Science.gov

Sample records for electron device letters

  1. [Structured electronic consultation letter for shoulder disorders].

    PubMed

    Paloneva, Juha; Oikari, Marjo; Ylinen, Jari; Ingalsuo, Minna; Ilkka, Kunnamo; Ilkka, Kiviranta

    2012-01-01

    Referral to a specialist has a significant influence on management of the patient and costs associated with the treatments. However, development and research of the process by which patients are referred has been almost neglected. Expectations considering the purpose, contents, and timing of the referral of the consulting physician and the consultant do not always meet. A structured, electronic consultation letter was developed to respond this need. Functionality and interactivity are the key elements of the referral, including (1) an electronic referral letter to a specialist, (2) interactive education in clinical examination and management of shoulder disorders, and (3) an instrument of clinical examination and documentation of shoulder disorders.

  2. The Electronic Astrophysical Journal Letters Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalterio, H. J.; Boyce, P. B.; Biemesderfer, C.; Warnock, A., III; Owens, E.; Fullton, J.

    The American Astronomical Society has developed a comprehensive system for the electronic dissemination of refereed astronomical research results. Our current focus is the production of an electronic version of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. With the help of a recent National Science Foundation grant, we have developed a system that includes: LATEX-based manuscript preparation, electronic submission, peer review, production, development of a database of SGML-tagged manuscripts, collection of page charges and other fees, and electronic manuscript storage and delivery. Delivery options include World-Wide Web access through HTML browsers such as Mosaic and Netscape, an email gateway, and a stand-alone client accessible through astronomical software packages such as IRAF. Our goal is to increase the access and usefulness of the journal by providing enhanced features such as faster publication, advanced search capabilities, forward and backward referencing, links to underlying data and links to adjunct materials in a variety of media. We have based our journal on open standards and freely available network tools wherever possible.

  3. Electron beam device

    DOEpatents

    Beckner, E.H.; Clauser, M.J.

    1975-08-12

    This patent pertains to an electron beam device in which a hollow target is symmetrically irradiated by a high energy, pulsed electron beam about its periphery and wherein the outer portion of the target has a thickness slightly greater than required to absorb the electron beam pulse energy. (auth)

  4. Silicon Carbide Electronic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    The status of emerging silicon carbide (SiC) widebandgap semiconductor electronics technology is briefly surveyed. SiC-based electronic devices and circuits are being developed for use in high-temperature, high-power, and/or high-radiation conditions under which conventional semiconductors cannot function. Projected performance benefits of SiC electronics are briefly illustrated for several applications. However, most of these operational benefits of SiC have yet to be realized in actual systems, primarily owing to the fact that the growth techniques of SiC crystals are relatively immature and device fabrication technologies are not yet sufficiently developed to the degree required for widespread, reliable commercial use. Key crystal growth and device fabrication issues that limit the performance and capability of high-temperature and/or high-power SiC electronics are identified. The electrical and material quality differences between emerging SiC and mature silicon electronics technology are highlighted.

  5. Expressing Emotion in Electronic Job Cover Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKay, Sam H.

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, employers require job seekers to submit their applications electronically. However, while most job seekers may be familiar with email and other modern communication technologies, they often wonder about the rhetorical strategies to be used in their messages. This article describes a case study of a job applicant to identify the…

  6. Electronic security device

    DOEpatents

    Eschbach, E.A.; LeBlanc, E.J.; Griffin, J.W.

    1992-03-17

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box containing an electronic system and a communications loop over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system and a detection module capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop. 11 figs.

  7. Electronic security device

    DOEpatents

    Eschbach, Eugene A.; LeBlanc, Edward J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box (12) containing an electronic system (50) and a communications loop (14) over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system (50) and a detection module (72) capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop.

  8. Diamond Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isberg, J.

    2010-11-01

    For high-power and high-voltage applications, silicon is by far the dominant semiconductor material. However, silicon has many limitations, e.g. a relatively low thermal conductivity, electric breakdown occurs at relatively low fields and the bandgap is 1.1 eV which effectively limits operation to temperatures below 175° C. Wide-bandgap materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN) and diamond offer the potential to overcome both the temperature and power handling limitations of silicon. Diamond is the most extreme in this class of materials. By the fundamental material properties alone, diamond offers the largest benefits as a semiconductor material for power electronic applications. On the other hand, diamond has a problem with a large carrier activation energy of available dopants which necessitates specialised device concepts to allow room temperature (RT) operation. In addition, the role of common defects on the charge transport properties of diamond is poorly understood. Notwithstanding this, many proof-of-principle two-terminal and three-terminal devices have been made and tested. Two-terminal electronic diamond devices described in the literature include: p-n diodes, p-i-n diodes, various types of radiation detectors, Schottky diodes and photoconductive or electron beam triggered switches. Three terminal devices include e.g. MISFETs and JFETs. However, the development of diamond devices poses great challenges for the future. A particularly interesting way to overcome the doping problem, for which there has been some recent progress, is to make so-called delta doped (or pulse-doped) devices. Such devices utilise very thin (˜1 nm) doped layers in order to achieve high RT activation.

  9. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    child is charged. Because folk are so poor, the fees have to be very low and the resources bought are consequently minimal. Apparatus for physics lessons? Very rarely. Electricity, gas and water services to the labs? Sometimes. Physics textbooks? Very few, old and battered through much use. I visited the David Kuanda School in Lusaka, a high status technical school, and there met some very impressive teachers. Were they doing technical subjects like electronics and car maintenance? No, they could not afford to buy the required equipment, and thus did the academic subjects, physics, chemistry and maths etc, which were cheaper as they could be taught with 'chalk and talk'! Were their students bright, resourceful and keen to learn? They certainly were. Despite all these difficulties the teachers were seeking to teach, and help their students enjoy, the same physics that is common around the world—and prepare them for very similar exams at GCE and A-level, in English. If anyone would like to help a Zambian secondary school, perhaps by sending a set of physics texts no longer used here, or by providing some other resources, perhaps by forming a personal link with a school in Zambia, please contact me and I would be happy to help with arrangements. I could guarantee that you, and your students, would gain an enormous amount from such links—as well as making a real contribution to the development of a less favoured country. Brian E Woolnough Oxford University, UK brian.woolnough@edstud.ox.ac.uk Pedantry or compromise I write in response to S Wynchank's letter in the May issue entitled 'Grammar and Gender'. Many have been using 'They' as common-sex third-person pronoun for years, in order to avoid the irritating and clumsy 'Him or Her'. This commonsense compromise is logically compatible with the universal use of 'They' to include the singular... OF EITHER SEX! For example, in 'Those who ignore this instruction may lose their right to compensation.', both 'Those' and 'their

  10. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  11. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  12. Synaptic devices based on purely electronic memristors

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Ruobing; Li, Jun; Zhuge, Fei E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Zhu, Liqiang; Liang, Lingyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Gao, Junhua; Cao, Hongtao E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Fu, Bing; Li, Kang

    2016-01-04

    Memristive devices have been widely employed to emulate biological synaptic behavior. In these cases, the memristive switching generally originates from electrical field induced ion migration or Joule heating induced phase change. In this letter, the Ti/ZnO/Pt structure was found to show memristive switching ascribed to a carrier trapping/detrapping of the trap sites (e.g., oxygen vacancies or zinc interstitials) in ZnO. The carrier trapping/detrapping level can be controllably adjusted by regulating the current compliance level or voltage amplitude. Multi-level conductance states can, therefore, be realized in such memristive device. The spike-timing-dependent plasticity, an important Hebbian learning rule, has been implemented in this type of synaptic device. Compared with filamentary-type memristive devices, purely electronic memristors have potential to reduce their energy consumption and work more stably and reliably, since no structural distortion occurs.

  13. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Maths for physics? Help! Fire! Energy and mass Maths for physics? As a maths graduate working as a university research associate I should be well qualified to support my daughter, who has just started AS-level physics, with the maths she needs for the course. There seems to be little integration between the maths and physics departments, so that maths needed for physics has not yet been covered in maths lessons. This is a problem I remember from my own school days, but the shorter timescale and modular nature of the AS and A2 levels means that it is essential that this mismatch of knowledge is resolved now. I would like to know whether physics teachers in the UK have encountered this problem and whether there is a deficiency in the maths syllabus in relation to the requirements of the AS and A2 levels in Physics or whether this is a problem peculiar to my daughter's school. Eleanor Parent of A-level student, Sheffield, UK Help! Fire! Is there a crisis in physics education? Is physics didactics coming to an end? Yes and no. Being a delegate from Norway at the on-going conference Physics on Stage (6-10 November 2000) at CERN in Geneva, I have had the opportunity to discuss this with people from all over Europe. Yes, there is a crisis. (Look at the proceedings for details on this.) I'd like to take a broader look at this situation. Like Hari Seldon in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy, I believe that there is nothing like a real crisis to get things going... Famous is the quote from the American Patent Office around 1890: 'Everything has been invented that could be invented'. Fortunately, this spurred action. The Michelson and Morley experiment heralded a most exciting period for physics. Just a cosmic blink later we put a person on the Moon. Coming back to the crisis - I am certain that in the near future we will see an interesting development

  14. TEBAL: Nanosculpting devices with electrons in a transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drndic, Marija

    2008-03-01

    Manipulation of matter on the scale of atoms and molecules is an essential part of realizing the potential that nanotechnology has to offer. In this talk I will describe transmission electron beam ablation lithography (TEBAL), a method for fabricating nanostructures and fully integrated devices on silicon nitride membranes by nanosculpting evaporated metal films with electron beams. TEBAL works by controllably exposing materials to an intense and highly focused beam of 200 keV electrons inside the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The effect of electron irradiation can be used to controllably displace or ablate regions of the metal with resolution on the scale of tens of atoms per exposure. In situ TEM imaging of the ablation action with atomic resolution allows for real-time feedback control during fabrication. Specific examples presented here include the fabrication and characterization of nanogaps, nanorings, nanowires with tailored shapes and curvatures, and multi-terminal devices with nanoislands or nanopores between the terminals. These nanostructures are fabricated at precise locations on a chip and seamlessly integrated into large-scale circuitry. I will discuss how the combination of high resolution, geometrical control and yield make TEBAL attractive for many applications including nanoelectronics, superconductivity, nanofluidics and molecular (DNA) translocation studies through nanopore-based transistors. References: 1) M.D. Fischbein and M. Drndic, ``Sub-10 nm Device Fabrication in a Transmission Electron Microscope'', Nano Letters, 7 (5), 1329, 2007. 2) M. D. Fischbein and M. Drndic, ``Nanogaps by direct lithography for high-resolution imaging and electronic characterization of nanostructures'', Applied Physics Letters, 88 (6), 063116, 2006.

  15. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  16. Hybrid free electron laser devices

    SciTech Connect

    Asgekar, Vivek; Dattoli, G.

    2007-03-15

    We consider hybrid free electron laser devices consisting of Cerenkov and undulator sections. We will show that they can in principle be used as segmented devices and also show the possibility of exploiting Cerenkov devices for the generation of nonlinear harmonic coherent power. We discuss both oscillator and amplifier schemes.

  17. 77 FR 50932 - Electronic Transmission of Customs Data-Outbound International Letter-Post Items

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... 20 Electronic Transmission of Customs Data--Outbound International Letter-Post Items AGENCY: Postal... Standards of the United States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM ) to require that customs data be electronically transmitted for international letter-post mailpieces bearing a customs...

  18. Stretchable and foldable electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Choi, Won Mook; Song, Jizhou; Ahn, Jong Hyun; Kim, Dae Hyeong

    2013-10-08

    Disclosed herein are stretchable, foldable and optionally printable, processes for making devices and devices such as semiconductors, electronic circuits and components thereof that are capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed. Strain isolation layers provide good strain isolation to functional device layers. Multilayer devices are constructed to position a neutral mechanical surface coincident or proximate to a functional layer having a material that is susceptible to strain-induced failure. Neutral mechanical surfaces are positioned by one or more layers having a property that is spatially inhomogeneous, such as by patterning any of the layers of the multilayer device.

  19. Stretchable and foldable electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Choi, Won Mook; Song, Jizhou; Ahn, Jong Hyun; Kim, Dae Hyeong

    2014-12-09

    Disclosed herein are stretchable, foldable and optionally printable, processes for making devices and devices such as semiconductors, electronic circuits and components thereof that are capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed. Strain isolation layers provide good strain isolation to functional device layers. Multilayer devices are constructed to position a neutral mechanical surface coincident or proximate to a functional layer having a material that is susceptible to strain-induced failure. Neutral mechanical surfaces are positioned by one or more layers having a property that is spatially inhomogeneous, such as by patterning any of the layers of the multilayer device.

  20. Remote detection of electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Judd, Stephen L [Los Alamos, NM; Fortgang, Clifford M [Los Alamos, NM; Guenther, David C [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-09-25

    An apparatus and method for detecting solid-state electronic devices are described. Non-linear junction detection techniques are combined with spread-spectrum encoding and cross correlation to increase the range and sensitivity of the non-linear junction detection and to permit the determination of the distances of the detected electronics. Nonlinear elements are detected by transmitting a signal at a chosen frequency and detecting higher harmonic signals that are returned from responding devices.

  1. Electronics Devices and Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-17

    SOL, and advanced solar cells . The systems include subsystems for space systems. Effects include single event effects, total dose changes (especially...Perform particle and gamma irradiations at various facilities on various kinds of advanced devices such as solar cells , integrated circuits detectors...calculate radiation damage effects on solar cells based on NRL’s algorithm and MISSE6 Materials Testing I4 I I CURRENT PROGRESS FOR EACH TASK

  2. Polymer electronic devices and materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

    2006-01-01

    Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

  3. Ion plated electronic tube device

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.

    1983-10-18

    An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by ion plating techniques. The process is carried out in an automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

  4. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Pincosy, Philip A.; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1988-01-01

    Electrons are copiously emitted by a device comprising a loop-shaped filament made of lanthanum hexaboride. The filament is directly heated by an electrical current produced along the filament by a power supply connected to the terminal legs of the filament. To produce a filament, a diamond saw or the like is used to cut a slice from a bar made of lanthanum hexaboride. The diamond saw is then used to cut the slice into the shape of a loop which may be generally rectangular, U-shaped, hairpin-shaped, zigzag-shaped, or generally circular. The filaments provide high electron emission at a relatively low operating temperature, such as 1600.degree. C. To achieve uniform heating, the filament is formed with a cross section which is tapered between the opposite ends of the filament to compensate for non-uniform current distribution along the filament due to the emission of electrons from the filament.

  5. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Pincosy, P.A.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1983-06-10

    Electrons are copiously emitted by a device comprising a loop-shaped filament made of lanthanum hexaboride. The filament is directly heated by an electrical current produced along the filament by a power supply connected to the terminal legs of the filament. To produce a filament, a diamond saw or the like is used to cut a slice from a bar made of lanthanum hexaboride. The diamond saw is then used to cut the slice into the shape of a loop which may be generally rectangular, U-shaped, hairpin-shaped, zigzag-shaped, or generally circular. The filaments provide high electron emission at a relatively low operating temperature, such as 1600/sup 0/C. To achieve uniform heating, the filament is formed with a cross section which is tapered between the opposite ends of the filament to compensate for nonuniform current distribution along the filament due to the emission of electrons from the filament.

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of Molecular Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsang; Song, Hyunwook

    2015-02-01

    The concept of molecular electronic devices is utilizing single molecules or molecular monolayers as active electronic components. Rapid advances in technology have enabled us to engineer molecular electronic devices with diverse functionalities. This review article emphasizes on experimental aspects of electronic devices made with single molecules or molecular monolayers, with a primary focus on the characterization and manipulation of charge transport.

  7. Carbon footprint of electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloma, Marcin

    2013-07-01

    Paper assesses the greenhouse gas emissions related to the electronic sectors including information and communication technology and media sectors. While media often presents the carbon emission problem of other industries like petroleum industry, the airlines and automobile sectors, plastics and steel manufacturers, the electronics industry must include the increasing carbon footprints caused from their applications like media and entertainment, computers and cooling devices, complex telecommunications networks, cloud computing and powerful mobile phones. In that sense greenhouse gas emission of electronics should be studied in a life cycle perspective, including regular operational electricity use. Paper presents which product groups or processes are major contributors in emission. From available data and extrapolation of existing information we know that the information and communication technology sector produced 1.3% and media sector 1.7% of global gas emissions within production cycle, using the data from 2007.In the same time global electricity use of that sectors was 3.9% and 3.2% respectively. The results indicate that for both sectors operation leads to more gas emissions than manufacture, although impacts from the manufacture is significant, especially in the supply chain. Media electronics led to more emissions than PCs (manufacture and operation). Examining the role of electronics in climate change, including disposal of its waste, will enable the industry to take internal actions, leading to lowering the impact on the climate change within the sector itself.

  8. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  9. Weak Values from Displacement Currents in Multiterminal Electron Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, D.; Zanghı, N.; Oriols, X.

    2016-03-01

    Weak values allow the measurement of observables associated with noncommuting operators. Up to now, position-momentum weak values have been mainly developed for (relativistic) photons. In this Letter, a proposal for the measurement of such weak values in typical electronic devices is presented. Inspired by the Ramo-Shockley-Pellegrini theorem that provides a relation between current and electron velocity, it is shown that the displacement current measured in multiterminal configurations can provide either a weak measurement of the momentum or strong measurement of position. This proposal opens new opportunities for fundamental and applied physics with state-of-the-art electronic technology. As an example, a setup for the measurement of the Bohmian velocity of (nonrelativistic) electrons is presented and tested with numerical experiments.

  10. Thin-Film Organic Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Howard E.; Huang, Jia

    2009-08-01

    We review recently published advancements in thin-film organic devices, ranging from the composition and properties of organic materials to be used in devices, to the applications of devices, with special emphasis on thin-film transistors, diodes, and chemical sensors. We present exemplary materials used in each kind of device, outline the physical mechanisms behind the functioning of the devices, and discuss the most advanced capabilities of the devices and device assemblies. Advantages to the selection of organic and polymeric materials, future prospects, and challenges for organic-based electronics are also considered.

  11. 9 CFR 316.7 - Marking devices not to be false or misleading; style and size of lettering; approval required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... misleading; style and size of lettering; approval required. 316.7 Section 316.7 Animals and Animal Products... AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.7 Marking devices not to be false or misleading; style and size of... figures thereon shall be of such style and type as will make a clear and legible impression. All...

  12. Single electron effects in silicon quantum devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prati, Enrico

    2013-05-01

    The integration of atomic physics with quantum device technology contributed to the exploration of the field of single electron nanoelectronics originally developed in single electron quantum dots. Here the basic concepts of single electron nanoelectronics, including key aspects of architectures, quantum transport in silicon devices, single electron transistors, few atom devices, single charge/spin dynamics, and the role of valleys and bands are reviewed. Future applications in fundamental physics and classical and quantum information technologies are discussed, by highlighting the critical aspects which currently impose limits to the most advanced developments at the 10-nm node.

  13. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications.

    PubMed

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Wong, H-S Philip

    2013-09-27

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented.

  14. Silk Fibroin for Flexible Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bowen; Wang, Hong; Leow, Wan Ru; Cai, Yurong; Loh, Xian Jun; Han, Ming-Yong; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-06-01

    Flexible electronic devices are necessary for applications involving unconventional interfaces, such as soft and curved biological systems, in which traditional silicon-based electronics would confront a mechanical mismatch. Biological polymers offer new opportunities for flexible electronic devices by virtue of their biocompatibility, environmental benignity, and sustainability, as well as low cost. As an intriguing and abundant biomaterial, silk offers exquisite mechanical, optical, and electrical properties that are advantageous toward the development of next-generation biocompatible electronic devices. The utilization of silk fibroin is emphasized as both passive and active components in flexible electronic devices. The employment of biocompatible and biosustainable silk materials revolutionizes state-of-the-art electronic devices and systems that currently rely on conventional semiconductor technologies. Advances in silk-based electronic devices would open new avenues for employing biomaterials in the design and integration of high-performance biointegrated electronics for future applications in consumer electronics, computing technologies, and biomedical diagnosis, as well as human-machine interfaces.

  15. Appendage mountable electronic devices conformable to surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John; Ying, Ming; Bonifas, Andrew; Lu, Nanshu

    2017-01-24

    Disclosed are appendage mountable electronic systems and related methods for covering and conforming to an appendage surface. A flexible or stretchable substrate has an inner surface for receiving an appendage, including an appendage having a curved surface, and an opposed outer surface that is accessible to external surfaces. A stretchable or flexible electronic device is supported by the substrate inner and/or outer surface, depending on the application of interest. The electronic device in combination with the substrate provides a net bending stiffness to facilitate conformal contact between the inner surface and a surface of the appendage provided within the enclosure. In an aspect, the system is capable of surface flipping without adversely impacting electronic device functionality, such as electronic devices comprising arrays of sensors, actuators, or both sensors and actuators.

  16. 78 FR 34669 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data... importation of certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data..., California (``Apple''), from importing wireless communication devices, portable music and data...

  17. High temperature electronic gain device

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, J. Byron; Depp, Steven W.; Hamilton, Douglas J.; Kerwin, William J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube.

  18. Repetitively pumped electron beam device

    DOEpatents

    Schlitt, L.G.

    1979-07-24

    Disclosed is an apparatus for producing fast, repetitive pulses of controllable length of an electron beam by phased energy storage in a transmission line of length matched to the number of pulses and specific pulse lengths desired. 12 figs.

  19. Inverted organic electronic and optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Cephas E.

    The research and development of organic electronics for commercial application has received much attention due to the unique properties of organic semiconductors and the potential for low-cost high-throughput manufacturing. For improved large-scale processing compatibility and enhanced device stability, an inverted geometry has been employed for devices such as organic light emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. These improvements are attributed to the added flexibility to incorporate more air-stable materials into the inverted device geometry. However, early work on organic electronic devices with an inverted geometry typically showed reduced device performance compared to devices with a conventional structure. In the case of organic light emitting diodes, inverted devices typically show high operating voltages due to insufficient carrier injection. Here, a method for enhancing hole injection in inverted organic electronic devices is presented. By incorporating an electron accepting interlayer into the inverted device, a substantial enhancement in hole injection efficiency was observed as compared to conventional devices. Through a detailed carrier injection study, it is determined that the injection efficiency enhancements in the inverted devices are due to enhanced charge transfer at the electron acceptor/organic semiconductor interface. A similar situation is observed for organic photovoltaic cells, in which devices with an inverted geometry show limited carrier extraction in early studies. In this work, enhanced carrier extraction is demonstrated for inverted polymer solar cells using a surface-modified ZnO-polymer composite electron-transporting layer. The insulating polymer in the composite layer inhibited aggregation of the ZnO nanoparticles, while the surface-modification of the composite interlayer improved the electronic coupling with the photoactive layer. As a result, inverted polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of over 8

  20. Electronically Controlled Continuous Culture Device

    PubMed Central

    Eisler, William J.; Webb, Robert B.

    1968-01-01

    A photocell-controlled continuous culture device, a Nephelostat, is described that maintains a wide variety of cultures of microorganisms in balanced growth. This Nephelostat controls concentrations of bacteria within ±3% over a cell concentration range of 106 to 109 cells per ml. Growth rates are recorded so that changes in the growth rate are observed over small increments of time. Spontaneous and caffeine-induced mutation rates of two strains of Escherichia coli were compared under Nephelostat and chemostat conditions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:4877660

  1. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  2. Novel Boron Subphthalocyanines for Organic Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrucci, Jeffrey Stephen

    Boron subphthalocyanines (BsubPcs) are a class of organic semiconductor materials that have been identified as having desirable properties for use in photovoltaic devices due to their strong light absorbance and the flexibility to develop tunable chemical derivatives. In particular, a lack of variety in available electron acceptors is an area where BsubPc derivatives can be readily substituted into existing photovoltaic device architectures. There are, however, no metrics to facilitate the rapid screening of different BsubPc derivatives. In this thesis, admittance spectroscopy is used to measure charge carrier mobility of these BsubPc derivatives, and photovoltaic cells are fabricated to evaluate these derivatives' performance in devices. We find that the measured electron carrier mobilities in thin films of BsubPc correlate with the single crystal structural parameters determined by X-ray diffraction. We also find that for BsubPcs, electron mobility measured by admittance spectroscopy is insufficient to predict photovoltaic performance when BsubPcs are used as an electron accepting layer in a device. BsubPc derivatives, however, are discovered as a new class of versatile molecules that can be designed and synthesized for use in photovoltaic devices to harvest singlet fission derived triplet excitons and consequently boost photovoltaic device photocurrent. This thesis also reports vacuum system design and construction to address experimental challenges arising from dealing with low solubility, high molar mass materials and limited amounts of high purity material.

  3. 76 FR 45860 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers; Notice of Institution of Investigation... within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices, including...

  4. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  5. Controlled assembly and electronics in semiconductor nanocrystal-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drndic, Marija

    2006-03-01

    I will discuss the assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals (CdSe and PbSe) into electronic devices and the basic mechanisms of charge transport in nanocrystal arrays [1-4]. Spherical CdSe nanocrystals show robust memory effects that can be exploited for memory applications [1]. Nanocrystal memory can be erased electrically or optically and is rewritable. In PbSe nanocrystal arrays, as the interdot coupling is increased, the system evolves from an insulating regime dominated by Coulomb blockade to a semiconducting regime, where hopping conduction is the dominant transport mechanism [2]. Two-dimensional CdSe nanorod arrays show striking and anomalous transport properties, including strong and reproducible non-linearities and current oscillations with dc-voltage [4]. I will also discuss imaging of the charge transport in nanocrystal-based electronic devices. Nanocrystal arrays were investigated using electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) [3]. Changes in lattice and transport properties upon annealing in vacuum were revealed. Local charge transport was directly imaged by EFM and correlated to nanopatterns observed with TEM. This work shows how charge transport in complex nanocrystal networks can be identified with nm resolution [3]. This work was supported by the ONR grant N000140410489, the NSF grants DMR-0449553 and MRSEC DMR00-79909, and the ACS PRF grant 41256-G10. References:1) Fischbein M. D. and Drndic M., ``CdSe nanocrystal quantum-dot memory,'' Applied Physics Letters, 86 (19), 193106, 2005.2) H. E. Romero and Drndic M., ``Coulomb blockade and hopping conduction in PbSe quantum dots,'' Physical Review Letters 95, 156801, 2005.3) Hu Z., Fischbein M. D. and Drndic M., ``Local charge transport in two-dimensional PbSe nanocrystal arrays studied by electrostatic force microscopy",'' Nano Letters 5 (7), 1463, 2005.4) Romero H.E., Calusine G. and Drndic M., ``Current oscillations, switching and hysteresis in CdSe nanorod

  6. Electronic device aspects of neural network memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambe, J.; Moopenn, A.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    The basic issues related to the electronic implementation of the neural network model (NNM) for content addressable memories are examined. A brief introduction to the principles of the NNM is followed by an analysis of the information storage of the neural network in the form of a binary connection matrix and the recall capability of such matrix memories based on a hardware simulation study. In addition, materials and device architecture issues involved in the future realization of such networks in VLSI-compatible ultrahigh-density memories are considered. A possible space application of such devices would be in the area of large-scale information storage without mechanical devices.

  7. Electronic transport in Pd nanocluster devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayesh, A. I.

    2011-03-01

    Palladium nanoclusters with an average diameter of 6.7 nm are prepared by magnetron sputtering and inert gas condensation technique. The nanoclusters are deposited between a pair of electrodes defined by optical lithography to create the device. The electronic transport in the devices is investigated by systematic current-voltage measurements. It is demonstrated through fitting the conductance-temperature profile into a conductance model that the conductance in the device is dominated by tunneling. The fitting provides meaningful physical parameters such as the number of nanoclusters within the conduction path, and it shows that some of the nanoclusters are fused together.

  8. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Durkan, Colm Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-25

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  9. Susceptor heating device for electron beam brazing

    DOEpatents

    Antieau, Susan M.; Johnson, Robert G. R.

    1999-01-01

    A brazing device and method are provided which locally apply a controlled amount of heat to a selected area, within a vacuum. The device brazes two components together with a brazing metal. A susceptor plate is placed in thermal contact with one of the components. A serrated pedestal supports the susceptor plate. When the pedestal and susceptor plate are in place, an electron gun irradiates an electron beam at the susceptor plate such that the susceptor plate is sufficiently heated to transfer heat through the one component and melt the brazing metal.

  10. Disabling CNT Electronic Devices by Use of Electron Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petkov, Mihail

    2008-01-01

    Bombardment with tightly focused electron beams has been suggested as a means of electrically disabling selected individual carbon-nanotubes (CNTs) in electronic devices. Evidence in support of the suggestion was obtained in an experiment in which a CNT field-effect transistor was disabled (see figure) by focusing a 1-keV electron beam on a CNT that served as the active channel of a field-effect transistor (FET). Such bombardment could be useful in the manufacture of nonvolatile-memory circuits containing CNT FETs. Ultimately, in order to obtain the best electronic performances in CNT FETs and other electronic devices, it will be necessary to fabricate the devices such that each one contains only a single CNT as an active element. At present, this is difficult because there is no way to grow a single CNT at a specific location and with a specific orientation. Instead, the common practice is to build CNTs into electronic devices by relying on spatial distribution to bridge contacts. This practice results in some devices containing no CNTs and some devices containing more than one CNT. Thus, CNT FETs have statistically distributed electronic characteristics (including switching voltages, gains, and mixtures of metallic and semiconducting CNTs). According to the suggestion, by using a 1-keV electron beam (e.g., a beam from a scanning electron microscope), a particular nanotube could be rendered electrically dysfunctional. This procedure could be repeated as many times as necessary on different CNTs in a device until all of the excess CNTs in the device had been disabled, leaving only one CNT as an active element (e.g., as FET channel). The physical mechanism through which a CNT becomes electrically disabled is not yet understood. On one hand, data in the literature show that electron kinetic energy >86 keV is needed to cause displacement damage in a CNT. On the other hand, inasmuch as a 1-keV beam focused on a small spot (typically a few tens of nanometers wide

  11. Stretchable polymer-based electronic device

    DOEpatents

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Davidson, James Courtney; Wilson, Thomas S.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Benett, William J.; Tovar, Armando R.

    2008-02-26

    A stretchable electronic circuit or electronic device and a polymer-based process to produce a circuit or electronic device containing a stretchable conducting circuit. The stretchable electronic apparatus has a central longitudinal axis and the apparatus is stretchable in a longitudinal direction generally aligned with the central longitudinal axis. The apparatus comprises a stretchable polymer body and at least one circuit line operatively connected to the stretchable polymer body. The circuit line extends in the longitudinal direction and has a longitudinal component that extends in the longitudinal direction and has an offset component that is at an angle to the longitudinal direction. The longitudinal component and the offset component allow the apparatus to stretch in the longitudinal direction while maintaining the integrity of the circuit line.

  12. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-10-23

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  13. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2013-03-19

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  14. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  15. MOF-based electronic and opto-electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Stavila, V; Talin, A A; Allendorf, M D

    2014-08-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of hybrid materials with unique optical and electronic properties arising from rational self-assembly of the organic linkers and metal ions/clusters, yielding myriads of possible structural motifs. The combination of order and chemical tunability, coupled with good environmental stability of MOFs, are prompting many research groups to explore the possibility of incorporating these materials as active components in devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, radiation detectors, and chemical sensors. Although this field is only in its incipiency, many new fundamental insights relevant to integrating MOFs with such devices have already been gained. In this review, we focus our attention on the basic requirements and structural elements needed to fabricate MOF-based devices and summarize the current state of MOF research in the area of electronic, opto-electronic and sensor devices. We summarize various approaches to designing active MOFs, creation of hybrid material systems combining MOFs with other materials, and assembly and integration of MOFs with device hardware. Critical directions of future research are identified, with emphasis on achieving the desired MOF functionality in a device and establishing the structure-property relationships to identify and rationalize the factors that impact device performance.

  16. Organic electronic devices via interface engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qianfei

    This dissertation focuses on interface engineering and its influence on organic electronic devices. A comprehensive review of interface studies in organic electronic devices is presented in Chapter 1. By interface engineering at the cathode contact, an ultra-high efficiency green polymer light emitting diode is demonstrated in Chapter 2. The interface modification turns out to be solution processable by using calcium acetylacetonate, donated by Ca(acac)2. The device structure is Induim Tin Oxide (ITO)/3,4-polyethylenedioxythiophene-polystyrene-sulfonate (PEDOT)/Green polyfluorene/Ca(acac) 2/Al. Based on this structure, we obtained device efficiencies as high as 28 cd/A at 2650 cd/m2, which is about a 3 times improvement over previous devices. The mechanism of this nano-layer has been studied by I-L-V measurements, photovoltaic measurements, XPS/UPS studies, impedance measurements as well as transient EL studies. The interfacial layer plays a crucial role for the efficiency improvement. It is believed to work as a hole blocking layer as well as an electron injection layer. Meanwhile, a systematic study on ITO electrodes is also carried out in Chapter 4. By engineering the interface at ITO electrode, the device lifetime has been improved. In Chapter 5, very bright white emission PLEDs are fabricated based on blue polyfluorene (PF) doped with 1 wt% 6, 8, 15, 17-tetraphyenyl-1.18, 4.5, 9.10, 13.14-tetrabenzoheptacene (TBH). The maximum luminance exceeds 20,000 cd/m2. The maximum luminance efficiency is 3.55 cd/A at 4228 cd/m2 while the maximum power efficiency is 1.6 lm/W at 310 cd/m2. The white color is achieved by an incomplete energy transfer from blue PF to TBH. The devices show super stable CIE coordinates as a function of current density. The interface engineering is also applied to memory devices. In Chapter 6, a novel nonvolatile memory device is fabricated by inserting a buffer layer at the anode contact. Devices with the structure of Cu

  17. General Electronics Technician: Semiconductor Devices and Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    These instructional materials include a teacher's guide designed to assist instructors in organizing and presenting an introductory course in general electronics focusing on semiconductor devices and circuits and a student guide. The materials are based on the curriculum-alignment concept of first stating the objectives, developing instructional…

  18. Electronic Devices and Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Centre-Southwest, Waco, TX.

    This course in electronic devices and systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  19. Animation Based Learning of Electronic Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gero, Aharon; Zoabi, Wishah; Sabag, Nissim

    2014-01-01

    Two-year college teachers face great difficulty when they teach the principle of operation of the bipolar junction transistor--a subject which forms the basis for electronics studies. The difficulty arises from both the complexity of the device and by the lack of adequate scientific background among the students. We, therefore, developed a unique…

  20. The Miniguide: A New Electronic Travel Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jeremy; Black, John

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the Miniguide, a new electronic travel device that assists people in moving about in a range of environments. The Miniguide is held in the palm and is used to scan left to right when walking. It provides vibratory feedback to the hand when it detects an obstacle. (Contains 5 references.) (CR)

  1. High performance flexible electronics for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Giovanni A; Munzenrieder, Niko; Zysset, Christoph; Kinkeldei, Thomas; Petti, Luisa; Troster, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Plastic electronics is soft, deformable and lightweight and it is suitable for the realization of devices which can form an intimate interface with the body, be implanted or integrated into textile for wearable and biomedical applications. Here, we present flexible electronics based on amorphous oxide semiconductors (a-IGZO) whose performance can achieve MHz frequency even when bent around hair. We developed an assembly technique to integrate complex electronic functionalities into textile while preserving the softness of the garment. All this and further developments can open up new opportunities in health monitoring, biotechnology and telemedicine.

  2. Theory of Electron Imaging in Small Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, Eric J.

    2015-05-21

    The research in this program involved theoretical investigations of the transport of charge in graphene and small heterostructure devices. There is an important trend toward imaging electronic systems in real space, with the goal of understanding the specifics of individual samples rather than settling for ensemble and statistical descriptions. For example one of our goals has been the understanding of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) imaging of systems in which the motion of the carriers is restricted to two degrees of freedom, such as in grapheme and the two dimensional electron (and hole) gas (2DEGs and 2DHGs) in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, or when the motion is restricted to one degree of freedom as in nanowires. SPM imaging uses the tip of a movable charged probe to alter the electrons locally, depleting or alternatively increasing the amount of charges in the electron gas just below the tip results in a change to the flow pattern of the charge. The focus of this research was on understanding how the tunable tip affects functional aspects of the device that can be used to understand electronic and transport properties. For instance, scanning over the device while measuring the conductance results in conductance maps, an imaging of the charge transport. This imaging is often semi-direct and requires theory and interpretation to extract all that can be deduced about the underlying physical quantities.

  3. Stretchable inorganic nanomembrane electronics for healthcare devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Son, Donghee; Kim, Jaemin

    2015-05-01

    Flexible or stretchable electronic devices for healthcare technologies have attracted much attention in terms of usefulness to assist doctors in their operating rooms and to monitor patients' physical conditions for a long period of time. Each device to monitor the patients' physiological signals real-time, such as strain, pressure, temperature, and humidity, etc. has been reported recently. However, their limitations are found in acquisition of various physiological signals simultaneously because all the functions are not assembled in one skin-like electronic system. Here, we describe a skin-like, multi-functional healthcare system, which includes single crystalline silicon nanomembrane based sensors, nanoparticle-integrated non-volatile memory modules, electro-resistive thermal actuators, and drug delivery. Smart prosthetics coupled with therapeutic electronic system would provide new approaches to personalized healthcare.

  4. Letters and Letter Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    "The Goldfinch" is a periodical that introduces young children to various facets of Iowa history. Each issue has a different theme topic and a number of articles covering diverse aspects of the topic being addressed. This issue focuses on letters and letter writing. Featured articles discuss letters that illuminate historical events. The…

  5. How organic molecules can control electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Vilan, Ayelet; Cahen, David

    2002-01-01

    This article examines a somewhat counter-intuitive approach to molecular-based electronic devices. Control over the electronic energy levels at the surfaces of conventional semiconductors and metals is achieved by assembling on the solid surfaces, poorly organized, partial monolayers (MLs) of molecules instead of the more commonly used ideal ones. Once those surfaces become interfaces, these layers exert electrostatic rather than electrodynamic control over the resulting devices, based on both electrical monopole and dipole effects of the molecules. Thus electronic transport devices, incorporating molecules, can be constructed without current flow through the molecules. This is illustrated for a gallium arsenide (GaAs) sensor as well as for gold-silicon (Au-Si) and Au-GaAs diodes. Incorporating molecules into solid interfaces becomes possible, using a 'soft' electrical contacting procedure, so as not to damage the molecules. Because there are only a few molecular restrictions, this approach opens up possibilities for the use of more complex (including biologically active) molecules as it circumvents requirements for ideal MLs and for molecules that can tolerate actual electron transport through them.

  6. Nanocoaxes for Optical and Electronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Rizal, Binod; Merlo, Juan M.; Burns, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.; Naughton, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of micro/nanoelectronics technology, including the shrinking of devices and integrated circuit components, has included the miniaturization of linear and coaxial structures to micro/nanoscale dimensions. This reduction in the size of coaxial structures may offer advantages to existing technologies and benefit the exploration and development of new technologies. The reduction in the size of coaxial structures has been realized with various permutations between metals, semiconductors and dielectrics for the core, shield, and annulus. This review will focus on fabrication schemes of arrays of metal – nonmetal – metal nanocoax structures using non-template and template methods, followed by possible applications. The performance and scientific advantages associated with nanocoax-based optical devices including waveguides, negative refractive index materials, light emitting diodes, and photovoltaics are presented. In addition, benefits and challenges that accrue from the application of novel nanocoax structures in energy storage, electronic and sensing devices are summarized. PMID:25279400

  7. Electron Devices Based on Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosun, Mahmut

    Integrated circuits consists of building blocks called transistors. A transistor is a switch that enables logic operations to perform computing. Since the invention of the first integrated circuit, transistors have been scaled down in their dimensions to increase the density of transistors per unit area to enable more functionality. Transistor scaling is continued by introducing novel device structures and materials at each technology node. Due to the challenges such as short channel effects and the power consumption issues, novel materials are investigated as a candidate for next generation transistors. In this thesis, 2-dimensinal layered semiconductors, namely transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are studied to assess their electronic material properties as a candidate channel material for next generation electronic devices. Chapter one, introduces the challenges in the state of the art MOSFET devices. Then the motivation for the use of TMDCs in MOSFETs is explained. In chapter two, doping of the TMDCs is studied to be able to probe the intrinsic electronic properties of the devices fabricated using these materials. Contact resistance can be decreased by doping and TMDC MOSFETs with near-ideal performance metrics are demonstrated. In chapter three the CMOS integration of the devices using TMDCs are examined. Logic operations are conducted by fabricating WSe 2 n-FETs and p-FETs on the same flake. Then vertical 3-dimensional integration of n-FETs and p-FETs are demonstrated using the same gate. These transistors are connected as a CMOS inverter and logic operations are performed. Chapter four presents the band structure engineering study using TMDCs. Mono-multilayer MoS2 junctions are found to have a type-I heterojunction. Optoelectronic properties of this junction are investigated and the junction is shown to have a photoresponse that dominates the photoresponse coming from the contacts. In chapter five, the tunneling devices using TMDCs are studied. Dual

  8. 77 FR 70464 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data... importation of certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data... viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc.gov . Hearing-impaired...

  9. 77 FR 60720 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data... infringing electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing... accessed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc.gov , and will be available...

  10. 78 FR 16865 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data... importation of certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data... Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc.gov . Hearing-impaired persons are advised...

  11. Method for integrating microelectromechanical devices with electronic circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Montague, S.; Smith, J.H.; Sniegowski, J.J.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1998-08-25

    A method is disclosed for integrating one or more microelectromechanical (MEM) devices with electronic circuitry. The method comprises the steps of forming each MEM device within a cavity below a device surface of the substrate; encapsulating the MEM device prior to forming electronic circuitry on the substrate; and releasing the MEM device for operation after fabrication of the electronic circuitry. Planarization of the encapsulated MEM device prior to formation of the electronic circuitry allows the use of standard processing steps for fabrication of the electronic circuitry. 13 figs.

  12. Method for integrating microelectromechanical devices with electronic circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Montague, Stephen; Smith, James H.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; McWhorter, Paul J.

    1998-01-01

    A method for integrating one or more microelectromechanical (MEM) devices with electronic circuitry. The method comprises the steps of forming each MEM device within a cavity below a device surface of the substrate; encapsulating the MEM device prior to forming electronic circuitry on the substrate; and releasing the MEM device for operation after fabrication of the electronic circuitry. Planarization of the encapsulated MEM device prior to formation of the electronic circuitry allows the use of standard processing steps for fabrication of the electronic circuitry.

  13. Nanostructured Silicon for Electronic and Electromechanic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthaus, Jorg P.

    2001-03-01

    Fabrication technologies with nanometer resolution enable us now to realize silicon devices in which the electronic and electromechanical functions are governed by artificial geometric confinement and may sensitively depend on the environment. One example are single electron tranistors fabricated on silicon-on-insulator substrates in which the quantum confinement of electrons down to 10 nm yields strongly aperiodic Coulomb blockade oscillations of the conductance visible up to temperatures well above 100 K /1/. Another are suspended nanoelectromechanical resonators exhibiting highly non-linear resonances at radio frequencies /2/. These can be employed for mechanical radio frequency mixing as well as for sensitively sensing their local environment. Alternatively, nanomechanical levers can serve as electrical switching devices with very high resonance frequencies/3/. The perspectives of using such silicon-based nanodevices for local manipulation and sensing applications and high frequency signal processing will be discussed. /1/ A. Tilke et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3704 (1999) and Appl. Phys. A71, 357 (2000) /2/ L. Pescini et al., Nanotechnology 10, 418 (1999), H. Krömmer et al., Europhys. Lett. 50, 101 (2000) /3/ A. Erbe et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3751 (1998), A. Erbe et al., Physica B280, 553 (2000)

  14. Use of electronic portal imaging devices for electron treatment verification.

    PubMed

    Kairn, T; Aland, T; Crowe, S B; Trapp, J V

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to help broaden the use of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for pre-treatment patient positioning verification, from photon-beam radiotherapy to photon- and electron-beam radiotherapy, by proposing and testing a method for acquiring clinically-useful EPID images of patient anatomy using electron beams, with a view to enabling and encouraging further research in this area. EPID images used in this study were acquired using all available beams from a linac configured to deliver electron beams with nominal energies of 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV, as well as photon beams with nominal energies of 6 and 10 MV. A widely-available heterogeneous, approximately-humanoid, thorax phantom was used, to provide an indication of the contrast and noise produced when imaging different types of tissue with comparatively realistic thicknesses. The acquired images were automatically calibrated, corrected for the effects of variations in the sensitivity of individual photodiodes, using a flood field image. For electron beam imaging, flood field EPID calibration images were acquired with and without the placement of blocks of water-equivalent plastic (with thicknesses approximately equal to the practical range of electrons in the plastic) placed upstream of the EPID, to filter out the primary electron beam, leaving only the bremsstrahlung photon signal. While the electron beam images acquired using a standard (unfiltered) flood field calibration were observed to be noisy and difficult to interpret, the electron beam images acquired using the filtered flood field calibration showed tissues and bony anatomy with levels of contrast and noise that were similar to the contrast and noise levels seen in the clinically acceptable photon beam EPID images. The best electron beam imaging results (highest contrast, signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios) were achieved when the images were acquired using the higher energy electron beams (16 and 20 MeV) when the EPID was

  15. 14 CFR 135.144 - Portable electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Portable electronic devices. 135.144... Equipment § 135.144 Portable electronic devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no... portable electronic device on any of the following U.S.-registered civil aircraft operating under this...

  16. 46 CFR 28.260 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 28.260 Section 28... Trade § 28.260 Electronic position fixing devices. Each vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device capable of providing accurate fixes for...

  17. 14 CFR 125.204 - Portable electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Portable electronic devices. 125.204... Equipment Requirements § 125.204 Portable electronic devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... operation of, any portable electronic device on any U.S.-registered civil aircraft operating under this...

  18. 46 CFR 130.320 - Electronic position-fixing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position-fixing device. 130.320 Section 130... CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.320 Electronic position-fixing device. Each vessel must be equipped with an electronic position-fixing device satisfactory...

  19. 46 CFR 121.410 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 121.410 Section 121... AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 121.410 Electronic position fixing devices. A vessel on an oceans route must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device,...

  20. 14 CFR 121.306 - Portable electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Portable electronic devices. 121.306... Portable electronic devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may operate... electronic device on any U.S.-registered civil aircraft operating under this part. (b) Paragraph (a) of...

  1. 46 CFR 28.260 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 28.260 Section 28... Trade § 28.260 Electronic position fixing devices. Each vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device capable of providing accurate fixes for...

  2. 14 CFR 135.144 - Portable electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Portable electronic devices. 135.144... Equipment § 135.144 Portable electronic devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no... portable electronic device on any of the following U.S.-registered civil aircraft operating under this...

  3. 14 CFR 125.204 - Portable electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Portable electronic devices. 125.204... Equipment Requirements § 125.204 Portable electronic devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... operation of, any portable electronic device on any U.S.-registered civil aircraft operating under this...

  4. 46 CFR 121.410 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 121.410 Section 121... AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 121.410 Electronic position fixing devices. A vessel on an oceans route must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device,...

  5. 14 CFR 121.306 - Portable electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Portable electronic devices. 121.306... Portable electronic devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may operate... electronic device on any U.S.-registered civil aircraft operating under this part. (b) Paragraph (a) of...

  6. 46 CFR 130.320 - Electronic position-fixing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic position-fixing device. 130.320 Section 130... CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.320 Electronic position-fixing device. Each vessel must be equipped with an electronic position-fixing device satisfactory...

  7. Oxide bipolar electronics: materials, devices and circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Marius; Klüpfel, Fabian; Karsthof, Robert; Schlupp, Peter; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Splith, Daniel; Yang, Chang; Bitter, Sofie; von Wenckstern, Holger

    2016-06-01

    We present the history of, and the latest progress in, the field of bipolar oxide thin film devices. As such we consider primarily pn-junctions in which at least one of the materials is a metal oxide semiconductor. A wide range of n-type and p-type oxides has been explored for the formation of such bipolar diodes. Since most oxide semiconductors are unipolar, challenges and opportunities exist with regard to the formation of heterojunction diodes and band lineups. Recently, various approaches have led to devices with high rectification, namely p-type ZnCo2O4 and NiO on n-type ZnO and amorphous zinc-tin-oxide. Subsequent bipolar devices and applications such as photodetectors, solar cells, junction field-effect transistors and integrated circuits like inverters and ring oscillators are discussed. The tremendous progress shows that bipolar oxide electronics has evolved from the exploration of various materials and heterostructures to the demonstration of functioning integrated circuits. Therefore a viable, facile and high performance technology is ready for further exploitation and performance optimization.

  8. Programmable Metallization Cell Devices for Flexible Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliga, Sunil

    Programmable metallization cell (PMC) technology is based on an electrochemical phenomenon in which a metallic electrodeposit can be grown or dissolved between two electrodes depending on the voltage applied between them. Devices based on this phenomenon exhibit a unique, self-healing property, as a broken metallic structure can be healed by applying an appropriate voltage between the two broken ends. This work explores methods of fabricating interconnects and switches based on PMC technology on flexible substrates. The objective was the evaluation of the feasibility of using this technology in flexible electronics applications in which reliability is a primary concern. The re-healable property of the interconnect is characterized for the silver doped germanium selenide (Ag-Ge-Se) solid electrolyte system. This property was evaluated by measuring the resistances of the healed interconnect structures and comparing these to the resistances of the unbroken structures. The reliability of the interconnects in both unbroken and healed states is studied by investigating the resistances of the structures to DC voltages, AC voltages and different temperatures as a function of time. This work also explores replacing silver with copper for these interconnects to enhance their reliability. A model for PMC-based switches on flexible substrates is proposed and compared to the observed device behavior with the objective of developing a formal design methodology for these devices. The switches were subjected to voltage sweeps and their resistance was investigated as a function of sweep voltage. The resistance of the switches as a function of voltage pulse magnitude when placed in series with a resistance was also investigated. A model was then developed to explain the behavior of these devices. All observations were based on statistical measurements to account for random errors. The results of this work demonstrate that solid electrolyte based interconnects display self

  9. Instrumentation for Molecular Electronics Device Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibel, Ashley Ann

    This dissertation describes work on three projects concerning the design and implementation of instrumentation used to study potential organic electronic devices. The first section describes the conducting atomic force microscope (CAFM) in the study of the mechanical and electronic interactions between DNA bases and nucleosides. Previous STM data suggested that an STM tip could recognize single base pairs through an electronic interaction after a functionalized tip made contact with a self assembled monolayer then was retracted. The conducting AFM was employed in order to understand the mechanical interactions of such a system and how they were affecting electrical responses. The results from the conducting AFM showed that the scanning probe system was measuring multiple base-pair interactions, and thus did not have single base resolution. Further, results showed that the conductance between a single base-nucleoside pair is below the detection limit of a potential commercial sequencing device. The second section describes the modifications of a scanning probe microscope in order to study the conductance of single organic molecules under illumination. Modifications to the scanning probe microscope are described as are the control and data analysis software for an experiment testing the single molecule conductance of an organic molecule under illumination. This instrument was then tested using a novel charge-separation molecule, which is being considered for its potential photovoltaic properties. The experiments showed that the instrumentation is capable of detecting differences in conductance upon laser illumination of the molecule on a transparent conductive surface. The third section describes measurements using the illuminated CAFM, as well as the design and construction of an illuminated mercury drop electrode apparatus. Both instruments were tested by attempting to observe photovoltaic behavior in a novel self-organized film of the charge-separation molecules

  10. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  11. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  12. Electronic devices from diamond-like carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, W. I.

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews the work carried out over the past few years on the application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) materials to electronic devices. The use of such materials is still in its infancy due to their high defect state density and associated low mobilities. To date, the major effort in the electronic field has been in their attempted use as cold cathode field emitters where their low threshold field has attracted much attention. However, attempts have also been made to produce metal semiconductor metal structures, diodes, a-C/c-Si heterostructures and thin film transistors with varying degrees of success. A brief review of work carried out on the use of DLCs in solar cell manufacture will also be presented but it seems at this early stage in their development that the most promising area for future development will be in the field of microelectromechanical structures where their friction, stiction and wear properties make them prime candidates for use in moving mechanical assemblies.

  13. 46 CFR 184.410 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 184.410 Section 184.410 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER... Electronic position fixing devices. A vessel on an oceans route must be equipped with an electronic...

  14. 14 CFR 91.21 - Portable electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Portable electronic devices. 91.21 Section... electronic devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may operate, nor may any operator or pilot in command of an aircraft allow the operation of, any portable electronic...

  15. 46 CFR 184.410 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 184.410 Section 184.410 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER... Electronic position fixing devices. A vessel on an oceans route must be equipped with an electronic...

  16. 14 CFR 91.21 - Portable electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Portable electronic devices. 91.21 Section... electronic devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may operate, nor may any operator or pilot in command of an aircraft allow the operation of, any portable electronic...

  17. Electrical and electronic devices and components: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Components and techniques which may be useful in the electronics industry are described. Topics discussed include transducer technology, printed-circuit technology, solid state devices, MOS transistors, Gunn device, microwave antennas, and position indicators.

  18. The Electronic "Scarlet Letter": Criminal Backgrounding and a Perpetual Spoiled Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Daniel S.; Fuleihan, Brian; Richards, Stephen C.; Jones, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Crimes are multifaceted events that are not adequately explained with basic descriptors, yet a considerable amount of significance is afforded to relatively few simplistic labels that make up the contemporary "scarlet letter." Today's criminal records create a lifetime of stigmatization for a person. These public records employ a limited range of…

  19. Quantum functional devices for advanced electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, N.; Muto, S.; Imamura, K.; Takatsu, M.; Mori, T.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sakuma, Y.; Nakao, H.; Adachihara, T.

    Recent research in semiconductor device technology seems to be focused on reducing the cost and power dissipation of traditional Si CMOS integrated circuits, rather than developing new and advanced semiconductor devices. We believe however, that devices enter the nanometer-scale regime in the next century, where quantum mechanical effects play an important role in the device's function; therefore, it is important to continue basic research into the physics and technology of nanometer scale structures and device applications in order to cultivate "nanoelectronics". This paper reviews our research activities on quantum functional devices and discusses our future research direction.

  20. Response to letter "Electron correlation and relativity of the 5f electrons in the Usbnd Zr alloy system"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wei; Marianetti, Chris A.; Morgan, Dane

    2016-08-01

    In the Letter [Söderlind et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 444, 356 (2014)], Söderlind et al. state their interpretation that 1) we view electron correlation to be strong and including spin-orbit coupling (SOC) to be necessary for U metal and Usbnd Zr alloy in our article [Xiong et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 443, 331 (2013)]. Further, they argue that 2) density functional theory (DFT) without adding the Hubbard U potential, especially when solved using all electron methods, already models U and Usbnd Zr accurately, and 3) adding the Hubbard U potential to DFT in DFT + U models U and Usbnd Zr worse than DFT according to volume, bulk modulus, and magnetic moments predicted from their calculations of the γU phase of elemental U metal. With respect to Söderlind et al.'s interpretation 1), we clarify that our opinions are that U and Usbnd Zr are not strongly, but weakly to moderately correlated and that including SOC is beneficial but not necessary for modeling most ground state properties of U and Usbnd Zr. With respect to Söderlind et al.'s argument 2) we demonstrate that previously neglected and very recent experimental data suggest that DFT in Söderlind's full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital calculations [Söderlind, Phys. Rev. B 66, 085113 (2002)] in fact models the bulk modulus and elastic constants of αU with errors considerably larger than other related elements, e.g., most transition metals. With respect to Söderlind et al.'s argument 3) we argue that they have inappropriately focused on just one phase (the BCC γU phase of U metal), neglecting the other phases which represent the majority of our evidence, and made overgeneralizations based on results at only one Ueff value of 2 eV. We therefore maintain our original conclusion that the accuracy of DFT for modeling U and Usbnd Zr has room for improvement and DFT + U can be of value for this purpose on at least some ground state properties.

  1. Flexible electronics: Materials and device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci Sankir, Nurdan

    This dissertation will outline solution processable materials and fabrication techniques to manufacture flexible electronic devices from them. Conductive ink formulations and inkjet printing of gold and silver on plastic substrates were examined. Line patterning and mask printing methods were also investigated as a means of selective metal deposition on various flexible substrate materials. These solution-based manufacturing methods provided deposition of silver, gold and copper with a controlled spatial resolution and a very high electrical conductivity. All of these procedures not only reduce fabrication cost but also eliminate the time-consuming production steps to make basic electronic circuit components. Solution processable semiconductor materials and their composite films were also studied in this research. Electrically conductive, ductile, thermally and mechanically stable composite films of polyaniline and sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) were introduced. A simple chemical route was followed to prepare composite films. The electrical conductivity of the films was controlled by changing the weight percent of conductive filler. Temperature dependent DC conductivity studies showed that the Mott three dimensional hopping mechanism can be used to explain the conduction mechanism in composite films. A molecular interaction between polyaniline and sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) has been proven by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Inkjet printing and line patterning methods also have been used to fabricate polymer resistors and field effect transistors on flexible substrates from poly-3-4-ethyleneoxythiophene/poly-4-sytrensulfonate. Ethylene glycol treatment enhanced the conductivity of line patterned and inkjet printed polymer thin films about 900 and 350 times, respectively. Polymer field effect transistors showed the characteristics of traditional p-type transistors. Inkjet printing technology provided the

  2. Crosslinked polymeric dielectric materials and electronic devices incorporating same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, Tobin J. (Inventor); Facchetti, Antonio (Inventor); Wang, Zhiming (Inventor); Choi, Hyuk-Jin (Inventor); Suh, legal representative, Nae-Jeong (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Solution-processable dielectric materials are provided, along with precursor compositions and processes for preparing the same. Composites and electronic devices including the dielectric materials also are provided.

  3. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  4. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  5. Electron beam directed energy device and methods of using same

    DOEpatents

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for an electron beam directed energy device. The device consists of an electron gun with one or more electron beams. The device includes one or more accelerating plates with holes aligned for beam passage. The plates may be flat or preferably shaped to direct each electron beam to exit the electron gun at a predetermined orientation. In one preferred application, the device is located in outer space with individual beams that are directed to focus at a distant target to be used to impact and destroy missiles. The aimings of the separate beams are designed to overcome Coulomb repulsion. A method is also presented for directing the beams to a target considering the variable terrestrial magnetic field. In another preferred application, the electron beam is directed into the ground to produce a subsurface x-ray source to locate and/or destroy buried or otherwise hidden objects including explosive devices.

  6. Ion age transport: developing devices beyond electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2014-03-01

    There is more to current devices than conventional electronics. Increasingly research into the controlled movement of ions and molecules is enabling a range of new technologies. For example, as Weihua Guan, Sylvia Xin Li and Mark Reed at Yale University explain, 'It offers a unique opportunity to integrate wet ionics with dry electronics seamlessly'. In this issue they provide an overview of voltage-gated ion and molecule transport in engineered nanochannels. They cover the theory governing these systems and fabrication techniques, as well as applications, including biological and chemical analysis, and energy conversion [1]. Studying the movement of particles in nanochannels is not new. The transport of materials in rock pores led Klinkenberg to describe an analogy between diffusion and electrical conductivity in porous rocks back in 1951 [2]. And already in 1940, Harold Abramson and Manuel Gorin noted that 'When an electric current is applied across the living human skin, the skin may be considered to act like a system of pores through which transfer of substances like ragweed pollen extract may be achieved both by electrophoretic and by diffusion phenomena' [3]. Transport in living systems through pore structures on a much smaller scale has attracted a great deal of research in recent years as well. The selective transport of ions and small organic molecules across the cell membrane facilitates a number of functions including communication between cells, nerve conduction and signal transmission. Understanding these processes may benefit a wide range of potential applications such as selective separation, biochemical sensing, and controlled release and drug delivery processes. In Germany researchers have successfully demonstrated controlled ionic transport through nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes [4]. The polymer nanobrushes swell and shrink in response to changes in temperature, thus opening and closing the nanopore passage to ionic

  7. 49 CFR 220.303 - General use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General use of electronic devices. 220.303 Section 220.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.303 General use...

  8. 49 CFR 220.303 - General use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General use of electronic devices. 220.303 Section 220.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.303 General use...

  9. 49 CFR 220.305 - Use of personal electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of personal electronic devices. 220.305 Section 220.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.305 Use of...

  10. 49 CFR 220.305 - Use of personal electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of personal electronic devices. 220.305 Section 220.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.305 Use of...

  11. 49 CFR 220.305 - Use of personal electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of personal electronic devices. 220.305 Section 220.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.305 Use of...

  12. 49 CFR 220.303 - General use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General use of electronic devices. 220.303 Section 220.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.303 General use...

  13. 49 CFR 220.305 - Use of personal electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of personal electronic devices. 220.305 Section 220.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.305 Use of...

  14. 49 CFR 220.305 - Use of personal electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of personal electronic devices. 220.305 Section 220.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.305 Use of...

  15. 49 CFR 220.303 - General use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General use of electronic devices. 220.303 Section 220.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.303 General use...

  16. 49 CFR 220.303 - General use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General use of electronic devices. 220.303 Section 220.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.303 General use...

  17. Eliminating unwanted electrons in EBIS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, Ady I.

    2016-02-01

    In electron beam ion sources, step-wise ionization to high charge states is accomplished by magnetically confined electron beam. Electron space charge and high voltage electrodes confine the ions. The relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) ion source Debye length meets requirements for instabilities with free source of energy to grow. Electrons stripped from ions provide energy for a variety of microinstabilities to grow. Possible solution is to remove these electrons from the trap to a drift tube biased to higher voltage than the other tubes between the gate and the collector. If needed, a split drift tube for bleeding these electrons to ground is added.

  18. Eliminating unwanted electrons in EBIS devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, Ady I.

    2016-02-15

    In electron beam ion sources, step-wise ionization to high charge states is accomplished by magnetically confined electron beam. Electron space charge and high voltage electrodes confine the ions. The relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) ion source Debye length meets requirements for instabilities with free source of energy to grow. Electrons stripped from ions provide energy for a variety of microinstabilities to grow. Possible solution is to remove these electrons from the trap to a drift tube biased to higher voltage than the other tubes between the gate and the collector. If needed, a split drift tube for bleeding these electrons to ground is added.

  19. Wide temperature range electronic device with lead attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A electronic device including lead attachment structure which permits operation of the devices over a wide temperature range is reported. The device comprises a core conductor having a thin coating of metal thereon whereby only a limited amount of coating material is available to form an alloy which bonds the core conductor to the device electrode, the electrode composition thus being affected only in the region adjacent to the lead.

  20. Nonlinear Thermal Effects in Ballistic Electron Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    characterization of the device. In other words, we now understand this system sufficiently well that we can predict its response to a thermal bias from...direction of the heat backflow, could have significantly enhanced performance. To date, thermal rectification has been demonstrated at some heterostructure ...gas (2DEG) devices embedded in InGaAs/InP heterostructure wafers. These heterostructures are grown on the surface of InP wafers at Lund University

  1. Optoelectronic devices utilizing materials having enhanced electronic transitions

    DOEpatents

    Black, Marcie R [Newton, MA

    2011-02-22

    An optoelectronic device that includes a material having enhanced electronic transitions. The electronic transitions are enhanced by mixing electronic states at an interface. The interface may be formed by a nano-well, a nano-dot, or a nano-wire.

  2. Optoelectronic devices utilizing materials having enhanced electronic transitions

    DOEpatents

    Black, Marcie R.

    2013-04-09

    An optoelectronic device that includes a material having enhanced electronic transitions. The electronic transitions are enhanced by mixing electronic states at an interface. The interface may be formed by a nano-well, a nano-dot, or a nano-wire.

  3. Thermal electron-tunneling devices as coolers and amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Su, Shanhe; Zhang, Yanchao; Chen, Jincan; Shih, Tien-Mo

    2016-02-19

    Nanoscale thermal systems that are associated with a pair of electron reservoirs have been previously studied. In particular, devices that adjust electron tunnels relatively to reservoirs' chemical potentials enjoy the novelty and the potential. Since only two reservoirs and one tunnel exist, however, designers need external aids to complete a cycle, rendering their models non-spontaneous. Here we design thermal conversion devices that are operated among three electron reservoirs connected by energy-filtering tunnels and also referred to as thermal electron-tunneling devices. They are driven by one of electron reservoirs rather than the external power input, and are equivalent to those coupling systems consisting of forward and reverse Carnot cycles with energy selective electron functions. These previously-unreported electronic devices can be used as coolers and thermal amplifiers and may be called as thermal transistors. The electron and energy fluxes of devices are capable of being manipulated in the same or oppsite directions at our disposal. The proposed model can open a new field in the application of nano-devices.

  4. Thermal electron-tunneling devices as coolers and amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shanhe; Zhang, Yanchao; Chen, Jincan; Shih, Tien-Mo

    2016-02-01

    Nanoscale thermal systems that are associated with a pair of electron reservoirs have been previously studied. In particular, devices that adjust electron tunnels relatively to reservoirs’ chemical potentials enjoy the novelty and the potential. Since only two reservoirs and one tunnel exist, however, designers need external aids to complete a cycle, rendering their models non-spontaneous. Here we design thermal conversion devices that are operated among three electron reservoirs connected by energy-filtering tunnels and also referred to as thermal electron-tunneling devices. They are driven by one of electron reservoirs rather than the external power input, and are equivalent to those coupling systems consisting of forward and reverse Carnot cycles with energy selective electron functions. These previously-unreported electronic devices can be used as coolers and thermal amplifiers and may be called as thermal transistors. The electron and energy fluxes of devices are capable of being manipulated in the same or oppsite directions at our disposal. The proposed model can open a new field in the application of nano-devices.

  5. Thermal electron-tunneling devices as coolers and amplifiers

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shanhe; Zhang, Yanchao; Chen, Jincan; Shih, Tien-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale thermal systems that are associated with a pair of electron reservoirs have been previously studied. In particular, devices that adjust electron tunnels relatively to reservoirs’ chemical potentials enjoy the novelty and the potential. Since only two reservoirs and one tunnel exist, however, designers need external aids to complete a cycle, rendering their models non-spontaneous. Here we design thermal conversion devices that are operated among three electron reservoirs connected by energy-filtering tunnels and also referred to as thermal electron-tunneling devices. They are driven by one of electron reservoirs rather than the external power input, and are equivalent to those coupling systems consisting of forward and reverse Carnot cycles with energy selective electron functions. These previously-unreported electronic devices can be used as coolers and thermal amplifiers and may be called as thermal transistors. The electron and energy fluxes of devices are capable of being manipulated in the same or oppsite directions at our disposal. The proposed model can open a new field in the application of nano-devices. PMID:26893109

  6. Optical biosensors: a revolution towards quantum nanoscale electronics device fabrication.

    PubMed

    Dey, D; Goswami, T

    2011-01-01

    The dimension of biomolecules is of few nanometers, so the biomolecular devices ought to be of that range so a better understanding about the performance of the electronic biomolecular devices can be obtained at nanoscale. Development of optical biomolecular device is a new move towards revolution of nano-bioelectronics. Optical biosensor is one of such nano-biomolecular devices that has a potential to pave a new dimension of research and device fabrication in the field of optical and biomedical fields. This paper is a very small report about optical biosensor and its development and importance in various fields.

  7. Coulometry Experiments Using Simple Electronic Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimsrud, Eric; Amend, John

    1979-01-01

    Two experiments are presented which help to illustrate a modular approach to electrochemical instrument design, but which are readily understandable to students with a limited electronics background. The experiments are coulometric titration and controlled potential coulometry.

  8. Programmable synaptic devices for electronic neural nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, A.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1990-01-01

    The architecture, design, and operational characteristics of custom VLSI and thin film synaptic devices are described. The devices include CMOS-based synaptic chips containing 1024 reprogrammable synapses with a 6-bit dynamic range, and nonvolatile, write-once, binary synaptic arrays based on memory switching in hydrogenated amorphous silicon films. Their suitability for embodiment of fully parallel and analog neural hardware is discussed. Specifically, a neural network solution to an assignment problem of combinatorial global optimization, implemented in fully parallel hardware using the synaptic chips, is described. The network's ability to provide optimal and near optimal solutions over a time scale of few neuron time constants has been demonstrated and suggests a speedup improvement of several orders of magnitude over conventional search methods.

  9. Holmium hafnate: An emerging electronic device material

    SciTech Connect

    Pavunny, Shojan P. E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu; Sharma, Yogesh; Kooriyattil, Sudheendran; Dugu, Sita; Katiyar, Rajesh K.; Katiyar, Ram S. E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu; Scott, James F.

    2015-03-16

    We report structural, optical, charge transport, and temperature properties as well as the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant of Ho{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} (HHO) which make this material desirable as an alternative high-k dielectric for future silicon technology devices. A high dielectric constant of ∼20 and very low dielectric loss of ∼0.1% are temperature and voltage independent at 100 kHz near ambient conditions. The Pt/HHO/Pt capacitor exhibits exceptionally low Schottky emission-based leakage currents. In combination with the large observed bandgap E{sub g} of 5.6 eV, determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, our results reveal fundamental physics and materials science of the HHO metal oxide and its potential application as a high-k dielectric for the next generation of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  10. Sub-10 nm device fabrication in a transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Fischbein, Michael D; Drndić, Marija

    2007-05-01

    We show that a high-resolution transmission electron microscope can be used to fabricate metal nanostructures and devices on insulating membranes by nanosculpting metal films. Fabricated devices include nanogaps, nanodiscs, nanorings, nanochannels, and nanowires with tailored curvatures and multi-terminal nanogap devices with nanoislands or nanoholes between the terminals. The high resolution, geometrical flexibility, and yield make this fabrication method attractive for many applications including nanoelectronics and nanofluidics.

  11. Simulation of electron transport in quantum well devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.; Gullapalli, K. K.; Reddy, V. R.; Neikirk, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Double barrier resonant tunneling diodes (DBRTD) have received much attention as possible terahertz devices. Despite impressive experimental results, the specifics of the device physics (i.e., how the electrons propagate through the structure) are only qualitatively understood. Therefore, better transport models are warranted if this technology is to mature. In this paper, the Lattice Wigner function is used to explain the important transport issues associated with DBRTD device behavior.

  12. Reliability Modeling of Critical Electronic Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Functional Degradation Failure ........ 84 Mechanisms 7.1.3 Semiconductor Laser Reliability Prediction 87.*>* Procedures 7.1.4 Model Limitations...vidicons, helium-cadmium lasers, semiconductor laser,,, circuit breakers, * I.G. sockets and surface acoustic wave devices. - 22 40 *oŔ Several of the...failure mechanism . To insure . adequate discharge of the photoconductive surface in a single scan, the total *capacitance of the target should be

  13. Inventory Control. Easily Made Electronic Device for Conductivity Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadek, Frank J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes how to construct an electronic device to be used in conductivity experiments using a 35 millimeter film canister, nine volt battery replacement snaps, a 200-300 ohm resistor, and a light-emitting diode. Provides a diagram and photographs of the device. (TW)

  14. Method for integrating microelectromechanical devices with electronic circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Barron, Carole C.; Fleming, James G.; Montague, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    A method is disclosed for integrating one or more microelectromechanical (MEM) devices with electronic circuitry on a common substrate. The MEM device can be fabricated within a substrate cavity and encapsulated with a sacrificial material. This allows the MEM device to be annealed and the substrate planarized prior to forming electronic circuitry on the substrate using a series of standard processing steps. After fabrication of the electronic circuitry, the electronic circuitry can be protected by a two-ply protection layer of titanium nitride (TiN) and tungsten (W) during an etch release process whereby the MEM device is released for operation by etching away a portion of a sacrificial material (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) that encapsulates the MEM device. The etch release process is preferably performed using a mixture of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and hydrochloric acid (HCI) which reduces the time for releasing the MEM device compared to use of a buffered oxide etchant. After release of the MEM device, the TiN:W protection layer can be removed with a peroxide-based etchant without damaging the electronic circuitry.

  15. Subretinal electronic chips allow blind patients to read letters and combine them to words.

    PubMed

    Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Benav, Heval; Besch, Dorothea; Bruckmann, Anna; Gabel, Veit-Peter; Gekeler, Florian; Greppmaier, Udo; Harscher, Alex; Kibbel, Steffen; Koch, Johannes; Kusnyerik, Akos; Peters, Tobias; Stingl, Katarina; Sachs, Helmut; Stett, Alfred; Szurman, Peter; Wilhelm, Barbara; Wilke, Robert

    2011-05-22

    A light-sensitive, externally powered microchip was surgically implanted subretinally near the macular region of volunteers blind from hereditary retinal dystrophy. The implant contains an array of 1500 active microphotodiodes ('chip'), each with its own amplifier and local stimulation electrode. At the implant's tip, another array of 16 wire-connected electrodes allows light-independent direct stimulation and testing of the neuron-electrode interface. Visual scenes are projected naturally through the eye's lens onto the chip under the transparent retina. The chip generates a corresponding pattern of 38 × 40 pixels, each releasing light-intensity-dependent electric stimulation pulses. Subsequently, three previously blind persons could locate bright objects on a dark table, two of whom could discern grating patterns. One of these patients was able to correctly describe and name objects like a fork or knife on a table, geometric patterns, different kinds of fruit and discern shades of grey with only 15 per cent contrast. Without a training period, the regained visual functions enabled him to localize and approach persons in a room freely and to read large letters as complete words after several years of blindness. These results demonstrate for the first time that subretinal micro-electrode arrays with 1500 photodiodes can create detailed meaningful visual perception in previously blind individuals.

  16. Atomtronics: Ultracold Atom Analogs of Electronic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-23

    characteristic current-voltage curve for an atom- bipolar junction transistor of the NPN -type. A thin P-type tronic diode. The larger the forward bias (voltage...dIc/dIB. (PNP). For our discussion, we consider an NPN tran- These key features of an electronic transistor can be sistor. A detailed discussion of...into emitter, i.e. oppo- ’W911NF-04-1-0043) and the Air Force Office of Scien- site to electronic flow in a NPN transistor . A significant tific Research

  17. Printed Electronic Devices in Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2004-01-01

    The space environment requires robust sensing, control, and automation, whether in support of human spaceflight or of robotic exploration. Spaceflight embodies the known extremes of temperature, radiation, shock, vibration, and static loads, and demands high reliability at the lowest possible mass. Because printed electronic circuits fulfill all these requirements, printed circuit technology and the exploration of space have been closely coupled throughout their short histories. In this presentation, we will explore the space (and space launch) environments as drivers of printed circuit design, a brief history of NASA's use of printed electronic circuits, and we will examine future requirements for such circuits in our continued exploration of space.

  18. Electronic 4-wheel drive control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayato, S.; Takanori, S.; Shigeru, H.; Tatsunori, S.

    1984-01-01

    The internal rotation torque generated during operation of a 4-wheel drive vehicle is reduced using a control device whose clutch is attached to one part of the rear-wheel drive shaft. One torque sensor senses the drive torque associated with the rear wheel drive shaft. A second sensor senses the drive torque associated with the front wheel drive shaft. Revolution count sensors sense the revolutions of each drive shaft. By means of a microcomputer, the engagement of the clutch is changed to insure that the ratio of the torque sensors remains constant.

  19. Electronic and optoelectronic nano-devices based on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Scarselli, M; Castrucci, P; De Crescenzi, M

    2012-08-08

    The discovery and understanding of nanoscale phenomena and the assembly of nanostructures into different devices are among the most promising fields of material science research. In this scenario, carbon nanostructures have a special role since, in having only one chemical element, they allow physical properties to be calculated with high precision for comparison with experiment. Carbon nanostructures, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in particular, have such remarkable electronic and structural properties that they are used as active building blocks for a large variety of nanoscale devices. We review here the latest advances in research involving carbon nanotubes as active components in electronic and optoelectronic nano-devices. Opportunities for future research are also identified.

  20. Molecular and nanoscale materials and devices in electronics.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lei; Cao, Lingchao; Liu, Yunqi; Zhu, Daoben

    2004-12-13

    Over the past several years, there have been many significant advances toward the realization of electronic computers integrated on the molecular scale and a much greater understanding of the types of materials that will be useful in molecular devices and their properties. It was demonstrated that individual molecules could serve as incomprehensibly tiny switch and wire one million times smaller than those on conventional silicon microchip. This has resulted very recently in the assembly and demonstration of tiny computer logic circuits built from such molecular scale devices. The purpose of this review is to provide a general introduction to molecular and nanoscale materials and devices in electronics.

  1. Special issue on organic electronic bio-devices.

    PubMed

    Torsi, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present editorial is to briefly summarize the current scientific and technological accomplishments in the field of organic electronic biosensors as described in the articles published in this Special Issue. By definition, a biosensor is a robust analytical device that combines a biological recognition element (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, cells) with a transducer. Organic electronic bio-devices are considered as potentially reliable substitutes of conventional and rather expensive analytical techniques employed for several applications such as medical diagnosis, food safety and environment pollution monitoring. Some insights into the selection and immobilization of recognition elements, signal amplification, fabrication techniques and analytical performance of biosensing devices will be presented.

  2. Weak localization and electron-electron interactions in few layer black phosphorus devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yanmeng; Gillgren, Nathaniel; Espiritu, Timothy; Tran, Son; Yang, Jiawei; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takahashi; Lau, Chun Ning

    2016-09-01

    Few layer phosphorene (FLP) devices are extensively studied due to their unique electronic properties and potential applications on nano-electronics. Here we present magnetotransport studies which reveal electron-electron interactions as the dominant scattering mechanism in hexagonal boron nitride-encapsulated FLP devices. From weak localization measurements, we estimate the electron dephasing length to be 30 to 100 nm at low temperatures, which exhibits a strong dependence on carrier density n and a power-law dependence on temperature (˜T -0.4). These results establish that the dominant scattering mechanism in FLP is electron-electron interactions.

  3. 33 CFR 164.41 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 164.41 Section 164.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.41 Electronic...

  4. Incorporating Ethical Consumption into Electronic Device Acquisition: A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poggiali, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This essay proposes that librarians practice ethical consumption when purchasing electronic devices. Though librarians have long been engaged with environmentalism and social justice, few have suggested that such issues as e-waste and sweatshop labor should impact our decisions to acquire e-readers, tablets, and other electronics. This article…

  5. Future opportunities for advancing glucose test device electronics.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-09-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano "ink" composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, "ink," and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers.

  6. Future Opportunities for Advancing Glucose Test Device Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano “ink” composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, “ink,” and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers. PMID:22027300

  7. 77 FR 20847 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to... the sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile electronic devices incorporating... sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile electronic devices...

  8. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Receipt of Amended Complaint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Receipt of Amended Complaint... amended complaint entitled Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics, DN 2875; the... sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile electronic devices...

  9. 77 FR 27078 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof... Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones... electronic devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof. The complaint...

  10. 76 FR 22918 - In the Matter of Certain Handheld Electronic Computing Devices, Related Software, and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Handheld Electronic Computing Devices, Related Software, and Components... States after importation of certain handheld electronic computing devices, related software, and... importation of certain handheld electronic computing devices, related software, and components thereof...

  11. Organic electronic devices with multiple solution-processed layers

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.

    2015-08-04

    A method of fabricating a tandem organic photosensitive device involves depositing a first layer of an organic electron donor type material film by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a first solvent; depositing a first layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the first layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process; depositing a conductive layer over the interim stack by a dry deposition process; depositing a second layer of the organic electron donor type material over the conductive layer by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a second solvent, wherein the organic electron acceptor type material and the conductive layer are insoluble in the second solvent; depositing a second layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the second layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process, resulting in a stack.

  12. Detectors, devices and electronics for optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajer, V.

    2007-06-01

    Objectives: The present course is devoted to engineers, physicists, and techniques which require basic tools for applying in experiments, measurements and research with optical instruments. Content: It is composed of the following topics: photodetectors, semiconductor devices, photomultiplier tubes, Faraday modulators, lock in amplifiers and automatic polarimeters. It begins with the definitions, classification and general characteristics of the photodetectors and its selection criteria for specific applications. There is included a section relative to different types of photodiodes and its differential characteristics, the photomultipliers are described showing its validity and application range. The different characteristics of Faraday cells which are widely employed as optical modulators are analyzed. Lock in amplifiers are shown and its applications in experimental arrangements. Content: It is composed of the following topics: photodetectors, semiconductor devices, photomultiplier tubes, Faraday modulators, lock in amplifiers and automatic polarimeters. It begins with the definitions, classification and general characteristics of the photodetectors and its selection criteria for specific applications. There is included a section relative to different types of photodiodes and its differential characteristics, the photomultipliers are described showing its validity and application range. The different characteristics of Faraday cells which are widely employed as optical modulators are analyzed. Lock in amplifiers are shown and its applications in experimental arrangements. Conclusion: this course could be given as a postgraduate course for Master in Science or Ph. D depending on the number and content of selected topics. It has been applied as an obligatory subject of the Optical Master in Science curriculum in the Superior Technical Institute (José Antonio Echeverría) of Havana, Cuba.

  13. Recent Power Quality Technology Employing Power Electronics Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasaki, Masahiro

    Power quality has become a common concern of customers and utilities in improving respective profits in the context of an open electricity market. Power electronics is the essential technology to control power quality in accordance with customer requirements and utility standards. This paper first summarizes power quality definitions and indices used in IEEE and IEC standards. It clarifies the problem to be solved and the role of power electronics devices. Then the overview of power quality control methods and equipments employing power electronics devices is explained. The control methodology discussed in this paper includes various schemes of future distribution and power supply system now under development.

  14. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted.

  15. Antimonide-Based Compound Semiconductors for Electronic Devices: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    currents, apparently due to exten- sive interface recombination [137]. Dodd et al. fabricated npn InAs bipolar transistors on InP in an attempt to achieve...Demonstration of npn InAs bipolar transistors with inverted base doping. IEEE Electron Dev Lett 1996;17(4):166–8. [139] Moran PD, Chow D, Hunter A, Kuech TF...based electronic devices: high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs

  16. dc-plasma-sprayed electronic-tube device

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.

    1982-01-29

    An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by dc plasma arc spraying techniques is described. The process is carried out in a single step automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

  17. Emerging electronic devices for THz sensing and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, P.; Xie, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Jiang, Z.; Rahman, S.; Xing, H.; Sensale-Rodriguez, B.; Liu, L.

    2014-09-01

    Continuing advances in scaling of conventional semiconductor devices are enabling mainstream electronics to operate in the millimeter-wave through THz regime. At the same time, however, novel devices and device concepts are also emerging to address the key challenges for systems in this frequency range, and may offer performance and functional advantages for future systems. In addition to new devices, advances in integration technology and novel system concepts also promise to provide substantial system-level performance and functionality enhancements. Several emerging devices and device concepts, as well as circuit-level concepts to take advantage of them, are discussed. Based on unconventional semiconductor device structures and operational principles, these devices offer the potential for significantly improved system sensitivity and frequency coverage. When combined in arrays, features such as polarimetric detection and frequency tunability for imaging can be achieved. As examples of emerging devices for millimeter-wave through THz sensing and imaging, heterostructure backward diodes in the InAs/AlSb/GaSb material system and GaN-based plasma-wave high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) will be discussed. Based on interband tunneling, heterostructure backward diodes offer significantly increased sensitivity and extremely low noise for direct detection applications, and have been demonstrated with cutoff frequencies exceeding 8 THz. The plasma-wave HEMT is an emerging device concept that, by leveraging plasma-wave resonances in the two-dimensional electron gas within the channel of the HEMT, offers the prospect for both tunable narrowband detection as well as low-noise amplification at frequencies well into the THz. These emerging devices are both amenable to direct integration within compact planar radiating structures such as annular slot antennas for realization of polarimetric detection and frequency tuning for spectroscopy and imaging.

  18. Buffer layers and articles for electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Paranthaman, Mariappan P.; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.; Feenstra, Roeland; Goyal, Amit

    2004-07-20

    Materials for depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured and untextured metallic and metal oxide substrates for use in the manufacture of superconducting and other electronic articles comprise RMnO.sub.3, R.sub.1-x A.sub.x MnO.sub.3, and combinations thereof; wherein R includes an element selected from the group consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y, and A includes an element selected from the group consisting of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra.

  19. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Quantum chemical modelling of electron polarons and excitons in ABO3 perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotomin, E. A.; Eglitis, R. I.; Borstel, G.

    2000-09-01

    Quantum chemical calculations using the intermediate neglect of the differential overlap (INDO) method, combined with the large unit cell periodic model argue for an existence of the self-trapped electrons in KNbO3 and KTaO3 perovskite crystals. An electron in the ground state occupies predominantly t2g orbital of a Nb4+ ion. Its orbital degeneracy is lifted by a combination of the breathing and Jahn-Teller modes where four nearest equatorial O atoms are displaced outwards and two oxygens shift inwards along the z axis. Triplet exciton is shown to be in a good approximation of a pair of nearest Jahn-Teller electron and hole polarons (a bipolaron) which is very likely responsible for the `green' luminescence observed in these crystals.

  20. Perioperative Management of Multiple Noncardiac Implantable Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Juan A; Brull, Sorin J

    2015-12-01

    The number of patients with noncardiac implantable electronic devices is increasing, and the absence of perioperative management standards, guidelines, practice parameters, or expert consensus statements presents clinical challenges. A 69-year-old woman presented for latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction. The patient had previously undergone implantation of a spinal cord stimulator, a gastric pacemaker, a sacral nerve stimulator, and an intrathecal morphine pump. After consultation with device manufacturers, the devices with patient programmability were switched off. Bipolar cautery was used intraoperatively. Postoperatively, all devices were interrogated to ensure appropriate functioning before home discharge. Perioperative goals include complete preoperative radiologic documentation of device component location, minimizing electromagnetic interference, and avoiding mechanical damage to implanted device components.

  1. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110}<100> oriented substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110}<100> textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  2. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  3. Axial Electron Heat Loss From Mirror Devices Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D

    2004-08-16

    An issue of the axial electron heat loss is of a significant importance for mirror-based fusion devices. This problem has been considered in a number of publications but it is still shrouded in misconceptions. In this paper we revisit it once again. We discuss the following issues: (1) Formation of the electron distribution function in the end tank at large expansion ratios; (2) The secondary emission from the end plates and the ways of suppressing it (if needed); (3) Ionization and charge exchange in the presence of neutrals in the end tanks; (4) Instabilities caused by the peculiar shape of the electron distribution function and their possible impact on the electron heat losses; (5) Electron heat losses in the pulsed mode of operation of mirror devices.

  4. 77 FR 68829 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements... limited exclusion order against certain electronic digital media devices and components thereof imported by respondents Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd. of Korea; Samsung Electronics America, Inc. of...

  5. 78 FR 6130 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof: Commission Determination To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof: Commission Determination To... certain electronic digital media devices and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain... notice of investigation are Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd. of Korea; Samsung Electronics America, Inc....

  6. Flexible Organic Electronics in Biology: Materials and Devices.

    PubMed

    Liao, Caizhi; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Mei Yu; Hua, Tao; Li, Li; Yan, Feng

    2015-12-09

    At the convergence of organic electronics and biology, organic bioelectronics attracts great scientific interest. The potential applications of organic semiconductors to reversibly transmit biological signals or stimulate biological tissues inspires many research groups to explore the use of organic electronics in biological systems. Considering the surfaces of movable living tissues being arbitrarily curved at physiological environments, the flexibility of organic bioelectronic devices is of paramount importance in enabling stable and reliable performances by improving the contact and interaction of the devices with biological systems. Significant advances in flexible organic bio-electronics have been achieved in the areas of flexible organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), polymer electrodes, smart textiles, organic electrochemical ion pumps (OEIPs), ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs) and chemiresistors. This review will firstly discuss the materials used in flexible organic bioelectronics, which is followed by an overview on various types of flexible organic bioelectronic devices. The versatility of flexible organic bioelectronics promises a bright future for this emerging area.

  7. Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Safety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, You Mi; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Minsu; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Kim, You-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conditional cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) have become recently available, non-MRI conditional devices and the presence of epicardial and abandoned leads remain a contraindication for MRIs. Subjects and Methods This was a single center retrospective study, evaluating the clinical outcomes and device parameter changes in patients with CIEDs who underwent an MRI from June 1992 to March 2015. Clinical and device related information was acquired by a thorough chart review. Results A total of 40 patients, 38 with a pacemaker (including epicardially located pacemaker leads) and 2 with implantable cardioverter defibrillators, underwent 50 MRI examinations. Among the patients, 11 had MRI conditional CIEDs, while the remaining had non-MRI conditional devices. Among these patients, 23 patients had traditional contraindications for an MRI: (1) nonfunctional leads (n=1, 2.5%), (2) epicardially located leads (n=9, 22.5%), (3) scanning area in proximity to a device (n=9, 22.5%), (4) devices implanted within 6 weeks (n=2, 5%), and (5) MRI field strength at 3.0 Tesla (n=6, 15%). All patients underwent a satisfactory MRI examination with no adverse events during or after the procedure. There were no significant changes in parameters or malfunctioning devices in any patients with CIEDs. Conclusion Under careful monitoring, MRI is safe to perform on patients with non-MRI conditional CIEDs, remnant leads, and epicardially located leads, as well as MRI-conditional devices. PMID:27826339

  8. High power electronic devices cooling at minimum ventilation power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Giampietro

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, the cooling of a high power electronic device is studied. The device is in contact with a heat dissipator crossed by air. The air motion through the dissipator is forced by a fan whose supplied power is to be minimized. A finite element dynamic model of the dissipator is firstly created, taking geometrical and physical properties into account as well as steady state experimental data. A simplified model is then obtained, which reproduces the time pattern of the maximum dissipator temperature as a response of the thermal flux removed from the electronic device and the mass flow rate of the air. Afterwards, the simplified model is utilized to build a control system which allows the electronic device to be correctly cooled at minimum air ventilation power during transition to steady states. Genetic algorithms are used to find the parameters of the finite element model and of the control system. Some functioning conditions of the electronic device are lastly considered and discussed.

  9. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    DOEpatents

    Frickey, Steven J [Boise, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  10. Technologies for Prolonging Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Longevity.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ernest W

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged longevity of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is needed not only as a passive response to match the prolonging life expectancy of patient recipients, but will also actively prolong their life expectancy by avoiding/deferring the risks (and costs) associated with device replacement. CIEDs are still exclusively powered by nonrechargeable primary batteries, and energy exhaustion is the dominant and an inevitable cause of device replacement. The longevity of a CIED is thus determined by the attrition rate of its finite energy reserve. The energy available from a battery depends on its capacity (total amount of electric charge), chemistry (anode, cathode, and electrolyte), and internal architecture (stacked plate, folded plate, and spiral wound). The energy uses of a CIED vary and include a background current for running electronic circuitry, periodic radiofrequency telemetry, high-voltage capacitor reformation, constant ventricular pacing, and sporadic shocks for the cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators. The energy use by a CIED is primarily determined by the patient recipient's clinical needs, but the energy stored in the device battery is entirely under the manufacturer's control. A larger battery capacity generally results in a longer-lasting device, but improved battery chemistry and architecture may allow more space-efficient designs. Armed with the necessary technical knowledge, healthcare professionals and purchasers will be empowered to make judicious selection on device models and maximize the utilization of all their energy-saving features, to prolong device longevity for the benefits of their patients and healthcare systems.

  11. Study on the frequency characteristics of nanogap electron devices

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ji; Wang, Qilong E-mail: bell@seu.edu.cn; Qi, Zhiyang; Zhai, Yusheng; Zhang, Xiaobing E-mail: bell@seu.edu.cn

    2015-05-28

    Ballistic electron transport in the nanogap devices will make it practical to combine the advantages of solid-state devices and vacuum electron devices including high integration and high frequency characteristics. Although a number of experiments have been exploited on frequency characteristic in nanogap, less modeling or calculations were investigated at such scale yet. In this paper, the concept of mean flight time is proposed in order to theoretically determine the frequency in nanoscale. Traditionally, we have to first determine the frequency response diagram and then deduce the cut-off frequency. This work presents a new method for exploring the frequency characteristics of electron transport in a nanogap structure by calculations and numerical simulations. A double-gate structure was applied in the simulations, and the results suggest that the nanogap structure can perform in the THz range. Additionally, an equivalent circuit model was adopted to demonstrate the validity of this method. Our results provide a model for the intrinsic ballistic transportation of electrons inside the nanogap electron devices.

  12. Porphyrins as Molecular Electronic Components of Functional Devices

    PubMed Central

    Jurow, Matthew; Schuckman, Amanda E.; Batteas, James D.; Drain, Charles Michael

    2010-01-01

    The proposal that molecules can perform electronic functions in devices such as diodes, rectifiers, wires, capacitors, or serve as functional materials for electronic or magnetic memory, has stimulated intense research across physics, chemistry, and engineering for over 35 years. Because biology uses porphyrins and metalloporphyrins as catalysts, small molecule transporters, electrical conduits, and energy transducers in photosynthesis, porphyrins are an obvious class of molecules to investigate for molecular electronic functions. Of the numerous kinds of molecules under investigation for molecular electronics applications, porphyrins and their related macrocycles are of particular interest because they are robust and their electronic properties can be tuned by chelation of a metal ion and substitution on the macrocycle. The other porphyrinoids have equally variable and adjustable photophysical properties, thus photonic applications are potentiated. At least in the near term, realistic architectures for molecular electronics will require self-organization or nanoprinting on surfaces. This review concentrates on self-organized porphyrinoids as components of working electronic devices on electronically active substrates with particular emphasis on the effect of surface, molecular design, molecular orientation and matrix on the detailed electronic properties of single molecules. PMID:20936084

  13. Electron deuteron scattering with HERA, a letter of intent for an experimental programme with the H1 detector

    SciTech Connect

    T. Alexopoulos; et. al.

    2003-12-01

    This document outlines the case for a program of electron-deuteron scattering measurements at HERA using the H1 detector. The goals of the e D program are to map the partonic structure of the nucleon at large Q2 and low x, to explore the valence quark distributions at the highest x values, to provide a precise measurement of the strong coupling constant and to investigate the parton recombination phenomena revealed in shadowing and their relationship to diffraction. The importance of these measurements for the understanding of the perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of QCD thought to be responsible for nucleon structure is discussed, as is the significance of the measurements for future experimental programs. Some modifications to both the H1 apparatus and the HERA accelerator are necessary to realize this program; these are presented in the document. Mention is also made of questions that will remain unanswered following the completion of the above program and the potential role of HERA and of H1 in investigating these questions is outlined. Physicists and Institutes interested in supporting this project are asked to inform Max Klein (klein@ifh.de) and Tim Greenshaw (green@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk) that they would like to have their names on the Letter of Intent by Wednesday 30th April 2003.

  14. Deformable devices with integrated functional nanomaterials for wearable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Jongsu; Son, Donghee; Choi, Moon Kee; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-03-01

    As the market and related industry for wearable electronics dramatically expands, there are continuous and strong demands for flexible and stretchable devices to be seamlessly integrated with soft and curvilinear human skin or clothes. However, the mechanical mismatch between the rigid conventional electronics and the soft human body causes many problems. Therefore, various prospective nanomaterials that possess a much lower flexural rigidity than their bulk counterparts have rapidly established themselves as promising electronic materials replacing rigid silicon and/or compound semiconductors in next-generation wearable devices. Many hybrid structures of multiple nanomaterials have been also developed to pursue both high performance and multifunctionality. Here, we provide an overview of state-of-the-art wearable devices based on one- or two-dimensional nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, single-crystal silicon and oxide nanomembranes, organic nanomaterials and their hybrids) in combination with zero-dimensional functional nanomaterials (e.g., metal/oxide nanoparticles and quantum dots). Starting from an introduction of materials strategies, we describe device designs and the roles of individual ones in integrated systems. Detailed application examples of wearable sensors/actuators, memories, energy devices, and displays are also presented.

  15. Deformable devices with integrated functional nanomaterials for wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Jongsu; Son, Donghee; Choi, Moon Kee; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    As the market and related industry for wearable electronics dramatically expands, there are continuous and strong demands for flexible and stretchable devices to be seamlessly integrated with soft and curvilinear human skin or clothes. However, the mechanical mismatch between the rigid conventional electronics and the soft human body causes many problems. Therefore, various prospective nanomaterials that possess a much lower flexural rigidity than their bulk counterparts have rapidly established themselves as promising electronic materials replacing rigid silicon and/or compound semiconductors in next-generation wearable devices. Many hybrid structures of multiple nanomaterials have been also developed to pursue both high performance and multifunctionality. Here, we provide an overview of state-of-the-art wearable devices based on one- or two-dimensional nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, single-crystal silicon and oxide nanomembranes, organic nanomaterials and their hybrids) in combination with zero-dimensional functional nanomaterials (e.g., metal/oxide nanoparticles and quantum dots). Starting from an introduction of materials strategies, we describe device designs and the roles of individual ones in integrated systems. Detailed application examples of wearable sensors/actuators, memories, energy devices, and displays are also presented.

  16. 77 FR 34063 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof... devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof by reason of infringement of... certain electronics devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof...

  17. Travel in Adverse Weather Using Electronic Mobility Guidance Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Leicester W.

    1975-01-01

    After a discussion of the required characteristics of an ideal aid for blind individuals traveling in adverse weather, four electronic mobility guidance devices- the Mowat Sonar Sensor, the Russell E Model Pathsounder, the Bionic C-5 Laser Cane, and the Mark II Binaural Sensory Aid-are described in detail. (Author/SB)

  18. X-Ray-Diffraction Tests Of Irradiated Electronic Devices: II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, David C.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Barnes, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes research on use of x-ray diffraction to measure stresses in metal conductors of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits exposed to ionizing radiation. Expanding upon report summarized in "X-Ray-Diffraction Tests Of Irradiated Electronic Devices: I" (NPO-18803), presenting data further suggesting relationship between electrical performances of circuits and stresses and strains in metal conductors.

  19. 77 FR 38829 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Institution of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade... Commission institute an investigation and, after the investigation, issue an exclusion order and cease and... accessing its Internet server at http://www.usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may...

  20. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2010-10-12

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  1. Electromechanical Devices and Controllers. Electronics Module 10. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ed

    This module is the tenth of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module, a parts/equipment list, and a cross-reference table of instructional materials. Six instructional units cover: electromechanical control devices; programmable logic controllers (PLC);…

  2. A Web Service and Interface for Remote Electronic Device Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, S.; Prakash, S.; Estrada, D.; Pop, E.

    2011-01-01

    A lightweight Web Service and a Web site interface have been developed, which enable remote measurements of electronic devices as a "virtual laboratory" for undergraduate engineering classes. Using standard browsers without additional plugins (such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, or even Safari on an iPhone), remote users can control a Keithley…

  3. Quantitative model studies for interfaces in organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, J. Michael

    2016-11-01

    In organic light-emitting diodes and similar devices, organic semiconductors are typically contacted by metal electrodes. Because the resulting metal/organic interfaces have a large impact on the performance of these devices, their quantitative understanding is indispensable for the further rational development of organic electronics. A study by Kröger et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 113022) of an important single-crystal based model interface provides detailed insight into its geometric and electronic structure and delivers valuable benchmark data for computational studies. In view of the differences between typical surface-science model systems and real devices, a ‘materials gap’ is identified that needs to be addressed by future research to make the knowledge obtained from fundamental studies even more beneficial for real-world applications.

  4. Electrodes mitigating effects of defects in organic electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Heller, Christian Maria Anton

    2008-05-06

    A compound electrode for organic electronic devices comprises a thin first layer of a first electrically conducting material and a second electrically conducting material disposed on the first layer. In one embodiment, the second electrically conducting material is formed into a plurality of elongated members. In another embodiment, the second material is formed into a second layer. The elongated members or the second layer has a thickness greater than that of the first layer. The second layer is separated from the first layer by a conducting material having conductivity less than at least the material of the first layer. The compound electrode is capable of mitigating adverse effects of defects, such as short circuits, in the construction of the organic electronic devices, and can be included in light-emitting or photovoltaic devices.

  5. Beam acceleration by plasma-loaded free-electron devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, K. H.; Serbeto, A.; D'olival, J. B.

    1998-01-01

    The use of a plasma-filled wiggler free-electron laser device operating near the plasma cutoff to accelerate electron beams is examined. Near the cutoff, the group velocity of the microwave field in the plasma is much less than the beam velocity. This scheme, therefore, operates in the pulse mode to accelerate electron beam bunches much shorter than the wiggler length. Between one bunch and the other, the wiggler is reloaded with microwave field. During the loading period, the laser-wiggler-plasma (SWL) Raman interaction generates a Langmuir mode with the laser and the wiggler as the primary energy sources. When the wiggler plasma is fully loaded with microwave field, a short electron bunch is fired into the device. In this accelerating period, the Langmuir mode is coupled to the laser-wiggler-beam (SWB) free-electron-laser interaction. The condition that the Langmuir phase velocity matches the free-electron-laser resonant beam velocity assures the simultaneous interaction of the SWL and SWB parametric processes. Beam acceleration is accomplished fundamentally via the space charge field of the Langmuir mode and the electron phase in the ponderomotive potential. Linear energy gain regime is accomplished when the phase velocity of the Langmuir mode is exactly equal to the speed of light.

  6. Adhesive lithography for fabricating organic electronic and optoelectronics devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Xing, Rubo; Yu, Xinhong; Han, Yanchun

    2011-07-01

    Improvements in organic electronic materials have led to novel device applications, ranging from large-area flexible displays to lightweight plastic electronics. Progress on these applications would benefit from development of low-cost fabrication techniques for organic semiconductors. In this review, several fabrication processes based on adhesion force (i.e. van der Waals forces, thiol-metal reactions, and cold welding) are introduced. These patterning techniques are dry patterning techniques, i.e., the electronic materials are patterned from the raised regions of molds onto a substrate directly by additive or subtractive patterning methods. Patterning of organic small molecule, polymer thin films and metal electrodes by adhesive lithography is demonstrated. The operating properties of patterned organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) are comparable with the performance of devices fabricated by conventional evaporation deposition methods.

  7. Adhesive lithography for fabricating organic electronic and optoelectronics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Xing, Rubo; Yu, Xinhong; Han, Yanchun

    2011-07-01

    Improvements in organic electronic materials have led to novel device applications, ranging from large-area flexible displays to lightweight plastic electronics. Progress on these applications would benefit from development of low-cost fabrication techniques for organic semiconductors. In this review, several fabrication processes based on adhesion force (i.e. van der Waals forces, thiol-metal reactions, and cold welding) are introduced. These patterning techniques are dry patterning techniques, i.e., the electronic materials are patterned from the raised regions of molds onto a substrate directly by additive or subtractive patterning methods. Patterning of organic small molecule, polymer thin films and metal electrodes by adhesive lithography is demonstrated. The operating properties of patterned organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) are comparable with the performance of devices fabricated by conventional evaporation deposition methods.

  8. Theoretical analysis of a runaway electron suppression device

    SciTech Connect

    Niemer, K.A.; Gilligan, J.G. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Croessmann, C.D. ); England, A.C. )

    1990-01-01

    A new runaway electron suppression paddle was designed with the PTA code package to reduce the runaway electron population in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The PTA code package is a unique application of PATRAN, the Integrated TIGER Series, and ABAQUS for modeling high energy electron impact on magnetic fusion components and materials. By its nature, ATF is susceptible to runaway electron formation and confinement resulting in the production of a high level of hard x-rays near the machine. Four previous stainless steel paddles proved effective in reducing the runaway electron population; however, electrons above 15 MeV have still been observed. Melting and bending were observed in each of the previous paddles, reducing their effectiveness. Scoping experiments are under way to further characterize the runaway electrons in ATF. Data from these experiments will provide insight into runaway electron damage mechanisms. Proposals for the insertion of a new paddle in ATF are being considered. These analyses add to the knowledge of runaway electron damage and will aid in the design of future components to withstand runaway electron discharges in all magnetic fusion devices, including tokamaks. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. 78 FR 56245 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for... limited exclusion order against certain wireless consumer electronics devices and components thereof... Corporation of Kyoto, Japan; Kyocera Communications, Inc. of San Diego, California; LG Electronics, Inc....

  10. Low power signal processing electronics for wearable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Custom designed microchips, known as Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), offer the lowest possible power consumption electronics. However, this comes at the cost of a longer, more complex and more costly design process compared to one using generic, off-the-shelf components. Nevertheless, their use is essential in future truly wearable medical devices that must operate for long periods of time from physically small, energy limited batteries. This presentation will demonstrate the state-of-the-art in ASIC technology for providing online signal processing for use in these wearable medical devices.

  11. Evaluation of Miscellaneous and Electronic Device Energy Use in Hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Douglas R.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Lai, Judy; Brown, Richard E.; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-09-01

    Miscellaneous and electronic loads (MELs) consume about one-thirdof the primary energy used in US buildings, and their energy use is increasing faster than other end-uses. In healthcare facilities, 30percent of the annual electricity was used by MELs in 2008. This paper presents methods and challenges for estimating medical MELs energy consumption along with estimates of energy use in a hospital by combining device-level metered data with inventories and usage information. An important finding is that common, small devices consume large amounts of energy in aggregate and should not be ignored when trying to address hospital energy use.

  12. Electron guns and collectors developed at INP for electron cooling devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapa, A.N.; Shemyakin, A.V.

    1997-09-01

    Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) has a rich experience in designing electron guns and collectors for electron cooling devices. This paper is a review of the experience of several INP research groups in this field. Some results obtained at INP for systems without a guiding magnetic field are also discussed.

  13. A generalized quantum chemical approach for elastic and inelastic electron transports in molecular electronics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Kula, Mathias; Luo, Yi

    2006-01-01

    A generalized quantum chemical approach for electron transport in molecular devices is developed. It allows one to treat devices where the metal electrodes and the molecule are either chemically or physically bonded on equal footing. An extension to include the vibration motions of the molecule has also been implemented which has produced the inelastic electron-tunneling spectroscopy of molecular electronics devices with unprecedented accuracy. Important information about the structure of the molecule and of metal-molecule contacts that are not accessible in the experiment are revealed. The calculated current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of different molecular devices, including benzene-1,4-dithiolate, octanemonothiolate [H(CH2)8S], and octanedithiolate [S(CH2)8S] bonded to gold electrodes, are in very good agreement with experimental measurements.

  14. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on the large helical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; England, A.; Ito, Y.; Bretz, N.; McCarthy, M.; Taylor, G.; Doane, J.; Ikezi, H.; Edlington, T.; Tomas, J.

    1999-01-01

    The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic system is installed on the large helical device (LHD). The system includes the following instruments: a heterodyne radiometer, a Michelson spectrometer, and a grating polychromator. A 63.5 mm corrugated waveguide system is fully utilized. Large collection optics and notch filters at the frequency of the LHD electron cyclotron heating (ECH) were developed for this system. In addition to these filters, the rectangular waveguide notch filters, the ECE measurement with the radiometer has been successfully performed during the ECH.

  15. Atomtronics: Ultracold-atom analogs of electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Seaman, B. T.; Kraemer, M.; Anderson, D. Z.; Holland, M. J.

    2007-02-15

    Atomtronics focuses on atom analogs of electronic materials, devices, and circuits. A strongly interacting ultracold Bose gas in a lattice potential is analogous to electrons in solid-state crystalline media. As a consequence of the gapped many-body energy spectrum, cold atoms in a lattice exhibit insulatorlike or conductorlike properties. P-type and N-type material analogs are created by introducing impurity sites into the lattice. Current through an atomtronic wire is generated by connecting the wire to an atomtronic battery which maintains the two contacts at different chemical potentials. The design of an atomtronic diode with a strongly asymmetric current-voltage curve exploits the existence of superfluid and insulating regimes in the phase diagram. The atom analog of a bipolar junction transistor exhibits large negative gain. Our results provide the building blocks for more advanced atomtronic devices and circuits such as amplifiers, oscillators, and fundamental logic gates.

  16. Exploiting the colloidal nanocrystal library to construct electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Wang, Han; Oh, Soong Ju; Paik, Taejong; Sung, Pil; Sung, Jinwoo; Ye, Xingchen; Zhao, Tianshuo; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Murray, Christopher B.; Kagan, Cherie R.

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic methods produce libraries of colloidal nanocrystals with tunable physical properties by tailoring the nanocrystal size, shape, and composition. Here, we exploit colloidal nanocrystal diversity and design the materials, interfaces, and processes to construct all-nanocrystal electronic devices using solution-based processes. Metallic silver and semiconducting cadmium selenide nanocrystals are deposited to form high-conductivity and high-mobility thin-film electrodes and channel layers of field-effect transistors. Insulating aluminum oxide nanocrystals are assembled layer by layer with polyelectrolytes to form high-dielectric constant gate insulator layers for low-voltage device operation. Metallic indium nanocrystals are codispersed with silver nanocrystals to integrate an indium supply in the deposited electrodes that serves to passivate and dope the cadmium selenide nanocrystal channel layer. We fabricate all-nanocrystal field-effect transistors on flexible plastics with electron mobilities of 21.7 square centimeters per volt-second.

  17. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh; Woodward, Jonathan

    2006-01-17

    The employment of metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The fuel cell includes an electrolyte membrane comprising a membrane support structure comprising bacterial cellulose, an anode disposed on one side of the electrolyte membrane, and a cathode disposed on an opposite side of the electrolyte membrane. At least one of the anode and the cathode comprises an electrode support structure comprising bacterial cellulose, and a catalyst disposed in or on the electrode support structure.

  18. Interface engineering for high performance graphene electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Dae Yool; Yang, Sang Yoon; Park, Hamin; Shin, Woo Cheol; Oh, Joong Gun; Cho, Byung Jin; Choi, Sung-Yool

    2015-06-01

    A decade after the discovery of graphene flakes, exfoliated from graphite, we have now secured large scale and high quality graphene film growth technology via a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. With the establishment of mass production of graphene using CVD, practical applications of graphene to electronic devices have gained an enormous amount of attention. However, several issues arise from the interfaces of graphene systems, such as damage/unintentional doping of graphene by the transfer process, the substrate effects on graphene, and poor dielectric formation on graphene due to its inert features, which result in degradation of both electrical performance and reliability in actual devices. The present paper provides a comprehensive review of the recent approaches to resolve these issues by interface engineering of graphene for high performance electronic devices. We deal with each interface that is encountered during the fabrication steps of graphene devices, from the graphene/metal growth substrate to graphene/high-k dielectrics, including the intermediate graphene/target substrate.

  19. The molecular electronic device and the biochip computer: present status.

    PubMed Central

    Haddon, R C; Lamola, A A

    1985-01-01

    The idea that a single molecule might function as a self-contained electronic device has been of interest for some time. However, a fully integrated version--the biochip or the biocomputer, in which both production and assembly of molecular electronic components is achieved through biotechnology-is a relatively new concept that is currently attracting attention both within the scientific community and among the general public. In the present article we draw together some of the approaches being considered for the construction of such devices and delineate the revolutionary nature of the current proposals for molecular electronic devices (MEDs) and biochip computers (BCCs). With the silicon semiconductor conductor industry already in place and in view of the continuing successes of the lithographic process it seems appropriate to ask why the highly speculative MED or BCC has engendered such interest. In some respects the answer is paradigmatic as much as it is real. It is perhaps best stated as the promise of the realm of the molecular. Thus it is envisioned that devices will be constructed by assembly of individual molecular electronic components into arrays, thereby engineering from small upward rather than large downward as do current lithographic techniques. An important corollary of the construction technique is that the functional elements of such an array would be individual molecules rather than macroscopic ensembles. These two aspects of the MED/BCC--assembly of molecular arrays and individually accessible functional molecular units--are truly revolutionary. Both require scientific breakthroughs and the necessary principles, quite apart from the technology, remain essentially unknown. It is concluded that the advent of the MED/BCC still lies well before us. The twin criteria of utilization of individual molecules as functional elements and the assembly of such elements remains as elusive as ever. Biology engineers structures on the molecular scale but

  20. Complex formation dynamics in a single-molecule electronic device

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Huimin; Li, Wengang; Chen, Jiewei; He, Gen; Li, Longhua; Olson, Mark A.; Sue, Andrew C.-H.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Guo, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule electronic devices offer unique opportunities to investigate the properties of individual molecules that are not accessible in conventional ensemble experiments. However, these investigations remain challenging because they require (i) highly precise device fabrication to incorporate single molecules and (ii) sufficient time resolution to be able to make fast molecular dynamic measurements. We demonstrate a graphene-molecule single-molecule junction that is capable of probing the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of a host-guest complex. By covalently integrating a conjugated molecular wire with a pendent crown ether into graphene point contacts, we can transduce the physical [2]pseudorotaxane (de)formation processes between the electron-rich crown ether and a dicationic guest into real-time electrical signals. The conductance of the single-molecule junction reveals two-level fluctuations that are highly dependent on temperature and solvent environments, affording a nondestructive means of quantitatively determining the binding and rate constants, as well as the activation energies, for host-guest complexes. The thermodynamic processes reveal the host-guest binding to be enthalpy-driven and are consistent with conventional 1H nuclear magnetic resonance titration experiments. This electronic device opens up a new route to developing single-molecule dynamics investigations with microsecond resolution for a broad range of chemical and biochemical applications. PMID:28138528

  1. Letter Writing in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericksen, Elaine

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that beginning writers can improve skills when they exchange letters with peers, teachers, and others. Offers a brief historical perspective on the use of letters as a pedagogical device. Outlines current applications of letter writing and exchanges in: English as a second language; technical and business writing; composition and…

  2. Calcium chloride electron injection/extraction layers in organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Bo; Gao, Zhi; Yang, Hongsheng; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-01

    Nontoxic calcium chloride (CaCl2) was introduced into organic electronic devices as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The turn-on voltage and maximum luminance of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with 1.5 nm CaCl2 was 3.5 V and 21 960 cd/m2, respectively. OLED with 1.5 nm CaCl2 possessed comparable electroluminescent characteristics to that of the commonly used LiF. Moreover, the performance of the organic photovoltaic device with 0.5 nm CaCl2 was comparable to that of the control device with LiF. Therefore, CaCl2 has the potential to be used as the CBL for organic electronic devices.

  3. Investigation of electronic noise in selected mesoscopic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camino, Fernando Enrique

    In the last few years, several experiments and theoretical works have confirmed the importance of shot-noise measurements as a source of information about the charge transport in electronic devices, information that is not in all cases accessible from conductance measurements. The use of shot-noise for the direct confirmation of the fractional charge in the fractional quantum Hall effect or the identification of the transport mechanism in negative differential resistance devices are a few examples of its importance. In this thesis, we have performed shot-noise measurements on two semiconductor-based systems in which shot noise is different from the Poissonian value 2eI The first one is a superconductor/semiconductor/superconductor (sp/sm/sp) junction where the superconducting electrodes are 0.5 um apart and the semiconductor bridge between them is composed of a two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG). The second system is a 2-DEG in the hopping conduction regime. The fabrication of sp/sm/sp junctions is explained in detail in this work as so are the noise measurements of two devices that show enhancement from the Poissonian value. These devices present the signatures of the phenomenon of Andreev reflections and supercurrent at 1.2K; therefore, we tentatively attribute the enhancement to this phenomenon, which has been predicted to give giant noise enhancement for superconducting quantum point contacts (SQPC). On the other hand, in the hoping conduction device, we have observed shot-noise suppression from its classical value, confirming in a different material system a previous experimental result that was explained by percolation theory. In addition, we have driven the system to a region where percolation theory seems to fail, signaling a reconstruction of the hopping trajectories.

  4. Modeling and simulation of electronic structure, material interface and random doping in nano electronic devices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The miniaturization of nano-scale electronic devices, such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), has given rise to a pressing demand in the new theoretical understanding and practical tactic for dealing with quantum mechanical effects in integrated circuits. Modeling and simulation of this class of problems have emerged as an important topic in applied and computational mathematics. This work presents mathematical models and computational algorithms for the simulation of nano-scale MOSFETs. We introduce a unified two-scale energy functional to describe the electrons and the continuum electrostatic potential of the nano-electronic device. This framework enables us to put microscopic and macroscopic descriptions in an equal footing at nano scale. By optimization of the energy functional, we derive consistently-coupled Poisson-Kohn-Sham equations. Additionally, layered structures are crucial to the electrostatic and transport properties of nano transistors. A material interface model is proposed for more accurate description of the electrostatics governed by the Poisson equation. Finally, a new individual dopant model that utilizes the Dirac delta function is proposed to understand the random doping effect in nano electronic devices. Two mathematical algorithms, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method and the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping (DNM) technique, are introduced to improve the computational efficiency of nano-device simulations. Electronic structures are computed via subband decomposition and the transport properties, such as the I-V curves and electron density, are evaluated via the non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) formalism. Two distinct device configurations, a double-gate MOSFET and a four-gate MOSFET, are considered in our three-dimensional numerical simulations. For these devices, the current fluctuation and voltage threshold lowering effect induced by the discrete dopant model are explored. Numerical convergence

  5. Modeling and simulation of electronic structure, material interface and random doping in nano electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-06-20

    The miniaturization of nano-scale electronic devices, such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), has given rise to a pressing demand in the new theoretical understanding and practical tactic for dealing with quantum mechanical effects in integrated circuits. Modeling and simulation of this class of problems have emerged as an important topic in applied and computational mathematics. This work presents mathematical models and computational algorithms for the simulation of nano-scale MOSFETs. We introduce a unified two-scale energy functional to describe the electrons and the continuum electrostatic potential of the nano-electronic device. This framework enables us to put microscopic and macroscopic descriptions in an equal footing at nano scale. By optimization of the energy functional, we derive consistently-coupled Poisson-Kohn-Sham equations. Additionally, layered structures are crucial to the electrostatic and transport properties of nano transistors. A material interface model is proposed for more accurate description of the electrostatics governed by the Poisson equation. Finally, a new individual dopant model that utilizes the Dirac delta function is proposed to understand the random doping effect in nano electronic devices. Two mathematical algorithms, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method and the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping (DNM) technique, are introduced to improve the computational efficiency of nano-device simulations. Electronic structures are computed via subband decomposition and the transport properties, such as the I-V curves and electron density, are evaluated via the non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) formalism. Two distinct device configurations, a double-gate MOSFET and a four-gate MOSFET, are considered in our three-dimensional numerical simulations. For these devices, the current fluctuation and voltage threshold lowering effect induced by the discrete dopant model are explored. Numerical convergence

  6. Modeling and simulation of electronic structure, material interface and random doping in nano-electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-06-01

    The miniaturization of nano-scale electronic devices, such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), has given rise to a pressing demand in the new theoretical understanding and practical tactic for dealing with quantum mechanical effects in integrated circuits. Modeling and simulation of this class of problems have emerged as an important topic in applied and computational mathematics. This work presents mathematical models and computational algorithms for the simulation of nano-scale MOSFETs. We introduce a unified two-scale energy functional to describe the electrons and the continuum electrostatic potential of the nano-electronic device. This framework enables us to put microscopic and macroscopic descriptions in an equal footing at nano-scale. By optimization of the energy functional, we derive consistently coupled Poisson-Kohn-Sham equations. Additionally, layered structures are crucial to the electrostatic and transport properties of nano-transistors. A material interface model is proposed for more accurate description of the electrostatics governed by the Poisson equation. Finally, a new individual dopant model that utilizes the Dirac delta function is proposed to understand the random doping effect in nano-electronic devices. Two mathematical algorithms, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method and the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping (DNM) technique, are introduced to improve the computational efficiency of nano-device simulations. Electronic structures are computed via subband decomposition and the transport properties, such as the I- V curves and electron density, are evaluated via the non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) formalism. Two distinct device configurations, a double-gate MOSFET and a four-gate MOSFET, are considered in our three-dimensional numerical simulations. For these devices, the current fluctuation and voltage threshold lowering effect induced by the discrete dopant model are explored. Numerical

  7. Opto-electronic devices with nanoparticles and their assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Chieu Van

    Nanotechnology is a fast growing field; engineering matters at the nano-meter scale. A key nanomaterial is nanoparticles (NPs). These sub-wavelength (< 100nm) particles provide tremendous possibilities due to their unique electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. Plethora of NPs with various chemical composition, size and shape has been synthesized. Clever designs of sub-wavelength structures enable observation of unusual properties of materials, and have led to new areas of research such as metamaterials. This dissertation describes two self-assemblies of gold nanoparticles, leading to an ultra-soft thin film and multi-functional single electron device at room temperature. First, the layer-by-layer self-assembly of 10nm Au nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes is shown to behave like a cellular-foam with modulus below 100 kPa. As a result, the composite thin film (˜ 100nm) is 5 orders of magnitude softer than an equally thin typical polymer film. The thin film can be compressed reversibly to 60% strain. The extraordinarily low modulus and high compressibility are advantageous in pressure sensing applications. The unique mechanical properties of the composite film lead to development of an ultra-sensitive tactile imaging device capable of screening for breast cancer. On par with human finger sensitivity, the tactile device can detect a 5mm imbedded object up to 20mm below the surface with low background noise. The second device is based on a one-dimensional (1-D) self-directed self-assembly of Au NPs mediated by dielectric materials. Depending on the coverage density of the Au NPs assembly deposited on the device, electronic emission was observed at ultra-low bias of 40V, leading to low-power plasma generation in air at atmospheric pressure. Light emitted from the plasma is apparent to the naked eyes. Similarly, 1-D self-assembly of Au NPs mediated by iron oxide was fabricated and exhibits ferro-magnetic behavior. The multi-functional 1-D self-assembly of Au

  8. Individual carbon nanotubes for quantum electronic and quantum photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Nan

    2011-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising materials since their unique one dimensional geometry leads to remarkable physical properties such as ballistic transport, long mean free path, large direct band gaps, high mechanical tensile strength and strong exciton binding energies, which make them attractive candidates for applications in high-performance nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. CNT-based field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) are considered to be ideally suited for future nanoelectronics. Single CNT-FETs made by depositing metal electrodes on top of individual CNTs with E-beam lithography have achieved great performance but are limited for massive large area integrated circuit fabrication. Therefore, this thesis demonstrates characteristics of CNT-FETs made by registered in-plane growth utilizing tailored nanoscale catalyst patterns and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), resulting in CNT arrays directly bridging source and drain. The demonstrated access to individual CNTs with pronounced semiconducting behavior opens also the possibility to form more advanced nanoelectronic structures such as CNT quantum dots. CNT-based single electron transistors (CNT-SETS) are promising for quantum electronic devices operating with ultra-low power consumption and allow fundamental studies of electron transport. In addition to existing CNT-SETS based on individual CNTs, we have fabricated the first CNT-SETS based on in-plane grown CNTs using the CVD technique. The demonstrated utilization of registered in-plane growth opens possibilities to create novel SET device geometries which are more complex, i.e. laterally ordered and scalable, as required for advanced quantum electronic devices. Blinking and spectral diffusion are hallmarks of nanoscale light emitters and a challenge for creating stable fluorescent biomarkers or efficient nonclassical light sources. The studies of blinking of CNTs are still in the explorative stage. In this thesis, I show the first experimental

  9. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetse, Marc M.; Rensing, Peter A.; Sharpe, Ruben B. A.; van Heck, Gert T.; Allard, Bart A. M.; Meulendijks, Nicole N. M. M.; Kruijt, Peter G. M.; Tijdink, Marcel W. W. J.; De Zwart, René M.; Houben, René J.; Enting, Erik; van Veen, Sjaak J. J. F.; Schoo, Herman F. M.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e.g. integrated in food product packaging), flexible or bendable sensors in wearables, large area/distributed sensors, and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyze signals, process and store data, and interact over a network. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/performance ratios, especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. The organic devices, light emitting diodes, photodiodes and selective medium chip, are integrated with classic electronic components. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. The emphasis is given to the sensor principle, the design, fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices.

  10. In plane optical sensor based on organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetse, Marc; Rensing, Peter; van Heck, Gert; Sharpe, Ruben; Allard, Bart; Wieringa, Fokko; Kruijt, Peter; Meulendijks, Nicole; Jansen, Henk; Schoo, Herman

    2008-08-01

    Sensors based on organic electronic devices are emerging in a wide range of application areas. Here we present a sensor platform using organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and organic photodiodes (OPD) as active components. By means of lamination and interconnection technology the functional foils with OLED and OPD arrays form an in-plane optical sensor platform (IPOS). This platform can be extended with a wireless data and signal processing unit yielding a sensor node. The focus of our research is to engage the node in a healthcare application, in which a bandage is able to monitor the vital signs of a person, a so-called Smart Bandage. One of the principles that is described here is based on measuring the absorption modulation of blood volume induced by the pulse (photoplethysmography). The information from such a bandage could be used to monitor wound healing by measuring the perfusion in the skin. The OLED and OPD devices are manufactured on separate foils and glass substrates by means of printing and coating technologies. Furthermore, the modular approach allows for the application of the optical sensing unit in a variety of other fields including chemical sensing. This, ultimately enables the measurement of a large variety of physiological parameters using the same bandage and the same basic sensor architecture. Here we discuss the build-up of our device in general terms. Specific characteristics of the used OLEDs and OPDs are shown and finally we demonstrate the functionality by simultaneously recorded photoplethysmograms of our device and a clinical pulseoximeter.

  11. 77 FR 49458 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Amendment of the Complaint and Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Amendment of the Complaint and Notice of... States after importation of certain mobile electronic devices incorporating haptics, by reason of...

  12. 77 FR 51572 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation... Properties Limited LLC of Cupertino, California, Phoenix Digital Solutions LLC of Cupertino, California, and... United States after importation of certain wireless consumer electronics devices and components...

  13. 77 FR 44671 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of... received a complaint entitled Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof, DN 2904... of Technology Properties Limited LLC, Phoenix Digital Solutions LLC and Patriot...

  14. 78 FR 73563 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products... limited exclusion order prohibiting the unlicensed entry of electronic devices having placeshifting...

  15. 76 FR 24051 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, mobile tablets, portable music players... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable Music Players, and Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of Investigation AGENCY:...

  16. 76 FR 60870 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Communication Capabilities, Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ..., and Related Software; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to... electronic devices with communication capabilities, components thereof, and related software by reason of... certain electronic devices with communication capabilities, components thereof, and related software...

  17. 75 FR 76485 - Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission... United States after importation of certain electronic paper towel dispensing devices and...

  18. Cumulative Interference to Aircraft Radios from Multiple Portable Electronic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.

    2005-01-01

    Cumulative interference effects from portable electronic devices (PEDs) located inside a passenger cabin are conservatively estimated for aircraft radio receivers. PEDs' emission powers in an aircraft radio frequency band are first scaled according to their locations' interference path loss (IPL) values, and the results are summed to determine the total interference power. The multiple-equipment-factor (MEF) is determined by normalizing the result against the worst case contribution from a single device. Conservative assumptions were made and MEF calculations were performed for Boeing 737's Localizer, Glide-slope, Traffic Collision Avoidance System, and Very High Frequency Communication radio systems where full-aircraft IPL data were available. The results show MEF for the systems to vary between 10 and 14 dB. The same process was also used on the more popular window/door IPL data, and the comparison show the multiple-equipment-factor results came within one decibel (dB) of each other.

  19. Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infection: From an Infection Prevention Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sastry, Sangeeta; Rahman, Riaz; Yassin, Mohamed H.

    2015-01-01

    A cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) is indicated for patients with severely reduced ejection fraction or with life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Infection related to a CIED is one of the most feared complications of this life-saving device. The rate of CIED infection has been estimated to be between 2 and 25; though evidence shows that this rate continues to rise with increasing expenditure to the patient as well as healthcare systems. Multiple risk factors have been attributed to the increased rates of CIED infection and host comorbidities as well as procedure related risks. Infection prevention efforts are being developed as defined bundles in numerous hospitals around the country given the increased morbidity and mortality from CIED related infections. This paper aims at reviewing the various infection prevention measures employed at hospitals and also highlights the areas that have relatively less established evidence for efficacy. PMID:26550494

  20. Electronic SSKIN pathway: reducing device-related pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Natalie

    2016-08-11

    This article describes how an interprofessional project in a London NHS Foundation Trust was undertaken to develop an intranet-based medical device-related pressure ulcer prevention and management pathway for clinical staff working across an adult critical care directorate, where life-threatening events require interventions using medical devices. The aim of this project was to improve working policies and processes to define key prevention strategies and provide clinicians with a clear, standardised approach to risk and skin assessment, equipment use, documentation and reporting clinical data using the Trust's CareVue (electronic medical records), Datix (incident reporting and risk-management tool) and eTRACE (online clinical protocol ordering) systems. The process included the development, trial and local implementation of the pathway using collaborative teamwork and the SSKIN care bundle tool. The experience of identifying issues, overcoming challenges, defining best practice and cascading SSKIN awareness training is shared.

  1. Management of Cardiac Electronic Device Infections: Challenges and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Jens Brock; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection is an increasing problem. Reasons for this are uncertain, but likely relate to an increasing proportion of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) devices implanted, as well as implantations in ’higher risk‘ candidates, i.e. patients with heart failure, diabetes and renal failure. Challenges within the field of CIED infections are multiple with prevention being the most important challenge. Careful prescription of CIED treatment and careful patient preparation before implantation is important. Diagnosis is often difficult and delayed by subtle signs of infection. Treatment of CIED infection includes complete system removal in centres experienced in CIED extraction and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Meticulous planning and preparation before system extraction and later CIED re-implantation is essential for better patient outcome. Future strategies for reducing CIED infection should be tested in sufficiently powered, multicentre, randomised controlled trials. PMID:28116083

  2. Spin-orbit-based device for electron spin polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avishai, Y.; Band, Y. B.

    2017-03-01

    We propose quantum devices having spin-orbit coupling (but no magnetic fields or magnetic materials) that, when attached to leads, yield a high degree of transmitted electron polarization. An example of such a simple device is treated within a tight binding model composed of two one-dimensional chains coupled by several consecutive rungs (i.e., a ladder) and subject to a gate voltage. The ensuing scattering problem (with Rashba spin-orbit coupling) is solved, and a sizable polarization is predicted. When the ladder is twisted into a helix (as in DNA), the curvature energy augments the polarization. For a system with random spin-orbit coupling, the distribution of polarization is broad; hence a high degree of polarization can be obtained in a measurement of a given disorder realization. When disorder occurs in a double helix structure then, depending on scattering energy, the variance of the polarization distribution can increase even further due to helix curvature.

  3. Development of medical electronic devices in the APL space department

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    Several electronic devices for automatically correcting specific defects in a body's physiologic regulation and allowing approximately normal functioning are described. A self-injurious behavior inhibiting system (SIBIS) is fastened to the arm of a person with chronic self-injurious behavior patterns. An electric shock is delivered into the arm whenever the device senses above-threshold acceleration of the head such as occur with head-bangers. Sounding a buzzer tone with the shock eventually allows transference of the aversive stimulus to the buzzer so shocks are no longer necessary. A programmable implantable medication system features a solenoid pump placed beneath the skin and refueled by hypodermic needle. The pump functions are programmable and can deliver insulin, chemotherapy mixes and/or pain killers according to a preset schedule or on patient demand. Finally, an automatic implantible defibrillator has four electrodes attached directly to the heart for sensing electrical impulses or emitting them in response to cardiac fibrillation.

  4. Electron-doping of graphene-based devices by hydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Tingting; Xie, Dan; Wang, Dongxia; Wen, Lang; Wu, Mengqiang

    2014-12-14

    A facile and effective technique to tune the electronic properties of graphene is essential to facilitate the flexibility of graphene-based device performances. Here, the use of hydrazine as a solution-processable and effective n-type dopant for graphene is described. By dropping hydrazine solutions at different concentrations on a graphene surface, the Dirac point of graphene can be remarkably tuned. The transport behavior of graphene can be changed from p-type to n-type accordingly, demonstrating the controllable and adjustable doping effect of the hydrazine solutions. Accompanying the Dirac point shift is an enhanced hysteretic behavior of the graphene conductance, indicating an increasing trap state density induced by the hydrazine adsorbates. The electron-doping of graphene by the hydrazine solutions can be additionally confirmed with graphene/p-type silicon heterojunctions. The decrease of the junction current after the hydrazine treatment demonstrates an increase of the junction barrier between graphene and silicon, which is essentially due to the electron-doping of graphene and the resultant upshift of the Fermi level. Finally, partially doped graphene is realized and its electrical property is studied to demonstrate the potential of the hydrazine solutions to selectively electron-doping graphene for future electronic applications.

  5. Development of High Power Electron Beam Measuring and Analyzing System for Microwave Vacuum Electron Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, C. J.; Wu, X. L.; Li, Q. S.; Li, C. S.

    The measurement and analysis of high power electron beam during its formation and transmission are the basic scientific problems and key techniques for the development of high performance microwave vacuum electron devices, which are widely used in the fields of military weapon, microwave system and scientific instruments. In this paper, the dynamic parameters measurement and analysis system being built in Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IECAS) recently are introduced. The instrument are designed to determine the cross-section, the current density, and the energy resolution of the high power electron beam during its formation and transmission process, which are available both for the electron gun and the electron optics system respectively. Then the three dimension trajectory images of the electron beam can be rebuilt and display with computer controlled data acquisition and processing system easily. Thus, much more complicated structures are considered and solved completely to achieve its detection and analysis, such as big chamber with 10-6 Pa high vacuum system, the controlled detector movement system in axis direction with distance of 600 mm inside the vacuum chamber, the electron beam energy analysis system with high resolution of 0.5%, and the electron beam cross-section and density detector using the YAG: Ce crystal and CCD imaging system et al. At present, the key parts of the instrument have been finished, the cross-section experiment of the electron beam have been performed successfully. Hereafter, the instrument will be used to measure and analyze the electron beam with the electron gun and electron optics system for the single beam and multiple beam klystron, gyrotron, sheet beam device, and traveling wave tube etc. thoroughly.

  6. Decontamination of blood soaked electronic devices using ultrasonic technology.

    PubMed

    Dudeck, Kimberly C; Brennan, Tamara C; Embury, Daniel J

    2012-01-10

    With advancements in technology allowing for the miniaturization of consumer electronics, criminal investigations of all types frequently involve the forensic examination of electronic devices, such as cellular telephones, smartphones, and portable flash memory; in some extreme, violent cases, these devices are found covered in blood. Due to the complexity of such devices, standard operating procedures for the complete removal of blood had not previously been established by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police prior to this study. The electronics industry has adopted the use of the ultrasonic cleaner for sanitizing printed circuit boards (PCBs) by removing residues and contaminants. High frequency sound waves created by the machine penetrate and remove dirt and residues; however, early research during the 1950s recorded these sound waves breaking the internal bonds of integrated circuit chips. Experimentation with modern ultrasonic technology was used to determine if internal components were damaged, as well as if ultrasonic cleaning was the most suitable method for the removal of dried and liquid blood from a PCB. Several disinfectant solutions were compared against the 0.5% Triton(®) X-100 detergent solution in the ultrasonic cleaner, including: 10% sodium hypochlorite bleach, 85% isopropyl alcohol, and Conflikt(®) disinfectant spray. The results not only demonstrated that the ultrasonic cleaner did not damage the vital memory chip on the PCB, but also, with the assistance of Conflikt(®), was able to remove all traces of blood as indicated by Hemastix(®) reagent strips. Of five methods experimented with, two cycles of ultrasonic cleaning followed by sanitization with Conflikt(®) proved to be the only procedure capable of removing all traces of blood, as confirmed with both Hemastix(®) reagent strips and the hemochromogen test.

  7. High-temperature superconducting thin-film-based electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, X.D; Finokoglu, A.; Hawley, M.; Jia, Q.; Mitchell, T.; Mueller, F.; Reagor, D.; Tesmer, J.

    1996-09-01

    This the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project involved optimization of processing of Y123 and Tl-2212 thin films deposited on novel substrates for advanced electronic devices. The Y123 films are the basis for development of Josephson Junctions to be utilized in magnetic sensors. Microwave cavities based on the Tl-2212 films are the basis for subsequent applications as communication antennas and transmitters in satellites.

  8. Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Nanowires for Electronic, Photonic and Sensing Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-05

    variety of wide bandgap nanowires using GaN and ZnO and made functional devices from them for sensing,electronics and photonics.These included a very...showed highly stable operation.This effort grew out of the work on ZnO nanowires ,where we noticed severe segregation effects when we tried to grow...AND ADDRESSES U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS GaN, ZnO , nanowires S.Pearton

  9. Personal Electronic Devices and Their Interference with Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Elden; Ely, Jay J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A compilation of data on personal electronic devices (PEDs) attributed to having created anomalies with aircraft systems. Charts and tables display 14 years of incidents reported by pilots to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). Affected systems, incident severity, sources of anomaly detection, and the most frequently identified PEDs are some of the more significant data. Several reports contain incidents of aircraft off course when all systems indicated on course and of critical events that occurred during landings and takeoffs. Additionally, PEDs that should receive priority in testing are identified.

  10. The use of a portable electronic device in accident dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Beerten, Koen; Vanhavere, Filip

    2008-01-01

    The use of a portable electronic device in accident dosimetry has been investigated. The thermoluminescence properties of a surface-mount alumina-rich ceramic resonator from a USB flash drive were investigated. The following characteristics were verified: the absence of a zero-dose signal, gamma dose response, dose recycling behaviour, fading and optical bleaching. Finally, this component has been successfully used to determine a simulated accident dose (1 d following the irradiation event). It is concluded that it should be possible to perform rapid and reliable accident dose assessments with such components using conventional thermoluminescence dosimetry equipment.

  11. Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices: patient education, information and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Manaouil, Cécile; Gignon, Maxime; Traulle, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) are implanted increasingly frequently. CIEDs are indicated for the treatment of bradycardia, tachycardia and heart failure and therefore improve quality of life and life expectancy. CIED can treat ventricular arrhythmias that would be fatal without immediate care. However, CIEDs raise several patient education, medico-legal, and ethical questions that will be addressed in this article. Information is a patient's right, and necessary for informed consent. When implanting a CIED, the patient must be educated about the need for the device, the function of the device, any restrictions that apply postimplant, and postimplant follow-up methods and schedules. This transfer of information to the patient makes the patient responsible. The occupational physician can determine whether a patient wearing a CIED is able to work. Under current French law, patients are not prohibited from working while wearing a CIED. However, access to certain job categories remains limited, such as jobs involving mechanical stress to the chest, exposure to electromagnetic fields, or jobs requiring permanent vigilance. Pacemakers and defibrillators are medical treatments and are subject to the same ethical and clinical considerations as any other treatment. However, stopping a pacemaker or a defibrillator raises different ethical issues. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator shocks can be considered to be equivalent to resuscitation efforts and can be interpreted as being unreasonable in an end-of-life patient. Pacing is painless and it is unlikely to unnecessarily prolong the life of a patient with a terminal disease. Patients with a CIED should live as normally as possible, but must also be informed about the constraints related to the device and must inform each caregiver about the presence of the device. The forensic and ethical implications must be assessed in relation to current legislation.

  12. 76 FR 47610 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of... of certain electronic digital media devices and components thereof by reason of infringement of... electronic digital media devices and components thereof ] that infringe one or more of claims 1, 3-6, and...

  13. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.307 Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. (a) General restriction. A railroad operating...

  14. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.307 Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. (a) General restriction. A railroad operating...

  15. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.307 Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. (a) General restriction. A railroad operating...

  16. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.307 Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. (a) General restriction. A railroad operating...

  17. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.307 Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. (a) General restriction. A railroad operating...

  18. 75 FR 3154 - Children's Products Containing Lead; Exemptions for Certain Electronic Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1500 Children's Products Containing Lead; Exemptions for Certain Electronic Devices... Commission (CPSC or Commission) is issuing a final rule concerning certain electronic devices for which it is... feasible for certain electronic devices to comply with the lead limits, section 101(b)(4) of the...

  19. Gunn effect and transferred electron devices. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-06-01

    A bibliography containing 99 abstracts addressing the Gunn effect and transferred electron devices is presented. The application of Gunn effect and transferred electron devices to microwave generation, amplification, and control is included. The Gunn effect in semiconductors is dicussed along with the design, fabrication, and properties of Gunn diodes and transferred electron devices.

  20. 76 FR 50253 - Certain Portable Electronic Devices and Related Software; Notice of Institution of Investigation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Certain Portable Electronic Devices and Related Software; Notice of Institution of Investigation... certain portable electronic devices and related software by reason of infringement of certain claims of U... portable electronic devices and related software that infringe one or more of claims 1-5, 7-12, 14-19,...

  1. 77 FR 21584 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of... States after importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same... electronics and display devices and products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 2, 3, 5,...

  2. Electronic heat current rectification in hybrid superconducting devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fornieri, Antonio Giazotto, Francesco; Martínez-Pérez, María José

    2015-05-15

    In this work, we review and expand recent theoretical proposals for the realization of electronic thermal diodes based on tunnel-junctions of normal metal and superconducting thin films. Starting from the basic rectifying properties of a single hybrid tunnel junction, we will show how the rectification efficiency can be largely increased by combining multiple junctions in an asymmetric chain of tunnel-coupled islands. We propose three different designs, analyzing their performance and their potential advantages. Besides being relevant from a fundamental physics point of view, this kind of devices might find important technological application as fundamental building blocks in solid-state thermal nanocircuits and in general-purpose cryogenic electronic applications requiring energy management.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of gallium nitride electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jerry Wayne

    Gallium nitride (GaN)-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), and Schottky rectifiers were fabricated and characterized. Novel dielectric materials Gd 2O3 and ScO were evaluated as potential gate dielectrics for GaN MOS applications. The devices presented herein show tremendous potential for elevated temperature, high frequency, and/or high voltage operation. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs were grown by MOCVD on sapphire and SiC substrates and by RF-MBE on sapphire substrates. Devices were fabricated with gate lengths from 100 nm to 1.2 mum. Drain current density approached 1 A/mm and extrinsic transconductance exceeded 200 mS/mm for small gate periphery devices. For the shortest gate length, a unity-gain cutoff frequency (fT) of 59 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax) of 90 GHz were extracted from measured scattering parameters. The experimental s-parameters were in excellent agreement with simulated results from small-signal linear modeling. Large signal characterization of 0.25 x 150 mum2 devices produced 2.75 W/mm at 3 GHz and 1.7 W/mm at 10 GHz. Devices fabricated on high thermal conductivity SiC substrates exhibited superior high temperature performance and a reduced density of threading dislocations. Novel gate dielectrics Gd2O3 and ScO were grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE). Current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) data were collected from MOS capacitors to evaluate the bulk and interfacial electrical properties of the insulators. Single crystal Gd2O 3 was demonstrated on GaN, but the resultant MOSFET exhibited a large gate leakage attributed to defects and dislocations in the oxide. MOSFETs with a stacked gate dielectric of Gd2O3/SiO2 were operational at a drain source bias of 80 V and a gate bias of +7 V. Bulk GaN templates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HYPE) were used to fabricate vertical geometry Schottky rectifiers. Size- and temperature

  4. Polarization Effects in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labram, John; Fabini, Douglas; Perry, Erin; Lehner, Anna; Wang, Hengbin; Glaudell, Anne; Wu, Guang; Evans, Hayden; Buck, David; Cotta, Robert; Echegoyen, Luis; Wudl, Fred; Seshadri, Ram; Chabinyc, Michael

    The immense success of group IV and III-V semiconductors has resulted in disruptive new photovoltaic (PV) cell technologies emerging extremely infrequently. For this reason, the recent progress in Methylammonium Lead Iodide (MAPbI3) solar cells can be viewed as a highly significant historic event. Despite the staggering recent progress made in reported power conversion efficiency (PCE), debate remains intense on the nature of the various instabilities synonymous with these devices. Using various electronic device measurements, we here present a body of experimental evidence consistent with the existence of a mobile ionic species within the MAPbI3 perovskite. Temperature-dependent transistor measurements reveal operating FET devices only below approximately 210K. This is attributed to ionic screening of the (otherwise charge-neutral) semiconductor-dielectric interface. Temperature-dependent pulsed-gate and impedance spectroscopy experiments also reveal behavior consistent with this interpretation. MAPbI3 PV cells were found to possess a PCE which decreases significantly below 210K. Combined, these set of measurements provide an interesting and consistent description of the internal processes at play within the MAPbI3 perovskite structure.

  5. Physics and simulation study of nanoscale electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrotra, Saumitra R.

    Silicon based CMOS technology has seen continuous scaling of device dimensions for past three decades. There is a lot of focus on incorporating different high mobility channel materials and new device architectures for post-Si CMOS logic technology, making it a multifaceted problem. In this thesis some of the multiple challenges concerning new CMOS technologies are addressed. High carrier mobility alloyed channel materials like SiGe and InGaAs suffer from scattering due to disorder called, alloy scattering. The current theory of alloy scattering present in literature/text books can be called rudimentary at the best due to lack of a strong theoretical foundation and/or use of fitting parameters to explain experimental measurements. We present a new atomistic approach based on tight-binding parameters to understanding the alloy disorder. Using this approach we are able to provide new insights into the theory of alloy scattering and explain the experimental measurements in bulk SiGe and InGaAs that were till now based on just fitting parameters. With an updated understanding of alloy scattering, hole mobility in SiGe nanowires is calculated using a linearized Boltzmann formalism. Bulk Ge exhibits high hole mobility makeing it ideal for PMOS devices. Nano patterning of Ge/SiGe leads to Ge nanofins with both uniaxial and biaxial strain components, making it a device architecture design problem. Fully atomistic simulations involving molecular dynamics (ReaxFF force field) based relaxation for strain relaxation; tight-binding based bandstructure calculations and a linearized Boltzmann transport model for mobility calculations are performed. Final phonon mobility calculations reveal nearly 3.5 X improvements compared to biaxial strained Ge in Ge nanofins with width reduction. High electron mobility III--V's are projected to be a material of choice for post-Si NMOS. These low electron mass materials suffer from the 'DOS bottleneck' issue. Transistor designs based on using

  6. 78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ..., Texas and Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson of Stockholm, Sweden. Letters supplementing the complaint were..., 164 83 Stockholm, Sweden. (b) The respondents are the following entities alleged to be in violation...

  7. Electron-electron interaction, weak localization and spin valve effect in vertical-transport graphene devices

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Mingsheng; Gong, Youpin; Wei, Xiangfei; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Jianbao; Liu, Ping; Guo, Yufen; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Liwei; Liu, Guangtong

    2014-04-14

    We fabricated a vertical structure device, in which graphene is sandwiched between two asymmetric ferromagnetic electrodes. The measurements of electron and spin transport were performed across the combined channels containing the vertical and horizontal components. The presence of electron-electron interaction (EEI) was found not only at low temperatures but also at moderate temperatures up to ∼120 K, and EEI dominates over weak localization (WL) with and without applying magnetic fields perpendicular to the sample plane. Moreover, spin valve effect was observed when magnetic filed is swept at the direction parallel to the sample surface. We attribute the EEI and WL surviving at a relatively high temperature to the effective suppress of phonon scattering in the vertical device structure. The findings open a way for studying quantum correlation at relatively high temperature.

  8. Oxide semiconductors for organic opto-electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigdel, Ajaya K.

    In this dissertation, I have introduced various concepts on the modulations of various surface, interface and bulk opto-electronic properties of ZnO based semiconductor for charge transport, charge selectivity and optimal device performance. I have categorized transparent semiconductors into two sub groups depending upon their role in a device. Electrodes, usually 200 to 500 nm thick, optimized for good transparency and transporting the charges to the external circuit. Here, the electrical conductivity in parallel direction to thin film, i.e bulk conductivity is important. And contacts, usually 5 to 50 nm thick, are optimized in case of solar cells for providing charge selectivity and asymmetry to manipulate the built in field inside the device for charge separation and collection. Whereas in Organic LEDs (OLEDs), contacts provide optimum energy level alignment at organic oxide interface for improved charge injections. For an optimal solar cell performance, transparent electrodes are designed with maximum transparency in the region of interest to maximize the light to pass through to the absorber layer for photo-generation, plus they are designed for minimum sheet resistance for efficient charge collection and transport. As such there is need for material with high conductivity and transparency. Doping ZnO with some common elements such as B, Al, Ga, In, Ge, Si, and F result in n-type doping with increase in carriers resulting in high conductivity electrode, with better or comparable opto-electronic properties compared to current industry-standard indium tin oxide (ITO). Furthermore, improvement in mobility due to improvement on crystallographic structure also provide alternative path for high conductivity ZnO TCOs. Implementing these two aspects, various studies were done on gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) transparent electrode, a very promising indium free electrode. The dynamics of the superimposed RF and DC power sputtering was utilized to improve the

  9. Low-dimensional electron transport in mesoscopic semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Theodore Peyton

    Recent advances in solid state materials engineering have led to mesoscopic devices with feature sizes that approach the fundamental quantum wavelength of charge carriers in the solid, allowing for the experimental observation of quantum interference. By confining carriers to a single quantum state in one or more dimensions, the degrees of freedom for charge transport can be reduced to achieve new device functionality. This dissertation focuses on mesoscopic electron billiards that combine the aspects of zero, one, and two-dimensional transport into one system. Low-temperature measurement of billiards fabricated within a relatively defect-free semiconductor heterostructure results in ballistic transport, where the electron waves follow classical trajectories and the confining walls play a major role in determining the electron interference. Billiards have been traditionally formed by applying a bias to patterned surface gates atop an AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure. Within this system, fractal fluctuations in the billiard conductance are observed as a function of an applied external magnetic field. These fluctuations are tied to quantum interference via an empirical parameter that describes the resolution of energy levels within the billiard. To investigate whether fractal fluctuations are a robust phenomenon intrinsic to billiard-like structures, this study centers on billiards defined by etching walls into a GaInAs/InP heterostructure, departing from the traditional system in both the type of confinement and material system used. It is expected that etched walls will provide a steeper confinement profile leading to well-defined device shapes. Conductance measurements through the one-dimensional leads that couple electrons into the billiard are utilized in combination with a self-consistent Schrodinger/Poisson solution to demonstrate a steeper confinement potential. Experiments are also carried out to determine whether fractal fluctuations persist when billiards are

  10. Methods for synchronizing a countdown routine of a timer key and electronic device

    DOEpatents

    Condit, Reston A.; Daniels, Michael A.; Clemens, Gregory P.; Tomberlin, Eric S.; Johnson, Joel A.

    2015-06-02

    A timer key relating to monitoring a countdown time of a countdown routine of an electronic device is disclosed. The timer key comprises a processor configured to respond to a countdown time associated with operation of the electronic device, a display operably coupled with the processor, and a housing configured to house at least the processor. The housing has an associated structure configured to engage with the electronic device to share the countdown time between the electronic device and the timer key. The processor is configured to begin a countdown routine based at least in part on the countdown time, wherein the countdown routine is at least substantially synchronized with a countdown routine of the electronic device when the timer key is removed from the electronic device. A system and method for synchronizing countdown routines of a timer key and an electronic device are also disclosed.

  11. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  12. 78 FR 49764 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Commission's Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Commission's Final Determination... this investigation and has issued a limited exclusion order prohibiting respondents Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd. of the Republic of Korea (``SEC''); Samsung Electronics America, Inc. of Ridgefield...

  13. Electroluminescent devices formed using semiconductor nanocrystals as an electron transport media and method of making such electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Colvin, Vickie

    1996-01-01

    An electroluminescent device is described, as well as a method of making same, wherein the device is characterized by a semiconductor nanocrystal electron transport layer capable of emitting visible light in response to a voltage applied to the device. The wavelength of the light emitted by the device may be changed by changing either the size or the type of semiconductor nanocrystals used in forming the electron transport layer. In a preferred embodiment the device is further characterized by the capability of emitting visible light of varying wavelengths in response to changes in the voltage applied to the device. The device comprises a hole processing structure capable of injecting and transporting holes, and usually comprising a hole injecting layer and a hole transporting layer; an electron transport layer in contact with the hole processing structure and comprising one or more layers of semiconductor nanocrystals; and an electron injecting layer in contact with the electron transport layer for injecting electrons into the electron transport layer. The capability of emitting visible light of various wavelengths is principally based on the variations in voltage applied thereto, but the type of semiconductor nanocrystals used and the size of the semiconductor nanocrystals in the layers of semiconductor nanometer crystals may also play a role in color change, in combination with the change in voltage.

  14. Electron injection and transport mechanism in organic devices based on electron transport materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A.; Xu, Wei; Khizar-ul-Haq; Zhang, Xiao Wen; Bai, Yu; Jiang, X. Y.; Zhang, Z. L.; Zhu, W. Q.

    2008-11-01

    Electron injection and transport in organic devices based on electron transport (ET) materials, such as 4,7- diphyenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bathophenanthroline BPhen), 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bathocuproine BCP) and bipyridyl oxadiazole compound 1,3-bis [2-(2,2'-bipyridin-6-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzene (Bpy-OXD), have been reported. The devices are composed of ITO/ET materials (BPhen, BCP Bpy-OXD)/cathodes, where cathodes = Au, Al and Ca. Current-voltage characteristics of each ET material are performed as a function of cathodes. We have found that Ca and Al exhibit quite different J-V characteristics compared with the gold (Au) cathode. The current is more than one order of magnitude higher for the Al cathode and more than three orders of magnitude higher for Ca compared with that of the Au cathode at ~8 V for all ET materials. This is because of the relatively low energy barrier at the organic/metal interface for Ca and Al cathodes. Electron-only devices with the Au cathode show that the electron transfer limitation is located at the organic/cathode interface and the Fowler-Nordheim mechanism is qualitatively consistent with experimental data at high voltages. With Ca and Al cathodes, electron conduction is preponderant and is bulk limited. A power law dependence J ~ Vm with m > 2 is consistent with the model of trap-charge limited conduction. The total electron trap density is estimated to be ~5 × 1018 cm-3. The critical voltage (Vc) is found to be ~45 V and is almost independent of the materials.

  15. Electron cyclotron beam measurement system in the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Kamio, S. Takahashi, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Osakabe, M.; Mutoh, T.

    2014-11-15

    In order to evaluate the electron cyclotron (EC) heating power inside the Large Helical Device vacuum vessel and to investigate the physics of the interaction between the EC beam and the plasma, a direct measurement system for the EC beam transmitted through the plasma column was developed. The system consists of an EC beam target plate, which is made of isotropic graphite and faces against the EC beam through the plasma, and an IR camera for measuring the target plate temperature increase by the transmitted EC beam. This system is applicable to the high magnetic field (up to 2.75 T) and plasma density (up to 0.8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}). This system successfully evaluated the transmitted EC beam profile and the refraction.

  16. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh; Woodward, Jonathan

    2011-06-07

    A method for the deposition of metals in bacterial cellulose and for the employment of the metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The method for impregnating bacterial cellulose with a metal comprises placing a bacterial cellulose matrix in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal salt is reduced to metallic form and the metal precipitates in or on the matrix. The method for the construction of a fuel cell comprises placing a hydrated bacterial cellulose support structure in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal precipitates in or on the support structure, inserting contact wires into two pieces of the metal impregnated support structure, placing the two pieces of metal impregnated support structure on opposite sides of a layer of hydrated bacterial cellulose, and dehydrating the three layer structure to create a fuel cell.

  17. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN; Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh [Memphis, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-28

    A method for the deposition of metals in bacterial cellulose and for the employment of the metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The method for impregnating bacterial cellulose with a metal comprises placing a bacterial cellulose matrix in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal salt is reduced to metallic form and the metal precipitates in or on the matrix. The method for the construction of a fuel cell comprises placing a hydrated bacterial cellulose support structure in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal precipitates in or on the support structure, inserting contact wires into two pieces of the metal impregnated support structure, placing the two pieces of metal impregnated support structure on opposite sides of a layer of hydrated bacterial cellulose, and dehydrating the three layer structure to create a fuel cell.

  18. Electron Transport Simulations of 4-Terminal Crossed Graphene Nanoribbons Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandimarte, Pedro; Papior, Nick R.; Engelund, Mads; Garcia-Lekue, Aran; Frederiksen, Thomas; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel

    Recently, it has been reported theoretically a current switching mechanism by voltage control in a system made by two perpendicular 14-armchair graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). In order to investigate the possibilities of using crossed GNRs as ON/OFF devices, we have studied their electronic and transport properties as function structural parameters determining the crossing. Our calculations were performed with TranSIESTA code, which has been recently generalized to consider N >= 1 arbitrarily distributed electrodes at finite bias. We find that the transmission along each individual GNR and among them strongly depends on the stacking. For a 60° rotation angle, the lattice matching in the crossing region provokes a strong scattering effect that translates into an increased interlayer transmission. FP7 FET-ICT PAMS-project (European Commission, contract 610446), MINECO (Grant MAT2013-46593-C6-2-P) and Basque Dep. de Educación, UPV/EHU (Grant IT-756-13).

  19. Theoretical descriptions of electron transport through single molecules: Developing design tools for molecular electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Natalie R.

    There are vast numbers of organic compounds that could be considered for use in molecular electronics. Hence there is a need for efficient and economical screening tools. Here we develop theoretical methods to describe electron transport through individual molecules, the ultimate goal of which is to establish design tools for molecular electronic devices. To successfully screen a compound for its use as a device component requires a proper representation of the quantum mechanics of electron transmission. In this work we report the development of tools for the description of electron transmission that are: Charge self-consistent, valid in the presence of a finite applied potential field and (in some cases) explicitly time-dependent. In addition, the tools can be extended to any molecular system, including biosystems, because they are free of restrictive parameterizations. Two approaches are explored: (1) correlation of substituent parameter values (sigma), (commonly found in organic chemistry textbooks) to properties associated with electron transport, (2) explicit tracking of the time evolution of the wave function of a nonstationary electron. In (1) we demonstrate that the a correlate strongly with features of the charge migration process, establishing them as useful indicators of electronic properties. In (2) we employ a time-dependent description of electron transport through molecular junctions. To date, the great majority of theoretical treatments of electron transport in molecular junctions have been of the time-independent variety. Time dependence, however, is critical to such properties as switching speeds in binary computer components and alternating current conductance, so we explored methods based on time-dependent quantum mechanics. A molecular junction is modeled as a single molecule sandwiched between two clusters of close-packed metal atoms or other donor and acceptor groups. The time dependence of electron transport is investigated by initially

  20. Electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices inspired by nature.

    PubMed

    Meredith, P; Bettinger, C J; Irimia-Vladu, M; Mostert, A B; Schwenn, P E

    2013-03-01

    Inorganic semiconductors permeate virtually every sphere of modern human existence. Micro-fabricated memory elements, processors, sensors, circuit elements, lasers, displays, detectors, etc are ubiquitous. However, the dawn of the 21st century has brought with it immense new challenges, and indeed opportunities-some of which require a paradigm shift in the way we think about resource use and disposal, which in turn directly impacts our ongoing relationship with inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide. Furthermore, advances in fields such as nano-medicine and bioelectronics, and the impending revolution of the 'ubiquitous sensor network', all require new functional materials which are bio-compatible, cheap, have minimal embedded manufacturing energy plus extremely low power consumption, and are mechanically robust and flexible for integration with tissues, building structures, fabrics and all manner of hosts. In this short review article we summarize current progress in creating materials with such properties. We focus primarily on organic and bio-organic electronic and optoelectronic systems derived from or inspired by nature, and outline the complex charge transport and photo-physics which control their behaviour. We also introduce the concept of electrical devices based upon ion or proton flow ('ionics and protonics') and focus particularly on their role as a signal interface with biological systems. Finally, we highlight recent advances in creating working devices, some of which have bio-inspired architectures, and summarize the current issues, challenges and potential solutions. This is a rich new playground for the modern materials physicist.

  1. The cardiac implantable electronic device power source: evolution and revolution.

    PubMed

    Mond, Harry G; Freitag, Gary

    2014-12-01

    Although the first power source for an implantable pacemaker was a rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery, it was rapidly replaced by an unreliable short-life zinc-mercury cell. This sustained the small pacemaker industry until the early 1970s, when the lithium-iodine cell became the dominant power source for low voltage, microampere current, single- and dual-chamber pacemakers. By the early 2000s, a number of significant advances were occurring with pacemaker technology which necessitated that the power source should now provide milliampere current for data logging, telemetric communication, and programming, as well as powering more complicated pacing devices such as biventricular pacemakers, treatment or prevention of atrial tachyarrhythmias, and the integration of innovative physiologic sensors. Because the current delivery of the lithium-iodine battery was inadequate for these functions, other lithium anode chemistries that can provide medium power were introduced. These include lithium-carbon monofluoride, lithium-manganese dioxide, and lithium-silver vanadium oxide/carbon mono-fluoride hybrids. In the early 1980s, the first implantable defibrillators for high voltage therapy used a lithium-vanadium pentoxide battery. With the introduction of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator, the reliable lithium-silver vanadium oxide became the power source. More recently, because of the demands of biventricular pacing, data logging, and telemetry, lithium-manganese dioxide and the hybrid lithium-silver vanadium oxide/carbon mono-fluoride laminate have also been used. Today all cardiac implantable electronic devices are powered by lithium anode batteries.

  2. Electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices inspired by nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, P.; Bettinger, C. J.; Irimia-Vladu, M.; Mostert, A. B.; Schwenn, P. E.

    2013-03-01

    Inorganic semiconductors permeate virtually every sphere of modern human existence. Micro-fabricated memory elements, processors, sensors, circuit elements, lasers, displays, detectors, etc are ubiquitous. However, the dawn of the 21st century has brought with it immense new challenges, and indeed opportunities—some of which require a paradigm shift in the way we think about resource use and disposal, which in turn directly impacts our ongoing relationship with inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide. Furthermore, advances in fields such as nano-medicine and bioelectronics, and the impending revolution of the ‘ubiquitous sensor network’, all require new functional materials which are bio-compatible, cheap, have minimal embedded manufacturing energy plus extremely low power consumption, and are mechanically robust and flexible for integration with tissues, building structures, fabrics and all manner of hosts. In this short review article we summarize current progress in creating materials with such properties. We focus primarily on organic and bio-organic electronic and optoelectronic systems derived from or inspired by nature, and outline the complex charge transport and photo-physics which control their behaviour. We also introduce the concept of electrical devices based upon ion or proton flow (‘ionics and protonics’) and focus particularly on their role as a signal interface with biological systems. Finally, we highlight recent advances in creating working devices, some of which have bio-inspired architectures, and summarize the current issues, challenges and potential solutions. This is a rich new playground for the modern materials physicist.

  3. {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100>, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100> oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  4. A Web Service and Interface for Remote Electronic Device Characterization (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    focuses on semiconductor physics in electronic devic- es including p-n junctions, metal-semiconductor devices, bipolar transistors , optoelec- tronic devices...terface to make real-time transistor measurements. Recommendations are made on how best to integrate the interface into electronics classes, based on the...Educational technology, engineering education, MOSFETs, online services, transistors The authors are

  5. Engineering the electronic properties of nanowires for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelander, Claes

    2007-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have recently been recognized as a possible add-on technology to silicon CMOS. Successful integration of nanowires may push the miniaturization of components further and could also bring improved, and completely new, device functions to a chip. In particular, nanowires composed of III-V materials are of interest for applications as they benefit from a small and/or direct bandgap. We will present results from electrical measurements on InAs/InP nanowires grown by chemical beam epitaxy. Changes in the precursors fed to the growth chamber can be made to control the electronic properties of the grown material. In this way it is possible to create atomically sharp heterostructure interfaces, as well as to change the carrier concentration along the wire. The latter can be achieved by controlling the carbon incorporation from the In precursor. It will be shown that heterostructure nanowires can be used in memory cells, and also as single-electron transistors for electrostatic read-out of such cells. Finally, we will discuss the design and application of InAs nanowire-based field-effect transistors, where issues related to lateral and vertical processing of nanowires will be addressed.

  6. The development of silicon carbide-based power electronics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Richard H.; Perkins, John F.

    1995-01-01

    In 1989 Westinghouse created an internally funded initiative to develop silicon carbide materials and device technology for a variety of potential commercial and military applications. Westinghouse saw silicon carbide as having the potential for dual use. For space applications, size and weight reductions could be achieved, together with increased reliability. Terrestrially, uses in harsh-temperature environments would be enabled. Theoretically, the physical and electrical properties of silicon carbide were highly promising for high-power, high-temperature, radiation-hardened electronics. However, bulk material with the requisite electronic qualities was not available, and the methods needed to produce a silicon carbide wafer—to fabricate high-quality devices—and to transition these technologies into a commercial product were considered to be a high-risk investment. It was recognized that through a collaborative effort, the CCDS could provide scientific expertise in several areas, thus reducing this risk. These included modeling of structures, electrical contacts, dielectrics, and epitaxial growth. This collaboration has been very successful, with developed technologies being transferred to Westinghouse.

  7. Modeling of Electronic Properties in Organic Semiconductor Device Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsiu-Chuang

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) have recently become viable for a wide range of electronic devices, some of which have already been commercialized. With the mechanical flexibility of organic materials and promising performance of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) and organic bulk heterojunction devices, OSCs have been demonstrated in applications such as radio frequency identification tags, flexible displays, and photovoltaic cells. Transient phenomena play decisive roles in the performance of electronic devices and OFETs in particular. The dynamics of the establishment and depletion of the conducting channel in OFETs are investigated theoretically. The device structures explored resemble typical organic thin-film transistors with one of the channel contacts removed. By calculating the displacement current associated with charging and discharging of the channel in these capacitors, transient effects on the carrier transport in OSCs may be studied. In terms of the relevant models it is shown that the non-linearity of the process plays a key role. The non-linearity arises in the simplest case from the fact that channel resistance varies during the charging and discharging phases. Traps can be introduced into the models and their effects examined in some detail. When carriers are injected into the device, a conducting channel is established with traps that are initially empty. Gradual filling of the traps then modifies the transport characteristics of the injected charge carriers. In contrast, dc measurements as they are typically performed to characterize the transport properties of organic semiconductor channels investigate a steady state with traps partially filled. Numerical and approximate analytical models of the formation of the conducting channel and the resulting displacement currents are presented. For the process of transient carrier extraction, it is shown that if the channel capacitance is partially or completely discharged through the channel

  8. 75 FR 4583 - In the Matter of: Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and... electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, and computers, by reason of infringement... electronic docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rett Snotherly,...

  9. 76 FR 72439 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...-72440] [FR Doc No: 2011-30184] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2858] Certain Consumer Electronics and... Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same, DN 2858; the Commission is... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same. The...

  10. 77 FR 14422 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt... Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain consumer electronics...

  11. 78 FR 34132 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof... Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof, DN 2958; the Commission...

  12. A charge coupled device camera with electron decelerator for intermediate voltage electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Kenneth H.; Mooney, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    Electron microscopists are increasingly turning to intermediate voltage electron microscopes (IVEMs) operating at 300–400 kV for a wide range of studies. They are also increasingly taking advantage of slow-scan charge coupled device (CCD) cameras, which have become widely used on electron microscopes. Under some conditions, CCDs provide an improvement in data quality over photographic film, as well as the many advantages of direct digital readout. However, CCD performance is seriously degraded on IVEMs compared to the more conventional 100 kV microscopes. In order to increase the efficiency and quality of data recording on IVEMs, we have developed a CCD camera system in which the electrons are decelerated to below 100 kV before impacting the camera, resulting in greatly improved performance in both signal quality and resolution compared to other CCDs used in electron microscopy. These improvements will allow high-quality image and diffraction data to be collected directly with the CCD, enabling improvements in data collection for applications including high-resolution electron crystallography, single particle reconstruction of protein structures, tomographic studies of cell ultrastructure, and remote microscope operation. This approach will enable us to use even larger format CCD chips that are being developed with smaller pixels. PMID:18447528

  13. Smartphone-Based Electrocardiographic and Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Suneet

    The field of arrhythmia monitoring is changing rapidly. The rapid advent of technology in combination with marked improvements in cellular communication and an increased desire by patients to be actively engaged in their care has ushered in a new era of clinical care. Today, physicians need to think about their patients outside the traditional in-office setting. Two technologies that embody this changing landscape are smartphone-based electrocardiographic (ECG) monitors and remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Smartphone-based ECG monitors allow the patient to assume a greater stake in their own care. They purchase the monitor, couple it to their smartphone, own it forever, and can capture a representative ECG whenever they want to assess symptoms. The physician needs to accept that this approach is vastly different from the use of standard ambulatory external ECG monitors that have been used for years in clinical practice. A similar paradigm shift is underway with respect to the care of the CIED patient. Remote follow-up was once considered an acceptable alternative to in-office calendar-based follow-up of CIEDs. Today, guidelines recommend remote monitoring to be the preferred method for device follow-up. Remote monitoring is tailor-made for the current evolution to a value-based healthcare system, having been demonstrated to reduce scheduled office visits, hospital admissions, and mortality. It is now time to educate patients and physicians on the value of remote monitoring and to ensure that clinical practices develop the infrastructure needed to enroll, monitor, and manage their patients.

  14. Image readout device with electronically variable spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, H. A.

    1981-07-01

    An invention relating to the use of a standing acoustic wave charge storage device as an image readout device is described. A frequency f sub 1 was applied to the storage transfer device to create a traveling electric field in the device in one direction along a straight line. A second frequency f sub 2 was applied to the charge transfer device to create a traveling electric field opposite to the first traveling electric field. A standing wave was created. When an image was focused on the charge transfer device, light was stored in the wells of the standing wave. When the frequency f sub 2 is removed from the device, the standing wave tends to break up and the charges stored move to an electrode connected to an output terminal and to a utilization device where the received charges represent the image on the surface of the charge transfer device along a projection of said straight line.

  15. System and method for interfacing large-area electronics with integrated circuit devices

    DOEpatents

    Verma, Naveen; Glisic, Branko; Sturm, James; Wagner, Sigurd

    2016-07-12

    A system and method for interfacing large-area electronics with integrated circuit devices is provided. The system may be implemented in an electronic device including a large area electronic (LAE) device disposed on a substrate. An integrated circuit IC is disposed on the substrate. A non-contact interface is disposed on the substrate and coupled between the LAE device and the IC. The non-contact interface is configured to provide at least one of a data acquisition path or control path between the LAE device and the IC.

  16. Endoscopic Electrosurgery in Patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Baeg, Myong Ki; Kim, Sang-Woo; Ko, Sun-Hye; Lee, Yoon Bum; Hwang, Seawon; Lee, Bong-Woo; Choi, Hye Jin; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In-Seok; Oh, Yong-Seog; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) undergoing endoscopic electrosurgery (EE) are at a risk of electromagnetic interference (EMI). We aimed to analyze the effects of EE in CIED patients. Methods: Patients with CIED who underwent EE procedures such as snare polypectomy, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) were retrospectively analyzed. Postprocedural symptoms as well as demographic and outpatient follow-up data were reviewed through medical records. Electrical data, including preprocedural and postprocedural arrhythmia records, were reviewed through pacemaker interrogation, 24-hour Holter monitoring, or electrocardiogram. Results: Fifty-nine procedures in 49 patients were analyzed. Fifty procedures were performed in 43 patients with a pacemaker, and nine were performed in six patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. There were one gastric and 44 colon snare polypectomies, five gastric and one colon ESDs, and eight ERCPs with EST. Fifty-five cases of electrical follow-up were noted, with two postprocedural changes not caused by EE. Thirty-one pacemaker interrogations had procedure recordings, with two cases of asymptomatic tachycardia. All patients were asymptomatic with no adverse events. Conclusions: Our study reports no adverse events from EE in patients with CIED, suggesting that this procedure is safe. However, because of the possibility of EMI, recommendations on EE should be followed. PMID:26867552

  17. Central nervous system MRI and cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Cadieu, Romain; Peron, Marilyne; Le Ven, Florent; Kerdraon, Sébastien; Boutet, Claire; Mansourati, Jacques; Ben Salem, Douraied

    2017-02-01

    As the population ages and indications for MRI increase, it is estimated that 50 to 75% of patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) - pacemaker (PM) or implanted cardiac defibrillator (ICD) - will need an MRI during their CIED's lifetime. Three categories of materials are defined: MRI compatible, MRI non-compatible, and MRI conditional. MRI compatible CIEDs without electrodes have been developed, but do not allow battery changes, so that they are exclusively indicated for patients whose life expectancy is less than that of the battery (6-7years). For MRI conditional CIEDs, all manufacturers publish restrictions. These restrictions can relate to the patient (size, position in the MRI, body temperature), the MRI parameters (magnetic field), or the examination in itself (gradients, specific absorption rate, duration, isocenter). The neuroradiologist can expect to be confronted with the issue of MRI in patients with a CIED. The purpose of this review is to provide them with updated information on MRI and CIEDs.

  18. Effect of symmetry on electronic properties of nano devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lamba, Vijay Kr Anju,; Aditi; Garg, O. P.

    2015-06-24

    Nano devices are a promising candidate for new technology nowadays. Great effort has been devoted recently to understand the charge transport at the interfaces in nano junctions and the role of the symmetry in the transport properties of molecular junctions. However, these studies have been largely based on the analysis of the low-bias conductance, which does not allow elucidating the exact influence of the symmetry in both the electronic structure and transport characteristics of the interfaces. In this work we present a theoretical study of the transport properties, and how conductance changes with symmetry. Herein, we investigate a di-thiol benzene (DTB) single-molecule system in which sulphur group from the molecule are anchored to two facing gold electrodes. We have performed first principles calculations of the transport properties of these molecules using a combination of density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green’s function techniques. Our computational results show that for the asymmetric models, the onset of the larger current occurs at current and conductance in the negative bias regime than that in the positive bias regime, and with ΔL increasing the conductance peak shifts towards the lower negative bias so that the I(G)-V curves behave more asymmetric. Further with variation of electrode surface we found that coupling constant for coned shaped electrode is less as compared to 2X2, and 3X3 atom electrodes, so there will be lower potential barrier for canonical electrode in comparison to that of others.

  19. Spray cooling characteristics of nanofluids for electronic power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Shou-Shing; Leu, Hsin-Yuan; Liu, Hao-Hsiang

    2015-03-01

    The performance of a single spray for electronic power devices using deionized (DI) water and pure silver (Ag) particles as well as multi-walled carbon nanotube (MCNT) particles, respectively, is studied herein. The tests are performed with a flat horizontal heated surface using a nozzle diameter of 0.5 mm with a definite nozzle-to-target surface distance of 25 mm. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction and mass flow rate of the liquid on the surface heat flux, including critical heat flux (CHF), are explored. Both steady state and transient data are collected for the two-phase heat transfer coefficient, boiling curve/ cooling history, and the corresponding CHF. The heat transfer removal rate can reach up to 274 W/cm2 with the corresponding CHF enhancement ratio of 2.4 for the Ag/water nanofluids present at a volume fraction of 0.0075% with a low mass flux of 11.9 × 10-4 kg/cm2s.

  20. Spray cooling characteristics of nanofluids for electronic power devices.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shou-Shing; Leu, Hsin-Yuan; Liu, Hao-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a single spray for electronic power devices using deionized (DI) water and pure silver (Ag) particles as well as multi-walled carbon nanotube (MCNT) particles, respectively, is studied herein. The tests are performed with a flat horizontal heated surface using a nozzle diameter of 0.5 mm with a definite nozzle-to-target surface distance of 25 mm. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction and mass flow rate of the liquid on the surface heat flux, including critical heat flux (CHF), are explored. Both steady state and transient data are collected for the two-phase heat transfer coefficient, boiling curve/ cooling history, and the corresponding CHF. The heat transfer removal rate can reach up to 274 W/cm(2) with the corresponding CHF enhancement ratio of 2.4 for the Ag/water nanofluids present at a volume fraction of 0.0075% with a low mass flux of 11.9 × 10(-4) kg/cm(2)s.

  1. Electronic security systems and active implantable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Irnich, Werner

    2002-08-01

    How do active implantable medical devices react in the presence of strong magnetic fields in the frequency range between extremely low frequency (ELF) to radiofrequency (RF) as they are emitted by electronic security systems (ESS)? There are three different sorts of ESSs: electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices, metal detector (MDS) devices, and radiofrequency identification (RFID) systems. Common to all is the production of magnetic fields. There is an abundance of literature concerning interference by ESS gates with respect to if there is an influence possible and if such an influence can bear a risk for the AIMD wearers. However, there has been no attempt to study the physical mechanism nor to develop a model of how and under which conditions magnetic fields can influence pacemakers and defibrillators and how they could be disarmed by technological means. It is too often assumed that interference of AIMD with ESS is inevitable. Exogenous signals of similar intensity and rhythm to heart signals can be misinterpreted and, thus, confuse the implant. Important for the interference coupling mechanism is the differentiation between a "unipolar" and a "bipolar" system. With respect to magnetic fields, the left side implanted pacemaker is the most unfavorable case as the lead forms approximately a semicircular area of maximum 225 cm2 into which a voltage can be induced. This assumption yields an interference coupling model that can be expressed by simple mathematics. The worst-case conditions for induced interference voltages are a coupling area of 225 cm2 that is representative for a large human, a homogeneous magnetic field perpendicular to the area formed by the lead, and a unipolar ventricular pacemaker system that is implanted on the left side of the thorax and has the highest interference sensitivity. In bipolar systems the fields must be 17 times larger when compared to a unipolar system to have the same effect. The magnetic field for interfering with ICDs

  2. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Paul G [Madison, WI; Lagally, Max G [Madison, WI; Ma, Zhenqiang [Middleton, WI; Yuan, Hao-Chih [Lakewood, CO; Wang, Guogong [Madison, WI; Eriksson, Mark A [Madison, WI

    2012-01-03

    This invention provides thin film devices that have been processed on their front- and backside. The devices include an active layer that is sufficiently thin to be mechanically flexible. Examples of the devices include back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  3. 76 FR 67200 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Devices and Systems for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Electron... of use limited to electron paramagnetic resonance devices and systems for oximetry. DATES:...

  4. Samsung Licenses ORNL Transparent Superhydrophobic Glass Coating Technology for Electronic Devices

    ScienceCinema

    Aytug, Tolga

    2016-09-30

    Samsung Electronics has exclusively licensed optically clear superhydrophobic film technology from the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory to improve the performance of glass displays on smartphones, tablets and other electronic devices.

  5. Samsung Licenses ORNL Transparent Superhydrophobic Glass Coating Technology for Electronic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga

    2016-09-26

    Samsung Electronics has exclusively licensed optically clear superhydrophobic film technology from the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory to improve the performance of glass displays on smartphones, tablets and other electronic devices.

  6. Graphene Electronic Device Based Biosensors and Chemical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shan

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, are emerging as an exciting material system for a new generation of atomically thin electronic devices. With their ultrahigh surface to volume ratio and excellent electrical properties, 2D-layered materials hold the promise for the construction of a generation of chemical and biological sensors with unprecedented sensitivity. In my PhD thesis, I mainly focus on graphene based electronic biosensors and chemical sensors. In the first part of my thesis, I demonstrated the fabrication of graphene nanomesh (GNM), which is a graphene thin film with a periodic array of holes punctuated in it. The periodic holes introduce long periphery active edges that provide a high density of functional groups (e.g. carboxylic groups) to allow for covalent grafting of specific receptor molecules for chemical and biosensor applications. After covalently functionalizing the GNM with glucose oxidase, I managed to make a novel electronic sensor which can detect glucose as well as pH change. In the following part of my thesis I demonstrate the fabrication of graphene-hemin conjugate for nitric oxide detection. The non-covalent functionalization through pi-pi stacking interaction allows reliable immobilization of hemin molecules on graphene without damaging the graphene lattice to ensure the highly sensitive and specific detection of nitric oxide. The graphene-hemin nitric oxide sensor is capable of real-time monitoring of nitric oxide concentrations, which is of central importance for probing the diverse roles of nitric oxide in neurotransmission, cardiovascular systems, and immune responses. Our studies demonstrate that the graphene-hemin sensors can respond rapidly to nitric oxide in physiological environments with sub-nanomolar sensitivity. Furthermore, in vitro studies show that the graphene-hemin sensors can be used for the detection of nitric oxide released from macrophage cells and endothelial cells, demonstrating their

  7. Novel transparent electrodes allow sustainable production of electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Constant, Kristen

    2010-12-27

    A novel technique for fabricating inexpensive, transparent electrodes from common metals has been developed by engineers and scientists at Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory. They exhibit very high transparency and are very good electrical conductors. This is a combination of properties that is difficult to achieve with common materials. The most frequently used transparent electrode in today's high-technology devices (such as LCD screens) is indium tin oxide (ITO). While ITO performs well in these applications, the supply of indium is very limited. In addition, it is rapidly decreasing as consumer demand for flat-panel electronics is skyrocketing. According to a 2004 US Geological Survey report, as little as 14 years exploitation of known indium reserves remains. In addition to increasing prices, the dwindling supply of indium suggests its use is not sustainable for future generations of electronics enthusiasts. Solar cells represent another application where transparent electrodes are used. To make solar-energy collection economically feasible, all parts of solar photovoltaics must be made more efficient and cost-effective. Our novel transparent electrodes have the potential to do both. In addition, there is much interest in developing more efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly lighting. Incandescent light bulbs are very inefficient, because most of their energy consumption is wasted as heat. Fluorescent lighting is much more efficient but still uses mercury, an environmental toxin. An attractive alternative is offered by LEDs, which have very high efficiencies and long lifetimes, and do not contain mercury. If made bright enough, LED use for general lighting could provide a viable alternative. We have fabricated electrodes from more commonly available materials, using a technique that is cost effective and environmentally friendly. Most of today's electronic devices are made in specialized facilities equipped with low

  8. AlGaN/GaN plasmonic terahertz electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Michael

    2014-03-01

    A very large electron sheet density and a relatively long momentum relaxation time of the two-dimensional electron gas in III-N heterostructures makes this materials system to be very attractive for plasmonic electronics applications.

  9. Management of Patients With Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices in Dental, Oral, and Maxillofacial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices as life-prolonging and life-saving devices has evolved from a treatment of last resort to a first-line therapy for an increasing number of patients. As these devices become more and more popular in the general population, dental providers utilizing instruments and medications should be aware of dental equipment and medications that may affect these devices and understand the management of patients with these devices. This review article will discuss the various types and indications for pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, common drugs and instruments affecting these devices, and management of patients with these devices implanted for cardiac dysrhythmias. PMID:27269668

  10. Management of Patients With Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices in Dental, Oral, and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices as life-prolonging and life-saving devices has evolved from a treatment of last resort to a first-line therapy for an increasing number of patients. As these devices become more and more popular in the general population, dental providers utilizing instruments and medications should be aware of dental equipment and medications that may affect these devices and understand the management of patients with these devices. This review article will discuss the various types and indications for pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, common drugs and instruments affecting these devices, and management of patients with these devices implanted for cardiac dysrhythmias.

  11. Quality assurance of electron beams using a Varian electronic portal imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Heaton, R.; Norrlinger, B.; Islam, M.

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility of utilizing an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for the quality assurance of electron beams was investigated. This work was conducted on a Varian 2100iX machine equipped with an amorphous silicon (aS1000) portal imager. The linearity of the imager pixel response as a function of exposed dose was first confirmed. The short-term reproducibility of the EPID response to electron beams was verified. Low (6 MeV), medium (12 MeV) and high (20 MeV) energies were tested, each along with small (6 × 6 cm2), medium (10 × 10 cm2) and large (20 × 20 cm2) applicators. Acquired EPID images were analyzed using an in-house MATLAB code for radiation field size, penumbra, symmetry and flatness. Field sizes and penumbra values agreed with those from film dosimetry to within 1 mm. Field symmetry and flatness constancies were measured over a period of three weeks. The results indicate that EPID can be used for routine quality assurance of electron beams.

  12. Growth and Electronic Structure of Heusler Compounds for Use in Electron Spin Based Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Sahil Jaykumar

    Spintronic devices, where information is carried by the quantum spin state of the electron instead of purely its charge, have gained considerable interest for their use in future computing technologies. For optimal performance, a pure spin current, where all electrons have aligned spins, must be generated and transmitted across many interfaces and through many types of materials. While conventional spin sources have historically been elemental ferromagnets, like Fe or Co, these materials pro duce only partially spin polarized currents. To increase the spin polarization of the current, materials like half-metallic ferromagnets, where there is a gap in the minority spin density of states around the Fermi level, or topological insulators, where the current transport is dominated by spin-locked surface states, show promise. A class of materials called Heusler compounds, with electronic structures that range from normal metals, to half metallic ferromagnets, semiconductors, superconductors and even topological insulators, interfaces well with existing device technologies, and through the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) high quality heterostructures and films can be grown. This dissertation examines the electronic structure of surfaces and interfaces of both topological insulator (PtLuSb-- and PtLuBi--) and half-metallic ferromagnet (Co2MnSi-- and Co2FeSi--) III-V semiconductor heterostructures. PtLuSb and PtLuBi growth by MBE was demonstrated on Alx In1--xSb (001) ternaries. PtLuSb (001) surfaces were observed to reconstruct with either (1x3) or c(2x2) unit cells depending on Sb overpressure and substrate temperature. viii The electronic structure of these films was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and photoemission spectroscopy. STS measurements as well as angle resolved photoemission spectropscopy (ARPES) suggest that PtLuSb has a zero-gap or semimetallic band structure. Additionally, the observation of linearly dispersing surface

  13. Use of portable electronic devices in a hospital setting and their potential for bacterial colonization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amber; Rao, Amitha; Reyes-Sacin, Carlos; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Szpunar, Susan; Riederer, Kathleen; Kaye, Keith; Fishbain, Joel T; Levine, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Portable electronic devices are increasingly being used in the hospital setting. As with other fomites, these devices represent a potential reservoir for the transmission of pathogens. We conducted a convenience sampling of devices in 2 large medical centers to identify bacterial colonization rates and potential risk factors.

  14. Development of an electronic device quality aluminum antimonide (AlSb) semiconductor for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sherohman, John W; Yee, Jick Hong; Combs, III, Arthur W

    2014-11-11

    Electronic device quality Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystals produced by controlled atmospheric annealing are utilized in various configurations for solar cell applications. Like that of a GaAs-based solar cell devices, the AlSb-based solar cell devices as disclosed herein provides direct conversion of solar energy to electrical power.

  15. Activating Students' Interest and Participation in Lectures and Practical Courses Using Their Electronic Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijtmans, Maikel; van Rens, Lisette; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline E.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive teaching with larger groups of students can be a challenge, but the use of mobile electronic devices by students (smartphones, tablets, laptops) can be used to improve classroom interaction. We have examined several types of tasks that can be electronically enacted in classes and practical courses using these devices: multiple choice…

  16. 78 FR 71643 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Commission Determination To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Commission Determination To... August 24, 2012, based on a complaint filed by Technology Properties Limited LLC and Phoenix Digital... of certain wireless consumer electronics devices and components thereof by reason of infringement...

  17. 78 FR 22899 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products... the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices having placeshifting... Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, 19 CFR 210.10 (2012). Scope of Investigation: Having...

  18. 77 FR 11157 - Certain Portable Electronic Devices and Related Software; Final Determination Finding No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... COMMISSION Certain Portable Electronic Devices and Related Software; Final Determination Finding No Violation... software by reason of infringement of various claims of the '800 patent; United States Patent No. 5,541,988... of the accused portable electronic devices and related software. Regarding infringement, the...

  19. 77 FR 31876 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not To... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing the same by reason...

  20. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Physics and history Arthur I Miller Department of Science & Technology Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Physics and history: a reply David Miller Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Cathode rays, the electron and Thomson's discovery John Harris 33 Glentham Road, London SW13 9JD, UK Vectors: swallow them whole! David Wheeler Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand

  1. Ionic current devices-Recent progress in the merging of electronic, microfluidic, and biomimetic structures.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyung-Jun; Velev, Orlin D

    2013-05-09

    We review the recent progress in the emerging area of devices and circuits operating on the basis of ionic currents. These devices operate at the intersection of electrochemistry, electronics, and microfluidics, and their potential applications are inspired by essential biological processes such as neural transmission. Ionic current rectification has been demonstrated in diode-like devices containing electrolyte solutions, hydrogel, or hydrated nanofilms. More complex functions have been realized in ionic current based transistors, solar cells, and switching memory devices. Microfluidic channels and networks-an intrinsic component of the ionic devices-could play the role of wires and circuits in conventional electronics.

  2. Development of advanced electron holographic techniques and application to industrial materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Tanji, Takayoshi

    2013-06-01

    The development of a transmission electron microscope equipped with a field emission gun paved the way for electron holography to be put to practical use in various fields. In this paper, we review three advanced electron holography techniques: on-line real-time electron holography, three-dimensional (3D) tomographic holography and phase-shifting electron holography, which are becoming important techniques for materials science and device engineering. We also describe some applications of electron holography to the analysis of industrial materials and devices: GaAs compound semiconductors, solid oxide fuel cells and all-solid-state lithium ion batteries.

  3. Ion beam synthesis of planar opto-electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polman, A.; Snoeks, E.; van den Hoven, G. N.; Brongersma, M. L.; Serna, R.; Shin, J. H.; Kik, P.; Radius, E.

    1995-12-01

    Photonic technology requires the modification and synthesis of new materials and devices for the generation, guiding, switching, multiplexing and amplification of light. This paper reviews how some of these devices may be made using ion beam synthesis. Special attention is paid to the fabrication of erbium-doped optical waveguides.

  4. Improved solid state electron-charge-storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuper, A. B.

    1970-01-01

    Storage device is applicable in memory systems and in high-resolution arrays for light-responsive image sensing. The device offers high yield in multiple arrays and allows charge release with light striking only the edge of a metal electrode.

  5. Threefold Increase of the Bulk Electron Temperature of Plasma Discharges in a Magnetic Mirror Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagryansky, P. A.; Shalashov, A. G.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Lizunov, A. A.; Maximov, V. V.; Prikhodko, V. V.; Soldatkina, E. I.; Solomakhin, A. L.; Yakovlev, D. V.

    2015-05-01

    This Letter describes plasma discharges with a high temperature of bulk electrons in the axially symmetric high-mirror-ratio (R =35 ) open magnetic system gas dynamic trap (GDT) in the Budker Institute (Novosibirsk). According to Thomson scattering measurements, the on-axis electron temperature averaged over a number of sequential shots is 660 ±50 eV with the plasma density being 0.7 ×1 019 m-3 ; in few shots, electron temperature exceeds 900 eV. This corresponds to at least a threefold increase with respect to previous experiments both at GDT and at other comparable machines, thus, demonstrating the highest quasistationary (about 1 ms) electron temperature achieved in open traps. The breakthrough is made possible by application of a new 0.7 MW /54.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating system in addition to standard 5 MW heating by neutral beams, and application of a radial electric field to mitigate the flute instability.

  6. Recent progress on thin-film encapsulation technologies for organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Duan; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Zheng; Tao, Ye; Liu, Yun-Fei

    2016-03-01

    Among the advanced electronic devices, flexible organic electronic devices with rapid development are the most promising technologies to customers and industries. Organic thin films accommodate low-cost fabrication and can exploit diverse molecules in inexpensive plastic light emitting diodes, plastic solar cells, and even plastic lasers. These properties may ultimately enable organic materials for practical applications in industry. However, the stability of organic electronic devices still remains a big challenge, because of the difficulty in fabricating commercial products with flexibility. These organic materials can be protected using substrates and barriers such as glass and metal; however, this results in a rigid device and does not satisfy the applications demanding flexible devices. Plastic substrates and transparent flexible encapsulation barriers are other possible alternatives; however, these offer little protection to oxygen and water, thus rapidly degrading the devices. Thin-film encapsulation (TFE) technology is most effective in preventing water vapor and oxygen permeation into the flexible devices. Because of these (and other) reasons, there has been an intense interest in developing transparent barrier materials with much lower permeabilities, and their market is expected to reach over 550 million by 2025. In this study, the degradation mechanism of organic electronic devices is reviewed. To increase the stability of devices in air, several TFE technologies were applied to provide efficient barrier performance. In this review, the degradation mechanism of organic electronic devices, permeation rate measurement, traditional encapsulation technologies, and TFE technologies are presented.

  7. Importance of electronic state of two-dimensional electron gas for electron injection process in nano-electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraguchi, M.; Endoh, T.; Takada, Y.; Sakurai, Y.; Nomura, S.; Shiraishi, K.; Ikeda, M.; Makihara, K.; Miyazaki, S.; Shigeta, Y.

    2010-09-01

    We report the unexpected temperature dependence of electron tunneling from the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) to the Si-dot in a Si-dots floating gate metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor. We indicate that this temperature dependence of the electron tunneling cannot be explained by the conventional one-dimensional tunneling model, and show that it is necessary for a new model which includes the geometrical factor of the system. To extract a mechanism of the electron injection process from the 2DEG to the nano-structure, we have employed the numerical simulation, which includes both the geometrical condition of the system and the experimental setup. We suggest in our new tunneling model that the main contribution to the electron tunneling is induced by the wave-packet-like state of the electron below the Si-dots. We successfully show that the temperature dependence of the electron injection voltage in the Si-dots floating gate MOS capacitor fits our model. This indicates that the spatial distribution of electron density in the two-dimensional electron gas would play a crucial role in the electron tunneling.

  8. Nano-Bio Electronic Devices Based on DNA Bases and Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, R.; Maruccio, G.; Bramanti, A.; Visconti, P.; Biasco, A.; Arima, V.; D'Amico, S.; Cingolani, R.

    A key challenge of the current research in nanoelectronics is the realization of biomolecular devices. The biomolecules have specific functionalies that can be exploited for the implementation of electronic and optoelectronic devices. Different nanotechnological strategies have been pursued to implement the biomolecular devices, following a bottom-up or a topdown approach depending on the used biomolecule and on its functionality. In this paper we present our results on the implementation of nano-biomolecular devices based on modified DNA nucleosides and metalloproteins.

  9. A Smart Microwave Vacuum Electron Device (MVED) Using Field Emitters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-31

    a dielectric surface, secondary electrons are emitted, and the electrons “hop” along the funnel wall until they exit. This process can provide...are used to inject primary electrons which bombard the dielectric wall . Note that this hop funnel is a slit, but the simulation is 2D. The electrons...voltage pulsing to blow shorted connection and spurious emission sites. However, all of these techniques have had very limited success in improving the

  10. A shaping device for irregular electron fields for the Therac-20 accelerator.

    PubMed

    Muller-Runkel, R; Ovadia, J; Borger, F; Culbert, H; Rohowsky, B

    1985-01-01

    A device for shaping electron fields from a Therac-20 accelerator is described. The considerable advantage of continuously variable field sizes is enhanced when the shaping device is placed on the lower trimmer bars of the shorter set of electron trimmers, which remain fully adjustable. Cerrobend blocks of 1-cm thickness are sufficient for a 5% attenuation level with 20-MeV electrons and large field sizes.

  11. Perioperative management of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Poveda-Jaramillo, R; Castro-Arias, H D; Vallejo-Zarate, C; Ramos-Hurtado, L F

    2017-05-01

    The use of implantable cardiac devices in people of all ages is increasing, especially in the elderly population: patients with pacemakers, cardioverter-defibrillators or cardiac resynchronization therapy devices regularly present for surgery for non-cardiac causes. This review was made in order to collect and analyze the latest evidence for the proper management of implantable cardiac devices in the perioperative period. Through a detailed exploration of PubMed, Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), ClinicalKey, Cochrane (Ovid), the search software UpToDate, textbooks and patents freely available to the public on Google, we selected 33 monographs, which matched the objectives of this publication.

  12. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: One- and two-electron excitations in large angle scattering of Li+ ions from He atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, S.; Nakamura, T.; Watanabe, A.; Shimakura, N.

    2002-08-01

    Excitations in Li+-He collisions have been studied at the laboratory energies of 500≤≤Elab≤≤1500 eV by means of differential scattering spectroscopy. Doubly differential cross sections have been measured over a wide range of centre-of-mass angles, 3°≤≤Θ≤≤175°, by detecting all the scattered particles (Li+, Li, He+, He). Increasing the energy, the excitation probability P(Θ)2e for two-electron processes drastically increases and has a specific maximum around Θ = 65° for the highest energy of Elab = 1500 eV. On the other hand, the probability P(Θ)1e for one-electron processes has a broad maximum at the lower energies of Elab≤≤1000 eV, but has a specific structure with double maxima around Θ = 22° and 120° for Elab = 1500 eV. The characteristic features of the P(Θ)1e and P(Θ)2e at Elab = 1500 eV can be well interpreted by electron promotions through rotational coupling between the molecular orbitals 2pσ and 2pπ at the internuclear distances of R<0.35 Å.

  13. Flexible and stretchable electronics for wearable health devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Brand, Jeroen; de Kok, Margreet; Koetse, Marc; Cauwe, Maarten; Verplancke, Rik; Bossuyt, Frederick; Jablonski, Michael; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Measuring the quality of human health and well-being is one of the key growth areas in our society. Preferably, these measurements are done as unobtrusive as possible. These sensoric devices are then to be integrated directly on the human body as a patch or integrated into garments. This requires the devices to be very thin, flexible and sometimes even stretchable. An overview of recent technology developments in this domain and concrete application examples will be discussed.

  14. "Green" electronics: biodegradable and biocompatible materials and devices for sustainable future.

    PubMed

    Irimia-Vladu, Mihai

    2014-01-21

    "Green" electronics represents not only a novel scientific term but also an emerging area of research aimed at identifying compounds of natural origin and establishing economically efficient routes for the production of synthetic materials that have applicability in environmentally safe (biodegradable) and/or biocompatible devices. The ultimate goal of this research is to create paths for the production of human- and environmentally friendly electronics in general and the integration of such electronic circuits with living tissue in particular. Researching into the emerging class of "green" electronics may help fulfill not only the original promise of organic electronics that is to deliver low-cost and energy efficient materials and devices but also achieve unimaginable functionalities for electronics, for example benign integration into life and environment. This Review will highlight recent research advancements in this emerging group of materials and their integration in unconventional organic electronic devices.

  15. 76 FR 76181 - Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Issuance of General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Issuance of General... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic paper towel... importation, sale for importation, and/or sale after importation into the United States of electronic...

  16. Collaborative Research: Fundamental studies of plasma control using surface embedded electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Laxminarayan L.; PanneerChelvam, PremKumar; Levko, Dimtry

    2016-02-26

    The proposed study will investigate the effect of active electron injection of from electrode surfaces To the best of our knowledge, no such a study has ever been attempted even though it could lead to the formation of whole new classes of plasma based devices and systems. We are motivated by recent articles and simple theory which gives strong reason to believe that embedded electronic devices can be used to exert control over the SEE coefficient of semiconductor surfaces (and maybe other surface types as well). Furthermore, the research will explore how such sub-surface electronic devices can best be used to exert control over an associated plasma.

  17. Hardening electronic devices against very high total dose radiation environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, B.; Shedd, W.; Roosild, S.; Dolan, R.

    1972-01-01

    The possibilities and limitations of hardening silicon semiconductor devices to the high neutron and gamma radiation levels and greater than 10 to the eighth power rads required for the NERVA nuclear engine development are discussed. A comparison is made of the high dose neutron and gamma hardening potential of bipolar, metal insulator semiconductors and junction field effect transistors. Experimental data is presented on device degradation for the high neutron and gamma doses. Previous data and comparisons indicate that the JFET is much more immune to the combined neutron displacement and gamma ionizing effects than other transistor types. Experimental evidence is also presented which indicates that p channel MOS devices may be able to meet the requirements.

  18. X-Ray-Diffraction Tests Of Irradiated Electronic Devices: I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, David C.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Barnes, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    X-ray-diffraction tests performed on aluminum conductors in commercial HI1-507A complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit analog multiplexers, both before and after circuits exposed to ionizing radiation from Co(60) source, and after postirradiation annealing at ambient and elevated temperatures. Tests in addition to electrical tests performed to determine effects of irradiation and of postirradiation annealing on electrical operating characteristics of circuits. Investigators sought to determine whether relationship between effects of irradiation on devices and physical stresses within devices. X-ray diffraction potentially useful for nondestructive measurement of stresses.

  19. Authentication of Radio Frequency Identification Devices Using Electronic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnappa Gounder Periaswamy, Senthilkumar

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are low-cost devices that are used to uniquely identify the objects to which they are attached. Due to the low cost and size that is driving the technology, a tag has limited computational capabilities and resources. This limitation makes the implementation of conventional security protocols to prevent…

  20. Performance Enhancement of Electronic and Energy Devices via Block Copolymer Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyeon Gyun; Byun, Myunghwan; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Lee, Keon Jae

    2015-07-15

    The use of self-assembled block copolymers (BCPs) for the fabrication of electronic and energy devices has received a tremendous amount of attention as a non-traditional approach to patterning integrated circuit elements at nanometer dimensions and densities inaccessible to traditional lithography techniques. The exquisite control over the dimensional features of the self-assembled nanostructures (i.e., shape, size, and periodicity) is one of the most attractive properties of BCP self-assembly. Harmonic spatial arrangement of the self-assembled nanoelements at desired positions on the chip may offer a new strategy for the fabrication of electronic and energy devices. Several recent reports show the great promise in using BCP self-assembly for practical applications of electronic and energy devices, leading to substantial enhancements of the device performance. Recent progress is summarized here, with regard to the performance enhancements of non-volatile memory, electrical sensor, and energy devices enabled by directed BCP self-assembly.

  1. Modulated Degradation of Transient Electronic Devices through Multilayer Silk Fibroin Pockets.

    PubMed

    Brenckle, Mark A; Cheng, Huanyu; Hwang, Sukwon; Tao, Hu; Paquette, Mark; Kaplan, David L; Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2015-09-16

    The recent introduction of transient, bioresorbable electronics into the field of electronic device design offers promise for the areas of medical implants and environmental monitors, where programmed loss of function and environmental resorption are advantageous characteristics. Materials challenges remain, however, in protecting the labile device components from degradation at faster than desirable rates. Here we introduce an indirect passivation strategy for transient electronic devices that consists of encapsulation in multiple air pockets fabricated from silk fibroin. This approach is investigated through the properties of silk as a diffusional barrier to water penetration, coupled with the degradation of magnesium-based devices in humid air. Finally, silk pockets are demonstrated to be useful for controlled modulation of device lifetime. This approach may provide additional future opportunities for silk utility due to the low immunogenicity of the material and its ability to stabilize labile biotherapeutic dopants.

  2. Fabrication and Electrical Characterization of Correlated Oxide Field Effect Switching Devices for High Speed Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-19

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0381 Fabrication and Electrical Characterization of Correlated Oxide Field Effect Switching Devices for High Speed Electronics ...high speed electronics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0189 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Shriram Ramanathan 5d... electronic properties of thin film correlated oxides was investigated via electrical transport measurements and electronic structure studies

  3. In depth characterization of electron transport in 14 nm FD-SOI CMOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Minju; Shi, Ming; Mouis, Mireille; Cros, Antoine; Josse, Emmanuel; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Ghibaudo, Gérard

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, carrier transport properties in highly scaled (down to 14 nm-node) FDSOI CMOS devices are presented from 77 K to 300 K. At first, we analyzed electron transport characteristics in terms of different gate-oxide stack in NMOS long devices. So, we found that SOP and RCS can be the dominant contribution of additional mobility scatterings in different temperature regions. Then, electron mobility degradation in short channel devices was deeply investigated. It can be stemmed from additional scattering mechanisms, which were attributed to process-induced defects near source and drain. Finally, we found that mobility enhancement by replacing Si to SiGe channel in PMOS devices was validated and this feature was not effective anymore in sub-100 nm devices. The critical lengths were around 50 nm and 100 nm for NMOS and PMOS devices, respectively.

  4. 78 FR 63492 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade...

  5. 75 FR 38118 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Associated Software; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution... processing systems, components thereof, and associated software by reason of infringement of certain claims... certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated software...

  6. 76 FR 73677 - Investigations: Terminations, Modifications and Rulings: Certain Electronic Devices With Image...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Investigations: Terminations, Modifications and Rulings: Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and Associated Software AGENCY: U.S. International Trade...

  7. 78 FR 12354 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Commission Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Concerning an Initial Determination Granting a Motion To Amend Complaint and Notice of Investigation...

  8. Opto-electronic transport properties of graphene oxide based devices

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Poulomi; Ibrahim, Sk; Pal, Tanusri; Chakraborty, Koushik; Ghosh, Surajit

    2015-06-24

    Large area, solution-processed, graphene oxide (GO)nanocomposite based photo FET has been successfully fabricated. The device exhibits p-type charge transport characteristics in dark condition. Our measurements indicate that the transport characteristics are gate dependent and extremely sensitive to solar light. Photo current decay mechanism of GO is well explained and is associated with two phenomena: a) fast response process and b) slow response process. Slow response photo decay can be considered as the intrinsic phenomena which are present for both GO and reduced GO (r-GO), whereas the first response photo decay is controlled by the surface defect states. Demonstration of photo FET performance of GO thin film is a significant step forward in integrating these devices in various optoelectronic circuits.

  9. Luminescent coupling in planar opto-electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, Matthew Valdivia, Christopher E.; Gabr, Ahmed M.; Hinzer, Karin; Masson, Denis; Fafard, Simon

    2015-10-14

    Effects of luminescent coupling are observed in monolithic 5 V, five-junction GaAs phototransducers. Power conversion efficiency was measured at 61.6% ± 3% under the continuous, monochromatic illumination for which they were designed. Modeling shows that photon recycling can account for up to 350 mV of photovoltage in these devices. Drift-diffusion based simulations including a luminescent coupling term in the continuity equation show a broadening of the internal quantum efficiency curve which agrees well with experimental measurements. Luminescent coupling is shown to expand the spectral bandwidth of the phototransducer by a factor of at least 3.5 for devices with three or more junctions, even in cases where multiple absorption/emission events are required to transfer excess carriers into the limiting junction. We present a detailed description of the novel luminescent coupling modeling technique used to predict these performance enhancements.

  10. Testing methods and techniques: Testing electrical and electronic devices: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The methods, techniques, and devices used in testing various electrical and electronic apparatus are presented. The items described range from semiconductor package leak detectors to automatic circuit analyzer and antenna simulators for system checkout. In many cases the approaches can result in considerable cost savings and improved quality control. The testing of various electronic components, assemblies, and systems; the testing of various electrical devices; and the testing of cables and connectors are explained.

  11. GaN-on-diamond electronic device reliability: Mechanical and thermo-mechanical integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Dong; Sun, Huarui; Pomeroy, James W.; Kuball, Martin; Francis, Daniel; Faili, Firooz; Twitchen, Daniel J.

    2015-12-21

    The mechanical and thermo-mechanical integrity of GaN-on-diamond wafers used for ultra-high power microwave electronic devices was studied using a micro-pillar based in situ mechanical testing approach combined with an optical investigation of the stress and heat transfer across interfaces. We find the GaN/diamond interface to be thermo-mechanically stable, illustrating the potential for this material for reliable GaN electronic devices.

  12. Process and Radiation Induced Defects in Electronic Materials and Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Kenneth; Fogarty, T. N.

    1997-01-01

    Process and radiation induced defects are characterized by a variety of electrical techniques, including capacitance-voltage measurements and charge pumping. Separation of defect type into stacking faults, displacement damage, oxide traps, interface states, etc. and their related causes are discussed. The defects are then related to effects on device parameters. Silicon MOS technology is emphasized. Several reviews of radiation effects and silicon processing exist.

  13. Radiation Effects On Emerging Electronic Materials And Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-17

    emerging materials and devices. The radiation response and electrical properties of technologies that exhibit exception promise for application in DoD...Displacement Damage Formation in Si ..................................................63 D. Properties and Phenomena in Strained-Si Channels...32 Fig. 41. Expaded x-axis for N K pre-edge spectra for Si3N4 and Si oxynitride alloys . ..............32 Fig. 42. O K pre-edge

  14. 77 FR 11199 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ...The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is concerned about the effects of distraction due to drivers' use of electronic devices on motor vehicle safety. Consequently, NHTSA is issuing nonbinding, voluntary NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines (NHTSA Guidelines) to promote safety by discouraging the introduction of excessively distracting devices in vehicles. This notice......

  15. GaAs microwave devices and circuits with submicron electron-beam defined features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisseman, W. R.; Macksey, H. M.; Brehm, G. E.; Saunier, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and application of GaAs FET's, both as discrete microwave devices and as the key active components in monolithic microwave integrated circuits. The performance of these devices and circuits is discussed for frequencies ranging from 3 to 25 GHz. The crucial fabrication step is the formation of the submicron gate by electron-beam lithography.

  16. 78 FR 32689 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... COMMISSION Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof..., Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof, DN 2958; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public... communications devices, including mobile phones and components thereof. The complaint names as respondents...

  17. Variably spaced superlattice energy filter, a new device design concept for high-energy electron injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A new variably spaced superlattice energy filter is proposed which provides high-energy injection of electrons into a bulk semiconductor layer based on resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum well levels which are brought into alignment by an applied bias. Applications of this concept to a variety of optoelectronic devices and to thin-film electroluminescent devices and photodetectors are discussed.

  18. A Master Trainer Class for Professionals in Teaching the UltraCane Electronic Travel Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrod, William; Corbett, Michael D.; Blasch, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Electronic travel devices are used to transform information about the environment that would normally be perceived through the visual sense into a form that can be perceived by people who are blind or have low vision through another sense (Blasch, Long, & Griffin-Shirley, 1989). They are divided into two broad categories: primary devices and…

  19. Developmental letter position dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Naama; Rahamim, Einav

    2007-09-01

    Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter order within words. So far, only cases of acquired LPD have been reported. This study presents selective LPD in its developmental form, via the testing of II Hebrew-speaking individuals with developmental dyslexia. The study explores the types of errors and effects on reading in this dyslexia, using a variety of tests: reading aloud, lexical decision, same-different decision, definition and letter naming. The findings indicate that individuals with developmental LPD have a deficit in the letter position encoding function of the orthographic visual analyser, which leads to underspecification of letter position within words. Letter position errors occur mainly in adjacent middle letters, when the error creates another existing word. The participants did not show an output deficit or phonemic awareness deficit. The selectivity of the deficit, causing letter position errors but no letter identity errors and no migrations between words, supports the existence of letter position encoding function as separate from letter identification and letter-to-word binding.

  20. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  1. Van: An Open Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  2. Advances in molecular electronics: Synthesis and testing of potential molecular electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, David Wilson, Jr.

    New potential molecular electronics devices have been synthesized based on our knowledge of previous systems that have come out of our group. Previous studies and current studies have shown that simple molecular systems demonstrate negative differential resistance (NDR) and memory characteristics. The new systems rely primarily on the redox properties of the compounds to improve upon the solid state properties already observed. Most of these new organic compounds use thiol-based "alligator clips" for attachment to metal surfaces. Some of the compounds, however, contain different "alligator clips," primarily isonitriles, for attachment to metal substrates. It is our hope that these new "alligator clips" will offer lower conductivity barriers (higher current density). Electrochemical tests have been performed in order to evaluate those redox properties and in the hope of using those electrochemical results as a predictive tool to evaluate the usefulness of those compounds. Also, organic structures with polymerizable functionalities have been synthesized in order to cross-link the molecules once they are a part of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). This has been shown to enable the electrochemical growth of polypyrrole from a SAM in a controllable manner.

  3. Simultaneous specimen and stage cleaning device for analytical electron microscope

    DOEpatents

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    1996-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are provided for cleaning both a specimen stage, a specimen and an interior of an analytical electron microscope (AEM). The apparatus for cleaning a specimen stage and specimen comprising a plasma chamber for containing a gas plasma and an air lock coupled to the plasma chamber for permitting passage of the specimen stage and specimen into the plasma chamber and maintaining an airtight chamber. The specimen stage and specimen are subjected to a reactive plasma gas that is either DC or RF excited. The apparatus can be mounted on the analytical electron microscope (AEM) for cleaning the interior of the microscope.

  4. Effect of electron-beam irradiation on graphene field effect devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childres, Isaac; Jauregui, Luis A.; Foxe, Michael; Tian, Jifa; Jalilian, Romaneh; Jovanovic, Igor; Chen, Yong P.

    2010-10-01

    Electron beam exposure is a commonly used tool for fabricating and imaging graphene-based devices. Here, we present a study of the effects of electron-beam irradiation on the electronic transport properties of graphene and the operation of graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs). Exposure to a 30 keV electron-beam caused negative shifts in the charge-neutral point (CNP) of the GFET, interpreted as due to n-doping in the graphene from the interaction of the energetic electron beam with the substrate. The shift in the CNP is substantially reduced for suspended graphene devices. The electron beam is seen to also decrease the carrier mobilities and minimum conductivity, indicating defects created in the graphene. The findings are valuable for understanding the effects of radiation damage on graphene and for the development of radiation-hard graphene-based electronics.

  5. Fundamental Studies of Electronic Properties of Materials and Devices for High Power, Compact Terahertz Vacuum Electron Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-23

    Workshop on Computational Electronics, (full length conference paper) Beijing, China, May 2009, pp. 265-268. Available online through IEEE Xplore ...of traveling-wave tube regenerative oscillators,” IEEE Trans Elec Dev, vol 57, 1152-1159 (2010). [5] P. Gao, J. H. Booske, Z.-H. Yang, B. Li, J. He...J. Temkin, “Vacuum Electronic High Power Terahertz Sources,” invited review paper, Inaugural Issue, IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and

  6. BORON NITRIDE CAPACITORS FOR ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONIC DEVICES

    SciTech Connect

    N. Badi; D. Starikov; C. Boney; A. Bensaoula; D. Johnstone

    2010-11-01

    This project fabricates long-life boron nitride/boron oxynitride thin film -based capacitors for advanced SiC power electronics with a broad operating temperature range using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. The use of vapor deposition provides for precise control and quality material formation.

  7. Semiconductor Devices and Applications. Electronics Module 5. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, John; And Others

    This module is the fifth of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module, a parts/equipment list, and a cross-reference table of instructional materials. Sixteen instructional units cover: semiconductor materials; diodes; diode applications and…

  8. Measuring Conformational Dynamics of Single Biomolecules Using Nanoscale Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhterov, Maxim V.; Choi, Yongki; Sims, Patrick C.; Olsen, Tivoli J.; Gul, O. Tolga; Corso, Brad L.; Weiss, Gregory A.; Collins, Philip G.

    2014-03-01

    Molecular motion can be a rate-limiting step of enzyme catalysis, but motions are typically too quick to resolve with fluorescent single molecule techniques. Recently, we demonstrated a label-free technique that replaced fluorophores with nano-electronic circuits to monitor protein motions. The solid-state electronic technique used single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) transistors to monitor conformational motions of a single molecule of T4 lysozyme while processing its substrate, peptidoglycan. As lysozyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds, two protein domains undergo 8 Å hinge bending motion that generates an electronic signal in the SWNT transistor. We describe improvements to the system that have extended our temporal resolution to 2 μs . Electronic recordings at this level of detail directly resolve not just transitions between open and closed conformations but also the durations for those transition events. Statistical analysis of many events determines transition timescales characteristic of enzyme activity and shows a high degree of variability within nominally identical chemical events. The high resolution technique can be readily applied to other complex biomolecules to gain insights into their kinetic parameters and catalytic function.

  9. Learning to write letters: examination of student and letter factors.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Petscher, Yaacov; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Learning to write the letters of the alphabet is an important part of learning how to write conventionally. In this study, we investigated critical factors in the development of letter-writing skills using exploratory item response models to simultaneously account for variance in responses due to differences between students and between letters. Letter-writing skills were assessed in 415 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years. At the student level, we examined the contribution of letter-name knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness to letter-writing skills. At the letter level, we examined seven intrinsic and extrinsic factors in understanding how preschool children learn to write alphabet letters: first letter of name, letters in name, letter order, textual frequency, number of strokes, symmetry, and letter type. Results indicated that variation in letter-writing skills was accounted for more by differences between students rather than by differences between letters, with most of the variability accounted for by letter-name knowledge and age. Although significant, the contribution of letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness was relatively small. Student-level mechanisms underlying the acquisition of letter-writing skills are similar to the mechanisms underlying the learning of letter sounds. However, letter characteristics, which appear to play a major role in the learning of letter names and letter sounds, did not appear to influence learning how to write letters in a substantial way. The exception was if the letter was in the child's name.

  10. Degradation, Reliability, and Failure of Semiconductor Electronic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    determines its ability to conduct heat away that is generated by the operation of the device and therefore its operating temperature. The temperature...an AlN cap heated to (a) 1650ºC or (b) 1700ºC for 30 min. Though we are now able to anneal the implanted SiC up to temperatures as high as...outweighed the negative effects of th stent defects. Thus, as shown in Fig. 12b, the regio anted near the junctions was implanted with 1019 cm Al, while

  11. Materials, structures, and devices for high-speed electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, John A.; Snyder, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in materials, devices, and instrumentation made under this grant began with ex-situ null ellipsometric measurements of simple dielectric films on bulk substrates. Today highly automated and rapid spectroscopic ellipsometers are used for ex-situ characterization of very complex multilayer epitaxial structures. Even more impressive is the in-situ capability, not only for characterization but also for the actual control of the growth and etching of epitaxial layers. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has expanded from the research lab to become an integral part of the production of materials and structures for state of the art high speed devices. Along the way, it has contributed much to our understanding of the growth characteristics and material properties. The following areas of research are summarized: Si3N4 on GaAs, null ellipsometry; diamondlike carbon films; variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) development; GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures; Ta-Cu diffusion barrier films on GaAs; GaAs-AlGaAs superlattices and multiple quantum wells; superconductivity; in situ elevated temperature measurements of III-V's; optical constants of thermodynamically stable InGaAs; doping dependence of optical constants of GaAs; in situ ellipsometric studies of III-V epitaxial growth; photothermal spectroscopy; microellipsometry; and Si passivation and Si/SiGe strained-layer superlattices.

  12. Feasibility study of patient positioning verification in electron beam radiotherapy with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID).

    PubMed

    Ramm, U; Köhn, J; Rodriguez Dominguez, R; Licher, J; Koch, N; Kara, E; Scherf, C; Rödel, C; Weiß, C

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of verification and documentation in electron beam radiotherapy using the photon contamination detected with an electronic portal imaging device. For investigation of electron beam verification with an EPID, the portal images are acquired irradiating two different tissue equivalent phantoms at different electron energies. Measurements were performed on an Elekta SL 25 linear accelerator with an amorphous-Si electronic portal imaging device (EPID: iViewGT, Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK). As a measure of EPID image quality contrast (CR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are determined. For characterisation of the imaging of the EPID RW3 slabs and a Gammex 467 phantom with different material inserts are used. With increasing electron energy the intensity of photon contamination increases, yielding an increasing signal-to-noise ratio, but images are showing a decreasing contrast. As the signal-to-noise ratio saturates with increasing dose a minimum of 50 MUs is recommended. Even image quality depends on electron energy and diameter of the patient, the acquired results are mostly sufficient to assess the accuracy of beam positioning. In general, the online EPID acquisition has been demonstrated to be an effective electron beam verification and documentation method. The results are showing that this procedure can be recommended to be routinely and reliably done in patient treatment with electron beams.

  13. Flexible and stretchable electronics for wearable healthcare devices and minimally invasive surgical tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Lee, Mincheol; Lee, Hyunjae

    2016-05-01

    Recent advances in soft electronics have attracted great attention, largely due to their potential applications in personalized, bio-integrated healthcare devices. The mechanical mismatch between conventional electronic/optoelectronic devices and soft human tissues/organs have presented many challenges, such as the low signalto- noise ratio of biosensors because of the incomplete integration of rigid devices with the body, inflammation and excessive immune responses of implanted stiff devices originated from friction and their foreign nature to biotic systems, and the considerable discomfort and consequent stress experienced by users when wearing/implanting these devices. Ultra-flexible and stretchable electronic devices are being highlighted due to their low system modulus and the intrinsic system-level softness that are important to solve these issues. Here, we describe our unique strategies for the nanomaterial synthesis and fabrication, their seamless assembly and integration, and the design and development of corresponding wearable healthcare devices and minimally invasive surgical tools. These bioelectronic systems fully utilize recent breakthroughs in unconventional soft electronics based on nanomaterials to address unsolved issues in clinical medicine and to provide new opportunities in the personalized healthcare.

  14. 76 FR 58841 - Certain Digital Televisions and Components Thereof, and Certain Electronic Devices Having a Blu...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Televisions and Components Thereof, and Certain Electronic Devices Having a Blu... investigation on March 9, 2011, based on complaints filed by LG Electronics, Inc. of Seoul, Korea (``LGE''). 76... the sale within the United States after importation of certain digital televisions and...

  15. 76 FR 41522 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable Music Players, and Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Decision Not To Review an... public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at...

  16. Fabrication techniques and applications of flexible graphene-based electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luqi, Tao; Danyang, Wang; Song, Jiang; Ying, Liu; Qianyi, Xie; He, Tian; Ningqin, Deng; Xuefeng, Wang; Yi, Yang; Tian-Ling, Ren

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, flexible electronic devices have become a hot topic of scientific research. These flexible devices are the basis of flexible circuits, flexible batteries, flexible displays and electronic skins. Graphene-based materials are very promising for flexible electronic devices, due to their high mobility, high elasticity, a tunable band gap, quantum electronic transport and high mechanical strength. In this article, we review the recent progress of the fabrication process and the applications of graphene-based electronic devices, including thermal acoustic devices, thermal rectifiers, graphene-based nanogenerators, pressure sensors and graphene-based light-emitting diodes. In summary, although there are still a lot of challenges needing to be solved, graphene-based materials are very promising for various flexible device applications in the future. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) Program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and China's Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).

  17. Transition metal oxides for organic electronics: energetics, device physics and applications.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jens; Hamwi, Sami; Kröger, Michael; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Riedl, Thomas; Kahn, Antoine

    2012-10-23

    During the last few years, transition metal oxides (TMO) such as molybdenum tri-oxide (MoO(3) ), vanadium pent-oxide (V(2) O(5) ) or tungsten tri-oxide (WO(3) ) have been extensively studied because of their exceptional electronic properties for charge injection and extraction in organic electronic devices. These unique properties have led to the performance enhancement of several types of devices and to a variety of novel applications. TMOs have been used to realize efficient and long-term stable p-type doping of wide band gap organic materials, charge-generation junctions for stacked organic light emitting diodes (OLED), sputtering buffer layers for semi-transparent devices, and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells with improved charge extraction, enhanced power conversion efficiency and substantially improved long term stability. Energetics in general play a key role in advancing device structure and performance in organic electronics; however, the literature provides a very inconsistent picture of the electronic structure of TMOs and the resulting interpretation of their role as functional constituents in organic electronics. With this review we intend to clarify some of the existing misconceptions. An overview of TMO-based device architectures ranging from transparent OLEDs to tandem OPV cells is also given. Various TMO film deposition methods are reviewed, addressing vacuum evaporation and recent approaches for solution-based processing. The specific properties of the resulting materials and their role as functional layers in organic devices are discussed.

  18. Interfacial and Thin Film Chemistry in Electron Device Fabrication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    from Semiconductor Surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990). J. Z. Chou . S. A. Hewitt, J. F. Hershberger, B. B. Brady, G. B Spector, L Chia, and...Collisions with High Energy Electrons from 193 nm Excimer Laser Photolysis of Iodine," J. Chem. Phys. 92, 6974 (1990) James Z. Chou and George W. Flynn...GRADUATE RESEARCH ASSISTANTS Rob Beresford (ONR Fellow) Robert Ade Justin Darrow (ONR Fellow) Bob Burke Cynthia Jenks (ONR Fellow) Dan-Li Chen Tom

  19. Double deflection system for an electron beam device

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Norman W.; Golladay, Steven D.; Crewe, Albert V.

    1978-01-01

    A double deflection scanning system for electron beam instruments is provided embodying a means of correcting isotropic coma, and anisotropic coma aberrations induced by the magnetic lens of such an instrument. The scanning system deflects the beam prior to entry into the magnetic lens from the normal on-axis intersection of the beam with the lens according to predetermined formulas and thereby reduces the aberrations.

  20. Few-Electron Lateral Resonant Tunneling Semiconductor Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    Prepared by Texas Instruments 13500 N. Central Expressway Dallas, Texas 75265 9i 5 QG 019 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT FOR FEW-ELECTRON LATERAL RESONANT...82170" Arlington, VA 22217-5000 j 01t Prepared by Texas Instruments 13500 N. Central Expressway Dallas, Texas 75265 REPORT DOCUMENTATION R EPORT NO. 3...Name and Address 10. Projectlls’k/Work Unit No. Texas Instruments Incorporated 13500 N. Central Expressway, M/S 105 11. Contract (C) or Grant (G) No

  1. Simulation of Ultra-Small Electronic Devices: The Classical-Quantum Transition Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegel, Bryan A.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Concern is increasing about how quantum effects will impact electronic device operation as down-scaling continues along the SIA Roadmap through 2010. This document describes part of a new semiconductor device modeling (SDM) program at NAS to investigate these concerns by utilizing advanced NAS and third-party numerical computation software to rapidly implement and investigate electronic device models including quantum effects. This SDM project will investigate quantum effects in devices in the classical-quantum transition region, especially sub-0.1 mm MOSFETs. Specific tasks planned for this project include the use of quantum corrections to the classical drift-diffusion and hydrodynamic models of electron transport, arid the use of nominally quantum models including significant scattering.

  2. Transport properties in semiconductor-gas discharge electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, Y.; (Yücel) Kurt, H.; Albarzanji, A. O.; Alekperov, S. D.; Salamov, B. G.

    2009-09-01

    Nonlinear electrical transport of semi-insulating (SI) GaAs detector in semiconductor-gas discharge IR image converter (SGDIC) are studied experimentally for a wide range of the gas pressures ( p = 28-55 Torr), interelectrode distances ( d = 445-525 μm) and inner electrode diameters ( D = 12-22 mm) of photocathode. The destabilization of homogeneous state observed in a planar dc-driven structure is due to nonlinear transport properties of GaAs photocathode. Experimental investigation of electrical instability in SGDIC structure was analyzed using hysteresis, N-shaped negative differential conductivity (NDC) current voltage characteristics (CVC) and dynamic behavior of current in a wide range of feeding voltage ( U = 590-1000 V) under different IR light intensities incident on cathode material. It is established that hysteresis are related to electron capture and emission from EL2 deep center on the detector substrate. We have experimentally investigated domain velocity and electron mobility based on well-understood transferred electron effect (TEE) for abovementioned nonlinear electrical characteristics of SI GaAs. The experimental findings are in good agreement with estimated results reported by other independent authors.

  3. Memory effect in semiconductor gas discharge electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, Y.; Kurt, H.; Salamov, B. G. Yücel

    2008-11-01

    The memory effect in the planar semiconductor gas discharge system at different pressures (15-760 Torr) and interelectrode distances (60-445 µm) was experimentally studied. The study was performed on the basis of current-voltage characteristic (CVC) measurements with a time lag of several hours of afterglow periods. The influence of the active space charge remaining from the previous discharge on the breakdown voltage (UB) has been analysed using the CVC method for different conductivities of semiconductor GaAs photocathode. CVC showed that even a measurement taken 96 h after the first breakdown was influenced by accumulated active particles deposited from the previous discharge. Such phenomena based on metastable atoms surviving from the previous discharge and recombined on the cathode to create initial electrons in the avalanche mechanism are shown to be fully consistent with CVC data for both pre-breakdown and post-breakdown regions. However, in the post-breakdown region pronounced negative differential conductivity was observed. Such nonlinear electrical property of GaAs is attributed to the existence of deep electronic defect called EL2 in the semiconductor cathode material. On the other hand, the CVC data for subsequent dates present a correlation of memory effect and hysteresis behaviour. The explanation for such a relation is based on the influence of long lived active charges on the electronic transport mechanism of semiconductor material.

  4. Standard source for certification of optical-electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastova, Natalia I.; Maraev, Anton A.; Ishanin, Gennady G.

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the error at the certification of optoelectronic devices, sources and detectors of the standard sources and its diaphragm must be thermally stabilized in order to create a uniform background. We developed an uncooled model blackbody TCID-100 with working temperature up to 100°C with a thermally stabilized transmitter and the diaphragm set. The developed model is a cylinder made of red copper with a conical cavity. Cone length was chosen empirically to provide uniform heating over the entire length of the blackbody cavity. With the developed model, we conducted cavity temperature measurement transmitter, which enabled to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of the blackbody design. In this article we examined models of blackbodies, the most popular types of cavities and the calculation of the thermal emissivity for them. We have designed blackbody and measured the cavity temperature change over the time.

  5. Organic electronic devices with multiple solution-processed layers

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.

    2016-07-05

    A method for fabricating an organic light emitting device stack involves depositing a first conductive electrode layer over a substrate; depositing a first set of one or more organic layers, wherein at least one of the first set of organic layers is a first emissive layer and one of the first set of organic layers is deposited by a solution-based process that utilizes a first solvent; depositing a first conductive interlayer by a dry deposition process; and depositing a second set of one or more organic layers, wherein at least one of the second set of organic layers is a second emissive layer and one of the second set of organic layers is deposited by a solution-based process that utilizes a second solvent, wherein all layers that precede the layer deposited using the second solvent are insoluble in the second solvent.

  6. Image pixel device using integrated organic electronic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swathi, K.; Narayan, K. S.

    2016-11-01

    We report a solution processed, monolithically integrated device similar to an imaging pixel element used in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based cameras. This integrated pixel essentially consists of a pair of organic photodiode (OPD) and organic field effect transistor (OFET). The signal generated by the light responsive OPD drives the OFET to different output states to quantify the light intensity. The prerequisite of a low operating voltage OFET (<2 V) was achieved using a bottom-gate, top-contact OFET consisting of a high mobility polymer semiconductor and a self-assembled hybrid dielectric layer. A bulk heterojunction blend was used as the photo-active layer in the OPD along with suitable buffer layers for charge extraction. The material parameters were optimized to realize a suitable structure which clearly demonstrated the interplay of the OPD and OFET operations, thereby forming a roadmap for all-organic CMOS arrays.

  7. Device for providing high-intensity ion or electron beam

    DOEpatents

    McClanahan, Edwin D.; Moss, Ronald W.

    1977-01-01

    A thin film of a low-thermionic-work-function material is maintained on the cathode of a device for producing a high-current, low-pressure gas discharge by means of sputter deposition from an auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode includes a surface with a low-work-function material, such as thorium, uranium, plutonium or one of the rare earth elements, facing the cathode but at a disposition and electrical potential so as to extract ions from the gas discharge and sputter the low-work-function material onto the cathode. By continuously replenishing the cathode film, high thermionic emissions and ion plasmas can be realized and maintained over extended operating periods.

  8. Hot Electron Effects of Importance for Micron and Submicron Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    AD-AI05 616 ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA COORDINATED SCIENCE LAB F/ B 20/5 HOT ELECTRON EFFECTS OF IMPORTANCE FOR MICRON AND SUBMICRON OEV--ETC(U) SEP BI K...transport in heterolayers which was also treated and partly expanded by B . K. Ridley and P. Price. 2. Transport at Extremely High Electric Fields and Impact...467-469 (19"’)). 4. M. Keever, H. Shichijo, K. Hess, !. P°n-"rje. L. Witkowsi, :. rko; and B . a. Streetman, Measurements of !f{? E].e"’-ron C

  9. Device and method for electron beam heating of a high density plasma

    DOEpatents

    Thode, L.E.

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high density plasma in a small localized region are described. A relativistic electron beam generator produces a high voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10/sup 17/ to 10/sup 20/.

  10. First principles modelling of contact resistance in molecular electronic devices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Taylor, Jeremy; Brandbyge, Mads

    2002-03-01

    We have used the TranSIESTA package[1,2] to investigate the contact resistance of gold-thiol bonds. The TranSIESTA package is a new density functional code employing local basis sets[3], combined with a non-equilibrium Greens function transport scheme. With this package we can calculate the selfconsistent electronic structure of a nanostructure coupled to 3-dimensional electrodes with different electrochemical potentials, using the same level of model chemistry for the electrodes as for the nanostructure. We have used the method to calculate the electron transport through DiThiol-Benzene (DTB) connected to gold electrodes. The transport properties have been calculated for a range of different molecule-electrode couplings, and I will discuss the influence of the coupling on the molecular conductance, and compare with experimental data. [1] M. Brandbyge, K. Stokbro, J. Taylor, J. L. Mozos, P. Ordejon, Material Research Society symposium proceedings volume 636, D9.25 (2000). [2] M. Brandbyge, K. Stokbro, J. Taylor, J. L. Mozos, P. Ordejon, Condmat 0110650 [3] SIESTA: D. Sanchez-Portal, P. Ordejon, E. Artacho and J. Soler, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 65, 453 (1997).

  11. Fiber-based wearable electronics: a review of materials, fabrication, devices, and applications.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei; Shu, Lin; Li, Qiao; Chen, Song; Wang, Fei; Tao, Xiao-Ming

    2014-08-20

    Fiber-based structures are highly desirable for wearable electronics that are expected to be light-weight, long-lasting, flexible, and conformable. Many fibrous structures have been manufactured by well-established lost-effective textile processing technologies, normally at ambient conditions. The advancement of nanotechnology has made it feasible to build electronic devices directly on the surface or inside of single fibers, which have typical thickness of several to tens microns. However, imparting electronic functions to porous, highly deformable and three-dimensional fiber assemblies and maintaining them during wear represent great challenges from both views of fundamental understanding and practical implementation. This article attempts to critically review the current state-of-arts with respect to materials, fabrication techniques, and structural design of devices as well as applications of the fiber-based wearable electronic products. In addition, this review elaborates the performance requirements of the fiber-based wearable electronic products, especially regarding the correlation among materials, fiber/textile structures and electronic as well as mechanical functionalities of fiber-based electronic devices. Finally, discussions will be presented regarding to limitations of current materials, fabrication techniques, devices concerning manufacturability and performance as well as scientific understanding that must be improved prior to their wide adoption.

  12. Integrated electronic circuits and devices based on interactive paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Francis

    1997-08-01

    Various organic conjugated materials, e.g. conjugated polymers and short conjugated oligomers, have been up to now proposed as active semiconducting layers in organic-base devices, such as thin film transistors, TFTs, or light emitting diodes. The mode of operation of TFTs shows that a high carrier mobility together with a low conductivity are required for their figure of merit. Experimental results from literature indicate that, whereas conjugated polymers exhibit a low carrier mobility, of the order of 10-4 to 10-5 cm2V-1s-1, conjugated oligomers appear much more promising. It is thus shown that carrier mobility is directly related to the long range structural order in conjugated oligomer films, i.e. to the decrease of grain boundaries, leading to values of the order of 10-1 cm-2V-1s-1, comparable to that of amorphous hydrogenated silicon. Conjugated oligomers are well defined materials, offering various physical and chemical ways for control of the structural organization of thin films made from them. Besides, conductivity in thin films of conjugated oligomers is mainly determined by the purity of the materials, allowing values lower than 10-7 Scm-1, with a high on/off ratio. The low melting and evaporation temperatures of conjugated oligomers, together with the solubility of some of these materials, allows the construction of TFTs by the use of room temperature techniques, following a process compatible with paper technology.

  13. Silk-based resorbable electronic devices for remotely controlled therapy and in vivo infection abatement.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hu; Hwang, Suk-Won; Marelli, Benedetto; An, Bo; Moreau, Jodie E; Yang, Miaomiao; Brenckle, Mark A; Kim, Stanley; Kaplan, David L; Rogers, John A; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2014-12-09

    A paradigm shift for implantable medical devices lies at the confluence between regenerative medicine, where materials remodel and integrate in the biological milieu, and technology, through the use of recently developed material platforms based on biomaterials and bioresorbable technologies such as optics and electronics. The union of materials and technology in this context enables a class of biomedical devices that can be optically or electronically functional and yet harmlessly degrade once their use is complete. We present here a fully degradable, remotely controlled, implantable therapeutic device operating in vivo to counter a Staphylococcus aureus infection that disappears once its function is complete. This class of device provides fully resorbable packaging and electronics that can be turned on remotely, after implantation, to provide the necessary thermal therapy or trigger drug delivery. Such externally controllable, resorbable devices not only obviate the need for secondary surgeries and retrieval, but also have extended utility as therapeutic devices that can be left behind at a surgical or suturing site, following intervention, and can be externally controlled to allow for infection management by either thermal treatment or by remote triggering of drug release when there is retardation of antibiotic diffusion, deep infections are present, or when systemic antibiotic treatment alone is insufficient due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. After completion of function, the device is safely resorbed into the body, within a programmable period.

  14. Silk-based resorbable electronic devices for remotely controlled therapy and in vivo infection abatement

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hu; Hwang, Suk-Won; Marelli, Benedetto; An, Bo; Moreau, Jodie E.; Yang, Miaomiao; Brenckle, Mark A.; Kim, Stanley; Kaplan, David L.; Rogers, John A.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2014-01-01

    A paradigm shift for implantable medical devices lies at the confluence between regenerative medicine, where materials remodel and integrate in the biological milieu, and technology, through the use of recently developed material platforms based on biomaterials and bioresorbable technologies such as optics and electronics. The union of materials and technology in this context enables a class of biomedical devices that can be optically or electronically functional and yet harmlessly degrade once their use is complete. We present here a fully degradable, remotely controlled, implantable therapeutic device operating in vivo to counter a Staphylococcus aureus infection that disappears once its function is complete. This class of device provides fully resorbable packaging and electronics that can be turned on remotely, after implantation, to provide the necessary thermal therapy or trigger drug delivery. Such externally controllable, resorbable devices not only obviate the need for secondary surgeries and retrieval, but also have extended utility as therapeutic devices that can be left behind at a surgical or suturing site, following intervention, and can be externally controlled to allow for infection management by either thermal treatment or by remote triggering of drug release when there is retardation of antibiotic diffusion, deep infections are present, or when systemic antibiotic treatment alone is insufficient due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. After completion of function, the device is safely resorbed into the body, within a programmable period. PMID:25422476

  15. PROTEOTRONICS: The emerging science of protein-based electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Pousset, Jeremy; Reggiani, Lino

    2015-10-01

    Protein-mediated charge transport is of relevant importance in the design of protein based electronics and in attaining an adequate level of understanding of protein functioning. This is particularly true for the case of transmembrane proteins, like those pertaining to the G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). These proteins are involved in a broad range of biological processes like catalysis, substance transport, etc., thus being the target of a large number of clinically used drugs. This paper briefly reviews a variety of experiments devoted to investigate charge transport in proteins and present a unified theoretical model able to relate macroscopic experimental results with the conformations of the amino acids backbone of the single protein.

  16. Views of patients and professionals about electronic multicompartment medication devices: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jill; Bond, Christine; Kinnear, Moira; McKinstry, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the perceived acceptability, advantages and disadvantages of electronic multicompartment medication devices. Design Qualitative study using 8 focus groups and 10 individual semistructured interviews. Recordings were transcribed and analysed thematically. Strategies were employed to ensure the findings were credible and trustworthy. Participants and setting Community pharmacists (n=11), general practitioners (n=9), community nurses (n=12) and social care managers (n=8) were recruited from the National Health Service (NHS) and local authority services. Patients (n=15) who were current conventional or electronic multicompartment medication device users or had medication adherence problems were recruited from community pharmacies. 3 informal carers participated. Results Electronic multicompartment medication devices which prompt the patient to take medication may be beneficial for selected individuals, particularly those with cognitive impairment, but who are not seriously impaired, provided they have a good level of dexterity. They may also assist individuals where it is important that medication is taken at fixed time intervals. These are likely to be people who are being supported to live alone. No single device suited everybody; smaller/lighter devices were preferred but their usefulness was limited by the small number/size of storage compartments. Removing medications was often challenging. Transportability was an important factor for patients and carers. A carer's alert if medication is not taken was problematic with multiple barriers to implementation and no consensus as to who should receive the alert. There was a lack of enthusiasm among professionals, particularly among pharmacists, due to concerns about responsibility and funding for devices as well as ensuring devices met regulatory standards for storage and labelling. Conclusions This study provides indicators of which patients might benefit from an electronic multicompartment

  17. New bio-inorganic photo-electronic devices based on photosynthetic proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Nikolai; Spano, Anthony; Trammell, Scott; Griva, Igor; Tsoi, Stanislav; Schnur, Joel M.

    2007-09-01

    Construction of efficient devices for light energy conversion, including photo-electronic and photovoltaic (PV) devices, is a big challenge for the current science and technology that will have important economic consequences. Most of the modern photovoltaic devices are based on silicon. An innovative approach to the construction of photovoltaic devices is the utilization of biological systems and principles designed for similar purposes by Nature. Biological electronic devices, proteins, have extremely high efficiency, precise spatial organization, and are inexpensive in fabrication. They can be fused with inorganic and organic materials such as conductors, semiconductors, conductive polymers, or quantum dots. The photosynthetic reaction center protein (RC) is one of the most advanced photo-electronic devices developed by Nature. It has nearly 100% quantum yield of primary charge separation, an extremely fast operation time (about 10 -9 s, or operation frequency of ~10 9 Hz), and a very efficient stabilization of separated charges (ratio of charge separation rate to that of charge recombination is about 10 4). The charge separation and stabilization takes place in a complex of 7 nm size and leads to the formation of a local electric field of about 10 6 V/cm. A coupling of photosynthetic RC to inorganic electrodes is attractive for the identification of the mechanisms of inter-protein electron transfer (ET) and for the possible applications in the construction of protein-based innovative photoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. In this presentation we describe a new type of hybrid bio-inorganic photoelectronic devices based on photosynthetic proteins and inorganic materials. Using genetically engineered bacterial RCs and specifically synthesized organic linkers, we were able to construct self-assembled and aligned protein complexes with various metals and semiconductors, including gold, indium tin oxide (ITO), nanoporous TiO II, highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

  18. Rational design of metal-organic electronic devices: A computational perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilukuri, Bhaskar

    Organic and organometallic electronic materials continue to attract considerable attention among researchers due to their cost effectiveness, high flexibility, low temperature processing conditions and the continuous emergence of new semiconducting materials with tailored electronic properties. In addition, organic semiconductors can be used in a variety of important technological devices such as solar cells, field-effect transistors (FETs), flash memory, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, light emitting diodes (LEDs), etc. However, organic materials have thus far not achieved the reliability and carrier mobility obtainable with inorganic silicon-based devices. Hence, there is a need for finding alternative electronic materials other than organic semiconductors to overcome the problems of inferior stability and performance. In this dissertation, I research the development of new transition metal based electronic materials which due to the presence of metal-metal, metal-pi, and pi-pi interactions may give rise to superior electronic and chemical properties versus their organic counterparts. Specifically, I performed computational modeling studies on platinum based charge transfer complexes and d 10 cyclo-[M(mu-L)]3 trimers (M = Ag, Au and L = monoanionic bidentate bridging (C/N~C/N) ligand). The research done is aimed to guide experimental chemists to make rational choices of metals, ligands, substituents in synthesizing novel organometallic electronic materials. Furthermore, the calculations presented here propose novel ways to tune the geometric, electronic, spectroscopic, and conduction properties in semiconducting materials. In addition to novel material development, electronic device performance can be improved by making a judicious choice of device components. I have studied the interfaces of a p-type metal-organic semiconductor viz cyclo-[Au(mu-Pz)] 3 trimer with metal electrodes at atomic and surface levels. This work was aimed to guide the device

  19. Power electronics performance in cryogenic environment: evaluation for use in HTS power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.; Valtchev, S.; Pina, J.; Gonçalves, A.; Ventim Neves, M.; Rodrigues, A. L.

    2008-02-01

    Power electronics (PE) plays a major role in electrical devices and systems, namely in electromechanical drives, in motor and generator controllers, and in power grids, including high-voltage DC (HVDC) power transmission. PE is also used in devices for the protection against grid disturbances, like voltage sags or power breakdowns. To cope with these disturbances, back-up energy storage devices are used, like uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and flywheels. Some of these devices may use superconductivity. Commercial PE semiconductor devices (power diodes, power MOSFETs, IGBTs, power Darlington transistors and others) are rarely (or never) experimented for cryogenic temperatures, even when designed for military applications. This means that its integration with HTS power devices is usually done in the hot environment, raising several implementation restrictions. These reasons led to the natural desire of characterising PE under extreme conditions, e. g. at liquid nitrogen temperatures, for use in HTS devices. Some researchers expect that cryogenic temperatures may increase power electronics' performance when compared with room-temperature operation, namely reducing conduction losses and switching time. Also the overall system efficiency may increase due to improved properties of semiconductor materials at low temperatures, reduced losses, and removal of dissipation elements. In this work, steady state operation of commercial PE semiconductors and devices were investigated at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. Performances in cryogenic and room temperatures are compared. Results help to decide which environment is to be used for different power HTS applications.

  20. Mechanical Flip-Chip for Ultra-High Electron Mobility Devices

    PubMed Central

    Bennaceur, Keyan; Schmidt, Benjamin A.; Gaucher, Samuel; Laroche, Dominique; Lilly, Michael P.; Reno, John L.; West, Ken W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; Gervais, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatic gates are of paramount importance for the physics of devices based on high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) since they allow depletion of electrons in selected areas. This field-effect gating enables the fabrication of a wide range of devices such as, for example, quantum point contacts (QPC), electron interferometers and quantum dots. To fabricate these gates, processing is usually performed on the 2DEG material, which is in many cases detrimental to its electron mobility. Here we propose an alternative process which does not require any processing of the 2DEG material other than for the ohmic contacts. This approach relies on processing a separate wafer that is then mechanically mounted on the 2DEG material in a flip-chip fashion. This technique proved successful to fabricate quantum point contacts on both GaAs/AlGaAs materials with both moderate and ultra-high electron mobility. PMID:26391400

  1. Mechanical flip-chip for ultra-high electron mobility devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bennaceur, Keyan; Schmidt, Benjamin A.; Gaucher, Samuel; Laroche, Dominique; Lilly, Michael P.; Reno, John L.; West, Ken W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; Gervais, Guillaume

    2015-09-22

    In this study, electrostatic gates are of paramount importance for the physics of devices based on high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) since they allow depletion of electrons in selected areas. This field-effect gating enables the fabrication of a wide range of devices such as, for example, quantum point contacts (QPC), electron interferometers and quantum dots. To fabricate these gates, processing is usually performed on the 2DEG material, which is in many cases detrimental to its electron mobility. Here we propose an alternative process which does not require any processing of the 2DEG material other than for the ohmic contacts. This approach relies on processing a separate wafer that is then mechanically mounted on the 2DEG material in a flip-chip fashion. This technique proved successful to fabricate quantum point contacts on both GaAs/AlGaAs materials with both moderate and ultra-high electron mobility.

  2. Medical device integration: CIOs must bridge the digital divide between devices and electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Raths, David

    2009-02-01

    To get funding approved for medical device integration, ClOs suggest focusing on specific patient safety or staff efficiency pain points. Organizations that make clinical engineering part of their IT team report fewer chain-of-command issues. It also helps IT people understand the clinical goals because the engineering people have been working closely with clinicians for years. A new organization has formed to work on collaboration between clinical engineers and IT professionals. For more information, go to www.ceitcollaboration.org. ECRI Institute has written a guide to handling the convergence of medical technology and hospital networks. Its "Medical Technology for the IT Professional: An Essential Guide for Working in Today's Healthcare Setting" also details how IT professionals can assist hospital technology planning and acquisition, and provide ongoing support for IT-based medical technologies. For more information, visit www.ecri.org/ITresource.

  3. Unique properties of graphene quantum dots and their applications in photonic/electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Suk-Ho

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been recognized as an attractive building block for electronic, photonic, and bio-molecular device applications. This paper reports the current status of studies on the novel properties of GQDs and their hybrids with conventional and low-dimensional materials for device applications. In this review, more emphasis is placed on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of GQDs, and device structures based on the combination of GQDs with various semiconducting/insulating materials such as graphene, silicon dioxide, Si quantum dots, silica nanoparticles, organic materials, and so on. Because of GQDs’ unique properties, their hybrid structures are employed in high-efficiency devices, including photodetectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, flash memory, and sensors.

  4. Modeling and Analysis of Spatially Distributed Material Properties in Novel Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Bao

    This dissertation focuses on the modeling and analysis of several promising diode based electronic devices. With years of devoted research work on solution processed semiconductors and thin film structures. a number of highly interesting applications have been demonstrated. including transistors, light emitting devices, memories, and photovoltaic cells. With a promise of low production costs and ever improving performances in recent years; the new devices are gaining more attentions and presenting a stronger potential of revolutionizing the industry of electronics. At this moment, with a rapid growth of device performance which is mainly powered by experimental efforts, it is crucial to gain deeper understandings of the physical mechanisms at a microscopic level, especially the parts that differ from traditional silicon based and vacuum deposition processed devices. Due to the nature of randomness which typically go with a simple and quick solution deposition process. non-uniformities commonly exist in the active layers of these devices, and play various complicated roles. Investigation of this part is the main motivation of the works presented here. The dissertation mainly discusses about the exploration of two families of devices: solution processed solar cells and solution processed memories. In both cases, the naturally formed non-uniform material distributions are critical for the working mechanism of the devices. Through several different approaches, mathematical models have been developed for each type of the devices, and through some calculations and/or analysis, better control approaches are designed and resulted in better performances. Several practical modeling and simulation methods for these devices are introduced throughout the process, including a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation for organic solar cells, a robust parameter extraction method for various types of solar cells, a circuit networked based modeling/simulation approach for solar cells with non

  5. Possible nano-spintronics devices with graphene as electron wave guides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakabe, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    Another application of graphene to semiconductor spintronics devices is proposed theoretically. We have designed possible methods for fabrication of nano-scale device structures utilizing graphene as electron wave guides. Important techniques should be 1) formation of strong covalent bonding between a part of substrate and graphene, 2) creation of nano-sized superstructure with sharp edges inducing the grapheme edge states[1] by controlling interface between external electrodes and graphene, and 3) creation of nano-sized quantum structures based on the spinodal nano-decomposition. Several test simulations on the electronic states of proposed structures and theoretical estimation of functionality of graphene as an electron wave guide for semiconductor spintronics devices are presented. [1] M. Fujita, K. Wakabayashi, K. Nakada and K. Kusakabe, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 65, 1920 (1996).

  6. Temporal evolution of electron beam generated Argon plasma in pasotron device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Neha; Pal, U. N.; Prakash, Ram; Choyal, Y.

    2016-10-01

    The plasma- assisted slow wave oscillator (PASOTRON) is a high power microwave source in which the electron beam in the interaction region is confined by the background plasma. The plasma is generated by impact ionization of background gas with the electron beam. A model has been developed for temporal evolution of Argon plasma in pasotron device. In this model, we consider electron beam of energy E interacting with Argon gas. The resulting ionization creates quasi neutral argon plasma composed of argon Ar atoms, singly ionized ions Ar+1and electrons having energy from 0 to E. Electron impact excitation, ionization, radiative decay, radiative recombination and three body recombination processes are considered in this model. Population of ground and excited states of argon atom, ground state of argon ion as well as the population of electron energy groups is calculated by solving time dependent rate equations. Temporal evolution of electron beam generated plasma is given.

  7. Ultra-slim flexible glass for roll-to-roll electronic device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Sean; Glaesemann, Scott; Li, Xinghua

    2014-08-01

    As displays and electronics evolve to become lighter, thinner, and more flexible, the choice of substrate continues to be critical to their overall optimization. The substrate directly affects improvements in the designs, materials, fabrication processes, and performance of advanced electronics. With their inherent benefits such as surface quality, optical transmission, hermeticity, and thermal and dimensional stability, glass substrates enable high-quality and long-life devices. As substrate thicknesses are reduced below 200 μm, ultra-slim flexible glass continues to provide these inherent benefits to high-performance flexible electronics such as displays, touch sensors, photovoltaics, and lighting. In addition, the reduction in glass thickness also allows for new device designs and high-throughput, continuous manufacturing enabled by R2R processes. This paper provides an overview of ultra-slim flexible glass substrates and how they enable flexible electronic device optimization. Specific focus is put on flexible glass' mechanical reliability. For this, a combination of substrate design and process optimizations has been demonstrated that enables R2R device fabrication on flexible glass. Demonstrations of R2R flexible glass processes such as vacuum deposition, photolithography, laser patterning, screen printing, slot die coating, and lamination have been made. Compatibility with these key process steps has resulted in the first demonstration of a fully functional flexible glass device fabricated completely using R2R processes.

  8. Development of a prototype T-shaped fast switching device for electron cyclotron current drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Kenji; Nagashima, Koji; Honzu, Toshihiko; Saigusa, Mikio; Oda, Yasuhisa; Takahashi, Koji; Sakamoto, Keishi

    2016-09-01

    A T-shaped high-power switching device composed of circular corrugated waveguides with three ports and double dielectric disks made of sapphire was proposed as a fast switching device based on a new principle in electron cyclotron current drive systems. This switching device has the advantages of operating at a fixed frequency and being compact. The design of the prototype switch was obtained by numerical simulations using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The size of these components was optimized for the frequency band of 170 GHz. Low-power tests were carried out in a cross-shaped model.

  9. Controlled aniline polymerization strategies for polyaniline micro- and nano self-assembling into practical electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Sami; Attout, Anne; Bertrand, Patrick

    2009-02-03

    Electroless polymerization of aniline on platinum is investigated for polyaniline micro- and nanostructuring into practical electronic devices. This type of reaction is adapted to estimate its usefulness in a lithographic process. For practical electronic device fabrication, electroless polymerization of aniline can be used to electrically bridge initially independent platinum electrodes. As this application requires a polyaniline bridge to form over a nonconductive material before an electrical contact is obtained, polyaniline growth using chemical oxidative reaction is investigated on substrates presenting surface-tension contrast patterns.

  10. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Carbon Nanotube-Based Vacuum Electronic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Toda, Risaku (Inventor); Del Castillo, Linda Y. (Inventor); Murthy, Rakesh (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention proficiently produce carbon nanotube-based vacuum electronic devices. In one embodiment a method of fabricating a carbon nanotube-based vacuum electronic device includes: growing carbon nanotubes onto a substrate to form a cathode; assembling a stack that includes the cathode, an anode, and a first layer that includes an alignment slot; disposing a microsphere partially into the alignment slot during the assembling of the stack such that the microsphere protrudes from the alignment slot and can thereby separate the first layer from an adjacent layer; and encasing the stack in a vacuum sealed container.

  11. Steps toward fabricating cryogenic CMOS compatible single electron devices for future qubits.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Childs, Kenton David; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Tracy, Lisa A.; Eng, Kevin; Stevens, Jeffrey; Nordberg, Eric; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Lilly, Michael Patrick

    2008-08-01

    We describe the development of a novel silicon quantum bit (qubit) device architecture that involves using materials that are compatible with a Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 0.35 mum complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process intended to operate at 100 mK. We describe how the qubit structure can be integrated with CMOS electronics, which is believed to have advantages for critical functions like fast single electron electrometry for readout compared to current approaches using radio frequency techniques. Critical materials properties are reviewed and preliminary characterization of the SNL CMOS devices at 4.2 K is presented.

  12. 76 FR 40930 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and... electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, and computers by reason of infringement... this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at...

  13. 76 FR 31983 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and....usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket... the United States after importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones,...

  14. 76 FR 53154 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Notice... Section 337 by defaulting respondents in Inv. No. 337-TA- 718, Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing... within the United States after importation of certain electronic paper towel dispensing devices...

  15. 75 FR 28651 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Notice... the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic paper towel dispensing... electronic paper towel dispensing devices or components thereof that infringe one or more of claims 1-7 of...

  16. Emission analysis of large number of various passenger electronic devices in aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüür, Jens; Oppermann, Lukas; Enders, Achim; Nunes, Rafael R.; Oertel, Carl-Henrik

    2016-09-01

    The ever increasing use of PEDs (passenger or portable electronic devices) has put pressure on the aircraft industry as well as operators and administrations to reevaluate established restrictions in PED-use on airplanes in the last years. Any electronic device could cause electromagnetic interference to the electronics of the airplane, especially interference at receiving antennas of sensitive wireless navigation and communication (NAV/COM) systems. This paper presents a measurement campaign in an Airbus A320. 69 test passengers were asked to actively use a combination of about 150 electronic devices including many attached cables, preferentially with a high data load on their buses, to provoke maximal emissions. These emissions were analysed within the cabin as well as at the inputs of aircraft receiving antennas outside of the fuselage. The emissions of the electronic devices as well as the background noise are time-variant, so just comparing only one reference and one transmission measurement is not sufficient. Repeated measurements of both cases lead to a more reliable first analysis. Additional measurements of the absolute received power at the antennas of the airplane allow a good estimation of the real interference potential to aircraft NAV/COM systems. Although there were many measured emissions within the cabin, there were no disturbance signals detectable at the aircraft antennas.

  17. On the macroscopic quantization in mesoscopic rings and single-electron devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Andrew G.

    2016-05-01

    In this letter we investigate the phenomenon of macroscopic quantization and consider particle on the ring interacting with the dissipative bath as an example. We demonstrate that even in presence of environment, there is macroscopically quantized observable which can take only integer values in the zero temperature limit. This fact follows from the total angular momentum conservation combined with momentum quantization for bare particle on the ring. The nontrivial thing is that the model under consideration, including the notion of quantized observable, can be mapped onto the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schon model of the single-electron box (SEB). We evaluate SEB observable, originating after mapping, and reveal new physics, which follows from the macroscopic quantization phenomenon and the existence of additional conservation law. Some generalizations of the obtained results are also presented.

  18. Designing electronic anisotropy of three-dimensional carbon allotropes for the all-carbon device

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Li-Chun Song, Xian-Jiang; Yang, Zhi; Li, Xiu-Yan; Wang, Ru-Zhi; Yan, Hui

    2015-07-13

    Extending two-dimensional (2D) graphene nanosheets to a three-dimensional (3D) network can enhance the design of all-carbon electronic devices. Based on the great diversity of carbon atomic bonding, we have constructed four superlattice-type carbon allotrope candidates, containing sp{sup 2}-bonding transport channels and sp{sup 3}-bonding insulating layers, using density functional theory. It was demonstrated through systematic simulations that the ultra-thin insulating layer with only three-atom thickness can switch off the tunneling transport and isolate the electronic connection between the adjacent graphene strips, and these alternating perpendicular strips also extend the electron road from 2D to 3D. Designing electronic anisotropy originates from the mutually perpendicular π bonds and the rare partial charge density of the corresponding carriers in insulating layers. Our results indicate the possibility of producing custom-designed 3D all-carbon devices with building blocks of graphene and diamond.

  19. A new electronic device for subcutaneous injection of IFN-β-1a.

    PubMed

    Exell, Simon; Verdun, Elisabetta; Driebergen, Reinoud

    2011-09-01

    Disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) can provide important benefits for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but nonadherence to treatment is associated with an increased risk of relapse. All first-line DMDs used in MS require regular injection, but injection-related problems are common barriers to treatment adherence. Autoinjectors that allow automatic injection at the press of a button have increased the ease and convenience of injection, compared with manual injection. A new electronic autoinjector has recently been introduced for the administration of subcutaneous IFN-β-1a. This device is the first electronic autoinjector for use with any MS therapy, and includes several innovative features that may be advantageous to patients. One of these features is an accurate electronic dosing log, which can be viewed by the patient and the healthcare provider. This article discusses this new electronic device in the context of other autoinjectors currently used to self-inject first-line DMDs in MS.

  20. Metamorphopsia and letter recognition.

    PubMed

    Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C; Bex, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia--a perceived distortion of visual space--is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment.

  1. From Shape to Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Hillel A.

    In order to make letter shape recognition an integral part of perception training, the use of the line in its two basic shapes is proposed. Letter shapes may seem exceedingly complex linear shapes to young minds. Thus instead of instruction in configuration, instruction involving transformational activities to manipulate and create the…

  2. Metamorphopsia and letter recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C.; Bex, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia—a perceived distortion of visual space—is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment. PMID:25453116

  3. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plimley, Brian; Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong; Vetter, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  4. Using Wireless Power Meters to Measure Energy Use of Miscellaneous and Electronic Devices in Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA USA; Brown, Richard; Lanzisera, Steven; Cheung, Hoi Ying; Lai, Judy; Jiang, Xiaofan; Dawson-Haggerty, Stephen; Taneja, Jay; Ortiz, Jorge; Culler, David

    2011-05-24

    Miscellaneous and electronic devices consume about one-third of the primary energy used in U.S. buildings, and their energy use is increasing faster than other end-uses. Despite the success of policies, such as Energy Star, that promote more efficient miscellaneous and electronic products, much remains to be done to address the energy use of these devices if we are to achieve our energy and carbon reduction goals. Developing efficiency strategies for these products depends on better data about their actual usage, but very few studies have collected field data on the long-term energy used by a large sample of devices due to the difficulty and expense of collecting device-level energy data. This paper describes the development of an improved method for collecting device-level energy and power data using small, relatively inexpensive wireless power meters. These meters form a mesh network based on Internet standard protocols and can form networks of hundreds of metering points in a single building. Because the meters are relatively inexpensive and do not require manual data downloading, they can be left in the field for months or years to collect long time-series energy use data. In addition to the metering technology, we also describe a field protocol used to collect comprehensive, robust data on the miscellaneous and electronic devices in a building. The paper presents sample results from several case study buildings, in which all the plug-in devices for several homes were metered, and a representative sample of several hundred plug-in devices in a commercial office building were metered for several months.

  5. Scanning transmission electron microscopy strain measurement from millisecond frames of a direct electron charge coupled device

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Knut; Rosenauer, Andreas; Ryll, Henning; Ordavo, Ivan; Ihle, Sebastian; Soltau, Heike; Strueder, Lothar; Volz, Kerstin; Zweck, Josef

    2012-11-19

    A high-speed direct electron detection system is introduced to the field of transmission electron microscopy and applied to strain measurements in semiconductor nanostructures. In particular, a focused electron probe with a diameter of 0.5 nm was scanned over a fourfold quantum layer stack with alternating compressive and tensile strain and diffracted discs have been recorded on a scintillator-free direct electron detector with a frame time of 1 ms. We show that the applied algorithms can accurately detect Bragg beam positions despite a significant point spread each 300 kV electron causes during detection on the scintillator-free camera. For millisecond exposures, we find that strain can be measured with a precision of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, enabling, e.g., strain mapping in a 100 Multiplication-Sign 100 nm{sup 2} region with 0.5 nm resolution in 40 s.

  6. Which Children Benefit from Letter Names in Learning Letter Sounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Boada, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Typical U.S. children use their knowledge of letters' names to help learn the letters' sounds. They perform better on letter sound tests with letters that have their sounds at the beginnings of their names, such as v, than with letters that have their sounds at the ends of their names, such as m, and letters that do not have their sounds in their…

  7. Multiscale Thermo-Mechanical Design and Analysis of High Frequency and High Power Vacuum Electron Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamzina, Diana

    Diana Gamzina March 2016 Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Multiscale Thermo-Mechanical Design and Analysis of High Frequency and High Power Vacuum Electron Devices Abstract A methodology for performing thermo-mechanical design and analysis of high frequency and high average power vacuum electron devices is presented. This methodology results in a "first-pass" engineering design directly ready for manufacturing. The methodology includes establishment of thermal and mechanical boundary conditions, evaluation of convective film heat transfer coefficients, identification of material options, evaluation of temperature and stress field distributions, assessment of microscale effects on the stress state of the material, and fatigue analysis. The feature size of vacuum electron devices operating in the high frequency regime of 100 GHz to 1 THz is comparable to the microstructure of the materials employed for their fabrication. As a result, the thermo-mechanical performance of a device is affected by the local material microstructure. Such multiscale effects on the stress state are considered in the range of scales from about 10 microns up to a few millimeters. The design and analysis methodology is demonstrated on three separate microwave devices: a 95 GHz 10 kW cw sheet beam klystron, a 263 GHz 50 W long pulse wide-bandwidth sheet beam travelling wave tube, and a 346 GHz 1 W cw backward wave oscillator.

  8. 49 CFR 220.315 - Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices. 220.315 Section 220.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD...

  9. 49 CFR 220.315 - Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices. 220.315 Section 220.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD...

  10. 49 CFR 220.315 - Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices. 220.315 Section 220.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD...

  11. 49 CFR 220.315 - Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices. 220.315 Section 220.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD...

  12. 49 CFR 220.315 - Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operational tests and inspections; further restrictions on use of electronic devices. 220.315 Section 220.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD...

  13. 77 FR 15452 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In... proposed Visual-Manual Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices. NHTSA is announcing... vehicle safely and that are operated by the driver through visual-manual means (meaning ] the...

  14. 77 FR 75189 - Certain Electronic Devices Having a Retractable USB Connector; Termination of an Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having a Retractable USB Connector; Termination of an Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the...

  15. 77 FR 4059 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof; Receipt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... Images, and Components Thereof, DN 2869; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof; Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S....

  16. 77 FR 1083 - Certain Portable Electronic Devices and Related Software; Determination Not To Review Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Portable Electronic Devices and Related Software; Determination Not To Review Initial... related software. 76 FR 50253 (Aug. 12, 2011). The complaint alleged the infringement of claims of...

  17. 49 CFR 395.16 - Electronic on-board recording devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 395.16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... to use. This section applies to electronic on-board recording devices (EOBRs) used to record the driver's hours of service as specified by part 395. Motor carriers subject to a remedial directive...

  18. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    DOEpatents

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2017-04-04

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  19. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2016-05-03

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  20. Five Ways to Hack and Cheat with Bring-Your-Own-Device Electronic Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Bring-your-own-device electronic examinations (BYOD e-exams) are a relatively new type of assessment where students sit an in-person exam under invigilated conditions with their own laptop. Special software restricts student access to prohibited computer functions and files, and provides access to any resources or software the examiner approves.…

  1. How to test electronic adherence monitoring devices for use in daily life: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    DE Bleser, Leentje; DE Geest, Sabina; Vincke, Birgit; Ruppar, Todd; Vanhaecke, Johan; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2011-09-01

    Electronic monitoring devices are increasingly used in healthcare to monitor health behaviors on a day-to-day basis. As a prerequisite to their application in clinical studies or daily practice, the performance of those electronic monitoring devices should be tested. Such testing includes a demonstration of technically correct function and of correspondence between the recorded data and the actual patient behavior, that is, objective testing of reliability and validity. Furthermore, from the patient's perspective, the operation of these devices should be easy to learn and to perform, and their use should be acceptable. These aspects of usability need to be tested from a user's subjective point of view. We propose a conceptual framework that builds on existing literature, for example, the framework on "obtrusiveness" of Hensel et al [J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2006;13(4):428-431], the assumptions regarding valid electronic monitoring of Denhaerynck et al [BMC Med Res Methodol. 2008;8:5], and empirical evidence. The framework integrates an objective and a subjective dimension. The objective dimension encompasses both reliability (accuracy and precision) and internal and external validity. The subjective dimension describes the user's perspective on usability along subdimensions of user performance, satisfaction, and acceptability. This framework can be used as a road map to test existing and future electronic monitoring devices before their widespread application in clinical studies or daily practice.

  2. Pilot Study of a New Adjustable Thermoplastic Mandibular Advancement Device for the Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea-Hypopnoea Syndrome: A Brief Research Letter

    PubMed Central

    El Ibrahimi, Mohammed; Laabouri, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prefabricated adjustable thermoplastic mandibular advancement devices (PAT-MADs) are a practical short-term treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) in patients who have failed or refused continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a new professionally-fitted PAT-MAD in patients with OSAHS in Morocco. Method: Twenty-four adults with mild, moderate or severe OSAHS were fitted with the PAT-MAD (BluePro®; BlueSom, France). Respiratory parameters (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI)) and daytime sleepiness using the Epworth Sleepiness scale (ESS) were assessed before and after treatment. Adverse events were recorded. Results: Mean treatment duration was 106.3 ± 73.4 days. Mean AHI score decreased from 21.4 ± 7.4 to 9.3 ± 4.1 after treatment (p<0.0001) (mean reduction of 57.0 ± 12.3%). Mean ESS and ODI also decreased at EOS (from 10.4 ± 2.8 to 7.3 ± 2.3, mean reduction 30.3 ± 12.2%, p=0.0001; and 7.0 ± 6.9 to 4.7 ± 4.0, mean reduction 30.5 ± 25.0%, p=0.2, respectively). Treatment was considered to have been successful in 22 patients (91.7%) who had mild OSAHS or an AHI score of ≤5 at the end of the study. The device was well-tolerated. Conclusion: This new PAT-MAD appears to be effective at reducing respiratory parameters and improving daytime alertness in patients with OSAHS. Long term studies in a larger number of patients are warranted to assess the long-term efficacy, retention and side-effects of this device. PMID:27499821

  3. Plasmonic and electronic device-based integrated circuits and their characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, H.; Okahisa, S.; Nakayama, Y.; Nakayama, K.; Fukuhara, M.; Kimura, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Fukuda, M.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a plasmonic circuit that has been monolithically integrated with electronic devices on a silicon substrate and then discusses the concept behind this circuit. To form the proposed circuit, two plasmonic waveguides and a detector are integrated with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) on the substrate. In the circuit, intensity signals or coherent plasmonic signals are generated by coherent light at an operating wavelength at which silicon is transparent, and these signals propagate along the waveguides before they are converted into electrical signals by the detector. These electrical intensity and coherent signals then drive the MOSFETs during both DC and AC operation. The measured performances of the devices indicate that surface plasmon polaritons propagate on the metal surface at the speed of light and drive the electronic devices without any absorption in the silicon.

  4. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Durga P.; Nayak, Praveen P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Debasish

    2015-09-28

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency.

  5. A method for assessing the potential for a dermal burn hazard from malfunctioning consumer electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, Celina J; Taylor, Paul M

    2008-01-01

    We developed an approach to adapt the ASTM C1055-03 Standard to assess the potential for contact burn injury from portable consumer electronic devices. The approach involves measuring the maximum temperature profile during the fault and devising a way to reproduce these temperatures in an exemplar device in a controlled manner for thermesthesiometer measurements. By comparing the results of the thermesthesiometer measurements to the contact burn injury threshold data published in ASTM C1055-03 and various guidelines for unintentional contact times, we were able to predict whether a potential hazard exists and verify result with "finger tests." We applied this method on a number of occasions to assess the likelihood of a contact burn injury resulting from a fault arising inside portable consumer electronic devices.

  6. Non-equilibrium Green function method: theory and application in simulation of nanometer electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Van-Nam

    2014-09-01

    We review fundamental aspects of the non-equilibrium Green function method in the simulation of nanometer electronic devices. The method is implemented into our recently developed computer package OPEDEVS to investigate transport properties of electrons in nano-scale devices and low-dimensional materials. Concretely, we present the definition of the four real-time Green functions, the retarded, advanced, lesser and greater functions. Basic relations among these functions and their equations of motion are also presented in detail as the basis for the performance of analytical and numerical calculations. In particular, we review in detail two recursive algorithms, which are implemented in OPEDEVS to solve the Green functions defined in finite-size opened systems and in the surface layer of semi-infinite homogeneous ones. Operation of the package is then illustrated through the simulation of the transport characteristics of a typical semiconductor device structure, the resonant tunneling diodes.

  7. Generalized theory and simulation of spontaneous and super-radiant emissions in electron devices and free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Pinhasi, Y; Lurie, Yu

    2002-02-01

    A unified formulation of spontaneous (shot-noise) and super-radiant emissions in electron devices is presented. We consider an electron beam with an arbitrary temporal current modulation propagating through the interaction region of the electronic device. The total electromagnetic field is presented as a stochastic process and expanded in terms of transverse eigenmodes of the medium (free space or waveguide), in which the field is excited and propagates. Using the waveguide excitation equations, formulated in the frequency domain, an analytical expression for the power spectral density of the electromagnetic radiation is derived. The spectrum of the excited radiation is shown to be composed of two terms, which are the spontaneous and super-radiant emissions. For a continuous, unmodulated beam, the shot noise produces only incoherent spontaneous emission of a power proportional to the flux eI(0) (DC current) of the particles in the electron beam. When the beam is modulated or prebunched, a partially coherent super-radiant emission is also produced with power proportional to the current spectrum /I(omega)/(2). Based on a three-dimensional model, a numerical particle simulation code was developed. A set of coupled-mode excitation equations in the frequency domain are solved self-consistently with the equations of particles motion. The simulation considers random distributions of density and energy in the electron beam and takes into account the statistical and spectral features of the excited radiation. At present, the code can simulate free-electron lasers (FELs) operation in various modes: spontaneous and self-amplified spontaneous emission, super-radiance and stimulated emission, in the linear and nonlinear Compton or Raman regimes. We employed the code to demonstrate spontaneous and super-radiant emission excited when a prebunched electron beam passes through a wiggler of an FEL.

  8. Fabrication and test of digital output interface devices for gas turbine electronic controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newirth, D. M.; Koenig, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop an innovative digital output interface device, a digital effector with optical feedback of the fuel metering valve position, for future electronic controls for gas turbine engines. A digital effector (on-off solenoids driven directly by on-off signals from a digital electronic controller) with optical position feedback was fabricated, coupled with the fuel metering valve, and tested under simulated engine operating conditions. The testing indicated that a digital effector with optical position feedback is a suitable candidate, with proper development for future digital electronic gas turbine controls. The testing also identified several problem areas which would have to be overcome in a final production configuration.

  9. Multiscale examination and modeling of electron transport in nanoscale materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banyai, Douglas R.

    For half a century the integrated circuits (ICs) that make up the heart of electronic devices have been steadily improving by shrinking at an exponential rate. However, as the current crop of ICs get smaller and the insulating layers involved become thinner, electrons leak through due to quantum mechanical tunneling. This is one of several issues which will bring an end to this incredible streak of exponential improvement of this type of transistor device, after which future improvements will have to come from employing fundamentally different transistor architecture rather than fine tuning and miniaturizing the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) in use today. Several new transistor designs, some designed and built here at Michigan Tech, involve electrons tunneling their way through arrays of nanoparticles. We use a multi-scale approach to model these devices and study their behavior. For investigating the tunneling characteristics of the individual junctions, we use a first-principles approach to model conduction between sub-nanometer gold particles. To estimate the change in energy due to the movement of individual electrons, we use the finite element method to calculate electrostatic capacitances. The kinetic Monte Carlo method allows us to use our knowledge of these details to simulate the dynamics of an entire device---sometimes consisting of hundreds of individual particles---and watch as a device 'turns on' and starts conducting an electric current. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and the closely related scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) are a family of powerful experimental techniques that allow for the probing and imaging of surfaces and molecules at atomic resolution. However, interpretation of the results often requires comparison with theoretical and computational models. We have developed a new method for calculating STM topographs and STS spectra. This method combines an established method for approximating the

  10. Innovative, wearable snap connector technology for improved device networking in electronic garments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Lee, Kang S.; Gans, Eric; Winterhalter, Carole A.; Jannson, Tomasz P.

    2007-04-01

    This paper discusses Physical Optics Corporation's (POC) wearable snap connector technology that provides for the transfer of data and power throughout an electronic garment (e-garment). These connectors resemble a standard garment button and can be mated blindly with only one hand. Fully compatible with military clothing, their application allows for the networking of multiple electronic devices and an intuitive method for adding/removing existing components from the system. The attached flexible cabling also permits the rugged snap connectors to be fed throughout the standard webbing found in military garments permitting placement in any location within the uniform. Variations of the snap electronics/geometry allow for integration with USB 2.0 devices, RF antennas, and are capable of transferring high bandwidth data streams such as the 221 Mbps required for VGA video. With the trend towards providing military officers with numerous electronic devices (i.e., heads up displays (HMD), GPS receiver, PDA, etc), POC's snap connector technology will greatly improve cable management resulting in a less cumbersome uniform. In addition, with electronic garments gaining widespread adoption in the commercial marketplace, POC's technology is finding applications in such areas as sporting good manufacturers and video game technology.

  11. Electron beam fabrication of a microfluidic device for studying submicron-scale bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Controlled restriction of cellular movement using microfluidics allows one to study individual cells to gain insight into aspects of their physiology and behaviour. For example, the use of micron-sized growth channels that confine individual Escherichia coli has yielded novel insights into cell growth and death. To extend this approach to other species of bacteria, many of whom have dimensions in the sub-micron range, or to a larger range of growth conditions, a readily-fabricated device containing sub-micron features is required. Results Here we detail the fabrication of a versatile device with growth channels whose widths range from 0.3 μm to 0.8 μm. The device is fabricated using electron beam lithography, which provides excellent control over the shape and size of different growth channels and facilitates the rapid-prototyping of new designs. Features are successfully transferred first into silicon, and subsequently into the polydimethylsiloxane that forms the basis of the working microfluidic device. We demonstrate that the growth of sub-micron scale bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis or Escherichia coli cultured in minimal medium can be followed in such a device over several generations. Conclusions We have presented a detailed protocol based on electron beam fabrication together with specific dry etching procedures for the fabrication of a microfluidic device suited to study submicron-sized bacteria. We have demonstrated that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can be successfully loaded and imaged over a number of generations in this device. Similar devices could potentially be used to study other submicron-sized organisms under conditions in which the height and shape of the growth channels are crucial to the experimental design. PMID:23575419

  12. Atomic origin of high-temperature electron trapping in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Xiao; Dhar, Sarit; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-04-06

    MOSFETs based on wide-band-gap semiconductors are suitable for operation at high temperature, at which additional atomic-scale processes that are benign at lower temperatures can get activated, resulting in device degradation. Recently, significant enhancement of electron trapping was observed under positive bias in SiC MOSFETs at temperatures higher than 150 °C. Here, we report first-principles calculations showing that the enhanced electron trapping is associated with thermally activated capturing of a second electron by an oxygen vacancy in SiO{sub 2} by which the vacancy transforms into a structure that comprises one Si dangling bond and a bond between a five-fold and a four-fold Si atoms. The results suggest a key role of oxygen vacancies and their structural reconfigurations in the reliability of high-temperature MOS devices.

  13. Stoichiometric control of lead chalcogenide nanocrystal solids to enhance their electronic and optoelectronic device performance.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soong Ju; Berry, Nathaniel E; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Gaulding, E Ashley; Paik, Taejong; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2013-03-26

    We investigate the effects of stoichiometric imbalance on the electronic properties of lead chalcogenide nanocrystal films by introducing excess lead (Pb) or selenium (Se) through thermal evaporation. Hall-effect and capacitance-voltage measurements show that the carrier type, concentration, and Fermi level in nanocrystal solids may be precisely controlled through their stoichiometry. By manipulating only the stoichiometry of the nanocrystal solids, we engineer the characteristics of electronic and optoelectronic devices. Lead chalcogenide nanocrystal field-effect transistors (FETs) are fabricated at room temperature to form ambipolar, unipolar n-type, and unipolar p-type semiconducting channels as-prepared and with excess Pb and Se, respectively. Introducing excess Pb forms nanocrystal FETs with electron mobilities of 10 cm(2)/(V s), which is an order of magnitude higher than previously reported in lead chalcogenide nanocrystal devices. Adding excess Se to semiconductor nanocrystal solids in PbSe Schottky solar cells enhances the power conversion efficiency.

  14. All-Carbon Electrode Molecular Electronic Devices Based on Langmuir-Blodgett Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Sangiao, Soraya; Martín, Santiago; González-Orive, Alejandro; Magén, César; Low, Paul J; De Teresa, José M; Cea, Pilar

    2017-02-01

    Nascent molecular electronic devices, based on monolayer Langmuir-Blodgett films sandwiched between two carbonaceous electrodes, have been prepared. Tightly packed monolayers of 4-((4-((4-ethynylphenyl)ethynyl)phenyl)ethynyl)benzoic acid are deposited onto a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode. An amorphous carbon top contact electrode is formed on top of the monolayer from a naphthalene precursor using the focused electron beam induced deposition technique. This allows the deposition of a carbon top-contact electrode with well-defined shape, thickness, and precise positioning on the film with nm resolution. These results represent a substantial step toward the realization of integrated molecular electronic devices based on monolayers and carbon electrodes.

  15. Stretchable carbon nanotube charge-trap floating-gate memory and logic devices for wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Son, Donghee; Koo, Ja Hoon; Song, Jun-Kyul; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Mincheol; Shim, Hyung Joon; Park, Minjoon; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2015-05-26

    Electronics for wearable applications require soft, flexible, and stretchable materials and designs to overcome the mechanical mismatch between the human body and devices. A key requirement for such wearable electronics is reliable operation with high performance and robustness during various deformations induced by motions. Here, we present materials and device design strategies for the core elements of wearable electronics, such as transistors, charge-trap floating-gate memory units, and various logic gates, with stretchable form factors. The use of semiconducting carbon nanotube networks designed for integration with charge traps and ultrathin dielectric layers meets the performance requirements as well as reliability, proven by detailed material and electrical characterizations using statistics. Serpentine interconnections and neutral mechanical plane layouts further enhance the deformability required for skin-based systems. Repetitive stretching tests and studies in mechanics corroborate the validity of the current approaches.

  16. Quantum simulation of a spin polarization device in an electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Karimi, Ebrahim; Zanella, Riccardo; Santamato, Enrico

    2013-09-01

    A proposal for an electron-beam device that can act as an efficient spin-polarization filter has been recently put forward (Karimi et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 044801). It is based on combining the recently developed diffraction technology for imposing orbital angular momentum to the beam with a multipolar Wien filter inducing a sort of artificial non-relativistic spin-orbit coupling. Here we reconsider the proposed device with a fully quantum-mechanical simulation of the electron-beam propagation, based on the well-established multi-slice method, supplemented with a Pauli term for taking into account the spin degree of freedom. Using this upgraded numerical tool, we study the feasibility and practical limitations of the proposed method for spin polarizing a free electron beam.

  17. Device and method for electron beam heating of a high density plasma

    DOEpatents

    Thode, Lester E.

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator produces a high voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target plasma is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region within the high density plasma target.

  18. Using electronic monitoring devices to measure inhaler adherence: a practical guide for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chan, Amy Hai Yan; Harrison, Jeff; Black, Peter N; Mitchell, Edwin A; Foster, Juliet M

    2015-01-01

    Use of electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) for inhalers is growing rapidly because of their ability to provide objective and detailed adherence data to support clinical decision making. There is increasing potential for the use of EMDs in clinical settings, especially as cost-effectiveness is realized and device costs reduce. However, it is important for clinicians to know about the attributes of different EMDs so that they can select the right device for their patients and understand the factors that affect the reliability and accuracy of the data EMDs record. This article gives information on where to obtain EMDs, describes device specifications, and highlights useful features for the clinician and the patient, including user feedback data. We discuss the benefits and potential drawbacks of data collected by EMDs and provide device users with a set of tools to optimize the use of EMDs in clinical settings, such as advice on how to carry out brief EMD checks to ensure data quality and device reliability. New EMDs on the market require pretesting before use by patients. We provide information on how to carry out EMD pretesting in the clinic and patients' homes, which can be carried out by health professionals or in collaboration with researchers or manufacturers. Strategies for interpreting and managing common device malfunctions are also discussed.

  19. Substrate and head group modifications for enhanced stability in molecular electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrato, Michael-Anthony

    Poor Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) stability is a barrier which impedes the incorporation of molecular layers as functional components in electronic device architectures. Here we investigate the molecular electronic characteristics of two well established approaches to enhancing SAM stability. In Chapter 2 we investigate the electrochemical modification of Au substrates by the underpotential deposition of silver monolayers (AgUPD). In Chapter 3 we study chelating dithiophosphinic acid (DTPA) head groups to anchor SAM molecules to substrates. Based on molecular electronic characterization using EGaIn Tip testbeds, we observed that AgUPD substrates maintained the inherent electronic character of n-alkanethiolate SAMs, but reduced charge transport by almost 1 order of magnitude as compared with the same SAMs on bulk Au substrates. Similar molecular electronic characterization of (diphenyl)dithiophosphinic acid SAMs on Au substrates revealed that the DTPA head group induced a ~3 order of magnitude drop in charge transport as compared with analogous thiophenol SAMs.

  20. Development of Micron-Resolved Electron Spectroscopy to Study Organic Thin Films in Real Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-H.; Fan, L.-J.; Yang, Y.-W.; Su, J.-W.; Chan, S.-W.; Chen, M.-C.

    2010-06-23

    A straightforward application of an electron energy analyzer equipped with an image detector to micron-resolved electron spectroscopic studies of organic thin film devices is reported. The electron spectroscopies implemented include synchrotron-based UPS, XPS, and Auger yield NEXAFS. Along the non-energy-dispersion direction of the analyzer, a spatial resolution of {approx}40 {mu}m is obtained through the employment of entrance slits, electrostatic lenses and segmented CCD detector. One significant benefit offered by the technique is that the electronic transport and electronic structure of the same micron-sized sample can be directly examined. The example illustrated is a top-contact organic field effect transistor (OFET) fabricated from semiconducting triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene and gold electrodes. It is found that an extensive out-diffusion of gold atoms to adjacent conduction channels takes place, presumably due to the inability of soft organic materials in dissipating the excess energy with which gaseous Au atoms possess.

  1. Low-energy plasma focus device as an electron beam source.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Zubair; Ling, Yap Seong; Yaqoob, Ibrar; Kumar, Nitturi Naresh; Kuang, Lim Lian; San, Wong Chiow

    2014-01-01

    A low-energy plasma focus device was used as an electron beam source. A technique was developed to simultaneously measure the electron beam intensity and energy. The system was operated in Argon filling at an optimum pressure of 1.7 mbar. A Faraday cup was used together with an array of filtered PIN diodes. The beam-target X-rays were registered through X-ray spectrometry. Copper and lead line radiations were registered upon usage as targets. The maximum electron beam charge and density were estimated to be 0.31 μC and 13.5 × 10(16)/m(3), respectively. The average energy of the electron beam was 500 keV. The high flux of the electron beam can be potentially applicable in material sciences.

  2. CRADA with Teledyne Electronic Technologies and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL-096): The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system. Final letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, K.D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the ``Exposure-to- Risk`` monitoring system in an actual occupational environment. The system is a unique combination of existing hardware with proprietary software to create an integrated means of assessing occupational exposures to volatile organic compounds. One component of this system utilizes a portable mass spectrometer developed by Teledyne Electronic Technologies. Integration of the system was accomplished under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. Commercialization of the system will take place following demonstration in an actual occupational environment, and will include, in part, Teledyne Electronic Technologies. The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system will benefit DOE by overcoming present-day limitations in worker health protection monitoring. There are numerous sites within the` DOE complex where many different hazardous chemicals are used on a routine basis. These chemicals range from paint stripers and cleaning solvents to chemical warfare agents, each having its own degree of potential adverse health risk to a worker. Thus, a real concern for DOE is to ensure that a worker is properly monitored to assess any adverse health risk from exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals. With current industrial hygiene technologies, this is an arduous task. The Exposure-to-Risk monitoring system integrates a patented breath-inlet device connecting a subject`s exhaled breath directly with a field-portable mass spectrometer with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to estimate the target tissue dose following a chemical exposure. Estimation of the adverse health risk prediction follows from the exposure/dose calculation based on currently accepted methodologies. This new system can determine, in the field, the possible adverse health risks on a daily basis to an individual worker.

  3. 25th anniversary article: organic electronics marries photochromism: generation of multifunctional interfaces, materials, and devices.

    PubMed

    Orgiu, Emanuele; Samorì, Paolo

    2014-03-26

    Organic semiconductors have garnered significant interest as key components for flexible, low-cost, and large-area electronics. Hitherto, both materials and processing thereof seems to head towards a mature technology which shall ultimately meet expectations and efforts built up over the past years. However, by its own organic electronics cannot compete or complement the silicon-based electronics in integrating multiple functions in a small area unless novel solutions are brought into play. Photochromic molecules are small organic molecules able to undergo reversible photochemical isomerization between (at least) two (meta)stable states which exhibit markedly different properties. They can be embedded as additional component in organic-based materials ready to be exploited in devices such as OLEDs, OFETs, and OLETs. The structurally controlled incorporation of photochromic molecules can be done at various interfaces of a device, including the electrode/semiconductor or dielectric/semiconductor interface, or even as a binary mixture in the active layer, in order to impart a light responsive nature to the device. This can be accomplished by modulating via a light stimulus fundamental physico-chemical properties such as charge injection and transport in the device.

  4. Detection of low frequency external electronic identification devices using commercial panel readers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S C; Rapnicki, P; Lewis, J R; Perala, M

    2007-09-01

    The ability of a commercially available panel reader system to read International Standards Organization-compliant electronic identification devices under commercial dairy conditions was examined. Full duplex (FDX-B) and half-duplex (HDX) low frequency radio-frequency identification external ear tags were utilized. The study involved 498 Holstein cows in the final 6 wk of gestation. There were 516 total electronic identification devices (n = 334 HDX and n = 182 FDX-B). Eighteen FDX-B were replaced with HDX during the study due to repeated detection failure. There were 6,679 HDX and 3,401 FDX-B device detection attempts. There were 220 (2.2%) unsuccessful and 9,860 (97.8%) successful identification detection attempts. There were 9 unsuccessful detection attempts for HDX (6,670/6,679 = 99.9% successful detection attempts) and 211 unsuccessful detection attempts for FDX-B (3,190/3,401 = 93.8% successful detection attempts). These results demonstrate that this panel system can achieve high detection rates of HDX devices and meet the needs of the most demanding management applications. The FDX-B detection rate was not sufficient for the most demanding applications, requiring a high degree of detection by panel readers. The lower FDX-B rate may not be inherent in the device technology itself, but could be due to other factors, including the particular panel reader utilized or the tuning of the panel reader.

  5. Development of superlattices for ultra high-speed electronic and optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, James S.

    1989-03-01

    The remarkable advances in computation and communications technologies in the last half century have been made possible by the invention and development of a vast array of solid state electronic and optical devices. By striving to achieve higher speeds of operation, and greater levels of integration, ever more powerful computing and communications tools have been created. The transistor, the laser and a host of other devices have been invented and reinvented many times in a multitude of materials systems. As materials growth and fabrication technologies continue to improve, it becomes possible to use new physical phenomena in solid state devices, in addition to optimizing the performance of existing devices. Optical interconnects are attracting attention as a means to overcome the interconnection bottleneck in high speed electronic systems. The best type of light source for such schemes is sometimes a continuous-wave laser used in conjunction with a light modulator, which acts as an external switch. Modulators that operate in perpendicular geometry, with light directed normal to the plane of the device, allow simple fabrication of two-dimensional arrays: these are of interest for multiple parallel optical interconnections and for optical information processing.

  6. Electrical characterization of benzenedithiolate molecular electronic devices with graphene electrodes on rigid and flexible substrates.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeonsik; Jeong, Hyunhak; Kim, Dongku; Hwang, Wang-Taek; Kim, Jun-Woo; Jeong, Inho; Song, Hyunwook; Yoon, Jiyoung; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Jeong, Heejun; Lee, Takhee

    2016-04-08

    We investigated the electrical characteristics of molecular electronic devices consisting of benzenedithiolate self-assembled monolayers and a graphene electrode. We used the multilayer graphene electrode as a protective interlayer to prevent filamentary path formation during the evaporation of the top electrode in the vertical metal-molecule-metal junction structure. The devices were fabricated both on a rigid SiO2/Si substrate and on a flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate. Using these devices, we investigated the basic charge transport characteristics of benzenedithiolate molecular junctions in length- and temperature-dependent analyses. Additionally, the reliability of the electrical characteristics of the flexible benzenedithiolate molecular devices was investigated under various mechanical bending conditions, such as different bending radii, repeated bending cycles, and a retention test under bending. We also observed the inelastic electron tunneling spectra of our fabricated graphene-electrode molecular devices. Based on the results, we verified that benzenedithiolate molecules participate in charge transport, serving as an active tunneling barrier in solid-state graphene-electrode molecular junctions.

  7. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A.; Kovács, A.; Mehta, K.; Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S.

    2010-03-01

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  8. Rapid fabrication of Al2O3 encapsulations for organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kamran; Ali, Junaid; Mehdi, Syed Murtuza; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; An, Young Jin

    2015-10-01

    Organic electronics have earned great reputation in electronic industry yet they suffer technical challenges such as short lifetimes and low reliability because of their susceptibility to water vapor and oxygen which causes their fast degradation. This paper report on the rapid fabrication of Al2O3 encapsulations through a unique roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition technology (R2R-AALD) for the life time enhancement of organic poly (4-vinylphenol) (PVP) memristor devices. The devices were then categorized into two sets. One was processed with R2R-AALD Al2O3 encapsulations at 50 °C and the other one was kept as un-encapsulated. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results revealed that pin holes and other irregularities in PVP films with average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 9.66 nm have been effectively covered by Al2O3 encapsulation having Ra of 0.92 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS spectrum for PVP film showed peaks of C 1s and O 1s at the binding energies of 285 eV and 531 eV, respectively. The respective appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74 eV, 119 eV, and 531 eV, confirms the fabrication of Al2O3 films. Electrical current-voltage (I-V) measurements confirmed that the Al2O3 encapsulation has a huge influence on the performance, robustness and life time of memristor devices. The Al2O3 encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks whereas the un-encapsulated devices could only last for one week. The performance of encapsulated device had been promising after being subjected to bending test for 100 cycles and the variations in its stability were of minor concern confirming the mechanical robustness and flexibility of the devices.

  9. Comparison of speech intelligibility measures for an electronic amplifying earmuff and an identical passive attenuation device.

    PubMed

    Byrne, David C; Palmer, Catherine V

    2012-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to identify any differences between speech intelligibility measures obtained with MineEars electronic earmuffs (ProEars, Westcliffe, CO, USA) and the Bilsom model 847 (Sperian Hearing Protection, San Diego, CA, USA), which is a conventional passive-attenuation earmuff. These two devices are closely related, since the MineEars device consisted of a Bilsom 847 earmuff with the addition of electronic amplification circuits. Intelligibility scores were obtained by conducting listening tests with 15 normal-hearing human subject volunteers wearing the earmuffs. The primary research objective was to determine whether speech understanding differs between the passive earmuffs and the electronic earmuffs (with the volume control set at three different positions) in a background of 90 dB(A) continuous noise. As expected, results showed that speech intelligibility increased with higher speech-to-noise ratios; however, the electronic earmuff with the volume control set at full-on performed worse than when it was set to off or the lowest on setting. This finding suggests that the maximum volume control setting for these electronic earmuffs may not provide any benefits in terms of increased speech intelligibility in the background noise condition that was tested. Other volume control settings would need to be evaluated for their ability to produce higher speech intelligibility scores. Additionally, since an extensive electro-acoustic evaluation of the electronic earmuff was not performed as a part of this study, the exact cause of the reduced intelligibility scores at full volume remains unknown.

  10. Acute Effects of an Alternative Electronic-Control-Device Waveform in Swine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    on nutrient digestibility determined at the end of the small intestine and over the total digestive tract in growing pigs . J Anim Sci. 1990;68:3687–93...DN, Ellis M, Bertol TM, et al. Effects of handling intensity and live weight on blood acid-base status in finishing pigs . J Anim Sci. 2004;82:2405–9...previous studies, repeated 5-s exposures of anesthetized pigs to an electronic control device (TASER International’s Advanced TASER X26 device

  11. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  12. Temporal characterization of hot-electron thermoelectric effect in monolayer graphene devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Ryan J.; Cai, Xinghan; Sushkov, Andrei; Jenkins, Greg; Kim, M.-H.; Yan, Jun; Drew, H. Dennis; Murphy, Thomas E.; Fuhrer, Michael S.

    2013-03-01

    Graphene's unique electronic and optical properties have made it an attractive candidate material for photonics applications such as broadband optical detection. We report the temporal response of a monolayer graphene device with dissimilar metal electrodes in which optically induced hot-electrons are detected via a thermoelectric voltage induced between the electrodes. Measurements are carried out with a pulsed laser system (60 fs pulse width) at the telecom wavelength of 1.5 μm using an asynchronous optical sampling pulse coincidence technique. Graphene's weak electron-phonon coupling and our compact device geometry (comparable to the thermal diffusion length) result in a fast 10 - 20 ps non-linear thermal response that is nearly independent of temperature over the measured range of 15 - 150 K. Sensitivity of the devices response to optical power will also be discussed. These results are a follow-on to other talks reported by our group at this conference in which the fabrication, operating principal, and broad wavelength (THz to near IR) response of the graphene-based hot-electron bolometer are described. Supported by IARPA and ONR-MURI

  13. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices.

  14. Electronic and Vibrational Properties of Low-Dimensional Heterogeneous Systems: Materials and Device Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Mahesh Raj

    Due to the aggressive miniaturization of memory and logic devices, the current technologies based on silicon have nearly reached their ultimate size limit. One method to maintain the trend in device scaling observed by Moore's law is to create a heterostructure from existing materials and utilize the underlying electronic and optical properties. Another radical approach is the conceptualization of a new device design paradigm. The central objective of this thesis is to use both of these approaches to address issues associated with the aggressive scaling of memory and logic devices such as leakage current, leakage power, and minimizing gate oxide thickness and threshold voltage. In the first part of the dissertation, an atomistic, empirical tight binding method was used to perform a systematic investigation of the effect of physical (shape and size), and material dependent (heterogenity and strain) properties on the device related electronic and optical properties of the Germanium (Ge)/Silicon (Si) nanocrystal (NC) or quantum dot (QD). The device parameters pertaining to Ge-core/Si-shell NC-based floating gate memory and optical devices such as confinement energy, retention lifetimes and optical intensities are captured and analyzed. For both the memory and optical device applications, regardless of the shape and size, the Ge-core is found to play an important role in modifying the confinement energy and carrier dynamics. However, the variation in the thickness of outer Si-shell layer had no or minimal effect on the overall device parameters. In the second part of the dissertation, we present a systematic study of the effect of atomistic heterogeneity on the vibrational properties of quasi-2D systems and recently discovered 2D materials such as graphene, while investigating their applicabilities in future devices applications. At first, we investigate the vibrational properties of an experimentally observed misoriented bilayer graphene (MBG) system, a

  15. 76 FR 32373 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices Having a Digital Television Receiver and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices Having a Digital Television Receiver and Components... Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Zenith Electronics LLC of Lincolnshire, Illinois... devices having a digital television receiver and components thereof by reason of infringement of...

  16. 75 FR 8115 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices Having Image Capture or Display Functionality and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices Having Image Capture or Display Functionality and... sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices having image capture...

  17. 75 FR 51842 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission... for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic paper towel dispensing devices and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of...

  18. 75 FR 34484 - In the Matter of: Certain Portable Electronic Devices and Related Software; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Portable Electronic Devices and Related Software; Notice of... and related software by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 6,999,800; 5,541... certain portable electronic devices or related software that infringe one or more of claims 1-4, 6, 10,...

  19. The Energy Electronics are Coming to an Expansion Phase which Applied to Home Appliances and Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Hideki; Iwai, Toshiaki; Nakajima, Noboru

    Recently the energy electronics comes to attention that energy saving effects to meet global environment problems. The evolution of home appliances and mobile devices have been realized by efficient frequency converter which are low cost and small size. This paper presents recent trend of energy electronics applied to home appliances and mobile devices.

  20. Predictive atomistic simulations of electronic properties of realistic nanoscale devices: A multiscale modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Ravi Pramod Kumar

    Scaling of CMOS towards its ultimate limits, where quantum effects and atomistic variability due to fabrication, along with recent emphasis on heterogeneous integration of non-digital devices for increasing the functional diversification presents us with fundamentally new challenges. A comprehensive understanding of design and operation of these nanoscale transistors, and other electronic devices like RF-MEMS, requires an insight into their electronic and mechanical properties that are strongly influenced by underlying atomic structure. Hence, continuum descriptions of materials and use of empirical models at these scales become questionable. This increase in complexity of electronic devices necessitates an understanding at a more fundamental level to accurately predict the performance and reliability of these devices. The objective of this thesis is to outline the application of multiscale predictive modeling methods, ranging from atoms to devices, for addressing these challenges. This capability is demonstrated using two examples: characterization of (i) dielectric charging in RF-MEMS, and (ii) transport properties of Ge-nanofins. For characterizing the dielectric charging phenomenon, a continuum dielectric charging model, augmented by first principles informed trap distributions, is used to predict current transient measurements across a broad range of voltages and temperatures. These simulations demonstrate using ab initio informed model not only reduces the empiricism (number of adjustable parameters) in the model but also leads to a more accurate model over a broad range of operating conditions, and enable the precise determination of additional material parameters. These atomistic calculations also provide detailed information about the nature of charge traps and their trapping mechanisms that are not accessible experimentally; such information could prove invaluable in defect engineering. The second problem addresses the effect of the in-homogeneous strain

  1. Legal, ethical, and procedural bases for the use of aseptic techniques to implant electronic devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of implanting electronic devices such as transmitters and data loggers into captive and free-ranging animals has increased greatly in the past two decades. The devices have become smaller, more reliable, and more capable (Printz 2004; Wilson and Gifford 2005; Metcalfe et al. 2012). Compared with externally mounted devices, implanted devices are largely invisible to external viewers such as tourists and predators; exist in a physically protected, thermally stable environment in mammals and birds; and greatly reduce drag and risk of entanglement. An implanted animal does not outgrow its device or attachment method as can happen with collars and harnesses, which allows young animals to be more safely equipped. However, compared with mounting external devices, implantation requires greater technical ability to perform the necessary anesthesia, analgesia, and surgery. More than 83% of publications in the 1990s that used radiotelemetry on animals assumed that there were no adverse effects on the animal (Godfrey and Bryant 2003). It is likely that some studies using implanted electronic devices have not been published due to a high level of unexpected mortality or to aberrant behavior or disappearance of the implanted animals, a phenomenon known as the “file drawer” problem (Rosenthal 1979; Scargle 2000). The near absence of such studies from the published record may be providing a false sense of security that procedures being used are more innocuous than they actually are. Similarly, authors sometimes state that it was unlikely that device implantation was problematic because study animals appeared to behave normally, or authors state that previous investigators used the same technique and saw no problems. Such statements are suppositions if no supporting data are provided or if the animals were equipped because there was no other way to follow their activity. Moreover, such suppositions ignore other adverse effects that affect behavior indirectly, and

  2. Direct Nanoscale Sensing of the Internal Electric Field in Operating Semiconductor Devices Using Single Electron Spins.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takayuki; Naruki, Wataru; Tahara, Kosuke; Makino, Toshiharu; Kato, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Hatano, Mutsuko

    2017-02-28

    The electric field inside semiconductor devices is a key physical parameter that determines the properties of the devices. However, techniques based on scanning probe microscopy are limited to sensing at the surface only. Here, we demonstrate the direct sensing of the internal electric field in diamond power devices using single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. The NV center embedded inside the device acts as a nanoscale electric field sensor. We fabricated vertical diamond p-i-n diodes containing the single NV centers. By performing optically detected magnetic resonance measurements under reverse-biased conditions with an applied voltage of up to 150 V, we found a large splitting in the magnetic resonance frequencies. This indicated that the NV center senses the transverse electric field in the space-charge region formed in the i-layer. The experimentally obtained electric field values are in good agreement with those calculated by a device simulator. Furthermore, we demonstrate the sensing of the electric field in different directions by utilizing NV centers with different N-V axes. This direct and quantitative sensing method using an electron spin in a wide-band-gap material provides a way to monitor the electric field in operating semiconductor devices.

  3. Two-dimensional electron-electron two-stream instability of an inertial electrostatic confinement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocchino, A.; Lapenta, G.; Evstatiev, E. G.; Nebel, R. A.; Park, J.

    2006-10-01

    Theoretical works by Barnes and Nebel [D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel, Phys. Plasmas 5, 2498 (1998); R. A. Nebel and D. C. Barnes, Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)] have suggested that a tiny oscillating ion cloud (referred to as the periodically oscillating plasma sphere or POPS) may undergo a self-similar collapse in a harmonic oscillator potential formed by a uniform electron background. A major uncertainty in this oscillating plasma scheme is the stability of the virtual cathode that forms the harmonic oscillator potential. The electron-electron two-stream stability of the virtual cathode has previously been studied with a fluid model, a slab kinetic model, a spherically symmetric kinetic model, and experimentally [R. A. Nebel and J. M. Finn, Phys. Plasmas 8, 1505 (2001); R. A. Nebel et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 040501 (2005)]. Here the mode is studied with a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code. Results indicate stability limits near those of the previously spherically symmetric case.

  4. Neural substrates of sensorimotor processes: letter writing and letter perception

    PubMed Central

    James, Karin H.

    2015-01-01

    Writing and perceiving letters are thought to share similar neural substrates; however, what constitutes a neural representation for letters is currently debated. One hypothesis is that letter representation develops from sensorimotor experience resulting in an integrated set of modality-specific regions, whereas an alternative account suggests that letter representations may be abstract, independent of modality. Studies reviewed suggest that letter representation consists of a network of modality-responsive brain regions that may include an abstract component. PMID:26203115

  5. Devices using ballistic transport of two dimensional electron gas in delta doped gallium arsenide high electron mobility transistor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungmu

    In this thesis, devices using the ballistic transport of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in GaAs High Electron Mobility Transistor(HEMT) structure is fabricated and their dc and ac properties are characterized. This study gives insight on operation and applications of modern submicron devices with ever reduced gate length comparable to electron mean free path. The ballistic transport is achieved using both temporal and spatial limits in this thesis. In temporal limit, when frequency is higher than the scattering frequency (1/(2pitau)), ballistic transport can be achieved. At room temperature, generally the scattering frequency is around 500 GHz but at cryogenic temperature (≤4K) with high mobility GaAs HEMT structure, the frequency is much lower than 2 GHz. On this temporal ballistic transport regime, effect of contact impedance and different dc mobility on device operation is characterized with the ungated 2DEG of HEMT structure. In this ballistic regime, impedance and responsivity of plasma wave detector are investigated using the gated 2DEG of HEMT at different ac boundary conditions. Plasma wave is generated at asymmetric ac boundary conditions of HEMTs, where source is short to ground and drain is open while rf power is applied to gate. The wave velocity can be tuned by gate bias voltage and induced drain to source voltage(Vds ) shows the resonant peak at odd number of fundamental frequency. Quantitative power coupling to plasma wave detector leads to experimental characterization of resonant response of plasma wave detector as a function of frequency. Because plasma wave resonance is not limited by transit time, the physics learned in this study can be directly converted to room temperature terahertz detection by simply reducing gate length(Lgate) to submicron for the terahertz application such as non destructive test, bio medical analysis, homeland security, defense and space. In same HEMT structure, the dc and rf characterization on device is also

  6. Molecular electronic devices based on single-walled carbon nanotube electrodes.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Alina K; Steigerwald, Michael L; Guo, Xuefeng; Nuckolls, Colin

    2008-12-01

    As the top-down fabrication techniques for silicon-based electronic materials have reached the scale of molecular lengths, researchers have been investigating nanostructured materials to build electronics from individual molecules. Researchers have directed extensive experimental and theoretical efforts toward building functional optoelectronic devices using individual organic molecules and fabricating metal-molecule junctions. Although this method has many advantages, its limitations lead to large disagreement between experimental and theoretical results. This Account describes a new method to create molecular electronic devices, covalently bridging a gap in a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) with an electrically functional molecule. First, we introduce a molecular-scale gap into a nanotube by precise oxidative cutting through a lithographic mask. Now functionalized with carboxylic acids, the ends of the cleaved carbon nanotubes are reconnected with conjugated diamines to give robust diamides. The molecular electronic devices prepared in this fashion can withstand and respond to large environmental changes based on the functional groups in the molecules. For example, with oligoanilines as the molecular bridge, the conductance of the device is sensitive to pH. Similarly, using diarylethylenes as the bridge provides devices that can reversibly switch between conjugated and nonconjugated states. The molecular bridge can perform the dual task of carrying electrical current and sensing/recognition through biological events such as protein/substrate binding and DNA hybridization. The devices based on DNA can measure the difference in electrical properties of complementary and mismatched strands. A well-matched duplex DNA 15-mer in the gap exhibits a 300-fold lower resistance than a duplex with a GT or CA mismatch. This system provides an ultrasensitive way to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the individual molecule level. Restriction enzymes can cleave

  7. Letter Recognition and Sound Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Jennifer

    This lesson, which is most appropriate for kindergartners, reviews letter names and their sounds through a group letter recognition activity, a picture book activity, and alphabet practice with several online activities. During three 30-minute sessions, students will: identify the letters of the alphabet; identify the sounds of letters; identify…

  8. Development of alloy-film coated dispenser cathode for terahertz vacuum electron devices application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, R. K.; Bera, A.; Raju, R. S.; Tanwar, A. K.; Baek, I. K.; Min, S. H.; Kwon, O. J.; Sattorov, M. A.; Lee, K. W.; Park, G.-S.

    2013-07-01

    High power terahertz vacuum electron devices demand high current density and uniform emission dispenser cathode. It was found that the coating of noble metals e.g., Os, Ir, and Re on the surface of tungsten dispenser cathodes enhances the emission capabilities and uniformity. Hence metal coated cathode might be the best candidate for terahertz devices applications. In this study, ternary-alloy-film cathode (2Os:2Re:1 W) and Os coated cathode have been developed and the results are presented. The cathodes made out of this alloy coating showed 1.5 times higher emission and 0.02 eV emission uniformity as compared to those of simply Os coated cathodes which can be used in terahertz devices application.

  9. Selected fault testing of electronic isolation devices used in nuclear power plant operation

    SciTech Connect

    Villaran, M.; Hillman, K.; Taylor, J.; Lara, J.; Wilhelm, W.

    1994-05-01

    Electronic isolation devices are used in nuclear power plants to provide electrical separation between safety and non-safety circuits and systems. Major fault testing in an earlier program indicated that some energy may pass through an isolation device when a fault at the maximum credible potential is applied in the transverse mode to its output terminals. During subsequent field qualification testing of isolators, concerns were raised that the worst case fault, that is, the maximum credible fault (MCF), may not occur with a fault at the maximum credible potential, but rather at some lower potential. The present test program investigates whether problems can arise when fault levels up to the MCF potential are applied to the output terminals of an isolator. The fault energy passed through an isolated device during a fault was measured to determine whether the levels are great enough to potentially damage or degrade performance of equipment on the input (Class 1E) side of the isolator.

  10. Single-electron devices fabricated using double-angle deposition and plasma oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Y.; Barcikowski, Z. S.; Ramanayaka, A. N.; Stewart, M. D., Jr.; Zimmerman, N. M.; Pomeroy, J. M.; Quantum Processes; Metrology Group Team

    We report on development of plasma oxidized, single-electron transistors (SETs) where we seek low-capacitance and small-area Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junctions with small charge offset drift. Performance of metal-based SET quantum devices and superconducting devices has suffered from long-term charge offset drift, high defect densities and charge noise. We use plasma oxidation to lower defect densities of the oxide layer, and adjustable deposition angles to control the overlapping areas for Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junctions. Current-voltage and charge offset drift measurements are planned for cryogenic temperatures. Other electrical properties will be measured at room temperature. We hope to see Coulomb blockade oscillations on these devices and better charge offset stability than typical Al/AlOx/Al SETs.

  11. 4H-SiC power devices for use in power electronic motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casady, J. B.; Agarwal, A. K.; Seshadri, S.; Siergiej, R. R.; Rowland, L. B.; MacMillan, M. F.; Sheridan, D. C.; Sanger, P. A.; Brandt, C. D.

    1998-12-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is an emerging semiconductor material which has been widely predicted to be superior to both Si and GaAs in the area of power electronic switching devices. This paper presents an overview of SiC power devices and concludes that the MOS turn-off thyristor (MTO™), comprising of a hybrid connection of SiC gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) and MOSFET, is one of the most promising near term SiC switching device given its high power potential, ease of turn-off, 500°C operation and resulting reduction in cooling requirements. The use of a SiC and an anti-parallel diode are primary active components which can then be used to construct an inverter module for high-temperature, high-power direct current (d.c.) motor control.

  12. Mechanical Flip-Chip for Ultra-High Electron Mobility Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennaceur, Keyan; Bilodeau, Simon; Schmidt, Benjamin; Gaucher, Samuel; Laroche, Dominique; Lilly, Mike; Reno, John; West, Ken; Pfeiffer, Loren; Gervais, Guillaume

    We present a novel ``flip-chip'' microfabrication method that was used to make a quantum point contact (QPC) on a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) without any fabrication process on the 2DEG. Electrostatic gates are of paramount importance for the physics of devices based on 2DEG since they allow depletion of electrons in selected areas. This field-effect gating enables the fabrication of a wide range of devices such as, electron interferometers and quantum dots. To fabricate these gates, processing is usually performed on the 2DEG, which is in many cases detrimental to its electron mobility. Our approach does not require any processing of the 2DEG material leaving it pristine and reusable. It relies on processing a separate wafer that is then mechanically mounted on the 2DEG material in a flip-chip fashion. This technique proved successful to fabricate QPC on GaAs/AlGaAs materials with high electron mobility ranging from 1e6 to 1e7 cm2V/s. (Bennaceur, K. et al. Scientific Reports 5, 13494 (2015)). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Mechanical flip-chip for ultra-high electron mobility devices

    DOE PAGES

    Bennaceur, Keyan; Schmidt, Benjamin A.; Gaucher, Samuel; ...

    2015-09-22

    In this study, electrostatic gates are of paramount importance for the physics of devices based on high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) since they allow depletion of electrons in selected areas. This field-effect gating enables the fabrication of a wide range of devices such as, for example, quantum point contacts (QPC), electron interferometers and quantum dots. To fabricate these gates, processing is usually performed on the 2DEG material, which is in many cases detrimental to its electron mobility. Here we propose an alternative process which does not require any processing of the 2DEG material other than for the ohmic contacts. Thismore » approach relies on processing a separate wafer that is then mechanically mounted on the 2DEG material in a flip-chip fashion. This technique proved successful to fabricate quantum point contacts on both GaAs/AlGaAs materials with both moderate and ultra-high electron mobility.« less

  14. Development of a physical and electronic model for RuO 2 nanorod rectenna devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Justin

    Ruthenium oxide (RuO2) nanorods are an emergent technology in nanostructure devices. As the physical size of electronics approaches a critical lower limit, alternative solutions to further device miniaturization are currently under investigation. Thin-film nanorod growth is an interesting technology, being investigated for use in wireless communications, sensor systems, and alternative energy applications. In this investigation, self-assembled RuO2 nanorods are grown on a variety of substrates via a high density plasma, reactive sputtering process. Nanorods have been found to grow on substrates that form native oxide layers when exposed to air, namely silicon, aluminum, and titanium. Samples were analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) measurements were performed on single nanorods to characterize structure and electrical conductivity. The C-AFM probe tip is placed on a single nanorod and I-V characteristics are measured, potentially exhibiting rectifying capabilities. An analysis of these results using fundamental semiconductor physics principles is presented. Experimental data for silicon substrates was most closely approximated by the Simmons model for direct electron tunneling, whereas that of aluminum substrates was well approximated by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The native oxide of titanium is regarded as a semiconductor rather than an insulator and its ability to function as a rectifier is not strong. An electronic model for these nanorods is described herein.

  15. First-Principles Simulations of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy of Molecular Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Kula, Mathias; Lu, Wei; Luo, Yi

    2005-08-01

    A generalized Green's function theory is developed to simulate the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) of molecular junctions. It has been applied to a realistic molecular junction with an octanedithiolate embedded between two gold contacts in combination with the hybrid density functional theory calculations. The calculated spectra are in excellent agreement with recent experimental results. Strong temperature dependence of the experimental IETS spectra is also reproduced. It is shown that the IETS is extremely sensitive to the intra-molecular conformation and to the molecule-metal contact geometry.

  16. Use of mobile electronic devices as educational tool in pediatric community outreach.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Jill B; Sadana, Chirag; Eisenberg, Elise S; Daronch, Marcia; Moursi, Amr M

    2011-11-01

    The introduction of mobile electronic devices, as opposed to paper forms, in pediatric outreach programs of the New York University College of Dentistry is discussed. Since 2007, students have been receiving training on how to operate a personal digital assistant (PDA) and use it in community outreach for non-invasive oral-facial screenings and patient education. The shift from using paper forms to electronic media had a positive impact among the academic community, as it resulted in saving time and reducing the possibility of data collection errors. It may represent a significant improvement in data collection and patient education; and it provides an opportunity to enhance research and quality assessment.

  17. Electron beam gun with kinematic coupling for high power RF vacuum devices

    SciTech Connect

    Borchard, Philipp

    2016-11-22

    An electron beam gun for a high power RF vacuum device has components joined by a fixed kinematic coupling to provide both precise alignment and high voltage electrical insulation of the components. The kinematic coupling has high strength ceramic elements directly bonded to one or more non-ductile rigid metal components using a high temperature active metal brazing alloy. The ceramic elements have a convex surface that mates with concave grooves in another one of the components. The kinematic coupling, for example, may join a cathode assembly and/or a beam shaping focus electrode to a gun stem, which is preferably composed of ceramic. The electron beam gun may be part of a high power RF vacuum device such as, for example, a gyrotron, klystron, or magnetron.

  18. Usefulness of Substrate Cleaning with Carbon Dioxide for Organic Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susukida, Makoto; Kamei, Masayuki; Takezoe, Hideo; Ishikawa, Ken

    2007-10-01

    We have examined the usefulness of cleaning method using carbon dioxide (CO2) for organic electronic devices under the comparison with a UV-ozone cleaning method. No difference in both methods was observed in the contact angle and the grain size of pentacene deposited on a SiO2 wafer. We also fabricated organic field effect transistors (OFETs) using pentacene on SiO2/Si substrates treated by these two methods and compared the performance. Both OFETs gave almost the same charge carrier mobility. Because of these superiority and higher throughput, CO2 cleaning method was found to be an effective method for basic researches and manufactures of organic electronic devices.

  19. Utilizing Electronic Health Record Information to Optimize Medication Infusion Devices: A Manual Data Integration Approach.

    PubMed

    Chuk, Amanda; Maloney, Robert; Gawron, Joyce; Skinner, Colin

    Health information technology is increasingly utilized within healthcare delivery systems today. Two examples of this type of technology include the capture of patient-specific information within an electronic health record and intravenous medication infusion devices equipped with dose error reduction software known as drug libraries. Automatic integration of these systems, termed intravenous (IV) interoperability, should serve as the goal toward which all healthcare systems work to maximize patient safety. For institutions lacking IV interoperability, we describe a manual approach of querying the electronic health record to incorporate medication administration information with data from infusion device software to optimize drug library settings. This approach serves to maximize utilization of available information to optimize medication safety provided by drug library software.

  20. Utilizing Electronic Health Record Information to Optimize Medication Infusion Devices: A Manual Data Integration Approach.

    PubMed

    Chuk, Amanda; Maloney, Robert; Gawron, Joyce; Skinner, Colin

    2015-05-23

    Health information technology is increasingly utilized within healthcare delivery systems today. Two examples of this type of technology include the capture of patient-specific information within an electronic health record and intravenous medication infusion devices equipped with dose error reduction software known as drug libraries. Automatic integration of these systems, termed intravenous (IV) interoperability, should serve as the goal toward which all healthcare systems work to maximize patient safety. For institutions lacking IV interoperability, we describe a manual approach of querying the electronic health record to incorporate medication administration information with data from infusion device software to optimize drug library settings. This approach serves to maximize utilization of available information to optimize medication safety provided by drug library software.

  1. De novo designed coiled-coil proteins with variable conformations as components of molecular electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Shlizerman, Clara; Atanassov, Alexander; Berkovich, Inbal; Ashkenasy, Gonen; Ashkenasy, Nurit

    2010-04-14

    Conformational changes of proteins are widely used in nature for controlling cellular functions, including ligand binding, oligomerization, and catalysis. Despite the fact that different proteins and artificial peptides have been utilized as electron-transfer mediators in electronic devices, the unique propensity of proteins to switch between different conformations has not been used as a mechanism to control device properties and performance. Toward this aim, we have designed and prepared new dimeric coiled-coil proteins that adopt different conformations due to parallel or antiparallel relative orientations of their monomers. We show here that controlling the conformation of these proteins attached as monolayers to gold, which dictates the direction and magnitude of the molecular dipole relative to the surface, results in quantitative modulation of the gold work function. Furthermore, charge transport through the proteins as molecular bridges is controlled by the different protein conformations, producing either rectifying or ohmic-like behavior.

  2. Temporal processing deficits in letter-by-letter reading.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Janet L; Eskes, Gail A

    2007-01-01

    Theories of the cognitive impairment underlying letter-by-letter reading vary widely, including prelexical and lexical level deficits. One prominent prelexical account proposes that the disorder results from difficulty in processing multiple letters simultaneously. We investigated whether this deficit extends to letters presented in rapid temporal succession. A letter-by-letter reader, G.M., was administered a rapid serial visual presentation task that has been used widely to study the temporal processing characteristics of the normal visual system. Comparisons were made to a control group of 6 brain-damaged individuals without reading deficits. Two target letters were embedded at varying temporal positions in a stream of rapidly presented single digits. After each stream, the identities of the two letters were reported. G.M. required an extended period of time after he had processed one letter before he was able to reliably identify a second letter, relative to the controls. In addition, G.M.'s report of the second letter was most impaired when it immediately followed the first letter, a pattern not seen in the controls, indicating that G.M. had difficulty processing the two items together. These data suggest that a letter-by-letter reading strategy may be adopted to help compensate for a deficit in the temporal processing of letters.

  3. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Zhigang; Kisslinger, Kim

    2015-06-17

    Thin films of hafnium dioxide (HfO2) are widely used as the gate oxide in fabricating integrated circuits because of their high dielectric constants. In this paper, the authors report the growth of thin films of HfO2 using e-beam evaporation, and the fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using this HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide. The authors analyzed the thin films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, thereby demonstrating that the e-beam-evaporation-grown HfO2 film has a polycrystalline structure and forms an excellent interface with silicon. Accordingly, we fabricated 31-stage CMOS ring oscillator to test the quality of the HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide, and obtained excellent rail-to-rail oscillation waveforms from it, denoting that the HfO2 thin film functioned very well as the gate oxide.

  4. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating electronic devices

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Zhigang; Kisslinger, Kim

    2015-06-17

    Thin films of hafnium dioxide (HfO2) are widely used as the gate oxide in fabricating integrated circuits because of their high dielectric constants. In this paper, the authors report the growth of thin films of HfO2 using e-beam evaporation, and the fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using this HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide. The authors analyzed the thin films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, thereby demonstrating that the e-beam-evaporation-grown HfO2 film has a polycrystalline structure and forms an excellent interface with silicon. Accordingly, we fabricated 31-stage CMOS ring oscillator to test themore » quality of the HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide, and obtained excellent rail-to-rail oscillation waveforms from it, denoting that the HfO2 thin film functioned very well as the gate oxide.« less

  5. Writing simple RF electronic devices on paper with carbon nanotube ink.

    PubMed

    Dragoman, M; Flahaut, E; Dragoman, D; Al Ahmad, M; Plana, R

    2009-09-16

    This paper shows that we can print on paper simple high-frequency electronic devices such as resistances, capacitances or inductances, with values that can be changed in a controllable manner by an applied dc voltage. This tunability is achieved with the help of an ink containing functionalized carbon nanotubes and water. After the water is evaporated from the paper, the nanotubes remain steadily imprinted on paper, showing a semiconducting behavior and tunable electrical properties.

  6. Cyclotron auto resonance maser and free electron laser devices: a unified point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Palma, E.; Sabia, E.; Dattoli, G.; Licciardi, S.; Spassovsky, I.

    2017-02-01

    We take advantage of previous research in the field of cyclotron auto resonance maser (CARM) and undulator-based free electron laser (U-FEL) sources to establish a common formalism for the relevant description of the underlying physical mechanisms. This strategy is aimed at stressing the deep analogies between the two devices and at providing a practical tool for their study based on the use of well-tested scaling formulae developed independently for the two systems.

  7. The Oxford electron-beam ion trap: A device for spectroscopy of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, J. D.; Varney, A. J.; Margolis, H. S.; Baird, P. E. G.; Grant, I. P.; Groves, P. D.; Hallett, W. A.; Handford, A. T.; Hirst, P. J.; Holmes, A. R.; Howie, D. J. H.; Hunt, R. A.; Nobbs, K. A.; Roberts, M.; Studholme, W.; Wark, J. S.; Williams, M. T.; Levine, M. A.; Dietrich, D. D.; Graham, W. G.; Williams, I. D.; O'Neil, R.; Rose, S. J.

    1994-04-01

    An electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) has just been completed in the Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford. The design is similar to the devices installed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It is intended that the Oxford EBIT will be used for x-ray and UV spectroscopy of hydrogenic and helium-like ions, laser resonance spectroscopy of hydrogenic ions and measurements of dielectronic recombination cross sections, in order to test current understanding of simple highly charged ions.

  8. The Role of Space Experiments in the Radiation Qualification of Electronic and Photonic Devices and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchner, S.; LaBel, K.; Barth, J.; Campbell, A.

    2005-01-01

    Space experiments are occasionally launched to study the effects of radiation on electronic and photonic devices. This begs the following questions: Are space experiments necessary? Do the costs justify the benefits? How does one judge success of space experiment? What have we learned from past space experiments? How does one design a space experiment? This viewgraph presentation provides information on the usefulness of space and ground tests for simulating radiation damage to spacecraft components.

  9. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase III. Electronic Warfare Trainers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase III- Electronic Warfare Trainers) 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Polzella . Donald J...Features, addressed a portion of this subthrust. Dr. Wayne Waag (AFHRL/OTU) was the Contract Monitor and Dr. Donald J. Polzella and Dr. David C. Hubbard...training is practicable (see Polzella , 1983, p.8). However, instructional features are expensive to implement, especially those features that require the

  10. Development of electron cyclotron emission imaging system on Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwahara, D.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Nagayama, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Sugito, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kogi, Y.; Akaki, K.; Mase, A.

    2010-10-15

    A combined system of microwave imaging reflectometry and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging has been developed for the Large Helical Device. This system includes a wide-band two-dimensional horn-antenna mixer array (HMA). The HMA consists of horn antennas, waveguides, mixers, and intermediate frequency circuits. The frequency response of the HMA is between 50 and 110 GHz. The ECE signal is selected using a 95 GHz local oscillator and a 93 GHz high-pass filter.

  11. Clinical use of antibacterial mesh envelopes in cardiovascular electronic device implantations

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, David S; Bloom, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic device system infection is a serious complication of cardiac device implantation and carries with it a risk of significant morbidity and mortality. In the last 15 years, expansions of indications for cardiac devices have resulted in much higher volumes of much sicker patients being implanted, carrying significant risk of infection. Coagulase (−) Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus are responsible for the majority of these infections, and these organisms are increasingly resistant to methicillin. The Aigis™ envelop is a Food and Drug Administration–approved implantable mesh that is impregnated with antibiotics that can be placed in the surgical incision prior to closure. The antibiotics elute off the mesh for 7–10 days, providing in vivo surgical site coverage with rifampin and minocyclin. This paper reviews the three retrospective clinical trials published in peer-reviewed journals and the interim analysis of the two ongoing prospective trials that have been presented at international conferences. Overall consensus is that the Aigis™ offers significant risk reduction for cardiovascular implantable electronic device infection. We then give a comprehensive discussion of how to use the Aigis™ envelop in the clinical setting, comparing the manufacturer’s recommendations with our extensive clinical experience. PMID:25624774

  12. Nano-scale electronic and optoelectronic devices based on 2D crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenjuan

    In the last few years, the research community has been rapidly growing interests in two-dimensional (2D) crystals and their applications. The properties of these 2D crystals are diverse -- ranging from semi-metal such as graphene, semiconductors such as MoS2, to insulator such as boron nitride. These 2D crystals have many unique properties as compared to their bulk counterparts due to their reduced dimensionality and symmetry. A key difference is the band structures, which lead to distinct electronic and photonic properties. The 2D nature of the material also plays an important role in defining their exceptional properties of mechanical strength, surface sensitivity, thermal conductivity, tunable band-gap and their interaction with light. These unique properties of 2D crystals open up a broad territory of applications in computing, communication, energy, and medicine. In this talk, I will present our work on understanding the electrical properties of graphene and MoS2, in particular current transport and band-gap engineering in graphene, interface between gate dielectrics and graphene, and gap states in MoS2. I will also present our work on the nano-scale electronic devices (RF and logic devices) and photonic devices (plasmonic devices and photo-detectors) based on these 2D crystals.

  13. Different experimental protocols for decontamination affect the cleaning of medical devices. A preliminary electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Tessarolo, F; Caola, I; Fedel, M; Stacchiotti, A; Caciagli, P; Guarrera, G M; Motta, A; Nollo, G

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the efficiency of different decontamination-cleaning protocols on blood-soiled catheters used for interventional cardiology. Electrophysiology and cardiac ablation disposable devices were contaminated with bacteria-spiked human blood and underwent four different pre-sterilization protocols, including a chlorine-releasing agent, a polyphenolic emulsion, and an enzymatic detergent. Treated samples were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to identify and characterize biological and inorganic residuals. The use of chlorine as a first treatment caused denaturation of serum proteins and adherence of blood components to the surface of the device, thus hindering the cleaning efficiency of subsequent treatments with enzymatic detergents. An enzymatic/chlorine protocol was more efficient, but was considered to be a greater risk to healthcare staff. Polyphenolic-based treatments had the highest level of efficiency in bioburden removal, but interaction and adsorption of this class of chemicals onto biopolymers might lead to serious concerns about toxicity on subsequent reuse. Adequate pre-sterilization cleaning is fundamental for sterilization success and high-resolution electron microscopy can provide significant and detailed information about the efficiency of chemicals used for cleaning a blood-soiled device.

  14. Defect Characterization of 4H-SiC Wafers for Power Electronic Device Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicero, G.; Ferrero, S.; Cocuzza, M.; Giorgis, F.; Mandracci, P.; Ricciardi, C.; Scaltrito, L.; Pirri, C. F.; Richieri, G.; Sgorlon, C.

    2002-03-01

    Silicon carbide is a wide band gap semiconductor, interesting for its physical properties such as high breakdown field, high saturated drift velocity and high thermal conductivity, which has been intensively studied in the last years. Although the high potentiality of this material, the SiC technology shows at the moment some limitations and requires further study in order to obtain electronic devices with the same quality standards of the Si technology. Indeed, the reliability of SiC-based devices is strictly correlated to the defects present in the crystalline structure. We have focused our investigation on 4H-SiC wafers and on 4H epitaxial layers in order to determine in both the situations the different type of defects. A preliminary investigation has been performed by optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy with the aim to evidence the defect morphology on large scale. A deeper insight on the defects typology has been obtained by Atomic Force Microscopy, Profilometer technique, Micro-Raman and Micro-Photoluminescence spectroscopies. Different types of defects such as micropipes, comets, super dislocations, etch pits and so on, have been characterized finding particular physical finger-prints. This investigation is aimed at correlating the defects and the electrical properties of SiC for power electronic device applications.

  15. System Miniaturization Via Heterogeneous Integration of Electronic Devices for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCastillo, L.; Schatzel, D. V.; Graber, R. W.; Mottiwala, A.

    2001-01-01

    The scientific devices designed for each of the Outer Planets Program Focuses will likely be groundbreaking not only with respect to their scientific role but also regarding the electronics required to perform such investigations. In the past, the performance of packaged electronics was limited by the components themselves, with minimal influence of the packaging technology. The rapid development of integrated circuit technology, however, has drastically increased the importance of packaging technology in the ultimate performance of devices. If not carefully considered in the overall design, the packaging may become the limiting factor in the operation of the system. Although industry is responsible for several significant accomplishments in the field of electronics packaging, deep space/outer planet missions must take into account additional requirements such as extremely low temperatures, high radiation levels, hermetic sealing, and severe size and weight limitations. Therefore, the present investigation has been designed to meet the needs of NASA's sensor intensive outer planets program by combining (using flip chip technology) an array of devices (including analog, digital, power volt-age, passives, and MEMS) into a miniaturized heterogeneous system and utilizing optical buses to enable autonomy. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Characterization of Initial Parameter Information for Lifetime Prediction of Electronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhigang; Liu, Boying; Yuan, Mengxiong; Zhang, Feifei; Guo, Jiaqiang

    2016-01-01

    Newly manufactured electronic devices are subject to different levels of potential defects existing among the initial parameter information of the devices. In this study, a characterization of electromagnetic relays that were operated at their optimal performance with appropriate and steady parameter values was performed to estimate the levels of their potential defects and to develop a lifetime prediction model. First, the initial parameter information value and stability were quantified to measure the performance of the electronics. In particular, the values of the initial parameter information were estimated using the probability-weighted average method, whereas the stability of the parameter information was determined by using the difference between the extrema and end points of the fitting curves for the initial parameter information. Second, a lifetime prediction model for small-sized samples was proposed on the basis of both measures. Finally, a model for the relationship of the initial contact resistance and stability over the lifetime of the sampled electromagnetic relays was proposed and verified. A comparison of the actual and predicted lifetimes of the relays revealed a 15.4% relative error, indicating that the lifetime of electronic devices can be predicted based on their initial parameter information. PMID:27907188

  17. Plasma devices to guide and collimate a high density of MeV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, R.; Sentoku, Y.; Chen, Z. L.; Kumar, G. R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Toyama, Y.; Cowan, T. E.; Freeman, R. R.; Fuchs, J.; Izawa, Y.; Key, M. H.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kondo, K.; Matsuoka, T.; Nakamura, H.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Norreys, P. A.; Norimatsu, T.; Snavely, R. A.; Stephens, R. B.; Tampo, M.; Tanaka, K. A.; Yabuuchi, T.

    2004-12-01

    The development of ultra-intense lasers has facilitated new studies in laboratory astrophysics and high-density nuclear science, including laser fusion. Such research relies on the efficient generation of enormous numbers of high-energy charged particles. For example, laser-matter interactions at petawatt (1015W) power levels can create pulses of MeV electrons with current densities as large as 1012Acm-2. However, the divergence of these particle beams usually reduces the current density to a few times 106Acm-2 at distances of the order of centimetres from the source. The invention of devices that can direct such intense, pulsed energetic beams will revolutionize their applications. Here we report high-conductivity devices consisting of transient plasmas that increase the energy density of MeV electrons generated in laser-matter interactions by more than one order of magnitude. A plasma fibre created on a hollow-cone target guides and collimates electrons in a manner akin to the control of light by an optical fibre and collimator. Such plasma devices hold promise for applications using high energy-density particles and should trigger growth in charged particle optics.

  18. Perioperative management of antithrombotic treatment during implantation or revision of cardiac implantable electronic devices: the European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Electronic Device Implantation (ESS-PREDI).

    PubMed

    Deharo, Jean-Claude; Sciaraffia, Elena; Leclercq, Christophe; Amara, Walid; Doering, Michael; Bongiorni, Maria G; Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nicolaus; Estner, Heidi; Larsen, Torben B; Johansen, Jens B; Potpara, Tatjana S; Proclemer, Alessandro; Pison, Laurent; Brunet, Caroline; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2016-05-01

    The European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Electronic Device Implantation (ESS-PREDI) was a prospective European survey of consecutive adults who had undergone implantation/surgical revision of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) on chronic antithrombotic therapy (enrolment March-June 2015). The aim of the survey was to investigate perioperative treatment with oral anticoagulants and antiplatelets in CIED implantation or surgical revision and to determine the incidence of complications, including clinically significant pocket haematomas. Information on antithrombotic therapy before and after surgery and bleeding and thromboembolic complications occurring after the intervention was collected at first follow-up. The study population comprised 723 patients (66.7% men, 76.9% aged ≥66 years). Antithrombotic treatment was continued during surgery in 489 (67.6%) patients; 6 (0.8%) had their treatment definitively stopped; 46 (6.4%) were switched to another antithrombotic therapy. Heparin bridging was used in 55 out of 154 (35.8%) patients when interrupting vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment. Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) treatment was interrupted in 88.7% of patients, with heparin bridging in 25.6%, but accounted for only 25.3% of the oral anticoagulants used. A total of 108 complications were observed in 98 patients. No intracranial haemorrhage or embolic events were observed. Chronic NOAC treatment before surgery was associated with lower rates of minor pocket haematoma (1.4%; P= 0.042) vs. dual antiplatelet therapy (13.0%), VKA (11.4%), VKA + antiplatelet (9.2%), or NOAC + antiplatelet (7.7%). Similar results were observed for bleeding complications (P= 0.028). Perioperative management of patients undergoing CIED implantation/surgical revision while on chronic antithrombotic therapy varies, with evidence of a disparity between guideline recommendations and practice patterns in Europe. Haemorrhagic complications were significantly

  19. Electron beam injected into ground generates subsoil x-rays that may deactivate concealed electronics used to trigger explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retsky, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Explosively formed projectiles (EFP) are a major problem in terrorism and asymmetrical warfare. EFPs are often triggered by ordinary infrared motion detectors. A potential weak link is that such electronics are not hardened to ionizing radiation and can latch-up or enter other inoperative states after exposure to a single short event of ionizing radiation. While these can often be repaired with a power restart, they also can produce shorts and permanent damage. A problem of course is that we do not want to add radiation exposure to the long list of war related hazards. Biological systems are highly sensitive to integrated dosage but show no particular sensitivity to short pulses. There may be a way to generate short pulsed subsoil radiation to deactivate concealed electronics without introducing radiation hazards to military personnel and civilian bystanders. Electron beams of 30 MeV that can be produced by portable linear accelerators (linacs) propagate >20 m in air and 10-12 cm in soil. X-radiation is produced by bremsstrahlung and occurs subsoil beneath the point of impact and is mostly forward directed. Linacs 1.5 m long can produce 66 MWatt pulses of subsoil x-radiation 1 microsecond or less in duration. Untested as yet, such a device could be mounted on a robotic vehicle that precedes a military convoy and deactivates any concealed electronics within 10-20 meters on either side of the road.

  20. Electron heat transport comparison in the Large Helical Device and TJ-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J.; Dies, J.; Castejón, F.; Yamazaki, K.

    2007-10-01

    The electron heat transport in the Large Helical Device (LHD) [K. Ida, T. Shimozuma, H. Funaba et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 085003 (2003)] and TJ-II [F. Castejón, V. Tribaldos, I. García-Cortés, E. de la Luna, J. Herranz, I. Pastor, T. Estrada, and TJ-II Team, Nucl. Fusion 42, 271 (2002)] is analyzed by means of the TOTAL [K. Yamazaki and T. Amano, Nucl. Fusion 32, 4 (1992)] and PRETOR-Stellarator [J. Dies, F. Castejon, J. M. Fontdecaba, J. Fontanet, J. Izquierdo, G. Cortes, and C. Alejaldre, Proceedings of the 29th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Montreux, 2002, Europhysics Conference Abstracts, 2004, Vol. 26B, P-5.027] plasma simulation codes and assuming a global transport model mixing GyroBohm-like drift wave model and other drift wave model with shorter wavelength. The stabilization of the GyroBohm-like model by the E ×B shear has been also taken into account. Results show how such kind of electron heat transport can simulate experimental evidence in both devices, leading to the electron internal transport barrier (eITB) formation in the LHD and to the so-called "enhanced heat confinement regimes" in TJ-II when electron density is low enough. Therefore, two sources for the anomalous electron heat transport can coexist in plasmas with eITB; however, for each device the relative importance of anomalous and neoclassical transport can be different.