that accounts for van der Waals (vdW) interactions in condensed matter, materials physics, chemistry, and biology. The insights that led to the construction of the Rutgers–Chalmers van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) are presented with the aim of giving a historical perspective, while also emphasizing more recent efforts which have sought to improve its accuracy. In addition to technical details, we discuss a range of recent applications that illustrate the necessity of including dispersion interactions in DFT. This review highlights the value of the vdW-DF method as a general-purpose method, not only formore » dispersion bound systems, but also in densely packed systems where these types of interactions are traditionally thought to be negligible.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conroy, Colton J.; Kubatko, Ethan J.
2016-01-01
In this article, we present novel, high-order, discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the vertical extent of the water column in coastal settings. We examine the shallow water equations (SWE) in the context of DG spatial discretizations coupled with explicit Runge-Kutta (RK) time stepping. All the primary variables, including the free surface elevation, are discretized using discontinuous polynomial spaces of arbitrary order. The difficulty of mismatched lateral boundary faces that accompanies the use of a discontinuous free surface is overcome through the use of a so-called sigma-coordinate system in the vertical, which transforms the bottom boundary and free surface into coordinate surfaces. We develop high-order methods for the SWE that exhibit optimal orders of convergence for all the primary variables via two distinct paths: the first involves the use of a convolution kernel made up of B-splines to filter out errors in the DG discretization of the surface elevation and the corresponding pressure flux. The second involves a method that evaluates the discrete depth-integrated velocity exactly, eliminating the need to solve the depth-integrated momentum equation altogether. The result is a simple and efficient high-order scheme that can be extended to the full three-dimensional SWE.
Lv, Shengyu; Li, Juan; Feng, Wei; Liu, Hongrui; Du, Juan; Sun, Jing; Cui, Jian; Sun, Bao; Han, Xiuchun; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Xu, Xin; Li, Minqi
2015-02-01
Recent studies indicate that high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) originating from periodontal ligament (PDL) cells can be a potential regulator in the process of orthodontic tooth movement and periodontal tissue remodeling. The aim of this study is to investigate HMGB1 expression in periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement in mice according to Waldo's method. Six 7-week-old C57BL6 mice were used in these experiments. The elastic band was inserted into the teeth space between the right first and second maxillary molars. After 3 days of mechanical loading, mice were fixed with transcardial perfusion of 4 % paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and the maxillary was extracted for histochemical analyses. The histological examination revealed local PDL tear at the tension side and the formation of extensive cell-free hyaline zones at the compression side. The immunolocalization of HMGB1 was significantly presented at tension side of PDL, apical area and dental pulp, whereas at the compression side of PDL, the labeling of HMGB1 was almost undetectable as the presence of hyaline zone. Taken together, we concluded that the orthodontic tooth movement by Waldo's method leads to histological changes and HMGB1 expression pattern that differ from those of coil spring method, including PDL tear and extensive hyaline zone which may severely destroy periodontal tissue and in turn impede tooth movement. PMID:25523715
Langdon, Jonathan H; Elegbe, Etana; McAleavey, Stephen A
2015-07-01
Single tracking location (STL) shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) is a method for detecting elastic differences between tissues. It has the advantage of intrinsic speckle bias suppression compared with multiple tracking location variants of SWEI. However, the assumption of a linear model leads to an overestimation of the shear modulus in viscoelastic media. A new reconstruction technique denoted single tracking location viscosity estimation (STL-VE) is introduced to correct for this overestimation. This technique utilizes the same raw data generated in STL-SWEI imaging. Here, the STL-VE technique is developed by way of a maximum likelihood estimation for general viscoelastic materials. The method is then implemented for the particular case of the Kelvin-Voigt Model. Using simulation data, the STL-VE technique is demonstrated and the performance of the estimator is characterized. Finally, the STL-VE method is used to estimate the viscoelastic parameters of ex vivo bovine liver. We find good agreement between the STL-VE results and the simulation parameters as well as between the liver shear wave data and the modeled data fit. PMID:26168170
Jevtitch, M.M.
1986-01-01
An aromatic polyamide membrane was used to study the separation of selected carboxylic acids, chlorophenols, nitrophenols and sodium chloride. An application for actual treatment of a coal-liquefaction waste water was also performed. Prediction of separation and flux data were obtained using the surface force pore flow (SFPF) model previously reported in the literature. Methods for the determination of pore size distribution of polyamide thin-film composite membrane and a cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membrane, solute concentration at the membrane wall are described. The pore distribution data and wall concentration data were further used with solute separation data at a particular pressure to obtain the solute-solvent-membrane wall forces parameter involved. From the knowledge of the interaction forces, the solute separation and flux data (for nonionized organic solutes and sodium chloride) were predicted over a wide range of pressures and showed excellent agreement with experimental data. The prediction of rejection and flux for carboxylic acids, chlorophenol and nitrophenol systems by the SFPF model were further extended to multicomponent systems. The polyamide membrane used in this study had 97-99% standard NaCl rejections and 24-30 gfd pure water flux at 20.7 x 10/sup 5/ N/m/sup 2/. For ionizable organics such as phenol, chlorophenol, dichlorophenol..., the rejection and flux drops were highly dependent on operating pH values. Membranes experimental results showed 99.5-99.8% rejection at pH 11 of phenol, 2-CP and 2,4-DCP. Under no ionization conditions the flux drop observed for nitrophenol and chlorophenol systems was not caused by osmotic pressure effect and was related to physicochemical nature of the solute-solvent-membrane system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joglekar, D. M.; Mitra, M.
2015-12-01
The present investigation outlines a method based on the wavelet transform to analyze the vibration response of discrete piecewise linear oscillators, representative of beams with breathing cracks. The displacement and force variables in the governing differential equation are approximated using Daubechies compactly supported wavelets. An iterative scheme is developed to arrive at the optimum transform coefficients, which are back-transformed to obtain the time-domain response. A time-integration scheme, solving a linear complementarity problem at every time step, is devised to validate the proposed wavelet-based method. Applicability of the proposed solution technique is demonstrated by considering several test cases involving a cracked cantilever beam modeled as a bilinear SDOF system subjected to a harmonic excitation. In particular, the presence of higher-order harmonics, originating from the piecewise linear behavior, is confirmed in all the test cases. Parametric study involving the variations in the crack depth, and crack location is performed to bring out their effect on the relative strengths of higher-order harmonics. Versatility of the method is demonstrated by considering the cases such as mixed-frequency excitation and an MDOF oscillator with multiple bilinear springs. In addition to purporting the wavelet-based method as a viable alternative to analyze the response of piecewise linear oscillators, the proposed method can be easily extended to solve inverse problems unlike the other direct time integration schemes.
Force measurements during vibration testing
Smallwood, D.O.; Coleman, R.G.
1993-12-31
Experimental measurements of force into a ``rigid`` test item representing a typical system level vibration test were conducted to evaluate several methods of force measurements. The methods evaluated included: (1) Direct measurement with force gages between the test item and the fixturing; (2) Measurement of the force at the shaker/fixture interface and correcting the force required to drive the fixturing using two methods, (a) mass subtraction and (b) SWAT (sum of weighted accelerations technique), (3) Force deduced from voltage and current needed to drive the test item. All of the methods worked over a limited frequency range of five to a few hundred Hertz. The widest bandwidth was achieved with force at the shaker/fixture interface with SWAT corrections and from the voltage and current measurements.
Ageev, O. A.; Bykov, Al. V.; Kolomiitsev, A. S.; Konoplev, B. G.; Rubashkina, M. V.; Smirnov, V. A.; Tsukanova, O. G.
2015-12-15
The results of an experimental study of the modification of probes for critical-dimension atomicforce microscopy (CD-AFM) by the deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to improve the accuracy with which the surface roughness of vertical walls is determined in submicrometer structures are presented. Methods of the deposition of an individual CNT onto the tip of an AFM probe via mechanical and electrostatic interaction between the probe and an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are studied. It is shown that, when the distance between the AFM tip and a VACNT array is 1 nm and the applied voltage is within the range 20–30 V, an individual carbon nanotube is deposited onto the tip. On the basis of the results obtained in the study, a probe with a carbon nanotube on its tip (CNT probe) with a radius of 7 nm and an aspect ratio of 1:15 is formed. Analysis of the CNT probe demonstrates that its use improves the resolution and accuracy of AFM measurements, compared with the commercial probe, and also makes it possible to determine the roughness of the vertical walls of high-aspect structures by CD-AFM. The results obtained can be used to develop technological processes for the fabrication and reconditioning of special AFM probes, including those for CD-AFM, and procedures for the interoperational express monitoring of technological process parameters in the manufacturing of elements for micro- and nanoelectronics and micro- and nanosystem engineering.
Ghoufi, A; Morineau, D; Lefort, R; Malfreyt, P
2010-10-12
Many interesting physical phenomena occur on length and time scales that are not accessible by atomistic molecular simulations. By introducing a coarse graining of the degrees of freedom, coarse-grained (CG) models allow ther study of larger scale systems for longer times. Coarse-grained force fields have been mostly derived for large molecules, including polymeric materials and proteins. By contrast, there exist no satisfactory CG potentials for mesostructured porous solid materials in the literature. This issue has become critical among a growing number of studies on confinement effects on fluid properties, which require both long time and large scale simulations and the conservation of a sufficient level of atomistic description to account for interfacial phenomena. In this paper, we present a general multiscale procedure to derive a hybrid coarse grained/all atoms force field CG/AA model for mesoporous systems. The method is applied to mesostructured MCM-41 molecular sieves, while the parameters of the mesoscopic interaction potentials are obtained and validated from the computation of the adsorption isotherm of methanol by grand canonical molecular dynamic simulation. PMID:26616783
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Yongquan
2015-03-01
To study on vacuum force, we must clear what is vacuum, vacuum is a space do not have any air and also ray. There is not exist an absolute the vacuum of space. The vacuum of space is relative, so that the vacuum force is relative. There is a certain that vacuum vacuum space exists. In fact, the vacuum space is relative, if the two spaces compared to the existence of relative vacuum, there must exist a vacuum force, and the direction of the vacuum force point to the vacuum region. Any object rotates and radiates. Rotate bend radiate- centripetal, gravity produced, relative gravity; non gravity is the vacuum force. Gravity is centripetal, is a trend that the objects who attracted wants to Centripetal, or have been do Centripetal movement. Any object moves, so gravity makes the object curve movement, that is to say, the radiation range curve movement must be in the gravitational objects, gravity must be existed in non vacuum region, and make the object who is in the region of do curve movement (for example: The earth moves around the sun), or final attracted in the form gravitational objects, and keep relatively static with attract object. (for example: objects on the earth moves but can't reach the first cosmic speed).
Marshall, Deborah A; Burgos-Liz, Lina; IJzerman, Maarten J; Crown, William; Padula, William V; Wong, Peter K; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Higashi, Mitchell K; Osgood, Nathaniel D
2015-03-01
In a previous report, the ISPOR Task Force on Dynamic Simulation Modeling Applications in Health Care Delivery Research Emerging Good Practices introduced the fundamentals of dynamic simulation modeling and identified the types of health care delivery problems for which dynamic simulation modeling can be used more effectively than other modeling methods. The hierarchical relationship between the health care delivery system, providers, patients, and other stakeholders exhibits a level of complexity that ought to be captured using dynamic simulation modeling methods. As a tool to help researchers decide whether dynamic simulation modeling is an appropriate method for modeling the effects of an intervention on a health care system, we presented the System, Interactions, Multilevel, Understanding, Loops, Agents, Time, Emergence (SIMULATE) checklist consisting of eight elements. This report builds on the previous work, systematically comparing each of the three most commonly used dynamic simulation modeling methods-system dynamics, discrete-event simulation, and agent-based modeling. We review criteria for selecting the most suitable method depending on 1) the purpose-type of problem and research questions being investigated, 2) the object-scope of the model, and 3) the method to model the object to achieve the purpose. Finally, we provide guidance for emerging good practices for dynamic simulation modeling in the health sector, covering all aspects, from the engagement of decision makers in the model design through model maintenance and upkeep. We conclude by providing some recommendations about the application of these methods to add value to informed decision making, with an emphasis on stakeholder engagement, starting with the problem definition. Finally, we identify areas in which further methodological development will likely occur given the growing "volume, velocity and variety" and availability of "big data" to provide empirical evidence and techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahnamoun, A.; van Duin, A. C. T.
2016-03-01
We study the dynamics of the collisions between amorphous silica structures and amorphous and crystal ice clusters with impact velocities of 1 km/s, 4 km/s, and 7 km/s using the ReaxFF reactive molecular dynamics simulation method. The initial ice clusters consist of 150 water molecules for the amorphous ice cluster and 128 water molecules for the crystal ice cluster. The ice clusters are collided on the surface of amorphous fully oxidized and suboxide silica. These simulations show that at 1 km/s impact velocities, all the ice clusters accumulate on the surface and at 4 km/s and 7 km/s impact velocities, some of the ice cluster molecules bounce back from the surface. At 4 km/s and 7 km/s impact velocities, few of the water molecules dissociations are observed. The effect of the second ice cluster impacts on the surfaces which are fully covered with ice, on the mass loss/accumulation is studied. These studies show that at 1 km/s impacts, the entire ice cluster accumulates on the surface at both first and second ice impacts. At higher impact velocities, some ice molecules which after the first ice impacts have been attached to the surface will separate from the surface after the second ice impacts at 7 km/s impact velocity. For the 4 km/s ice cluster impact, ice accumulation is observed for the crystal ice cluster impacts and ice separation is observed for the amorphous ice impacts. Observing the temperatures of the ice clusters during the collisions indicates that the possibility of electron excitement at impact velocities less than 10 km/s is minimal and ReaxFF reactive molecular dynamics simulation can predict the chemistry of these hypervelocity impacts. However, at impact velocities close to 10 km/s the average temperature of the impacting ice clusters increase to about 2000 K, with individual molecules occasionally reaching temperatures of over 8000 K and thus it will be prudent to consider the concept of electron excitation at these higher impact velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Woojin; Lee, Injae; Choi, Haecheon
2015-11-01
We present a weak coupling approach for the fluid-structure interaction using a discrete-forcing immersed boundary method. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the motion of a solid body are based on the Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates, respectively. A semi-implicit Euler method is applied to the governing equation of a solid body for obtaining provisional position and velocity of a solid body prior to implicitly solving each governing equation. Then, both equations are implicitly solved to obtain a sufficiently large computational time step size. The present weak-coupling approach shows a second-order temporal accuracy and stable solutions for the problems with a low density ratio (fluid to solid) without requiring an iterative method. With the present method, we simulate several fluid-structure interaction problems including the flows around a freely vibrating circular cylinder, a flexible beam attached to a circular cylinder, a flapping flag, a flexible plate, and an elastic vocal fold. The results obtained agree well with those from previous studies. All the simulations are conducted at maximum CFL numbers of 1.0-1.5. Supported by NRF-2012M2A8A4055647 and NRF-2014M3C1B1033848.
Talluri, M V N Kumar; Khatoon, Lubna; Kalariya, Pradipbhai D; Chavan, Balasaheb B; Ragampeta, Srinivas
2015-10-01
An accurate, precise, robust and selective stability-indicating liquid chromatographic (LC) method has been developed for the monitoring of fidarestat in the presence of its forced degradants. The drug was subjected to hydrolysis (acid, alkali and neutral degradation), oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress conditions. The drug degraded significantly under hydrolytic (basic, acidic and neutral) and oxidative stress conditions, whereas it was found to be stable in photolytic and thermal conditions. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Grace C18, (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 μm) column using gradient mobile phase system consisting of 10 mM of ammonium acetate buffer at pH 4 and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at 283 nm. The developed method was extended to liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS-MS) for characterization of all the degradation products. A total of five new degradation products were identified and characterized by LC-QTOF-MS-MS. The developed LC method was validated as per ICH guideline Q2 (R1). The proposed method was found to be successively applied for the quality control of fidarestat in bulk drug analysis. PMID:26014964
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakata, S.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kawakami, H.
1992-10-01
We propose a new sensing method of varios chemical species based on information on the mode of entrainment in an electrochemically forced oscillator. It is demonstrated that the presence of one of the four basic taste compounds (salty, sweet, bitter, and sour) changes the mode of entrainment in a unique way. Thus a characteristics change of the entrainment allows us to obtain information on the properties of the electrochemical system. The response of the mode of entrainment to the taste compounds is related to the nonlinear properties of the studied electrochemical system, i.e., its voltage dependent capacitance and conductance. The experimental results are compared with computer simulations of a model system in which the capacitance is a nonlinear function of the voltage.
Müller, Carsten; Spångberg, Daniel
2015-07-01
Combining classical force fields for the Hartree-Fock (HF) part and the method of increments for post-HF contributions, we calculate the cohesive energy of the ordered and randomly disordered nitrous oxide (N2 O) solid. At 0 K, ordered N2 O is most favorable with a cohesive energy of -27.7 kJ/mol. At temperatures above 60 K, more disordered structures become compatible and a phase transition to completely disordered N2 O is predicted. Comparison with experiment in literature suggests that experimentally prepared N2 O crystals are mainly disordered due to a prohibitively high activation energy of ordering processes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25976008
Updates on Force Limiting Improvements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolaini, Ali R.; Scharton, Terry
2013-01-01
The following conventional force limiting methods currently practiced in deriving force limiting specifications assume one-dimensional translation source and load apparent masses: Simple TDOF model; Semi-empirical force limits; Apparent mass, etc.; Impedance method. Uncorrelated motion of the mounting points for components mounted on panels and correlated, but out-of-phase, motions of the support structures are important and should be considered in deriving force limiting specifications. In this presentation "rock-n-roll" motions of the components supported by panels, which leads to a more realistic force limiting specifications are discussed.
Greenwald, Roby; Hayat, Matthew J.; Barton, Jerusha; Lopukhin, Anastasia
2016-01-01
To better understand the interaction of physical activity and air pollution exposure, it is important to quantify the change in ventilation rate incurred by activity. In this paper, we describe a method for estimating ventilation using easily-measured variables such as heart rate (HR), breathing rate (fB), and forced vital capacity (FVC). We recruited healthy adolescents to use a treadmill while we continuously measured HR, fB, and the tidal volume (VT) of each breath. Participants began at rest then walked and ran at increasing speed until HR was 160–180 beats per minute followed by a cool down period. The novel feature of this method is that minute ventilation (V˙E) was normalized by FVC. We used general linear mixed models with a random effect for subject and identified nine potential predictor variables that influence either V˙E or FVC. We assessed predictive performance with a five-fold cross-validation procedure. We used a brute force selection process to identify the best performing models based on cross-validation percent error, the Akaike Information Criterion and the p-value of parameter estimates. We found a two-predictor model including HR and fB to have the best predictive performance (V˙E/FVC = -4.247+0.0595HR+0.226fB, mean percent error = 8.1±29%); however, given the ubiquity of HR measurements, a one-predictor model including HR may also be useful (V˙E/FVC = -3.859+0.101HR, mean percent error = 11.3±36%). PMID:26809066
Ngo, Van A; Kim, Ilsoo; Allen, Toby W; Noskov, Sergei Y
2016-03-01
Nonequilibrium pulling simulations have been a useful approach for investigating a variety of physical and biological problems. The major target in the simulations is to reconstruct reliable potentials of mean force (PMFs) or unperturbed free-energy profiles for quantitatively addressing both equilibrium mechanistic properties and contributions from nonequilibrium processes. While several current nonequilibrium methods were shown to be accurate in computing free-energy profiles in systems with relatively simple dynamics, they have proved to be unsuitable in more complicated systems. To extend the applicability of nonequilibrium sampling, we demonstrate a novel method that combines Minh-Adib's bidirectional estimator with nonlinear WHAM equations to reconstruct and assess PMFs from relatively fast pulling trajectories. We test the method in a one-dimensional model system and in a system of an antibiotic gramicidin-A (gA) channel, which is considered a significant challenge for nonequilibrium sampling. We identify key parameters for efficiently performing pulling simulations to improve and ensure the convergence and accuracy of estimated PMFs. We show that a few pulling trajectories of a relatively fast pulling speed v = 10 Å/ns can return a fair estimate of the PMF of a single potassium ion in gA. PMID:26799775
Kareem, Adam U; Solares, Santiago D
2012-01-13
Recently Jesse and co-workers introduced the band excitation atomic force microscopy (BE-AFM) method (Jesse et al 2007 Nanotechnology 18 435503), in which the cantilever probe is excited in a continuum frequency band in order to measure its response at all frequencies in the band. Analysis of the cantilever response using the damped harmonic oscillator model provides information on the stiffness and level of dissipation at the tip-sample junction as the sample is scanned. Since its introduction, this method has been used in magnetic, electromechanical, thermal and molecular unfolding applications, among others, and has given rise to a new family of scanning probe microscopy techniques. Additionally, the concept is applicable to any field in which measurement of the frequency response of harmonic oscillators is relevant. In this paper we present an analytical and numerical analysis of the excitation signals used in BE-AFM, as well as of the cantilever response under different conditions. Our analysis is performed within the context of viscoelastic characterization. We discuss subtleties in the cantilever dynamics, provide guidelines for implementing the method effectively and illustrate the use of simulation in interpreting the results. PMID:22155951
Canavesi, Rossana; Aprile, Silvio; Varese, Elena; Grosa, Giorgio
2014-08-01
Pantethine (d-bis-(N-pantothenyl-β-aminoethyl)-disulfide, PAN), the stable disulfide form of pantetheine, has beneficial effects in vascular diseases being able to decrease the hyperlipidaemia, moderate the platelet function and prevent the lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, recent studies suggested that PAN may be an effective therapeutic agent for cerebral malaria and, possibly, for neurodegenerative processes. Interestingly, in the literature, there were no data dealing with the chemical stability and the analytical aspects of PAN. Hence, in the present work the chemical stability of PAN was for the first time established through a forced degradation study followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry investigation showing the formation of three degradation products of PAN (PD1, PD2 and POx) arising from hydrolytic, thermal and oxidative stresses. Based on these data a stability-indicating LC-UV method for simultaneous estimation of PAN, and its most relevant degradation product (PD1) was developed and validated; moreover the method allowed also the separation and the quantification of the preservative system, constituted by a paraben mixture. The method showed linearity for PAN (0.4-1.2mgmL(-1)), MHB, PHB (0.4-1.2μgmL(-1)) and PD1 (2.5-100μgmL(-1)); the precision, determined in terms of intra-day and inter-day precision, expressed as RSDs, were in the ranges 0.4-1.2 and 0.7-1.4, respectively. The method demonstrated to be accurate and robust; indeed the average recoveries were 100.2, 99.9, and 100.0% for PAN, MHB and PHB, respectively, and 99.9% for PD1. By applying small variations of the mobile phase composition, counter-ion concentration and pH the separation of analytes was not affected. Finally, the applicability of this method was evaluated analyzing the available commercial forms at release as well as during stability studies. PMID:24863372
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Bochao
Slender structures representing civil, mechanical and aerospace systems such as long-span bridges, high-rise buildings, stay cables, power-line cables, high light mast poles, crane-booms and aircraft wings could experience vortex-induced and buffeting excitations below their design wind speeds and divergent self-excited oscillations (flutter) beyond a critical wind speed because these are flexible. Traditional linear aerodynamic theories that are routinely applied for their response prediction are not valid in the galloping, or near-flutter regime, where large-amplitude vibrations could occur and during non-stationary and transient wind excitations that occur, for example, during hurricanes, thunderstorms and gust fronts. The linear aerodynamic load formulation for lift, drag and moment are expressed in terms of aerodynamic functions in frequency domain that are valid for straight-line winds which are stationary or weakly-stationary. Application of the frequency domain formulation is restricted from use in the nonlinear and transient domain because these are valid for linear models and stationary wind. The time-domain aerodynamic force formulations are suitable for finite element modeling, feedback-dependent structural control mechanism, fatigue-life prediction, and above all modeling of transient structural behavior during non-stationary wind phenomena. This has motivated the developing of time-domain models of aerodynamic loads that are in parallel to the existing frequency-dependent models. Parameters defining these time-domain models can be now extracted from wind tunnel tests, for example, the Rational Function Coefficients defining the self-excited wind loads can be extracted using section model tests using the free vibration technique. However, the free vibration method has some limitations because it is difficult to apply at high wind speeds, in turbulent wind environment, or on unstable cross sections with negative aerodynamic damping. In the current
Rödiger, Matthias; Rinke, Sven; Ehret-Kleinau, Fenja; Pohlmeyer, Franziska; Lange, Katharina; Bürgers, Ralf
2014-01-01
PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of different abutment geometries in combination with varying luting agents and the effectiveness of different cleaning methods (prior to re-cementation) regarding the retentiveness of zirconia copings on implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS Implants were embedded in resin blocks. Three groups of titanium abutments (pre-fabricated, height: 7.5 mm, taper: 5.7°; customized-long, height: 6.79 mm, taper: 4.8°; customized-short, height: 4.31 mm, taper: 4.8°) were used for luting of CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia copings with a semi-permanent (Telio CS) and a provisional cement (TempBond NE). Retention forces were evaluated using a universal testing machine. Furthermore, the influence of cleaning methods (manually, manually in combination with ultrasonic bath or sandblasting) prior to re-cementation with a provisional cement (TempBond NE) was investigated with the pre-fabricated titanium abutments (height: 7.5 mm, taper: 5.7°) and SEM-analysis of inner surfaces of the copings was performed. Significant differences were determined via two-way ANOVA. RESULTS Significant interactions between abutment geometry and luting agent were observed. TempBond NE showed the highest level of retentiveness on customized-long abutments, but was negatively affected by other abutment geometries. In contrast, luting with Telio CS demonstrated consistent results irrespective of the varying abutment geometries. Manual cleaning in combination with an ultrasonic bath was the only cleaning method tested prior to re-cementation that revealed retentiveness levels not inferior to primary cementation. CONCLUSION No superiority for one of the two cements could be demonstrated because their influences on retentive strength are also depending on abutment geometry. Only manual cleaning in combination with an ultrasonic bath offers retentiveness levels after re-cementation comparable to those of primary luting. PMID:25006388
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atashafrooz, M.; Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. A.; Lari, K.
2016-02-01
In the present work, the interaction between non-gray radiation and forced convection in a laminar radiating gas flow over a recess including two backward and forward facing steps in a duct is investigated numerically. Distributions of absorption coefficients across the spectrum (50 cm-1 < η < 20,000 cm-1) are obtained from the HITRAN2008 database. The full-spectrum k-distribution method is used to account for non-gray radiation properties, while the gray radiation calculations are carried out using the Planck mean absorption coefficient. To find the divergence of radiative heat flux distribution, the radiative transfer equation is solved by the discrete ordinates method. The effects of radiation-conduction parameter, wall emissivity, scattering coefficient and recess length on heat transfer behaviors of the convection-radiation system are investigated for both gray and non-gray mediums. In addition, the results of gray medium are compared with non-gray results in order to judge if the differences between these two approaches are significant enough to justify the usage of non-gray models. Results show that for air mixture with 10 % CO2 and 20 % H2O, use of gray model for the radiative properties may cause significant errors and should be avoided.
Parallel computation with the force
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jordan, H. F.
1985-01-01
A methodology, called the force, supports the construction of programs to be executed in parallel by a force of processes. The number of processes in the force is unspecified, but potentially very large. The force idea is embodied in a set of macros which produce multiproceossor FORTRAN code and has been studied on two shared memory multiprocessors of fairly different character. The method has simplified the writing of highly parallel programs within a limited class of parallel algorithms and is being extended to cover a broader class. The individual parallel constructs which comprise the force methodology are discussed. Of central concern are their semantics, implementation on different architectures and performance implications.
Simeon, Tomekia M.; Ratner, Mark A.; Schatz, George C.
2013-01-01
The design and assembly of mechanically interlocked molecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, are dictated by various types of noncovalent interactions. In particular, [C-H⋯O] hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking interactions in these supramolecular complexes have been identified as important noncovalent interactions. With this in mind, we examined the [3] catenane 2·4PF6 using molecular mechanics (MM3), ab initio methods (HF, MP2), several versions of density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP, M0X), and the dispersion-corrected method DFT-D3. Symmetry adapted perturbation theory (DFT-SAPT) provides the highest level of theory considered, and we use the DFT-SAPT results both to calibrate the other electronic structure methods, and the empirical potential MM3 force field that is often used to describe larger catenane and rotaxane structures where [C-H⋯O] hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking interactions play a role. Our results indicate that the MM3 calculated complexation energies agree qualitatively with the energetic ordering from DFT-SAPT calculations with an aug-cc-pVTZ basis, both for structures dominated by [C-H⋯O] hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking interactions. When the DFT-SAPT energies are decomposed into components, and we find that electrostatic interactions dominate the [C-H⋯O] hydrogen-bonding interactions while dispersion makes a significant contribution to π-π stacking. Another important conclusion is that DFT-D3 based on M06 or M06-2X provides interactions energies that are in near-quantitative agreement with DFT-SAPT. DFT results without the D3 correct have important differences compared to DFT-SAPT while HF and even MP2 results are in poor agreement with DFT-SAPT. PMID:23941280
Gonthier, Gerard J.
2007-01-01
A graphical method that uses continuous water-level and barometric-pressure data was developed to estimate barometric efficiency. A plot of nearly continuous water level (on the y-axis), as a function of nearly continuous barometric pressure (on the x-axis), will plot as a line curved into a series of connected elliptical loops. Each loop represents a barometric-pressure fluctuation. The negative of the slope of the major axis of an elliptical loop will be the ratio of water-level change to barometric-pressure change, which is the sum of the barometric efficiency plus the error. The negative of the slope of the preferred orientation of many elliptical loops is an estimate of the barometric efficiency. The slope of the preferred orientation of many elliptical loops is approximately the median of the slopes of the major axes of the elliptical loops. If water-level change that is not caused by barometric-pressure change does not correlate with barometric-pressure change, the probability that the error will be greater than zero will be the same as the probability that it will be less than zero. As a result, the negative of the median of the slopes for many loops will be close to the barometric efficiency. The graphical method provided a rapid assessment of whether a well was affected by barometric-pressure change and also provided a rapid estimate of barometric efficiency. The graphical method was used to assess which wells at Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia, had water levels affected by barometric-pressure changes during a 2003 constant-discharge aquifer test. The graphical method was also used to estimate barometric efficiency. Barometric-efficiency estimates from the graphical method were compared to those of four other methods: average of ratios, median of ratios, Clark, and slope. The two methods (the graphical and median-of-ratios methods) that used the median values of water-level change divided by barometric-pressure change appeared to be most resistant to
Blümcke, Ingmar; Aronica, Eleonora; Miyata, Hajime; Sarnat, Harvey B; Thom, Maria; Roessler, Karl; Rydenhag, Bertil; Jehi, Lara; Krsek, Pavel; Wiebe, Samuel; Spreafico, Roberto
2016-03-01
Epilepsy surgery is an effective treatment in many patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsies. An early decision for surgical therapy is facilitated by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible brain lesion congruent with the electrophysiologically abnormal brain region. Recent advances in the pathologic diagnosis and classification of epileptogenic brain lesions are helpful for clinical correlation, outcome stratification, and patient management. However, application of international consensus classification systems to common epileptic pathologies (e.g., focal cortical dysplasia [FCD] and hippocampal sclerosis [HS]) necessitates standardized protocols for neuropathologic workup of epilepsy surgery specimens. To this end, the Task Force of Neuropathology from the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Commission on Diagnostic Methods developed a consensus standard operational procedure for tissue inspection, distribution, and processing. The aims are to provide a systematic framework for histopathologic workup, meeting minimal standards and maximizing current and future opportunities for morphofunctional correlations and molecular studies for both clinical care and research. Whenever feasible, anatomically intact surgical specimens are desirable to enable systematic analysis in selective hippocampectomies, temporal lobe resections, and lesional or nonlesional neocortical samples. Correct orientation of sample and the sample's relation to neurophysiologically aberrant sites requires good communication between pathology and neurosurgical teams. Systematic tissue sampling of 5-mm slabs along a defined anatomic axis and application of a limited immunohistochemical panel will ensure a reliable differential diagnosis of main pathologies encountered in epilepsy surgery. PMID:26839983
Unification of Fundamental Forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salam, Abdus; Taylor, Foreword by John C.
2005-10-01
Foreword John C. Taylor; 1. Unification of fundamental forces Abdus Salam; 2. History unfolding: an introduction to the two 1968 lectures by W. Heisenberg and P. A. M. Dirac Abdus Salam; 3. Theory, criticism, and a philosophy Werner Heisenberg; 4. Methods in theoretical physics Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Geddes, John B.; Black, Kelly
2008-01-01
We examine an experimental apparatus that is used to motivate the connections between the basic properties of vectors, potential functions, systems of nonlinear equations, and Newton's method for nonlinear systems of equations. The apparatus is an adaptation of a force table where we remove the center-pin and allow the center-ring to move freely.…
Gregoire, Colette; Joesten, Peter K.; Lane, Jr., John W.
2007-01-01
Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography surveys were used in conjunction with conventional borehole-geophysical methods to evaluate the effectiveness of borehole-radar methods for monitoring the movement of steam and heat through fractured bedrock. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), conducted surveys in an abandoned limestone quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base during a field-scale, steam-enhanced remediation (SER) pilot project conducted by the USEPA, the U.S. Air Force, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection to study the viability of SER to remediate non-aqueous phase liquid contamination in fractured bedrock. Numerical modeling and field experiments indicate that borehole-radar methods have the potential to monitor the presence of steam and to measure large temperature changes in the limestone matrix during SER operations. Based on modeling results, the replacement of water by steam in fractures should produce a decrease in radar reflectivity (amplitude of the reflected wave) by a factor of 10 and a change in reflection polarity. In addition, heating the limestone matrix should increase the bulk electrical conductivity and decrease the bulk dielectric permittivity. These changes result in an increase in radar attenuation and an increase in radar-wave propagation velocity, respectively. Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography data were collected in two boreholes using 100-megahertz antennas before the start of steam injection, about 10 days after the steam injection began, and 2 months later, near the end of the injection. Fluid temperature logs show that the temperature of the fluid in the boreholes increased by 10?C (degrees Celsius) in one borehole and 40?C in the other; maximum temperatures were measured near the bottom of the boreholes. The results of the numerical modeling were used to interpret the borehole-radar data. Analyses of the
Canavan, G.H.
1998-12-31
This paper is concerned with rapid, continuous inspection of vehicles entering military facilities or compounds, searching for high explosives, or the rapid survey of facilities if it is found that security has been breached. The author reviews methods which are in use now, including: x-rays; x-ray tomography; thermal or fast neutrons; quadrupole resonance; trace detection; electron capture; chemiluminesence; ion mobility spectroscopy; mass spectroscopy; antibodies; and layered, synergistic approaches. He then discusses the limitations of these methods and proposes new approaches which are a combination of old techniques such as weighing vehicles with technological advances in some present methods.
A ground reaction force analysis for designing a sustainable energy-harvesting stairway
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puspitarini, Debrina; Suzianti, Amalia; Rasyid, Harun Al; Priscandy, Nabila
2016-06-01
There are many issues of how energy is currently generated and consumed. These include the cost of harvesting energy, the ever-growing demand for it, and the ever-decreasing reserve of current most applicable energy resources. Numerous ways to exploit new sustainable potential energy sources have been pursued, one of which is to create an energy-harvester; a device that captures free potential energy, scattered around in its environment, and transform it into another form of energy. Using NPD approach, Puspitarini, Suzianti, and Al Rasyid (2016) has developed a conceptual design of an energy-harvesting device, which includes a selection of product specification options and a gear set layout design. In this study, a mockup was built for the experiment based on those product specification options. The experiment was conducted using AMTI Force Platform, and its results were processed using Factorial Design. This effort is to test which product specification option contributes the most to Ground Reaction Force (GRF) generation. The greater the generated GRF, the greater amount of electricity produced. A theoretical calculation of electromotive force was also conducted based on the experiment result and the gear set layout design. The result of this study was later discussed and used as a basis to develop further the stairway design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterman, M.; McCrory, J. L.; Sharkey, N. A.; Piazza, S.; Cavanagh, P. R.
1999-01-01
Effective countermeasures to prevent loss of bone mineral during long duration space flight remain elusive. Despite an exercise program on MIR flights, the data from LeBlanc et al. (1996) indicated that there was still a mean rate of loss of bone mineral density in the proximal femur of 1.58% per month (n=18, flight duration 4 - 14.4 months). The specific mechanisms regulating bone mass are not known, but most investigators agree that bone maintenance is largely dependent upon mechanical demand and the resultant local bone strains. A plausible hypothesis is that bone loss during space flight, such as that reported by LeBlanc et al. (1996), may result from failure to effectively load the skeleton in order to generate localized bone strains of sufficient magnitude to prevent disuse osteoporosis. A variety of methods have been proposed to simulate locomotor exercise in reduced gravity. In such simulations, and in an actual microgravity environment, a gravity replacement load (GRL) must always be added to return the exercising subject to the support surface and the resulting skeletal load is critically dependent upon the magnitude of the GRL. To our knowledge, GRLs during orbital flight have only been measured once (on STS 81) and it is likely that most or all prior treadmill exercise in space has used GRLs that were less than one body weight. McCrory (1997) has shown that subjects walking and running in simulated zero-G can tolerate GRLs of 1 if an appropriate harness is used. Several investigators have attempted to measure in vivo strains and forces in the bones of humans, but have faced ethical and technical limitations. The anteromedial aspect of the tibial midshaft has been a common site for the placement of strain gauges; one reason to measure strains in the anterior tibia is that this region is surgically accessible. Aamodt et al. (1997) were able to measure strains on the lateral surface of the proximal femur only because their experimental subjects were
Force Limited Vibration Testing Monograph
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scharton, Terry D.
1997-01-01
The practice of limiting the shaker force in vibration tests was investigated at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in 1990 after the mechanical failure of an aerospace component during a vibration test. Now force limiting is used in almost every major vibration test at JPL and in many vibration tests at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and at many aerospace contractors. The basic ideas behind force limiting have been in the literature for several decades, but the piezo-electric force transducers necessary to conveniently implement force limiting have been available only in the last decade. In 1993, funding was obtained from the NASA headquarters Office of Chief Engineer to develop and document the technology needed to establish force limited vibration testing as a standard approach available to all NASA centers and aerospace contractors. This monograph is the final report on that effort and discusses the history, theory, and applications of the method in some detail.
Xie Hui; Vitard, Julien; Haliyo, Sinan; Regnier, Stephane
2008-03-15
We present here a method to calibrate the lateral force in the atomic force microscope. This method makes use of an accurately calibrated force sensor composed of a tipless piezoresistive cantilever and corresponding signal amplifying and processing electronics. Two ways of force loading with different loading points were compared by scanning the top and side edges of the piezoresistive cantilever. Conversion factors between the lateral force and photodiode signal using three types of atomic force microscope cantilevers with rectangular geometries (normal spring constants from 0.092 to 1.24 N/m and lateral stiffness from 10.34 to 101.06 N/m) were measured in experiments using the proposed method. When used properly, this method calibrates the conversion factors that are accurate to {+-}12.4% or better. This standard has less error than the commonly used method based on the cantilever's beam mechanics. Methods such of this allow accurate and direct conversion between lateral forces and photodiode signals without any knowledge of the cantilevers and the laser measuring system.
Forced motion near black holes
Gair, Jonathan R.; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Drasco, Steve; Hinderer, Tanja; Babak, Stanislav
2011-02-15
We present two methods for integrating forced geodesic equations in the Kerr spacetime. The methods can accommodate arbitrary forces. As a test case, we compute inspirals caused by a simple drag force, mimicking motion in the presence of gas. We verify that both methods give the same results for this simple force. We find that drag generally causes eccentricity to increase throughout the inspiral. This is a relativistic effect qualitatively opposite to what is seen in gravitational-radiation-driven inspirals, and similar to what others have observed in hydrodynamic simulations of gaseous binaries. We provide an analytic explanation by deriving the leading order relativistic correction to the Newtonian dynamics. If observed, an increasing eccentricity would thus provide clear evidence that the inspiral was occurring in a nonvacuum environment. Our two methods are especially useful for evolving orbits in the adiabatic regime. Both use the method of osculating orbits, in which each point on the orbit is characterized by the parameters of the geodesic with the same instantaneous position and velocity. Both methods describe the orbit in terms of the geodesic energy, axial angular momentum, Carter constant, azimuthal phase, and two angular variables that increase monotonically and are relativistic generalizations of the eccentric anomaly. The two methods differ in their treatment of the orbital phases and the representation of the force. In the first method, the geodesic phase and phase constant are evolved together as a single orbital phase parameter, and the force is expressed in terms of its components on the Kinnersley orthonormal tetrad. In the second method, the phase constants of the geodesic motion are evolved separately and the force is expressed in terms of its Boyer-Lindquist components. This second approach is a direct generalization of earlier work by Pound and Poisson [A. Pound and E. Poisson, Phys. Rev. D 77, 044013 (2008).] for planar forces in a
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force and cook yield are widely used indications of chicken breast meat quality. Experimental design and work load commonly necessitate storage of chicken breast fillets in a refrigerator or freezer before parameters can be measured. The objective of this study was to in...
Zou, Chenyu; van Duin, Adri C.T.; Sorescu, Dan C.
2012-06-01
We have developed a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe hydrogen adsorption and dissociation on iron and iron carbide surfaces relevant for simulation of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis on iron catalysts. This force field enables large system (>>1000 atoms) simulations of hydrogen related reactions with iron. The ReaxFF force field parameters are trained against a substantial amount of structural and energetic data including the equations of state and heats of formation of iron and iron carbide related materials, as well as hydrogen interaction with iron surfaces and different phases of bulk iron. We have validated the accuracy and applicability of ReaxFF force field by carrying out molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen adsorption, dissociation and recombination on iron and iron carbide surfaces. The barriers and reaction energies for molecular dissociation on these two types of surfaces have been compared and the effect of subsurface carbon on hydrogen interaction with iron surface is evaluated. We found that existence of carbon atoms at subsurface iron sites tends to increase the hydrogen dissociation energy barrier on the surface, and also makes the corresponding hydrogen dissociative state relatively more stable compared to that on bare iron. These properties of iron carbide will affect the dissociation rate of H{sub 2} and will retain more surface hydride species, thus influencing the dynamics of the FT synthesis process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Shuaiqi
Atmospheric vertical velocities and advective tendencies are essential as large-scale forcing data to drive single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulations (LES). They cannot be directly measured or easily calculated with great accuracy from field measurements. In the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, a constrained variational algorithm (1DCVA) has been used to derive large-scale forcing data over a sounding network domain with the aid of flux measurements at the surface and top of the atmosphere (TOA). We extend the 1DCVA algorithm into three dimensions (3DCVA) along with other improvements to calculate gridded large-scale forcing data. We also introduce an ensemble framework using different background data, error covariance matrices and constraint variables to quantify the uncertainties of the large-scale forcing data. The results of sensitivity study show that the derived forcing data and SCM simulated clouds are more sensitive to the background data than to the error covariance matrices and constraint variables, while horizontal moisture advection has relatively large sensitivities to the precipitation, the dominate constraint variable. Using a mid-latitude cyclone case study in March 3rd, 2000 at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, we investigate the spatial distribution of diabatic heating sources (Q1) and moisture sinks (Q2), and show that they are consistent with the satellite clouds and intuitive structure of the mid-latitude cyclone. We also evaluate the Q1 and Q2 in analysis/reanalysis, finding that the regional analysis/reanalysis all tend to underestimate the sub-grid scale upward transport of moist static energy in the lower troposphere. With the uncertainties from large-scale forcing data and observation specified, we compare SCM results and observations and find that models have large biases on cloud properties which could not be fully explained by the uncertainty from the large-scale forcing
Force limited vibration testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scharton, Terry D.
1991-01-01
A new method of conducting lab vibration tests of spacecraft equipment was developed to more closely simulate the vibration environment experienced when the spacecraft is launched on a rocket. The improved tests are tailored to identify equipment design and workmanship problems without inducing artificial failures that would not have occurred at launch. These new, less destructive types of vibration tests are essential to JPL's protoflight test approach in which lab testing is conducted using the flight equipment, often one of a kind, to save time and money. In conventional vibration tests, only the input vibratory motion is specified; the feedback, or reaction force, between the test item and the vibration machine is ignored. Most test failures occur when the test item goes into resonance, and the reaction force becomes very large. It has long been recognized that the large reaction force is a test artifact which does not occur with the lightweight, flexible mounting structures characteristic of spacecraft and space vehicles. In new vibration tests, both the motion and the force provided to the test item by the vibration machine are controlled, so that the vibration ride experienced by the test item is as in flight.
Lorentz force particle analyzer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaodong; Thess, André; Moreau, René; Tan, Yanqing; Dai, Shangjun; Tao, Zhen; Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Bo
2016-07-01
A new contactless technique is presented for the detection of micron-sized insulating particles in the flow of an electrically conducting fluid. A transverse magnetic field brakes this flow and tends to become entrained in the flow direction by a Lorentz force, whose reaction force on the magnetic-field-generating system can be measured. The presence of insulating particles suspended in the fluid produce changes in this Lorentz force, generating pulses in it; these pulses enable the particles to be counted and sized. A two-dimensional numerical model that employs a moving mesh method demonstrates the measurement principle when such a particle is present. Two prototypes and a three-dimensional numerical model are used to demonstrate the feasibility of a Lorentz force particle analyzer (LFPA). The findings of this study conclude that such an LFPA, which offers contactless and on-line quantitative measurements, can be applied to an extensive range of applications. These applications include measurements of the cleanliness of high-temperature and aggressive molten metal, such as aluminum and steel alloys, and the clean manufacturing of semiconductors.
Bing, W; Knott, A; Marston, S B
2000-01-01
We have studied the effect of an internal load on the movement of actin filaments over a bed of heavy meromyosin (HMM) in the in vitro motility assay. Immobilized alpha-actinin can bind to actin filaments reversibly and ultimately stop the filaments from moving. Above a critical concentration of alpha-actinin, thin filament velocity rapidly diminished to zero. The fraction of thin motile filaments decreased linearly to zero with increasing alpha-actinin concentration. The concentration of alpha-actinin needed to stop all filaments from moving (0.8 microg/ml with actin) was very consistent both within and between experiments. In the present study we have defined the 'index of retardation' as the concentration of alpha-actinin needed to stop all filament movement, and we propose that this index is a measure of the isometric force exerted by HMM on actin filaments. When we measured the effect of immobilized alpha-actinin on motility in the presence of 10 mM P(i) we found that the index of retardation was 0.62+/-0.07 (n=3) times that in the absence of P(i). This observation is in agreement with the reduction of isometric tension in chemically-skinned muscle due to P(i). In a series of comparative experiments we observed that tropomyosin and troponin increase the index of retardation and that the degree of increase depends upon the tropomyosin isoform studied. The index of retardation of actin is increased 1.8-fold by skeletal-muscle tropomyosin, and 3-fold by both cardiac-muscle and smooth-muscle tropomyosin. In the presence of troponin the index of retardation is 2.9-3.4-fold greater than that of actin with all tropomyosin isoforms. PMID:10970781
Force reconstruction from tapping mode force microscopy experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Payam, Amir F.; Martin-Jimenez, Daniel; Garcia, Ricardo
2015-05-01
Fast, accurate, and robust nanomechanical measurements are intensely studied in materials science, applied physics, and molecular biology. Amplitude modulation force microscopy (tapping mode) is the most established nanoscale characterization technique of surfaces for air and liquid environments. However, its quantitative capabilities lag behind its high spatial resolution and robustness. We develop a general method to transform the observables into quantitative force measurements. The force reconstruction algorithm has been deduced on the assumption that the observables (amplitude and phase shift) are slowly varying functions of the tip-surface separation. The accuracy and applicability of the method is validated by numerical simulations and experiments. The method is valid for liquid and air environments, small and large free amplitudes, compliant and rigid materials, and conservative and non-conservative forces.
Sensing mode atomic force microscope
Hough, Paul V.; Wang, Chengpu
2004-11-16
An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.
Sensing mode atomic force microscope
Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu
2006-08-22
An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.
Improvement of force factor of magnetostrictive vibration power generator for high efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kita, Shota; Ueno, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Sotoshi
2015-05-01
We develop high power magnetostrictive vibration power generator for battery-free wireless electronics. The generator is based on a cantilever of parallel beam structure consisting of coil-wound Galfenol and stainless plates with permanent magnet for bias. Oscillating force exerted on the tip bends the cantilever in vibration yields stress variation of Galfenol plate, which causes flux variation and generates voltage on coil due to the law of induction. This generator has advantages over conventional, such as piezoelectric or moving magnet types, in the point of high efficiency, highly robust, and low electrical impedance. Our concern is the improvement of energy conversion efficiency dependent on the dimension. Especially, force factor, the conversion ratio of the electromotive force (voltage) on the tip velocity in vibration, has an important role in energy conversion process. First, the theoretical value of the force factor is formulated and then the validity was verified by experiments, where we compare four types of prototype with parameters of the dimension using 7.0 × 1.5 × 50 mm beams of Galfenol with 1606-turn wound coil. In addition, the energy conversion efficiency of the prototypes depending on load resistance was measured. The most efficient prototype exhibits the maximum instantaneous power of 0.73 W and energy of 4.7 mJ at a free vibration of frequency of 202 Hz in the case of applied force is 25 N. Further, it was found that energy conversion efficiency depends not only on the force factor but also on the damping (mechanical loss) of the vibration.
Improvement of force factor of magnetostrictive vibration power generator for high efficiency
Kita, Shota Ueno, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Sotoshi
2015-05-07
We develop high power magnetostrictive vibration power generator for battery-free wireless electronics. The generator is based on a cantilever of parallel beam structure consisting of coil-wound Galfenol and stainless plates with permanent magnet for bias. Oscillating force exerted on the tip bends the cantilever in vibration yields stress variation of Galfenol plate, which causes flux variation and generates voltage on coil due to the law of induction. This generator has advantages over conventional, such as piezoelectric or moving magnet types, in the point of high efficiency, highly robust, and low electrical impedance. Our concern is the improvement of energy conversion efficiency dependent on the dimension. Especially, force factor, the conversion ratio of the electromotive force (voltage) on the tip velocity in vibration, has an important role in energy conversion process. First, the theoretical value of the force factor is formulated and then the validity was verified by experiments, where we compare four types of prototype with parameters of the dimension using 7.0 × 1.5 × 50 mm beams of Galfenol with 1606-turn wound coil. In addition, the energy conversion efficiency of the prototypes depending on load resistance was measured. The most efficient prototype exhibits the maximum instantaneous power of 0.73 W and energy of 4.7 mJ at a free vibration of frequency of 202 Hz in the case of applied force is 25 N. Further, it was found that energy conversion efficiency depends not only on the force factor but also on the damping (mechanical loss) of the vibration.
Unseren, M.A.
1997-09-01
The report reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restricts the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system.
Logan, T K; Cole, Jennifer; Shannon, Lisa
2007-01-01
Although partner sexual abuse is clearly an important dimension of partner violence, it has received less research attention than partner physical and psychological abuse. This article contributes to the literature by examining similarities and differences in coercive and degrading sexual tactics experienced by women who do (n = 31) and women who do not (n = 31) report forced sex using quantitative and qualitative data. The women in the sample had all been recently (within the past 6 months) stalked by a violent intimate partner. Results suggest that both women who do and women who do not report forced sex experience various coercive and degrading tactics within the context of sexual activity. Results also suggest that multiple sexual abuse dimensions should be considered within the context of partner psychological abuse, physical abuse, and stalking and that more research on understanding the outcomes associated with dimensions of sexual abuse within the context of physical and psychological abuse is needed. PMID:17390564
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellmer, Claudia; Adams, Douglas E.; White, Jonathan R.; Jata, Kumar
2008-02-01
A vibration-based health monitoring technique is implemented to detect simulated damage in a sandwich metallic honeycomb under combined acoustic and thermal loading. Two types of damage are introduced into a gamma titanium aluminide panel; simulated oxidation damage in the form of a local mass addition and simulated bolt damage with a change in bolt torque. An active sensing approach is used to measure frequency response functions between a piezo-stack actuator with force measurement and high-frequency accelerometers. The measured frequency response function matrix is then used to estimate the virtual force due to damage. Temperatures up to 300 °F and sound pressures up to 110 dB are considered. It is shown that the measurement of damage changes with combined loading. For example, temperature changes cause bolt damage to be more apparent in the virtual force due to the effects of temperature on the attachment boundary conditions and to the temperature gradient across the panel causing global bending. Similarly, acoustic loading is shown to enhance the detection of simulated mass damage due to larger motions produced on the panel.
Pridmore, Saxby; Walter, Garry
2013-01-01
Background: The prevailing view that the vast majority of those who complete suicide have an underlying psychiatric disorder has been recently challenged by research on the contribution of “predicaments”, in the absence of mental illness, to suicide. In this paper, we sought data to support the notion that forced marriage may lead to suicide without the presence of psychiatric disorder. Methods: Historical records, newspapers, and the electronic media were searched for examples. Results: Two examples from ancient times and six from the last hundred years were located and described. Conclusion: These cases suggest that forced marriage may lead to suicide and complements earlier findings that loss of fortune, health, liberty, and reputation may lead to suicide in the absence of mental disorder. PMID:23983577
Dielectrophoresis force of colloidal nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Hao; Ou-Yang, Daniel
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is the motion of a polarizable colloidal particle in a nonuniform electric field. The magnitude of the DEP force is known to be proportional to the gradient of E2. The DEP force also depends on the relative polarizability of the particle to that of the surrounding medium. Due to its ease of use, DEP has been proposed for a variety of applications to manipulate colloidal particles in a microfluidic setting. However, accurate measurements of the DEP force on colloidal nanoparticles are lacking. A new method is proposed to measure accurately the DEP potential force of colloidal nanoparticles by using confocal fluorescence imaging to determine the density distributions of dilute colloidal nanoparticle in a DEP potential force field. The DEP potential field can be calculated from the particle density distributions since the spatial distribution of the particle number density follows the Boltzmann distribution of the DEP potential energy. The validity of the measured DEP force is tested by examining the force as a function of the E field strength and particle size. The classic MaxwellWagnerO'Konski is found to be inadequate to fully describe the frequency dependence of the DEP force. NSF 0928299, Emulsion Polymer Institute, Department of Physics of Lehigh University.
Bacterial adhesion force quantification by fluidic force microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potthoff, Eva; Ossola, Dario; Zambelli, Tomaso; Vorholt, Julia A.
2015-02-01
Quantification of detachment forces between bacteria and substrates facilitates the understanding of the bacterial adhesion process that affects cell physiology and survival. Here, we present a method that allows for serial, single bacterial cell force spectroscopy by combining the force control of atomic force microscopy with microfluidics. Reversible bacterial cell immobilization under physiological conditions on the pyramidal tip of a microchanneled cantilever is achieved by underpressure. Using the fluidic force microscopy technology (FluidFM), we achieve immobilization forces greater than those of state-of-the-art cell-cantilever binding as demonstrated by the detachment of Escherichia coli from polydopamine with recorded forces between 4 and 8 nN for many cells. The contact time and setpoint dependence of the adhesion forces of E. coli and Streptococcus pyogenes, as well as the sequential detachment of bacteria out of a chain, are shown, revealing distinct force patterns in the detachment curves. This study demonstrates the potential of the FluidFM technology for quantitative bacterial adhesion measurements of cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions that are relevant in biofilms and infection biology.Quantification of detachment forces between bacteria and substrates facilitates the understanding of the bacterial adhesion process that affects cell physiology and survival. Here, we present a method that allows for serial, single bacterial cell force spectroscopy by combining the force control of atomic force microscopy with microfluidics. Reversible bacterial cell immobilization under physiological conditions on the pyramidal tip of a microchanneled cantilever is achieved by underpressure. Using the fluidic force microscopy technology (FluidFM), we achieve immobilization forces greater than those of state-of-the-art cell-cantilever binding as demonstrated by the detachment of Escherichia coli from polydopamine with recorded forces between 4 and 8 nN for many
The swim force as a body force
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Wen; Brady, John
2015-11-01
Net (as opposed to random) motion of active matter results from an average swim (or propulsive) force. It is shown that the average swim force acts like a body force - an internal body force [Yan and Brady, Soft Matter, DOI:10.1039/C5SM01318F]. As a result, the particle-pressure exerted on a container wall is the sum of the swim pressure [Takatori et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 028103] and the `weight' of the active particles. A continuum mechanical description is possible when variations occur on scales larger than the run length of the active particles and gives a Boltzmann-like distribution from a balance of the swim force and the swim pressure. Active particles may also display `action at a distance' and accumulate adjacent to (or be depleted from) a boundary without any external forces. In the momentum balance for the suspension - the mixture of active particles plus fluid - only external body forces appear.
Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)
2015-01-01
Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.
Probing fibronectin–antibody interactions using AFM force spectroscopy and lateral force microscopy
Kulik, Andrzej J; Lee, Kyumin; Pyka-Fościak, Grazyna; Nowak, Wieslaw
2015-01-01
Summary The first experiment showing the effects of specific interaction forces using lateral force microscopy (LFM) was demonstrated for lectin–carbohydrate interactions some years ago. Such measurements are possible under the assumption that specific forces strongly dominate over the non-specific ones. However, obtaining quantitative results requires the complex and tedious calibration of a torsional force. Here, a new and relatively simple method for the calibration of the torsional force is presented. The proposed calibration method is validated through the measurement of the interaction forces between human fibronectin and its monoclonal antibody. The results obtained using LFM and AFM-based classical force spectroscopies showed similar unbinding forces recorded at similar loading rates. Our studies verify that the proposed lateral force calibration method can be applied to study single molecule interactions. PMID:26114080
Electrometrical Methods Application for Detection of Heating System Pipeline Corrosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vetrov, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Isaev, V.; Rondel, A.; Shapovalov, N.
2004-12-01
successfully use the excitation-at-the-mass method measurement together with the measurements of magnetic and electrical components of electromagnetic field. However, the electrical contact between a tube and the soil, as well as the presence of zones of isolation defects is not the direct indicators of corrosion focus places. Authors use the spontaneous polarization method to investigate electrical fields, caused by natural electromotive forces of electrochemical origin. Different types of EM and SP anomalies have been detected. After statistical study and visual observations of extracted pipes, the relations between such anomalies and pipeline condition have been obtained. The places of underground pipeline coat destruction can be specified by complex of geophysical investigations. Also, it is possible to detect the intensity of destruction and corrosion processes in real time.
Control of changes in the defect structure of titanium saturated with hydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larionov, V. V.; Lider, A. M.; Laptev, R. S.
2016-06-01
The hydrogenated samples of technical titanium were investigated using the EPA method and the measurements of the thermal electromotive force for these samples saturated with a different amount of hydrogen. The structure of the hydrogenated samples was studied by the X-ray diffraction method. The results have shown that the hydrogenated titanium structure starts changing at the same time, depending on the amount of added hydrogen. The intensity of the annihilation process increases with the increase in the hydrogen concentration in a-titanium up to the values of 4% wt and does not change up to the values of 5% wt (α + δ) - titanium. At the same time, the value of the thermal electromotive force decreases in this range of values. The annihilation intensity is stabilized for the values of 5% wt, and the value of the thermal electromotive force is increased. The inflection point for the thermal electromotive force versus the hydrogen concentration corresponds to the formation of δ - hydrides. The increase in the positron lifetime starts in the concentration range of 6-8% and moves to the stable level up to the concentrations of 21-22%. In this range, there is a transition from the (α + β) to the (α + δ) phase. The lifetime of positrons and the number of defects are increased, the value of the thermal electromotive force is reduced (up to the concentration of 24%), then there is a stabilization mode for all these parameters up to the values 32% wt.
Thermal EMF method for monitoring drilling tool wear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Haili; An, Bangjian; Chen, Yu-bao; Orady, Elsayed
1993-09-01
This paper describes a techniQue for on-line monitoring of drilling tool wear based on the thermal EMF (electromotive force) signal. The EMF signal was obtained from a natural thermocouple consisting of the tool (H. S. S.) and workpiece (AISI 1045) metals. The natural thermocouple is thus used as a kind of functional sensor which is sensitive to the cutting zone. The signal was collected and analyzed for three experiments at different cutting conditions. Analysis was carried out in time, frequency and amplitude domains. Several indices for the EMF signal were computed and their relationships with the tool wear were constructed. The results showed that the thermal EMF signal can be used to identify the occurrence of abnormal tool wear on major cutting edges and can indicate the end of tool life. Tool breakage can also be predicted. Consequently, a methodology for monitoring drilling tool wear can be established.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuroda, Yuhji
2016-05-01
This paper introduces a new analysis method that can isolate the responses to specific forcings within meteorological data. By using the zonal mean primitive equations on the sphere, it is possible to break down the meridional circulation, the acceleration of zonal wind, temperature change, and surface pressure change into their individual contributions, which are directly associated with various forcings. This analysis technique can be applied to a wide range of problems relating to climate and its variability. To demonstrate the application of the technique, the formation and maintenance of the subtropical jet during the Northern Hemisphere winter are examined. It is found that atmospheric waves play a crucial role in both the climatological maintenance and the day-to-day (and month-to-month) variabilities of the jet. While stationary waves are the dominant catalyst for maintaining the jet in its climatological state, synoptic waves play an important role in generating the month-to-month variability of the jet.
Nanonet Force Microscopy for Measuring Cell Forces.
Sheets, Kevin; Wang, Ji; Zhao, Wei; Kapania, Rakesh; Nain, Amrinder S
2016-07-12
The influence of physical forces exerted by or felt by cells on cell shape, migration, and cytoskeleton arrangement is now widely acknowledged and hypothesized to occur due to modulation of cellular inside-out forces in response to changes in the external fibrous environment (outside-in). Our previous work using the non-electrospinning Spinneret-based Tunable Engineered Parameters' suspended fibers has revealed that cells are able to sense and respond to changes in fiber curvature and structural stiffness as evidenced by alterations to focal adhesion cluster lengths. Here, we present the development and application of a suspended nanonet platform for measuring C2C12 mouse myoblast forces attached to fibers of three diameters (250, 400, and 800 nm) representing a wide range of structural stiffness (3-50 nN/μm). The nanonet force microscopy platform measures cell adhesion forces in response to symmetric and asymmetric external perturbation in single and cyclic modes. We find that contractility-based, inside-out forces are evenly distributed at the edges of the cell, and that forces are dependent on fiber structural stiffness. Additionally, external perturbation in symmetric and asymmetric modes biases cell-fiber failure location without affecting the outside-in forces of cell-fiber adhesion. We then extend the platform to measure forces of (1) cell-cell junctions, (2) single cells undergoing cyclic perturbation in the presence of drugs, and (3) cancerous single-cells transitioning from a blebbing to a pseudopodial morphology. PMID:27410747
Vision-based force measurement.
Greminger, Michael A; Nelson, Bradley J
2004-03-01
This paper demonstrates a method to visually measure the force distribution applied to a linearly elastic object using the contour data in an image. The force measurement is accomplished by making use of the result from linear elasticity that the displacement field of the contour of a linearly elastic object is sufficient to completely recover the force distribution applied to the object. This result leads naturally to a deformable template matching approach where the template is deformed according to the governing equations of linear elasticity. An energy minimization method is used to match the template to the contour data in the image. This technique of visually measuring forces we refer to as vision-based force measurement (VBFM). VBFM has the potential to increase the robustness and reliability of micromanipulation and biomanipulation tasks where force sensing is essential for success. The effectiveness of VBFM is demonstrated for both a microcantilever beam and a microgripper. A sensor resolution of less than +/- 3 nN for the microcantilever and +/- 3 mN for the microgripper was achieved using VBFM. Performance optimizations for the energy minimization problem are also discussed that make this algorithm feasible for real-time applications. PMID:15376877
Measurement of the electrical and mechanical responses of a force transducer against impact forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujii, Yusaku
2006-08-01
A method for measuring the electrical and mechanical responses of force transducers to impact loads is proposed. The levitation mass method (LMM) is used to generate and measure the reference impact force used. In the LMM, a mass that is levitated using an aerostatic linear bearing (and hence encounters negligible friction) is made to collide with the force transducer under test, and the force acting on the mass is measured using an optical interferometer. The electrical response is evaluated by comparing the output signal of the force transducer with the inertial force of the mass as measured using the optical interferometer. Simultaneously, the mechanical response is evaluated by comparing the displacement of the sensing point of the transducer, which is measured using another optical interferometer, with the inertial force of the mass. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method, the impact responses of a force transducer are accurately determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Mahmoud; Eslamian, Morteza
2015-07-01
Laminar natural convection in differentially heated ( β = 0°, where β is the inclination angle), inclined ( β = 30° and 60°), and bottom-heated ( β = 90°) square enclosures filled with a nanofluid is investigated, using a two-phase lattice Boltzmann simulation approach. The effects of the inclination angle on Nu number and convection heat transfer coefficient are studied. The effects of thermophoresis and Brownian forces which create a relative drift or slip velocity between the particles and the base fluid are included in the simulation. The effect of thermophoresis is considered using an accurate and quantitative formula proposed by the authors. Some of the existing results on natural convection are erroneous due to using wrong thermophoresis models or simply ignoring the effect. Here we show that thermophoresis has a considerable effect on heat transfer augmentation in laminar natural convection. Our non-homogenous modeling approach shows that heat transfer in nanofluids is a function of the inclination angle and Ra number. It also reveals some details of flow behavior which cannot be captured by single-phase models. The minimum heat transfer rate is associated with β = 90° (bottom-heated) and the maximum heat transfer rate occurs in an inclination angle which varies with the Ra number.
Kesharwani, Manoj K; Brauer, Brina; Martin, Jan M L
2015-03-01
We have obtained uniform frequency scaling factors λ(harm) (for harmonic frequencies), λ(fund) (for fundamentals), and λ(ZPVE) (for zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs)) for the Weigend-Ahlrichs and other selected basis sets for MP2, SCS-MP2, and a variety of DFT functionals including double hybrids. For selected levels of theory, we have also obtained scaling factors for true anharmonic fundamentals and ZPVEs obtained from quartic force fields. For harmonic frequencies, the double hybrids B2PLYP, B2GP-PLYP, and DSD-PBEP86 clearly yield the best performance at RMSD = 10-12 cm(-1) for def2-TZVP and larger basis sets, compared to 5 cm(-1) at the CCSD(T) basis set limit. For ZPVEs, again, the double hybrids are the best performers, reaching root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) as low as 0.05 kcal/mol, but even mainstream functionals like B3LYP can get down to 0.10 kcal/mol. Explicitly anharmonic ZPVEs only are marginally more accurate. For fundamentals, however, simple uniform scaling is clearly inadequate. PMID:25296165
Dobson, Phillip S; Weaver, John M R; Burt, David P; Holder, Mark N; Wilson, Neil R; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V
2006-09-01
This paper describes in detail the use of electron beam lithography (EBL) to successfully batch microfabricate combined scanning electrochemical-atomic force microscopy (SECM-AFM) probes. At present, the process produces sixty probes at a time, on a 1/4 of a three-inch wafer. Using EBL, gold triangular-shaped electrodes can be defined at the tip apex, with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride serving as an effective insulating layer, at a thickness of 75 nm. The key features of the fabrication technique and the critical steps are discussed. The capability of these probes for SECM-AFM imaging in both tapping and constant distance mode is illustrated with dual topographical-electrochemical scans over an array of closely-spaced 1 microm diameter Pt disc electrodes, held at a suitable potential to generate an electroactive species at a transport-limited rate. As highlighted herein, understanding diffusion to heterogeneous electrode surfaces, including array electrodes, is currently topical and we present preliminary data highlighting the use of SECM-AFM as a valuable tool for the investigation of diffusion and reactivity at high spatial resolution. PMID:19817052
Ahmed, Mahmoud; Eslamian, Morteza
2015-12-01
Laminar natural convection in differentially heated (β = 0°, where β is the inclination angle), inclined (β = 30° and 60°), and bottom-heated (β = 90°) square enclosures filled with a nanofluid is investigated, using a two-phase lattice Boltzmann simulation approach. The effects of the inclination angle on Nu number and convection heat transfer coefficient are studied. The effects of thermophoresis and Brownian forces which create a relative drift or slip velocity between the particles and the base fluid are included in the simulation. The effect of thermophoresis is considered using an accurate and quantitative formula proposed by the authors. Some of the existing results on natural convection are erroneous due to using wrong thermophoresis models or simply ignoring the effect. Here we show that thermophoresis has a considerable effect on heat transfer augmentation in laminar natural convection. Our non-homogenous modeling approach shows that heat transfer in nanofluids is a function of the inclination angle and Ra number. It also reveals some details of flow behavior which cannot be captured by single-phase models. The minimum heat transfer rate is associated with β = 90° (bottom-heated) and the maximum heat transfer rate occurs in an inclination angle which varies with the Ra number. PMID:26183389
Blümcke, Ingmar; Thom, Maria; Aronica, Eleonora; Armstrong, Dawna D; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernasconi, Neda; Bien, Christian G; Cendes, Fernando; Coras, Roland; Cross, J Helen; Jacques, Thomas S; Kahane, Philippe; Mathern, Gary W; Miyata, Haijme; Moshé, Solomon L; Oz, Buge; Özkara, Çiğdem; Perucca, Emilio; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Wiebe, Samuel; Spreafico, Roberto
2013-07-01
Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most frequent histopathology encountered in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Over the past decades, various attempts have been made to classify specific patterns of hippocampal neuronal cell loss and correlate subtypes with postsurgical outcome. However, no international consensus about definitions and terminology has been achieved. A task force reviewed previous classification schemes and proposes a system based on semiquantitative hippocampal cell loss patterns that can be applied in any histopathology laboratory. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement studies reached consensus to classify three types in anatomically well-preserved hippocampal specimens: HS International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) type 1 refers always to severe neuronal cell loss and gliosis predominantly in CA1 and CA4 regions, compared to CA1 predominant neuronal cell loss and gliosis (HS ILAE type 2), or CA4 predominant neuronal cell loss and gliosis (HS ILAE type 3). Surgical hippocampus specimens obtained from patients with TLE may also show normal content of neurons with reactive gliosis only (no-HS). HS ILAE type 1 is more often associated with a history of initial precipitating injuries before age 5 years, with early seizure onset, and favorable postsurgical seizure control. CA1 predominant HS ILAE type 2 and CA4 predominant HS ILAE type 3 have been studied less systematically so far, but some reports point to less favorable outcome, and to differences regarding epilepsy history, including age of seizure onset. The proposed international consensus classification will aid in the characterization of specific clinicopathologic syndromes, and explore variability in imaging and electrophysiology findings, and in postsurgical seizure control. PMID:23692496
Marshall, Deborah A; Burgos-Liz, Lina; IJzerman, Maarten J; Osgood, Nathaniel D; Padula, William V; Higashi, Mitchell K; Wong, Peter K; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Crown, William
2015-01-01
Health care delivery systems are inherently complex, consisting of multiple tiers of interdependent subsystems and processes that are adaptive to changes in the environment and behave in a nonlinear fashion. Traditional health technology assessment and modeling methods often neglect the wider health system impacts that can be critical for achieving desired health system goals and are often of limited usefulness when applied to complex health systems. Researchers and health care decision makers can either underestimate or fail to consider the interactions among the people, processes, technology, and facility designs. Health care delivery system interventions need to incorporate the dynamics and complexities of the health care system context in which the intervention is delivered. This report provides an overview of common dynamic simulation modeling methods and examples of health care system interventions in which such methods could be useful. Three dynamic simulation modeling methods are presented to evaluate system interventions for health care delivery: system dynamics, discrete event simulation, and agent-based modeling. In contrast to conventional evaluations, a dynamic systems approach incorporates the complexity of the system and anticipates the upstream and downstream consequences of changes in complex health care delivery systems. This report assists researchers and decision makers in deciding whether these simulation methods are appropriate to address specific health system problems through an eight-point checklist referred to as the SIMULATE (System, Interactions, Multilevel, Understanding, Loops, Agents, Time, Emergence) tool. It is a primer for researchers and decision makers working in health care delivery and implementation sciences who face complex challenges in delivering effective and efficient care that can be addressed with system interventions. On reviewing this report, the readers should be able to identify whether these simulation modeling
Force propagation and force generation in cells.
Jonas, Oliver; Duschl, Claus
2010-09-01
Determining how forces are produced by and propagated through the cytoskeleton (CSK) of the cell is of great interest as dynamic processes of the CSK are intimately correlated with many molecular signaling pathways. We are presenting a novel approach for integrating measurements on cell elasticity, transcellular force propagation, and cellular force generation to obtain a comprehensive description of dynamic and mechanical properties of the CSK under force loading. This approach uses a combination of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. We apply well-defined loading schemes onto the apical cell membrane of fibroblasts using the SFM and simultaneously use TIRF microscopy to image the topography of the basal cell membrane. The locally distinct changes of shape and depth of the cytoskeletal imprints onto the basal membrane are interpreted as results of force propagation through the cytoplasm. This observation provides evidence for the tensegrity model and demonstrates the usefulness of our approach that does not depend on potentially disturbing marker compounds. We confirm that the actin network greatly determines cell stiffness and represents the substrate that mediates force transduction through the cytoplasm of the cell. The latter is an essential feature of tensegrity. Most importantly, our new finding that, both intact actin and microtubule networks are required for enabling the cell to produce work, can only be understood within the framework of the tensegrity model. We also provide, for the first time, a direct measurement of the cell's mechanical power output under compression at two femtowatts. PMID:20607861
On the equilibrium of coplanar forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behroozi, F.
1998-05-01
Most current texts on intermediate mechanics do not give a general method for finding the point of application of the equilibriant force needed to balance a set of coplanar forces. In this short paper we give a simple analytical method for finding the line of action which forms the locus of all points at which the equilibriant may be applied to attain balance.
Leite, Fabio L.; Bueno, Carolina C.; Da Róz, Alessandra L.; Ziemath, Ervino C.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.
2012-01-01
The increasing importance of studies on soft matter and their impact on new technologies, including those associated with nanotechnology, has brought intermolecular and surface forces to the forefront of physics and materials science, for these are the prevailing forces in micro and nanosystems. With experimental methods such as the atomic force spectroscopy (AFS), it is now possible to measure these forces accurately, in addition to providing information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness and adhesion. This review provides the theoretical and experimental background of AFS, adhesion forces, intermolecular interactions and surface forces in air, vacuum and in solution. PMID:23202925
Fast evaluation of polarizable forces.
Wang, Wei; Skeel, Robert D
2005-10-22
Polarizability is considered to be the single most significant development in the next generation of force fields for biomolecular simulations. However, the self-consistent computation of induced atomic dipoles in a polarizable force field is expensive due to the cost of solving a large dense linear system at each step of a simulation. This article introduces methods that reduce the cost of computing the electrostatic energy and force of a polarizable model from about 7.5 times the cost of computing those of a nonpolarizable model to less than twice the cost. This is probably sufficient for the routine use of polarizable forces in biomolecular simulations. The reduction in computing time is achieved by an efficient implementation of the particle-mesh Ewald method, an accurate and robust predictor based on least-squares fitting, and non-stationary iterative methods whose fast convergence is accelerated by a simple preconditioner. Furthermore, with these methods, the self-consistent approach with a larger timestep is shown to be faster than the extended Lagrangian approach. The use of dipole moments from previous timesteps to calculate an accurate initial guess for iterative methods leads to an energy drift, which can be made acceptably small. The use of a zero initial guess does not lead to perceptible energy drift if a reasonably strict convergence criterion for the iteration is imposed. PMID:16268681
Photoinduced magnetic force between nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guclu, Caner; Tamma, Venkata Ananth; Wickramasinghe, Hemantha Kumar; Capolino, Filippo
2015-12-01
Photoinduced magnetic force between nanostructures, at optical frequencies, is investigated theoretically. Till now optical magnetic effects were not used in scanning probe microscopy because of the vanishing natural magnetism with increasing frequency. On the other hand, artificial magnetism in engineered nanostructures led to the development of measurable optical magnetism. Here two examples of nanoprobes that are able to generate strong magnetic dipolar fields at optical frequency are investigated: first, an ideal magnetically polarizable nanosphere and then a circular cluster of silver nanospheres that has a looplike collective plasmonic resonance equivalent to a magnetic dipole. Magnetic forces are evaluated based on nanostructure polarizabilities, i.e., induced magnetic dipoles, and magnetic-near field evaluations. As an initial assessment on the possibility of a magnetic nanoprobe to detect magnetic forces, we consider two identical magnetically polarizable nanoprobes and observe magnetic forces on the order of piconewtons, thereby bringing it within detection limits of conventional atomic force microscopes at ambient pressure and temperature. The detection of magnetic force is a promising method in studying optical magnetic transitions that can be the basis of innovative spectroscopy applications.