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Sample records for electron donating protective

  1. Evaluation of Electron Donation as a Mechanism for the Stabilisation of Chalcogenate-Protected Gold Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Segala, Maximiliano; Schneider, Felipe S S; Caramori, Giovanni F; Parreira, Renato L T

    2016-10-05

    Models based on Au(111) face have been extensively used to describe self-assembled monolayers, as well nanoparticles and nanoclusters. However, for very small clusters (<2 nm), the chemisorption of ligands leads to surface reconstruction, making necessary the use of a more reliable model that is able to simulate the main electronic and geometrical features of these small systems. In this work, a simple model to describe the geometries and the metal-ligand bonding in chalcogenate-protected gold nanoclusters is proposed. Three different models with Aun(+) and [XCH3 ](-) (n=10, 15, 19, 22 and X=S, Se, Te) are used in this work. The obtained structures are in close agreement not only with the available crystallographic data, but also with much more expensive computational procedures, confirming that the proposed models are robust enough to describe the metal-ligand bonding. The results reveal that the Au-X distances are dependent on both the nature of the chalcogen and the coordination mode. The shortest Au-X distances are observed in the face-centred cubic mode, indicating that the central gold atom seems to play a role in determining the adsorption strength. The proposed models show unambiguously chalcogen→cluster σ-donation, as supported by energy decomposition analysis coupled with the natural orbitals for chemical valence and natural bond orbital analyses. In all cases, the metal-ligand interactions are characterised as being more covalent than electrostatic.

  2. The electron donating capacity of biochar is dramatically underestimated

    PubMed Central

    Prévoteau, Antonin; Ronsse, Frederik; Cid, Inés; Boeckx, Pascal; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-01-01

    Biochars have gathered considerable interest for agronomic and engineering applications. In addition to their high sorption ability, biochars have been shown to accept or donate considerable amounts of electrons to/from their environment via abiotic or microbial processes. Here, we measured the electron accepting (EAC) and electron donating (EDC) capacities of wood-based biochars pyrolyzed at three different highest treatment temperatures (HTTs: 400, 500, 600 °C) via hydrodynamic electrochemical techniques using a rotating disc electrode. EACs and EDCs varied with HTT in accordance with a previous report with a maximal EAC at 500 °C (0.4 mmol(e−).gchar−1) and a large decrease of EDC with HTT. However, while we monitored similar EAC values than in the preceding study, we show that the EDCs have been underestimated by at least 1 order of magnitude, up to 7 mmol(e−).gchar−1 for a HTT of 400 °C. We attribute this existing underestimation to unnoticed slow kinetics of electron transfer from biochars to the dissolved redox mediators used in the monitoring. The EDC of other soil organic constituents such as humic substances may also have been underestimated. These results imply that the redox properties of biochars may have a much bigger impact on soil biogeochemical processes than previously conjectured. PMID:27628746

  3. The electron donating capacity of biochar is dramatically underestimated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prévoteau, Antonin; Ronsse, Frederik; Cid, Inés; Boeckx, Pascal; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-09-01

    Biochars have gathered considerable interest for agronomic and engineering applications. In addition to their high sorption ability, biochars have been shown to accept or donate considerable amounts of electrons to/from their environment via abiotic or microbial processes. Here, we measured the electron accepting (EAC) and electron donating (EDC) capacities of wood-based biochars pyrolyzed at three different highest treatment temperatures (HTTs: 400, 500, 600 °C) via hydrodynamic electrochemical techniques using a rotating disc electrode. EACs and EDCs varied with HTT in accordance with a previous report with a maximal EAC at 500 °C (0.4 mmol(e‑).gchar‑1) and a large decrease of EDC with HTT. However, while we monitored similar EAC values than in the preceding study, we show that the EDCs have been underestimated by at least 1 order of magnitude, up to 7 mmol(e‑).gchar‑1 for a HTT of 400 °C. We attribute this existing underestimation to unnoticed slow kinetics of electron transfer from biochars to the dissolved redox mediators used in the monitoring. The EDC of other soil organic constituents such as humic substances may also have been underestimated. These results imply that the redox properties of biochars may have a much bigger impact on soil biogeochemical processes than previously conjectured.

  4. Hybrid [5]Radialenes with Bispyrroloheteroles: New Electron-Donating Units.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Tomohiro; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2015-09-14

    Bispyrroloheteroles have been synthesized to address their intrinsic structural, optical, and electrochemical properties. The X-ray crystal structures and calculated natural bond orbital (NBO) bond orders unambiguously demonstrated the existence of a two pyrrole-fused five-membered ring with short exocyclic C-C double bonds and long endocyclic C-C single bonds, supporting that the bispyrroloheteroles are rare examples of structurally characterized hybrid [5]radialenes. The bispyrroloheteroles were found to act as an electron-donating unit, which would be fascinating for the rational design of new charge-transporting and donor-acceptor photovoltaic materials as well as versatile charge-transfer complexes.

  5. Simultaneous electrochemical and electron paramagnetic resonance studies of carotenoids. Effect of electron donating and accepting substituents

    SciTech Connect

    Jeevarajan, A.S.; Khaled, M.; Kispert, L.D. )

    1994-08-11

    A series of substituted phenyl-7[prime]-apocarotenoids with varying electron donating and accepting substituents was examined by cyclic voltammogram (CV) and simultaneous electrochemical electron paramagnetic resonance (SEEPR). Carotenoids substituted with electron donating groups are more easily oxidized than those with electron accepting substituents. Comproportionation constants for the dication and the neutral species were measured by SEEPR techniques and by simulation of the CVs. The [Delta]H[sub pp] of the SEEPR spectrum of the cation radicals varies from 13.2 to 15.6 G, and the g factors are 2.0027 [+-] 0.0002. These EPR parameters suggest a polyene [pi]-cation radical structure. The CVs are calculated using DigiSim, a CV simulation program, and the proposed mechanism involves three electrode reactions and two homogeneous reactions. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Conductivity Modifications of Graphene by Electron Donative Organic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masujima, Hiroaki; Mori, Takehiko; Hayamizu, Yuhei

    2017-03-01

    Graphene has been studied for the application of transparent electrodes in flexible electrical devices with semiconductor organics. Control of the charge carrier density in graphene is crucial to reduce the contact resistance between graphene and the active layer of organic semiconductor. Chemical doping of graphene is an approach to change the carrier density, where the adsorbed organic molecules donate or accept electrons form graphene. While various acceptor organic molecules have been demonstrated so far, investigation about donor molecules is still poor. In this work, we have investigated doping effect in graphene field-effect transistors functionalized by organic donor molecules such as dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DBTTF), hexamethyltetrathiafulvalene (HMTTF), 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN), and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD). Based on conductivity measurements of graphene transistors, the former three molecules do not have any significant effect to graphene transistors. However, TMPD shows effective n-type doping. The doping effect has a correlation with the level of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of each molecule, where TMPD has the highest HOMO level.

  7. Donors' blood group declaration before donation can be used as a tool for electronic crossmatching.

    PubMed

    Arslan, O

    2005-12-01

    Electronic crossmatching (E-XM) is used to detect ABO incompatibility. In developing countries, as many of the donations are from first-time donors, it is difficult to guarantee the accuracy of the ABO/Rh label on these units to use them for E-XM. This problem was overcome with a new software 'hemosoft', using donors' blood group declaration before donation as a tool for E-XM. During registration, donors either declare their blood group or give no comment. For, ABO/Rh grouping, either two results from different donations or only one in concordant with the declaration before donation is needed. If there is a conflict, second typing is performed from the unit segment. If donors give no declaration, two different technicians perform typing, one from the sample tube and the other from the unit segment. Of 18,618 donations performed, 640 (3%) were repeated and the rest were first-time donations. In 16,327, typing was performed once, as the blood group declaration and the typing results were identical. In 2407, grouping was performed twice, as donors gave no declaration or conflicts between declaration and typing results were found. No labelling or wrong unit-release errors were detected in units donated, typed and labelled in our centre. In 26,402 donations, 16,314 (61.8%) E-XMs were performed. No major haemolytic transfusion reaction was recorded. Donors' ABO/Rh declaration before donation can be used as a tool for E-XM, instead of the requirement for serological confirmation or a second donation to guarantee grouping.

  8. Effect of Electron Donating Groups on Polyphenol-based Antioxidant Dendrimers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choon Young; Nanah, Cyprien; Held, Rich; Clark, Amanda; Huynh, Uyen; Maraskine, Marina C.; Uzarski, Rebecca L.; McCracken, John; Sharma, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the beneficial effects of antioxidants in human diseases. Among their biological effects, a majority of antioxidants scavenge reactive radicals in the body, thereby reducing oxidative stress that is associated with the pathogenesis of many diseases. Antioxidant dendrimers are a new class of potent antioxidant compounds reported recently. In this study, six polyphenol-based antioxidant dendrimers with or without electron donating groups (methoxy group) were synthesized in order to elucidate the influence of electron donating groups (EDG) on their antioxidant activities. Syringaldehyde (2 ortho methoxy groups), vanillin (1 ortho methoxy group), and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (0 methoxy group) were derivatized with propargylamine to form building blocks for the dendrimers. All the six dendrimers contain polyether cores, which were synthesized by attaching pentaerythritol and methyl α-D-glucopyranoside to in-house prepared spacer units. To prepare generation 1 antioxidant dendrimers, microwave energy and granulated metallic copper catalyst were used to link the cores and building blocks together via alkyne-azide 1,3-cycloaddition click chemistry. These reaction conditions resulted in high yields of the target dendrimers that were free from copper contamination. Based on DPPH antioxidant assay, antioxidant dendrimers decorated with syringaldehyde and vanillin exhibited over 70- and 170-fold increase in antioxidant activity compared to syringaldehyde and vanillin, respectively. The antioxidant activity of dendrimers increased with increasing number of EDG groups. Similar results were obtained when the dendrimers were used to protect DNA and human LDL against organic carbon and nitrogen-based free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant dendrimers did not show any pro-oxidant activity on DNA in the presence of physiological amounts of copper. Although the dendrimers showed potent antioxidant activities against carbon and nitrogen free radicals

  9. A BPTTF-based self-assembled electron-donating triangle capable of C60 binding.

    PubMed

    Goeb, Sébastien; Bivaud, Sébastien; Dron, Paul Ionut; Balandier, Jean-Yves; Chas, Marcos; Sallé, Marc

    2012-03-25

    A kinetically stable self-assembled redox-active triangle is isolated. The resulting electron-donating cavity, which incorporates three BPTTF units, exhibits a remarkable binding ability for electron-deficient C(60), supported by a favorable combination of structural and electronic features.

  10. Roles of conjugated double bonds in electron-donating capacity of sorghum grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Electron-donating and metal ion complexation ability of tannins play key roles as antioxidants and in mold/bird resistance. In this study, rapid, sensitive, and nondestructive fluorescence excitation-emission (EEM) spectrophotometry was utilized to correlate structural attributes of sorghum tannins...

  11. Theoretical study of the electron-donating effects of thiourea ligands in catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Song; Lei, Yu; Yang, Zhen; Lan, Yu

    2014-09-01

    Thiourea and its derivatives often act as strong electron-donating ligands in palladium-catalyzed reactions. Density functional theory calculations were performed to investigate the electronic effects of thiourea ligands in palladium complexes, and a p-d-π interaction model is proposed. In this model, a Pd(d)sbnd S(p) interaction is responsible for the increased binding of π acceptor ligands such as CO and olefins, which are present in important intermediates in Pd-catalyzed reactions. This d-p interaction is a four-electron, two-orbital interaction; it raises the energy of the Pd(dyz) orbital, bringing it closer to the π* orbital of the CO or olefin ligand, and increases back donation. Thiourea-ligated transition metals are therefore favorable for the binding of acidic π ligands.

  12. Electronic Tool for Distribution and Allocation of Heart on Donation and Transplantation in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Maqueda Tenorio, S E; Meixueiro Daza, L A; Maqueda Estrada, S

    2016-03-01

    In Mexico and globally, organs and/or tissues donated from deceased people are insufficient to cover the demand for transplants. In 2014, a rate of 3.6 organ donors per million in habitants was recorded; this is reflected in the transplants performed, including heart transplantation, with a rate of 0.4 per million population. According to the legal framework of Mexico, the National Transplant Center is responsible for coordinating National Subsystem of donation and transplantation, and one of its functions is to integrate and backup information regarding donation and transplantation through the National Transplant Registry System. In July 2015, 45 people were registered in the database of patients waiting for a heart transplant, of which 34.61% were female recipients and 65.39% male. Distribution and allocation processes are a key element to provide a fair distribution for those patients waiting for that organ; thus the creation of an electronic tool is proposed, one that aims to support the decision of the donation and/or transplants coordination committee by providing the necessary elements to make this process more efficient.

  13. Protecting Juno Electronics from Radiation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    Technicians installed the special radiation vault for NASA Juno spacecraft on the propulsion module. The radiation vault has titanium walls to protect the spacecraft electronic brain and heart from Jupiter harsh radiation environment.

  14. Environment-sensitive fluorescent probe: a benzophosphole oxide with an electron-donating substituent.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Eriko; Wang, Chenguang; Fukazawa, Aiko; Taki, Masayasu; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Sasaki, Taeko; Ueda, Minako; Sasaki, Narie; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Shigehiro

    2015-04-07

    Electron-donating aryl groups were attached to electron-accepting benzophosphole skeletons. Among several derivatives thus prepared, one benzophosphole oxide was particularly interesting, as it retained high fluorescence quantum yields even in polar and protic solvents. This phosphole-based compound exhibited a drastic color change of its fluorescence spectrum as a function of the solvent polarity, while the absorption spectra remained virtually unchanged. Capitalizing on these features, this phosphole-based compound was used to stain adipocytes, in which the polarity of subcellular compartments could then be discriminated on the basis of the color change of the fluorescence emission.

  15. Cycloadditions of 1,2,3-Triazines Bearing C5-Electron Donating Substituents: Robust Pyrimidine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Glinkerman, Christopher M.; Boger, Dale L.

    2015-01-01

    The examination of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines 17–19, bearing electron-donating substituents at C5, are described. Despite the noncomplementary 1,2,3-triazine C5 substituents, amidines were found to undergo a powerful cycloaddition to provide 2,5-disubstituted pyrimidines in excellent yields (42–99%; EDG = SMe > OMe > NHAc). Even select ynamines and enamines were capable of cycloadditions with 17, but not 18 or 19, to provide trisubstituted pyridines in modest yields (37–40% and 33% respectively). PMID:26172042

  16. Platelet Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... donating platelets, can I still donate blood? What blood types should donate platelets? Can I donate plasma at ... Community Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood ...

  17. Characterization of a selenocysteine-ligated P450 compound I reveals direct link between electron donation and reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onderko, Elizabeth L.; Silakov, Alexey; Yosca, Timothy H.; Green, Michael T.

    2017-07-01

    Strong electron-donation from the axial thiolate ligand of cytochrome P450 has been proposed to increase the reactivity of compound I with respect to C-H bond activation. However, it has proven difficult to test this hypothesis, and a direct link between reactivity and electron donation has yet to be established. To make this connection, we have prepared a selenolate-ligated cytochrome P450 compound I intermediate. This isoelectronic perturbation allows for direct comparisons with the wild-type enzyme. Selenium incorporation was achieved using a cysteine auxotrophic Escherichia coli strain. The intermediate was prepared with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid and characterized by UV-visible, Mössbauer and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies. Measurements revealed increased asymmetry around the ferryl moiety, consistent with increased electron donation from the axial selenolate ligand. In line with this observation, we find that the selenolate-ligated compound I cleaves C-H bonds more rapidly than the wild-type intermediate.

  18. Electron Accelerators for Environmental Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2011-02-01

    This article gives an overview of existing and possible electron accelerator applications for environmental pollution control. Laboratory and pilot plant tests and industrial applications have illustrated the possibility of applying this technology for purification and treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes. Examples of ionizing radiation application to protect the environment and human health are discussed.

  19. Increased Electron-Accepting and Decreased Electron-Donating Capacities of Soil Humic Substances in Response to Increasing Temperature.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenbing; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Guoan; Jiang, Jie; He, Xiaosong; Mao, Xuhui; Gao, Rutai; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Jia, Yufu; Yuan, Ying; Zhao, Xinyu

    2017-03-21

    The electron transfer capacities (ETCs) of soil humic substances (HSs) are linked to the type and abundance of redox-active functional moieties in their structure. Natural temperature can affect the chemical structure of natural organic matter by regulating their oxidative transformation and degradation in soil. However, it is unclear if there is a direct correlation between ETC of soil HS and mean annual temperature. In this study, we assess the response of the electron-accepting and -donating capacities (EAC and EDC) of soil HSs to temperature by analyzing HSs extracted from soil set along glacial-interglacial cycles through loess-palaeosol sequences and along natural temperature gradients through latitude and altitude transects. We show that the EAC and EDC of soil HSs increase and decrease, respectively, with increasing temperature. Increased temperature facilitates the prevalence of oxidative degradation and transformation of HS in soils, thus potentially promoting the preferentially oxidative degradation of phenol moieties of HS or the oxidative transformation of electron-donating phenol moieties to electron-accepting quinone moieties in the HS structure. Consequently, the EAC and EDC of HSs in soil increase and decrease, respectively. The results of this study could help to understand biogeochemical processes, wherein the redox functionality of soil organic matter is involved in the context of increasing temperature.

  20. On the possibility to accelerate the thermal isomerizations of overcrowded alkene-based rotary molecular motors with electron-donating or electron-withdrawing substituents.

    PubMed

    Oruganti, Baswanth; Durbeej, Bo

    2016-09-01

    We employ computational methods to investigate the possibility of using electron-donating or electron-withdrawing substituents to reduce the free-energy barriers of the thermal isomerizations that limit the rotational frequencies achievable by synthetic overcrowded alkene-based molecular motors. Choosing as reference systems one of the fastest motors known to date and two variants thereof, we consider six new motors obtained by introducing electron-donating methoxy and dimethylamino or electron-withdrawing nitro and cyano substituents in conjugation with the central olefinic bond connecting the two (stator and rotator) motor halves. Performing density functional theory calculations, we then show that electron-donating (but not electron-withdrawing) groups at the stator are able to reduce the already small barriers of the reference motors by up to 18 kJ mol(-1). This result outlines a possible strategy for improving the rotational frequencies of motors of this kind. Furthermore, exploring the origin of the catalytic effect, it is found that electron-donating groups exert a favorable steric influence on the thermal isomerizations, which is not manifested by electron-withdrawing groups. This finding suggests a new mechanism for controlling the critical steric interactions of these motors. Graphical Abstract The introduction of electron-donating groups in one of the fastest rotary molecular motors known to date is found to reduce the free-energy barriers of the thermal steps that limit the rotational frequencies by up to 18 kJ mol(-1).

  1. Unravelling the structural-electronic impact of arylamine electron-donating antennas on the performances of efficient ruthenium sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wang-Chao; Kong, Fan-Tai; Ghadari, Rahim; Li, Zhao-Qian; Guo, Fu-Ling; Liu, Xue-Peng; Huang, Yang; Yu, Ting; Hayat, Tasawar; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2017-04-01

    We report a systematic research to understand the structural-electronic impact of the arylamine electron-donating antennas on the performances of the ruthenium complexes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Three ruthenium complexes functionalized with different arylamine electron-donating antennas (N,N-diethyl-aniline in RC-31, julolidine in RC-32 and N,N-dibenzyl-aniline in RC-36) are designed and synthesized. The photoelectric properties of RC dyes exhibit apparent discrepancy, which are ascribed to different structural nature and electronic delocalization ability of these arylamine electron-donating system. In conjunction with TiO2 microspheres photoanode and a typical coadsorbent DPA, the devices sensitized by RC-36 achieve the best conversion efficiency of 10.23%. The UV-Vis absorption, electrochemical measurement, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency and transient absorption spectra confirm that the excellent performance of RC-36 is induced by synergistically structural-electronic impacts from enhanced absorption capacity and well-tuned electronic characteristics. These observations provide valuable insights into the molecular engineering methodology based on fine tuning structural-electronic impact of electron-donating antenna in efficient ruthenium sensitizers.

  2. Who should donate blood? Policy decisions on donor deferral criteria should protect recipients and be fair to donors.

    PubMed

    Brailsford, S R; Kelly, D; Kohli, H; Slowther, A; Watkins, N A

    2015-08-01

    An important element in the development of voluntary blood donation schemes throughout the world has been the attention given to minimising the risk to recipients of donated blood, primarily the risk of transfusion transmitted infections. In response to the appearance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the 1980s a range of national policies emerged that excluded populations at high risk of contracting HIV from donating blood, with a particular focus on men who have sex with men (MSM), the primary reason being the protection of recipients of donated blood. Recently some countries, including the UK, have revised their policies, informed by advances in screening tests, epidemiological evidence of transmission rates and an increasing concern about unfair discrimination of specific groups in society. Policy makers face a difficult task of balancing safety of recipients; an adequate blood supply for those who require transfusion; and societal/legal obligations to treat everyone fairly. Given that no transfusion is risk free, the question is what degree of risk is acceptable in order to meet the needs of recipients and society. Decisions about acceptance of risk are complex and policy makers who set acceptable risk levels must provide ethically justifiable reasons for their decisions. We suggest it is possible to provide a set of reasons that stakeholders could agree are relevant based on careful evaluation of the evidence of all relevant risks and explicit acknowledgement of other morally relevant values. We describe using such a process in the Safety of Blood Tissue and Organs (SaBTO) review of donor deferral criteria related to sexual behaviour. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  3. Electron donation to the flavoprotein NifL, a redox-sensing transcriptional regulator.

    PubMed Central

    Macheroux, P; Hill, S; Austin, S; Eydmann, T; Jones, T; Kim, S O; Poole, R; Dixon, R

    1998-01-01

    Transcriptional control of the nitrogen fixation (nif) genes in response to oxygen in Azotobacter vinelandii is mediated by nitrogen fixation regulatory protein L (NifL), a regulatory flavoprotein that modulates the activity of the transcriptional activator nitrogen fixation regulatory protein A (NifA). CD spectra of purified NifL indicate that FAD is bound to NifL in an asymmetric environment and the protein is predominantly alpha-helical. The redox potential of NifL is -226 mV at pH 8 as determined by the enzymic reduction of NifL by xanthine oxidase/xanthine in the presence of appropriate mediators. The reduction of NifL by xanthine oxidase prevented NifL from acting as an inhibitor of NifA. In the absence of electron mediators NifL could also be reduced by Escherichia coli flavohaemoprotein (Hmp) with NADH as reductant. Hmp contains a globin-like domain with haem B as prosthetic group and an FAD-containing oxidoreductase module. The carboxyferrohaem form of Hmp was competent to reduce NifL, suggesting that electron donation to NifL originates from the flavin in Hmp rather than by direct electron transfer from the haem. Spinach ferredoxin:NAD(P) oxidoreductase, which adopts a folding similar to the FAD- and NAD-binding domains of Hmp, also reduced NifL with NADH as reductant. Re-oxidation of NifL occurs rapidly in the presence of air, raising the possibility that NifL might sense intracellular oxygen. We propose a physiological redox cycle in which the oxidation of NifL by oxygen and hence the activation of its inhibitory properties occurs rapidly, in contrast with the switch from the active to the reduced form of NifL, which occurs more slowly. PMID:9601070

  4. Tuning Hole and Electron Transfer from Photo-excited CdSe Quantum Dot to Phenol Derivatives: Effect of Electron Donating and Withdrawing Moiety.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Hirendra Nath; Debnath, Tushar; Sebastian, Deepa; Maiti, Sourav

    2017-03-27

    Charge transfer processes from photo-excited CdSe QDs to phenol derivatives with electron donating (4-methoxy) and electron withdrawing (4-nitro) moiety have been demonstrated by using steady state and time-resolved emission and femto-second transient absorption spectroscopy. Steady state and time-resolved emission studies suggest that in presence of both 4-nitro phenol (4NP) and 4-methoxy phenol (4MP) CdSe QDs luminescence gets quenched. Stern-Volmer analysis suggests both static and dynamic mechanisms are active for both the QD/phenol composites. Cyclic volatmetric analysis recommends that photo-excited CdSe QDs can donate electron to 4NP and hole to 4MP. To reconfirm both electron and hole transfer mechanism CdSe/CdS quasi type-II and CdSe/CdTe type-II core-shell NC were synthesized and the photoluminescence quenching were monitored in absence and in presence of both 4NP and 4MP where systematically hole and electron transfer were restricted. Our studies suggest that indeed electron and hole transfer take place from photo-excited CdSe to 4NP and 4MP respectively. To monitor the charge transfer dynamics in both the systems in early time scale, we have employed femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopic techniques. Both electron and hole transfer and charge recombination dynamics have been discussed and effect of electron donating and withdrawing group has been demonstrated.

  5. A biphenyl containing two electron-donating and two electron-accepting moieties: a rigid and small donor-acceptor-donor ladder system.

    PubMed

    Greulich, Tobias W; Suzuki, Naoya; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Fukazawa, Aiko; Yamaguchi, Eriko; Studer, Armido; Yamaguchi, Shigehiro

    2016-02-07

    Ladder π-conjugated materials and also push-pull systems belong to important classes of compounds for the development of organic electronic devices. In this communication, a novel π-conjugated material that unifies the properties of both of these classes is presented. The material comprises a rigid biphenyl framework, which bears two bridging electron-accepting phosphine oxide moieties as well as two electron-donating amino groups. The structure and photophysical properties of this compound are discussed and compared with those of a related system lacking the second P-moiety.

  6. Use of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid as electron donating compound in a potentiometric aflatoxin M1-immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Rameil, Steffen; Schubert, Peter; Grundmann, Peter; Dietrich, Richard; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2010-02-19

    We developed a potentiometric aflatoxin M(1)-immunosensor which utilizes 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (p-HPPA) as electron donating compound for horseradish peroxidase (HRP; EC 1.11.1.7). The assay system consists of a polypyrrole-surface-working electrode coated with a polyclonal anti-M(1) antibody (pAb-AFM(1)), a Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a HRP-aflatoxin B(1) conjugate (HRP-AFB(1) conjugate). To optimize the potentiometric measuring system p-HPPA as well as related compounds serving as electron donating compounds were compared. Also the influence of different buffer systems, varying pH and substrate concentrations on signal intensity was investigated. Our results suggest that reaction conditions that favor the formation of Pummerer's type ketones lead to an increase in signal intensity rather than formation of fluorescent dye. Comparison with commercial ready-to-use HRP electron donating compounds such as 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), o-phenylenediamine (OPD) or 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) showed that only 34%, 77% and 49% of the signal intensity of p-HPPA were reached, respectively. The optimized assay had a detection limit of 40 pg mL(-1) and allowed detection of 500 pg mL(-1) (FDA action limit) aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) in pasteurized milk and UHT-milk containing 0.3-3.8% fat within 10 min without any sample treatment. The working range was between 250 and 2000 pg mL(-1) AFM(1). Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Organ Donation

    MedlinePlus

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the ... lungs Skin Bone and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  8. Hot electron plasmon-protected solar cell.

    PubMed

    Kong, J; Rose, A H; Yang, C; Wu, X; Merlo, J M; Burns, M J; Naughton, M J; Kempa, K

    2015-09-21

    A solar cell based on a hot electron plasmon protection effect is proposed and made plausible by simulations, non-local modeling of the response, and quantum mechanical calculations. In this cell, a thin-film, plasmonic metamaterial structure acts as both an efficient photon absorber in the visible frequency range and a plasmonic resonator in the IR range, the latter of which absorbs and protects against phonon emission the free energy of the hot electrons in an adjacent semiconductor junction. We show that in this structure, electron-plasmon scattering is much more efficient than electron-phonon scattering in cooling-off hot electrons, and the plasmon-stored energy is recoverable as an additional cell voltage. The proposed structure could become a prototype of a new generation of high efficiency solar cells.

  9. Protection detail. Protecting against breach of electronic protected health information.

    PubMed

    Blass, Gerry; Miller, Susan A

    2010-01-01

    Covered entities need to conduct risk assessments that cover the requirements of HIPAA, HITECH and Meaningful use, and create a process for steady and consistent mitigation of known gaps and vulnerabilities based on risk. Reducing risk of vulnerabilities of unauthorized access to your ePHI can be done via safeguards and controls, plus audits and monitoring. When reducing risk is outside of a covered entities control, audits and monitoring are required in order to demonstrate due diligence. Know where your ePHI is stored, where it is at risk, and take steps now to reduce or eliminate the risk. Encrypt vulnerable locations. Encrypt sensitive data. By doing so, you will be protecting your organization by reducing risk of breach of ePHI. Finally, don't forget what is sometimes considered to be the hardest part--documenting your compliance activities in order to demonstrate evidence of due diligence in and avoid major $$$$ penalties for negligence under the HITECH Act of 2009.

  10. Column tests to enhance sulphide precipitation with liquid organic electron donators to remediate AMD-influenced groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, Felix

    2006-03-01

    Dump groundwaters in the former East-German lignite-mining district are characterized by high amounts of ferrous iron and sulphate. Both the pyrite weathering products endanger the surface water quality when discharged into lakes. Only the precipitation of both contaminants in the subsurface can prevent the further contamination of surface waters. The two-step process of microbial catalyzed sulphate reduction and iron sulphide precipitation is limited by the low availability of natural organic substances as electron donators. Therefore, a new remediation technique is developed based on the injection of a liquid organic electron donator (methanol) into the contaminated aquifer. The saturated aquifer is used as a bioreactor, where iron monosulphides are precipitated in the groundwater-filled pore space. Column experiments were performed under natural pressure and temperature conditions with natural anoxic groundwater and original sediments to test the remediation technology. The test showed that a complete iron removal (4 mmol/l), even under rather acid conditions (pH 3.8), is possible after having established an active sulphate reducer population. The turnover of the added organic substance with sulphate is complete and the amount of the resulting sulphide controls the effluent pH. In addition, intensified microbial activity triggers the turnover of natural organic substances. Also, natural Fe(III) hydroxides react with the sulphide produced. Considering the long natural retention times (decades), artificially enhanced FeS precipitation is spontaneous, although it shows kinetic behaviour in the range of days. In light of the promising results, the development of a field scale application of this technique is considered to be necessary. It will have to focus on the improved precipitation control of the FeS in the subsurface.

  11. The Diels-Alder Cycloaddition Reaction of Substituted Hemifullerenes with 1,3-Butadiene: Effect of Electron-Donating and Electron-Withdrawing Substituents.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Martha; Méndez, Francisco; Alonso, Julio A

    2016-02-12

    The Diels-Alder (DA) reaction provides an attractive route to increase the number of six member rings in substituted Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method has been used in this work to inquire if the substitution of H over the edge of triindenetriphenylene (pristine hemifullerene 1) and pentacyclopentacorannulene (pristine hemifullerene 2), could improve the DA cycloaddition reaction with 1,3-butadiene. The substituents tested include electron-donating (NH₂, OMe, OH, Me, i-Pr) and electron-withdrawing groups (F, COOH, CF₃, CHO, CN, NO₂). The electronic, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the DA reactions of the substituted hemifullerenes with 1,3-butadiene have been analyzed. The most promising results were obtained for the NO₂ substituent; the activation energy barriers for reactions using this substituent were lower than the barriers for the pristine hemifullerenes. This leads us to expect that the cycloadditions to a starting fullerene fragment will be possible.

  12. [Body donation versus organ donation].

    PubMed

    Reis, Ria

    2010-01-01

    There appears to be a discrepancy between the oversupply of donated bodies 'for science' in anatomical institutions in the Netherlands and the shortage of donated organs. However, organ donation is not as straightforward as it seems, mainly because of its strict conditions, e.g. with respect to age and the required hospital setting of the dying. Since Dutch body donors are mainly elderly men, their attitudes to their body, death and science should be explored from a generational perspective.

  13. [A quantum chemical study of pi-back-donation bond and Raman intensity of 1 sigma + electronic state of Pt-CO molecule].

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Xu, X; Ren, B; Cao, Z; Shi, P; Tian, Z

    2000-12-01

    The Raman spectroscopic properties of Pt-CO molecule have been investigated based on the electronic state 1 sigma + determined by the HF and B3LYP methods. The result shows that the calculated stretching vibrational frequencies of the Pt-C and C-O bonds depend on the method and the basis sets used. It indicates that it is important to adopt an appropriate method to describe pi-donation and pi-back-donation bond. The result of the differential Raman scattering cross section for the stretching vibrations of the Pt-C and C-O bond shows that the latter is significantly larger value compared to the former.

  14. Geometry dependence of electron donating or accepting abilities of amine groups in 4,4‧-disulfanediylbis(methylene)dithiazol-2-amine: Pyramidal versus planar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabıyık, Hasan; Kırılmış, Cumhur; Karabıyık, Hande

    2017-08-01

    The molecular and crystal structure of the title compound in which two thiazole-2-amine rings are linked to each other by disulfide bridge (sbnd Csbnd Ssbnd Ssbnd Csbnd) were studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, NMR spectroscopy, quantum chemical calculations and topological analyses on the electron density. A novel synthesis route for the compounds having symmetrical disulfide bridge is reported. The most important result regarding the compound is about electron donating or accepting properties of the terminal amine groups. Planar amine group acts as an electron-donating group, while pyramidal amine behaves as electron-accepting group. This inference was confirmed by scrutiny of crystallographic geometry and quantum chemical studies. To ascertain underlying reasons for this fact, intermolecular interactions (Nsbnd H⋯N type H-bonds and Csbnd H···π interactions) were studied. These interactions involving aromatic thiazole rings are verified by topological electron density and Hirshfeld surface analyses. Intermolecular interactions do not have an effect on the differentiation in electron donating or accepting ability of amine groups, because both amine groups are involved in Nsbnd H⋯N type H-bonds. In methodological sense, it has been understood that Ehrenfest forces acting on electron density are useful theoretical probe to analyze intra-molecular charge transfer processes.

  15. Photophysical properties of a series of electron-donating and -withdrawing platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores.

    PubMed

    Haley, Joy E; Krein, Douglas M; Monahan, Jennifer L; Burke, Aaron R; McLean, Daniel G; Slagle, Jonathan E; Fratini, Albert; Cooper, Thomas M

    2011-01-27

    To explore spectroscopic structure-property relationships in platinum acetylides, we synthesized a series of complexes having the molecular formula trans-bis(tributylphosphine)-bis(4-((9,9-diethyl-7-ethynyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)ethynyl)-R)-platinum. The substituent, R = NH(2), OCH(3), N(phenyl)(2), t-butyl, CH(3), H, F, benzothiazole, CF(3), CN, and NO(2), was chosen for a systematic variation in electron-donating and -withdrawing properties as described by the Hammett parameter σ(p). UV/vis, fluorescence, and phosphorescence spectra, transient absorption spectra on the fs-ps time scale, and longer time scale flash photolysis on the ns time scale were collected. DFT and TDDFT calculations of the T(1) and S(1) energies were performed. The E(S) and E(T) values measured from linear spectra correlate well with the calculated results, giving evidence for the delocalized MLCT character of the S(1) state and confinement of the T(1) exciton on one ligand. The calculated T(1) state dipole moment ranges from 0.5 to 14 D, showing the polar, charge-transfer character of the T(1) state. The ultrafast absorption spectra have broad absorption bands from 575 to 675 nm and long wavelength contribution, which is shown from flash photolysis measurements to be from the T(1) state. The T(1) energy obtained from phosphorescence, the T(1)-T(n) transition energy obtained from flash photolysis measurements, and the triplet-state radiative rate constant are functions of the calculated spin density distribution on the ligand. The calculations show that the triplet exciton of chromophores with electron-withdrawing substituents is localized away from the central platinum atom, red-shifting the spectra and increasing the triplet-state lifetime. Electron-donating substituents have the opposite effect on the location of the triplet exciton, the spectra, and the triplet-state lifetime. The relation between the intersystem crossing rate constant and the S(1)-T(1) energy gap shows a Marcus relationship

  16. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always in demand. Who Can Donate Blood? ... Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  17. IMIDAZOLE-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS FOR USE IN POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS: EFFECT OF ELECTRON-WITHDRAWING AND ELECTRON-DONATING SUBSTITUENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, E.; Fu, Y.; Kerr, J.

    2009-01-01

    Current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) require humidifi cation for acceptable proton conductivity. Development of a novel polymer that is conductive without a water-based proton carrier is desirable for use in automobiles. Imidazole (Im) is a possible replacement for water as a proton solvent; Im can be tethered to the polymer structure by means of covalent bonds, thereby providing a solid state proton conducting membrane where the solvating groups do not leach out of the fuel cell. These covalent bonds can alter the electron availability of the Im molecule. This study investigates the effects of electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents on the conductivity of Im complexed with methanesulfonic acid (MSA) in the form of ionic liquids. Due to the changes in the electronegativity of nitrogen, it is expected that 2-phenylimidazole (2-PhIm, electron-withdrawing) will exhibit increased conductivity compared to Im, while 2-methylimidazole (2-MeIm, electron-donating) will exhibit decreased conductivity. Three sets of ionic liquids were prepared at defi ned molar ratios: Im-MSA, 2-PhIm-MSA, and 2-MeIm- MSA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and 1H-NMR were used to characterize each complex. Impedance analysis was used to determine the conductivity of each complex. Both the 2-PhIm-MSA and 2-MeIm-MSA ionic liquids were found to be less conductive than the Im-MSA complex at base-rich compositions, but more conductive at acid-rich compositions. 1H-NMR data shows a downfi eld shift of the proton on nitrogen in 2-PhIm compared to Im, suggesting that other factors may diminish the electronic effects of the electron withdrawing group at base-rich compositions. Further studies examining these effects may well result in increased conductivity for Im-based complexes. Understanding the conductive properties of Im-derivatives due to electronic effects will help facilitate the development of a new electrolyte

  18. Redox properties of structural Fe in clay minerals. 1. Electrochemical quantification of electron-donating and -accepting capacities of smectites.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Christopher A; Aeschbacher, Michael; Soltermann, Daniela; Voegelin, Andreas; Baeyens, Bart; Marques Fernandes, Maria; Hofstetter, Thomas B; Sander, Michael

    2012-09-04

    Clay minerals often contain redox-active structural iron that participates in electron transfer reactions with environmental pollutants, bacteria, and biological nutrients. Measuring the redox properties of structural Fe in clay minerals using electrochemical approaches, however, has proven to be difficult due to a lack of reactivity between clay minerals and electrodes. Here, we overcome this limitation by using one-electron-transfer mediating compounds to facilitate electron transfer between structural Fe in clay minerals and a vitreous carbon working electrode in an electrochemical cell. Using this approach, the electron-accepting and -donating capacities (Q(EAC) and Q(EDC)) were quantified at applied potentials (E(H)) of -0.60 V and +0.61 V (vs SHE), respectively, for four natural Fe-bearing smectites (i.e., SWa-1, SWy-2, NAu-1, and NAu-2) having different total Fe contents (Fe(total) = 2.3 to 21.2 wt % Fe) and varied initial Fe(2+)/Fe(total) states. For every SWa-1 and SWy-2 sample, all the structural Fe was redox-active over the tested E(H) range, demonstrating reliable quantification of Fe content and redox state. Yet for NAu-1 and NAu-2, a significant fraction of the structural Fe was redox-inactive, which was attributed to Fe-rich smectites requiring more extreme E(H)-values to achieve complete Fe reduction and/or oxidation. The Q(EAC) and Q(EDC) values provided here can be used as benchmarks in future studies examining the extent of reduction and oxidation of Fe-bearing smectites.

  19. Superior Light-Harvesting Heteroleptic Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Electron-Donating Antennas for High Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wang-Chao; Kong, Fan-Tai; Li, Zhao-Qian; Pan, Jia-Hong; Liu, Xue-Peng; Guo, Fu-Ling; Zhou, Li; Huang, Yang; Yu, Ting; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2016-08-03

    Three heteroleptic polypyridyl ruthenium complexes, RC-41, RC-42, and RC-43, with efficient electron-donating antennas in the ancillary ligands were designed, synthesized, and characterized as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell. All the RC dye sensitizers showed remarkable light-harvesting capacity and broadened absorption range. Significantly, RC-43 obtained the lower energy metal-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) band peaked at 557 nm with a high molar extinction coefficient of 27 400 M(-1) cm(-1). In conjunction with TiO2 photoanode of submicrospheres and iodide-based electrolytes, the DSSCs sensitizing with the RC sensitizers, achieved impressively high short-circuit current density (19.04 mA cm(-2) for RC-41, 19.83 mA cm(-2) for RC-42, and 20.21 mA cm(-2) for RC-43) and power conversion efficiency (10.07% for RC-41, 10.52% for RC-42, and 10.78% for RC-43). The superior performances of RC dye sensitizers were attributed to the enhanced light-harvesting capacity and incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) caused by the introduction of electron-donating antennas in the ancillary ligands. The interfacial charge recombination/regeneration kinetics and electron lifetime were further evaluated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS). These data decisively revealed the dependences on the photovoltaic performance of ruthenium sensitizers incorporating electron-donating antennas.

  20. Protic N-Heterocyclic Carbene Versus Pyrazole: Rigorous Comparison of Proton- and Electron-Donating Abilities in a Pincer-Type Framework.

    PubMed

    Toda, Tatsuro; Yoshinari, Akihiro; Ikariya, Takao; Kuwata, Shigeki

    2016-11-07

    Evaluation of the acidity of proton-responsive ligands such as protic N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) bearing an NH-wingtip provides a key to understanding the metal-ligand cooperation in enzymatic and artificial catalysis. Here, we design a CNN pincer-type ruthenium complex 2 bearing protic NHC and isoelectronic pyrazole units in a symmetrical skeleton, to compare their acidities and electron-donating abilities. The synthesis is achieved by direct C-H metalation of 2-(imidazol-1-yl)-6-(pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine with [RuCl2 (PPh3 )3 ]. (15) N-Labeling experiments confirm that deprotonation of 2 occurs first at the pyrazole side, indicating clearly that the protic pyrazole is more acidic than the NHC group. The electrochemical measurements as well as derivatization to carbonyl complexes demonstrate that the protic NHC is more electron-donating than pyrazole in both protonated and deprotonated forms.

  1. Hydrogen bond donation to the heme distal ligand of Staphylococcus aureus IsdG tunes the electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Cheryl L; Conger, Matthew A; Pittman, Dylanger S; Liptak, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus IsdG catalyzes the final step of staphylococcal iron acquisition from host hemoglobin, whereby host-derived heme is converted to iron and organic products. The Asn7 distal pocket residue is known to be critical for enzyme activity, but the influence of this residue on the substrate electronic structure was unknown prior to this work. Here, an optical spectroscopic and density functional theory characterization of azide- and cyanide-inhibited wild type and N7A IsdG is presented. Magnetic circular dichroism data demonstrate that Asn7 perturbs the electronic structure of azide-inhibited, but not cyanide-inhibited, IsdG. As the iron-ligating α-atom of azide, but not cyanide, can act as a hydrogen bond acceptor, these data indicate that the terminal amide of Asn7 is a hydrogen bond donor to the α-atom of a distal ligand to heme in IsdG. Circular dichroism characterization of azide- and cyanide-inhibited forms of WT and N7A IsdG strongly suggests that the Asn7···N3 hydrogen bond influences the orientation of a distal azide ligand with respect to the heme substrate. Specifically, density functional theory calculations suggest that Asn7···N3 hydrogen bond donation causes the azide ligand to rotate about an axis perpendicular to the porphyrin plane and weakens the π-donor strength of the azide ligand. This lowers the energies of the Fe 3d xz and 3d yz orbitals, mixes Fe 3d xy and porphyrin a 2u character into the singly-occupied molecular orbital, and results in spin delocalization onto the heme meso carbons. These discoveries have important implications for the mechanism of heme oxygenation catalyzed by IsdG.

  2. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Double Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do not ... blood type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common type ...

  3. Transient Palladadiphosphanylcarbenes: Singlet Carbenes with an “Inverse” Electronic Configuration (pπ2 instead of σ2) and Unusual Transannular Metal–Carbene Interactions (πC→pd Donation and σPd→C Back-donation)

    PubMed Central

    Vignolle, Joan; Gornitzka, Heinz; Maron, Laurent; Schoeller, Wolfgang W.; Bourissou, Didier; Bertrand, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Upon treatment with [PdCl(allyl)]2, asymmetrically substituted α, α′-diphosphanyl diazo compounds eliminate dinitrogen to afford C-chlorodiphosphanylmethanide complexes in high yields. In the presence of a chloride-abstracting agent, such as sodium tetraphenylborate, the C-chlorodiphosphanylmethanide complexes react with pyridine and trimethylphosphine, readily affording the corresponding nitrogen and phosphorus ylides. The postulated intermediate in this process, namely palladadiphosphanylcarbenes, could not be spectroscopically characterized, but their transient formation was chemically supported further by a Lewis base exchange reaction between pyridine and 4-dimethylaminopyridine. This hypothesis has also been substantiated by computing the corresponding dissociation energy using two model systems featuring methyl groups at the phosphorus. Of particular interest, density functional theory calculations reveal that these palladadiphosphanylcarbenes have a singlet ground state with an “inverse” pπ2 electronic configuration and a distorted geometry associated with unusual transannular metal–carbene interactions (πC→Pd donation and σPd→C back-donation). PMID:17243835

  4. Hydrogen spillover on Rh/TiO2: the FTIR study of donated electrons, co-adsorbed CO and H/D exchange.

    PubMed

    Panayotov, D; Ivanova, E; Mihaylov, M; Chakarova, K; Spassov, T; Hadjiivanov, K

    2015-08-28

    Hydrogen dissociation and spillover on supported metal nanoparticles have received renewed interest because these chemical processes are closely related to applications in heterogeneous catalysis and hydrogen storage. In heterogeneous catalysis, spillover can control the reaction rate and selectivity of a wide range of reactions, e.g. hydrogenation, synthesis of methanol and hydroisomerization. In this work, we combine three spectroscopic approaches, i.e. the FT-IR spectroscopy of donated electrons, co-adsorbed CO and H/D exchange, to obtain detailed information on the dynamics of hydrogen interaction with a model 1.3% Rh/TiO2 catalyst. Our spectroscopic results helped us to build a physical picture of the processes occurring during the H-spillover on Rh/TiO2. It was found that molecular H2 dissociates on nanocrystalline Rh; H atoms spillover onto the titania thus protonating the semiconductor, while donating electrons to shallow trap (ST) states and the conduction band (CB) of TiO2. These donated electrons are observed by their specific IR features. By simultaneously monitoring the changes in the vibrational modes of CO, and, the infrared absorbance due to transitions involving CB and ST electrons, we found that both CO-reduced and partially re-oxidized Rh nanocrystallites promote the H-spillover and thus the n-doping of TiO2 materials. Upon evacuation, the process reverses: hydrogen atoms spillover back to Rh nanoparticles where they recombine to form H2 molecules that desorb from the surface. These new mechanistic insights into the process of H2 dissociation and spillover on the powder Rh/TiO2 catalyst call for further model surface science studies with model metal nanoparticle-single crystal substrate systems, in which a detailed picture of energetics and spatial distribution of hydrogen and injected electrons could be obtained.

  5. Superoxide radical-mediated photocatalytic oxidation of phenolic compounds over Ag⁺/TiO₂: Influence of electron donating and withdrawing substituents.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiadong; Xie, Yongbing; Han, Qingzhen; Cao, Hongbin; Wang, Yujiao; Nawaz, Faheem; Duan, Feng

    2016-03-05

    A comparative study was constructed to correlate the electronic property of the substituents with the degradation rates of phenolic compounds and their oxidation pathways under UV with Ag(+)/TiO2 suspensions. It was verified that a weak electron withdrawing substituent benefited photocatalytic oxidation the most, while an adverse impact appeared when a substituent was present with stronger electron donating or withdrawing ability. The addition of p-benzoquinone dramatically blocked the degradation, confirming superoxide radicals (O2(-)) as the dominant photooxidant, rather than hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen or positive holes, which was also independent of the substituent. Hammett relationship was established based on pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics, and it revealed two disparate reaction patterns between O2(-) and phenolic compounds, which was further verified by the quantum chemical computation on the frontier molecular orbitals and Mulliken charge distributions of O2(-) and phenolic compounds. It was found that electron donating group (EDG) substituted phenols were more likely nucleophilically attacked by O2(-), while O2(-) preferred to electrophilically assault electron withdrawing group (EWG) substituted phenols. Exceptionally, electrophilic and nucleophilic attack by O2(-) could simultaneously occur in p-chlorophenol degradation, consequently leading to its highest rate constant. Possible reactive positions on the phenolic compounds were also detailedly uncovered.

  6. Parallel electron donation pathways to cytochrome c(z) in the type I homodimeric photosynthetic reaction center complex of Chlorobium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Yusuke; Azai, Chihiro; Kondo, Toru; Itoh, Shigeru; Oh-Oka, Hirozo

    2008-09-01

    We studied the regulation mechanism of electron donations from menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c-554 to the type I homodimeric photosynthetic reaction center complex of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. We measured flash-induced absorption changes of multiple cytochromes in the membranes prepared from a mutant devoid of cytochrome c-554 or in the reconstituted membranes by exogenously adding cytochrome c-555 purified from Chlorobium limicola. The results indicated that the photo-oxidized cytochrome c(z) bound to the reaction center was rereduced rapidly by cytochrome c-555 as well as by the menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and that cytochrome c-555 did not function as a shuttle-like electron carrier between the menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c(z). It was also shown that the rereduction rate of cytochrome c(z) by cytochrome c-555 was as high as that by the menaquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase. The two electron-transfer pathways linked to sulfur metabolisms seem to function independently to donate electrons to the reaction center.

  7. Bicarbonate stimulates the electron donation from Mn²⁺ to P₆₈₀⁺ in isolated D1/D2/cytochrome b559 complex.

    PubMed

    Zharmukhamedov, S K; Allakhverdiev, S I; Smolova, T N; Klimov, V V

    2013-12-05

    Influence of bicarbonate on the efficiency of the electron donation from Mn(2+) to P₆₈₀(+) in isolated D1/D2/cytochrome b559 complex was investigated. All the experiments were carried out in a medium depleted of HCO₃(-)/CO₂. Kinetics of photoinduced absorbance changes (ΔA) at different wavelengths and decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence yield (-ΔF) related to photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin, the intermediary electron acceptor of photosystem II (PSII), in the presence of Mn(2+) under anaerobic conditions were measured. Addition of bicarbonate (1 mM) increased the amplitude of these ΔA and -ΔF at least by a factor of 3. Measurements of the photoinduced ΔA, related to photooxidation of the primary electron donor of PSII, chlorophyll P₆₈₀, were done in the presence of silicomolybdate as electron acceptor. These results show that the addition of 0.05 mM Mn(2+) alone or jointly with 1 mM bicarbonate induces a 20% and 70%-decrease of the magnitude of the ΔA at 680 nm. The effect of Mn(2+) (in the presence and absence of bicarbonate) was completely eliminated by the addition of 12 mM EDTA. All these bicarbonate effects were not observed if MgCl₂ or formate were used instead of MnCl₂ and bicarbonate, respectively. In the absence of Mn(2+), bicarbonate induced none of the mentioned above effects (increase of photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin and decrease of photooxidation of P680). The presented data suggest that bicarbonate stimulates the electron donation from Mn(2+) to D1/D2/cyt b559 reaction center evidently due to formation of easily oxidizable Mn-bicarbonate complexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Minimizing risk in anonymous egg donation.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, K K; Simons, E G; Nair, S; Rimington, M R; Armar, N A

    2003-11-01

    Assisted conception carries with it known and putative medical and surgical risks. Exposing healthy women to these risks in order to harvest eggs for donation when a safer alternative exists is morally and ethically unacceptable. Egg sharing minimizes risk and provides a source of eggs for donation. Anonymity protects all parties involved and should not be removed.

  9. Protective effect of pre-recovery surfactant inhalation on lungs donated after cardiac death in a canine lung transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Ohsumi, Akihiro; Chen, Fengshi; Sakamoto, Jin; Nakajima, Daisuke; Hijiya, Kyoko; Motoyama, Hideki; Okita, Kenji; Horita, Kenta; Kikuchi, Ryutaro; Yamada, Tetsu; Bando, Toru; Date, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    Warm ischemia-reperfusion injury related to donation after cardiac death is a crucial issue in transplantation. Because surfactant function deteriorates in lungs during warm ischemia, we hypothesized pre-recovery surfactant inhalation would mitigate warm ischemia-reperfusion injury. We rendered donor dogs cardiac dead and left them at room temperature. All animals received ventilation for 60 minutes starting at 240 minutes after cardiac arrest. The animals were divided into 2 groups: NS (normal saline, n = 7) group, which received aerosolized normal saline, and SF (surfactant; n = 5), which received aerosolized surfactant. The lungs were flushed and procured, and the left lung was transplanted into recipient dogs. At 45 minutes of reperfusion, the right pulmonary artery was ligated, and the left transplanted lung function was evaluated. In the NS group, 2 of 7 dogs died at 75 minutes after reperfusion, whereas all 5 animals in the SF group survived for 240 minutes after reperfusion. The SF group showed significantly better dynamic compliance, oxygenation, and wet-to-dry weight ratio. Furthermore, the SF group had higher levels of high-energy phosphates in the lung tissues and lower levels of interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and protein in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histologically, the lungs in the SF group showed fewer signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage and significantly less neutrophilic sequestration than those of the NS group. Our results indicated pre-recovery surfactant inhalation improved graft function, maintained adenine nucleotide levels, and prevented alveolar-capillary barrier leakage, resulting in the attenuation of warm ischemia-reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High performance protection circuit for power electronics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tudoran, Cristian D. Dădârlat, Dorin N.; Toşa, Nicoleta; Mişan, Ioan

    2015-12-23

    In this paper we present a high performance protection circuit designed for the power electronics applications where the load currents can increase rapidly and exceed the maximum allowed values, like in the case of high frequency induction heating inverters or high frequency plasma generators. The protection circuit is based on a microcontroller and can be adapted for use on single-phase or three-phase power systems. Its versatility comes from the fact that the circuit can communicate with the protected system, having the role of a “sensor” or it can interrupt the power supply for protection, in this case functioning as an external, independent protection circuit.

  11. Balancing Good Intentions: Protecting the Privacy of Electronic Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClanahan, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    Electronic information is a vital but complex component in the modern health care system, fueling ongoing efforts to develop a universal electronic health record infrastructure. This innovation creates a substantial tension between two desirable values: the increased quality and utility of patient medical records and the protection of the privacy…

  12. Balancing Good Intentions: Protecting the Privacy of Electronic Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClanahan, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    Electronic information is a vital but complex component in the modern health care system, fueling ongoing efforts to develop a universal electronic health record infrastructure. This innovation creates a substantial tension between two desirable values: the increased quality and utility of patient medical records and the protection of the privacy…

  13. Ultrafast imprinting of topologically protected magnetic textures via pulsed electrons

    DOE PAGES

    Schaffer, A. F.; Durr, H. A.; Berakdar, J.

    2017-07-17

    Short electron pulses are demonstrated to trigger and control magnetic excitations, even at low electron current densities. We show that the tangential magnetic field surrounding a picosecond electron pulse can imprint topologically protected magnetic textures such as skyrmions in a sample with a residual Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya spin-orbital coupling. Characteristics of the created excitations such as the topological charge can be steered via the duration and the strength of the electron pulses. Here, the study points to a possible way for a spatiotemporally controlled generation of skyrmionic excitations.

  14. Ultrafast imprinting of topologically protected magnetic textures via pulsed electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffer, A. F.; Dürr, H. A.; Berakdar, J.

    2017-07-01

    Short electron pulses are demonstrated to trigger and control magnetic excitations, even at low electron current densities. We show that the tangential magnetic field surrounding a picosecond electron pulse can imprint topologically protected magnetic textures such as skyrmions in a sample with a residual Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya spin-orbital coupling. Characteristics of the created excitations such as the topological charge can be steered via the duration and the strength of the electron pulses. The study points to a possible way for a spatiotemporally controlled generation of skyrmionic excitations.

  15. Non-donors' attitudes towards sperm donation and their willingness to donate.

    PubMed

    Provoost, Veerle; Van Rompuy, Florence; Pennings, Guido

    2017-09-11

    The aim of this article is to study attitudes about sperm donation and willingness to donate sperm in students who have never shown an interest in sperm donation. The method used in this study is an electronic survey of 1012 male students. Only one third of the respondents (34.3%) would consider donating sperm. Overall, 85.7% indicated a positive attitude towards sperm donation while 14.3% indicated a neutral or negative attitude. The highest scored barriers to donating were the lack of practical information and the fear that the partner would not agree. Almost 40% of the respondents feared that the donation might have a negative impact on their current or future relationship. The majority (83.6%) of those who considered donating thought donors should receive a financial compensation. Money was also one of the main motivators. About 85% of the students thought positively about sperm donation but several factors such as perceived negative views by the social environment, especially the partner, may deter students from donating. This study indicates that the effect of strong incentives, for instance in monetary terms, on a donor pool consisting of students could be limited and that relational factors and donor's perceptions of the views of the wider social network should be taken into account when recruiting donors.

  16. Blood donation before surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000367.htm Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features ... vessels. Several sources of blood are described here. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  17. Electronic Health Record in Italy and Personal Data Protection.

    PubMed

    Bologna, Silvio; Bellavista, Alessandro; Corso, Pietro Paolo; Zangara, Gianluca

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with the Italian Electronic Health Record (hereinafter EHR), recently introduced by Act 221/2012, with a specific focus on personal data protection. Privacy issues--e.g., informed consent, data processing, patients' rights and minors' will--are discussed within the framework of recent e-Health legislation, national Data Protection Code, the related Data Protection Authority pronouncements and EU law. The paper is aimed at discussing the problems arising from a complex, fragmentary and sometimes uncertain legal framework on e-Health.

  18. Potential Yield of Imminent Death Kidney Donation.

    PubMed

    Denu, Ryan A; Mendonca, Eneida A; Fost, Norman

    2017-10-04

    About 99,000 people are waiting for a kidney in the US, and many will die waiting. The concept of "imminent death" donation, a type of living donation, has been gaining attention among physicians, patients, and ethicists. We estimated the number of potential imminent death kidney donors at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics by estimating the number of annual deaths in individuals with normal kidney function. Based on a previous survey suggesting that 1/3 of patients might be willing to donate at imminent death, we estimate that between 76 and 396 people in the state of Wisconsin would be medically eligible and willing to donate each year at the time of imminent death. We extrapolated these numbers to all transplant centers in the US, estimating that between 5925 and 31,097 people might be eligible and willing to donate. Our results suggest that allowing donation at imminent death and including discussions about organ donation in end-of-life planning could substantially reduce the nation's kidney waiting list while providing many more donors the opportunity to give this gift. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Red blood cells donate electrons to methylene blue mediated chemical reduction of methemoglobin compartmentalized in liposomes in blood.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiromi; Li, Bing; Lim, Wei Lee; Iga, Yumika

    2014-07-16

    Electron-energy-rich coenzymes in cells, NADH and NADPH, are re-energized repeatedly through the Embden-Meyerhof and pentose-phosphate glycolytic pathways, respectively. This study demonstrates extraction of their electron energies in red blood cells (RBCs) for in vivo extracellular chemical reactions using an electron mediator shuttling across the biomembrane. Hemoglobin-vesicles (HbVs) are an artificial oxygen carrier encapsulating purified and concentrated Hb solution in liposomes. Because of the absence of a metHb-reducing enzymatic system in HbV, HbO2 gradually autoxidizes to form metHb. Wistar rats received HbV suspension (10 mL/kg body weight) intravenously. At the metHb level of around 50%, methylene blue [MB(+); 3,7-bis(dimethylamino)phenothiazinium chloride] was injected. The level of metHb quickly decreased to around 16% in 40 min, remaining for more than 5 h. In vitro mixing of HbV/MB(+) with RBCs recreated the in vivo metHb reduction, but not with plasma. NAD(P)H levels in RBCs decreased after metHb reduction. The addition of glucose facilitated metHb reduction. Liposome-encapsulated NAD(P)H, a model of RBC, reduced metHb in HbV in the presence of MB(+). These results indicate that (i) NAD(P)H in RBCs reacts with MB(+) to convert it to leukomethylene blue (MBH); (ii) MB(+) and MBH shuttle freely between RBC and HbV across the hydrophobic lipid membranes; and (iii) MBH is transferred into HbV and reduces metHb in HbV. Four other electron mediators with appropriate redox potentials appeared to be as effective as MB(+) was, indicating the possibility for further optimization of electron mediators. We established an indirect enzymatic metHb reducing system for HbV using unlimited endogenous electrons created in RBCs in combination with an effective electron mediator that prolongs the functional lifespan of HbV in blood circulation.

  20. Fe nanoparticle tailored poly(N-methyl pyrrole) nanowire matrix: a CHEMFET study from the perspective of discrimination among electron donating analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, K.; Ghosh, P.; Rushi, A.; Mulchandani, A.; Shirsat, M.

    2015-03-01

    Back-gated chemically sensitive field effect transistor (CHEMFET) platforms have been developed with electrochemically synthesized poly(N-methyl pyrrole) nanowires by a templateless route. The nanowire matrix has been tailored with Fe nanoparticles to probe their effect in enhancing the sensing capabilities of the nanowire platform, and further to see if the inculcation of Fe nanoparticles is helpful to enhance the screening capability of the sensor among electron donating analytes. A noticeable difference in the sensing behaviour of the CHEMFET sensor was observed when it was exposed to three different analytes—ammonia, phosphine and carbon monoxide. FET transfer characteristics were instrumental in the corroboration of the experimental validations. The observations have been rationalized considering the simultaneous modulation of the work functions of Fe and polymeric material. The real time behaviour of the sensor shows that the sensor platform is readily capable of sensing the validated analytes at a ppb level of concentration with good response and recovery behaviour. The best response could be observed for ammonia with an Fe nanoparticle tailored polymeric matrix, with a sensitivity of ~31.58% and excellent linearity (R2 = 0.985) in a concentration window of 0.05 ppm to 1 ppm.

  1. The spectroscopic impact of interactions with the four Gouterman orbitals from peripheral decoration of porphyrins with simple electron withdrawing and donating groups.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Angel; Kwan, Lydia; Stillman, Martin J

    2017-09-15

    splitting of the LUMO pair. We show that on using strong EWGs, opposite electron donating groups result in a ΔLUMO > 0, which red-shifts the Q band and introduces a strong dipole. With the nitro and formyl EWGs, ΔLUMO becomes greater than ΔHOMO, resulting in a complex electronic structure of the Q band, recognizable by a negative A term suggesting a design objective for future photosensitizers.

  2. [Ion-radical oxygen species--the main indicator reflecting of the electron-donating ability of water].

    PubMed

    Zatsepina, O V; Stekhin, A A; Yakovleva, G V

    2013-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the electron-donor ability of drinking water with ion-molecular forms of active oxygen is reported The concentration limits of the content of peroxide ion-radicals (48 mkg /L) in the absence of molecular hydrogen peroxide in drinking water has been determined. The concentration of the peroxide ion-radical in drinking water has been proposed to be used as an index of the water biocatalytic activity.

  3. Guidelines for drug donations.

    PubMed Central

    Hogerzeil, H. V.; Couper, M. R.; Gray, R.

    1997-01-01

    Drug donations are usually given in response to acute emergencies, but they can also be part of development aid. Donations may be given directly by governments, by non-governmental organisations, as corporate donations (direct or through private voluntary organisations), or as private donations to single health facilities. Although there are legitimate differences between these donations, basic rules should apply to them all. This common core of "good donation practice" is the basis for new guidelines which have recently been issued by the World Health Organisation after consultation with all relevant United Nations agencies, the Red Cross, and other major international agencies active in humanitarian emergency relief. This article summarises the need for such guidelines, the development process, the core principles, and the guidelines themselves and gives practical advice to recipients and donor agencies. PMID:9116555

  4. Organ donation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Oberender, Felix

    2011-09-01

    Organ donation in Australia has undergone a series of important changes in the past 3 years. An ethically complex and emotionally profound subject, important questions are being raised about the approach to organ donation by the government, by health-care professionals and also by the public. This paper highlights some of the changes within the Australian organ donation community and explores several controversies that accompany the widespread implementation of measures aimed at significantly improving organ donation throughout the country. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. RLS and blood donation.

    PubMed

    Burchell, Brendan J; Allen, Richard P; Miller, Jessica K; Hening, Wayne A; Earley, Christopher J

    2009-09-01

    The link between brain iron deficiency and RLS is now well established. In a related observation, several conditions that can deplete iron stores have been linked to increased probability of RLS. Blood donation has been linked to iron deficiency. It has thus been hypothesized that donating blood may be a risk factor for developing RLS. Two thousand and five UK blood donors, ranging from first-time donors to some who had donated more than 70 times, completed the validated Cambridge-Hopkins RLS questionnaire (CH-RLSq) following their donation session. The questionnaire included a set of questions designed to diagnose RLS. The donors' histories of blood donations were determined both from self-report and from the National Blood Service database. A number of statistical models were constructed to determine whether the probability of RLS diagnosis was related to the history of blood donations. Controlling for age and sex, no evidence was found to suggest that a greater number or frequency of blood donations increased the risk of RLS. Even amongst sub-groups especially vulnerable to iron depletion through blood donation, such as vegetarians or low weight individuals, no evidence for an increased risk of RLS could be found. We found no evidence that the frequency or number of blood donations up to the UK maximum of three times a year would increase the risk of RLS.

  6. Combination of UV absorbance and electron donating capacity to assess degradation of micropollutants and formation of bromate during ozonation of wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Chon, Kangmin; Salhi, Elisabeth; von Gunten, Urs

    2015-09-15

    In this study, the changes in UV absorbance at 254 nm (UVA254) and electron donating capacity (EDC) were investigated as surrogate indicators for assessing removal of micropollutants and bromate formation during ozonation of wastewater effluents. To measure the EDC, a novel method based on size exclusion chromatography followed by a post-column reaction was developed and calibrated against an existing electrochemical method. Low specific ozone doses led to a more efficient abatement of EDC than of UVA254. This was attributed to the abatement of phenolic moieties in the dissolved organic matter (DOM), which lose their EDC upon oxidation, but are partially transformed into quinones, which still absorb in the measured UV range. For higher specific ozone doses, the relative EDC abatement was lower than the relative UVA abatement, which can be explained by the oxidation of UV absorbing moieties (e.g. non-activated aromatic compounds), which contribute less to EDC. The abatement of the selected micropollutants (i.e., 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), carbamazepine (CBZ), atenolol (ATE), bezafibrate (BZF), ibuprofen (IBU), and p-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)) varied significantly depending on their reactivity with ozone in the examined specific ozone dose range of 0-1.45 mgO3/mgDOC. The decrease of EE2 and CBZ with high ozone reactivity was linearly proportional to the reduction of the relative residuals of UVA254 and EDC. The abatement of ATE, BZF, IBU, and pCBA with intermediate to low ozone reactivities was not significant in a first phase (UVA254/UVA254,0 = 1.00-0.70; EDC/EDC0 = 1.00-0.56) while their abatement was more efficient than the degradation of the relative residual UVA254 and much more noticeable than the degradation of the relative residual EDC in a second phase (UVA254/UVA254,0 = 0.70-0.25; EDC/EDC0 = 0.56-0.25) because the partially destroyed UV absorbing and electron donating DOM moieties become recalcitrant to ozone attack. Bromate formation was

  7. Stress influences environmental donation behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Silja; Bernauer, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Stress has been found to have both positive and negative effects on prosocial behavior, suggesting the involvement of moderating factors such as context and underlying motives. In the present study, we investigated the conditions under which acute stress leads to an increase vs. decrease in environmental donation behavior as an indicator of prosocial behavior. In particular, we examined whether the effects of stress depended on preexisting pro-environmental orientation and stage of the donation decision (whether or not to donate vs. the amount to be donated). Male participants with either high (N=40) or low (N=39) pro-environmental orientation were randomly assigned to a social stress test or a control condition. Salivary cortisol was assessed repeatedly before and after stress induction. At the end of the experiment, all subjects were presented with an opportunity to donate a portion of their monetary compensation to a climate protection foundation. We found that stress significantly increased donation frequency, but only in subjects with low pro-environmental orientation. Congruously, their decision to donate was positively associated with cortisol response to the stress test and the emotion regulation strategy mood repair, as well as accompanied by an increase in subjective calmness. In contrast, among the participants who decided to donate, stress significantly reduced the donated amount of money, regardless of pro-environmental orientation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that acute stress might generally activate more self-serving motivations, such as making oneself feel better and securing one's own material interests. Importantly, however, a strong pro-environmental orientation partially prevented these effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design, Synthesis, and Structural Analysis of Divalent N(I) Compounds and Identification of a New Electron-Donating Ligand.

    PubMed

    Bharatam, Prasad V; Arfeen, Minhajul; Patel, Neha; Jain, Priyanka; Bhatia, Sonam; Chakraborti, Asit K; Khullar, Sadhika; Gupta, Vijay; Mandal, Sanjay K

    2016-01-18

    The dative-bond representation (L→E) in compounds with main group elements (E) has triggered extensive debate in the recent past. The scope and limits of this nonclassical coordination bond warrant comprehensive exploration. Particularly compounds with (L→N←L')(+) arrangement are of special interest because of their therapeutic importance. This work reports the design and synthesis of novel chemical species with the general structural formula (L→N←L')(+) carrying the unusual ligand cyclohexa-2,5-diene-4-(diaminomethynyl)-1-ylidene. Four species belonging to the (L→N←L')(+) class carrying this unconventional ligand were synthesized. Quantum chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the electronic and geometric parameters are consistent with those of already reported divalent N(I) compounds. The molecular orbital analysis, geometric parameters, and spectral data clearly support the L→N and N←L' interactions in these species. The newly identified ligand has the properties of a reactive carbene and high nucleophilicity.

  9. Lightning protection of full authority digital electronic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crofts, David

    1991-01-01

    Modern electronic systems are vulnerable to transient and they now provide safety critical functions such as full authority digital electronic control (FADEC) units for fly by wire aircraft. Of the traditional suppression technologies available diodes have gained the wider acceptance, however, they lack the current handling capacity to meet existing threat levels. The development of high speed fold back devices where, at a specified voltage, the off state resistance switches to a very low on state one has provided the equivalent to a semiconductor spark gap. The size of the technology enables it to be integrated into connectors of interconnection cables. To illustrate the performance the technology was developed to meet the Lightning Protection requirements for FADEC units within aeroengines. Work was also carried out to study switching behavior with the waveform 5, the 500 us, 10 kA pulse applied to cable assemblies. This test enabled all the switches in a connector to be fired simultaneously.

  10. Lightning protection of full authority digital electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crofts, David

    1991-08-01

    Modern electronic systems are vulnerable to transient and they now provide safety critical functions such as full authority digital electronic control (FADEC) units for fly by wire aircraft. Of the traditional suppression technologies available diodes have gained the wider acceptance, however, they lack the current handling capacity to meet existing threat levels. The development of high speed fold back devices where, at a specified voltage, the off state resistance switches to a very low on state one has provided the equivalent to a semiconductor spark gap. The size of the technology enables it to be integrated into connectors of interconnection cables. To illustrate the performance the technology was developed to meet the Lightning Protection requirements for FADEC units within aeroengines. Work was also carried out to study switching behavior with the waveform 5, the 500 us, 10 kA pulse applied to cable assemblies. This test enabled all the switches in a connector to be fired simultaneously.

  11. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... protect electronic health information created, maintained, and exchanged. 170.210 Section 170.210 Public... Technology § 170.210 Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information... integrity protected link. (b) Record actions related to electronic health information. The date, time...

  12. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protect electronic health information created, maintained, and exchanged. 170.210 Section 170.210 Public... Technology § 170.210 Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information... integrity protected link. (b) Record actions related to electronic health information. The date, time...

  13. Harms of Unsuccessful Donation After Circulatory Death: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lauren J; Buffington, Anne; Scalea, Joseph R; Fost, Norman; Croes, Kenneth D; Mezrich, Joshua D; Schwarze, Margaret L

    2017-08-14

    While donation after circulatory death (DCD) has expanded options for organ donation, many who wish to donate are still unable to do so. We conducted face-to-face interviews with family members (n=15) who had direct experience with unsuccessful DCD and five focus groups with professionals involved in the donation process. We used qualitative content analysis to characterize harms of non-donation as perceived by participants. Participants reported a broad spectrum of harms impacting organ recipients, donors and donor families. Harms included waste of precious life-giving organs and hospital resources, inability to honor the donor's memory and character, and impaired ability for families to make sense of tragedy and cope with loss. Donor families empathized with the initial hope and ultimate despair of potential recipients who must continue their wait on the transplant list. Focus group members reinforced these findings and highlighted the struggle of families to navigate the uncertainty regarding the timing of death during the donation process. While families reported significant harm, many appreciated the donation attempt. These findings highlight the importance of organ donation to donor families and the difficult experiences associated with current processes that could inform development of alternative donation strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  15. Ethical considerations in internet use of electronic protected health information.

    PubMed

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2012-03-01

    Caregivers, patients, and their family members are increasingly reliant on social network websites for storing, communicating, and referencing medical information. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule seeks balance by protecting the privacy of patients' health information and assuring that this information is available to those who need it to provide health care. Though federal and state governments have created laws and policies to safeguard patient privacy and confidentiality, the laws are inadequate against the rapid and innovative use of electronic health websites. As Internet use broadens access to information, health professionals must be aware that this information is not always secure. We must identify and reflect on medical ethics issues and be accountable for maintaining privacy for the patient.

  16. Organ donation in suicides.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, F M; Capaverde, F B; Londero, G G; Costa, M G; Leães, P E; Oliveira, D M S; Garcia, C D; Garcia, V D

    2007-03-01

    There are few reports in the literature analyzing brain death epidemiology in suicides, or the rate of donation and family authorization in such situations. The objectives of this study were to analyze the frequency of suicide as a cause of brain death and to compare the donation rates among this population with other causes of brain death. We reviewed records from 2627 potential donors between 1988 and 2004. Within that period, 101 (3.8%) cases of brain death were recorded as suicides. The mean age was significantly lower (P < .05) in cases of suicide than for other causes (26.2 + 11.1 vs 34.4 + 16.5 years); there was a male prevalence (76.2% vs 60.8%). As to suicides, the donation rate was significantly higher than in other situations (62.3% vs 43.8%). This was due to a lower rate of negative family responses (17.8% vs 32.1%). Suicide is a frequent cause of brain death (3.8%), mainly among young men. The donation rate in this group is higher than that due to other causes of death because of a lower negative response rate by the family. The explanation remains to be clarified for such a low refusal rate for organ donation by the relatives of potential donors due to suicide.

  17. Parental live liver donation: psychosocial considerations in the decision to donate.

    PubMed

    Kruper, Abbey; Zanowski, Stephanie C

    2015-04-01

    Live donor liver transplantation is a treatment option for patients in need of orthotopic liver transplantation to mitigate the organ shortage from deceased donors. The long-term outcomes for pediatric recipients from live liver donors are excellent, and parents commonly are the ones seeking donation to save their child from irreversible liver failure. Although live donors go through a careful medical and psychosocial evaluation to ensure the benefits of donation outweigh the risks, parental live liver donation poses unique challenges due to the biological and emotional relationships with the child. This article highlights specific psychosocial considerations for parental live liver donors. There is limited research regarding the psychosocial evaluation and outcomes for live liver donors. Some literature suggests the need for standard criteria regarding the psychosocial evaluation of donors because of the risks. However, there are positive benefits with donation, such as improved emotional quality of life for adult to pediatric donors, and the possible benefits should be considered. Live liver donation is an appealing alternative treatment option, particularly in the pediatric population, in which outcomes are generally positive and medical risk to donor is less than adult-to-adult donation. For parental donors, special consideration should be given to the informed consent and the decision-making process, psychological health, and presence of substance use when weighing the risk versus protective factors for donors.

  18. [Pregnancy following oocyte donation].

    PubMed

    Boks, D E; Braat, D D

    1997-08-23

    Five women, aged 31, 26, 31, 34, and 28 years, became pregnant after oocyte donation and in-vitro fertilization. One was a carrier of Leber's optical atrophy, three had had an early menopause (in two because of chromosomal abnormalities), and one had had bilateral ovarian extirpation because of a cystadenoma and endometriosis. Three developed (pre-)eclampsia during pregnancy and one had a serious fluxus post partum. One twin died in utero, the other children were healthy. In the Netherlands in-vitro fertilization (with or without egg-donation) takes place up to the age of about 40. Regarding the high incidence of obstetrical complications in women under 40, raising the age limit could lead to even more pregnancy problems. Candidates for oocyte donation should be informed about these risks, furthermore they should not deliver at home.

  19. What's It Like to Donate Stem Cells?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Cancer What’s It Like to Donate Stem Cells? People usually volunteer to donate stem cells for ... autologous transplant. If you want to donate stem cells for someone else People who want to donate ...

  20. Congested ferrocenyl polyphosphanes bearing electron-donating or electron-withdrawing phosphanyl groups: assessment of metallocene conformation from NMR spin couplings and use in palladium-catalyzed chloroarenes activation.

    PubMed

    Mom, Sophal; Beaupérin, Matthieu; Roy, David; Royer, Sylviane; Amardeil, Régine; Cattey, Hélène; Doucet, Henri; Hierso, J-C

    2011-11-21

    The synthesis of novel substituted cyclopentadienyl salts that incorporate both a congested branched alkyl group (tert-butyl, (triphenyl)methyl, or tri(4-tert-butyl)phenylmethyl) and a phosphanyl group is reported. The introduction of either electron-withdrawing or electron-donating substituents (furyl, i-propyl, cyclohexyl, tert-butyl) on P atoms was generally achieved in high yield. The modular synthesis of ferrocenyl polyphosphanes from an assembly of these cyclopentadienyl salts was investigated, leading to the formation of new triphosphanes (denoted as 9-12) and diphosphanes (denoted as 14-16). The resulting phosphanes are not sensitive to air or moisture, even when electron-rich substituents are present. This set of polyphosphanes displays varied conformational features, which are discussed in the light of their multinuclear NMR characterization in solution and of the X-ray solid state structure of the representative triphosphane 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphanyl)-1'-(diisopropylphosphanyl)-3'-(triphenyl)methyl-4-tert-butyl ferrocene, 11. In particular, the existence of a range of significantly different nonbonded ("through-space", TS) spin-spin coupling constants between heteroannular P atoms, for the triphosphanes of this class, allowed their preferred conformation in solution to be appraised. The study evidences an unanticipated flexibility of the ferrocene platform, despite the presence of very congested tert-butyl and trityl groups. Herein, we show that, contrary to our first belief, the preferred conformation for the backbone of ferrocenyl polyphosphanes can not only depend on the hindrance of the groups decorating the cyclopentadienyl rings but is also a function of the substituents of the phosphanyl groups. The interest of these robust phosphanes as ligands was illustrated in palladium catalysis for the arylation of n-butyl furan with chloroarenes, using direct C-H activation of the heteroaromatic in the presence of low metal/ligand loadings (0.5-1.0 mol

  1. Electron transport in molecular junctions with graphene as protecting layer

    SciTech Connect

    Hüser, Falco; Solomon, Gemma C.

    2015-12-07

    We present ab initio transport calculations for molecular junctions that include graphene as a protecting layer between a single molecule and gold electrodes. This vertical setup has recently gained significant interest in experiment for the design of particularly stable and reproducible devices. We observe that the signals from the molecule in the electronic transmission are overlayed by the signatures of the graphene sheet, thus raising the need for a reinterpretation of the transmission. On the other hand, we see that our results are stable with respect to various defects in the graphene. For weakly physiosorbed molecules, no signs of interaction with the graphene are evident, so the transport properties are determined by offresonant tunnelling between the gold leads across an extended structure that includes the molecule itself and the additional graphene layer. Compared with pure gold electrodes, calculated conductances are about one order of magnitude lower due to the increased tunnelling distance. Relative differences upon changing the end group and the length of the molecule on the other hand, are similar.

  2. Blood and Bone Marrow Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... weeks before you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem ... ll be released from the hospital. Peripheral blood stem cell donation If blood stem cells are going to ...

  3. Controversies in kidney paired donation.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Sommer E; Montgomery, Robert A; Segev, Dorry L

    2012-07-01

    Kidney paired donation represented 10% of living kidney donation in the United States in 2011. National registries around the world and several separate registries in the United States arrange paired donations, although with significant variations in their practices. Concerns about ethical considerations, clinical advisability, and the quantitative effectiveness of these approaches in paired donation result in these variations. For instance, although donor travel can be burdensome and might discourage paired donation, it was nearly universal until convincing analysis showed that living donor kidneys can sustain many hours of cold ischemia time without adverse consequences. Opinions also differ about whether the last donor in a chain of paired donation transplants initiated by a nondirected donor should donate immediately to someone on the deceased donor wait-list (a domino or closed chain) or should be asked to wait some length of time and donate to start another sequence of paired donations later (an open chain); some argue that asking the donor to donate later may be coercive, and others focus on balancing the probability that the waiting donor withdraws versus the number of additional transplants if the chain can be continued. Other controversies in paired donation include simultaneous versus nonsimultaneous donor operations, whether to enroll compatible pairs, and interactions with desensitization protocols. Efforts to expand public awareness of and participation in paired donation are needed to generate more transplant opportunities.

  4. Moving closer to understanding the risks of living kidney donation.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies from the United States and Norway have suggested an unexpected 8- to 11-fold relative risk of ESRD after kidney donation, but a low long-term absolute risk. Abundant renal epidemiologic data predict that these studies have underestimated long-term risk. The 1% lifetime post-donation risk in the US study requires medical screening to predict ESRD in 96 of 100 candidates. This is particularly unlikely in the 30-35% of candidates under age 35, half of whose lifetime ESRD will occur after age 64. Many experts have attributed the increased relative risks in these studies to loss of GFR at donation, which ultimately means that high-normal pre-donation GFRs will reduce absolute post-donation risks. The 8- to 11-fold relative risks predict implausible risks of uninephrectomy in the general population, but lower estimates still result in very high risks for black donors. Young vs. older age, low vs. high-normal pre-donation GFRs, black race, and an increased relative risk of donation all predict highly variable individual risks, not a single "low" or "1%" risk as these studies suggest. A uniform, ethically defensible donor selection protocol would accept older donors with many minor medical abnormalities but protect from donation many currently acceptable younger, black, and/or low GFR candidates.

  5. 14 CFR 27.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... rotorcraft approved for instrument flight rules operation, each electrical and electronic system that...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... rotorcraft approved for instrument flight rules operation, each electrical and electronic system that...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... electrical and electronic system that performs a function, for which failure would reduce the capability of...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... rotorcraft approved for instrument flight rules operation, each electrical and electronic system that...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... electrical and electronic system that performs a function, for which failure would reduce the capability of...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... electrical and electronic system that performs a function, for which failure would reduce the capability of...

  11. Blood donation mobile applications: are donors ready?

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shan; Chang, Shelley; Uyeno, Kasie; Almquist, Gay; Wang, Shirong

    2016-03-01

    The rapid rise of mobile communication technologies has the potential to dramatically change and improve blood donor recruitment and retention efforts. E-mail invitations were sent to blood donors in a large metropolitan area to participate in a Web-based survey designed to gauge their readiness and interest level for a blood donation mobile application ("app"). A total of 982 ethnically diverse respondents of various age groups and prior donation experiences were surveyed. Among the respondents, 87.3% had ready access to smart phones. E-mail was chosen by 62.1% as the currently preferred method when contacted by the blood center, followed by texting (10.1%). App features desired by most respondents were the abilities to request appointments 24/7 (76.8%) and to receive appointment confirmations quickly (81.3%). Many were concerned about receiving too many alerts or messages (64.1%) or insufficient protection for personal information (53.5%). Overall, 67.7% of respondents indicated that they were likely to use a blood donation mobile app. Likelihood was not significantly different by sex or ethnicity, and the impact of education level was limited. Donors who currently made donation appointments via telephone or a website were equally likely to use such an app. However, donors older than 45 years were less likely than younger donors (p = 0.001), and donors with more than five lifetime donations were more likely than less frequent donors to use such an app (p = 0.02). In a metropolitan area, donors are very receptive to using a mobile app to manage their donations. © 2015 AABB.

  12. Donation after circulatory death.

    PubMed

    Manara, A R; Murphy, P G; O'Callaghan, G

    2012-01-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) describes the retrieval of organs for the purposes of transplantation that follows death confirmed using circulatory criteria. The persisting shortfall in the availability of organs for transplantation has prompted many countries to re-introduce DCD schemes not only for kidney retrieval but increasingly for other organs with a lower tolerance for warm ischaemia such as the liver, pancreas, and lungs. DCD contrasts in many important respects to the current standard model for deceased donation, namely donation after brain death. The challenge in the practice of DCD includes how to identify patients as suitable potential DCD donors, how to support and maintain the trust of bereaved families, and how to manage the consequences of warm ischaemia in a fashion that is professionally, ethically, and legally acceptable. Many of the concerns about the practice of both controlled and uncontrolled DCD are being addressed by increasing professional consensus on the ethical and legal justification for many of the interventions necessary to facilitate DCD. In some countries, DCD after the withdrawal of active treatment accounts for a substantial proportion of deceased organ donors overall. Where this occurs, there is an increased acceptance that organ and tissue donation should be considered a routine part of end-of-life care in both intensive care unit and emergency department.

  13. Knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation among medical students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation amongst medical students in Karachi- Pakistan. Methods Data of this cross sectional study was collected by self administered questionnaire from MBBS students of Ziauddin University from 2010 to 2011. Sample size of 158 (83 First years and 75 Fourth years) were selected by convenient sampling and those students who were present and gave consent were included in the study. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results A total of 158 participants from Ziauddin Medical University filled out the questionnaire out of which 83(52.5%) were first years and 75(47.5%) were fourth year medical students. Mean age of sample was 20 ± 1.7. Majority of students were aware about organ donation with print and electronic media as the main source of information. 81.6% agreed that it was ethically correct to donate an organ. In the students’ opinion, most commonly donated organs and tissues were kidney, cornea, blood and platelet. Ideal candidates for donating organ were parents (81%). Regarding list of options for preference to receive an organ, most of the students agreed on young age group patients and persons with family. Willingness to donate was significantly associated with knowledge of allowance of organ donation in religion (P=0.000). Conclusion Both 1st year and 4th year students are aware of Organ Donation, but there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the topic. PMID:24070261

  14. Debate in embryo donation: embryo donation or both-gamete donation?

    PubMed

    Samani, Reza Omani; Moalem, Mohammad Reza Rezania; Merghati, Seyed Taha; Alizadeh, Leila

    2009-01-01

    So far, more than 2 million babies have been born worldwide through assisted reproduction technologies. For many couples, there is no treatment except by involving a third party. Recently, embryo donation law has been approved by Iran's parliament and now it is legal in Iran. But there is a misunderstanding regarding the source of embryos: they can be obtained from surplus frozen embryos of infertile couples or embryos can be made from donated spermatozoa and eggs from fertile married couples. Here in this paper we discuss ethical, religious and legal aspects of these two procedures and present the advantages and disadvantages of them. Meanwhile, the new term 'both-gamete donation' was defined for the procedure that is practised here instead of 'embryo donation'. In conclusion we can say: (i) Iranian law means only embryo donation and covers only surplus embryos from other infertile couples and not both-gamete donation; (ii) as gamete donation is practised in Iran upon decrees of clergy leaders, we have no law or legislation against both-gamete donation; (iii) there are many ethical, legal and religious questions about both-gamete donation to be answered; (iv) ethical and religious questions are fewer concerning embryo donation compared with both-gamete donation; and (v) embryo sharing is a good way for donation of fresh embryos.

  15. A systematic review and meta-analysis of antecedents of blood donation behavior and intentions.

    PubMed

    Bednall, Timothy C; Bove, Liliana L; Cheetham, Ali; Murray, Andrea L

    2013-11-01

    , minimizing the risk of adverse reactions and enacting re-recruitment policies for temporarily deferred donors will help protect future donation behavior. Implications of these findings for blood collection agencies and researchers are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Donator acceptor map for carotenoids, melatonin and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ana; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A; Barbosa, Andrés; Costas, Miguel

    2008-09-25

    Bright yellow and red colors in animals and plants are assumed to be caused by carotenoids (CAR). In animals, these pigments are deposited in scales, skin and feathers. Together with other naturally occurring and colorless substances such as melatonin and vitamins, they are considered antioxidants due to their free-radical-scavenging properties. However, it would be better to refer to them as "antiradicals", an action that can take place either donating or accepting electrons. In this work we present quantum chemical calculations for several CAR and some colorless antioxidants, such as melatonin and vitamins A, C and E. The antiradical capacity of these substances is determined using vertical ionization energy (I), electron affinity (A), the electrodonating power (omega(-)) and the electroaccepting power (omega(+)). Using fluor and sodium as references, electron acceptance (R(a)) and electron donation (R(d)) indexes are defined. A plot of R(d) vs R(a) provides a donator acceptor map (DAM) useful to classify any substance regarding its electron donating-accepting capability. Using this DAM, a qualitative comparison among all the studied compounds is presented. According to R(d) values, vitamin E is the most effective antiradical in terms of its electron donor capacity, while the most effective antiradical in terms of its electron acceptor capacity, R(a), is astaxanthin, the reddest CAR. These results may be helpful for understanding the role played by naturally occurring pigments, acting as radical scavengers either donating or accepting electrons.

  17. Donor and Recipient Views on Their Relationship in Living Kidney Donation: Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Studies.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Angelique F; Butow, Phyllis; Hanson, Camilla S; Chadban, Steve J; Chapman, Jeremy R; Craig, Jonathan C; Kanellis, John; Luxton, Grant; Tong, Allison

    2017-05-01

    Many donors and recipients report an improved relationship after transplantation; however, tension, neglect, guilt, and proprietorial concern over the recipient can impede donor and recipient well-being and outcomes. We aimed to describe donor and recipient expectations and experiences of their relationship in the context of living kidney donation. Thematic synthesis of qualitative studies. Living kidney donors and recipients. Electronic databases were searched to October 2015. Thematic synthesis. From 40 studies involving 1,440 participants (889 donors and 551 recipients) from 13 countries, we identified 6 themes. "Burden of obligation" described the recipient's perpetual sense of duty to demonstrate gratitude to the donor. "Earning acceptance" was the expectation that donation would restore relationships. "Developing a unique connection" reflected the inexplicable bond that donor-recipient dyads developed postdonation. "Desiring attention" was expressed by donors who wanted recognition for the act of donation and were envious and resentful of the attention the recipient received. "Retaining kidney ownership" reflected the donor's inclination to ensure that the recipient protected "their" kidney. "Enhancing social participation" encompassed relieving both the caregiver from the constraints of dialysis and the recipient from increased involvement and contribution in family life. Non-English articles were excluded. Living kidney donation can strengthen donor-recipient relationships but may trigger or exacerbate unresolved angst, tension, jealousy, and resentment. Facilitating access to pre- and posttransplantation psychological support that addresses potential relationship changes may help donors and recipients better adjust to changes in the relationship dynamics, which in turn may contribute to improved psychosocial and transplantation outcomes following living kidney donation. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Donation rates: what matters?

    PubMed

    Mizraji, R; Godino, M; Tommasino, N; Alvarez, I

    2014-11-01

    The increase in the number of donors is the main objective of all transplantation organizations around the world. Further understanding of the factors involved in increasing donation rates is very important for planning future strategies to improve outcomes in each country. With this purpose we analyzed the relationship between social and economic factors of the countries and organizational aspects of health systems and institutions dedicated to transplantation in relation to the number of actual donors per million population. We analyzed rates of deceased donors per million population of Latin America, North America, and Europe (20 countries) and correlated them with the human development index and its most important indicators. We also studied the correlation with spending on health and organizational aspects of the health system. On the one hand, we found that donation rates (DRs) per million population (pmp) were not statistically significantly correlated with the human development index (significant correlation 0.61 and 0.181). There is a correlation, albeit weak, between observed donation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) of each country (significance, 0.04; correlation, 0.46). On the other hand, there exists a strong correlation between the percentage of GDP spent on health and DRs pmp (significance, 0.01; correlation, 0.53). Those countries with an integrated national health system (P = .01) and a higher percentage of hospitals with intrahospital transplantation coordinators (P = .001) had higher DRs pmp. The best DRs are closely linked to organizational aspects of the donation system in particular and the health system in general. There is a weak correlation between observed DRs and socio-economic and development indicators of countries. These data should be taken into account in planning future strategies to increase DRs, health plan policies, and investments.

  19. How Should Privacy Be Protected in the Electronic Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Janet L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses privacy issues related to electronic libraries. Highlights include finding guidance and information on the Web, including the American Library Association, Center for Democracy and Technology, and the Electronic Privacy Information Center; legal responsibilities in maintaining privacy rights of patrons who access the Internet; and…

  20. [Donation of bodies to science].

    PubMed

    Delmas, V

    2001-01-01

    Teaching and research in anatomy is mainly based on cadaveric dissection. Unclaimed bodies is no more the origin of cadavers, but body donation programs. The dissection is an important part in the anatomical curses of medical students and for anatomical research and special courses devoted to the surgeons. A body donation center was created in Paris in 1953 with the purpose of obtaining bodies for dissection. Donation is a clear will made by people free and informed. Donation is most often by altruism, conferrins life on another. Body donation is regulated by various act or reglementar text according to each country. One of the problem with the body gift is biological hazard, specially in research and clinical courses, but the rule is to consider unembalmed material as contaminated and to use all precautions with barrier for blood and bodily fluid. Body donation is one of the modern expression of solidarity.

  1. Iron and blood donation.

    PubMed

    Skikne, B; Lynch, S; Borek, D; Cook, J

    1984-02-01

    Regular blood donors undergo a progressive decline in iron reserves, while some develop frank iron-deficient erythropoiesis. The prevalence of iron depletion is significantly higher in menstruating women and increases progressively as the rate of donation increases. While conventional screening programmes based on the haemoglobin are adequate to prevent the development of progressive iron deficiency anaemia, they provide no indication of the development of tissue iron depletion. Recent studies indicate an impairment in a number of physiological processes associated with iron depletion but the liabilities of mild iron deficiency have not been fully defined. While it would be desirable to avoid iron depletion in regular blood donors only a minority of the eligible population have been willing to provide the blood resources of the USA in the past, and many individuals who can maintain high rates of donation without developing iron deficiency anaemia would be eliminated. However, there is little doubt that continued efforts should be made to encourage a broader base of volunteer donors. Improved public awareness of the need for blood has made it possible to obtain 88 per cent of the total supply from donors who gave blood three or less times during the year, and only 13.4 per cent of men and 11 per cent of women made three of more donations (Table 6). Further, women under 46 years of age constitute only 1 per cent of all donors who give four or more times during the year. Until clear-cut evidence is obtained of the deleterious effects of a lack of iron, the low prevalence of depleted iron reserves in men and non-menstruating women donors seems acceptable. However, current blood banking practices place a disproportionate iron demand on menstruating women. Because of the additional burden of pregnancy in this donor group, efforts to reduce the prevalence of a lack of iron in the child-bearing female should be encouraged. The simplest approach would be to limit the rate

  2. 76 FR 36863 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Systems Security Protection From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... configuration may allow the exploitation of network security vulnerabilities resulting in intentional or...; Electronic Systems Security Protection From Unauthorized External Access AGENCY: Federal Aviation... architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplane's computer systems and networks, which may...

  3. Deficiencies of active electronic radiation protection dosimeters in pulsed fields.

    PubMed

    Ankerhold, U; Hupe, O; Ambrosi, P

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays nearly all radiation fields used for X-ray diagnostics are pulsed. These fields are characterised by a high dose rate during the pulse and a short pulse duration in the range of a few milliseconds. The use of active electronic dosimeters has increased in the past few years, but these types of dosimeters might possibly not measure reliably in pulsed radiation fields. Not only personal dosimeters but also area dosimeters that are used mainly for dose rate measurements are concerned. These cannot be substituted by using passive dosimeter types. The characteristics of active electronic dosimeters determined in a continuous radiation field cannot be transferred to those in pulsed fields. Some provisional measurements with typical electronic dosimeters in pulsed radiation fields are presented to reveal this basic problem.

  4. Review of Climatic Protection Techniques for Electronic Equipments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    are of interest for climatic protection purposes - physical absorbents. a. Adsorption A gas or vapour which comes into contact with a solid substance...has a tendency to collect on the surface of the solid. This phenomenon is known as adsorption . The more familiar term ’absorption’ relates to the...absorption. The material is available in powder, pellets, beads and granule form The water vapour adsorption characteristics are very different from

  5. 76 FR 33129 - Airworthiness Standards; Electrical and Electronic System Lightning Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... adopted regulatory text is consistent with that used in the High-Intensity Radio Frequency regulations... by establishing new lightning protection regulations for electrical and electronic systems installed on aircraft certificated under parts 23, 27, and 29, and revises lightning protection regulations...

  6. Introducing the triangular BN nanodot or its cooperation with the edge-modification via the electron-donating/withdrawing group to achieve the large first hyperpolarizability in a carbon nanotube system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueying; Yu, Guangtao; Huang, Xuri; Chen, Wei

    2017-07-21

    Based on the ab initio calculations, we first investigated the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the doped carbon nanotube (CNT) systems with a triangular BN nanodot with the central B or N atom. Our computed results reveal that introducing the triangular BN nanodot can be considered as a new strategy to effectively enhance the first hyperpolarizability β0 value of a CNT system, and the type and size of the triangular BN domain have an important effect on the β0 value of the hybrid CNT system. In addition, the n-type doping by introducing the triangular BN nanodot with more N atoms, viewed as injecting electrons into the CNT system, can more effectively increase the β0 value of the hybrid CNT system when the doped domains have the same size. Moreover, the β0 value of the hybrid CNT system can be further enhanced by employing the electron-donating or -withdrawing group (NH2/NO2) to modify the appropriate nanotube-edged site to build the typical donor-π-acceptor framework, in view of the occurrence of a more effective charge transfer process. Evidently, this type of cooperation of introducing the triangular BN nanodot and forming the donor-π-acceptor framework can be considered as another new strategy to significantly enhance the first hyperpolarizability of the CNT system. These appealing findings can provide valuable insights into the design of novel high-performance NLO materials based on carbon nanotubes.

  7. Paid donation: a global view.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah; Rizvi, S Adibul Hasan; Padilla, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Paying for kidney or other organ donation has lead to heated debates about donor and recipient welfare. Many have argued that paying for donation leads to coercion and exploitation of the poor, and, in the end, produces more harm than good. Others have said that payment helps the poor, and we should all have sovereignty over our bodies and, thus, should be allowed to donate for remuneration. Although World Health Organizations and governments in many countries have now banned the process of paying for donation, there is still ongoing payment legally and illegally. Thus, this timely set of three articles from Iran, Pakistan, and the Philippines, where paid donation has been extensively performed, will allow the reader to decide for themselves whether the benefits and/or harms of this practice are now clear. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 14 CFR 23.1306 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 23.1306 Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1306 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 23.1306 Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1306 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 23.1306 Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and...

  11. Taiwan's perspective on electronic medical records' security and privacy protection: lessons learned from HIPAA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Che-Ming; Lin, Herng-Ching; Chang, Polun; Jian, Wen-Shan

    2006-06-01

    The protection of patients' health information is a very important concern in the information age. The purpose of this study is to ascertain what constitutes an effective legal framework in protecting both the security and privacy of health information, especially electronic medical records. All sorts of bills regarding electronic medical data protection have been proposed around the world including Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of the U.S. The trend of a centralized bill that focuses on managing computerized health information is the part that needs our further attention. Under the sponsor of Taiwan's Department of Health (DOH), our expert panel drafted the "Medical Information Security and Privacy Protection Guidelines", which identifies nine principles and entails 12 articles, in the hope that medical organizations will have an effective reference in how to manage their medical information in a confidential and secured fashion especially in electronic transactions.

  12. Predicting blood donation maintenance: the importance of planning future donations.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Anne; Ruiter, Robert; Abraham, Charles; Veldhuizen, Ingrid

    2014-03-01

    Interventions to retain blood donors need to target the most influential and changeable factors. This study tested antecedents of three successive donation decisions. Participants were donors who had donated for the first time 1 year previous (n = 1018). Intention to continue donating, vasovagal reactions, deferral, anxiety, and planning failure were measured. Analyses distinguished between 1) those who registered for donation after questionnaire completion, versus those who did not; 2) those who did or did not register for donation a second time after questionnaire completion; and 3) those who did or did not register for donation a third time after questionnaire completion. Three logistic regression analyses showed that the first donation decision was influenced by intention (odds ratio [OR], 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-2.21), number of donations made in the first year (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.81-3.06), vasovagal reactions (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87-0.97), and planning failure (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95). The second donation decision was influenced by intention (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.06-1.95) and planning failure (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.78), while the third decision was influenced only by planning failure (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-1.00). This indicates that for new donors, retention efforts should focus on the promotion of a positive intention and decreasing vasovagal reactions. However, decreasing planning failure could be an even better investment since planning seems to determine long-term retention. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Amino acid sequences and distribution of high-potential iron-sulfur proteins that donate electrons to the photosynthetic reaction center in phototropic proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Van Driessche, G; Vandenberghe, I; Devreese, B; Samyn, B; Meyer, T E; Leigh, R; Cusanovich, M A; Bartsch, R G; Fischer, U; Van Beeumen, J J

    2003-08-01

    High-potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP) has recently been shown to function as a soluble mediator in photosynthetic electron transfer between the cytochrome bc1 complex and the reaction-center bacteriochlorophyll in some species of phototrophic proteobacteria, a role traditionally assigned to cytochrome c2. For those species that produce more than one high-potential electron carrier, it is unclear which protein functions in cyclic electron transfer and what characteristics determine reactivity. To establish how widespread the phenomenon of multiple electron donors might be, we have studied the electron transfer protein composition of a number of phototrophic proteobacterial species. Based upon the distribution of electron transfer proteins alone, we found that HiPIP is likely to be the electron carrier of choice in the purple sulfur bacteria in the families Chromatiaceae and Ectothiorhodospiraceae, but the majority of purple nonsulfur bacteria are likely to utilize cytochrome c2. We have identified several new species of phototrophic proteobacteria that may use HiPIP as electron donor and a few that may use cytochromes c other than c2. We have determined the amino acid sequences of 14 new HiPIPs and have compared their structures. There is a minimum of three sequence categories of HiPIP based upon major insertions and deletions which approximate the three families of phototrophic proteobacteria and each of them can be further subdivided prior to construction of a phylogenetic tree. The comparison of relationships based upon HiPIP and RNA revealed several discrepancies.

  14. Scanning electron observation of protective effect of graphene films on Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Woo; An, Jin Yong; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kahng, Yung Ho

    2017-08-01

    Based on recent developments in nanotechnology, many interesting functions are expected to be performed by nanoscale structures in the future. With these expectations comes the realization that these delicate structures must be protected without interfering with their function. In the study reported here, we studied the protective effects of reduced and non-reduced graphene oxide films on Au nanoparticles deposited on a substrate surface as a type of nanoscale structure. The results indicate that the graphene films can function as a protective layer for the nanoparticles without interfering in their observations by scanning electron microscopy. Our results demonstrate the possibility of using graphene as a protective film for nanoscale structures.

  15. Incentivizing living organ donation.

    PubMed

    Cynowiec, Jessica; Kim, Jennifer; Qazi, Yasir A

    2009-04-01

    The number of organs available for the patients on the transplant waitlist remains at a disproportionate low. All possible methods to curtail this shortage, including providing donors with incentives, have been proposed. This article reviews recent publications addressing the benefits and risks involved in incentivizing living donation. The debate about the ethics, feasibility, and possible models for compensating organ donors has been prominent in recent literature. As certain countries take lead on this initiative, others are cautiously weighing in on the impact implementations of such policies may have on the society, especially on the underprivileged. The shortage of organs has resulted in proposal of strategies that encroach on certain moral and ethical principles. Providing incentives to donors is one such strategy that is likely to receive a lot of attention in the next few years.

  16. Donation of 'spare' fresh or frozen embryos to research: who decides that an embryo is 'spare' and how can we enhance the quality and protect the validity of consent?

    PubMed

    Scott, Rosamund; Williams, Clare; Ehrich, Kathryn; Farsides, Bobbie

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses elements of the legal process of consent to the donation of 'spare' embryos to research, including stem-cell research, and makes a recommendation intended to enhance the quality of that process, including on occasion by guarding against the invalidity of such consent. This is important in its own right and also so as to maximise the reproductive treatment options of couples engaged in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment and to avoid possible harms to them. In Part 1, with reference to qualitative data from three UK IVF clinics, we explore the often delicate and contingent nature of what comes to be, for legal purposes, a 'spare' embryo. The way in which an embryo becomes 'spare', with its implications for the process of consent to donation to research, is not addressed in the relevant reports relating to or codes of practice governing the donation of embryos to research, which assume an unproblematic notion of the 'spare' embryo. Significantly, our analysis demonstrates that there is an important and previously unrecognised first stage in the donation of a 'spare' embryo to research, namely: consent to an embryo being 'spare' and so, at the same time, to its disuse in treatment. This is not explicitly covered by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology (HFE) Act 1990, as amended by the HFE Act 2008. Having identified this important initial stage in the process of consent to the donation of a 'spare' embryo to research in conclusion to Part 1, in Part 2 we analyse the idea of consent to an embryo's disuse in treatment on the basis that it is 'spare' with reference to the legal elements of consent, namely information as to nature and purpose, capacity, and voluntariness. We argue that there are in fact three related consent processes in play, of which the principal one concerns consent to an embryo's disuse in treatment. If the quality of this first consent is compromised, in turn this will impact on the quality of the consent to the donation of

  17. Sperm donation in Israel.

    PubMed

    Mor-Yosef, S; Schenker, J G

    1995-04-01

    Science and technology in the field of human reproduction present new legal, ethical and religious questions which do not always have immediate answers. The first step in the rapidly developed field of reproductive technology was the use of sperm donation (artificial insemination by donor, AID) and the establishment of sperm banks. The state of Israel faced these problems when the regulations for sperm donation were discussed. The fact that the main holy places for the three monotheistic religions are in Israel directly influences the make-up of the population constituents. Therefore, besides a majority of secular people, a high percentage of the population of Israel is very religious: Jews, Moslems and Christians. Thus any resolution relating to AID should take this demographic combination into account. The practice of AID is opposed by the different monotheistic religions. To avoid the conflict between secular and religious people, and between the different religions' perspectives, the legal problem of AID in Israel was solved not by laws but by regulations which were published by the Ministry of Health. The main idea behind this attitude is that the state and its authorities should not and do not deal with ethical or religious questions. Thus, the decision was left to the couples and to the donors. The regulations address technical requirements, health problems and confidential issues concerning the couple, the donor and the child. In this paper we present the different views relating to these problems as perceived by the different religions, and describe the solution that was accepted by the Israeli Ministry of Health.

  18. Socioeconomic implications of donation distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yajing; Guo, Jinzhong; Chen, Qinghua; Wang, Yougui

    2011-11-01

    Individual donation depends on personal wealth and individual willingness to donate. On the basis of a donation model proposed in our previous study, a simplified version of an individual donation model is derived by relaxing the restrictions of the maximum wealth in the economy. Thus, the whole distribution is determined by only two parameters. One of them relates to the exponent of the distribution of society wealth and the other refers to the donation amount of the kindest poorest person. The parameters reflect the degree of wealth inequality and the charitable enthusiasm of society, respectively. Using actual donation data, we develop a specific parameter estimation method combining linear regression and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic to get the value of two socioeconomic indicators. Applications to Chinese individual donations in response to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake indicate a rising inequality in social wealth distribution in China. Also, more charitable enthusiasm is observed in the response to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

  19. Physician perceptions about living organ donation in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ansari, S; Bromberg, M B; Gibson, S B

    2017-09-01

    Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) have expressed desire to become living organ donors but are unable to do so with current organ donation policies. Our objective is to assess ALS patient's interest in organ donation, and perceived concerns of this practice by ALS neurologists. An electronic survey was administered to ALS neurologists across the United States regarding living organ donation in ALS patients prior to respiratory failure. 52 complete responses were received from 121 invites. 67% (35/52) of neurologists expressed no concerns about living organ donation in ALS patients, and 33% had concerns. The concerns related to respiratory failure, anesthesia exposure and renal dysfunction. With their concerns addressed, 71% of neurologists reported that they would endorse living organ donation. 49% of neurologists reported being asked by a patient for information regarding living organ donation. ALS neurologists felt that 22.8% of ALS patients (median 19%) would be interested in learning more about organ donation, while only 6% of neurologists broach this subject with their patients. Our results indicate that 1 in every 4 ALS patients may be interested in exploring options for living organ donation, and this topic is not routinely addressed by ALS clinics. These results indicate an unexplored area of patient interest. To honor a patient's wishes to donate, the transplant community will have to accommodate living organ donation from terminally ill patients, and address neurologist concerns. Such a practice could benefit two groups of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain donation: who and why?

    PubMed

    Glaw, Xanthe Meryn; Garrick, Therese M; Terwee, Peter J; Patching, Jo R; Blake, Helen; Harper, Clive

    2009-08-01

    Understanding what influences people to donate, or not donate, body organs and tissues is very important for the future of transplant surgery and medical research (Garrick in J Clin Neurosci 13:524-528, 2006). A previous web-based motivation survey coordinated by the New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre found that most people who participated in brain donation were young, female, educated Australians, not affiliated with any particular religion, and with a higher prevalence of medical illness than the general Australian population. It discussed the main motivating factors for brain donation to be "the benefits of the research to medicine and science". This study has been replicated in a paper-based version to capture a broader cross-section of the general population, to find out who they are and what motivates them to donate. All consented and registered brain donors (n = 1,323) were sent a questionnaire via the post and recipients were given 3 months to complete the questionnaire and return it in a reply paid envelope. Results were entered into the original web-based survey and analyzed using SPSS version 10. Six hundred and fifty-eight questionnaires were returned completed, a response rate of 53%. The results show that people from all age groups are interested in brain donation. The over 65's are the largest of the groups (30.7%). The majority of the participants were female (60.6%), married (49.2%) with children (65.8%), employed (52.9%) and have a tertiary education (73.3%). They were either non-religious (48.2%) or Christian (41.6%) and were mostly Australian (65.4%). Most (81%) had pledged to donate other organs and tissues for transplantation. The most commonly cited reasons for the donation were to benefit science (27.6%), to benefit medicine (23.9%), a family illness (17.5%) and to benefit the community (16.6%). This study demonstrates that people across all age groups are interested in brain donation. Recruitment of new brain donors could target the

  1. Electron transfer catalysis with monolayer protected Au25 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, Sabrina; Hesari, Mahdi; Polo, Federico; Maran, Flavio

    2012-08-01

    Au25L18 (L = S(CH2)2Ph) clusters were prepared and characterized. The resulting monodisperse clusters were reacted with bis(pentafluorobenzoyl) peroxide in dichloromethane to form Au25L18+ quantitatively. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the corresponding electron transfer (ET) reactions were characterized via electrochemistry and thermochemical calculations. Au25L18+ was used in homogeneous redox catalysis experiments with a series of sym-substituted benzoyl peroxides, including the above peroxide, bis(para-cyanobenzoyl) peroxide, dibenzoyl peroxide, and bis(para-methoxybenzoyl) peroxide. Peroxide dissociative ET was catalyzed using both the Au25L18/Au25L18- and the Au25L18+/Au25L18 redox couples as redox mediators. Simulation of the CV curves led to determination of the ET rate constant (kET) values for concerted dissociative ET to the peroxides. The ET free energy ΔG° could be estimated for all donor-acceptor combinations, leading to observation of a nice activation-driving force (log kETvs. ΔG°) relationship. Comparison with the kET obtained using a ferrocene-type donor with a formal potential similar to that of Au25L18/Au25L18- showed that the presence of the capping monolayer affects the ET rate rather significantly, which is attributed to the intrinsic nonadiabaticity of peroxide acceptors.Au25L18 (L = S(CH2)2Ph) clusters were prepared and characterized. The resulting monodisperse clusters were reacted with bis(pentafluorobenzoyl) peroxide in dichloromethane to form Au25L18+ quantitatively. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the corresponding electron transfer (ET) reactions were characterized via electrochemistry and thermochemical calculations. Au25L18+ was used in homogeneous redox catalysis experiments with a series of sym-substituted benzoyl peroxides, including the above peroxide, bis(para-cyanobenzoyl) peroxide, dibenzoyl peroxide, and bis(para-methoxybenzoyl) peroxide. Peroxide dissociative ET was catalyzed using both the Au25L18/Au25L18- and

  2. Potential donor segregation to promote blood donation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2008-04-01

    This work is set in the field of social marketing and more specifically in the context of blood donation. Its principal objective focuses on segregating potential donors by using the inhibitors or barriers to a blood donation behaviour as criteria. Moreover, an analysis of the predisposition to donate blood, the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for donating blood, and the incentives that may stimulate their donation conduct was conducted for each of the four identified groups. The results reveal that the four segments differ significantly in their predisposition to donate, in their motivations and in the incentives that encourage them to donate blood.

  3. An Electronic Rationale for Observed Initiation Rates in Ruthenium-Mediated Olefin Metathesis: Charge Donation in Phosphine And N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Getty, K.; Delgado-Jaime, M.U.; Kennepohl, P.

    2009-06-01

    Ru K-edge XAS data indicate that second generation ruthenium-based olefin metathesis precatalysts (L = N-heterocyclic carbene) possess a more electron-deficient metal center than in the corresponding first generation species (L = tricyclohexylphosphine). This surprising effect is also observed from DFT calculations and provides a simple rationale for the slow phosphine dissociation kinetics previously noted for second-generation metathesis precatalysts.

  4. Does the position of the electron-donating nitrogen atom in the ring system influence the efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell? A computational study.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Abul Kalam; Barik, Sunirmal; Das, Amitava; Ganguly, Bishwajit

    2016-06-01

    We have reported a number of new metal-free organic dyes (2-6) that have cyclic asymmetric benzotripyrrole derivatives as donor groups with peripheral nitrogen atoms in the ring, fluorine and thiophene groups as π-spacers, and a cyanoacrylic acid acceptor group. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were employed to examine the influence of the position of the donor nitrogen atom and π-conjugation on solar cell performance. The calculated electron-injection driving force (ΔG inject), electron-regeneration driving force (ΔG regen), light-harvesting efficiency (LHE), dipole moment (μ normal), and number of electrons transferred (∆q) indicate that dyes 3, 4, and 6 have significantly higher efficiencies than reference dye 1, which exhibits high efficiency. We also extended our comparison to some other reported dyes, 7-9, which have a donor nitrogen atom in the middle of the ring system. The computed results suggest that dye 6 possesses a higher incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) than reported dyes 7-9. Thus, the use of donor groups with peripheral nitrogen atoms appears to lead to more efficient dyes than those in which the nitrogen atom is present in the middle of the donor ring system. Graphical Abstract The locations of the nitrogen atoms in the donor groups in the designed dye molecules have an important influence on DSSC efficiency.

  5. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    PubMed

    Traag, Vincent A

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities.

  6. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities. PMID:27077742

  7. Communication strategies for organ donation.

    PubMed

    Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo

    2008-03-01

    A country, state or hospital may have the latest medical technology and infrastructure as well as qualified professionals for organ transplantation, but unless there is an adequate donor population the waiting lists for transplants will continue to be long and for some patients, hopeless. Public and professional awareness programmes are key factor in the donation process. Social education that explains the life-saving benefits of organ transplantation, the enormous need for organ donation, the concept of brain death and religious teachings related to these issues is vital for creating a conducive environment for the organ transplant co-ordinator or physician soliciting the donation. The education of hospital medical, nursing and administrative personnel is also essential to both miximise opportunities for donation, as well as to prevent loss of potential organs after donor consent. Other target populations are medical examiners or coroners, and police personnel under whose jurisdiction the donations occur, as their co-operation and guidance is necessary for meeting statutory requirements. The involvement of government officials and politicians is also valuable, as their active intervention is essential for the introduction and amendment of rules and laws to promote the donation and transplantation of organs. The present paper describes communication strategies for the development of an efficient education plan that will provide information about organ transplantation, explain the desired outcome, address potential queries, misconceptions or obstacles, and identify potential sources of support.

  8. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  9. [Coordination and donation].

    PubMed

    Elizalde, J; Lorente, M

    2006-01-01

    The progressive incorporation of organ transplants as a therapeutic resource resulted in organisational adaptation and overall transplant management, leading to the emergence of the figure of the transplant coordinator in the mid-1980s. In Spain, the National Organisation of Transplants (Organización Nacional de Transplantes - ONT) was created, establishing a system - called the "Spanish model" - based on a network of coordinators at three levels: national, the autonomous community and the hospital. This organisational structure is a point of reference at the world level. The prevalence of the Intensive Medicine specialisation amongst hospital transplant coordinators is remarkable. The majority of organs proceed from brain-dead patients with beating hearts and this requires the infrastructure offered by intensive care units. The functions of the coordinator can be summarised in guaranteeing a synchrony of all the elements and teams that come together in an organisational chain that has come to be called the "process of donation". Schematically, the crucial points that the hospital coordinator develops are the following: - Detection of the potential donor. - Maintenance of the donor. - Diagnosis of brain death. - Family consent. - Preparation of the hospital logistics. - Helping the relatives. - Direct involvement in the Program of Guarantee of Quality. - Person of reference in any activity related to the transplant. It would be desirable to achieve the creation of transplant coordination teams, with univocal messages, professionalism and a permanent input of the so-called "human factor", which is so necessary and also so close to the transplant world.

  10. Alternative Living Kidney Donation Programs Boost Genetically Unrelated Donation

    PubMed Central

    Poldervaart, Rosalie A.; Laging, Mirjam; Royaards, Tessa; Kal-van Gestel, Judith A.; van Agteren, Madelon; de Klerk, Marry; Zuidema, Willij; Betjes, Michiel G. H.; Roodnat, Joke I.

    2015-01-01

    Donor-recipient ABO and/or HLA incompatibility used to lead to donor decline. Development of alternative transplantation programs enabled transplantation of incompatible couples. How did that influence couple characteristics? Between 2000 and 2014, 1232 living donor transplantations have been performed. In conventional and ABO-incompatible transplantation the willing donor becomes an actual donor for the intended recipient. In kidney-exchange and domino-donation the donor donates indirectly to the intended recipient. The relationship between the donor and intended recipient was studied. There were 935 conventional and 297 alternative program transplantations. There were 66 ABO-incompatible, 68 domino-paired, 62 kidney-exchange, and 104 altruistic donor transplantations. Waiting list recipients (n = 101) were excluded as they did not bring a living donor. 1131 couples remained of whom 196 participated in alternative programs. Genetically unrelated donors (486) were primarily partners. Genetically related donors (645) were siblings, parents, children, and others. Compared to genetically related couples, almost three times as many genetically unrelated couples were incompatible and participated in alternative programs (P < 0.001). 62% of couples were genetically related in the conventional donation program versus 32% in alternative programs (P < 0.001). Patient and graft survival were not significantly different between recipient programs. Alternative donation programs increase the number of transplantations by enabling genetically unrelated donors to donate. PMID:26421181

  11. The electronic donation and frequency shifts on the YCCH⋯BH4- boron-bonded complexes (Y = H, CH3, CF3 and CCl3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pordeus, Renato Q.; Rego, Danilo G.; Oliveira, Boaz G.

    2015-06-01

    In this theoretical work, the tetrahydroborate ion (BH4-) was used as proton acceptor in the formation of the YCC-H⋯BH4- complexes (Y = H, CH3, CCl3 and CF3). Using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory, the results of structure corroborate with the analyses of infrared spectra showing that the changes in the bond lengths are in good agreement with the frequency shifts of the HCC-H, H3CCC-H, Cl3CCC-H and F3CCC-H proton donors. Based on the calculations carried out by the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM), the reductions of electronic density corroborate with the red shifts in the frequencies of the C-H bonds. In addition to that, the C-H bonds are polarized because the contributions of s orbital diminish whereas of p increase. In line with this, the variations on the atomic radii computed via QTAIM calculations show that carbon outweigh hydrogen as follows (ΔrC > ΔrH). This scenario is indirectly supported by the Bent's rule of the chemical bonding. Although the interaction energies (corrected with BSSE and ZPE) vary between -19 and -67 kJ mol-1, these complexes interact without covalent character.

  12. DONATION OF ‘SPARE’ FRESH OR FROZEN EMBRYOS TO RESEARCH: WHO DECIDES THAT AN EMBRYO IS ‘SPARE’ AND HOW CAN WE ENHANCE THE QUALITY AND PROTECT THE VALIDITY OF CONSENT?

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Rosamund; Williams, Clare; Ehrich, Kathryn; Farsides, Bobbie

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses elements of the legal process of consent to the donation of ‘spare’ embryos to research, including stem-cell research, and makes a recommendation intended to enhance the quality of that process, including on occasion by guarding against the invalidity of such consent. This is important in its own right and also so as to maximise the reproductive treatment options of couples engaged in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment and to avoid possible harms to them. In Part 1, with reference to qualitative data from three UK IVF clinics, we explore the often delicate and contingent nature of what comes to be, for legal purposes, a ‘spare’ embryo. The way in which an embryo becomes ‘spare’, with its implications for the process of consent to donation to research, is not addressed in the relevant reports relating to or codes of practice governing the donation of embryos to research, which assume an unproblematic notion of the ‘spare’ embryo. Significantly, our analysis demonstrates that there is an important and previously unrecognised first stage in the donation of a ‘spare’ embryo to research, namely: consent to an embryo being ‘spare’ and so, at the same time, to its disuse in treatment. This is not explicitly covered by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology (HFE) Act 1990, as amended by the HFE Act 2008. Having identified this important initial stage in the process of consent to the donation of a ‘spare’ embryo to research in conclusion to Part 1, in Part 2 we analyse the idea of consent to an embryo's disuse in treatment on the basis that it is ‘spare’ with reference to the legal elements of consent, namely information as to nature and purpose, capacity, and voluntariness. We argue that there are in fact three related consent processes in play, of which the principal one concerns consent to an embryo's disuse in treatment. If the quality of this first consent is compromised, in turn this will impact on the quality of

  13. Human Mitochondrial Ferredoxin 1 (FDX1) and Ferredoxin 2 (FDX2) Both Bind Cysteine Desulfurase and Donate Electrons for Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kai; Tonelli, Marco; Frederick, Ronnie O; Markley, John L

    2017-01-24

    Ferredoxins play an important role as an electron donor in iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biosynthesis. Two ferredoxins, human mitochondrial ferredoxin 1 (FDX1) and human mitochondrial ferredoxin 2 (FDX2), are present in the matrix of human mitochondria. Conflicting results have been reported regarding their respective function in mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. We report here biophysical studies of the interaction of these two ferredoxins with other proteins involved in mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show that both FDX1 and FDX2 (in both their reduced and oxidized states) interact with the protein complex responsible for cluster assembly, which contains cysteine desulfurase (NFS1), ISD11 (also known as LYRM4), and acyl carrier protein (Acp). In all cases, ferredoxin residues close to the Fe-S cluster are involved in the interaction with this complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry results showed that FDX2 binds more tightly to the cysteine desulfurase complex than FDX1 does. The reduced form of each ferredoxin became oxidized in the presence of the cysteine desulfurase complex when l-cysteine was added, leading to its conversion to l-alanine and the generation of sulfide. In an in vitro reaction, the reduced form of each ferredoxin was found to support Fe-S cluster assembly on ISCU; the rate of cluster assembly was faster with FDX2 than with FDX1. Taken together, these results show that both FDX1 and FDX2 can function in Fe-S cluster assembly in vitro.

  14. Human Mitochondrial Ferredoxin 1 (FDX1) and Ferredoxin 2 (FDX2) Both Bind Cysteine Desulfurase and Donate Electrons for Iron–Sulfur Cluster Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ferredoxins play an important role as an electron donor in iron–sulfur (Fe–S) cluster biosynthesis. Two ferredoxins, human mitochondrial ferredoxin 1 (FDX1) and human mitochondrial ferredoxin 2 (FDX2), are present in the matrix of human mitochondria. Conflicting results have been reported regarding their respective function in mitochondrial iron–sulfur cluster biogenesis. We report here biophysical studies of the interaction of these two ferredoxins with other proteins involved in mitochondrial iron–sulfur cluster assembly. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show that both FDX1 and FDX2 (in both their reduced and oxidized states) interact with the protein complex responsible for cluster assembly, which contains cysteine desulfurase (NFS1), ISD11 (also known as LYRM4), and acyl carrier protein (Acp). In all cases, ferredoxin residues close to the Fe–S cluster are involved in the interaction with this complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry results showed that FDX2 binds more tightly to the cysteine desulfurase complex than FDX1 does. The reduced form of each ferredoxin became oxidized in the presence of the cysteine desulfurase complex when l-cysteine was added, leading to its conversion to l-alanine and the generation of sulfide. In an in vitro reaction, the reduced form of each ferredoxin was found to support Fe–S cluster assembly on ISCU; the rate of cluster assembly was faster with FDX2 than with FDX1. Taken together, these results show that both FDX1 and FDX2 can function in Fe–S cluster assembly in vitro. PMID:28001042

  15. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes.

  16. Donor Hemovigilance with Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    Diekamp, Ulrich; Gneißl, Johannes; Rabe, Angela; Kießig, Stephan T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reports on unexpected events (UEs) during blood donation (BD) inadequately consider the role of technical UEs. Methods Defined local and systemic UEs were graded by severity; technical UEs were not graded. On January 1, 2008, E.B.P.S.-Logistics (EBPS) installed the UE module for plasma management software (PMS). Donor room physicians entered UEs daily into PMS. Medical directors reviewed entries quarterly. EBPS compiled data on donors, donations, and UEs from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2011. Results 6,605 UEs were observed during 166,650 BDs from 57,622 donors for a corrected incidence of 4.30% (0.66% local, 1.59% systemic, 2.04% technical UEs). 2.96% of BDs were accompanied by one UE and 0.45% by >1 UE (2-4). 6.3% of donors donating blood for their first time, 3.5% of those giving blood for their second time, and 1.9% of donors giving their third or more BD experienced UEs. Most common UEs were: discontinued collections due to venous access problems, repeated venipuncture, and small hematomas. Severe circulatory UEs occurred at a rate of 16 per 100,000 BDs. Conclusions Technical UEs were common during BD. UEs accompanied first and second donations significantly more often than subsequent donations. PMID:26195932

  17. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Raja Ariffin, Raja Noriza; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Ng, Kok-Peng; Lim, Soo-Kun; Chong, Chin-Sieng

    2014-07-01

    Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ' preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members. We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents' willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire. Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes) spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio) and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05). Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia.

  18. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members

    PubMed Central

    TUMIN, Makmor; RAJA ARIFFIN, Raja Noriza; MOHD SATAR, NurulHuda; NG, Kok-Peng; LIM, Soo-Kun; CHONG, Chin-Sieng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ’ preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members. Methods We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents’ willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire. Results Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes) spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio) and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05). Conclusion Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia. PMID:25909060

  19. [Blood donation: a marketing perspective].

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Silvia Terra; Rodrigues, Alziro César de Morais

    2005-01-01

    This paper emphasizes how marketing can make a difference in repeat donations by volunteer blood donors, since the greatest challenge for health institutions is to maintain and increase blood donation. In this context, understanding volunteer donors' motivations is highly important, and the studies reported here demonstrate that several variables are relevant to blood donation. The huge number of patients in need of blood transfusions and the lack of sufficient blood and blood products justify the interest in this study, considering both donors' and blood banks' perspectives. Moreover, recognition of the importance of actions and orientation for donors is fundamental for developing a marketing strategy. It is thus relevant for health institutions to identify donors' actual needs and wishes.

  20. [Ethical issues of oocyte donation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjin; Cai, Libai

    2017-02-10

    The birth and development of oocyte donation technology have brought hope for women with poor ovarian reserve and repeated failure for in vitro fertilization, as well as for those with chromosomal abnormalities, premature ovarian failure, or at perimenopausal or menopausal stages. It has not only preserved their reproductive right, but also stabilized their families and increased social harmony. However, this technology does not only involve infertile couples themselves, but also social and ethical issues concerning their families and the society. This paper has reviewed and discussed the hot issues concerning oocyte donation, e.g., source of eggs, compensation for donors, prerequisites for recipients and donors, privacy of donors, and made suggestions for further improvement for the administration of oocyte donation.

  1. FAQ: Blood Donation and Organ Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos Blood Donation & Organ Transplant Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... to weeks (not month or years) before their donation. Currently, most organs are not screened for West Nile virus. This ...

  2. 31 CFR 596.301 - Donation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.301 Donation. The term donation means a transfer made in the form of a gift or...

  3. 31 CFR 596.301 - Donation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.301 Donation. The term donation means a transfer made in the form of a gift or...

  4. Privacy preservation and information security protection for patients' portable electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu-Chou; Chu, Huei-Chung; Lien, Chung-Yueh; Hsiao, Chia-Hung; Kao, Tsair

    2009-09-01

    As patients face the possibility of copying and keeping their electronic health records (EHRs) through portable storage media, they will encounter new risks to the protection of their private information. In this study, we propose a method to preserve the privacy and security of patients' portable medical records in portable storage media to avoid any inappropriate or unintentional disclosure. Following HIPAA guidelines, the method is designed to protect, recover and verify patient's identifiers in portable EHRs. The results of this study show that our methods are effective in ensuring both information security and privacy preservation for patients through portable storage medium.

  5. Ethics Guide Recommendations for Organ-Donation-Focused Physicians: Endorsed by the Canadian Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Shemie, Sam D; Simpson, Christy; Blackmer, Jeff; MacDonald, Shavaun; Dhanani, Sonny; Torrance, Sylvia; Byrne, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Donation physicians are specialists with expertise in organ and tissue donation and have been recognized internationally as a key contributor to improving organ and tissue donation services. Subsequent to a 2011 Canadian Critical Care Society-Canadian Blood Services consultation, the donation physician role has been gradually implemented in Canada. These professionals are generally intensive care unit physicians with an enhanced focus and expertise in organ/tissue donation. They must manage the dual obligation of caring for dying patients and their families while providing and/or improving organ donation services. In anticipation of actual, potential or perceived ethical challenges with the role, Canadian Blood Services in partnership with the Canadian Medical Association organized the development of an evidence-informed consensus process of donation experts and bioethicists to produce an ethics guide. This guide includes overarching principles and benefits of the DP role, and recommendations in regard to communication with families, role disclosure, consent discussions, interprofessional conflicts, conscientious objection, death determination, donation specific clinical practices in neurological determination of death and donation after circulatory death, end-of-life care, performance metrics, resources and remuneration. Although this report is intended to inform donation physician practices, it is recognized that the recommendations may have applicability to other professionals (eg, physicians in intensive care, emergency medicine, neurology, neurosurgery, pulmonology) who may also participate in the end-of-life care of potential donors in various clinical settings. It is hoped that this guidance will assist practitioners and their sponsoring organizations in preserving their duty of care, protecting the interests of dying patients, and fulfilling best practices for organ and tissue donation.

  6. 17 CFR 256.426.1 - Donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donations. 256.426.1 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.426.1 Donations. This account shall include all payments or donations for charitable, social or community welfare purposes....

  7. 48 CFR 245.609 - Donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donations. 245.609 Section 245.609 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Inventory 245.609 Donations. Agencies may donate, with GSA approval and without expense to the United...

  8. Evaluation of Factors Limiting Corneal Donation.

    PubMed

    Röck, Daniel; Wude, Johanna; Yoeruek, Efdal; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Röck, Tobias

    2016-11-15

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate factors limiting corneal donation at the University Hospital Tübingen. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively studied all hospital deaths from January 2012 to December 2015, considering each deceased patient as a potential corneal donor. During this period an ophthalmic resident managed corneal donor procurement on a full-time basis. Various factors limiting corneal donation were examined. RESULTS Among the 3412 deaths, 2937 (86.1%) displayed nonfulfillment of corneal donation. Consent for corneal donation was obtained in 475 cases (13.9%). The mean annual corneal donation rate was 13.9 donors per 100 deaths (range: 11.2-17.8). The leading causes of nonfulfillment of corneal donations were refusal to donate (49.8%, 1698 cases) and medical contraindications (23.6%, 805 cases). After next-of-kin interview of 2173 potential donors (109 potential donors were excluded because of logistical problems), willingness to participate in corneal donation was present in 475 cases (21.9%), whereas in 1698 cases (78.1%) corneal donation was refused. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed refusal to donate is the most important factor limiting corneal donation. It seems that increasing the knowledge of people about corneal donation through public education and media are necessary to address the corneal shortage.

  9. A Different Kind of Disaster Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mary J.

    2006-01-01

    As one natural disaster after another seemed to define the year 2005, library workers across the nation generously donated money, materials, and labor to help victims and damaged institutions recover. Some librarians donated to specific institutions, while others donated to more general charities. Many worried about media reports of fraudulent…

  10. A WWW Implementation of National Recommendations for Protecting Electronic Health Information

    PubMed Central

    Halamka, John D.; Szolovits, Peter; Rind, David; Safran, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Abstract In March of 1997, the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences issued the report, “For the Record: Protecting Electronic Health Information.” Concluding that the current practices at the majority of health care facilities in the United States are insufficient, the Council delineated both technical and organizational approaches to protecting electronic health information. The Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center recently implemented a proof-of-concept, Web-based, cross-institutional medical record, CareWeb, which incorporates the NRC security and confidentiality recommendations. We report on our WWW implementation of the NRC recommendations and an initial evaluation of the balance between ease of use and confidentiality. PMID:9391933

  11. [ELGA--the electronic health record in the light of data protection and data security].

    PubMed

    Ströher, Alexander; Honekamp, Wilfried

    2011-07-01

    The introduction of an electronic health record (ELGA) is a subject discussed for a long time in Austria. Another big step toward ELGA is made at the end of 2010 on the pilot project e-medication in three model regions; other projects should follow. In addition, projects of the ELGA structure are sped up on the part of the ELGA GmbH to install the base of a functioning electronic health record. Unfortunately, many of these initiatives take place, so to speak, secretly, so that in the consciousness of the general public - and that includes not only patients but also physicians and other healthcare providers - always concerns about protection and security of such a storage of health data arouse. In this article the bases of the planned act are discussed taking into account the data protection and data security.

  12. Electronic collimation and radiation protection in paediatric digital radiography: revival of the silver lining.

    PubMed

    Bomer, J; Wiersma-Deijl, L; Holscher, H C

    2013-10-01

    In digital radiography we are now able to electronically collimate images after acquisition. This may seem convenient in paediatric imaging, but we have to be aware that electronic collimation has two major downsides. Electronic collimation implicates that the original field size should have been smaller and the child has been exposed to unnecessary radiation. Also, by use of electronic collimation, potentially important information may be lost. The "silver lining", denoting the X-ray beam collimation, can serve as a useful radiation protection instrument to check for proper field size and detect unnecessary exposure. Furthermore, the silver lining confirms all exposed anatomy is shown in the final image, and thus may also serve as a quality assurance instrument as the patient has the right to all acquired information. Teaching Points • The ability to electronically collimate an image after acquisition may serve to enhance contrast in the region of interest. • The ability to electronically collimate an image after acquisition carries the risk of overexposure. • The ability to electronically collimate an image after acquisition carries the risk of losing important information. • The silver lining can serve as a quality control instrument for proper collimation. • The patient has the right to all information obtained during an X-ray examination.

  13. Technical guidelines for enhancing privacy and data protection in modern electronic medical environments.

    PubMed

    Gritzalis, Stefanos; Lambrinoudakis, Costas; Lekkas, Dimitrios; Deftereos, Spyros

    2005-09-01

    Raising awareness and providing guidance to on-line data protection is undoubtedly a crucial issue worldwide. Equally important is the issue of applying privacy-related legislation in a coherent and coordinated way. Both these topics gain extra attention when referring to medical environments and, thus, to the protection of patients' privacy and medical data. Electronic medical transactions require the transmission of personal and medical information over insecure communication channels like the Internet. It is, therefore, a rather straightforward task to capture the electronic medical behavior of a patient, thus constructing "patient profiles," or reveal sensitive information related to a patient's medical history. The consequence is clearly a potential violation of the patient's privacy. We performed a risk analysis study for a Greek shared care environment for the treatment of patients suffering from beta-thalassemia, an empirically embedded scenario that is representative of many other electronic medical environments; we capitalized on its results to provide an assessment of the associated risks, focusing on the description of countermeasures, in the form of technical guidelines that can be employed in such medical environments for protecting the privacy of personal and medical information.

  14. A Low-Dose Electron Diffraction Assay for Protection of Protein Structure against Damage from Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massover, William H.

    2004-04-01

    A new assay using low-dose electron diffraction to measure the protection of protein structure against damage from drying is described. When thin single crystals of catalase are dried within water alone, low-dose electron diffraction yields no Bragg spots. Drying within an experimental aqueous solution that permits detection of diffraction spots thereby indicates a positive result, and the extent of these Bragg reflections into the high angle range gives a quantitative measure of the degree of protection. Bragg spots out to 3.7 3.9 [Angstrom capital A, ring] are recorded for drying within 100 mM solutions of the known structure-preserving sugars, sucrose, tannin, and trehalose. The ability of trehalose to maintain native protein structure during drying starts between 10 and 25 mM, and changes only slightly at concentrations above this threshold; with drying in 150-mM trehalose, catalase crystals yield diffraction spots out to 3.7 [Angstrom capital A, ring]. Drying within the organic nonsugar polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone gives Bragg spots to 4.0 [Angstrom capital A, ring]. This new assay should be useful to measure the unexamined structure-preserving capabilities of modified sugars, other nonsugars, and mixtures to identify which protective matrix maintains native protein structure to the greatest extent during drying; electron crystallography using that optimal matrix should yield protein structure at improved levels of high resolution.

  15. Philippine law on donations of human organs.

    PubMed

    Ancog, Amelia C

    1992-09-01

    The Philippines "Organ Donation Act of 1991" updates the "1949 Act to legalize permissions to use human organs". Under the new legislation, each individual can donate all or any part of his body by way of legacy or will. The members of the family may also authorize such a donation in the absence of contrary intention by the decedent. Donations are only valid when made for therapy, research or medical education. International sharing of organs is recognized but subject to approval by the Department of Health. Regulations are about to be formulated in order to implement the Act which will be largely publicized to encourage donations.

  16. Cyclic electron flow within PSII protects PSII from its photoinhibition in thylakoid membranes from spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Chikahiro; Okamura, Mitsutaka

    2003-04-01

    Cyclic electron flow within PSII (CEF-PSII) was proven to alleviate the photoinhibition of PSII. We set the conditions where CEF-PSII functioned or did not, by adding nigericin to the reaction mixture for the dissipation of DeltapH across thylakoid membranes, and then the thylakoids were illuminated. When CEF-PSII did not function and the activity of linear electron flow (LEF) was low, light-treated thylakoid membranes largely lost the activity of LEF. The inactivation of LEF was due to the loss of the activity of PSII, but not that of PSI. The inactivation of PSII was suppressed, when CEF-PSII functioned or LEF was enhanced. These results imply that CEF-PSII contributes to the protection of PSII from its photoinhibition with LEF, as an electron sink.

  17. Crystal structure and electronic properties of a thiolate-protected Au24 nanocluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anindita; Li, Tao; Li, Gao; Nobusada, Katsuyuki; Zeng, Chenjie; Rosi, Nathaniel L.; Jin, Rongchao

    2014-05-01

    Solving the total structures of gold nanoclusters is of critical importance for understanding their electronic, optical and catalytic properties. Herein, we report the X-ray structure of a charge-neutral Au24(SCH2Ph-tBu)20 nanocluster. This structure features a bi-tetrahedral Au8 kernel protected by four tetrameric staple-like motifs. Electronic structure analysis is further carried out and the optical absorption spectrum is interpreted. The Au24(SCH2Ph-tBu)20, Au23(S-c-C6H11)16 and Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)18 nanoclusters constitute the first crystallographically characterized ``trio''.Solving the total structures of gold nanoclusters is of critical importance for understanding their electronic, optical and catalytic properties. Herein, we report the X-ray structure of a charge-neutral Au24(SCH2Ph-tBu)20 nanocluster. This structure features a bi-tetrahedral Au8 kernel protected by four tetrameric staple-like motifs. Electronic structure analysis is further carried out and the optical absorption spectrum is interpreted. The Au24(SCH2Ph-tBu)20, Au23(S-c-C6H11)16 and Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)18 nanoclusters constitute the first crystallographically characterized ``trio''. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental and supporting Fig. S1-S3. CCDC NUMBER(1000102). For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01350f

  18. Medical equipment donations in Haiti: flaws in the donation process.

    PubMed

    Dzwonczyk, Roger; Riha, Chris

    2012-04-01

    The magnitude 7.0 earthquake that struck Haiti on 12 January 2010 devastated the capital city of Port-au-Prince and the surrounding area. The area's hospitals suffered major structural damage and material losses. Project HOPE sought to rebuild the medical equipment and clinical engineering capacity of the country. A team of clinical engineers from the United States of America and Haiti conducted an inventory and assessment of medical equipment at seven public hospitals affected by the earthquake. The team found that only 28% of the equipment was working properly and in use for patient care; another 28% was working, but lay idle for technical reasons; 30% was not working, but repairable; and 14% was beyond repair. The proportion of equipment in each condition category was similar regardless of whether the equipment was present prior to the earthquake or was donated afterwards. This assessment points out the flaws that existed in the medical equipment donation process and reemphasizes the importance of the factors, as delineated by the World Health Organization more than a decade ago, that constitute a complete medical equipment donation.

  19. Outcomes of organ donation in brain-dead patient's families: Ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Shamsi; Rahimi, Abolfazl; Khaleghi, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    The families of brain-dead patients have a significant role in the process of decision making for organ donation. Organ donation is a traumatic experience. The ethical responsibility of healthcare systems respecting organ donation is far beyond the phase of decision making for donation. The principles of donation-related ethics require healthcare providers and organ procurement organizations to respect donor families and protect them against any probable harm. Given the difficult and traumatic nature of donation-related experience, understanding the outcomes of donation appears crucial. The aim of this study was to explore the outcomes of organ donation for the families of brain-dead patients. This was a qualitative descriptive study to which a purposeful sample of 19 donor family members were recruited. Data were collected through holding in-depth semi-structured interviews with the participants. Data analysis was performed by following the qualitative content analysis approach developed by Elo and Kyngäs. The main category of the data was "Decision to organ donation: a challenge from conflict to transcendence." This main category consisted of 10 subcategories and 3 general categories. The general categories were "challenging outcomes," "reassuring outcomes," and "transcending outcomes." Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the regional ethical review board. The ethical principles of informed consent, confidentiality, and non-identification were used. Donor families experience different challenges which range from conflict and doubtfulness to confidence, satisfaction, and transcendence. Healthcare providers and organ procurers should not discontinue care and support provision to donor families after obtaining their consent to donate because the post-decision phase is also associated with different complexities and difficulties with which donor families may not be able to cope effectively. In order to help donor families achieve positive outcomes from

  20. Comparison of Outcomes of Kidney Transplantation from Donation after Brain Death, Donation after Circulatory Death and Donation after Brain Death Followed by Circulatory Death Donors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guodong; Wang, Chang; Ko, Dicken Shiu-Chung; Qiu, Jiang; Yuan, Xiaopeng; Han, Ming; Wang, Changxi; He, Xiaoshun; Chen, Lizhong

    2017-09-08

    There are three categories of deceased donors of kidney transplantation in China, donation after brain death(DBD), donation after circulatory death(DCD), donation after brain death followed by circulatory death(DBCD) donors. The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes of kidney transplantation from these three categories of deceased donors METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 469 recipients who received deceased kidney transplantation in our hospital from February 2007 to June 2015. The recipients were divided into three groups according to the source of their donor kidneys: DBD, DCD or DBCD. The primary endpoints were delayed graft function (DGF), graft loss and patient death RESULTS: The warm ischemia time was much longer in DCD group compared to DBCD group(18.4 minutes vs. 12.9 minutes, p<0.001). DGF rate was higher in DCD group than in DBD and DBCD groups (22.5% vs. 10.2% and 13.8%, respectively, p=0.021). Urinary leakage was much higher in DCD group (p=0.049). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 1-, 2-, and 3-year patient survivals were all comparable among the three groups CONCLUSION: DBCD kidney transplantation has lower incidences of DGF and urinary leakage than DCD kidney transplant. However, the overall patient and graft survival were comparable among DBD, DCD and DBCD kidney transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Do reactions after whole blood donation predict syncope on return donation?

    PubMed

    Eder, Anne F; Notari, Edward P; Dodd, Roger Y

    2012-12-01

    Adverse reactions after whole blood donation reduce the likelihood of a subsequent donation. Still, many donors return to give blood even after experiencing a reaction. Consequently, we evaluated the risk of recurrent syncope among returning donors. Allogeneic whole blood donors in 2009 who had vasovagal-type reactions including syncope were evaluated for return donation within 12 months and subsequent reactions, based on donation status (novice [first-time] or active [repeat]) or age at index donation. Syncope after a first whole blood donation significantly reduced the frequency of return donation (18%), compared to either presyncopal symptoms (27%; p < 0.0001) or no reaction (35%; p < 0.0001). Among novice donors who returned to donate, syncope was more likely among donors who had any reaction (0.8%) or syncope (3.5%) at their first donation, compared to donors who had no reaction (0.3%; p < 0.0001). Syncope at a first donation identified only 2% (19 of 1062) of syncopal reactions among returning donors. For active, repeat donors who experienced syncope in 2009, a history of prior reactions had no effect on the likelihood of return donation or recurrent syncope. Donation experience strongly influences the likelihood of return donation and the risk of subsequent reactions, but a prior reaction after whole blood donation does not reliably predict recurrent syncope among returning donors. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. US organ donation breakthrough collaborative increases organ donation.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Teresa J; Wagner, Dennis; Chessare, John; Schall, Marie W; McBride, Virginia; Zampiello, Francis A; Perdue, Jade; O'Connor, Kevin; Lin, Monica J-Y; Burdick, James

    2008-01-01

    More than 92000 Americans are on waiting lists for organ transplants, and an average of 17 of them die each day while waiting. The US Organ Donation Breakthrough Collaborative (ODBC), which began in 2003 at the request of the Secretary of the US Department of Health and Human Services, was a formal, concerted effort of the donation and transplantation community to bring about a major change to improve the organ donation system. The nationwide Collaborative was housed within a Health and Human Services agency, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Division of Transplantation, and included participation of the organ procurement organizations (OPOs) throughout the United States and the American hospitals with the largest organ-donor potential. HRSA leaders used the Breakthrough Series Collaborative method, originally developed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, as the model for the intervention. Expert practitioners drawn from hospitals and OPOs that had already demonstrated their ability to achieve and sustain high organ donation rates were chosen as faculty for the collaborative and best practices were gleaned from their institutions. The number of organ donors in Collaborative hospitals increased 14.1% in the first year, a 70% greater increase than the 8.3% increase experienced by non-Collaborative hospitals. Moreover, the increased organ recovery continued into the post-Collaborative periods. Between October 2003 and September 2006, the number of total US organ donors increased 22.5%, an increase 4-fold greater than the 5.5% increase measured over the same number of years in the immediate pre-Collaborative period. The study did not involve a randomized design, but time-series analysis using statistical process control charts shows a highly significant discontinuity in the rate of increase in participating hospitals concurrent with the Collaborative program, and strongly suggests that the activities of the Collaborative were a major

  3. [Suitability of autologous blood donation before bone marrow donation].

    PubMed

    Gouëzec, H; Ferré, N; Hervé, F; Lapart, C; Leberre, C; Bernard, M; Dauriac, C; Nimubona, S

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the benefit of predeposite autologous blood donation (PAD) before bone marrow (BM) donation on transfusion requirements, haemoglobin concentrations (Hb) and the occurrence of adverse events (AE). We collected data retrospectively from 50 donors of BM with PAD from 2010 to 2014. An autologous transfusion (AT) was given to 50% of the donors (group 1). In the group 2, the products from PAD were not used. The total volume median of marrow harvested was 17.7 mL/k (range 12.3-21.4) in the group 1 and 13.3 mL/k (8.6-22.6) in the group 2. The female ratio was higher in the group 1 (60%) than in the group 2 (16%). Bone marrow harvest led to a decline in Hb (from PAD to first day after BM donation) by 2.9 g/dL (1.5-5.5) in the group 1 and by 3.5 g/dL (1.2-5) in the group 2. The post-harvest Hb (D+1) median was identical in the two groups: 10.9 g/dL (7.6-13.5) in the group 1 versus 11.5 g/dL (9.3-13.4) in the group 2. Six AE were reported in each group. In the group with AE, the median weight was lower: 58 k (50-71) versus 75 k (52-110); and the median total volume of marrow harvested was higher: 20.1 mL/k (9.9-21.4) versus 14.3 mL/k (8.6-22.6). All post-harvest Hb were ≥ 7.6g/dL. This study shows the high loss of Hb after BM donation but not enough to prove a blood transfusion in BM donors with median age of 36 years (16-62) and without comorbidity. The occurrence of AE (25% of BM donors) justifies a careful surveillance after the BM donation. The PAD should not be routinely offered to bone marrow donors.

  4. Audit Report on "Protection of the Department of Energy's Unclassified Sensitive Electronic Information"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-01

    The Department of Energy and its contractors store and process massive quantities of sensitive information to accomplish national security, energy, science, and environmental missions. Sensitive unclassified data, such as personally identifiable information (PII), official use only, and unclassified controlled nuclear information require special handling and protection to prevent misuse of the information for inappropriate purposes. Industry experts have reported that more than 203 million personal privacy records have been lost or stolen over the past three years, including information maintained by corporations, educational institutions, and Federal agencies. The loss of personal and other sensitive information can result in substantial financial harm, embarrassment, and inconvenience to individuals and organizations. Therefore, strong protective measures, including data encryption, help protect against the unauthorized disclosure of sensitive information. Prior reports involving the loss of sensitive information have highlighted weaknesses in the Department's ability to protect sensitive data. Our report on Security Over Personally Identifiable Information (DOE/IG-0771, July 2007) disclosed that the Department had not fully implemented all measures recommended by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and required by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to protect PII, including failures to identify and encrypt PII maintained on information systems. Similarly, the Government Accountability Office recently reported that the Department had not yet installed encryption technology to protect sensitive data on the vast majority of laptop computers and handheld devices. Because of the potential for harm, we initiated this audit to determine whether the Department and its contractors adequately safeguarded sensitive electronic information. The Department had taken a number of steps to improve protection of PII. Our review, however, identified

  5. Obtaining consent for eye donation.

    PubMed

    Diamond, G A; Campion, M; Mussoline, J F; D'Amico, R A

    1987-02-15

    We prospectively studied 100 consecutive deaths at St. Vincent's Hospital and Medical Center in New York City for possible eye donation. Fifty-two patients were unsuitable mainly because of medical contraindications and age at death. Of the 48 suitable candidates, 21 pairs (44%) of eyes were obtained. Sixteen of the 42 eyes (38%) were used for transplantation. Projection of the number of corneas obtainable for transplant in New York City were calculated. The figures indicated that the three-month waiting list of the New York Eye-Bank for Sight Restoration, Inc., could be eradicated if hospitals were able to get seven donors from every 100 deaths suitable for donation, a rate only 16% of that realized in this study.

  6. The ethics of organ donation.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, G R

    1997-01-01

    As organ transplantation is physically possible within a tension between common biological properties and individual immunities, so it is ethically possible within a tension between individual personality in full integrity and the human community of which each member, social by nature, is an organic part. Ethical donation is by consent, explicit or presumed, spontaneously offered or procured by request. Altruism or commercial dealing is now a live issue in organ procurement, whether cadaveric or by live donation, related or unrelated. Attention is given to children in transplantation, and to new developments with fetal organs, neural tissue, bone marrow and xenografts. Given all that medical science and skill can now offer, patients are still free to decline.

  7. Lipaemic donations: truth and consequences.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo

    2013-10-01

    The problem of using material of unsuitable quality, including "nontransparent turbid milky plasma" or more simply "turbid plasma", for producing blood components is not trivial for several epidemiological, technical, analytical, clinical and economical reasons. With some exception, most national and international guidelines mandate that blood components should preferably not be produced from lipaemic donations. The origin of lipaemic blood is variegated, and includes physiological or paraphysiological causes and metabolic disorders, whereas a broad range of common diseases and drugs can also be associated with hypertriglyceridaemia. Overall, the frequency of lipaemic donations ranges between 0.31% and 0.35%, although sporadic reports have highlighted that the frequency might be much higher, up to 13%. Lipaemic donations pose two leading problems in transfusion medicine, that are interference during laboratory testing, and safety of producing blood components from hypertriglyceridaemic materials. While the former issue can be overcome by using chemical or mechanical methods, the clinical use of lipaemic blood for producing components remains an unresolved question. Transfusion medicine should thereby embark on a landmark effort to find a universal agreement of behaviours and harmonization of policies worldwide.

  8. Organ donation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Mizraji, R; Alvarez, I; Palacios, R I; Fajardo, C; Berrios, C; Morales, F; Luna, E; Milanés, C; Andrade, M; Duque, E; Giron, F; Alfonso, J; Herra, S; Soratti, C; Ibar, R; Garcia, V D

    2007-03-01

    Recently in Latin America, there has been a strong influence of the "Spanish model" of organ procurement. In 2001, The "Punta Cana Group" was created by Latin American transplantation coordinators with the objective of registering and improving the system of donation and procurement. In many countries there is no universal financial support from the government for medical treatment, including dialysis and transplantation. In other countries there is complete financial support for all of the population, including immunosuppressive drugs. Practically all countries have transplantation laws that follow ethical concepts, such as brain death diagnosis criteria, forms of consent, criteria of allocation, and inhibition of commerce. The rate of potential donors notified in countries that perform transplantations with deceased donors varied from 6 to 47 per million population yearly (pmp/y); The rate of effective donors varied from 1 to 20 pmp. In 2004, the mean rate of effective donors in Latin America was 5.4 pmp. The family refusal rate for the donation of organs varied from 28% in Uruguay to 70% in Peru. In some countries, such as Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Cuba, it was more than 15 pmp, whereas in others countries deceased donors were practically not used. The number of patients on the waiting list for solid organ transplants in 12 Latin American countries is 55,000. Although the donation rate has increased by 100% during the last 10 years, it is lower than that in Europe (15 pmm/y) or the United States (20 pmp/y).

  9. Importance of education in organ donation.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Tonguc Utku

    2011-12-01

    Transplanting is the sole therapy for the majority of organ insufficiencies, but the lack of organ donation limits transplanting. We evaluated the effect of education about "Organ Donation and Transplantation" over the false beliefs of the participants. This interventional study was performed in a military unit between January and March 2010. Data on organ donation and demographic characteristics were collected by a questionnaire. The researcher gave the lesson, and then collected the data by the same questionnaire 2 months later. The rate of volunteering for organ donation increased from 45.4% to 84.8% (P < .001). Rate of consent for organ donations by relatives increased from 41% to 80.3% (P < .001). Also, general knowledge about organ donation increased from 34.8% to 93.7% (P < .001). Wrong beliefs about organ donation disappeared after the education. The entire organ donation rate among the volunteer participants increased from 60% to 84% (P < .001). No significant relation was found between volunteering to donate organs, and education and economic status. Education could correct false information and might lead to higher organ donation rates. This education (which gave positive results in a military unit) could become widespread.

  10. Challenging the moral status of blood donation.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Paul C

    2014-12-01

    The World Health Organisation encourages that blood donation becomes voluntary and unremunerated, a system already operated in the UK. Drawing on public documents and videos, this paper argues that blood donation is regarded and presented as altruistic and supererogatory. In advertisements, donation is presented as something undertaken for the benefit of others, a matter attracting considerable gratitude from recipients and the collecting organisation. It is argued that regarding blood donation as an act of supererogation is wrongheaded, and an alternative account of blood donation as moral obligation is presented. Two arguments are offered in support of this position. First, the principle of beneficence, understood in a broad consequentialist framework obliges donation where the benefit to the recipient is large and the cost to the donor relatively small. This argument can be applied, with differing levels of normativity, to various acts of donation. Second, the wrongness of free riding requires individuals to contribute to collective systems from which they benefit. Alone and in combination these arguments present moral reasons for donation, recognised in communication strategies elsewhere. Research is required to evaluate the potential effects on donation of a campaign which presents blood donation as moral obligation, but of wider importance is the recognition that other-regarding considerations in relation to our own as well as others' health result in a range not only of choices but also of obligations.

  11. Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Mary J.

    1992-01-01

    The Electron Microscopy Abrasion Analysis of Candidate Fabrics for Planetary Space Suit Protective Overgarment Application is in support of the Abrasion Resistance Materials Screening Test. The fundamental assumption made for the SEM abrasion analysis was that woven fabrics to be used as the outermost layer of the protective overgarment in the design of the future, planetary space suits perform best when new. It is the goal of this study to determine which of the candidate fabrics was abraded the least in the tumble test. The sample that was abraded the least will be identified at the end of the report as the primary candidate fabric for further investigation. In addition, this analysis will determine if the abrasion seen by the laboratory tumbled samples is representative of actual EVA Apollo abrasion.

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation in Uttarakhand.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, Aseem K; Ahuja, Alok; Kalra, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Blood transfusions form a crucial and irreplaceable part in the medical management of many diseases. The collection of blood from voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low risk populations is an important measure for ensuring the availability and safety of blood transfusion. In a state like Uttarakhand which is visited by lakhs of visitors during pilgrimage season and where natural calamities and accidents are very common, the availability of blood is of utmost importance. To find out knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation to comprehend the situation and find ways to enhance voluntary blood donation in the state of Uttarakhand. Multi stage methodology was designed to target population including general population, influencers (doctors) and supporting organizations (camp organizers, State AIDS Control Society Officials) who were subjected to in-depth interview using pre-structured questionnaires to assess knowledge/awareness about voluntary blood donation, factors preventing and source of knowledge about voluntary blood donation. The sample population consisted of mostly men (67%) in the age-group of 26-35 years. Requirement of blood and the measures to promote voluntary blood donation have a direct relationship with the total population and literacy level of the population. Awareness about blood donation, source of knowledge about blood donation, reasons for not donating blood are particularly stressed. With increase in educational level, the awareness level was also found to increase. While among illiterates 81 percent of the respondents knew about blood donation, among the post graduates the same ratio was found to be almost cent-percent. Among various reasons cited for not donating blood, lack of awareness being the most common reason. People gathered information about blood donation from several different sources with electronic media being the most prominent. This study illustrates how increasing awareness and

  13. Labeling of previous donation to encourage subsequent donation among experienced blood donors.

    PubMed

    Sénémeaud, Cécile; Georget, Patrice; Guéguen, Nicolas; Callé, Nathalie; Plainfossé, Candice; Touati, Christelle; Mange, Jessica

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of persuasive messages focused on the labeling of previous blood donation behavior on subsequent donation among experienced blood donors. Participants (N = 410) received blood drive invitations by mail that were categorized with the labeling of the previous donation. They were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: functional labeling (which underlines the utility of their donation), social labeling (which underlines their own social value), and no label of previous donation (control condition). Dependent Variable: Number of participants who made a new blood donation. Donors are more likely to make a new blood donation when they have received a message labeling their previous donation (26.7%), whether it be social or functional, compared with a nonlabeled message (17.5%). Moreover, labeling condition interacted with age parameter indicating that the older the donor, the more sensitive the donor to the labeling technique. Labeling condition also interacted with gender, revealing that women were almost three times more likely to come back to give their blood in labeling conditions compared with the no-label condition. Our findings highlight the interest in using strategies based on the recall of previous donation, that is a labeling technique, to help blood centers to stimulate repeat donation. Labeling the previous donation increases the likelihood of a new donation among experienced donors, especially among older people and women, the latter being a part of the most reluctant profiles to repeat blood donation.

  14. The design and implementation of the machine protection system for the Fermilab electron cooling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, A.; Carmichael, L.; Carlson, K.; Crisp, J.; Goodwin, R.; Prost, L.; Saewert, G.; Shemyakin, A.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The Fermilab Recycler ring employs an electron cooler to store and cool 8.9-GeV antiprotons. The cooler is based on a 4.3-MV, 0.1-A, DC electrostatic accelerator for which current losses have to remain low ({approx}10{sup -5}) in order to operate reliably. The Machine Protection System (MPS) has been designed to interrupt the beam in a matter of 1-2 {micro}s when losses higher than a safe limit are detected, either in the accelerator itself or in the beam lines. This paper highlights the various diagnostics, electronics and logic that the MPS relies upon to successfully ensure that no damage be sustained to the cooler or the Recycler ring.

  15. Electronic structure and optical properties of the thiolate-protected Au28(SMe)20 cluster.

    PubMed

    Knoppe, Stefan; Malola, Sami; Lehtovaara, Lauri; Bürgi, Thomas; Häkkinen, Hannu

    2013-10-10

    The recently reported crystal structure of the Au28(TBBT)20 cluster (TBBT: p-tert-butylbenzenethiolate) is analyzed with (time-dependent) density functional theory (TD-DFT). Bader charge analysis reveals a novel trimeric Au3(SR)4 binding motif. The cluster can be formulated as Au14(Au2(SR)3)4(Au3(SR)4)2. The electronic structure of the Au14(6+) core and the ligand-protected cluster were analyzed, and their stability can be explained by formation of distorted eight-electron superatoms. Optical absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra were calculated and compared to the experiment. Assignment of handedness of the intrinsically chiral cluster is possible.

  16. Protection by organic ions against DNA damage induced by low energy electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, A.; Zheng, Y.; Hunting, D.; Sanche, L.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that electrons below 15 eV induce strand breaks in DNA essentially via the formation of transient anions which decay by dissociative electron attachment (DEA) or into dissociative electronics states. The present article reports the results of a study on the influence of organic ions on this mechanism. tris and EDTA are incorporated at various concentrations within DNA films of different thicknesses. The amino group of tris molecules and the carboxylic acid function of ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) molecules together can be taken as simple model for the amino acids components of proteins, such as histones, which are intimately associated with the DNA of eukaryotic cells. The yield of single strand breaks induced by 10 eV electrons is found to decrease dramatically as a function of the number of organic ions/nucleotide. As few as 2 organic ions/nucleotide are sufficient to decrease the yield of single strand breaks by 70%. This effect is partly explained by an increase in multiple inelastic electrons scattering with film thickness but changes in the resonance parameters can also contribute to DNA protection. This can occur if the electron captures cross section and the lifetime of the transient anions (i.e., core-excited resonances) formed at 10 eV are reduced by the presence of organic ions within the grooves of DNA. Moreover, it is proposed that the tris molecules may participate in the repair of DNA anions [such as G(-H)-] induced by DEA on DNA bases.

  17. Marketing organ donation around the globe.

    PubMed

    Guy, B S; Aldridge, A

    2001-01-01

    Marketing to potential organ donors in different countries requires knowledge about religious beliefs and cultural norms that might influence the decision to donate. Because beliefs vary so widely from country to country, marketers need to consider whether a standardized or adaptive approach is suitable for marketing organ donation in different countries. This article takes a look at the variables that influence the decision to donate an organ and suggests marketing strategies that may work in various parts of the world.

  18. Giving ourselves: the ethics of anatomical donation.

    PubMed

    Gunderman, Richard B

    2008-01-01

    In some European countries, such as Italy, medical education is threatened by a dearth of anatomical specimens. Such a shortage could spread to other nations, including the United States. This article addresses two ethical questions in body donation. Why might people choose to donate their bodies to education and science? What sorts of ethical appeals might anatomists, physicians, and other health professionals make to patients and family members for anatomical donation? Two models of giving, egoistic and liberal, merit close examination.

  19. Pathogens Inactivated by Low-Energy-Electron Irradiation Maintain Antigenic Properties and Induce Protective Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fertey, Jasmin; Bayer, Lea; Grunwald, Thomas; Pohl, Alexandra; Beckmann, Jana; Gotzmann, Gaby; Casado, Javier Portillo; Schönfelder, Jessy; Rögner, Frank-Holm; Wetzel, Christiane; Thoma, Martin; Bailer, Susanne M.; Hiller, Ekkehard; Rupp, Steffen; Ulbert, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. This is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. Moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. An alternative method for inactivation of pathogens is ionizing radiation. It acts very fast and predominantly damages nucleic acids, conserving most of the antigenic structures. However, currently used irradiation technologies (mostly gamma-rays and high energy electrons) require large and complex shielding constructions to protect the environment from radioactivity or X-rays generated during the process. This excludes them from direct integration into biological production facilities. Here, low-energy electron irradiation (LEEI) is presented as an alternative inactivation method for pathogens in liquid solutions. LEEI can be used in normal laboratories, including good manufacturing practice (GMP)- or high biosafety level (BSL)-environments, as only minor shielding is necessary. We show that LEEI efficiently inactivates different viruses (influenza A (H3N8), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1)) and bacteria (Escherichia coli) and maintains their antigenicity. Moreover, LEEI-inactivated influenza A viruses elicit protective immune responses in animals, as analyzed by virus neutralization assays and viral load determination upon challenge. These results have implications for novel ways of developing and manufacturing inactivated vaccines with improved efficacy. PMID:27886076

  20. Examination of an Electronic Patient Record Display Method to Protect Patient Information Privacy.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Yukari; Ota, Katsumasa

    2017-02-01

    Electronic patient records facilitate the provision of safe, high-quality medical care. However, because personnel can view almost all stored information, this study designed a display method using a mosaic blur (pixelation) to temporarily conceal information patients do not want shared. This study developed an electronic patient records display method for patient information that balanced the patient's desire for personal information protection against the need for information sharing among medical personnel. First, medical personnel were interviewed about the degree of information required for both individual duties and team-based care. Subsequently, they tested a mock display method that partially concealed information using a mosaic blur, and they were interviewed about the effectiveness of the display method that ensures patient privacy. Participants better understood patients' demand for confidentiality, suggesting increased awareness of patients' privacy protection. However, participants also indicated that temporary concealment of certain information was problematic. Other issues included the inconvenience of removing the mosaic blur to obtain required information and risk of insufficient information for medical care. Despite several issues with using a display method that temporarily conceals information according to patient privacy needs, medical personnel could accept this display method if information essential to medical safety remains accessible.

  1. Pathogens Inactivated by Low-Energy-Electron Irradiation Maintain Antigenic Properties and Induce Protective Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Fertey, Jasmin; Bayer, Lea; Grunwald, Thomas; Pohl, Alexandra; Beckmann, Jana; Gotzmann, Gaby; Casado, Javier Portillo; Schönfelder, Jessy; Rögner, Frank-Holm; Wetzel, Christiane; Thoma, Martin; Bailer, Susanne M; Hiller, Ekkehard; Rupp, Steffen; Ulbert, Sebastian

    2016-11-23

    Inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. This is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. Moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. An alternative method for inactivation of pathogens is ionizing radiation. It acts very fast and predominantly damages nucleic acids, conserving most of the antigenic structures. However, currently used irradiation technologies (mostly gamma-rays and high energy electrons) require large and complex shielding constructions to protect the environment from radioactivity or X-rays generated during the process. This excludes them from direct integration into biological production facilities. Here, low-energy electron irradiation (LEEI) is presented as an alternative inactivation method for pathogens in liquid solutions. LEEI can be used in normal laboratories, including good manufacturing practice (GMP)- or high biosafety level (BSL)-environments, as only minor shielding is necessary. We show that LEEI efficiently inactivates different viruses (influenza A (H3N8), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1)) and bacteria (Escherichia coli) and maintains their antigenicity. Moreover, LEEI-inactivated influenza A viruses elicit protective immune responses in animals, as analyzed by virus neutralization assays and viral load determination upon challenge. These results have implications for novel ways of developing and manufacturing inactivated vaccines with improved efficacy.

  2. How organ donation is represented in newspaper articles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Vincent, Donald

    2007-01-01

    A media agenda setting study was conducted to examine how newspaper stories frame the topic of organ and tissue donation. Seven hundred fifteen stories on organ and tissue donation from 20 newspapers dated 2002 or 2003 were content-analyzed for valence (i.e., positive, negative, or neutral toward organ donation) and topic (e.g., living donation, transplant process, celebrity donor/recipient). The 20 newspapers were chosen by circulation and electronic access of database. Four of the top 5 and 13 of the top 20 circulating newspapers were included and several combinations of search terms were used to identify relevant articles. Results indicate that the majority of articles were either positive (57%) or neutral (29%) regarding the topic of organ donation. The 4 most common topics covered in news articles included: (a) posttransplantation health and welfare, (b) information on the shortage of organ donors, (c) living donation, and (d) information about the transplantation process. Kidneys (n = 204) and hearts (n = 120) were the 2 most commonly mentioned organs in the sample of articles. Results are discussed and how news articles may shape laypersons' attitudes and intentions regarding organ donation is considered.

  3. Attitudes toward organ donation in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tian, Hui; Yin, Hang; Liu, Hang; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation represents an important advance in modern medical science, and it has benefited many patients with organ failure; however, the severe deficiency of organ sources has been a bottleneck that has limited the benefits this technology can bring. The aim of this study was to show the results of a survey on Chinese people's awareness and attitudes toward organ donation. We designed a questionnaire regarding organ donation consisting of 20 short questions, which were distributed to 10 groups. Most of the questions were multiple-choice; the core question related to people's attitudes to organ donation and the development of organ donation. The survey was held in the outpatient hall of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, a commercial district, and four professional colleges. Participants were randomly selected, and answered questions about gender, age, educational background, profession, and study major. In all, 2930 valid responses were received. Male:female ratio was nearly 1:1.2 (mean age 38 years). Over 90.0% of participants knew about organ transplantation and which organs could be transplanted; more than 95.0% knew about organ donation, but the time they had been aware of it varied. Nearly 90.0% of the participants approved of deceased organ donation; 73.0% indicated they would like to donate their organs post mortem. Participants who knew more about organ failure and organ transplantation were more likely to support organ donation. College students were very positive about organ donation, though as they gain professional knowledge their attitudes may change. Altogether, 65.3% of participants approved of living organ donation, which was obviously lower than the figure for deceased organ donation (P < 0.05). In all, 85.7% of participants approved of compensation to the deceased donor's family. To promote organ donation in China, 62.9% of participants indicated that the public's knowledge about organ donation should be increased via the media and various

  4. Embryo donation in Iran: an ethical review.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Leila; Bagheri, Alireza

    2013-12-01

    Iran is the only Muslim country that has legislation on embryo donation, adopted in 2003. With an estimated 10-15% of couples in the country that are infertile, there are not any legal or religious barriers that prohibit an infertile couple from taking advantage of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). Although all forms of ARTs available in Iran have been legitimized by religious authorities, there is a lack of legislation in all ARTs except embryo donation. By highlighting ethical issues in embryo donation, the paper presents a critical review of the Act of Embryo Donation in Iran. The paper argues that the Act does not provide enough safeguards for the future child and assurance for the safety of the donated embryos. It also does not restrict embryo donation to surplus embryos from infertile couples and is silent about the number of embryos that could be donated by each couple as well as the number of recipients for donated embryos by a couple. The Act is also silent about the issues of genetic linkage (nasab) and heritage which are challenging issues, especially in a conservative Islamic society. As a result, the future child may not inherit from their birth parents, as it is not required by the Act, or from the genetically related parents under the anonymity policy. Finally there is no standard national protocol or guidelines to evaluate the safety of the donated embryos. The paper concludes that despite its benefits, the Act lacks clarity, and it is subject to misunderstanding and confusion.

  5. Frequent Embolization in Peripheral Angioplasty: Detection with an Embolism Protection Device (Angio Guard) and Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Claudius W. Pusich, Benjamin; Tepe, Gunnar; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Hahn, Ulrich; Schneider, Wilke; Claussen, Claus D.; Duda, Stephan H.

    2003-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the deliverability and protection capabilities of an embolism protection filter in angioplasty of peripheral arteries. Methods: The Angioguard emboli capture guidewire system was applied in 11 patients with femoropopliteal lesions (6 stenoses, 3 occlusions, 2 controls).Data on lesion crossing, flow deceleration and macroembolization were recorded. Filter membranes were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: System delivery was successful in all patients. Primary lesion crossing was feasible in four of six stenoses; predilatation was required in two of six. Marked flow deceleration was recorded in six patients. Emboli next to the filter were detected in each patient with concentric plaques, but could not reliably be removed with the filter. Downstream macroembolization was also present in all patients with concentric stenoses, but in none with chronic occlusion. None of the patients had clinical signs of ischemia. SEM analysis demonstrated only small particles on control group filters and non-obliterating fibrinous conglomerates on filters used in chronic occlusion. Substantial obliteration was seen on several filters used in stenotic lesions. Conclusion:Microembolization of fibrin aggregates is a common incident in balloon angioplasty of femoropopliteal stenoses. Macroembolization occurred more frequently than previously reported. The use of embolism protection filters aided in the detection but not in the removal of larger emboli.

  6. Protection of dehydrated chicken meat by natural antioxidants as evaluated by electron spin resonance spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nissen, L R; Månsson, L; Bertelsen, G; Huynh-Ba, T; Skibsted, L H

    2000-11-01

    Dehydrated chicken meat (a(w) = 0.20-0.35) made from mechanically deboned chicken necks can be protected against oxidative deterioration during storage by rosemary extract (at a sensory acceptable level of 1000 ppm, incorporated prior to drying). The efficiency of the rosemary extract was similar to that obtained by synthetic antioxidants in a reference product (70 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole and 70 ppm octyl gallate). Tea extract and coffee extract were less efficient than rosemary and synthetic antioxidants. Among the natural antioxidants tested, grape skin extract provided the least protection against oxidative changes in dehydrated chicken meat. Radicals in the product, quantified by direct measurement by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry, developed similarly to headspace ethane, pentane, and hexanal, and to oxygen depletion both in unprotected and protected products. The ESR signal intensity and headspace hexanal both correlated with the sensory descriptor "rancidity" as evaluated by a trained sensory panel. Hexanal, as a secondary lipid oxidation product, showed an exponential dependence on the level of radicals in the product in agreement with a chain reaction mechanism for autoxidation, and direct ESR measurement may be used in quality control of dehydrated food products.

  7. Exploring Donation Decisions: Beliefs and Preferences for Organ Donation in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…

  8. Exploring Donation Decisions: Beliefs and Preferences for Organ Donation in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…

  9. Specific unwillingness to donate eyes: the impact of disfigurement, knowledge and procurement on corneal donation.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, M; Kerridge, I; Ankeny, R; Dobbins, T A; Billson, F

    2010-03-01

    Although willingness, attitudes and beliefs surrounding solid-organ donation have been extensively investigated, much less is known about corneal donation. Despite evidence that a substantial number of families who agree to multiorgan donation also specifically refuse corneal donation, it is unclear why this occurs and what can be done to increase rates of corneal donation. We conducted a survey of 371 Australian adults regarding their views on corneal donation. Although willingness to donate corneas generally reflected a person's willingness to donate all of one's organs, unwillingness to donate corneas appeared to be due to other factors. Specifically, decisions not to donate appear to be driven by a range of concerns surrounding disfigurement. The survey also provides eye banks with reassurance about the acceptability of whole globe procurement, and recognition that research into blindness is a highly valued part of corneal donation. Finally, the survey identifies that many individuals see benefit in having their family engaged in the decision-making process, suggesting that decisions about donation are more complex than a simple appeal to the autonomy of the deceased.

  10. The Liverwort, Marchantia, Drives Alternative Electron Flow Using a Flavodiiron Protein to Protect PSI.

    PubMed

    Shimakawa, Ginga; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Tsukamoto, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Moeko; Sejima, Takehiro; Miyake, Chikahiro

    2017-03-01

    The diffusion efficiency of oxygen in the atmosphere, like that of CO2, is approximately 10(4) times greater than that in aqueous environments. Consequently, terrestrial photosynthetic organisms need mechanisms to protect against potential oxidative damage. The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a basal land plant, has habitats where it is exposed to both water and the atmosphere. Furthermore, like cyanobacteria, M. polymorpha has genes encoding flavodiiron proteins (FLV). In cyanobacteria, FLVs mediate oxygen-dependent alternative electron flow (AEF) to suppress the production of reactive oxygen species. Here, we investigated whether FLVs are required for the protection of photosynthesis in M. polymorpha A mutant deficient in the FLV1 isozyme (ΔMpFlv1) sustained photooxidative damage to photosystem I (PSI) following repetitive short-saturation pulses of light. Compared with the wild type (Takaragaike-1), ΔMpFlv1 showed the same photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate but a lower electron transport rate during the induction phase of photosynthesis. Additionally, the reaction center chlorophyll in PSI, P700, was highly reduced in ΔMpFlv1 but not in Takaragaike-1. These results indicate that the gene product of MpFlv1 drives AEF to oxidize PSI, as in cyanobacteria. Furthermore, FLV-mediated AEF supports the production of a proton motive force to possibly induce the nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and suppress electron transport in the cytochrome b6/f complex. After submerging the thalli, a decrease in photosystem II operating efficiency was observed, particularly in ΔMpFlv1, which implies that species living in these sorts of habitats require FLV-mediated AEF. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. The Liverwort, Marchantia, Drives Alternative Electron Flow Using a Flavodiiron Protein to Protect PSI1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Shigeyuki; Sejima, Takehiro

    2017-01-01

    The diffusion efficiency of oxygen in the atmosphere, like that of CO2, is approximately 104 times greater than that in aqueous environments. Consequently, terrestrial photosynthetic organisms need mechanisms to protect against potential oxidative damage. The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a basal land plant, has habitats where it is exposed to both water and the atmosphere. Furthermore, like cyanobacteria, M. polymorpha has genes encoding flavodiiron proteins (FLV). In cyanobacteria, FLVs mediate oxygen-dependent alternative electron flow (AEF) to suppress the production of reactive oxygen species. Here, we investigated whether FLVs are required for the protection of photosynthesis in M. polymorpha. A mutant deficient in the FLV1 isozyme (ΔMpFlv1) sustained photooxidative damage to photosystem I (PSI) following repetitive short-saturation pulses of light. Compared with the wild type (Takaragaike-1), ΔMpFlv1 showed the same photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate but a lower electron transport rate during the induction phase of photosynthesis. Additionally, the reaction center chlorophyll in PSI, P700, was highly reduced in ΔMpFlv1 but not in Takaragaike-1. These results indicate that the gene product of MpFlv1 drives AEF to oxidize PSI, as in cyanobacteria. Furthermore, FLV-mediated AEF supports the production of a proton motive force to possibly induce the nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and suppress electron transport in the cytochrome b6/f complex. After submerging the thalli, a decrease in photosystem II operating efficiency was observed, particularly in ΔMpFlv1, which implies that species living in these sorts of habitats require FLV-mediated AEF. PMID:28153920

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation in Uttarakhand

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, Aseem K.; Ahuja, Alok; Kalra, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Blood transfusions form a crucial and irreplaceable part in the medical management of many diseases. The collection of blood from voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low risk populations is an important measure for ensuring the availability and safety of blood transfusion. In a state like Uttarakhand which is visited by lakhs of visitors during pilgrimage season and where natural calamities and accidents are very common, the availability of blood is of utmost importance. Aim: To find out knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation to comprehend the situation and find ways to enhance voluntary blood donation in the state of Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: Multi stage methodology was designed to target population including general population, influencers (doctors) and supporting organizations (camp organizers, State AIDS Control Society Officials) who were subjected to in-depth interview using pre-structured questionnaires to assess knowledge/awareness about voluntary blood donation, factors preventing and source of knowledge about voluntary blood donation. Result: The sample population consisted of mostly men (67%) in the age-group of 26-35 years. Requirement of blood and the measures to promote voluntary blood donation have a direct relationship with the total population and literacy level of the population. Awareness about blood donation, source of knowledge about blood donation, reasons for not donating blood are particularly stressed. With increase in educational level, the awareness level was also found to increase. While among illiterates 81 percent of the respondents knew about blood donation, among the post graduates the same ratio was found to be almost cent-percent. Among various reasons cited for not donating blood, lack of awareness being the most common reason. People gathered information about blood donation from several different sources with electronic media being the most prominent

  13. Integrating a Machine Protection System for High-Current Free Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Allison; James Coleman; Richard Evans; Al Grippo; Kevin Jordan

    2002-09-01

    A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high-current accelerators. The MPS needs to monitor the status of all devices that could enter the beam path, the beam loss monitors (BLMs), magnet settings, beam dump status, etc. This information is then presented to the electron source controller, which must limit the beam power or shut down the beam completely. The MPS for the energy recovery linac (ERL) at the Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser [1] generates eight different power limits, or beam modes, which are passed to the drive laser pulse controller (DLPC) (photocathode source controller). These range from no beam to nearly 2 megawatts of electron beam power. Automatic masking is used for the BLMs during low-power modes when one might be using beam viewers. The system also reviews the setup for the two different beamlines, the IR path or the UV path, and will allow or disallow operations based on magnet settings and valve positions. This paper will describe the approach taken for the JLab 10-kW FEL. Additional details can be found on our website http://laser.jlab.org [2].

  14. Interaction between photosynthetic electron transport and chloroplast sinks triggers protection and signalling important for plant productivity

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Peter J.; Lima-Melo, Yugo; Tiwari, Arjun; Tikkanen, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    The photosynthetic light reactions provide energy that is consumed and stored in electron sinks, the products of photosynthesis. A balance between light reactions and electron consumption in the chloroplast is vital for plants, and is protected by several photosynthetic regulation mechanisms. Photosystem I (PSI) is particularly susceptible to photoinhibition when these factors become unbalanced, which can occur in low temperatures or in high light. In this study we used the pgr5 Arabidopsis mutant that lacks ΔpH-dependent regulation of photosynthetic electron transport as a model to study the consequences of PSI photoinhibition under high light. We found that PSI damage severely inhibits carbon fixation and starch accumulation, and attenuates enzymatic oxylipin synthesis and chloroplast regulation of nuclear gene expression after high light stress. This work shows that modifications to regulation of photosynthetic light reactions, which may be designed to improve yield in crop plants, can negatively impact metabolism and signalling, and thereby threaten plant growth and stress tolerance. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement’. PMID:28808104

  15. Interaction between photosynthetic electron transport and chloroplast sinks triggers protection and signalling important for plant productivity.

    PubMed

    Gollan, Peter J; Lima-Melo, Yugo; Tiwari, Arjun; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2017-09-26

    The photosynthetic light reactions provide energy that is consumed and stored in electron sinks, the products of photosynthesis. A balance between light reactions and electron consumption in the chloroplast is vital for plants, and is protected by several photosynthetic regulation mechanisms. Photosystem I (PSI) is particularly susceptible to photoinhibition when these factors become unbalanced, which can occur in low temperatures or in high light. In this study we used the pgr5 Arabidopsis mutant that lacks ΔpH-dependent regulation of photosynthetic electron transport as a model to study the consequences of PSI photoinhibition under high light. We found that PSI damage severely inhibits carbon fixation and starch accumulation, and attenuates enzymatic oxylipin synthesis and chloroplast regulation of nuclear gene expression after high light stress. This work shows that modifications to regulation of photosynthetic light reactions, which may be designed to improve yield in crop plants, can negatively impact metabolism and signalling, and thereby threaten plant growth and stress tolerance.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Columnar benzoperylene-hexa- and tetracarboxylic imides and esters: synthesis, mesophase stabilisation and observation of charge-transfer interactions between electron-donating esters and electron-accepting imides.

    PubMed

    Kelber, Julien; Achard, Marie-France; Garreau-de Bonneval, Bénédicte; Bock, Harald

    2011-07-11

    Benzo[ghi]perylene 1,2,4,5,10,11-hexacarboxylic trialkylimide and dialkylimido-dialkyl ester derivatives, displaying a thermodynamically stable hexagonal columnar liquid-crystalline phase at room temperature, have been obtained by the use of previously unexplored chiral racemic α-branched alkylimide functions. One of the trialkylimides described here is the first room temperature columnar solely oligo-alkylimide-substituted arene, and thus constitutes a prototype case of self-assembling organic acceptor materials. As the related hexacarboxylic hexaesters are found to exhibit only a weak tendency to form columnar mesophases, benzo[ghi]perylene 1,2,5,10-tetracarboxylic tetraalkyl esters have been synthesized by regioselective oxidative Diels-Alder addition of maleic anhydride to 3,10-dicyanoperylene, and a room temperature hexagonal columnar mesophase was obtained with branched alkyl chains. The acceptor-type electronic properties of the tri- and diimides have been found to be considerably more pronounced than those of the hexa- and tetracarboxylic esters, and to approach those of the prototype acceptor material C(60). The formation of bathochromically absorbing donor-acceptor complexes was observed with a di- or triimide as acceptor and a tetraester as donor, but not with a hexaester as donor. Exploiting the non-negligible differences in reduction and oxidation potentials between all four types of materials, the minimum HOMO energy difference necessary for charge-transfer-complex formation has been determined to lie between 0.29 and 0.35 eV.

  17. Economic crisis and blood donation: How are donors' motivations changing?

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Sara; Guiddi, Paolo; Marta, Elena; Saturni, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    The economic crisis has exasperated people's feelings of loneliness; job instability often does not allow people to commit to voluntary work. The present work proposes to examine whether the motivations to donate blood have changed before and during the period of economic crisis, taking into consideration donors' gender. We adopted Omoto & Snyder's functionalist approach, which states that blood donation serves different functions for any one person, who may have different motivations from those held by other people. We compared six-year pre-post (t1 "pre-crisis": 2008 - t2 "during the crisis": 2014) data on a sample of blood donors in a single blood donation center situated in Northern Italy. T-test was used for data analysis. Three hundred thirty donors (age range 18-60, M = 32.6, SD = 9.53; 54.5% male) were administered a survey at t1 and 444 (age range 18-60, M = 37.8, SD = 10.16; 68% male) six years later at t2. In both surveys, participants were administered a questionnaire with socio-demographic items and a version of Omoto & Snyder's Motivations to Volunteer scale adapted to blood donation. Donors' motivation priorities did not vary over time. Values and Self-enhancement motivations are the most prevalent. Knowledge and Ego-protection motivations decreased with the upsurge of the crisis. Women, in general, report higher mean values than men do for Values and Ego-protection motivations. These results can offer valuable clues for the agencies that manage blood collection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Organ donation: a communitarian approach.

    PubMed

    Etzioni, Amitai

    2003-03-01

    Recently, various suggestions have been made to respond to the increasingly great shortage of organs by paying for them. Because of the undesirable side effects of such approaches (commodification, injustice, and costs), a communitarian approach should be tried first. A communitarian approach to the problem of organ shortage entails changing the moral culture so that members of society will recognize that donating one's organs, once they are no longer of use to the donor, is the moral (right) thing to do. This approach requires much greater and deeper efforts than sharing information and making public service announcements. It entails a moral dialogue, in which the public is engaged, leading to a change in what people expect from one another. Among the devices that could help change the moral culture are a public statement, endorsed by community members and leaders, that expresses the community sense that donation "is what a good person does" and a community-specific web page that lists those who have made the commitment. A change in law so that a person's wishes in the matter are recognized as final and binding are also desired. This position paper deals only with cadaver organs and not living donors.

  19. The Effect of State Policies on Organ Donation and Transplantation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Paula; Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Vijayan, Anitha; Wellen, Jason R; Martin, Erika G

    2015-08-01

    Shortages in transplantable solid organs remain a critical public health challenge in the United States. During the past 2 decades, all states have implemented policies to increase organ supply, although their effectiveness is unknown. To determine the effects on organ donation and transplantation rates of state policies to provide incentives for volunteer donation. Using a quasi-experimental design and difference-in-differences regression analyses, we estimated the effect of policies in all 50 states and the District of Columbia on organ donors per capita and the number of transplantations from January 1, 1988, to December 31, 2010. Analyses were also stratified by type of donor (living vs deceased). Data were derived from the United Network for Organ Sharing. All data collection occurred between July 7 and September 27, 2013. Policies of interest were the presence of first-person consent laws, donor registries, dedicated revenue streams for donor recruitment activities, population education programs, paid leave for donation, and tax incentives. Information on states' passage of various policies was obtained from primary legislative and legal sources. The number of organ donors and transplantations per state, per year, during the study period. From 1988 to 2010, the number of states passing at least 1 donation-related policy increased from 7 (14%) to 50 (100%). First-person consent laws, donor registries, public education, paid leave, and tax incentives had no robust, significant association with either donation rates or number of transplants. The establishment of revenue policies, in which individuals contribute to a protected state fund for donation promotion activities, was associated with a 5.3% increase in the absolute number of transplants (95% CI, 0.57%-10.1%; P = .03). These associations were driven by a 4.9% increase in organ donations (95% CI, 0.97%-8.7%; P = .01) and an 8.0% increase in transplants (95% CI, 3.1%-12.9%; P = .001) from

  20. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  1. 32 CFR 553.6 - Donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.6 Donations. (a) Policy. Under Department of the Army policy, proffered donations or gifts for beautifying Army national cemeteries may be accepted from legitimate societies...

  2. Understanding Australian families' organ donation decisions.

    PubMed

    Neate, S L; Marck, C H; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; McGain, F; Weiland, T J; Hickey, B B; Jelinek, G A

    2015-01-01

    Numbers of deceased organ donors in Australia have increased, but rates of consent to donation remain at around 60%. Increasing family consent is a key target for the Australian Organ and Tissue Authority. Reasons for donation decisions have been reported in the international literature, but little is known of reasons for Australian families' decisions. Potential organ donors in four Melbourne hospitals were identified and 49 participants from 40 families (23 consenting and 17 non-consenting) were interviewed to understand reasons for consent decisions. Themes for consent to organ donation included that: donation was consistent with the deceased's explicit wishes or known values, the desire to help others or self-including themes of altruism, pragmatism, preventing others from being in the same position, consolation received from donation and aspects of the donation conversation and care that led families to believe donation was right for them. Themes for non-consent included: lack of knowledge of wishes; social, cultural and religious beliefs; factors related to the donation process and family exhaustion; and conversation factors where negative events influenced decisions. While reasons for consent were similar to those described in international literature, reasons for non-consent differed in that there was little emphasis on lack of trust of the medical profession, concerns regarding level of care provided to the potential donor, preserving the deceased's body, fears of body invasion or organ allocation fairness.

  3. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  4. 49 CFR 24.108 - Donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donations. 24.108 Section 24.108 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Real Property Acquisition § 24.108 Donations. An owner whose...

  5. Giving Ourselves: The Ethics of Anatomical Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderman, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    In some European countries, such as Italy, medical education is threatened by a dearth of anatomical specimens. Such a shortage could spread to other nations, including the United States. This article addresses two ethical questions in body donation. Why might people choose to donate their bodies to education and science? What sorts of ethical…

  6. Organ transplantation scandal influencing corneal donation rate.

    PubMed

    Röck, Tobias; Bramkamp, Matthias; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Röck, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In the majority of countries, there is a shortage of donor corneas for corneal transplantations. This study investigated the impact of organ transplantation scandals on corneal donation rate at the University Hospital Tübingen. Each deceased patient was considered as a potential corneal donor. An ophthalmic resident handled with stable methods of procedures the corneal donor procurement from 2009 to 2015. The rates of corneal donation were examined and analyzed. Among the 5712 hospital deaths, consent for corneal donation was obtained in 711 cases. The mean annual corneal donation rate was 12.4%. Since 2009, the donation rate per year could be increased with exception of 2013 and 2015. In the end of 2012 and 2014 two huge organ donation scandals were known in Germany. In the following years 2013 and 2015 corneal donation rate decreased significantly (P=0.0181 and P=0.0006). We concluded that transplantation scandals have a significant impact on corneal donation rate. Improving professional's performance through full transparency and honesty is very important to earn trust of potential donors and their families.

  7. Organ transplantation scandal influencing corneal donation rate

    PubMed Central

    Röck, Tobias; Bramkamp, Matthias; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Röck, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In the majority of countries, there is a shortage of donor corneas for corneal transplantations. This study investigated the impact of organ transplantation scandals on corneal donation rate at the University Hospital Tübingen. Each deceased patient was considered as a potential corneal donor. An ophthalmic resident handled with stable methods of procedures the corneal donor procurement from 2009 to 2015. The rates of corneal donation were examined and analyzed. Among the 5712 hospital deaths, consent for corneal donation was obtained in 711 cases. The mean annual corneal donation rate was 12.4%. Since 2009, the donation rate per year could be increased with exception of 2013 and 2015. In the end of 2012 and 2014 two huge organ donation scandals were known in Germany. In the following years 2013 and 2015 corneal donation rate decreased significantly (P=0.0181 and P=0.0006). We concluded that transplantation scandals have a significant impact on corneal donation rate. Improving professional's performance through full transparency and honesty is very important to earn trust of potential donors and their families. PMID:28730094

  8. Response of radiation protection dosemeters in mixed high-energy photon and electron radiation fields.

    PubMed

    Büermann, L; Gargioni, E; Kramer, H M

    2001-01-01

    The response of radiation protection dosemeters in terms of the phantom-related operational quantities Hp(10) and H'(10.0 degrees) was measured for personal and area monitoring systems in mixed high-energy electron and photon radiation fields with energies up to 7 MeV. Using mixed radiation fields composed of different fractions of charged particle and photon fluence, three conditions were produced at the point of measurement: charged particle equilibrium (CPE) (a), a lack (b) and an excess (c) of charged particles relative to the conditions of CPE. Personal and area dosemeters of different types were investigated under conditions (a)-(c). A large variability of the response of the different dosemeter types was observed. The results are presented and discussed.

  9. Variation of motivation between weekday and weekend donors and their association with distance from blood donation centres.

    PubMed

    Poon, C M; Lee, S S; Lee, C K

    2013-06-01

    Maintenance of an effective pool of regular donors is important for protecting public health. In planning the development of blood donation services, motivation for repeat donation would need to be considered in context of the location of blood donation centres in the community. Donors giving blood in January 2012 were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study by completing an anonymous online questionnaire. Residence and work/school locations were collected together with demographics and donation histories. Motivated donors were compared with less motivated ones in terms of their timing of blood donation and the spatial relationship with the donor centres. A total of 3744 questionnaires were completed, representing a response rate of 16.4%. Weekday centre donors were less likely to have returned for blood donation within a year [odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.65-0.96] and intend to donate in the following 6 months (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.97). Living further away from the donor centres gave a higher OR for giving blood during weekdays among motivated centre donors, but such association was absent among less motivated centre donors. Regardless of the level of donors' motivation for blood donation, fewer weekday donations were made if the distance between location of school or workplace and donor centre increased. Blood donation behaviour was associated with both the accessibility of donor centres and daily commuting patterns of the residents. Motivated centre donors were making more donations, regardless of the distance. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  10. [Legal aspects of transplant and donation].

    PubMed

    Teijeira, R

    2006-01-01

    The Spanish model of organ and tissue donation enjoys great prestige in the world medical sphere and has been the object of study and imitation in different countries. Part of this success is due to the fact that since the year 1979 different legal norms have been enacted that have regulated and facilitated donation. The current legislation on the donation and transplant of organs and tissues is based on the principles of the gratuity and confidentiality of the donation, indicating the need for facilitating the formation of organisations at the level of the autonomous communities and at the national level. It also contains the requisites for donation of both live donors and deceased donors, establishing the norms for certification of death due to cardiorespiratory arrest and due to the irreversible cease of brain functions.

  11. Altruism in organ donation: an unnecessary requirement?

    PubMed

    Moorlock, Greg; Ives, Jonathan; Draper, Heather

    2014-02-01

    Altruism has long been taken to be the guiding principle of ethical organ donation in the UK, and has been used as justification for rejecting or allowing certain types of donation. We argue that, despite this prominent role, altruism has been poorly defined in policy and position documents, and used confusingly and inconsistently. Looking at how the term has been used over recent years allows us to define 'organ donation altruism', and comparing this with accounts in the philosophical literature highlights its theoretical shortcomings. The recent report from the Nuffield Council on Bioethics reaffirmed the importance of altruism in organ donation, and offered a clearer definition. This definition is, however, more permissive than that of altruism previously seen in UK policy, and as a result allows some donations that previously have been considered unacceptable. We argue that while altruistic motivation may be desirable, it is not necessary.

  12. Ovum donation: examining the new Israeli law.

    PubMed

    Gruenbaum, Benjamin F; Pinchover, Zachary S; Lunenfeld, Eitan; Jotkowitz, Alan

    2011-11-01

    Ovum donation affords countless couples that under natural circumstances would not be able to produce offspring the ability to carry out natural pregnancies. With advancements in biotechnology including egg collection and in vitro fertilization (IVF), physicians can now successfully implant fertilized embryos. Due to Israel's tremendous involvement in IVF for its own citizens, the national laws that govern egg donation are of great importance. On September 5th 2010, the Israeli Parliament (Knesset) passed a law that allows young women between the ages of 21 and 35 to donate their eggs for paid financial compensation. The new law allows infertile women between the ages of 18 and 54 to request egg donation and IVF, which will partially be covered under state insurance plans. This article provides a description of the new Israeli law regulating ovum donation and the practical, moral and ethical debate surrounding the new system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Latin American population in Spain and organ donation. Attitude toward deceased organ donation and organ donation rates.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Antonio; López-Navas, Ana I; Navalón, Juan C; Martínez-Alarcón, Laura; Ayala-García, Marco A; Sebastián-Ruiz, María J; Moya-Faz, Francisco; Garrido, Gregorio; Ramirez, Pablo; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-04-01

    The Latin American (LA) population has similarities with the Spanish population which makes its integration into Spanish society easier. to analyze the attitude toward organ donation among Latin American citizens residing in Spain, to determine the psychosocial variables which affect this attitude, and to examine the correlation between donation rates of LA citizens in Spain and in their countries of origin. A random sample of LA residents in Spain was taken and stratified according to the respondent's nationality (n = 1.314), in the year 2010. Attitude was assessed using a validated questionnaire (PCID-DTO Dr Rios). The survey was self-administered and completed anonymously. Student's t-test, the χ(2) test, and logistic regression analysis. There was a 94% completion rate (n = 1.237). Attitude toward donation was favorable in 60% of cases (n = 745), 12% (n = 145) were against, and 28% (n = 347) were undecided. The following variables were associated with attitude toward donation: sex (P = 0.038), level of formal education (P < 0.001), country of origin (P = 0.002), attitude toward the donation of a family member's organs (P < 0.001), having discussed donation with the family (P < 0.001), carrying out prosocial activities (P = 0.025), attitude toward cremation of the body (P < 0.001), attitude toward burial of the body (P < 0.001), attitude toward having an autopsy carried out (P < 0.001), previous experience of the organ donation and transplantation process (P < 0.001), fear of mutilation after donation (P < 0.001), knowledge that the Church has a positive attitude toward organ donation and transplantation (P < 0.001), knowledge of one's partner's attitude toward organ donation (P < 0.001), and a belief that one might need a transplant in the future (P < 0.001). The donation rates in this population group in Spain are higher than those recorded in their countries of origin (55.76 vs. <10 pmp; P < 0.001). The attitude toward

  14. Public attitudes and beliefs about living kidney donation: focus group study.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Ralph, Angelique; Chapman, Jeremy R; Gill, John S; Josephson, Michelle A; Hanson, Camilla S; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C

    2014-05-27

    With the rising prevalence of end-stage kidney disease worldwide, the proportion of the general community who might subsequently be called upon to consider living related kidney donation is also increasing. Knowledge about the attitudes and beliefs among the general public about living kidney donation is limited. We aimed to describe public perspectives on living kidney donation. Participants were recruited from three states in Australia to participate in 12 focus groups (n=113). Transcripts were analyzed thematically. We identified six themes: expected benefits (saving and improving life, societal gain, donor satisfaction, reassurance and control), consciousness of donor risks (compromised health, lifestyle limitations, financial consequences, relationship tensions, devastation), social precariousness (fear of the unknown, exploitative connotation, recipient deservingness, protecting conscience, potential regret), upholding fairness (equal access to transplantation, reciprocity, prevent prejudice, donor safety net), decisional autonomy (body ownership, right to know, valid relationships), and assumed duty of care (facilitate informed decision-making, safeguard against coercion, ensure psychological safety, justifiable risk, objectivity, warranted disclosure). The expected benefits for recipients bolster public support for living kidney donor transplantation; however, ethical dilemmas and concerns for the donor instilled ambivalence about living donation. Protecting equity and autonomy, and an implicit trust in health professionals to protect donors and recipients mitigated some of these uncertainties. Developing interventions, practices, and policies that address community skepticism and values may promote awareness and trust in living kidney donation.

  15. Electronic Communication of Protected Health Information: Privacy, Security, and HIPAA Compliance.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Brian C; Marwaha, Jayson S; Hyatt, Brad; Blazar, Phillip E; Lifchez, Scott D

    2017-06-01

    Technology has enhanced modern health care delivery, particularly through accessibility to health information and ease of communication with tools like mobile device messaging (texting). However, text messaging has created new risks for breach of protected health information (PHI). In the current study, we sought to evaluate hand surgeons' knowledge and compliance with privacy and security standards for electronic communication by text message. A cross-sectional survey of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand membership was conducted in March and April 2016. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed of composite results as well as relevant subgroup analyses. A total of 409 responses were obtained (11% response rate). Although 63% of surgeons reported that they believe that text messaging does not meet Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 security standards, only 37% reported they do not use text messages to communicate PHI. Younger surgeons and respondents who believed that their texting was compliant were statistically significantly more like to report messaging of PHI (odds ratio, 1.59 and 1.22, respectively). A majority of hand surgeons in this study reported the use of text messaging to communicate PHI. Of note, neither the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 statute nor US Department of Health and Human Services specifically prohibits this form of electronic communication. To be compliant, surgeons, practices, and institutions need to take reasonable security precautions to prevent breach of privacy with electronic communication. Communication of clinical information by text message is not prohibited under Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, but surgeons should use appropriate safeguards to prevent breach when using this form of communication. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A survey-based study of factors that motivate nurses to protect the privacy of electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chen-Chung; Kuo, Kuang-Ming; Alexander, Judith W

    2016-02-02

    The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that motivate nurses to protect privacy in electronic medical records, based on the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior. This cross-sectional study used questionnaires to collect data from nurses in a large tertiary care military hospital in Taiwan. The three hundred two (302) valid questionnaires returned resulted in a response rate of 63.7 %. Structural equation modeling identified that the factors of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control of the nurses significantly predicted the nurses' intention to protect the privacy of electronic medical records. Further, perceived usefulness and compatibility, peer and superior influence, self-efficacy and facilitating conditions, respectively predicted these three factors. The results of our study may provide valuable information for education and practice in predicting nurses' intention to protect privacy of electronic medical records.

  17. Organ donation by capital prisoners in China: reflections in Confucian ethics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxu; Wang, Xueliang

    2010-04-01

    This article discusses the practice and development of organ donation by capital prisoners in China. It analyzes the issue of informed consent regarding organ donation from capital prisoners in light of Confucian ethics and expounds the point that under the influence of Confucianism, China is a country that attaches great importance to the role of the family in practicing informed consent in various areas, the area of organ donation from capital prisoners included. It argues that a proper form of organ donation from capital prisoners can be justified within the Confucian moral context in which the proper interests of capital prisoners and their families, the benefit of organ receptors, and a rightful order of society should all be appropriately considered. From the Confucian perspective, the act of donating organs from a capital prisoner must be decided by both the prisoner and his/her family (i.e., each side should hold a veto power), whereas such donation, in the proper circumstance protected by a rightful procedure, should be appreciated as a morally praiseworthy act of the prisoner who is willing to make the final effort to repent and correct his/her evil conduct and to leave something good to the world.

  18. [Transplant coordinator: organ donation process].

    PubMed

    Gironés-Guillem, Purificación; Camaño-Puig, Ramón; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Spain is a leader in organ donations although it seems that this number does not increase in the same proportion that the waiting list and it is necessary to decrease the refusal situations, which are ~16%. Analytic study. We review the reports prepared by the coordinators of transplants archived at the hospital La Fe during the period between May 1, 2004 and December 31, 2007, resulting in conceptualization and categorization. Sixty-nine topics were obtained from the point of view of the family and 11 from the point of view of the interviewer. After its conceptualization, codification and classification, we proceeded to create an appropriate text. Certain guidelines may be offered that allow us to standardize the action of transplant coordinators during the interview and to be more effective.

  19. Pre-donation Hydration and Applied Muscle Tension Combine to Reduce Presyncopal Reactions to Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    France, Christopher R.; Ditto, Blaine; Wissel, Mary Ellen; France, Janis L.; Dickert, Tara; Rader, Aaron; Sinclair, Kadian; McGlone, Sarah; Trost, Zina; Matson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND A randomized controlled trial was conducted to test the effects of hydration and applied muscle tensing on presyncopal reactions to blood donation. Both interventions are designed to prevent the decreases in blood pressure that can contribute to such reactions, but due to the distinct physiological mechanisms underlying their pressor responses it was hypothesized that a combined intervention would yield the greatest benefit. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Prior to blood donation, first- and second-time blood donors (Mean Age = 20.2 years, SD = 4.9) were randomly assigned to: 1) standard donation, 2) placebo (leg exercise prior to venipuncture), 3) pre-donation water, or 4) pre-donation water and leg exercise during donation. RESULTS Main effects of group were observed for phlebotomist classification of vasovagal reactions, X2 (3) = 8.38, p<0.05, and donor reports of presyncopal reactions, X2 (3) = 13.16, p < 0.01. Follow-up analyses of phlebotomist classifications revealed fewer reactions in the pre-donation water and pre-donation water and leg exercise groups relative to placebo but not standard donation. Follow-up analyses of self-reported reactions revealed that women, but not men, had lower scores in both the pre-donation water and pre-donation water and leg exercise groups relative to both placebo and standard donation. CONCLUSION Pre-donation hydration and a combination of hydration and leg exercise may help attenuate presyncopal reactions in relatively novice donors, although future studies with larger samples are required to confirm this effect. PMID:20113455

  20. Hong Kong young people's blood donation behavior.

    PubMed

    Hong, Juliana; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2011-01-01

    Similar to other developed countries, only 3% of the total population in Hong Kong donate blood (Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service 2003). More than 20% of annual donations come from youngsters aged 18-25. However, this category of donors has decreased gradually from 24.6% in 2004 to 22.9% in 2008. This study aims to examine the characteristics and intention of young blood donors versus nondonors in Hong Kong; and to explore the factors that may influence Hong Kong young people's donation behavior. This is a cross-sectional study using questionnaire to solicit information from young people including both blood donors and non-donors. It showed that more non-donors were underweight (26%) than blood donors (16.9%). Blood donors demonstrated to have more knowledge on the usage of donated blood (87.2%). Nearly half of youngster admitted that they made use of donation as a means for blood testing (53.1%) or free physical check-up (47.3%). Recruitment strategies should focus on the enhancement of health education programs related to blood and blood donation for young people to increase their awareness of blood and alleviate their misconceptions about blood donation.

  1. Just love in live organ donation.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Kristin

    2009-08-01

    Emotionally-related live organ donation is different from almost all other medical treatments in that a family member or, in some countries, a friend contributes with an organ or parts of an organ to the recipient. Furthermore, there is a long-acknowledged but not well-understood gender-imbalance in emotionally-related live kidney donation. This article argues for the benefit of the concept of just love as an analytic tool in the analysis of emotionally-related live organ donation where the potential donor(s) and the recipient are engaged in a love relation. The concept of just love is helpful in the analysis of these live organ donations even if no statistical gender-imbalance prevails. It is particularly helpful, however, in the analysis of the gender-imbalance in live kidney donations if these donations are seen as a specific kind of care-work, if care-work is experienced as a labour one should perform out of love and if women still experience stronger pressures to engage in care-work than do men. The aim of the article is to present arguments for the need of just love as an analytic tool in the analysis of emotionally-related live organ donation where the potential donor(s) and the recipient are engaged in a love relation. The aim is also to elaborate two criteria that need to be met in order for love to qualify as just and to highlight certain clinical implications.

  2. Organ donation and imminent death: pro position.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Paul E

    2017-04-01

    Donation after cardiac death is associated with many problems including ischemic injury, high rates of delayed allograft function, prolonged time to asystole, and frequent organ discard. Imminent death donation (IDD) has been proposed as a separate category of organ donation: distinct from living donation and donation after cardiac death. A protocol for IDD was developed at Rhode Island Hospital and published in the ethics literature. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Ethics Committee reviewed the protocol and stated that IDD was ethically appropriate in some cases. A wider review by a working group within UNOS concluded similarly, but felt that a myriad of policy revisions would be required and were concerned about a possible negative impact on public trust in organ donation. Nonetheless, IDD and other nontraditional strategies continue to be proposed, implemented in other countries and discussed by patients and donor families. This review, on the 'Pro' side of IDD, proposes that the medical community continue to work toward implementing IDD. Donor family's wishes are best met by organ donation, successful outcomes for the recipients, and a dignified death for their loved one. In some cases, IDD is the best strategy to meet these goals.

  3. Blood donation and risk of polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Edgren, Gustaf; Nyrén, Olof; Hultcrantz, Malin; Nielsen, Kaspar Rene; Pedersen, Ole B V; Björkholm, Magnus; Rostgaard, Klaus; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2016-06-01

    It has been suggested that blood donors could have an increased risk of polycythemia vera (PV). However, no study has assessed whether frequent donors have a higher PV risk than less frequent donors. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT2) database, we established a cohort of blood donors who had donated whole blood at least once between 1980 and 2012. Within this cohort we first assessed the risk of PV, comparing the donors to the general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). To assess the association between frequency of blood donation and risk of PV we then conducted a case-control study nested within the cohort, where we compared prior donation activity among donors who were diagnosed with PV and matched controls. Here odds ratios (ORs) were used as measures of relative risk comparing donors with different donation frequency. Among 1.4 million donors in the cohort a total of 271 donors developed PV, yielding a SIR of 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89-1.13) compared to the general population. The nested case-control study showed no association between donation frequency and risk of PV. The OR of PV comparing donors who had made at least 33 donations in the period from 3 to 22 years before diagnosis of the case, to donors with one to eight donations in the same period was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.51-1.97). We find no evidence of excess risk of PV among blood donors or of an association between donation frequency and PV risk. © 2016 AABB.

  4. 41 CFR 109-44.702 - Donations to public bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donations to public... AND DISPOSAL 44-DONATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 44.7-Donations of Property to Public Bodies § 109-44.702 Donations to public bodies....

  5. 45 CFR 2544.115 - Who may offer a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation....

  6. 39 CFR 777.51 - Acceptance of donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of donations. 777.51 Section 777.51... ACQUISITION POLICIES Donations § 777.51 Acceptance of donations. Nothing in these regulations shall prevent a person from making a gift or donation of real property or any part thereof, or any interest therein,...

  7. Public Opinion on Organ Donation After Death and Its Influence on Attitudes Toward Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Aijing, Luo; Wenzhao, Xie; Wei, Wei; Qiquan, Wan; Xuantong, Deng

    2016-08-18

    BACKGROUND China officially launched a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2011. Voluntary organ donation by deceased citizens became the only source of transplant organs beginning January 1, 2015. To investigate public opinions on organ donation by deceased donors, and discuss the effect of these opinions on the willingness and attitude of the public regarding voluntary organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We designed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Changsha City, and 417 valid questionnaires were recovered. RESULTS A total of 162 respondents explicitly expressed a willingness to donate organs, and 269 believed that the organ donors' relatives should be compensated. A total of 255 respondents thought it acceptable to complete the donation-consent form when receiving a driver's license. Among the respondents, 65.3% did not agree with the statement "My body is bestowed by my parents, and to donate my body parts would not display filial respect"; 88.9% agreed that "It is necessary to consider the willingness of my family"; 74.4% agreed that "Donated organs have not been fairly and appropriately used; the wealthy and celebrities have been favored"; and 61.4% agreed that "Organ donation laws and regulations are not well developed, and organ donations will result in unnecessary difficulties." More than 80% believed that organ donation and transplantation extend life. CONCLUSIONS Public opinions on organ donation after death are associated with various factors, including traditional values, religious beliefs, compensation mechanisms, donor registration, institutional credibility, and ideals.

  8. Knowledge Regarding Organ Donation and Willingness to Donate among Health Workers in South-West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluyombo, R; Fawale, M B; Ojewola, R W; Busari, O A; Ogunmola, O J; Olanrewaju, T O; Akinleye, C A; Oladosu, Y O; Olamoyegun, M A; Gbadegesin, B A; Obajolowo, O O; Soje, M O; Adelaja, A; Ayodele, L M; Ayodele, O E

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation program in developing countries is still significantly dwarfed. Health workers are undeniably important in the success of transplantation. To assess the knowledge and attitude of health workers toward organ donation in South-West Nigeria with a view to explaining reasons for these shortcomings. In a cross-sectional study conducted on 850 health care workers, self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from participants. Of 850 participants, 766 (90.1%) returned their completed questionnaires. The mean±SD age of participants was 36.7±9.2 years. Majority (93.3%) of participants had heard of organ donation; 82.5% had desirable knowledge. Only 29.5% and 39.4% would be willing to donate and counsel potential organ donors, respectively; 36.5% would consider signing organ donation cards. Only 19.4% believed that organ transplantation is often effective and 63.4% believed they were permitted by their religion to donate. Permission by religion (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.3), good knowledge (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 5.7), readiness to sign donation cards (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.8), discuss organ donation (OR 2.7; 95%CI 8.0 to 63.8), and knowing somebody who had donated (OR 2.9) independently influenced willingness to donate organ. There is disparity in knowledge of organ donation and willingness to donate among health care workers. Efforts should be intensified to give comprehensive and appropriate education to health care workers about organ donation to bridge this gap.

  9. Knowledge Regarding Organ Donation and Willingness to Donate among Health Workers in South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluyombo, R.; Fawale, M. B.; Ojewola, R. W.; Busari, O. A.; Ogunmola, O. J.; Olanrewaju, T. O.; Akinleye, C. A.; Oladosu, Y. O.; Olamoyegun, M. A.; Gbadegesin, B. A.; Obajolowo, O. O.; Soje, M. O.; Adelaja, A.; Ayodele, L. M.; Ayodele, O. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Organ transplantation program in developing countries is still significantly dwarfed. Health workers are undeniably important in the success of transplantation. Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of health workers toward organ donation in South-West Nigeria with a view to explaining reasons for these shortcomings. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted on 850 health care workers, self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from participants. Results: Of 850 participants, 766 (90.1%) returned their completed questionnaires. The mean±SD age of participants was 36.7±9.2 years. Majority (93.3%) of participants had heard of organ donation; 82.5% had desirable knowledge. Only 29.5% and 39.4% would be willing to donate and counsel potential organ donors, respectively; 36.5% would consider signing organ donation cards. Only 19.4% believed that organ transplantation is often effective and 63.4% believed they were permitted by their religion to donate. Permission by religion (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.3), good knowledge (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 5.7), readiness to sign donation cards (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.8), discuss organ donation (OR 2.7; 95%CI 8.0 to 63.8), and knowing somebody who had donated (OR 2.9) independently influenced willingness to donate organ. Conclusion: There is disparity in knowledge of organ donation and willingness to donate among health care workers. Efforts should be intensified to give comprehensive and appropriate education to health care workers about organ donation to bridge this gap. PMID:26889370

  10. To donate or not donate, that is the question: an analysis of the critical factors of blood donation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jefferson Rodrigues; Sousa, Caissa Veloso E; Matos, Eliane Bragança de; Rezende, Leonardo Benedito Oliveira; Bueno, Natália Xavier; Dias, Álvaro Machado

    2016-08-01

    Currently, in Brazil, 1.78% of the population area blood donors, a level lower than the ideal one that, according to WHO, should be between 3% and 5% of the population. Following this scenario, the current study has a general goal of identifying and analyzing the main critical factors of the process of blood donation in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, under the perception of donors, potential donors and non donors. A qualitative research approach was conducted, through twenty-four semi-structured interviews. The results highlight the lack of information in the various stages of the blood donation system. During the stages of donor recruitment and awareness, communication actions convey to society incomplete information about the donation process, discouraging future actions of donation. On the other hand, a lack of appreciation of the donation experience and the construction of social values associated with the donor prevent the multiplication of social behaviors for donation. The results of this study, found from theoretical framework outlined in this study, highlight the causes or critical factors that impede changes in behavior, incremental or radical, proposed by social marketing.

  11. Genes and gestation in Australian regulation of egg donation, surrogacy and mitochondrial donation.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Karinne

    2015-12-01

    This article considers genetic and legal relatedness for the purposes of Australian regulation of egg donation, surrogacy and parentage by examination of that regulation through the lens of mitochondrial (mt) donation. The article addresses whether mt donors would be a child's genetic parents following clinical use in that child's conception should mt donation be legalised for such use in Australia. It then considers how genetic and gestational relatedness are relevant in the discourse around legal parentage following egg donation and surrogacy and argues that the current approach is in need of reform so that intending parents of all children are deemed to be the resulting child's legal parents at birth.

  12. Intra-Family Gamete Donation: A Solution to Concerns Regarding Gamete Donation in China?

    PubMed

    Liao, Juhong; Devolder, Katrien

    2016-09-01

    Gamete donation from third parties is controversial in China as it severs blood ties, which are considered of utmost importance in Confucian tradition. In recent years, infertile couples are increasingly demonstrating a preference for the use of gametes donated by family members to conceive children-known as "intra-family gamete donation." The main advantage of intra-family gamete donation is that it maintains blood ties between children and both parents. To date there is no practice of intra-family gamete donation in China. In this paper, we investigate intra-family adoption in China in order to illustrate that intra-family gamete donation is consistent with Confucian tradition regarding the importance of maintaining blood ties within the family. There are several specific ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation. It may, for example, result in consanguinity and the semblance of incest, lead to confused family relationships, and raise concerns about possible coercion of familial donors. Confucian tradition provides a new approach to understand and deal with these ethical issues in a way that Western tradition does not. As a result, we suggest intra-family gamete donation could be an acceptable solution to the problem of infertility in China. However, further discussion and open debates on the ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation are needed in China.

  13. The challenges of social marketing of organ donation: news and entertainment coverage of donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; Chewning, Lisa V

    2008-01-01

    While great strides have been made in persuading the public to become potential organ donors, actual behavior has not yet caught up with the nearly universally favorable attitudes the public expresses toward donation. This paper explores the issue by situating the social marketing of organ donation against a broader backdrop of entertainment and news media coverage of organ donation. Organ donation storylines are featured on broadcast television in medical and legal dramas, soap operas, and other television serials approximately four times per month (not including most cable networks), and feature storylines that promote myths and fears of the organ donation process. National news and other non-fictionalized coverage of organ donation are even more common, with stories appearing over twenty times a month on average. These stories tend to be one-dimensional and highly sensationalized in their coverage. The marketing of organ donation for entertainment essentially creates a counter-campaign to organ donation, with greater resources and reach than social marketers have access to. Understanding the broader environmental context of organ donation messages highlights the issues faced by social marketing campaigns in persuading the public to become potential donors.

  14. Attitudes towards organ donation and relation to wish to donate posthumously.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Julius; Shaw, David; Schober, Roger; Abati, Viviana; Immer, Franz F; Comité National du Don d'Organes Cndo

    2017-02-06

    Organs donated for transplantation remain a scarce resource in Switzerland. One of the reasons for this situation is the high percentage of patients or families who refuse to consent to donation. This study aimed to provide an overview of attitudes towards organ donation among Swiss residents, including any intention to donate organs after death, and whether they had already declared their wish and/or communicated it to anyone. A representative poll investigating the attitude of the Swiss population towards deceased organ donation was conducted between 16 and 28 March 2015. Survey data were collected in 1000 structured telephone interviews. Participants consisted of residents aged 15 years and over from all Swiss regions, and covering the German, French and Italian language areas. Of the 1000 survey participants, 92% stated that they have a very positive (58%) or quite positive (33%) attitude towards organ donation, while 6% have a very negative (2%) or quite negative (4%) view. Some 81% of respondents said that they would be willing to donate their organs after death, and 9% expressed a wish not to become a donor. A total of 53% of participants said that they had already communicated or documented whether they wish to donate. Our study highlights the importance of continuing to raise awareness about the importance of communicating wishes, both in written form and to family members, and suggests that more work is needed to reap the benefits of the substantial support for organ donation among the Swiss population.

  15. Mixed high energy photon and electron radiation fields for calibrating radiation protection dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Büermann, L; Gargioni, E; Kramer, H M

    2001-01-01

    According to ISO 4037-3, calibrations of radiation protection dosemeters with photon radiation of energies above 3 MeV are performed under conditions of charged particle equilibrium. No information is provided concerning how to determine the response of dosemeters to radiation fields in the more general case when these conditions are not fulfilled. This paper deals with the production of mixed high energy photon and electron fields characterised by a lack or an excess of charged particles relative to conditions of equilibrium and describes a new procedure for the dosimetry in such fields. Through variation of the charged particle fluence fraction with respect to a nearly constant photon fluence, Hp(10) and H'(10) values varied by up to a factor of 1.74. The above mentioned basic study was utilised in the recent IAEA intercomparison (Co-ordinated Research Project 1996-1998) and EURADOS 'trial performance test' (1996-1998) for individual monitoring of photon radiation in testing response characteristics of individual dosemeters in non-charged particle equilibrium conditions.

  16. Selenium and zinc protect brain mitochondrial antioxidants and electron transport chain enzymes following postnatal protein malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Olusegun L; Adenuga, Gbenga A; Sandhir, Rajat

    2016-05-01

    Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are trace elements required for optimal brain functions. Thus, the role of Se and Zn against protein malnutrition induced oxidative stress on mitochondrial antioxidants and electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes from rats' brain were investigated. Normal protein (NP) and low protein (LP) rats were fed with diets containing 16% and 5% casein respectively for a period of 10weeks. Then the rats were supplemented with Se and Zn at a concentration of 0.15mgL(-1) and 227mgL(-1) in drinking water for 3weeks after which the rats were sacrificed. The results obtained from the study showed significant (p<0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), ROS production, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels and mitochondrial swelling and significant (p<0.05) reductions in catalase (CAT) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activities, glutathione (GSH) levels, GSH/GSSG ratio and MTT reduction as a result of LP ingestion. The activities of mitochondrial ETC enzymes were also significantly inhibited in both the cortex and cerebellum of LP-fed rats. Supplementation with either Se or Zn restored the alterations in all the parameters. The study showed that Se and Zn might be beneficial in protecting mitochondrial antioxidants and ETC enzymes against protein malnutrition induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protecting the privacy of individual general practice patient electronic records for geospatial epidemiology research.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Soumya; Konings, Paul; Hewett, Michael; Bagheri, Nasser; McRae, Ian; Del Fante, Peter

    2014-12-01

    General practitioner (GP) practices in Australia are increasingly storing patient information in electronic databases. These practice databases can be accessed by clinical audit software to generate reports that inform clinical or population health decision making and public health surveillance. Many audit software applications also have the capacity to generate de-identified patient unit record data. However, the de-identified nature of the extracted data means that these records often lack geographic information. Without spatial references, it is impossible to build maps reflecting the spatial distribution of patients with particular conditions and needs. Links to socioeconomic, demographic, environmental or other geographically based information are also not possible. In some cases, relatively coarse geographies such as postcode are available, but these are of limited use and researchers cannot undertake precision spatial analyses such as calculating travel times. We describe a method that allows researchers to implement meaningful mapping and spatial epidemiological analyses of practice level patient data while preserving privacy. This solution has been piloted in a diabetes risk research project in the patient population of a practice in Adelaide. The method offers researchers a powerful means of analysing geographic clinic data in a privacy-protected manner. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. 17 CFR 256.426.1 - Donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.426.1 Donations. This account shall include all...

  19. Blood Shortage Prompts Call for Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... to invite a family member, friend or co-worker to donate. SOURCE: American Red Cross, news release, July 5, 2017 HealthDay Copyright (c) 2017 HealthDay . All rights reserved. News stories are written and provided by ...

  20. Pfizer donates drug to South Africa's poor.

    PubMed

    This article reports on Pfizer's AIDS drug donation to South Africa. The donated drug, Diflucan, treats cryptococcal meningitis, a lethal brain infection that occurs in one out of 10 HIV patients. Its daily dose in South Africa costs about US$15, far more than poor people can afford. The HIV and AIDS Treatment Action Campaign, an advocacy group, had lobbied New York-based Pfizer for a year to reduce the drug's price. The donation offered hope among activists that other pharmaceutical companies would follow suit and offer HIV- and AIDS-related drugs at a discount or for free. After the announcement of the donation, the group is now lobbying Glaxo Wellcome, maker of Zidovudine. The group is asking to make the drug available for free to reduce the risk of vertical transmission. Glaxo Wellcome, however, has no plans of offering Zidovudine for free, although the drug was offered 75% cheaper in developing nations.

  1. [Organs, tissues, and cells donation in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Treviño, María Guadalupe; Rivera-Silva, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Transplants are one of the most important advances of modern medicine; in the last 50 years in our country there have been more than fifty thousand transplants, which makes it clear that this is one of the most sought-after medical practices not only in Mexico but worldwide. In life, it is possible for a person to donate a kidney, a lung or a liver segment. When brain death occurs it is possible for a person to donate kidneys, heart, liver, pancreas, intestines, lungs, blood, hematopoietic cells, bone marrow, bones, corneas, heart valves, tendons, and arteries. However, the culture of organ donation is not widespread among Mexicans, hence in our country there is not even 50 % of the number of donations recommended by WHO, which impacts the number of patients who are waiting for an organ or tissue, which causes many of them die before receiving them.

  2. [Cultural diversity in gamete and embryos donation].

    PubMed

    Epelboin, S

    2014-09-01

    Through gamete and embryo donation have successively emerged new ways of designing individuals who, in turn, have generated mutations in the concept of parenthood. A debate is open to the society, which often raises ideological cleavages. Indeed, donation practices mobilize the conflicting interests of donor of gametes, the recipient couple, child, whose origins are complex, although his filiation is legally clear. Its place in the family genealogy can be examined in relation to other societies, which admit plural concepts called "classificatory" kinship. They set up role partition between parents and educators. Setting anthropological perspective provides a broadening of the reflection to answer questions from the donation practices, including genealogical questions of revelation to the child of his conception, his incorporation in family and social group and the importance of compensation of donation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Donation FAQs (Bone and Tissue Allografts)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donation is supported as a way to better human life through transplantation or research. Hinduism There is ... in the Hindu religion indicating that parts of humans cannot be used to alleviate the suffering of ...

  4. Blood Transfusion and Donation - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Transfusion and Donation URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bloodtransfusionanddonation.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  5. Protection of DNA against low-energy electrons by amino acids: a first-principles molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bin; Smyth, Maeve; Kohanoff, Jorge

    2014-11-28

    Using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, we have investigated the notion that amino acids can play a protective role when DNA is exposed to excess electrons produced by ionizing radiation. In this study we focus on the interaction of glycine with the DNA nucleobase thymine. We studied thymine-glycine dimers and a condensed phase model consisting of one thymine molecule solvated in amorphous glycine. Our results show that the amino acid acts as a protective agent for the nucleobase in two ways. If the excess electron is initially captured by the thymine, then a proton is transferred in a barrier-less way from a neighboring hydrogen-bonded glycine. This stabilizes the excess electron by reducing the net partial charge on the thymine. In the second mechanism the excess electron is captured by a glycine, which acts as a electron scavenger that prevents electron localization in DNA. Both these mechanisms introduce obstacles to further reactions of the excess electron within a DNA strand, e.g. by raising the free energy barrier associated with strand breaks.

  6. Campaigning for Organ Donation at Mosques.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-09-01

    There is a trend of recruiting faith leaders at mosques to overcome religious barriers to organ donation, and to increase donor registration among Muslims. Commentators have suggested that Muslims are not given enough information about organ donation in religious sermons or lectures delivered at mosques. Corrective actions have been recommended, such as funding campaigns to promote organ donation, and increasing the availability of organ donation information at mosques. These actions are recommended despite published literature expressing safety concerns (i.e., do no harm) in living and end-of-life organ donation. Living donors require life-long medical follow-up and treatment for complications that can appear years later. Scientific and medical controversies persist regarding the international guidelines for death determination in end-of-life donation. The medical criteria of death lack validation and can harm donors if surgical procurement is performed without general anesthesia and before biological death. In the moral code of Islam, the prevention of harm holds precedence over beneficence. Moral precepts described in the Quran encourage Muslims to be beneficent, but also to seek knowledge prior to making practical decisions. However, the Quran also contains passages that demand honesty and truthfulness when providing information to those who are seeking knowledge. Currently, information is limited to that which encourages donor registration. Campaigning for organ donation to congregations in mosques should adhere to the moral code of complete, rather than selective, disclosure of information. We recommend as a minimal standard the disclosure of risks, uncertainties, and controversies associated with the organ donation process.

  7. Brain death and organ donation of children.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Ramiz Coşkun; Şahin, Şanlıay; Uysal-Yazıcı, Mutlu; Ayar, Ganime; Yakut, Halil İbrahim; Akman, Alkım Öden; Hirfanoğlu, İbrahim Murat; Kalkan, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to define the demographic characteristics, clinical features and outcome of patients with brain death, and to emphasize the importance of organ donation from children. Data for the period from September 2009 to October 2012 were collected retrospectively. Twenty children who were diagnosed as brain death were included. Data including demographics, major cause leading to brain death, duration of brain death evaluation, ancillary tests used to confirm brain death, complications and outcome, duration of hospitalization and organ donation were collected for statistical evaluation. The mean age was 6.2 years, and the male/female ratio 1.85. The major cause leading to brain death was most often traumatic brain injury, seen in 11 patients (55%). The mean duration of brain death evaluation was 6.7 and 1.7 days in Centers I and II respectively. The mean duration of hospitalization was 12.5 days. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used in 18 patients (90%). Complications included hyperglycemia in 13 cases and diabetes incipitus in 7 cases (65% and 35%, respectively). Mean duration of survival was 9.8 days. In Center I, one of the patients' parents gave consent to organ donation, while four parents in Center II agreed to organ donation. The study demonstrated that the duration of brain death evaluation was longer in Center I than in Center II (p<0.05). When both centers were compared, there was no significant difference in regard to obtaining consent for organ donation, survival after diagnosis of brain death and length of stay in the PICU (p>0.05). Early diagnosis of brain death and prompt evaluation of patients by ICU physicians once the diagnosis is taken into consideration will probably yield better organs and reduce costs. Training PICU physicians, nurses and organ donation coordinators, and increasing children's awareness of the need for organ donation via means of public communication may increase families' rate of agreement to organ donation in the future.

  8. [Blood donation in the light of anthropology].

    PubMed

    Pottier, R

    2017-07-24

    In his well-known Essai sur le don, French anthropologist Marcel Mauss has shown that in all societies, donation and exchange of gifts are part of people's commitments. Although systematically denied, that obligation is one of the main sources of sociability. In this respect, blood donation can be considered as a very common act, except that, since blood comes from human body, that act is, at the same time, very special and meaningful. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  9. [New conditions for organ donation in France].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Corinne; Maroudy, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The procurement of organs from donors after circulatory death is a reliable technique which gives satisfactory posttransplant results and also represents a potential source of additional organs. In order to meet the growing need for organ donations, the 'anticipated organ donation approach' procedure is currently receiving renewed interest with new conditions for its implementation in France. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. 75 FR 8080 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Investigating the Causes of Post Donation Information (PDI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... a health history screening questionnaire to obtain eligibility information for the protection of the donor and recipient prior to blood donation. However, the health history process is known to be error... events have occurred. The reasons why donors fail to disclose a deferrable history at the time of one...

  11. Transformation of organ donation in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Li; Gao, Xinpu; Wang, Haibo; Zhu, Youhua

    2015-04-01

    The organ donation system in China has far lagged behind international levels. Transformation of this situation began in July 2005. A complete organ donation system that ensures fairness, impartiality, transparency, and respect for life has now been developed. This system is composed of regulations and policies, an organizational structure, operational guidelines, organ procurement organizations, registration of donors and recipients, and an organ allocation system. Since March 2010, pilot trials on donation after circulatory death (DCD) have been carried out. In 4 years, organ donation has started in 25 of 32 provinces in the country. From 2010 to 2013, the ratio of DCD liver transplantation to total case numbers in China rose from 1.38% to 26.1%, whereas for kidney, the ratio were 0.59% and 24.6%, respectively. The total number of DCD in China has accumulated to 1564 cases, and 4243 organs were transplanted. To alleviate the further difficulties of donation, establishment of professional organ procurement organizations in transplant hospitals, legislation of brain death, and promulgation of legal guidelines on DCD will be the main targets of organ donation development in China.

  12. Causes of family refusal for organ donation.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, F; Khoddami-Vishteh, H R; Ghobadi, O; Shafaghi, S; Louyeh, A Rostami; Najafizadeh, K

    2011-03-01

    Family refusal represents a barrier for organ donation together with other cultural and religious factors possible ignorance and clinical obstacles. We performed this retrospective study by phone employing our organ procurement unit database, using a list of families of potential organ donors who had refused organ donation. In 2009, 146 potential organ donor families refused donation. We contacted 81 families. The main reason expressed by there families to justify the refusal to donate the deceased's organs was denial and rejection of brain-death criteria (44.4%). Other causes were believing in a miracle (13.6%); fear about organ trade and unknown organ destination (9.9%); religious beliefs (8.6%); insecutrity about the brain-death diagnosis (6.2%); unstable family mood (6.2%); unknown donor wishes about donation (4.9%); belief in body integrity after death (3.7%); and fear of objection by other family members (2.5%). Our findings showed several reasons for family refusal for organ donation; among the main cause is poor acceptance of brain death. It seems that increasing the knowledge of people about brain death and organizing strategies to confirm brain death for families are necessary to meet the organ shortage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Free blood donation mobile applications.

    PubMed

    Ouhbi, Sofia; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali; Pozo, José Rivera

    2015-05-01

    Blood donation (BD) is a noble act and mobile applications (apps) can help increase awareness about it. This paper analyzes and assesses the characteristics of free apps for BD as regards features and functionality. A search in Google Play, Apple Apps store, Blackberry App World and Windows Mobile App store was carried out to select 169 free BD apps from the 188 apps identified. The results presented in this paper show that the majority of the apps selected have been developed for the Android operating system. Moreover, most of the apps selected are available to help users search for donors. Few of the apps could not be installed and/or accessed. Of those that could be installed: half of them do not require any kind of authentication; a few of them are available in more than one language; half of them have a geographical restriction; around 60 % of them do not notify the user of BD events and requests; one, which is available for Android and iOS, can connect with a laboratory; around 45 % of them allow users to share information via social networks, and the majority of them do not provide BD recommendations. These results are used as a basis to provide app developers with certain recommendations. There is a need for better BD apps with more features in order to increase the number of volunteer donors.

  14. The capacity for thermal protection of photosynthetic electron transport varies for different monoterpenes in Quercus ilex.

    PubMed

    Copolovici, Lucian O; Filella, Iolanda; Llusià, Joan; Niinemets, Ulo; Peñuelas, Josep

    2005-09-01

    Heat stress resistance of foliar photosynthetic apparatus was investigated in the Mediterranean monoterpene-emitting evergreen sclerophyll species Quercus ilex. Leaf feeding with fosmidomycin, which is a specific inhibitor of the chloroplastic isoprenoid synthesis pathway, essentially stopped monoterpene emission and resulted in the decrease of the optimum temperature of photosynthetic electron transport from approximately 38 degrees C to approximately 30 degrees C. The heat stress resistance was partly restored by fumigation with 4 to 5 nmol mol(-1) air concentrations of monoterpene alpha-pinene but not with fumigations with monoterpene alcohol alpha-terpineol. Analyses of monoterpene physicochemical characteristics demonstrated that alpha-pinene was primarily distributed to leaf gas and lipid phases, while alpha-terpineol was primarily distributed to leaf aqueous phase. Thus, for a common monoterpene uptake rate, alpha-terpineol is less efficient in stabilizing membrane liquid-crystalline structure and as an antioxidant in plant membranes. Furthermore, alpha-terpineol uptake rate (U) strongly decreased with increasing temperature, while the uptake rates of alpha-pinene increased with increasing temperature, providing a further explanation of the lower efficiency of thermal protection by alpha-terpineol. The temperature-dependent decrease of alpha-terpineol uptake was both due to decreases in stomatal conductance, g(w), and increased volatility of alpha-terpineol at higher temperature that decreased the monoterpene diffusion gradient between the ambient air (F(A)) and leaf (F(I); U = g(w)[F(A) - F(I)]). Model analyses suggested that alpha-pinene reacted within the leaf at higher temperatures, possibly within the lipid phase, thereby avoiding the decrease in diffusion gradient, F(A) - F(I). Thus, these data contribute to the hypothesis of the antioxidative protection of leaf membranes during heat stress by monoterpenes. These data further suggest that fumigation

  15. A historical cohort study of the effect of lowering body iron through blood donation on incident cardiac events.

    PubMed

    Meyers, David G; Jensen, Kelly C; Menitove, Jay E

    2002-09-01

    Low body iron may protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease through limiting oxidation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Observational studies suggest that donation of whole blood might be associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events. In this retrospective cohort study, a total of 1508 adults who donated more than 1 unit of whole blood each year between 1988 and 1990 (frequent donors) and 1508 age- and sex-matched adults who donated only a single unit in that 3-year period (casual donors) were studied. A standardized questionnaire ascertained participant characteristics and occurrence of incident acute myocardial infarction, coronary angioplasty, coronary bypass surgery, and deaths between 1990 and 2000. Hospital records confirmed events. Cause of death was determined from death certificates. A total of 643 subjects were lost, 113 declined, 156 were deceased but were included in the analysis, and 2104 were surveyed a median of 10 years after the index donation. Frequent donors weighed less and were less likely to be currently taking antihypertensive and lipid-modifying drugs. Events occurred in 6.3 percent of frequent and 10.5 percent of casual donors. After adjustment for group differences, the OR was D.60 (85% CIs 0.43, 0.83; p < 0.001). Events were less frequent in female donors than in male donors and less frequent in subjects who had donated before 1988 than in those who had not donated before 1988. Frequent and long-term whole blood donation is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events.

  16. Attitudes of patients, healthcare professionals and ethicists towards embryonic stem cell research and donation of gametes and embryos in Germany.

    PubMed

    Krones, T; Neuwohner, E; Bock, K; Manolopoulos, K; Tinneberg, H R; Richter, G

    2006-11-01

    Due to the Embryo Protection Act, creation of supernumerary embryos, as well as egg and embryo donation, is prohibited in Germany. Human stem cell research is regulated through the Act on stem cells that came into force in 2002. A cross-sectional survey of 101 IVF couples (n=202) in two fertility centres, and representative samples of healthcare professionals and ethicists (n=879), was carried out, and their attitudes towards embryonic stem cell research and donation of gametes and embryos compared. A clear majority of IVF couples favoured legalization of egg and embryo donation and embryonic stem cell research for various purposes. The willingness of couples to donate was related to purpose and to other independent influences. The majority of physicians voted for legalization of embryonic stem cell production from surplus embryos. Most human geneticists and obstetricians approved egg, but not embryo, donation to other couples. Ethicists and midwives were opposed to every kind of donation and research on surplus embryos. The IVF couples surveyed have positive attitudes towards donation and research using surplus embryos, whereas the healthcare professionals and ethicists are predominantly sceptical about most research activities destroying human embryos. This difference should be considered carefully in legal and ethical discussions on reprogenetics.

  17. The Independent Living Donor Advocate: An Essential Role for Living Kidney Donation.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Karen C

    2014-01-01

    Prior to 2007, living kidney donors who donated a kidney to a person with chronic kidney disease were screened, educated, and cared for by the same healthcare team caring for the recipient of the transplant. The independent living donor advocate or advocate team was created out of the need to ensure that the rights of the person donating a kidney are protected, respected, and maintained. Transplant programs must now have an advocate or advocate team who is separate from the recipient healthcare team to provide objective support for the donor, without regard for the recipient, and avoid any perception of a conflict of interest between the donor and recipient.

  18. Pregnancy and birth rates after oocyte donation.

    PubMed

    Remohí, J; Gartner, B; Gallardo, E; Yalil, S; Simón, C; Pellicer, A

    1997-04-01

    To determine accumulated conception and live birth rates in ovum donation. Retrospective study from a computer database. Pregnancies with one gestational sac observed by ultrasound have been included as conceptional cycles and pregnancies that resulted in one live child were recorded for the analysis of the live birth rates. Life table analysis was applied. Oocyte donation program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Three hundred ninety-seven recipients undergoing a total of 627 ETs were analyzed. Ovarian stimulation and ovum pick-up in donors. Uterine ET in recipients after appropriate exogenous steroid replacement. Accumulated and estimated (95% confidence intervals [CI]) conception and live birth rates in the oocyte donation program as well as considering age and cause of infertility of the recipients. Pregnancy rate after one cycle was 53.4% (CI 50.9% to 55.9%), with a delivery rate of 42.6% (CI 40.1% to 45.1%). Accumulated pregnancy rate increased up to 94.8% (CI 90.6% to 99.0%) after four transfers. Similarly, live birth rates reached 88.7% (CI 88.1% to 89.3%) after four attempts of ET by ovum donation. Cycle fecundity rates were maintained at approximately 50% after each attempt. Implantation rate was 18.3% (430/2,340 replaced embryos). Age and cause of entering the program did not influence the overall results of ovum donation. Oocyte donation is a successful treatment modality for infertile couples that offers even higher success rates than natural conception. No difference in cumulative pregnancy rate was observed regardless of recipient age, indication for oocyte donation, or number of cycles attempted.

  19. [Organ donation after death in Moroccan population].

    PubMed

    Esqalli, Imane; Knidiri, Hafssa; Mahoungou, Gael; Aitlahcen, Zineb; Fadili, Wafaa; Laouad, Inass

    2015-07-01

    Morocco stays far behind other countries in the domain of organ donation and transplantation. Improving the knowledge of Moroccan students, about organ donation and transplantation, can be a key factor in the development of transplant activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of students concerning organ donation and transplantation. The opinion survey was conducted in Marrakech city, with four high education structures with a pre-established questionnaire. The survey questions answered four main themes, which are: the evaluation of knowledge, the opinion and attitude of citizen, the explanation of refusal and the propositions to encourage organ donation in Morocco. Hundred percent of surveyed subjects answered the questionnaire. Among them, 40.3% were men. The middle age was 21.5 years. Out of 503 surveyed students, 89.4% were aware of organ transplant in Morocco. A quarter of students believed that removal and transplant acts were realized just in public health establishments, which have the authorization. Two persons out of 3 were able to identify transplantable organs and tissues. More than half accepted to donate their organs after death. The religious reason was in the head list of refusal determinants of organ donation after death, with a prevalence of 39.7%. Young Moroccans have limited knowledge relating to organ donation. The development of this therapy needs to establish an adequate project of information and motivation of general population. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Organ donation consanguinity or universality.

    PubMed

    Kishore, R R

    1996-01-01

    1. Neither the "Diseased Persons" nor the "Genetic Relations" provide an answer to "trading" in human body parts. 2. Live human body constitutes a vital source of supply of organs and tissues and the possibilities of optimum utilisation should be explored. 3. There is no scope for dogmatic postures and open-mindedness should be the approach while dealing with the issue of Organ Transplantation. 4. Society owes a duty to save the file of a dying man and in the event of failure to do so, it is absolutely immoral to interfere with his own arrangements by making unrealistic laws. No immorality is involved if an individual disposes of his spare body parts for a valid consideration to a needy person. 5. The scarcity needs to be urgently overcome otherwise unwarranted trade and crime are liable to thrive. 6. Families are not unconnected or antagonistic fragments of humanity. After thousands of years of continuous efforts the individuals on this earth have attained the stage of organic and functional integration. Atomisation of society on the basis of consanguineous proximities amounts to reversing this holistic trend. Organ transplantation is a functional expression of a highly evolved pursuit with inherent and intimate interaction in the form of organic exchange at the individual level, independent of consanguineous inducements or motivations. As such there is absolutely no scope for restricting organ donations by strangers. 7. Commercialisation should be curbed by making the enforcement agencies more efficient and not by depriving a needy person of his genuine requirements. Legislative craftsmanship lies in providing an answer without curtailing the freedom of the people.

  1. The rate of anti-HIV seropositivity among donated cadavers: experience in a cadaver donation center.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Agthong, Sithiporn

    2002-01-01

    Cadavers are crucial for the medical education provided by medical schools. However, currently, donation is the only way to obtain cadavers for education in Thailand. Moreover, some traditional beliefs result in insufficient numbers of cadavers. Apart from finding donors, the occupational health of the workers in the cadaver donation center and the users, the medical students, residents, and staffs should be addressed. Screening for anti-HIV in donated organs is the current trend in transplantation medicine. Therefore, screening for anti-HIV in donated cadavers is useful. Here, we report the rate of anti-HIV seropositivity in cadavers in a 1-year period in our setting, the largest Thai Red Cross Society hospital. Of the total 84 cadavers received, two cadavers (2.4%) were anti-HIV seropositive. With the increasing rate of anti-HIV, screening for anti-HIV serology in donated cadavers for medical teaching is of great benefit.

  2. Consenting to donation: an examination of current practices in informed consent for tissue donation in the US

    PubMed Central

    Siminoff, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Informed consent is the primary moral principle guiding the donation of human tissue for transplant purposes. When patients’ donation wishes are not known, family members making the decision about tissue donation should be provided with requisite information needed to make informed donation decisions. Using a unique dataset of 1,016 audiotaped requests for tissue obtained from 15 US tissue banking organizations, we examined whether the information provided to families considering tissue donation met current standards for informed consent. The results indicated that many elements of informed consent were missing from the donation discussions, including the timeframe for procurement, autopsy issues, the involvement of both for-profit and nonprofit organizations, and the processing, storage and distribution of donated tissue. A multiple linear regression analysis also revealed that nonwhites and family members of increased age received less information regarding tissue donation than did younger, white decision makers. Recommendations for improving the practice of obtaining consent to tissue donation are provided. PMID:22395736

  3. Donation after circulatory death: burying the dead donor rule.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, David; Smith, Maxwell J; Lazar, Neil M

    2011-08-01

    Despite continuing controversies regarding the vital status of both brain-dead donors and individuals who undergo donation after circulatory death (DCD), respecting the dead donor rule (DDR) remains the standard moral framework for organ procurement. The DDR increases organ supply without jeopardizing trust in transplantation systems, reassuring society that donors will not experience harm during organ procurement. While the assumption that individuals cannot be harmed once they are dead is reasonable in the case of brain-dead protocols, we argue that the DDR is not an acceptable strategy to protect donors from harm in DCD protocols. We propose a threefold alternative to justify organ procurement practices: (1) ensuring that donors are sufficiently protected from harm; (2) ensuring that they are respected through informed consent; and (3) ensuring that society is fully informed of the inherently debatable nature of any criterion to declare death.

  4. Worldwide variability in deceased organ donation registries

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Amanda M; Li, Alvin Ho-Ting; Roels, Leo; Stewart, Bryan; Prakash, Versha; Beitel, Janice; Young, Kimberly; Shemie, Sam; Nickerson, Peter; Garg, Amit X

    2012-01-01

    The variability in deceased organ donation registries worldwide has received little attention. We considered all operating registries, where individual wishes about organ donation were recorded in a computerized database. We included registries which recorded an individual's decision to be a donor (donor registry), and registries which only recorded an individual's objection (non-donor registry). We collected information on 15 characteristics including history, design, use and number of registrants for 27 registries (68%). Most registries are nationally operated and government-owned. Registrations in five nations expire and require renewal. Some registries provide the option to make specific organ selections in the donation decision. Just over half of donor registries provide legally binding authorization to donation. In all national donor registries, except one, the proportion of adults (15+) registered is modest (<40%). These proportions can be even lower when only affirmative decisions are considered. One nation provides priority status on the transplant waiting list as an incentive to affirmative registration, while another nation makes registering a donation decision mandatory to obtain a driver's license. Registered objections in non-donor registries are rare (<0.5%). The variation in organ donor registries worldwide necessitates public discourse and quality improvement initiatives, to identify and support leading practices in registry use. PMID:22507140

  5. [Blood donation in foreign populations in Marseille].

    PubMed

    Duboz, Priscilla; Boëtsch, Gilles; Cunéo, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Blood donations by populations from the Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa are a public health necessity for reasons of genetic polymorphism. This article aims to determine whether blood donors' social characteristics ? i.e. greater socio-economic integration and a strong sense of citizenship ? constitute deterrents to blood donation among foreign populations. Results show that donors from the Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa are not better integrated than non-donors from the same areas. However, blood donors express a significantly greater sense of citizenship than non-donors. Donors from the Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa feel a greater sense of citizenship than non-donors from the same areas. The study of blood donation in these categories of population has two major implications. In biological terms, blood donation by foreign populations constitutes a response to transfusion needs. In cultural terms, blood donation is used by populations from the Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa as an active means of expressing their sense of citizenship.

  6. Modifiable factors influencing relatives' decision to offer organ donation: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Simpkin, Arabella L; Robertson, Laura C; Barber, Vicki S; Young, J Duncan

    2009-04-21

    To identify modifiable factors that influence relatives' decision to allow organ donation. Systematic review. Medline, Embase, and CINAHL, without language restriction, searched to April 2008. Review methods Three authors independently assessed the eligibility of the identified studies. We excluded studies that examined only factors affecting consent that could not be altered, such as donor ethnicity. We extracted quantitative results to an electronic database. For data synthesis, we summarised the results of studies comparing similar themes. We included 20 observational studies and audits. There were no randomised controlled trials. The main factors associated with reduced rates of refusal were the provision of adequate information on the process of organ donation and its benefits; high quality of care of potential organ donors; ensuring relatives had a clear understanding of brain stem death; separating the request for organ donation from notification that the patient had died; making the request in a private setting; and using trained and experienced individuals to make the request. Limited evidence suggests that there are modifiable factors in the process of requests for organ donation, in particular the skills of the individual making the request and the timing of this conversation, that might have a significant impact on rates of consent. Targeting these factors might have a greater and more immediate effect on the number of organs for donation than legislative or other long term strategies.

  7. Body donation in India: social awareness, willingness, and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Rokade, Shrikant A; Gaikawad, Anjana P

    2012-01-01

    With the attendant rise of the number of medical colleges in India over past few decades, the demand for cadavers used in medical education and research is growing. However, there is an insufficient supply of donated cadavers available for dissection. This study was undertaken to assess the general population's awareness of body donation programs and willingness to donate in the State of Maharashtra, India. The willingness of participants to donate was compared with age, gender, and education of the respondents. A total of 625 adult individuals from the State of Maharashtra participated in a survey composed of questions about age, sex, education, awareness of body donation programs, and willingness to donate. It was found that 90.9% of the medical colleges surveyed reported an inadequate supply of cadavers. Of the general population, 32.1% of respondents were aware of body donation, compared to 95.83% of health care professionals. However, only 19.5% of the general population and 44.9% of health care professionals were willing to donate their bodies for anatomical education. Younger age groups, males, graduates, and postgraduates were found more willing to donate their bodies. Organ donation was preferred over body donation. A lack of awareness about body donation was the main factor responsible for respondents' "no body donation" response in the general population, along with firm religious beliefs and customs, the fear that the donated body will not be treated with respect and dignity, and the unacceptability of the dissection of one's own body. To overcome the current shortage of donated cadavers, efforts should be undertaken to change the mindset of the wider Indian society toward body donation. The authors believe this is possible through awareness campaigns and that prospective donors' concerns should be addressed appropriately. Proper guidance and assistance regarding body donation should be easily available for potential donors.

  8. Application of implicit attitude measures to the blood donation context.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Regina M; France, Christopher R; France, Janis L

    2012-02-01

    Past blood donation research has relied on explicit (self-report) measures to understand blood donation motivations, but has not yet considered the inherent implicit or automatic processing involved in decision-making. This study addresses this limitation by introducing and validating two novel implicit measures of blood donation attitudes. Healthy young adults (n = 253) performed both image and word versions of a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT) and then completed self-report measures of blood donation attitudes, blood and needle fears, social desirability, and donation intention. These results affirmed the validity of the blood donation ST-IATs in at least three ways. First, as expected, nondonors demonstrated more negative implicit donation attitudes than donors. Second, the implicit measures were significantly related in expected directions with explicit measures of donation attitudes as well as blood and needle fears. Finally, implicit donation attitudes were significantly related to donation intention, and the Image ST-IAT (but not the Word ST-IAT) significantly enhanced prediction of donation intention over and above needle fears and marginally enhanced prediction over and above blood fears. Image and word versions of the blood donation ST-IAT offer a valid method of assessing underlying automatic attitudes toward blood donation. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Giving Your Last Gift: A Study of the Knowledge, Attitude and Information of Greek Students Regarding Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Katsari, Vasiliki; Domeyer, Philip J; Sarafis, Pavlos; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2015-07-02

    Organ donation rates in Greece are the lowest in the European Union. Studying and improving young students' awareness may increase organ donation rates. This study aimed to investigate young students' knowledge, attitude and information regarding organ donation and whether they are modified by putative predictors. A 62-item electronic questionnaire was sent to 1451 eligible students aged 18-30 years in 16 Greek public technical schools. Two composite scales (knowledge and attitude) were created. The multivariate statistical analysis included ordinal logistic and linear regression, as appropriate. Only 37.9% of the students knew the correct definition of organ donation, 40.3% knew which organs can be donated, 27.4% were informed about the new Greek legislation, and 83.1% acknowledged the need for better information. Although 60.5% would donate an organ after death, only 16.1% would become living donors. Although 83.1% of the students declared knowing what brain death means, 18.6% believe that a brain-dead person could fully recover and 32.3% are unsure about it. Being a health professional or a blood donor, the parent's educational level, the wish to donate all organs after death, the information from announcements or posters, the fear of organ removal after death without prior consent, the consent for autopsy, the wish for better information, and the misbelief that a brain-dead person could fully recover emerged as important predictors of the knowledge and attitude, regarding organ donation. An important lack of knowledge and misperceptions were noted regarding organ donation. Significant predictors were identified.

  10. Payment for egg donation and surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Steinbock, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This article examines the ethics of egg donation. It begins by looking at objections to noncommercial gamete donation, and then takes up criticism of commercial egg donation. After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically acceptable. Donors should not be paid for their eggs, but rather they should be compensated for the burdens of egg retrieval. Making the distinction between compensation for burdens and payment for a product has the advantages of limiting payment, not distinguishing between donors on the basis of their traits, and ensuring that donors are paid regardless of the number or quality of eggs retrieved.

  11. [Blood donation: mechanic solidarity versus organic solidarity].

    PubMed

    Pereima, Rosane Suely May Rodrigues; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Martini, Jussara Gue; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    The article offers a reflection of blood donation in an hemocenter of Santa Catarina, with a mechanic and organic solidarity approach. It discuss the way of life in contemporary globalization and the cult of speed in a context pervaded by uncertainties and adversities. People live in a fast world, making social interaction difficult, contributing to the weakening of values and attitudes that could improve the quality of life. Considering the difficulties of everyday contemporary society, concerning Brazilian hemotherapy history on blood donation, there is a perception that attitudes and values, such as solidarity, have been modifying in subtle ways with a background of current events. It searches for understanding of blood donation as mechanic and organic solidarity.

  12. [Kidney donation by living donors. Surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Baier, P K; Pisarski, P; Wimmenauer, S; Kirste, G

    1999-01-01

    The living donation of kidneys is gaining importance as a possible way to give a transplant to patients with terminal renal insufficiency. However we do not yet have experience with all the possibilities arising from this method. In particular, there is caution caused by the risks of the donor operation. In this context, the method is discussed according to the literature and our own experience of 89 living kidney donations. In our own practice with living donations, we have a success rate with 96% after 4 years and 82% after 16 years. We observed complications including wound infections (10.7%), haemorrhage, hernia and neurological complications (each 2.7%). When performed by specialists, the donor operation is safe and is a responsible alternative to the transplantation of cadaver kidneys, which opens up new possibilities in these times of organ shortage.

  13. Blood donation and testosterone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Chin-Yee, Benjamin; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Butler-Foster, Terrie; Hsia, Cyrus; Chin-Yee, Ian

    2017-03-01

    Polycythemia is the most common adverse effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) and may predispose patients to adverse vascular events. Current Canadian guidelines recommend regular laboratory monitoring and discontinuing TRT or reducing the dose if the hematocrit exceeds 54% (hemoglobin ≥180 g/L). This threshold has been interpreted by some physicians and patients to indicate the need for phlebotomy or blood donation while on TRT. We reviewed all male blood donors in Southwestern Ontario at Canadian Blood Services from December 2013 to March 2016 who self-identified or were found on donor screening to be on TRT. Hemoglobin concentration was measured at the time of donation or clinic visit and with each subsequent appointment in repeat donors. We identified 39 patients on TRT who presented for blood donation over a 2-year period. The mean hemoglobin level at all clinic visits was 173 g/L (range, 134-205 g/L; n = 108). Hemoglobin concentrations of 180 g/L or more (calculated hematocrit, ≥54%) were measured at 25% of appointments. Of the 27 repeat donors, 12 (44%) had persistently elevated hemoglobin levels (≥180 g/L) at subsequent donations. Hemoglobin concentrations were elevated in donors on TRT, and significant numbers had hemoglobin levels above those recommended by current guidelines. These data also suggest that repeat blood donation was insufficient to maintain a hematocrit below 54%. Our findings raise concerns about the persistent risk of vascular events in these donors, particularly when coupled with the misperception by patients and health care providers that donation has reduced or eliminated the risks of TRT-induced polycythemia. © 2017 AABB.

  14. Blood donors and factors impacting the blood donation decision: motives for donating blood in Turkish sample.

    PubMed

    Karacan, Eda; Cengiz Seval, Guldane; Aktan, Zeynep; Ayli, Meltem; Palabiyikoglu, Refia

    2013-12-01

    Donations in Turkey are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients and increasing demands for blood due to advanced surgery and cancer treatment. The most acceptable means to get blood is voluntary blood donation and the blood donor system in Turkey mostly depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The main aim of this study is to explore the motivations of Turkish voluntary blood donors toward blood donation and to determine predictors of blood donation motivation. A cross-sectional sample survey of active blood donors in Ankara, Turkey was conducted. The sample consisted of 189 male volunteer blood donor adults. Donors filled in a self-administered questionnaire including the measures of demographic information, empathetic concern, altruism, social responsibility and blood donation motivation questionnaire during donation. Factor analysis of Blood Donation Motivation Measure with varimax rotation revealed a three-factor solution named as "values and moral duty", "positive feelings and esteem" and "self-benefit and external reasons". The results with regression analyses showed that only social responsibility had an significant effect independent of age, income, and education on blood donation motivation. These result reflects that blood donation motivation not only linked to a high degree of altruistic reasons, but also to a combination of some self-regarding motives. Additionally, feelings of empathy or altruism may be less strong at the time the decision to help, other factors may have a larger influence on helping decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... health information created, maintained, and exchanged: (a) Encryption and decryption of electronic health information—(1) General. Any encryption algorithm identified by the National Institute of Standards and...

  16. "The Tramp", a blood donation propagandist?

    PubMed

    Lefrère, J-J; Garraud, O

    2016-02-01

    The French pioneer for blood transfusion, who eventually organized the very early blood transfusion centers worldwide, went to imagine a scenario written in purpose for Charlie Chaplin, the unique character of "The Tramp" ("Charlot" in French). The movie Star was offered to feature a blood donation propagandist, and no longer the perpetual, well-known, "loser". This anecdote, besides being amusing, tells a lot on how Arnault Tzank encompassed all the difficulties in collecting blood enough to meet the demand, at all times; his proposal turns out to be extremely modern and questions nowadays marketing for blood donation.

  17. Organ Donation: Don't Let These Myths Confuse You

    MedlinePlus

    ... be a lifesaver. If you've never considered organ donation or delayed becoming a donor because of possibly inaccurate information, here are answers to some common organ donation myths and concerns. Myth: If I agree to ...

  18. Blood Shortage Prompts Red Cross Call for Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Blood Shortage Prompts Red Cross Call for Donations Says decline in donors seen over holidays To ... 2017 FRIDAY, Jan. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Blood donations to the American Red Cross have slumped recently, ...

  19. 50 CFR 12.36 - Donation or loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... any time. (c) Wildlife and plants may be donated to individual American Indians for the practice of traditional American Indian religions. Any donation of the parts of bald or golden eagles to American...

  20. 41 CFR 109-44.702 - Donations to public bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... bodies. 109-44.702 Section 109-44.702 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... AND DISPOSAL 44-DONATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 44.7-Donations of Property to Public Bodies § 109-44.702 Donations to public bodies. ...

  1. 32 CFR 644.495 - Donation to a public body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Donation to a public body. 644.495 Section 644... Land) § 644.495 Donation to a public body. A public body, as defined by GSA for this purpose, means any.... Property as to which findings of fact have been made, may be donated to a public body. ...

  2. 32 CFR 644.495 - Donation to a public body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Donation to a public body. 644.495 Section 644... Land) § 644.495 Donation to a public body. A public body, as defined by GSA for this purpose, means any.... Property as to which findings of fact have been made, may be donated to a public body. ...

  3. 32 CFR 644.495 - Donation to a public body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Donation to a public body. 644.495 Section 644... Land) § 644.495 Donation to a public body. A public body, as defined by GSA for this purpose, means any.... Property as to which findings of fact have been made, may be donated to a public body. ...

  4. 41 CFR 109-44.702 - Donations to public bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... bodies. 109-44.702 Section 109-44.702 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... AND DISPOSAL 44-DONATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 44.7-Donations of Property to Public Bodies § 109-44.702 Donations to public bodies. ...

  5. 41 CFR 109-44.702 - Donations to public bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... bodies. 109-44.702 Section 109-44.702 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... AND DISPOSAL 44-DONATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 44.7-Donations of Property to Public Bodies § 109-44.702 Donations to public bodies. ...

  6. 32 CFR 644.495 - Donation to a public body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Donation to a public body. 644.495 Section 644... Land) § 644.495 Donation to a public body. A public body, as defined by GSA for this purpose, means any.... Property as to which findings of fact have been made, may be donated to a public body. ...

  7. 41 CFR 109-44.702 - Donations to public bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... bodies. 109-44.702 Section 109-44.702 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... AND DISPOSAL 44-DONATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 44.7-Donations of Property to Public Bodies § 109-44.702 Donations to public bodies. ...

  8. 23 CFR 710.505 - Real property donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Real property donations. 710.505 Section 710.505 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.505 Real property donations. (a) Donations...

  9. 23 CFR 710.505 - Real property donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property donations. 710.505 Section 710.505 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.505 Real property donations. (a) Donations...

  10. Blood Donation and Transfusion: A Primer for Health Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felts, W. Michael; Glascoff, Mary A.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a primer for health educators about blood donation and transfusion, examining the nature of human blood, the background of blood transfusion, blood donation criteria, risks related to homologous blood transfusion, directed blood donation, potential alternatives to homologous transfusion, and resources for education on the subject. (SM)

  11. 78 FR 20217 - National Donate Life Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... commitment to one another. During National Donate Life Month, we renew the call for organ and tissue donation... the facts about organ and tissue donation, consider signing up for their State's registry, and talk to... the waiting list for an organ transplant. To help them get the care they need, millions of...

  12. 76 FR 18631 - National Donate Life Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... organ and tissue donation. More than 110,000 individuals are now on the national waiting list for organ... the decision to be an organ and tissue donor. I encourage all Americans to say yes to donation by... considering organ donation, Americans should consult their family members, doctor, or faith leader about...

  13. 12 CFR 701.25 - Charitable contributions and donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charitable contributions and donations. 701.25... ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.25 Charitable contributions and donations. (a) A... directors must approve charitable contributions and/or donations, and the approval must be based on...

  14. 18 CFR 367.4261 - Account 426.1, Donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 426.1, Donations. 367.4261 Section 367.4261 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY..., Donations. This account must include all payments or donations for charitable, social or community...

  15. 48 CFR 31.205-8 - Contributions or donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributions or donations. 31.205-8 Section 31.205-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-8 Contributions or donations. Contributions or donations, including cash, property...

  16. 42 CFR 433.66 - Permissible provider-related donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible provider-related donations. 433.66... Requirements State Financial Participation § 433.66 Permissible provider-related donations. (a) General rule... provider-related donations without a reduction in FFP, only in accordance with the requirements of...

  17. 78 FR 3023 - Draft Policy on Donations, Fundraising, and Solicitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service RIN 1018-AY36 Draft Policy on Donations, Fundraising, and Solicitation AGENCY..., and provides general guidance on fundraising by non-Federal entities on the Service's behalf. It also..., fundraising, and solicitation. While donations can be a means to further our mission, not all donations...

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of mosque imams regarding organ donation.

    PubMed

    Keten, Hamit Sirri; Keten, Derya; Ucer, Huseyin; Cerit, Mustafa; Isik, Oguz; Miniksar, Okkes Hakan; Ersoy, Ozgur

    2014-11-17

    In this study we aimed to determine knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of mosque imams regarding organ donation. This study involved 322 mosque imams working in Kahramanmaras, a city in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. A questionnaire was used to determine participants' sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding organ donation. Out of a total of 322 participants, 253 (78.6%) stated that organ donation is allowed in Islam, while 5 (1.6%) expressed that it is religiously forbidden, and 64 (19.9%) stated that they have no idea about the issue. Only 2 (0.6%) participants were registered organ/tissue donors, wile 320 (99.4%) were not. Out of all participants, 72 (22.4%) imams were willing to donate organs. Forty-six (14.3%) imams had previously received basic training about organ donation, and 166 (51.6%) were willing to attend a related training. Television programs and healthcare professionals were the most common means of learning about organ donation. Educational programs by healthcare professionals for imams and the public were proposed to be effective in increasing the number of organ donations. This study revealed that the knowledge of mosque imams regarding organ donation is poor and they had little willingness to donate their organs. Interestingly, many imams had no knowledge about organ donation under Islam. Collaboration of media, healthcare professionals, and mosque imams regarding organ donation might help increase organ donation.

  19. Blood Donation and Transfusion: A Primer for Health Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felts, W. Michael; Glascoff, Mary A.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a primer for health educators about blood donation and transfusion, examining the nature of human blood, the background of blood transfusion, blood donation criteria, risks related to homologous blood transfusion, directed blood donation, potential alternatives to homologous transfusion, and resources for education on the subject. (SM)

  20. 23 CFR 710.505 - Real property donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.505 Real property donations. (a) Donations of property being acquired. A non-governmental owner whose real property is required for a Federal... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real property donations. 710.505 Section...

  1. 5 CFR 630.1113 - Using donated annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Using donated annual leave. 630.1113 Section 630.1113 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1113 Using donated annual leave. (a) Any donated...

  2. Ruthenium-based nitric oxide-donating and carbon monoxide-donating molecules.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Bart; Boydens, Charlotte; Vanden Daele, Laura; Van de Voorde, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Over the past few years, the use of metallocomplexes for medical purposes has considerably grown. Because of its favourable characteristics, ruthenium has taken a significant place in this expanding field of research. Several ruthenium-containing metal compounds have been developed as delivery agents of physiological important molecules such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). This review focuses on the (vaso)relaxant capacity of ruthenium-based NO-donating and CO-donating molecules in view of their potential usefulness in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and erectile dysfunction. Ruthenium seems to be a valuable candidate for the design of NO-donating and CO-donating molecules. To date, ruthenium remains of interest in drug research as the search for new alternatives is still necessary. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. When Opportunity Knocks Twice: Dual Living Kidney Donation, Autonomy and the Public Interest.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Phillippa; Huxtable, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Living kidney transplantation offers the best treatment in terms of life-expectancy and quality of life for those with end-stage renal disease. The long-term risks of living donor nephrectomy, although real, are very small, with evidence of good medium-term outcomes. Who should be entitled to donate, and in which circumstances, is nevertheless a live question. We explore the ethical dimensions of a request by an individual to donate both of their kidneys during life: 'dual living kidney donation'. Our ethical analysis is tethered to a hypothetical case study in which a father asks to donate a kidney to each of his twin boys. We explore the autonomy of the protagonists, alongside different dimensions of the public interest, such as the need to protect not only the recipients, but also the donor and even the wider community. Whilst acknowledging objections to 'dual-donation', not least by reference to the harms that the donor might be expected to endure, we suggest there is a prima facie case for permitting this, provided that both donor and recipients are willing and that due attention is paid to such considerations as the autonomy and welfare of all parties, as well as to the wider ramifications of acting on such a request. We argue for broader interpretations of the concepts of autonomy and welfare, recognizing the importance of relationships and the relevance of more than merely physical well-being. Equipped with such a holistic assessment, we suggest there is a prima facie case for allowing 'dual living kidney donation'. © 2015 The Authors. Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Basic ethical aspects of living organ donation].

    PubMed

    Nagel, E; Mayer, J

    2003-06-01

    A characteristic feature of transplanting organs from living donors is that not only patients in need for treatment but also healthy individuals are submitted to medical interventions. Ethical considerations in this field have to deal with the question of property attributes of the human body and conflicts with traditional medical principles. Altruistic organ donation, appreciated by Christianity as a sign of charity, is indeed contradictory to the classic maxim of medical ethics "primum nihil nocere, " meaning "first of all, do not harm." The autonomous choice of a potential donor has to be balanced thoroughly against his personal physical and psychological risks. Apart from organ donation with altruistic motives, commercial incentives or payment for organ donation, which are increasingly under discussion in many nations, need profound ethical reflection. Organ selling does not lead to long-term economic benefit for individual donors in developing countries and is associated with a decline in health. A market system of organ sales would foster exploitation of the poor, and it is substantially doubtful whether autonomy and self determination are valid under circumstances of poverty and coercion. Commodification of the human body risks viewing persons as marketable objects. The human body,however, is an integral element of an individual's personality and not a resource to be removed. It is therefore fundamental that the social good of altruism is preserved as the major principle in organ donation.

  5. Legal conceptions: regulating gametes and gamete donation.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, K

    2000-01-01

    The growing scope of gamete donation and the manipulation of gametes makes it essential to develop a coherent theory of the nature of gametes and the claims which may be made in relation to them. The nature of gametes is ambiguous, they blur the distinctions between persons and property, but the current legal framework which governs gamete donation and manipulation fails to address their status. This leaves unanswered fundamentally important questions about control of processes involving gametes and rights to use or control the gametes themselves and the information which they represent. These are claims which are rooted in the concept of property. A property based analysis highlights the themes of autonomy, personhood and control which lie at the heart of the claims made in relation to gametes and an account based on the notion of property for personhood offers a more coherent justification for recognising claims in gametes and mediating disputes. This perspective exposes the inadequacies and inconsistencies of the legal construction of gametes and the legal regulation of gamete donation. The present legal framework has not sought to develop a coherent construction of gametes, but to constrain the practices of the assisted reproductive technologies (including gamete donation) within a framework which is presented as least damaging to the traditional ideologies of the creation of the family.

  6. The Path to a $300-Million Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The first time Edward A. Snyder, dean of the University of Chicago's graduate business school, asked David G. Booth to donate money to name something on the campus, Mr. Booth said no. Five years later, the University's Graduate School of Business is named the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, after Mr. Booth gave what is valued as a…

  7. The Path to a $300-Million Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The first time Edward A. Snyder, dean of the University of Chicago's graduate business school, asked David G. Booth to donate money to name something on the campus, Mr. Booth said no. Five years later, the University's Graduate School of Business is named the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, after Mr. Booth gave what is valued as a…

  8. Optical and electronic properties of graphene nanoribbons upon adsorption of ligand-protected aluminum clusters.

    PubMed

    Gomes da Rocha, Claudia; Clayborne, P Andre; Koskinen, Pekka; Häkkinen, Hannu

    2014-02-28

    We have carried out first-principles calculations to investigate how the electronic and optical features of graphene nanoribbons are affected by the presence of atomic clusters. Aluminum clusters of different sizes and stabilized by organic ligands were deposited on graphene nanoribbons from which the energetic features of the adsorption plus electronic structure were treated within density-functional theory. Our results point out that, depending on their size and structure shape, the clusters perturb distinctively the electronic properties of the ribbons. We suggest that such selective response can be measured through optical means revealing that graphene nanoribbons can work as an efficient characterization medium of atomic clusters. In addition, we demonstrate that atomic clusters can fine-tune the electronic and spin-polarized states of graphene ribbons from which novel spin-filter devices could be designed.

  9. Pre-donation cognitions of potential living organ donors: the development of the Donation Cognition Instrument in potential kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Wirken, Lieke; van Middendorp, Henriët; Hooghof, Christina W; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F; Dam, Ruth E; van der Pant, Karlijn A M I; Berendsen, Elsbeth C M; Wellink, Hiske; Dackus, Henricus J A; Hoitsma, Andries J; Hilbrands, Luuk B; Evers, Andrea W M

    2017-03-01

    Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This study developed and validated a questionnaire to assess pre-donation motivations, expectations and worries regarding donation, entitled the Donation Cognition Instrument (DCI). Psychometric properties of the DCI were examined using exploratory factor analysis for scale structure and associations with validated questionnaires for construct validity assessment. From seven Dutch transplantation centres, 719 potential living kidney donors were included. The DCI distinguishes cognitions about donor benefits, recipient benefits, idealistic incentives, gratitude and worries about donation (Cronbach's alpha 0.76-0.81). Scores on pre-donation cognitions differed with regard to gender, age, marital status, religion and donation type. With regard to construct validity, the DCI was moderately correlated with expectations regarding donor's personal well-being and slightly to moderately to health-related quality of life. The DCI is found to be a reliable instrument assessing cognitions surrounding living organ donation, which might add to pre-donation quality of life measures in facilitating psychosocial donor evaluation by healthcare professionals.

  10. Asian American adolescents' willingness to donate organs and engage in family discussion about organ donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Trompeta, Joyce A; Cooper, Bruce A; Ascher, Nancy L; Kools, Susan M; Kennedy, Christine M; Chen, Jyu-Lin

    2012-03-01

    Despite the growing need for organ donation among Asian Americans, studies suggest that they are reluctant to donate. To examine the association of attitudes and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation with willingness to donate and willingness to engage in family discussion about organ donation among Asian American adolescents. A cross-sectional study. The Big Island of Hawaii. Self-identified Asian American adolescents (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean), ages 16 to 17 years old, and each adolescent's parent or guardian. Asian American adolescents provided demographic information and completed the Modified Organ Donation Attitude Survey, the Organ Donation and Transplantation Knowledge Survey, and the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. A parent or guardian also provided demographic information. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations with willingness to donate and to engage in family discussion about organ discussion. Willingness to donate was associated with positive knowledge related to general aspects about organ donation and cultural limitations in receiving an organ transplant, a high level of acculturation, and a low level of negative attitudes (R2 = 0.402, F = 18.86, P = .005). Asian American adolescents with approving or positive attitudes were likely to engage in family discussion about organ donation (R2 = 0.195, F = 27.93, P = .005). To reinforce and maintain high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes, organ donation education is most likely needed in high schools.

  11. Does financial compensation for living kidney donation change willingness to donate?

    PubMed

    Gordon, E J; Patel, C H; Sohn, M-W; Hippen, B; Sherman, L A

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of financial compensation to increase living kidney donation rates remains controversial in potentially introducing undue inducement of vulnerable populations to donate. This cross-sectional study assessed amounts of financial compensation that would generate motivation and an undue inducement to donate to family/friends or strangers. Individuals leaving six Departments of Motor Vehicles were surveyed. Of the 210 participants who provided verbal consent (94% participation rate), respondents' willingness to donate would not change (70%), or would increase (29%) with compensation. Median lowest amounts of financial compensation for which participants would begin to consider donating a kidney were $5000 for family/friends, and $10,000 for strangers; respondents reporting $0 for family/friends (52%) or strangers (26%) were excluded from analysis. Median lowest amounts of financial compensation for which participants could no longer decline (perceive an undue inducement) were $50,000 for family/friends, and $100,000 for strangers; respondents reporting $0 for family/friends (44%) or strangers (23%) were excluded from analysis. The two most preferred forms of compensation included: direct payment of money (61%) and paid leave (21%). The two most preferred uses of compensation included: paying off debt (38%) and paying nonmedical expenses associated with the transplant (29%). Findings suggest tolerance for, but little practical impact of, financial compensation. Certain compensation amounts could motivate the public to donate without being perceived as an undue inducement.

  12. Comparative analysis of family consent to tissue donation according to two different donation form structures

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, Manoela Gomes; Prado, Layse Beneli; Souza, Geórgia Pereira Silveira; dos Santos, Jaquelini Pereira; Bezerra, Amanda Silva de Macêdo; Marcelino, Cesar Augusto Guimarães; de Almeida, Antônio Flávio Sanchez; Ayoub, Andrea Cotait

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To define donors' profile of an Organ and Tissue Procurement Center and compare the family consent for tissue donation before and after modification of the Donation Term. Methods: A descriptive, documentary and quantitative study performed in an Organ and Tissue Procurement Center, analyzed 111 feasible donors' charts in the period from March 13 to September 13, 2010 (1st period), and from September 14, 2010 to March 14, 2011 (2nd period), based on the modification date. Results: The mean age of donors was 45.2 years, being 52.3% female. The causes of death included cerebral vascular accident (stroke) (64%), head trauma (27%), anoxic encephalopathy (2.7%), firearm injuries (2.7%) and others (3.6%). The notifications were predominantly of spontaneous origin (91%). Comparing the periods before and after the modification of the Donation Term, the donation consent for cornea increased by 17.2% and the consent for skin, bones, tendons and muscles had a discreet increase by 3.1%, 9.9% and 0.4%, respectively. On the other hand, there was decrease in consent for blood vessel (0.8%) and heart valves (4.1%) between the two periods. Conclusion: There was increase in family consent for donation of most tissues, but it was statistically significant only for cornea donation. PMID:25003916

  13. Turkish validity and reliability of Organ Donation Attitude Scale.

    PubMed

    Yazici Sayin, Yazile

    2016-03-01

    To report the translation and adaptation process from English to Turkish and the psychometric estimates of the validity and reliability of The Organ Donation Attitude Scale Turkish. Its aim (1) is to provide data about and (2) to assess Turkish people's attitudes and volunteerism towards organ donation. Lack of donors is a significant problem for organ transplantation worldwide. Attitudes about organ donation and volunteerism are important factors in the lack of donors. To collect survey data from Turkish participants, a cross-sectional design was used: the classical measurement method. The Organ Donation Attitude Scale was translated from English to Turkish and back-translated into English. The analysis included a total of 892 Turkish participants. The validity of the scale was confirmed by exploratory factor analysis and criterion-relation validity testing. A test-retest procedure was implemented for the reliability of the scale over time. The Organ Donation Attitude Scale consists of three relatively independent components: humanity and moral conviction, fears of medical neglect and fears of bodily mutilation. Internal consistency of these three components resulted in acceptable Cronbach's α levels. Positive correlation occurred between the volunteerism score and positive attitude about organ donation. The correlation between volunteerism score and negative attitude about organ donation was negative. Fears of bodily mutilation were most significantly related to unwillingness to commit to organ donation. The test-retest correlation coefficients proves that the Organ Donation Attitude Scale were reliable over time. The Organ Donation Attitude Scale Turkish version is both a reliable and valid instrument that can be useful in measuring positive and negative attitudes of Turkish people about organ donation. With the Organ Donation Attitude Scale, researchers in Turkey will be able to ascertain important data on volunteerism and attitudes towards organ donation

  14. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    PubMed

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Merz, E-M; de Kort, W L A M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-09-27

    Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal stress during the course of a blood donation, and whether responses differed between men and women, first-time and experienced donors and donors with high or low non-acute stress. In 363 donors, psychological (donation-stress and arousal) and hormonal (cortisol) stress were measured by questionnaire and salivary sample at seven key moments during a routine donation. Non-acute stress was assessed by a questionnaire. Repeated measurement analyses were performed, using the last measurement (leaving the donation center) as reference value. Levels of donation-stress, arousal and cortisol were significantly higher during donation than when leaving the donation center. When compared with men, women reported higher levels of donation-stress and cortisol in the first part of the visit. When compared with first-time donors, experienced donors reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and higher levels of arousal but less reactivity throughout the visit. When compared to donors high on non-acute stress, donors low on non-acute stress reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and showed less cortisol reactivity throughout the visit. Donating blood influences psychological and hormonal stress response patterns. The response patterns differ between women and men, first-time and experienced donors and between donors high and low on non-acute stress. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. IMPIPS: The Immune Protection-Inducing Protein Structure Concept in the Search for Steric-Electron and Topochemical Principles for Complete Fully-Protective Chemically Synthesised Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Bermúdez, Adriana; Alba, Martha Patricia; Vanegas, Magnolia; Moreno-Vranich, Armando; Poloche, Luis Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Determining immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS) involves defining the stereo-electron and topochemical characteristics which are essential in MHC-p-TCR complex formation. Modified high activity binding peptides (mHABP) were thus synthesised to produce a large panel of IMPIPS measuring 26.5 ±3.5Å between the farthest atoms fitting into Pockets 1 to 9 of HLA-DRβ1* structures. They displayed a polyproline II-like (PPIIL) structure with their backbone O and N atoms orientated to establish H-bonds with specific residues from HLA-DRβ1*-peptide binding regions (PBR). Residues having specific charge and gauche+ orientation regarding p3χ1, p5χ2, and p7χ1 angles determined appropriate rotamer orientation for perfectly fitting into the TCR to induce an appropriate immune response. Immunological assays in Aotus monkeys involving IMPIPS mixtures led to promising results; taken together with the aforementioned physicochemical principles, non-interfering, long-lasting, protection-inducing, multi-epitope, multistage, minimal subunit-based chemically-synthesised peptides can be designed against diseases scourging humankind. PMID:25879751

  16. Donor motivations, associated risks and ethical considerations of oocyte donation.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, Amy L

    2014-01-01

    Three decades after the first reported successful cases, oocyte donation continues to grow in popularity and regard as an established method to aid women in achieving their reproductive goals. As a result of the increased demand for donated oocytes, many young women in the U.S. volunteer to undergo complex medical procedures to donate their oocytes in return for financial compensation. To best care for these women before, during and after donation, it is important to explore donor characteristics and motivations, discuss the safety of the donation procedure and examine the ethical issues related to this process.

  17. Mitochondrial donation and ‘the right to know’

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Reuven

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine two key arguments advanced by the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA) and the Nuffield Council justifying anonymous mitochondrial donation, even though the ‘right to know’ is recognised in standard gamete donation. I argue that the two arguments they offer, what I call the argument from genetic connection and the argument from personal characteristics, are unsuccessful. However, I provide additional reasons for why recognising the right to know in gamete donation but not in mitochondrial donation may be justified. I further argue that the status quo in the UK, which is to not recognise a right to know in mitochondrial donation, is provisionally acceptable. PMID:27542387

  18. Pediatric Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Matthew J; Hornby, Laura; Witteman, William; Shemie, Sam D

    2016-03-01

    Although pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death is increasing in frequency, there are no national or international donation after circulatory determination of death guidelines specific to pediatrics. This scoping review was performed to map the pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death literature, identify pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death knowledge gaps, and inform the development of national or regional pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death guidelines. Terms related to pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death were searched in Embase and MEDLINE, as well as the non-MEDLINE sources in PubMed from 1980 to May 2014. Seven thousand five hundred ninety-seven references were discovered and 85 retained for analysis. All references addressing pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death were considered. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not address pediatric patients, animal or laboratory studies, surgical techniques, and local pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death protocols. Narrative reviews and opinion articles were the most frequently discovered reference (25/85) and the few discovered studies were observational or qualitative and almost exclusively retrospective. Retained references were divided into themes and analyzed using qualitative methodology. The main discovered themes were 1) studies estimating the number of potential pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death donors and their impact on donation; 2) ethical issues in pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death; 3) physiology of the dying process after withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy; 4) cardiac pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death; and 5) neonatal pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death. Donor estimates suggest that pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death will

  19. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  20. Surface protection from high energy electrons and X-ray radiation analysis in tokamak plasma.

    PubMed

    Salar Elahi, A; Ghoranneviss, M

    2017-05-24

    Plasma cooling due to hard x-ray radiation from the Runaway electrons is an important issue in tokamaks. Thus, developing effective methods to reduce the Runaway electrons and the emitted hard x-ray is also important for optimal tokamak plasma operation. In this study, we investigated the effects of external fields on hard x-ray intensity and the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. In other words, we presented the effects of positive biased limiter and Resonant Helical Field (RHF) on the MHD fluctuations and hard x-ray emission from the Runaway electrons. MHD activity and hard x-ray intensity were analyzed using Wavelet transform in the presence of external fields and without them. The experimental results showed that the MHD activity and therefore the hard x-ray intensity could be controlled by the external electric and magnetic fields.

  1. Embryo donation in New Zealand: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Goedeke, Sonja; Payne, Deborah

    2009-08-01

    In New Zealand, embryo donation to others was approved in late 2005 and follows strict guidelines. To date, few donations have proceeded. Given the novelty of embryo donation and New Zealand's guidelines around donation, this study explores how potential recipients in New Zealand made meaning of embryo donation. Thirteen potential recipients were interviewed regarding decision-making around embryo donation. Data were analysed thematically, identifying the major concerns that shaped their perspectives and decision-making regarding embryo donation. The concept of genetic lineage emerged as the most important consideration. Participants viewed the embryo as a direct and permanent link between the genetic parents and the child resulting from donation. The genetic link implied ongoing responsibility, interest, care and even ownership. Participants were particularly cognizant of the need for children born from embryo donation to have access to information regarding their heritage. Wider concerns around the quality of the embryo's genetic material were expressed. Neither discarding surplus embryos nor embryo donation was seen as easy options. Participants found embryo donation to be a psychologically and morally complex issue and expressed some caution about pursuing this option. The emphasis on genetic lineage as a priority in decision-making needs to be recognized especially within contexts where guidelines emphasize donor registration and cultures are shaped by open-adoption practices and the importance of knowing one's lineage.

  2. The infectious disease blood safety risk of Australian hemochromatosis donations.

    PubMed

    Hoad, Veronica; Bentley, Peter; Bell, Barbara; Pathak, Praveen; Chan, Hiu Tat; Keller, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that blood donors with hereditary hemochromatosis may pose an increased infectious disease risk and adversely affect recipient outcomes. This study compares the infectious disease risk of whole blood (WB) donors enrolled as therapeutic (T) donors to voluntary WB donors to evaluate the safety of blood products provided by the T donors. This was a retrospective cohort study of all WB donations at the Australian Red Cross Blood Service who donated between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, comparing a yearly mean of 11,789 T donors with 107,773 total donations and a yearly mean of 468,889 voluntary WB donors with 2,584,705 total donations. We compared postdonation notification of infectious illnesses, bacterial contamination screening results, and positive tests for blood borne viruses in T and WB donors. Rates of transfusion-transmissible infections in donations destined for component manufacture were significantly lower in therapeutic donations compared to voluntary donations (8.4 vs. 21.6 per 100,000 donations). Bacterial contamination (43.0 vs. 45.9 per 100,000 donations) and postdonation illness reporting (136.2 vs. 110.8 per 100,000 donations) were similar in both cohorts. The Australian therapeutic venisection program enables T donors to provide a safe and acceptable source of donated WB that has a low infectious disease risk profile. © 2016 AABB.

  3. Willingness to Consider Non-Directed Kidney Donation.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Diane B V; Kuntz, Kristin K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether factors, including knowledge about living kidney donation or acquaintance with a donor or recipient, are related to willingness to consider donating a kidney. Participants were randomly assigned to read (n = 78) or not read (n = 71) educational materials regarding living donation. All participants then completed a living donation knowledge quiz, indicated whether they knew a donor or recipient, and indicated their support for living donation. Knowledge was not related to willingness to consider donation. Acquaintance with a living donor predicated greater willingness to act as a non-directed living donor, as did acquaintance with a transplant recipient. Decisions regarding whether to consider acting as a living organ donor may be related to whether a person is acquainted with an organ donor or a recipient. Emphasizing personal connections to transplant may lead to increased acceptance of living donation.

  4. Determinants of plasma donation: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Beurel, A; Terrade, F; Lebaudy, J-P; Danic, B

    2017-09-01

    The major contribution of Human Sciences in the understanding of the whole blood donation behavior has been through the study of individuals' motivations and deterrents to donate. However, if whole blood donation has been very widely studied in the last sixty years, we still know very little about plasma donation in voluntary non-remunerated environments. Yet, the need for plasma-derived products has been strongly increasing for some years, and blood collection agencies have to adapt if they want to meet this demand. This article aims to review the main motivations and deterrents to whole blood donation, and to compare them with those that we already know concerning plasma donation. Current evidence shows similarities between both behaviors, but also differences that indicate a need for further research regarding plasma donation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. A 15-year review of ABC, CBS, and NBC news coverage of organ donation: implications for organ donation campaigns.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L; Kim, Do Kyun; Meyer, Kevin

    2009-03-01

    This content analysis represents news coverage of organ donation from January 1990 to December 2005. Specifically, ABC, CBS, and NBC news broadcasts were examined to gain a greater understanding of organ donation coverage on TV. Overall this investigation revealed that organ donation received modest coverage (N = 1,507). Although the majority of coverage was positive, attention to the need for organs and the process of becoming a potential organ donor received modest exposure. In addition, non-living donor and living-donor donations received approximately equal coverage. Results are discussed with a focus on message design for practitioners and advocates of organ donation.

  6. Suppression of the antiferromagnetic pseudogap in the electron-doped high-temperature superconductor by protect annealing.

    PubMed

    Horio, M; Adachi, T; Mori, Y; Takahashi, A; Yoshida, T; Suzuki, H; Ambolode, L C C; Okazaki, K; Ono, K; Kumigashira, H; Anzai, H; Arita, M; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M; Ootsuki, D; Sawada, K; Takahashi, M; Mizokawa, T; Koike, Y; Fujimori, A

    2016-02-04

    In the hole-doped cuprates, a small number of carriers suppresses antiferromagnetism and induces superconductivity. In the electron-doped cuprates, on the other hand, superconductivity appears only in a narrow window of high-doped Ce concentration after reduction annealing, and strong antiferromagnetic correlation persists in the superconducting phase. Recently, Pr(1.3-x)La0.7Ce(x)CuO4 (PLCCO) bulk single crystals annealed by a protect annealing method showed a high critical temperature of around 27 K for small Ce content down to 0.05. Here, by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of PLCCO crystals, we observed a sharp quasi-particle peak on the entire Fermi surface without signature of an antiferromagnetic pseudogap unlike all the previous work, indicating a dramatic reduction of antiferromagnetic correlation length and/or of magnetic moments. The superconducting state was found to extend over a wide electron concentration range. The present results fundamentally challenge the long-standing picture on the electronic structure in the electron-doped regime.

  7. Thin-film encapsulation of organic electronic devices based on vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride as protective buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yingquan; Ding, Sihan; Wen, Zhanwei; Xu, Sunan; Lv, Wenli; Xu, Ziqiang; Yang, Yuhuan; Wang, Ying; Wei, Yi; Tang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Encapsulation is indispensable for organic thin-film electronic devices to ensure reliable operation and long-term stability. For thin-film encapsulating organic electronic devices, insulating polymers and inorganic metal oxides thin films are widely used. However, spin-coating of insulating polymers directly on organic electronic devices may destroy or introduce unwanted impurities in the underlying organic active layers. And also, sputtering of inorganic metal oxides may damage the underlying organic semiconductors. Here, we demonstrated that by utilizing vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride (LiF) as protective buffer layer, spin-coated insulating polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and sputtered inorganic material Er2O3, can be successfully applied for thin film encapsulation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-based organic diodes. By encapsulating with LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films, the device lifetime improvements of 10 and 15 times can be achieved. These methods should be applicable for thin-film encapsulation of all kinds of organic electronic devices. Moisture-induced hole trapping, and Al top electrode oxidation are suggest to be the origins of current decay for the LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films encapsulated devices, respectively.

  8. Structural damage reduction in protected gold clusters by electron diffraction methods.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Eduardo; Ponce, Arturo; Santiago, Ulises; Alducin, Diego; Benitez-Lara, Alfredo; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The present work explores electron diffraction methods for studying the structure of metallic clusters stabilized with thiol groups, which are susceptible to structural damage caused by electron beam irradiation. There is a compromise between the electron dose used and the size of the clusters since they have small interaction volume with electrons and as a consequence weak reflections in the diffraction patterns. The common approach of recording individual clusters using nanobeam diffraction has the problem of an increased current density. Dosage can be reduced with the use of a smaller condenser aperture and a higher condenser lens excitation, but even with those set ups collection times tend to be high. For that reason, the methods reported herein collects in a faster way diffraction patterns through the scanning across the clusters under nanobeam diffraction mode. In this way, we are able to collect a map of diffraction patterns, in areas with dispersed clusters, with short exposure times (milliseconds) using a high sensitive CMOS camera. When these maps are compared with their theoretical counterparts, oscillations of the clusters can be observed. The stability of the patterns acquired demonstrates that our methods provide a systematic and precise way to unveil the structure of atomic clusters without extensive detrimental damage of their crystallinity.

  9. From donation to everyday life: Living kidney donors' experiences three months after donation.

    PubMed

    Agerskov, Hanne; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid; Bistrup, Claus; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2016-03-01

    As the number of patients with end stage kidney disease continues to rise internationally, living kidney donation remains a favourable treatment option. Long waiting times on dialysis can be avoided and short and long-term outcomes are better, when compared with deceased donor transplantation. Living kidney donation is a safe procedure for healthy individuals who have completed a rigorous screening programme. Significant experiences can occur during the recovery period. To investigate donors' experiences of donation and their recovery period, in the first three months after donation. The study took a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Open interviews were conducted three months after donation. Data were interpreted and discussed in accordance with Ricoeur's text interpretation theory on three levels: naïve reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation and discussion. The donation process was experienced as an 'expedition', including preparations, the operation, recovery and everyday life. Positive feelings were challenging to describe; however health troubles and vulnerability were evident. A closer relationship and a need to follow the recipient's progress implied that patient and donor felt they were a part of each other. Support from relatives was important but could also be a burden. The kidney donation process is experienced as being like on an expedition, involving positive feelings, vulnerability, a closer patient-donor relationship and challenges around family relationships. It is essential that nurses are aware of the complexity of the situation and focus on the impact of the process, to support and facilitate donors' needs. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  10. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public.

  11. An inventory of reasons for sperm donation in formal versus informal settings.

    PubMed

    Bossema, Ercolie R; Janssens, Pim M W; Treucker, Roswitha G L; Landwehr, Frieda; van Duinen, Kor; Nap, Annemiek W; Geenen, Rinie

    2014-03-01

    The shortage of sperm donors in formal settings (i.e., assisted reproduction clinics) and the availability of sperm donors in informal settings (such as through contacts on the internet) motivated us to investigate why men may prefer either a formal or an informal setting for sperm donation. Interviews with ten sperm donors and non-sperm donors yielded 55 reasons for sperm donation in the two settings. These reasons were categorized according to similarity by 14 sperm donors and non-sperm donors. These categorizations were then structured by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. Reasons favouring formal settings included being legally and physically protected, evading paternal feelings or social consequences, and having a simple, standardized procedure in terms of effort and finances. Reasons favouring informal settings related to engagement, the possibility to choose a recipient, lack of rules and regulations, having contact with the donor child, and having an (intimate) bond with the recipient. The overview of reasons identified may help potential sperm donors decide on whether to donate in a formal or informal setting, and may fuel discussions by professionals about the most appropriate conditions and legislation for sperm donation in formal settings.

  12. Control of surface charges by radicals as a principle of antistatic polymers protecting electronic circuitry.

    PubMed

    Baytekin, H Tarik; Baytekin, Bilge; Hermans, Thomas M; Kowalczyk, Bartlomiej; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2013-09-20

    Even minute quantities of electric charge accumulating on polymer surfaces can cause shocks, explosions, and multibillion-dollar losses to electronic circuitry. This paper demonstrates that to remove static electricity, it is not at all necessary to "target" the charges themselves. Instead, the way to discharge a polymer is to remove radicals from its surface. These radicals colocalize with and stabilize the charges; when they are scavenged, the surfaces discharge rapidly. This radical-charge interplay allows for controlling static electricity by doping common polymers with small amounts of radical-scavenging molecules, including the familiar vitamin E. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by rendering common polymers dust-mitigating and also by using them as coatings that prevent the failure of electronic circuitry.

  13. Coordinating Electron Transport Chains to an Electron Donor.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Carmen; Wolf, Maximilian; Joly, Damien; Delgado, Juan Luis; Guldi, Dirk M; Martín, Nazario

    2015-10-16

    Two electron transport chains (2 and 3) featuring two fullerenes with different electron acceptor strengths have been synthesized, characterized, and coordinated to a light harvesting/electron donating zinc porphyrin. Electrochemical assays corroborate the redox gradients along the designed electron transport chains, and complementary absorption and fluorescence titrations prove the assembly of ZnP-2 and ZnP-3 hybrids.

  14. Options for the disposal of unwanted donations.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, E R

    1990-01-01

    Donations of biomedical books and journals frequently duplicate the holdings of a receiving library. A decision must then be made concerning the distribution of the material to other libraries that may need it. What options are available to the librarian? Are many volumes of valuable material destroyed each year because libraries lack the necessary staff, space, or money to distribute donated materials? Are libraries restricted in choice of methods for distribution or unaware of available options? A survey questionnaire was mailed to 150 health sciences libraries in the spring of 1988 to determine the various methods used to dispose of unwanted gift materials. A total of 113 responses was received (75% return rate). This paper reports the results and discusses some of the creative methods used by receiving libraries to place unneeded materials. Statistical comparisons are included for the methods used by academic, hospital, and other types of health sciences libraries. Images PMID:2224303

  15. Donors' attitudes towards body donation for dissection.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R; Hurwitz, B

    1995-07-29

    We report a survey in the UK of potential whole-body donors for dissection. 218 people (age range 19-97 years) answered a postal questionnaire, giving information about themselves, their reasons for donation, attitudes towards the dead body, funeral preferences and medical giving and receiving. In addition to altruism, motives included the wish to avoid funeral ceremonies, to avoid waste, and in a few cases, to evade the expense of a funeral. 44% understood that their bodies would be used as teaching material, 42% for experiments. Whilst 69% believed in one or more supernatural phenomena, only 39% said they were religious. 69% requested cremation after dissection; 2% wanted to be buried. The notion of money incentives to promote donation was overwhelmingly rejected.

  16. The Australian experience in organ donation--2003.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    The Australian performance in deceased donor organ donation continues to languish near the bottom of the International ladder. This is despite a national expenditure on health 10% more than the average OECD country (dollars per capita) and the presence of active transplantation programs (heart, kidney, liver, lung and pancreas) with excellent success rates. The deceased donor rate has fallen from 14 donors pmp in 1989 to 9 at the present time and appears to be still falling. Living donors now outnumber deceased donors as a source of kidney transplants. Causes of the low deceased donor rate appear to include variable management of severe brain injury, shortage of ICU beds, lack of ICU priority to potential donors when beds are restricted, and a low family consent rate (50%) despite 83% of the public being willing to donate. Programs aimed at addressing these issues are planned and include additional funding for beds, improved identification of donors and a standard pathway for managing severe brain injury.

  17. Options for the disposal of unwanted donations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, E R

    1990-10-01

    Donations of biomedical books and journals frequently duplicate the holdings of a receiving library. A decision must then be made concerning the distribution of the material to other libraries that may need it. What options are available to the librarian? Are many volumes of valuable material destroyed each year because libraries lack the necessary staff, space, or money to distribute donated materials? Are libraries restricted in choice of methods for distribution or unaware of available options? A survey questionnaire was mailed to 150 health sciences libraries in the spring of 1988 to determine the various methods used to dispose of unwanted gift materials. A total of 113 responses was received (75% return rate). This paper reports the results and discusses some of the creative methods used by receiving libraries to place unneeded materials. Statistical comparisons are included for the methods used by academic, hospital, and other types of health sciences libraries.

  18. [Future technological evolutions in blood donation qualification].

    PubMed

    Assal, Azzedine; Py, Jean-Yves; Corbi, Cécile; Barlet, Valérie; Roubinet, Francis; De Micco, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    In the past decades, blood donation screening contributed significantly to blood safety improvement, thanks to the increasing performances of serological and nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays, as well as the evolution of automated systems technology. The rapid pace of NAT development can be clearly seen to extend into the future. NAT for additional viruses as well as the use of new automated systems for individual donation or smaller mini-pool testing, with multiplex assays, is currently debated. However, few added benefit is expected for blood safety from such developments, while cost-effectiveness appears to be poor. The next step in laboratory automation will probably be the implementation of robotic pre- and post-analytical procedures. In this article we review the potential future evolutions of screening technologies in blood qualification platforms, particularly those derived from nanobiotechnologies. DNA microarrays, Lab-On-Chips, biosensors and nanoparticles (quantum dots) will probably play a major role in the coming decade.

  19. Operational Radiation Protection in Synchrotron Light and Free Electron Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; Vylet, Vaclav; /Jefferson Lab

    2009-12-11

    The 3rd generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities are storage ring based facilities with many insertion devices and photon beamlines, and have low injection beam power (< few tens of watts), but extremely high stored beam power ({approx} 1 GW). The 4th generation x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities are based on an electron Linac with a long undulator and have high injection beam power (a few kW). Due to its electron and photon beam characteristics and modes of operation, storage ring and photon beamlines have unique safety aspects, which are the main subjects of this paper. The shielding design limits, operational modes, and beam losses are first reviewed. Shielding analysis (source terms and methodologies) and interlocked safety systems for storage ring and photon beamlines (including SR and gas bremsstrahlung) are described. Specific safety issues for storage ring top-off injection operation and FEL facilities are discussed. The operational safety program, e.g., operation authorization, commissioning, training, and radiation measurements, for SR facilities is also presented.

  20. Successful international collaboration improves family donation conversations resulting in increased organ donation.

    PubMed

    Mulvania, P; Mehakovic, E; Wise, C; Cass, Y; Daly, T A; Nathan, H M

    2014-01-01

    Australian donation leaders recognized that to increase organ donation outcomes, health professionals conducting family donation conversations (FDCs) required support and specialist training. An international training institute with programs based on proven results was engaged to create and implement a customized training program to influence change in FDC practice and culture. The goal was to increase donation rates by developing and implementing a customized, self-sustaining training program to enhance FDC practices of health professionals. Other goals included providing training and communications skills to lead FDC, supporting families in making decisions, and influencing health professionals to adopt FDC practices. To gain support and determine program suitability, two 1-day pilot training sessions were provided to 45 Australian donation leaders in 2011. Training was further customized with an emphasis on creating changes to achieve and sustain desired results. A comprehensive national training plan was implemented over 18 months. Twenty-six 2-day FDC training workshops were held in 8 cities (646 participants). Program evaluations and debriefings showed distinct shifts in perspectives and an enthusiasm to implement new processes. In 2012 to 2013, an instructor program was developed to transition training facilitation. The training institute remains involved in development and training to build and sustain skill and expertise. There was a 58% increase in organ donors in Australia from 2009 to 2013 (data reflect 2013 Australian end-of-year organ donation information). This represents a 36% increase in organ donors (2009-2011); the remaining 22% increase was achieved in the 2 years since the FDC training was implemented in Australia (2011-2013). Improved skills training in the conduct of FDCs seem to have contributed to improved donation outcomes in national identification, request, and consent rates. The integration of another organization's process poses

  1. How can hospitals better protect the privacy of electronic medical records? Perspectives from staff members of health information management departments.

    PubMed

    Sher, Ming-Ling; Talley, Paul C; Cheng, Tain-Junn; Kuo, Kuang-Ming

    2017-05-01

    The adoption of electronic medical records (EMR) is expected to better improve overall healthcare quality and to offset the financial pressure of excessive administrative burden. However, safeguarding EMR against potentially hostile security breaches from both inside and outside healthcare facilities has created increased patients' privacy concerns from all sides. The aim of our study was to examine the influencing factors of privacy protection for EMR by healthcare professionals. We used survey methodology to collect questionnaire responses from staff members in health information management departments among nine Taiwanese hospitals active in EMR utilisation. A total of 209 valid responses were collected in 2014. We used partial least squares for analysing the collected data. Perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy and cues to action were found to have a significant association with intention to protect EMR privacy, while perceived susceptibility and perceived severity were not. Based on the findings obtained, we suggest that hospitals should provide continuous ethics awareness training to relevant staff and design more effective strategies for improving the protection of EMR privacy in their charge. Further practical and research implications are also discussed.

  2. Donate Food to Free Your Boss | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    For the third year in a row, NCI at Frederick is participating in the Feds Feed Families campaign, which aims to stock food banks during the summer when donations are often limited. The 2016 campaign runs through August 31. This year, the Office of Scientific Operations (OSO) has decided to send the campaign off with a twist. Rich Folkers, public affairs specialist, Office of Scientific Operations, came up with the idea for a "lock-in" event.

  3. Cadaveric & living organ donation. Asian experience.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    The number of organ transplants performed in Asian countries during 2001 and 2002 are reported along with the present status of dialysis patients. Questionnaires were sent to key persons of each country where transplantation currently takes place. The total number of organ transplants is gradually decreasing, particularly those using cadaveric donors, while liver and lung transplantation using living donors are growing in Japan and Korea. Education and stimulation of the public is strongly requested to promote donation.

  4. Donate Food to Free Your Boss | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    For the third year in a row, NCI at Frederick is participating in the Feds Feed Families campaign, which aims to stock food banks during the summer when donations are often limited. The 2016 campaign runs through August 31. This year, the Office of Scientific Operations (OSO) has decided to send the campaign off with a twist. Rich Folkers, public affairs specialist, Office of Scientific Operations, came up with the idea for a "lock-in" event.

  5. Vacuum ultra-violet emission of plasma discharges with high Xe partial pressure using a cathode protective layer with high secondary electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Di; Song, Le; Zhang, Xiong; Kajiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-02-14

    In this work, the mechanism of the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) emission of plasma discharges, with high Xe partial pressure and high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer, is studied by measuring the VUV light emission directly and comparing it with two-dimensional simulations. From the panel measurement, we find that the high intensity of excimer VUV mainly contributes to the high luminous efficacy of SrCaO-plasma display panels (PDP) at a low sustain voltage. The unchanged Xe excitation efficiency indicates that the electron temperature is not decreased by the high secondary electrons emission protective layer, even though the sustain voltage is much lower. From the two-dimensional simulations, we can find that the ratio of excimer VUV to resonant VUV, which is determined by the collision rate in the discharge, is only significantly affected by the Xe partial pressure, while it is independent of the sustain voltage and the secondary-electrons-emission capability of protective layer. The unchanged average electron energy at the moment when the electric field becomes maximum confirms that the improvement of the VUV production efficiency mainly is attributed to the increase in electron heating efficiency of a PDP with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer. Combining the experimental and the simulation results, we conclude about the mechanism by which the VUV production is improved for the plasma display panel with a high Xe partial pressure and a cold cathode with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission.

  6. [Donation protocol following controlled cardiac death (Maastricht type III donation). First experience].

    PubMed

    Rubio-Muñoz, J J; Pérez-Redondo, M; Alcántara-Carmona, S; Lipperheide-Vallhonrat, I; Fernández-Simón, I; Valdivia-de la Fuente, M; Villanueva-Fernández, H; Balandín-Moreno, B; Ortega-López, A; Romera-Ortega, M A; Galdos-Anuncibay, P

    2014-03-01

    To present our experience with the implementation of a donation protocol following controlled cardiac death (Maastricht type III donation). A retrospective descriptive and observational study was made. Intensive Care Unit of a third-level university hospital. Eight patients in an irreversible state, in which withdrawal of all life support had been agreed, were evaluated as potential donors. Application of the adopted protocol. Clinical data of donors, evaluation of a donation protocol following cardiac death, warm ischemia times, and short-term outcome of the recipients. Eight patients were evaluated. In one case donation was not possible because no cardiac arrest developed in the 120 minutes after extubation. The 7 remaining patients were effective kidney donors. Warm ischemia times were less than 23 minutes in all cases. Although 7 of the 14 recipients suffered delayed graft function, all of them achieved good renal function. Donation after cardiac death in patients in an overwhelming and irreversible state represents a potential source of donors not previously considered in this country. The prior development of a consensus-based protocol can help increase the number of organs in combination with those obtained after brain death. In our experience, the results of kidney transplants obtained from donors after cardiac death are good, and the success of these types of protocols could be extended to other organs such as the liver and lungs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  7. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  8. [Marketing in the world of blood donation].

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Sylvie

    2007-05-01

    Public and non-profit organizations have long debated how marketing concepts and management styles apply to their sector of activity as they are largely derived from principles of consumerism and economic decision-making proper to the private sector. The arrival of marketing in the world of blood donation is no exception. The purpose of this article is to illustrate concretely how marketing techniques can contribute in achieving the objectives of a blood donation program: a marketing model that is adapted to the realities of blood donation in Quebec. Although types of marketing are as varied as the fields they are used in, the major marketing activities of this program fall under positioning, operational or relationship marketing. The process is presented in the form of a cycle that includes four major phases containing all marketing functions, that is, raising public awareness, acquiring a clientele, client retention and loyalty building, and establishing the relationship. Finally, the information and effective management of information are at the heart of the marketing process. In fact, research, understanding our customers and their expectations, and measuring our performance are essential for the success of any marketing initiative.

  9. Uncontrolled Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Ave, Anne L Dalle; Bernat, James L

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death (uDCDD) refers to organ donation after a refractory cardiac arrest. We analyzed ethical issues raised by the uDCDD protocols of France, Madrid, and New York City. We recommend: (1) Termination of resuscitation (TOR) guidelines need refinement, particularly the minimal duration of resuscitation efforts before considering TOR; (2) Before enrolling in an uDCDD protocol, physicians must ascertain that additional resuscitation efforts would be ineffective; (3) Inclusion in an uDCDD protocol should not be made in the outpatient setting to avoid error and conflicts of interest; (4) The patient's condition should be reassessed at the hospital and reversible causes treated; (5) A no-touch period of at least 10 minutes should be respected to avoid the risk of autoresuscitation; (6) Once death has been determined, no procedure that may resume brain circulation should be used, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, artificial ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; (7) Specific consent is required prior to entry into an uDCDD protocol; (8) Family members should be informed about the goals, risks, and benefits of planned uDCDD procedures; and (9) Public information on uDCDD is desirable because it promotes public trust and confidence in the organ donation system.

  10. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    PubMed

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears.

  11. The Consequences of Vagueness in Consent to Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David M

    2016-12-28

    In this article I argue that vagueness concerning consent to post-mortem organ donation causes considerable harm in several ways. First, the information provided to most people registering as organ donors is very vague in terms of what is actually involved in donation. Second, the vagueness regarding consent to donation increases the distress of families of patients who are potential organ donors, both during and following the discussion about donation. Third, vagueness also increases the chances that the patient's intention to donate will not be fulfilled due to the family's distress. Fourth, the consequent reduction in the number of donated organs leads to avoidable deaths and increased suffering among potential recipients, and distresses them and their families. There are three strategies which could be used to reduce the harmful effects of this vagueness. First, recategorizing the reasons (commonly referred to as 'overrules' under the current system) given by families who refuse donation from registered donors would bring greater clarity to donation discussions. Second, people who wish to donate their organs should be encouraged to discuss their wishes in detail with their families, and to consider recording their wishes in other ways. Finally, the consent system for organ donation could be made more detailed, ensuring both that more information is provided to potential donors and that they have more flexibility in how their intentions are indicated; this last strategy, however, could have the disadvantage of discouraging some potential donors from registering.

  12. Factors affecting Israeli women's decision whether to donate cord blood.

    PubMed

    Ben Natan, Merav; Grinberg, Keren; Galula, Sharon; Biton, Michal

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether Israeli mothers' intention to donate cord blood can be predicted using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). A descriptive correlation study, employing the TPB. A questionnaire constructed based on a literature review of research on cord blood donation and on the TPB was administered to 207 Israeli women of childbearing age. Behavioral attitudes (women's total appraisal of cord blood donation), subjective norms (women's perception of the opinion of significant others regarding the specific behavior), and perceived behavioral control (women's total appraisal of their control of the behavior and perceived ease or difficulty of cord blood donation) were found to predict women's intention to donate cord blood. Since behavioral attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control can predict cord blood donations, it is important for the medical and nursing staff to understand and use these concepts if they hope to obtain women's cooperation concerning cord blood donation. Nurses should receive education on the subject of cord blood donation, increasing their awareness. It is possible that this could lead to a rise in such donations in the future. Both mothers and fathers should be consulted about the option of donating cord blood.

  13. The national program for deceased organ donation in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiefu; Wang, Haibo; Fan, Sheung Tat; Zhao, Baige; Zhang, Zongjiu; Hao, Lina; Huo, Feng; Liu, Yongfeng

    2013-07-15

    China has developed a new national program for deceased-organ donation to address the need for organ transplantation in the country. The program adheres to the World Health Organization (WHO) guiding principles, is compliant with the Declaration of Istanbul, and respects the cultural and social values of the Chinese people. The experience of pilot trials conducted between 2010 and 2012 was evaluated to generate a comprehensive design of a national program of organ donation and transplantation for implementation throughout China. The legal framework for this program was established from a series of legislative steps since 2007. Accountable national committees have been established to oversee activities of organ donation and transplantation across the nation. The Ministry of Health (MOH) has accredited 164 organ transplant hospitals in China, each of which has an organ procurement organization (OPO) to conduct organ donation and organ recovery. National protocols for deceased-organ donation in China include category I (organ donation after brain death), category II (organ donation after circulatory death), and category III (organ donation after brain death followed by circulatory death). The China Organ Transplant Response System (COTRS) has been developed to allocate organs equitably and transparently. Scientific registries have been established to evaluate the performance of transplant centers and OPOs. China is in the process of implementing a new national program for deceased-organ donation. The program includes a unique approach of organ donation, China category III, which will be promulgated throughout China and is intended to gain widespread acceptance of Chinese society.

  14. Attitudes of Medical Students From Different Countries About Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Hulya; Abbasoglu, Osman

    2015-06-15

    Although there have been some case studies that measure the medical students' knowledge and attitude about organ donation, there is no such global survey in the literature. An online questionnaire was prepared to measure the knowledge and attitudes about organ donation. A total of 1541 medical students from 104 different countries responded to the questionnaire. The participants who have received education before were more successful, had a higher self-donation rate, and showed a more-positive attitude toward organ donation than did those who did not receive an education, or a higher self-donation rate, or a more-positive attitude toward organ donation. Opposition against promotion of the organ donation by medical doctors was more widespread among men, preclinical students, African participants, and participants who did not support organ donation. The two most important decisions about increasing the level of organ donation involved in achieving support of the media and the education of the health care workers. Educational programs would improve the knowledge and attitudes of medical students about organ donation and transplantation.

  15. Attitude and awareness towards organ donation in western India.

    PubMed

    Balwani, Manish R; Gumber, Manoj R; Shah, Pankaj R; Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu V; Engineer, Divyesh P; Gera, Dinesh N; Godhani, Umesh; Shah, Mehin; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2015-05-01

    To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in western India. Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 250; 200 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via face to face interviews based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Ahmedabad, Gujarat state of India. Data entry was made in excel software in codes and analysis was done by SPSS software. About 86% of participants were aware of the term organ donation but knowledge about its various aspects was low. About 48% aware people heard about organ donation through medical fraternity, whereas only about 21% became aware through mass media. About 59% of aware people believed there is a potential danger of donated organs being misused, abused or misappropriated. About 47% of aware people said they would consider donating organs, while only 16% said they would definitely donate irrespective of circumstances. Around 97.67% participants said they would prefer to donate to nonsmokers. About 74.41% participants were unaware about any legislation regarding organ donation. About 77% participants showed their will to donate to mentally sound persons, and 42.04% participants showed their will to donate even physically challenged people. Around 78 participants felt that they would donate organs to persons irrespective of their religion. About 81% of aware people were of the opinion that consent for organ donation after death should be given by family members. None of the interviewed participants had a donor card. Better knowledge and awareness will help in promoting organ donation. Effective campaign needs to be driven to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.

  16. Semiclassical electron transport at the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator: Interplay of protected and unprotected modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, E.; Skvortsov, M. A.; Ostrovsky, P. M.

    2016-03-01

    We study electron transport at the edge of a generic disordered two-dimensional topological insulator, where some channels are topologically protected from backscattering. Assuming the total number of channels is large, we consider the edge as a quasi-one-dimensional quantum wire and describe it in terms of a nonlinear sigma model with a topological term. Neglecting localization effects, we calculate the average distribution function of transmission probabilities as a function of the sample length. We mainly focus on the two experimentally relevant cases: a junction between two quantum Hall (QH) states with different filling factors (unitary class) and a relatively thick quantum well exhibiting quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect (symplectic class). In a QH sample, the presence of topologically protected modes leads to a strong suppression of diffusion in the other channels already at scales much shorter than the localization length. On the semiclassical level, this is accompanied by the formation of a gap in the spectrum of transmission probabilities close to unit transmission, thereby suppressing shot noise and conductance fluctuations. In the case of a QSH system, there is at most one topologically protected edge channel leading to weaker transport effects. In order to describe `topological' suppression of nearly perfect transparencies, we develop an exact mapping of the semiclassical limit of the one-dimensional sigma model onto a zero-dimensional sigma model of a different symmetry class, allowing us to identify the distribution of transmission probabilities with the average spectral density of a certain random-matrix ensemble. We extend our results to other symmetry classes with topologically protected edges in two dimensions.

  17. Topological protection of electronic states against disorder probed by their magnetic moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadjine, Athmane; Delerue, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic moments (MMs) of electrons in topological insulator quantum dots (TI-QDs) are investigated using a model system, namely a multiorbital honeycomb lattice. Their nature and orientation with respect to the spin are studied. We show that large MMs are not specific to edge states in nontrivial gaps, as band states can host even larger MMs. However, we demonstrate that edge-state and band-state MMs have a totally different sensitivity to disorder. Measuring the MMs in TI-QDs is therefore a direct way to probe the nontrivial to trivial topological transition under increasing disorder.

  18. Development of electronic textiles for U.S. military protective clothing systems.

    PubMed

    Winterhalter, Carole; Teverovsky, Justyna; Wilson, Patricia; Slade, Jeremiah; Farell, Brian; Horowitz, Wendy; Tierney, Edward

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the development of a wearable electronic network that provides data and power transport. A materials and manufacturing survey was conducted to determine the best performing and most durable materials to withstand the rigors of textile manufacturing and potential military use. Narrow woven technology was selected as the most appropriate manufacturing method. A working wearable narrow fabric version of the Universal Serial Bus (USB) was successfully developed and fabricated as well as related wearable connectors. Military products developed include a personal area network and body borne antenna.

  19. Cell-level battery charge/discharge protection system. [electronic control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, R. L.; Imamura, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes three design approaches to individual cell monitoring and control for sealed secondary battery cells. One technique involves a modular strap-on single cell protector which contains all the electronics required for monitoring cell voltage, responding to external commands, and forming a bypass circuit for the cell. A second technique, the multiplexed cell protector, uses common circuitry to monitor and control each cell in a battery pack. The third technique, the computerized cell protector, by replacing the hard-wired logic of the multiplexed cell protector with a microprocessor, achieves greatest control flexibility and inherent computational capability with a minimum parts count implementation.

  20. Awareness of cornea donation of registered tissue donors in Nanjing.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ting; Wang, Lin-nong; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Ru-yang

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the current cornea donation awareness of tissue donors in the city of Nanjing, China. Altogether 2000 registered tissue donors in the Red Cross Eye Bank of Nanjing by the end of 2010 and 2000 control residents of Nanjing in February to June 2011 were randomly selected to participate in our field questionnaire survey. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding the understanding of cornea donation, the attitude toward cornea donation, and attitude toward legislation and free donation. The awareness of cornea donation between the registered tissue donors and residents was compared. Related factors of the willing-ness to donate corneas and to become a tissue donor were evaluated with univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 1867 (response rate: 93.4%) tissue donors and 1796 (response rate: 89.8%; effective questionnaires: 1697) residents participated in this survey. For the questions about the knowledge of cornea donation, 90.3% tissue donors (residents: 78.9%) knew that donated corneas could be used for transplantations; 71.2% tissue donors (residents: 47.6%) knew that the appearance would not be destroyed after cornea donation; 70.7% tissue donors (residents: 20.0%) knew the formalities to become a cornea donor. For attitude toward cornea donation, 82.2% tissue donors (residents: 45.1%) were willing to donate corneas or eyeballs after death; 84.0% tissue donors (residents: 30.2%) had discussed with their families about donation; 85.1% tissue donors (residents: 24.8%) supported their families' or friends' cornea donation. For attitude toward legislation and free donation, 88.3% tissue donors (residents: 61.3%) approved of legislation to regular cornea donation; 72.2% tissue donors (residents: 38.8%) thought that cornea or organ donation should be gratis. The difference between two groups was significant (P<0.001). However, some tissue donors did not know cornea donation well, some even opposed the legislation of cornea

  1. Effects of cadmium on the activities of photosystems of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and the protective role of cyclic electron flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuzhi; Zhang, Daoyong; Pan, Xiangliang

    2013-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) shows high toxicity to aquatic microalgae. Many studies showed that Cd inhibited activities of photosystem II (PSII) but the effects of heavy metals on photosystem I (PSI) and cyclic electron flow (CEF) were still controversial and unclear. The effects of CdCl2 on the activities of PSI, PSII and CEF in Chlorella pyrenoidosa was measured simultaneously in the present study. In presence of 200μM of Cd, ultrastructure of some cells was strongly modified. Cd exposure led to decrease of the activities of photosynthetic oxygen evolution and respiration. PSII was more sensitive to Cd treatment than PSI. Cd treatment showed significant inhibition on the photochemical quantum yield and electron transport rate of PSII. Cd increased the quantum yield of non-light-induced non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, indicating the damage of PSII. The activity of PSI showed tolerance to Cd treatment with concentration less than 100μM in the experiment. Linear electron flow (LEF) made significant contribution to the photochemical quantum yield of PSI of the untreated cells, but decreased with increasing Cd concentration. The contribution of CEF to the yield of PSI increased with increasing Cd concentration. The activation of CEF after exposure to Cd played an essential role for the protection of PSI.

  2. Donator acceptor map of psittacofulvins and anthocyanins: are they good antioxidant substances?

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ana

    2009-04-09

    Psittacofulvins represent an unusual class of pigments (noncarotenoid lipochromes), which are found only in the red, orange, and yellow plumage of parrots. Anthocyanins are flavonoids, and they are one of the primary types of colorants found in plants. Blue butterflies acquire blue and UV hues on their wings, owing to the presence of flavonoids. It is assumed that these natural pigments are valuable antioxidants because they are able to scavenge free radicals. The aim of this investigation is to rationalize the scavenging activity of psittacofulvins and anthocyanins, in terms of the one electron transfer mechanism, taking into account that to prevent oxidative stress, substances must either donate or accept electrons. Density functional approximation calculations are used to obtain ionization potentials, electron affinities, electrodonating, and electroaccepting power indexes. Taking these values, a donator acceptor map (DAM) was constructed, indicating that anthocyanins are good electron donors, whereas psittacofulvins are good electron acceptors. Anthocyanins and vitamins are antioxidants, whereas psittacofulvins and carotenoids are antireductants (oxidants). In terms of solvent effects, animal pigments (carotenoids, psittacofulvins, and anthocyanins) are much better electron acceptors in water than in either the gas phase or benzene. Solvent effects do not alter the electron donor capacity of vitamins, but anthocyanins become effective electron acceptors in water, rather than effective electron donors. The information presented here may also be valuable for the design and analysis of further experiments.

  3. The monolithic carbon aerogels and aerogel composites for electronics and thermal protection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Sheng; Guo, Hui; Zhou, Yugui; Liu, Yuanyuan; Jin, Zhaoguo; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Yingmin

    2017-09-01

    Monolithic carbon aerogels have been prepared by condensation polymerization and high temperature pyrolysis. The morphology of carbon aerogels are characterized by SEM. The pore structure is characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption technique. Monolithic carbon aerogels are mesoporous nanomaterials. Carbon fiber reinforced carbon aerogel composites are prepared by in-situ sol-gel process. Fiber reinforced carbon aerogel composites are of high mechanical strength. The thermal response of the fiber reinforced aerogel composite samples are tested in an arc plasma wind tunnel. Carbon aerogel composites show good thermal insulation capability and high temperature resistance in inert atmosphere even at ultrahigh temperature up to 1800 °C. The results show that they are suitable for applications in electrodes for supercapacitors/ Lithium-ion batteries and aerospace thermal protection area.

  4. Individuals’ Decision to Co-Donate or Donate Alone: An Archival Study of Married Whole Body Donors in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Anteby, Michel; Garip, Filiz; Martorana, Paul V.; Lozanoff, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background Human cadavers are crucial to numerous aspects of health care, including initial and continuing training of medical doctors and advancement of medical research. Concerns have periodically been raised about the limited number of whole body donations. Little is known, however, about a unique form of donation, namely co-donations or instances when married individuals decide to register at the same time as their spouse as whole body donors. Our study aims to determine the extent of whole body co-donation and individual factors that might influence co-donation. Methods and Findings We reviewed all records of registrants to the University of Hawaii Medical School’s whole body donation program from 1967 through 2006 to identify married registrants. We then examined the 806 married individuals’ characteristics to understand their decision to register alone or with their spouse. We found that married individuals who registered at the same time as their spouse accounted for 38.2 percent of married registrants. Sex differences provided an initial lens to understand co-donation. Wives were more likely to co-donate than to register alone (p = 0.002). Moreover, registrants’ main occupational background had a significant effect on co-donations (p = 0.001). Married registrants (regardless of sex) in female-gendered occupations were more likely to co-donate than to donate alone (p = 0.014). Female-gendered occupations were defined as ones in which women represented more than 55 percent of the workforce (e.g., preschool teachers). Thus, variations in donors’ occupational backgrounds explained co-donation above and beyond sex differences. Conclusions Efforts to secure whole body donations have historically focused on individual donations regardless of donors’ marital status. More attention needs to be paid, however, to co-donations since they represent a non-trivial number of total donations. Also, targeted outreach efforts to male and female members

  5. First-time whole blood donation: A critical step for donor safety and retention on first three donations.

    PubMed

    Gillet, P; Rapaille, A; Benoît, A; Ceinos, M; Bertrand, O; de Bouyalsky, I; Govaerts, B; Lambermont, M

    2015-01-01

    Whole blood donation is generally safe although vasovagal reactions can occur (approximately 1%). Risk factors are well known and prevention measures are shown as efficient. This study evaluates the impact of the donor's retention in relation to the occurrence of vasovagal reaction for the first three blood donations. Our study of data collected over three years evaluated the impact of classical risk factors and provided a model including the best combination of covariates predicting VVR. The impact of a reaction at first donation on return rate and complication until the third donation was evaluated. Our data (523,471 donations) confirmed the classical risk factors (gender, age, donor status and relative blood volume). After stepwise variable selection, donor status, relative blood volume and their interaction were the only remaining covariates in the model. Of 33,279 first-time donors monitored over a period of at least 15 months, the first three donations were followed. Data emphasised the impact of complication at first donation. The return rate for a second donation was reduced and the risk of vasovagal reaction was increased at least until the third donation. First-time donation is a crucial step in the donors' career. Donors who experienced a reaction at their first donation have a lower return rate for a second donation and a higher risk of vasovagal reaction at least until the third donation. Prevention measures have to be processed to improve donor retention and provide blood banks with adequate blood supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychosocial barriers associated with organ donation in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Marván, Maria Luisa; Álvarez Del Río, Asunción; Jasso, Kristian; Santillán-Doherty, Patricio

    2017-09-15

    There is a severe shortage of organs for transplantation worldwide, and Mexico has one of the lowest organ donation rates. In this study, we explored the psychosocial barriers that prevent posthumous organ donation by Mexicans. We asked 218 adults who were not willing to be donors to complete the sentence "I don't want to donate my organs after death because organ donation is…" The data were analyzed using the Natural Semantic Networks Technique. The most important answers given by the participants were related to mistrust. Older participants and those with limited education gave more answers that reflect misconceptions about organ donation. Many participants acknowledged its benefits, even though they did not want to be donors, especially the youngest and those with a higher education. Mistrust and poor education are problems that urgently need to be addressed in order to increase acceptance of organ donation and transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [How human sciences can help to understand blood donation?].

    PubMed

    Danic, B

    2003-06-01

    In France, the necessity of managing sanitary risks associated with blood transfusion has induced a strong medicalization of blood collection. Practicing this activity of transfusion medicine confronts the professional with problems which the medical science is not sufficient to answer: curbs and motivations for donating, seasonal and geographic fluctuations in blood collection, sense of pre-donation interview, individual or collective contestings of guidelines for blood collection. From recent sociological works on donation in France, especially on blood donation, this paper suggests reporting the complexity of blood donation thought process and the necessity to refer to human and social sciences to approach it in a best way. Understanding the gift should help professionals to communicate not only on the promotion of blood donation, but also on the risk and its management.

  8. Altruistic nondirected kidney donation: attitudes, characteristics and ethical implications.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Maja; Vitinius, Frank; Langenbach, Michael

    2017-08-28

    Altruistic nondirected kidney donation involves a person donating one of their kidneys to an unknown recipient. The donor's mental health and motives are frequently questioned. We want to highlight this topic and also encourage discussions about ethical implications. The main topics are the mental health of altruistic nondirected kidney donors and the general attitude towards the practice of this form of donation as well as the willingness of the public to donate this way. Soliciting organ donation via social networks or financial support is debated extensively in the media. There is a lack of studies on altruistic nondirected kidney donation. Most studies focus on related donors. Studies with larger samples should be performed on altruistic nondirected kidney donors to learn more about their motives and assess their mental health.

  9. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients.

  10. 41 CFR 102-37.520 - What is the authority for public airport donations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for public airport donations? 102-37.520 Section 102-37.520 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.520 What is the authority for public airport donations? The authority for public airport donations is 49 U.S.C. 47151. 49...

  11. 41 CFR 102-37.35 - Who handles the donation of surplus property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who handles the donation...-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.35 Who handles the donation of surplus property? (a) The SASPs handle the donation of most surplus property to eligible...

  12. 41 CFR 102-37.45 - How long is property available for donation screening?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... available for donation screening? 102-37.45 Section 102-37.45 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.45 How long is property available for donation screening? Entities authorized to participate in the donation program...

  13. 41 CFR 102-37.30 - When does property become available for donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... become available for donation? 102-37.30 Section 102-37.30 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.30 When does property become available for donation? Excess personal property becomes available for donation the...

  14. 41 CFR 102-37.520 - What is the authority for public airport donations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for public airport donations? 102-37.520 Section 102-37.520 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.520 What is the authority for public airport donations? The authority for public airport donations is 49 U.S.C. 47151. 49...

  15. 41 CFR 102-37.520 - What is the authority for public airport donations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for public airport donations? 102-37.520 Section 102-37.520 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.520 What is the authority for public airport donations? The authority for public airport donations is 49 U.S.C. 47151. 49 U...

  16. 41 CFR 102-37.520 - What is the authority for public airport donations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for public airport donations? 102-37.520 Section 102-37.520 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.520 What is the authority for public airport donations? The authority for public airport donations is 49 U.S.C. 47151. 49 U...

  17. 41 CFR 102-37.520 - What is the authority for public airport donations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for public airport donations? 102-37.520 Section 102-37.520 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.520 What is the authority for public airport donations? The authority for public airport donations is 49 U.S.C. 47151. 49 U...

  18. Medical students' perception on eye donation in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meghachandra M; Rahi, Manju; Pagare, Deepti; Ingle, G K

    2007-01-01

    Corneal transplantation remains a major treatment option for restoring sight among those suffering from corneal blindness. The number of corneal transplants done is far less than the actual requirement in India. This is largely due to the inadequate numbers of corneas collected. Medical students can be involved in the motivation of patients and relatives to pledge their eyes and to do grief counseling for donating eyes. The aim of the study was to assess the perception and willingness of 180 first-year medical students towards eye donation in Delhi. They were administered a pretested semi-structured questionnaire on eye donation. Data were analyzed using Epi-Info software package 6.04 version. The majority (99.4%) of students knew that eyes can be donated after death but only 41.1% knew that the ideal time of donation was within six hours of death. Most participants (87.2%) were willing to donate eyes. Nobility in the act of eye donation was the main motivational force for eye donation according to 85.5% of students. Perceived reasons for not pledging eyes by the people were: lack of awareness (32.7%), objection by family members (27.7%), unsuitability to donate because of health problem (17.7%) and the unacceptable idea to separate the eye from the body (15.5%). Mass media such as television, newspapers, magazines and posters were important sources of information on eye donation. Perceived reasons for not donating eyes need to be considered while creating awareness about eye donation in the community.

  19. Blood donation in Guangdong Province, China, from 2006-2014.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, J; Bei, C-H

    2016-06-01

    To explore the trends in blood collection from 2006 to 2014 in Guangdong, China. Although the Blood Donation Law of the People's Republic of China was implemented in 1998, voluntary non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD) has been promoted fully for only a decade. The provincial and local governments of Guangdong, one of the most well-developed provinces in China, have promoted blood donation by various means. Official data on blood donation from 2006 to 2014, including the number of blood donations and the family replacement/mutual blood donation (FRMBD) rate, were collected from all blood collection and supply institutions in Guangdong. These data were analysed to explore trends in blood donation in Guangdong Province, and to detect differences among the province's four regions. The number of blood donations in Guangdong increased by 38·23% from 2006 to 2014; overall, the rate increased annually, although it fluctuated in the eastern region. Family replacement/mutual whole blood and platelet donation rates decreased dramatically from 2006 to 2014 (from 39·99% to 20·16% and from 64·15% to 26·51%, respectively), but remained high. Marked disparities in blood donation development were detected among the four regions. With nearly a decade of efforts, blood donation in Guangdong has developed rapidly and sustainably. All blood collection and supply institutions must strengthen efforts to improve awareness of blood donation among the population, retain repeat and regular donors and reduce the rate of FRMBD in favor of the development of VNRBD. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  20. Brazilian Healthcare Professionals: A Study of Attitudes Toward Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Araujo, C; Siqueira, M

    2016-12-01

    Healthcare professionals have a crucial role in organ donation and transplantation processes. Their attitude toward organ donation can affect public opinion and the donation decision made by deceased donors' relatives. The objectives of the study were to analyze the attitude of medical and nursing personnel toward deceased organ donation in two hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the factors that can affect this attitude. A random sample (n = 162) was selected from the population of nurses and physicians in the hospitals analyzed. The sample was stratified by age, sex, marital status, religion, professional category, and educational level. A validated questionnaire addressing psychosocial aspects of organ donation was used to evaluate attitudes. The χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied for statistical analysis. Of personnel surveyed, 86.4% (n = 140) were in favor of deceased organ donation, whereas 11.1% (n = 18) were not sure and 2.5% (n = 4) were against. The favorable attitude was related to the following aspects: (1) educational level, (2) having spoken with family members about organ donation, (3) having a chronic disease, (4) favorable attitude of one's family, (5) belief that organ donation can save lives, (6) concerns about body manipulation, illegal trade of organs, and organ donation being against God's will, (7) feeling proud of working with organ donation/transplantation, (8) self-assessment of experience and knowledge in organ donation/transplantation activities (P < .05). Deceased organ donation is well accepted among the healthcare professionals surveyed, and the attitude is affected by socio-personal variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Awareness of Religious Leaders’ Fatwa and Willingness to Donate Organ

    PubMed Central

    Afzal Aghaee, M.; Dehghani, M.; Sadeghi, M.; Khaleghi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is believed that religious leaders’ positive attitude towards organ donation can be an effective factor in Muslims’ inclination to donate organs. Objective: To assess the knowledge of freshmen students in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences about religious leaders’ fatwa on organ donation and its effect on their willingness to donate organs. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 on 400 freshmen of various medical disciplines, selected using a simple random sampling in Mashhad, Iran. Data were collected by a valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 41.5% of the students were aware of religious authorities’ views on organ donation and 55.6% were willing to donate organs. Participants’ main reasons for lack of willingness to donate organs included the fear of organ donation before the brain death is confirmed (52%), unwillingness to disfigure their body (51%), and belief in the burial of organs (50%). The willingness to organ donation for students who were aware of religious leaders opinion was more than twice more than those who were not (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.75–4.52). Also, female gender, the Shia religion and awareness of the correct definition of brain death were associated factors affecting the desire to donate organs, although their effects were not statistically significant on regression model. Conclusion: A considerable proportion of students were not aware of the religious leaders’ fatwa on organ donation. The most important factor for the desire to donate organs was the awareness of religious leaders’ fatwa. Therefore, it seems necessary that religious leaders’ fatwa be known to all by appropriate methods. PMID:26576261

  2. Inhaled nitric oxide for the brain dead donor with neurogenic pulmonary edema during anesthesia for organ donation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Sun; Lee, A-Ran; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, An Suk; Park, Soon Eun; Cho, Young Woo

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) in brain dead organ donors occurring after an acute central nervous system insult threatens organ preservation of potential organ donors and the outcome of organ donation. Hence the active and immediate management of NPE is critical. In this case, a 50-year-old male was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for organ donation. He was hypoxic due to NPE induced by spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage. Protective ventilatory management, intermittent recruitment maneuvers, and supportive treatment were maintained in the ICU and the operating room (OR). Despite this management, the hypoxemia worsened after the OR admission. So inhaled nitric oxide (NO) therapy was performed during the operation, and the hypoxic phenomena showed remarkable improvement. The organ retrieval was successfully completed. Therefore, NO inhalation can be helpful in the improvement of hypoxemia caused by NPE in brain dead organ donors during anesthesia for the organ donation. PMID:25237451

  3. Development of electronic textiles to support networks, communications, and medical applications in future U.S. military protective clothing systems.

    PubMed

    Winterhalter, Carole A; Teverovsky, Justyna; Wilson, Patricia; Slade, Jeremiah; Horowitz, Wendy; Tierney, Edward; Sharma, Vikram

    2005-09-01

    The focus of this paper is on the development of textile-based wearable electronics that can be integrated into military protective clothing. A materials and manufacturing survey was conducted to determine the best performing and most durable materials to withstand the rigors of textile manufacturing and potential military use. Narrow woven technology was selected as one of the most promising textile manufacturing methods. A working wearable narrow fabric version of the Universal Serial Bus (USB), as well as a radiating conductor, were successfully developed and fabricated. A circular knit T-shirt with an integrated spiral bus was also developed. Military products developed include components of a personal area network providing data and power transport, and a body-borne antenna integrated into a load-bearing vest.

  4. Local electronic properties of the graphene-protected giant Rashba-split BiAg2 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesch, Julia; Voloshina, Elena; Jubitz, Milan; Dedkov, Yuriy; Fonin, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    We report the preparation of an interface between graphene and a strong Rashba-split BiAg2 surface alloy and an investigation of its structure as well as the electronic properties by means of scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Upon evaluation of the quasiparticle interference patterns, an unperturbed linear dispersion for the π band of n -doped graphene is observed. Our results also reveal the intact nature of the giant Rashba-split surface states of the BiAg2 alloy, which demonstrate only a moderate downward energy shift due to the presence of graphene. This effect is explained in the framework of density functional theory by an inward relaxation of the Bi atoms at the interface and subsequent delocalization of the wave function of the surface states. Our findings demonstrate a realistic pathway to prepare a graphene-protected giant Rashba-split BiAg2 for possible spintronic applications.

  5. What Is Being Done to Increase Organ Donation?

    PubMed

    Scheuher, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The need for organs greatly outnumbers the amount of organs donated for transplantation. This is true for all countries around the world. Many organizations globally have been created to solve this problem. Spain has been very successful with its drive to increase organ donation. Educational campaigns are a great tool being utilized by all countries and the medical communities to promote a positive perception of organ donation. These campaigns include using the television industry, raising money for travel expenses, and education seminars. This article looks at the different groups and programs aimed at increasing organ donation.

  6. Can we create ethnically diverse skeletal collection from donated bodies?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding bone health is least invasively and most effectively done through studying skeletal remains that reflect the living populations who will benefit from the knowledge produced through research. Donated body collections that accurately represent modern populations are needed for osteological insights to be applied to clinical practices. However, even though the US is growing increasingly diverse, donated body collections still suffer from a lack of ethnic diversity. Most individuals who donate their whole-bodies after death are European-American. Reasons for a lack of ethnic diversity stem from past injustices and present religious norms. Increasing body donation among minorities in the US and abroad may be difficult.

  7. Altruism and reward: motivational compatibility in deceased organ donation.

    PubMed

    Voo, Teck Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Acts of helping others are often based on mixed motivations. Based on this claim, it has been argued that the use of a financial reward to incentivize organ donation is compatible with promoting altruism in organ donation. In its report Human Bodies: Donation for Medicine and Research, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics uses this argument to justify its suggestion to pilot a funeral payment scheme to incentivize people to register for deceased organ donation in the UK. In this article, I cast a sceptical eye on the above Nuffield report's argument that its proposed funeral payment scheme would prompt deceased organ donations that remain altruistic (as defined by and valued the report). Specifically, I illustrate how this scheme may prompt various forms of mixed motivations which would not satisfy the report's definition of altruism. Insofar as the scheme produces an expectation of the reward, it stands diametrical to promoting an 'altruistic perspective'. My minimal goal in this article is to argue that altruism is not motivationally compatible with reward as an incentive for donation. My broader goal is to argue that if a financial reward is used to incentivize organ donation, then we should recognize that the donation system is no longer aiming to promote altruism. Rewarded donation would not be altruistic but it may be ethical given a persistent organ shortage situation.

  8. The effect of blood donation frequency on iron status.

    PubMed

    Røsvik, A S; Ulvik, R J; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Hervig, T

    2009-12-01

    The effects of blood donation on iron status in donors without iron supplementation were studied. Analysing interactions between donations and iron status markers may predict these effects. Haemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin were analysed in 893 donors over 1 year. Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) was measured at the first and last donation. Prolonged intervals prevented decrease in Hb in women and in ferritin for both genders. In women, a high TfR-F index (sTfR/log ferritin) predicted fall in Hb. Adjusting the donation intervals is a way to prevent iron deficiency in blood donors.

  9. Blood donation and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuehong; Ma, Jing; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    Although blood donations may reduce body iron stores, to date, prospective data on frequent blood donation and colorectal cancer risk are limited. We tested whether frequent blood donation is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We prospectively followed 35,121 men who provide the information on lifetime number of blood donations in 1992 through 2008. Serum ferritin levels were measured in a random sample of 305 men. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the multivariable relative risks (RRs, 95%CIs) after adjusting for age and other established colorectal cancer risk factors. We documented 684 incident colorectal cancer cases and 224 deaths from colorectal cancer. The mean serum ferritin levels varied from 178 µg/L for men who did not donate blood to 98 µg/L for men who had at least 30 donations. Age-adjusted results for both incidence and mortality were essentially the same as the multivariable-adjusted results. Comparing with non-donors, the multivariable RRs (95%CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence were 0.92 (0.77, 1.11) for 1-5 donation, 0.85 (0.64, 1.11) for 6-9 donations, 0.96 (0.73, 1.26) for 10-19 donations, 0.91 (0.63, 1.32) for 20-29 donations, and 0.97 (0.68, 1.38) for at least 30 donations (P(trend) = 0.92). The multivariable RRs for colorectal cancer mortality were 0.99 (0.72, 1.36) for 1-5 donation, 0.93 (0.57, 1.51) for 6-9 donations, 0.85 (0.50, 1.42) for 10-19 donations, and 1.14 (0.72, 1.83) for at least 20 donations (P(trend) = 0.82). The results did not vary by cancer sub-sites, intake levels of total iron, heme iron, or family history of colorectal cancer. Frequent blood donations were not associated with colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in men. Our results do not support an important role of body iron stores in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  10. Financial compensation for deceased organ donation in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoliang; Fang, Qiang

    2013-06-01

    In March 2010, China launched a pilot programme of deceased donor organ donation in 10 provinces and cities. However, the deceased donor donation rate in China remains significantly lower than in Spain and other Western countries. In order to provide incentive for deceased donor organ donation, five pilot provinces and cities have subsequently launched a financial compensation policy. Financial compensation can be considered to include two main forms, the 'thank you' form and the 'help' form. The 'thank you' form is an expression of gratitude on behalf of the Red Cross Society of China for consenting to donation. The 'help' form is social welfare support for needy families.

  11. Donation after cardiac death in abdominal organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Reich, David J; Guy, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the field of donation after cardiac death, focusing on the history, ethicolegal issues, clinical outcomes, best practices, operative techniques, and emerging strategies to optimize utilization of this resource. Donation after cardiac death is one effective way to decrease the organ shortage and has contributed the largest recent increase in abdominal organ allografts. Currently, donation after cardiac death organs confer an increased risk of ischemic cholangiopathy after liver transplant and of delayed graft function after kidney transplant. As this field matures, risk factors for donation after cardiac death organ transplant will be further identified and clinical outcomes will improve as a result of protocol standardization and ongoing research.

  12. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Al-Omani, Manar; Al Johar, Alwaleed; Al Hakbani, Abdulaziz; Alaskar, Ahmed S

    2014-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Approximately half of all subjects (53.3%) reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01), a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001), and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001) were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively), whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%). Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals' places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity.

  13. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Al-Omani, Manar; Al Johar, Alwaleed; Al Hakbani, Abdulaziz; Alaskar, Ahmed S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results Approximately half of all subjects (53.3%) reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01), a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001), and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001) were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively), whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%). Conclusion Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals’ places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity

  14. From fresh heterologous oocyte donation to autologous oocyte banking

    PubMed Central

    Stoop, D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Today, oocyte donation has become well established, giving rise to thousands of children born worldwide annually. The introduction of oocyte cryopreservation through vitrification allows the introduction of egg banking, improving the efficiency and comfort of oocyte donation. Moreover, the vitrification technique can now enable autologous donation of oocytes to prevent future infertility. Methods: We evaluated fresh heterologous oocyte donation in terms of obstetrical and perinatal outcome as well as of the reproductive outcome of past donors. We then evaluated the efficiency of a closed vitrification device and its clinical applications within ART. Thirdly, we evaluated the opinion of women with regard to preventive egg freezing and the efficiency of a human oocyte in relation to age. Results: Oocyte donation is associated with an increased risk of first trimester bleeding and pregnancy induced hypertension. Donating oocytes does not seem to increase the likelihood for a later need of fertility treatment. The chance of an oocyte to result in live birth (utilization rate) in women <37 years old remains constant with a mean of 4.47%. A significant proportion of young women would consider safeguarding their reproductive potential through egg freezing or are at least open to the idea. Discussion and Conclusion: The introduction of efficient oocyte cryopreservation has revolutionized oocyte donation through the establishment of eggbank donation. The technique also enables women to perform autologous donation after preventive oocyte storage in order to circumvent their biological clock. PMID:24753920

  15. Attitudes toward organ donation in rural areas of southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Conesa, C; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Cantéras, M; Rodríguez, M M; Parrilla, P

    2006-04-01

    Rural areas present a worse attitude toward organ donation. However, the factors conditioning this attitude are not well known. Our aim was to determine the profile of the population opposed to donation in rural areas. A random sample stratified by age and sex was obtained from municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants. Attitudes toward donation were assessed by a questionnaire which evaluated variables that may influence these attitudes. A descriptive statistical study used the Student t test and chi-square test as well as a logistic regression analysis. Among 181 respondents, 63% were in favor of donation and 37% against or undecided. Among the reasons to be against donation were rejection of body mutilation (43%) and fear of apparent death (41%). The psychosocial variables against donation were age >or=44 years, primary education or below, no previous experience with donation, no prosocial activities, an unfavorable opinion of the partner, and fear of corpse mutilation. The variables persisting in the multivariate analysis were level of education, previous experience, prosocial activities, and fear of corpse manipulation. Among the rural population the profile of a person opposed to donation was someone older than 44 years, with a low level of education and no previous experience with donation, who does not participate in prosocial activities and is opposed to corpse manipulation.

  16. Effects of staff training and electronic event monitoring on long-term adherence to lung-protective ventilation recommendations.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Ixchel; Martin, Marcus; Kraus, Stefan; Bürkle, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Schüttler, Jürgen; Toddenroth, Dennis

    2017-06-27

    To investigate long-term effects of staff training and electronic clinical decision support (CDS) on adherence to lung-protective ventilation recommendations. In 2012, group instructions and workshops at two surgical intensive care units (ICUs) started, focusing on standardized protocols for mechanical ventilation and volutrauma prevention. Subsequently implemented CDS functions continuously monitor ventilation parameters, and from 2015 triggered graphical notifications when tidal volume (VT) violated individual thresholds. To estimate the effects of these educational and technical interventions, we retrospectively analyzed nine years of VT records from routine care. As outcome measures, we calculated relative frequencies of settings that conform to recommendations, case-specific mean excess VT, and total ICU survival. Assessing 571,478 VT records from 10,241 ICU cases indicated that adherence during pressure-controlled ventilation improved significantly after both interventions; the share of conforming VT records increased from 61.6% to 83.0% and then 86.0%. Despite increasing case severity, ICU survival remained nearly constant over time. Staff training effectively improves adherence to lung-protective ventilation strategies. The observed CDS effect seemed less pronounced, although it can easily be adapted to new recommendations. Both interventions, which futures studies could deploy in combination, promise to improve the precision of mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A semantic framework to protect the privacy of electronic health records with non-numerical attributes.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Sergio; Sánchez, David; Valls, Aida

    2013-04-01

    Structured patient data like Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are a valuable source for clinical research. However, the sensitive nature of such information requires some anonymisation procedure to be applied before releasing the data to third parties. Several studies have shown that the removal of identifying attributes, like the Social Security Number, is not enough to obtain an anonymous data file, since unique combinations of other attributes as for example, rare diagnoses and personalised treatments, may lead to patient's identity disclosure. To tackle this problem, Statistical Disclosure Control (SDC) methods have been proposed to mask sensitive attributes while preserving, up to a certain degree, the utility of anonymised data. Most of these methods focus on continuous-scale numerical data. Considering that part of the clinical data found in EHRs is expressed with non-numerical attributes as for example, diagnoses, symptoms, procedures, etc., their application to EHRs produces far from optimal results. In this paper, we propose a general framework to enable the accurate application of SDC methods to non-numerical clinical data, with a focus on the preservation of semantics. To do so, we exploit structured medical knowledge bases like SNOMED CT to propose semantically-grounded operators to compare, aggregate and sort non-numerical terms. Our framework has been applied to several well-known SDC methods and evaluated using a real clinical dataset with non-numerical attributes. Results show that the exploitation of medical semantics produces anonymised datasets that better preserve the utility of EHRs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Donating in good faith or getting into trouble Religion and organ donation revisited

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Mike; Ahmed, Aimun; Woywodt, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    There is worldwide shortage of organs for solid-organ transplantation. Many obstacles to deceased and live donation have been described and addressed, such as lack of understanding of the medical process, the issue of the definition of brain death, public awareness of the need for transplants, and many others. However, it is clear that the striking differences in deceased and live donation rates between different countries are only partly explained by these factors and many cultural and social reasons have been invoked to explain these observations. We believe that one obstacle to both deceased and live donation that is less well appreciated is that of religious concerns. Looking at the major faiths and religions worldwide, it is reassuring to see that most of them encourage donation. However, there is also scepticism amongst some of them, often relating to the concept of brain death and/or the processes surrounding death itself. It is worthwhile for transplant teams to be broadly aware of the issues and also to be mindful of resources for counselling. We believe that increased awareness of these issues within the transplant community will enable us to discuss these openly with patients, if they so wish. PMID:24175198

  19. Water-soluble phosphine-protected Au9 clusters: Electronic structures and nuclearity conversion via phase transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Tsubota, Shuhei

    2017-08-01

    In this article, isolation, exploration of electronic structures, and nuclearity conversion of water-soluble triphenylphosphine monosulfonate (TPPS)-protected nonagold (Au9) clusters are outlined. The Au9 clusters are obtained by the reduction of solutions containing TPPS and HAuCl4 and subsequent electrophoretic fractionation. Mass spectrometry and elemental analysis reveal the formation of [Au9(TPPS)8]5- nonagold cluster. UV-vis absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of aqueous [Au9(TPPS)8]5- are quite similar to those of [Au9(PPh3)8]3+ in organic solvent, so the solution-phase structures are likely similar for both systems. Simultaneous deconvolution analysis of absorption and MCD spectra demonstrates the presence of some weak electronic transitions that are essentially unresolved in the UV-vis absorption. Quantum chemical calculations for a model compound [Au9(pH3)8]3+ show that the possible (solution-phase) skeletal structure of the nonagold cluster has D2h core symmetry rather than C4-symmetrical centered crown conformation, which is known as the crystal form of the Au9 compound. Moreover, we find a new nuclearity conversion route from Au9 to Au8; that is, phase transfer of aqueous [Au9(TPPS)8]5- into chloroform using tetraoctylammonium bromide yields [Au8(TPPS)8]6- clusters in the absence of excess phosphine.

  20. Opto-electronic Properties of Monolayer-Protected Clusters of Au functionalized with a New Fluorescent Ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountz, Thomas; Thanthirige, Viraj; Reber, Keith; Devadas, Mary Sajini

    Metal nanoclusters are the focus of intense study due to their interesting optical, electronic, and catalytic properties; specifically gold clusters. The applications of gold monolayer-protected clusters (MPCs) are being researched by a series of optical spectroscopic and voltammetric analyses to determine core size, atom-level composition, charge states, and optical/electrical properties. Understanding these fundamental properties is critical for both expansion of applications and creation of new MPCs. The purpose of this study is to expand the applications of gold MPCs, with the attachment of a new coumarin surface ligand - synthesized specifically for this experiment. Our focus in this research is on quantum clusters - specifically Au25(C6S)18. This MPC is researched particularly because of its inherent stability being a magic number cluster. It is created by means of a modified Burst-Schiffrin method. The applications that are influenced include but are not limited to: catalytic activity, solar energy conversion, size-tunable florescence, sensors, and optical electronics.

  1. Further HFEA restrictions on egg donation in the UK: two strikes and you're out!

    PubMed

    Sauer, Mark V

    2005-04-01

    The UK and Europe have lagged far behind the USA in the number of egg donation cycles performed over the past two decades. This disparity has been largely attributed to governmental restraints placed on the method within these locales, combined with the lack of regulation in the USA. Severely limiting donor compensation and requiring donors to be identified 18 years or more after their participation will undoubtedly lead to the demise of egg donation as the UK now knows it. Throwing more money at the problem, in the form of increased donor compensation, is unlikely to fix the shortage of participants that is to come. As already witnessed, increasing numbers of women and couples will probably seek treatment outside their native borders to escape the unreasonable demands placed upon their personal liberties by government. Regulation will promote 'reproductive tourism' as patients seek care in areas of the world where self-determination is protected by law.

  2. Incentives for organ donation: some ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Sells, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Objections to commerce in organs has not stopped the spread of such practice around the world. In most countries the gap between supply and demand for organs continues to increase. Kidneys from living donors are considered a valuable addition to the donor pool, and in a more acquisitive world, donor incentives are becoming thinkable, even acceptable. Current incentives for cadaver and living organ donation are reviewed from ethical and legal perspectives. A new principle of reimbursement for the living donor's risk and pain is defined and presented for debate.

  3. Characteristics of homosexual men who donate blood.

    PubMed

    Ross, M W; Drew, P A; Beal, R W

    1985-03-18

    A number of demographic, psychological, medical, immunological and haematological indices, as well as sexual practices and partner numbers, were investigated in 97 homosexual men in Adelaide. A comparison of blood donors with non-donors among these men showed that the donors were younger, spent more time in the homosexual subculture, maintained a stable blood-donation pattern, and were significantly less likely to have had a sexually transmitted disease. Donors contacted their sexual partners in non-anonymous settings more frequently than did non-donors.

  4. [The ethics of organ donation for transplantation].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, F V

    1994-01-01

    The new law 12/93, which regulates organ donation for transplantation in Portugal, is reviewed. The author emphasizes the importance of some legal improvements to allow a better fulfillment of the first principles of ethics that will rule the conflicts of interest between living and dead donors and recipients. Criticism is made of the interference that the Ministry of Health will have in the decision of doctors' and Medical Centres' competence. The importance given to economic reasons which stimulate political promotion and minimise ethical and professional reasons would become future factors of obstruction and backwardness.

  5. Organ donation: a significant marketing challenge.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Roberta N

    2007-01-01

    Unlike most health care markets, the organ donation market is one where patients are the marketers, prospective donors are the customers, and no payment is allowed in the exchange process. The assumption that altruistic behavior by donors would satisfy the need for organs has proven woefully untrue. As a result, those needing organs have resorted to relying on unwilling or impoverished donors, to having to promote themselves on websites which have achieved success for only small numbers of patients, or to waiting for organs which they may never receive. This remains a still unsolved marketing challenge.

  6. Ensuring food safety in food donations: Case study of the Belgian donation/acceptation chain.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, E; Jacxsens, L; Goubert, H; Uyttendaele, M

    2017-10-01

    The food donation process in Belgium is mapped and analyzed to identify bottlenecks in compliance with the legal framework and implementation of food safety management, based on literature search and interviews with stakeholders (donors, acceptors, regulators and facilitators) in Belgium and at EU level. The study revealed that the food donation/acceptation chain is far less structured and organized than the conventional food supply chain. The fragmented landscape of many small food banks and charity organizations (acceptors), often directed by and working with volunteers without training in food safety and lack of knowledge of legal food hygiene requirements is a bottleneck to generate trust among food donors and restricts the provision of perishable products in food donations. Lack of refrigerated transport and insufficient cold/freezing capacity in food banks and charity organizations was identified as a barrier to distribute perishable products. Furthermore, in two cities in Flanders (Belgium), at some food donation centers, donated perishable food samples (n=72) were taken and subjected to microbiological analysis to determine their overall food quality, hygiene and food safety status. Twenty-two of 72 analyzed samples showed marginal microbiological quality based on numbers of yeast, lactic acid bacteria or total viable count. In three samples Listeria monocytogenes was detected per 25g among which one ready-to-eat cooked meat product which showed increased numbers of L. monocytogenes (3.5logCFU/g) and Enterobacteriaceae (6.7logCFU/g). Overall, in Belgium, most of the donated foods considers nonperishable foods, with more or less half of the food collected by the food banks being purchased with funds from FEAD (Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived) and thus not derived from food losses. Efforts are being made by facilitators to provide a platform for better coordination of donors and acceptors to make more efficient use of food losses. Regulators at the

  7. Public Perception of Cadaver Organ Donation in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, A J; Xie, W Z; Luo, J J; Ouyang, W

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to (1) survey public' perception and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) analyze the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to donate. We developed a questionnaire, and conducted the survey with stratified random sampling. Overall, 600 residents, aged ≥18 who resided in Hunan, and 600 undergraduates from 3 universities in Hunan were surveyed randomly. For this study, 1085 valid questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 90.4%. Of the 1085 participants, 581 (53.5%) were students, 504 (46.5%) were residents, and 519 (47.8%) were male and 566 (52.2%) female. The mean accuracy rate was 71.96%, and the students' mean accuracy rate was slightly higher than that of the resident population (73.06% vs 70.68%, respectively). The results showed that 82.2% of public support organ donation, and 53.5% were willing to donate their organs after death. Students scored higher than the residents (88% vs 75.6% and 55.6% vs 51.2%). Nearly 1.8% felt that organ donation was against their religion, 14.9% thought it was important to ensure the integrity of the body, 71.7% agreed that organ donation allowed a positive outcome after a person's death, and 61.5% agreed that organ donation represented a continuation of life, to help families cope with grief. Age and gender were related to attitudes. Public knowledge of organ donation and their attitudes were correlated positively (r = 0.666). Public knowledge of organ donation is poor, biased, and incomplete, and based on television, movies, and communication networks. Positive attitudes toward donation displayed in the surveys were not matched by actual organ donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Awareness and Attitudes toward Organ Donation in Rural Puducherry, India.

    PubMed

    Balajee, K L; Ramachandran, N; Subitha, L

    2016-01-01

    For many of the end-stage organ diseases, organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment. The need for the organ transplantation is higher than the availability. For the transplantation program to be successful, awareness regarding organ donation is needed and people must have a positive attitude toward donating organs. This study aims to assess the awareness and attitudes regarding organ donation among the rural population and to evaluate the sociodemographic factors associated with their awareness. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 people living in 4 villages of Puducherry. Face-to-face interviews were carried out using pretested questionnaire, which included the sociodemographic data. Data were entered into Excel and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Of 360 participants, 88% (317/360) were aware of organ donation. Among these 317 participants, awareness was highest in the age group 18-30 years 98.8% (87/88), male 91% (147/161), higher secondary and above 100% (58/58), and Class 1 socioeconomic status 92% (13/14). Source of awareness about organ donation was primarily through media 83% (263/317). The majority of the participants 88% (281/317) felt that the purpose of organ donation was to save life. Most of the participants 91% (290/317) said that all healthy adults are eligible organ donors and 87% (275/317) of the participants said that monetary benefits could not be accepted for organ donation. Most of the participants 70% (223/317) were willing to donate their organs after death. Among the participants who refused to donate their organs, family refusal 57% (25/44) was the most common reason. This study shows that there is a high level of awareness about organ donation among rural people and most of the participants are willing to donate their organs.

  9. [Blood donation after reaching 65 years of age].

    PubMed

    Janetzko, K; Böcher, R; Klotz, K F; Kirchner, H; Klüter, H

    1996-01-01

    European regulations for blood donation recommend a maximum donor age of 65 years. On the other hand, the percentage of the population in this age group is rapidly increasing in Western countries, and in autologous blood donation programs this limitation has already been abandoned. In a prospective study we examined blood donation in elderly donors (18 male and 5 female; mean age 65 years, range 64-69) in comparison to a younger control group (15/9; 58, 55-63). All donors were regular blood donors and had donated for at least 3 years. We investigated the exercise capacity before and after donation of 450 ml whole blood by examination of the physical working capacity (PWC) at heart rates of 110/min and 130/min through treadmill exercise testing and determined the blood viscosity. Additionally, whole-blood count, hemoglobin, plasma-ferritin levels and total iron binding capacity were measured immediately after donation and on days 7, 28 and 49. We found a decrease in whole-blood viscosity and a moderate increase in PWC at heart rates of 110/min and 130/min after donation in both groups. Red cell count and values of hemoglobin and ferritin were significantly lower in both groups after donation and returned to pre-donation values by day 49 in the younger control group. We detected no deterioration in exercise capacity after whole-blood donation in elderly blood donors over 65 years when compared with a younger control group. We suggest that blood donation in otherwise healthy persons aged over 65 years should be accepted.

  10. Blood donors' attitudes towards incentives: influence on motivation to donate.

    PubMed

    Kasraian, Leila; Maghsudlu, Mahtab

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the factors that motivate donors to donate will facilitate improvements in recruitment programmes. Donation incentives are often used to improve the effect of recruitment programmes. This cross-sectional study was designed to understand donors' attitudes toward incentives. Participants (n=421) were recruited among volunteer donors at the Shiraz Blood Transfusion Centre when they registered for blood donation. They completed a questionnaire with items regarding demographic characteristics, donation status (first-time donor or regular donor), and their motivation for donating, their attitude towards incentives, and the best type of incentives. Multiple logistic regression and chi-squared tests were used to analyse the data with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The majority of donors (85.6%) donated blood for altruistic reasons. One quarter of the donors (25.3%) believed that incentives should be offered to encourage them to donate. Most donors (84.5%) believed that the most effective incentive was offering specific blood tests. Donors who had donated for non-altruistic reasons were more interested in receiving incentives. The desire to receive incentives was more widespread among younger, married, first-time donors, donors with a lower educational level and donors with a history of more than five donations. The desire to receive incentives decreased as age increased. Most of the donors (74.7%) had no desire to receive incentives, and this was even more apparent among donors who donated for altruistic reasons. Non-monetary incentives may be effective in attracting younger, married, first-time donors, donors with a lower educational level and donors with a history of more than five donations.

  11. Blood donors’ attitudes towards incentives: influence on motivation to donate

    PubMed Central

    Kasraian, Leila; Maghsudlu, Mahtab

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the factors that motivate donors to donate will facilitate improvements in recruitment programmes. Donation incentives are often used to improve the effect of recruitment programmes. This cross-sectional study was designed to understand donors’ attitudes toward incentives. Material and methods Participants (n=421) were recruited among volunteer donors at the Shiraz Blood Transfusion Centre when they registered for blood donation. They completed a questionnaire with items regarding demographic characteristics, donation status (first-time donor or regular donor), and their motivation for donating, their attitude towards incentives, and the best type of incentives. Multiple logistic regression and chi-squared tests were used to analyse the data with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results The majority of donors (85.6%) donated blood for altruistic reasons. One quarter of the donors (25.3%) believed that incentives should be offered to encourage them to donate. Most donors (84.5%) believed that the most effective incentive was offering specific blood tests. Donors who had donated for non-altruistic reasons were more interested in receiving incentives. The desire to receive incentives was more widespread among younger, married, first-time donors, donors with a lower educational level and donors with a history of more than five donations. The desire to receive incentives decreased as age increased. Discussion Most of the donors (74.7%) had no desire to receive incentives, and this was even more apparent among donors who donated for altruistic reasons. Non-monetary incentives may be effective in attracting younger, married, first-time donors, donors with a lower educational level and donors with a history of more than five donations. PMID:22044949

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards blood donation in Barbados.

    PubMed

    Atherley, A E; Taylor, C G; Whittington, A; Jonker, C

    2016-12-01

    To obtain information to devise strategies for a voluntary blood donor mobilisation campaign in Barbados. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that 100% blood should be collected from voluntary non-remunerated donors (VNRD), yet the majority of blood donations (75%) in Barbados are family/replacement donations. Increasing VNRD is paramount to achieving a safe, reliable blood supply, and understanding the population is a strategy suggested by the WHO to inform donor recruitment and education. Participants in Barbados (n = 429) completed a self-administered questionnaire in 2014. The questionnaire comprised 31 questions, including demographics (age, gender, highest educational attainment) and blood donation-related knowledge, attitudes and practices. Analysis of variance, t-test and linear regression were used to analyse data. A total of 53% (n = 219) of participants had previously donated blood; almost half were family/replacement donors, and over one-third (36·2%) were lapsed donors and had not donated within the past 2 years. Knowledge deficits included blood donation requirements, deferral factors and maximum yearly donations. Most participants (79%) were willing to donate with more information. Participants with higher educational attainment and previous donors had higher total knowledge and attitude scores (P < 0·01). Single, female and younger participants were less likely to donate blood (P < 0·05). Barbados can likely increase voluntary blood donation rates by addressing knowledge deficits through education campaigns and increasing awareness of the need for donation. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  13. Awareness and Attitudes toward Organ Donation in Rural Puducherry, India

    PubMed Central

    Balajee, KL; Ramachandran, N; Subitha, L

    2016-01-01

    Background: For many of the end-stage organ diseases, organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment. The need for the organ transplantation is higher than the availability. For the transplantation program to be successful, awareness regarding organ donation is needed and people must have a positive attitude toward donating organs. Aim: This study aims to assess the awareness and attitudes regarding organ donation among the rural population and to evaluate the sociodemographic factors associated with their awareness. Subjects and Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 people living in 4 villages of Puducherry. Face-to-face interviews were carried out using pretested questionnaire, which included the sociodemographic data. Data were entered into Excel and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: Of 360 participants, 88% (317/360) were aware of organ donation. Among these 317 participants, awareness was highest in the age group 18–30 years 98.8% (87/88), male 91% (147/161), higher secondary and above 100% (58/58), and Class 1 socioeconomic status 92% (13/14). Source of awareness about organ donation was primarily through media 83% (263/317). The majority of the participants 88% (281/317) felt that the purpose of organ donation was to save life. Most of the participants 91% (290/317) said that all healthy adults are eligible organ donors and 87% (275/317) of the participants said that monetary benefits could not be accepted for organ donation. Most of the participants 70% (223/317) were willing to donate their organs after death. Among the participants who refused to donate their organs, family refusal 57% (25/44) was the most common reason. Conclusion: This study shows that there is a high level of awareness about organ donation among rural people and most of the participants are willing to donate their organs. PMID:28503345

  14. 76 FR 7546 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Prohibited Species Donation (PSD) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...; Prohibited Species Donation (PSD) Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... currently approved information collection. A prohibited species donation (PSD) program for Pacific salmon.... Vessels and processing plants participating in the donation program voluntarily retain and process...

  15. Sharing the protection of aircraft electronic systems against the effects of high-level electromagnetic environments between traditional protection and system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Richard F.; Yount, Larry J.; Knoller, Henry; Masson, Gerald M.; Larsen, William E.

    It is shown how architectural techniques can be used as a complement to traditional protection techniques to provide additional protection of sensitive avionics against high-level electromagnetic fields. Consideration is given to potential threats, the data processor susceptibility response, protection from the threat, system architecture, and transparent recovery. The wave shape of engineering waveforms that reproduce important lightning waveform parameters (amplitude, rise time, and action integral) is presented.

  16. Social and ethical issues in mitochondrial donation

    PubMed Central

    Dimond, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction or background The UK is at the forefront of mitochondrial science and is currently the only country in the world to legalize germ-line technologies involving mitochondrial donation. However, concerns have been raised about genetic modification and the ‘slippery slope’ to designer babies. Sources of data This review uses academic articles, newspaper reports and public documents. Areas of agreement Mitochondrial donation offers women with mitochondrial disease an opportunity to have healthy, genetically related children. Areas of controversy Key areas of disagreement include safety, the creation of three-parent babies, impact on identity, implications for society, definitions of genetic modification and reproductive choice. Growing points The UK government legalized the techniques in March 2015. Scientific and medical communities across the world followed the developments with interest. Areas timely for developing research It is expected that the first cohort of ‘three parent’ babies will be born in the UK in 2016. Their health and progress will be closely monitored. PMID:26351372

  17. Oocyte donation in patients without ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Devroey, P; Wisanto, A; Camus, M; Van Waesberghe, L; Bourgain, C; Liebaers, I; Van Steirteghem, A C

    1988-08-01

    The clinical, hormonal and cytogenetic findings in 36 women with primary ovarian failure, referred for oocyte or embryo donations are reported. Fifteen women were suffering from ovarian dysgenesis and 11 from premature menopause. Six of these 26 patients showed X-chromosome abnormalities. One patient had a Noonan syndrome. The remaining 10 had surgical menopause. The mean duration of their infertility was 6.5 +/- 3.2 years (+/- SD). All patients had elevated serum gonadotrophins within the menopausal range. Hypothalamic, pituitary and thyroid function were found to be intact. In one of the 15 ovarian biopsies on the patients with chromosomal competent ovarian failure, primordial follicles were found. Hysterosalpingograms revealed a normal uterine cavity in all patients. In view of oocyte donation, careful evaluation of the obstetric risk was mandatory in the six patients with X-chromosome aberrations and in the patient with the Noonan syndrome, because of their short stature and possible concomitant cardiovascular and renal disease. After substitution therapy with oestradiol valerate and natural progesterone, 13 pregnancies were established, seven patients delivered (one set of twins), eight healthy children were born, three pregnancies aborted and three pregnancies are progressing normally.

  18. Social and ethical issues in mitochondrial donation.

    PubMed

    Dimond, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    The UK is at the forefront of mitochondrial science and is currently the only country in the world to legalize germ-line technologies involving mitochondrial donation. However, concerns have been raised about genetic modification and the 'slippery slope' to designer babies. This review uses academic articles, newspaper reports and public documents. Mitochondrial donation offers women with mitochondrial disease an opportunity to have healthy, genetically related children. Key areas of disagreement include safety, the creation of three-parent babies, impact on identity, implications for society, definitions of genetic modification and reproductive choice. The UK government legalized the techniques in March 2015. Scientific and medical communities across the world followed the developments with interest. It is expected that the first cohort of 'three parent' babies will be born in the UK in 2016. Their health and progress will be closely monitored. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 7 CFR 250.30 - State processing of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... receipt, disposal, and inventory of donated foods in accordance with § 250.16; (H) Submit processing... forth in the original USDA procurement specification and, in the case of concentrated skim milk replacing donated nonfat dry milk, determine if the concentrated skim milk contains the amount of...

  20. 7 CFR 250.30 - State processing of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... receipt, disposal, and inventory of donated foods in accordance with § 250.16; (H) Submit processing... forth in the original USDA procurement specification and, in the case of concentrated skim milk replacing donated nonfat dry milk, determine if the concentrated skim milk contains the amount of...

  1. 7 CFR 250.30 - State processing of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... receipt, disposal, and inventory of donated foods in accordance with § 250.16; (H) Submit processing... forth in the original USDA procurement specification and, in the case of concentrated skim milk replacing donated nonfat dry milk, determine if the concentrated skim milk contains the amount of...

  2. 7 CFR 250.30 - State processing of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... receipt, disposal, and inventory of donated foods in accordance with § 250.16; (H) Submit processing... forth in the original USDA procurement specification and, in the case of concentrated skim milk replacing donated nonfat dry milk, determine if the concentrated skim milk contains the amount of...

  3. 7 CFR 250.30 - State processing of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State processing of donated foods. 250.30 Section 250.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE...

  4. Voluntary Body Donation: The Gift that Lives on Forever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saritha, S.; Rao, M. Vittoo; Sumangala; Supriya, G.; Kumar, Praveen

    2012-10-01

    Body donation is a gracious act, Shankarcharaya firmly believed in concept of Body Donation or Organ Donation and said Iddham sharirum paropakarum i.e. the body is for use of others and death is not the end, it is the beginning. Anatomy is important basic subject for medicalstudents, both U.G. & P.G. Best method of Anatomy learning is by dissection on human cadavers, which remains principle teaching tool. Human cadavers for purpose of study are a scarcity with mushrooming of medical institutions in this country. Unclaimed bodies are no more origin of cadavers. Whole Body donation is the need of the hour. A Voluntary Body Donation is defined as the act of giving oneís Body after death for Medical research and education. In this article a survey was done in S.V.S. Medical & Dental Colleges Faculty members and medical exhibition visitors which include lawyers, engineers, teachers and others during the year of 2010. The body donation including organ donation and various factors such as age, religion, culture and donorís attitude are discussed. Body donation provides the students and medical researchers with unparalleled opportunities to study the human body. Computers nor books cannot totally replace body dissection in learning the anatomy.

  5. 38 CFR 38.603 - Gifts and donations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.603 Gifts and donations. (a) Gifts and... with the superintendent of the national cemetery. (2) Articles donated for a specific purpose and which... the purpose of the national cemetery, the donor may be recognized by a suitable inscription on...

  6. Directed organ donation: is the donor the owner?

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Antonia J; Price, David

    2010-01-01

    The issue of directed donation of organs from deceased donors for transplantation has recently risen to the fore, given greater significance by the relatively stagnant rate of deceased donor donation in the UK. Although its status and legitimacy is explicitly recognized across the USA, elsewhere a more cautious, if not entirely negative, stance has been taken. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the Human Tissue Act 2004, and in Scotland the Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006, are both silent in this regard. Although so-called conditional donation, donation to (or perhaps withheld from) a specific class, has been outlawed as a product of guidance issued by the Secretary of State for Health issued in the wake of the controversial incident occurring in the North of England in 1998, its intended application to ‘directed’ donation is less certain. Directed and conditional donations challenge the traditional construct of altruistic donation and impartial (equitable) allocation in a very immediate and striking fashion. They implicitly raise important questions as to whether the body or parts of the body are capable of being owned, and by whom. This paper attempts to explore the notion of donor ownership of body parts and its implications for both directed and conditional donation. PMID:20890462

  7. Body Donation in India: Social Awareness, Willingness, and Associated Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokade, Shrikant A.; Gaikawad, Anjana P.

    2012-01-01

    With the attendant rise of the number of medical colleges in India over past few decades, the demand for cadavers used in medical education and research is growing. However, there is an insufficient supply of donated cadavers available for dissection. This study was undertaken to assess the general population's awareness of body donation programs…

  8. Body Donation after Death: The Mental Setup of Educated People

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Aniruddha; Mandal, Shyamash

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Without dissection of cadavers teaching and learning of anatomy is nearly difficult; there remains a gap between the practical knowledge and the gathered theoretical knowledge. But there is a scarcity in the availability of the donated bodies for the sake of medical education. On the other hand a large number of people in our country are in waiting list for organ transplantation which could be overcome by deceased organ donation. Aim Aim of the study was to evaluate the awareness regarding body donation after death. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students, engineering students and doctors in Indian population. Total 300 participants were answered the questionnaire providing information about the knowledge and attitude towards body and organ donation. Result 46.33% of entire study group had strongly positive attitude about cadaveric organ donation and 17% had no idea about this. 18% of total participants were unwilling for body donation after death. Conclusion The present study has been done elaborately to find out the different barriers for body or organ donation. It is clear from the study that though there is high level of awareness, nobody has filled up the pledge form till now. It indicates that there is a gap between the knowledge and motivation for organ and body donation after death which has to be overcome by proper guidance and education. Media and other voluntary organisations could take an important role for this purpose. PMID:26266106

  9. Using Standardized Patients to Educate Medical Students about Organ Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Anker, Ashley E.; Soriano, Rainier; Friedman, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Medical students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine participated in an intervention designed to promote knowledge and improved communication skills related to cadaveric organ donation. The intervention required students to interact with a standardized patient for approximately 10 minutes and respond to questions posed about organ donation in a…

  10. Indian ICU nurses' perceptions of and attitudes towards organ donation.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Nagarajaiah; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    Nurses play a significant role in identifying and securing potential organ donors in the clinical environment. Research among Indian nurses related to organ donation is sparse. The present study aimed to investigate nurses' attitudes towards organ donation. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among nurses (n=184) at a tertiary care centre. Data were collected through self-report questionnaire. A majority (81%) of the respondents were 'willing to sign the card' for organ donation; however, only 3.8% (n=7) of them actually 'signed the organ donation card'. There were significant associations found between intentions to sign the organ donation card and gender (x2=5.852; p<0.054), religion (x2=40.175; p<0.000), and experience caring for brain-dead patients (x2=22.790; p<0.001). The researchers strongly suggest continuing education for nurses to enhance skills and knowledge, as well as sensitivity to cultural, ethical, social, and religious issues, and advocacy in the area of organ donation. Furthermore, nurse administrators must take the initiative to develop guidelines clarifying the role of nurses in the organ donation and transplantation process to promote organ donation and improve rates.

  11. An Empirical Exploration of Selected Policy Options in Organ Donation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…

  12. 77 FR 20495 - National Donate Life Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... saving lives through organ and tissue donation. The need for donors is greater than ever before. Today... donor, to register on their state organ donor registry. To learn more about organ and tissue donation... the United States of America A Proclamation With quiet compassion and exceptional generosity,...

  13. Body Donation in India: Social Awareness, Willingness, and Associated Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokade, Shrikant A.; Gaikawad, Anjana P.

    2012-01-01

    With the attendant rise of the number of medical colleges in India over past few decades, the demand for cadavers used in medical education and research is growing. However, there is an insufficient supply of donated cadavers available for dissection. This study was undertaken to assess the general population's awareness of body donation programs…

  14. 32 CFR 644.495 - Donation to a public body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation to a public body. 644.495 Section 644.495 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.495 Donation to a public body. A public body, as defined by GSA for this purpose, means...

  15. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  16. Age modulates attitudes to whole body donation among medical students.

    PubMed

    Perry, Gary F; Ettarh, Raj R

    2009-01-01

    Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to donations, this study surveyed, by Likert-type questionnaires, first-year graduate-entry medical students attending a dissection-based anatomy course. In contrast to attitudes among younger traditional-entry medical students, initial support for whole body donation by an unrelated stranger (83.8%), a family member (43.2%) or by the respondent (40.5%) did not decrease among graduate-entry medical students after exposure to dissection although there was a significant shift in strength of support for donation by stranger. This suggests that older medical students do not readily modify their pre-established attitudes to the idea of whole body donation after exposure and experience with dissection. Initial ambivalence among respondents to the idea of donation by family member was followed by opposition to this type of donation. These findings demonstrate that age modulates the influences on a priori attitudes to whole body donation that exposure to dissection causes in younger medical students.

  17. Characterizing donation behavior from psychophysiological indices of narrative experience

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Kelly A.; Stone, Bradly T.; Stikic, Maja; Johnson, Robin R.; Berka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Research on narrative persuasion has yet to investigate whether this process influences behavior. The current study explored whether: (1) a narrative could persuade participants to donate to a charity, a prosocial, behavioral decision; (2) psychophysiological metrics can delineate the differences between donation/non-donation behaviors; and (3) donation behavior can be correlated with measures of psychophysiology, self-reported reactions to the narrative, and intrinsic characteristics. Participants (n = 49) completed personality/disposition questionnaires, viewed one of two versions of a narrative while EEG and ECG were recorded, completed a questionnaire regarding their reactions to the narrative, and were given an opportunity to donate to a charity related to the themes of the narrative. Results showed that: (1) 34.7% of participants donated; (2) psychophysiological metrics successfully delineated between donation behaviors and the effects of narrative version; and (3) psychophysiology and reactions to the narrative were better able to explain the variance (88 and 65%, respectively) in the amount donated than all 3 metrics combined as well as any metric alone. These findings demonstrate the promise of narrative persuasion for influencing prosocial, behavioral decisions. Our results also illustrate the utility of the previously stated metrics for understanding and possibly even manipulating behaviors resulting from narrative persuasion. PMID:26379488

  18. The untimely death of the UK Donation Ethics Committee.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2017-01-01

    This brief report describes the contribution of the UK Donation Ethics Committee to organ donation and transplantation in the UK, and explains why the committee has met an early demise. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. An Empirical Exploration of Selected Policy Options in Organ Donation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…

  20. Factors that motivate and hinder blood donation in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Marantidou, O; Loukopoulou, L; Zervou, E; Martinis, G; Egglezou, A; Fountouli, P; Dimoxenous, P; Parara, M; Gavalaki, M; Maniatis, A

    2007-01-01

    Donations in Greece are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia patients and the implementation of new surgical techniques. Efforts to achieve self-sufficiency, and to render blood supplies safer and manageable must focus on recruiting and retaining more volunteer donors and on converting the large pool of replacement donors. The aim of the study was to gain insight into public perception regarding the risks of donation and transfusion and to identify the factors that would motivate more people in Greece to regularly donate blood. Questionnaires were distributed to 1600 donors at the blood bank and visitors to hospitals at 11 locations across the country. Data on demographics, donation behaviour, incentives, risk perception and attitudes towards donation and transfusion were analysed separately for volunteer and replacement donors and non-donors. The results showed that women and young people donate the least in Greece. Also, many donors do not donate because they are not reminded to. A small percentage of donors confessed to having concealed part of the truth to background questions. Overall, incentives to donate were considered important and included future availability of blood for self or family, paid leave from work and free blood tests. Recruitment and retention efforts should include better communication with current donors, and raising awareness among eligible donors. Staff should be educated in soliciting information from potential donors, and incentives should be better aligned to avoid conflict with ethical values and ensure honesty in the prescreening process. PMID:18067648

  1. Tissue donation: benefits, legal issues and the nurse's role.

    PubMed

    Gumbley, E; Pearson, J

    This article provides an overview of tissue donation. It examines the importance of the nurse's role in relation to tissue donation and caring for bereaved relatives. The provisions of the Human Tissue Act 2004, which came into force in September 2006, are also outlined.

  2. Directed organ donation: is the donor the owner?

    PubMed

    Cronin, Antonia J; Price, David

    2008-09-01

    The issue of directed donation of organs from deceased donors for transplantation has recently risen to the fore, given greater significance by the relatively stagnant rate of deceased donor donation in the UK. Although its status and legitimacy is explicitly recognized across the USA, elsewhere a more cautious, if not entirely negative, stance has been taken. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the Human Tissue Act 2004, and in Scotland the Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006, are both silent in this regard. Although so-called conditional donation, donation to (or perhaps withheld from) a specific class, has been outlawed as a product of guidance issued by the Secretary of State for Health issued in the wake of the controversial incident occurring in the North of England in 1998, its intended application to 'directed' donation is less certain.Directed and conditional donations challenge the traditional construct of altruistic donation and impartial (equitable) allocation in a very immediate and striking fashion. They implicitly raise important questions as to whether the body or parts of the body are capable of being owned, and by whom. This paper attempts to explore the notion of donor ownership of body parts and its implications for both directed and conditional donation.

  3. Attitudes and intention to donate oocytes for research.

    PubMed

    Purewal, Satvinder; van den Akker, Olga

    2010-03-01

    In 2007, the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority permitted oocyte donation for research through voluntary donation or within an oocyte share model. The aims of this study were to investigate volunteer (nonpatient) women's attitudes and intentions to donate using components of the Theory of Planned Behavior and their attitudes toward parenthood through structural equation modeling. Questionnaires. Online. A total of 253 nonpatient women. Attitudes towards oocyte donation for research and reasons for parenthood scale. Of the 253 respondents, 94 were potential donors, 98 were possible donors, and 61 were non-donors. Most potential donors (68%) reported no preference towards donating their oocytes for research or an infertile couple. Structural equation modeling revealed that age (beta = -.03) and components of the TPB (beta = .16) had a statistically significant direct effect on intentions to donate for research. Attitudes toward parenthood was not linked to intentions to donate for research. There appears to be a strong altruistic motive along with the theoretical underpinnings of positive attitudes, feeling supported, and accepting the consequences of oocyte donation for research, suggesting these have the potential to inform recruitment practices and tailor clinical services. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 5 CFR 630.1109 - Donating annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donating annual leave. 630.1109 Section 630.1109 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1109 Donating annual leave. An employee may voluntarily...

  5. Using Standardized Patients to Educate Medical Students about Organ Donation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Anker, Ashley E.; Soriano, Rainier; Friedman, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Medical students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine participated in an intervention designed to promote knowledge and improved communication skills related to cadaveric organ donation. The intervention required students to interact with a standardized patient for approximately 10 minutes and respond to questions posed about organ donation in a…

  6. Primary care doctors faced with living organ donation.

    PubMed

    Conesa, C; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Sánchez, J; Sánchez, E; Rodríguez, M M; Martínez, L; Montoya, M J; Ramos, F; Parrilla, P

    2006-04-01

    The attitudes of health care personnel, specifically doctors, have a significant influence on public attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation. The objective herein was to analyze the attitudes of Primary Care (PC) doctors toward living organ donation and to determine the psychosocial factors that condition these attitudes. A random sample was stratified by geographical location (six health areas in our community) among PC doctors, including 155 respondents from 32 health centers. Attitudes toward donation were evaluated using a psychosocial questionnaire validated in our geographical area. Contact was made with the Doctor Coordinator in each center for distribution of the questionnaires, which were completed anonymously. The chi-square test and Student t test were applied to evaluate the data. When the living donor is not related, only 21% (n = 32) of PC doctors were in favor of living kidney donation, and only 20% (n = 31) for living liver donation (P > .05). In contrast, these percentages were 90% and 89% in favor of kidney and liver related donation, respectively. Upon analysis of the psychosocial variables affecting these attitudes, there was only an association with their partner's opinion (P = .009 for kidney and P = .000 for liver), and the possibility of needing a transplant oneself (P = .000). PC doctors have favorable attitudes toward related living donation. If living donation is promoted by transplant coordination units, such PC professionals could act as a source of positive information about the matter for the general public.

  7. Ear length and kidney function decline after kidney donation.

    PubMed

    Katavetin, Pisut; Watanatorn, Salin; Townamchai, Natavudh; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat

    2016-11-01

    The preservation of kidney function after kidney donation depends on the kidney reserve - the potential of the remaining kidney to boost their function after loss of the other kidney. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, size and shape of the external ears are examined to evaluate the person's kidney health. We hypothesized that ear size might be a practical yet overlooked marker of kidney reserve. Fifty kidney transplantation donors were participated in this study. The length and width of both ears of all participants were measured during one of the post-donation visits. Pre-donation serum creatinine and post-donation serum creatinine as well as other relevant parameters (age, sex, weight, height, etc.) of the participants were extracted from medical records. The estimated GFR was calculated from serum creatinine, age and sex using the CKD-EPI equation. Ear length negatively associated with %GFR decline after kidney donation. For every 1 cm increase in ear length, it was associated with 5.7% less GFR decline after kidney donation (95% Confidence Interval 0.2 to 11.3, P = 0.04). Ear width, as well as age, sex, body weight, height, body mass index, and pre-donation eGFR did not significantly associate with the GFR decline. Our findings support the notion of Traditional Chinese Medicine that ear morphology may be associated with kidney health and suggest that ear length might be a useful predictor of kidney function decline after kidney donation.

  8. Medical Students' Knowledge, Familiarity, and Attitudes towards Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donation: Stem Cell Donation Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Praveena; Wolanskyj, Alexandra; Ehlers, Shawna L; Litzow, Mark R; Patnaik, Mrinal S; Hogan, William J; Hashmi, Shahrukh K

    2016-09-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative treatment for patients with blood disorders and genetic diseases. Approximately 70% of the HSCTs currently performed in the United States use stems cells from an unrelated donor who donated voluntarily. Medical students (MS) are a young, diverse, influential population whose willingness to engage in altruistic acts, such as donating stem cells, may be correlated with knowledge on the topic. A literature gap exists in MS perspectives towards HSCT and the bone marrow registry (BMR) and prior studies suggest that misconceptions about donation deter MS from participation on the BMR, which may decrease opportunities to educate other potential donors. We performed a cross-sectional survey among the 4-year cohort of MS at Mayo Medical School in Rochester, Minnesota. The questionnaire evaluated multiple areas including whether MS were current members of the BMR and/or prior blood donors, MS current knowledge on donor eligibility (DE) and the donation process (DP), MS familiarity with HSCT and the DP, and MS attitudes towards joining the BMR and towards donating stem cells. The responses were analyzed and assessed alongside a self-reported, standardized scale measuring students' altruistic behaviors. There were 99 out of 247 potential respondents (40%), with 45% (n = 44) of MS in preclinical years 1 or 2, 37% (n = 37) in clinical years 3 or 4, and 18% (n = 18) in research or alternative portions of their training, of which 43% (n = 41) in total were current BMR members. BMR status correlated positively with prior blood donation (P = .015) and female sex (P = .014). Respondents had a 57.7% and 63.7% average correct response rate regarding knowledge of DE and DP, respectively, with knowledge of DE not surprisingly higher in BMR members (P < .0001). The majority of MS surveyed, 68% (n = 65), had learned about HSCT during medical school. BMR status correlated with the

  9. Potential law reform for Australia's organ donation system.

    PubMed

    Halls, Alexandra

    2012-12-01

    Australia's current organ donation rates are very low, particularly in comparison to several European countries such as Spain and Austria. Many Australians wait for many years to receive organs that they desperately need, and many die while waiting. Australia's current organ donation system is based on express consent, with intending donors registering that intent at the Australian Organ Donation Registry. However, given that organs can only be donated in certain circumstances, this system is proving to be inadequate. This article compares the current express consent (or "opt-in") system and the presumed consent (or "opt-out") system used in the European countries that have significantly higher donation rates. It suggests reforms to Australian legislation to change the current system to that of presumed consent, and considers whether it is likely to work in Australian society.

  10. Frequency of brain tissue donation for research after suicide.

    PubMed

    Longaray, Vanessa K; Padoan, Carolina S; Goi, Pedro D; da Fonseca, Rodrigo C; Vieira, Daniel C; Oliveira, Francine H de; Kapczinski, Flávio; Magalhães, Pedro V

    2017-01-01

    To describe the frequency of brain tissue donation for research purposes by families of individuals that committed suicide. All requests for brain tissue donation to a brain biorepository made to the families of individuals aged 18-60 years who had committed suicide between March 2014 and February 2016 were included. Cases presenting with brain damage due to acute trauma were excluded. Fifty-six cases of suicide were reported. Of these, 24 fulfilled the exclusion criteria, and 11 others were excluded because no next of kin was found to provide informed consent. Of the 21 remaining cases, brain tissue donation was authorized in nine (tissue fragments in seven and the entire organ in two). Donation of brain tissue from suicide cases for research purposes is feasible. The acceptance rate of 42.8% in our sample is in accordance with international data on such donations, and similar to rates reported for neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Blood donations, iron stores, and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Logroscino, Giancarlo; Chen, Honglei; Wing, Al; Ascherio, Alberto

    2006-06-01

    Iron overload and systemic iron stores may be important in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). We therefore examined the association between blood donations, which reduce body iron stores, and risk of PD in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a large cohort investigation of U.S. men. Our hypothesis was that blood donation reduces the risk of PD by lowering systemic iron stores. Although the number of blood donations was inversely related to the ferritin levels in a subsample of the study population, no association was found between the number of blood donations and risk of PD (P for trend = 0.6). Unexpectedly, the risk of PD was higher among men who reported recent multiple blood donations (P for trend = 0.05). The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that reduced systemic iron stores lower the risk of PD.

  12. Organ donation and Islam-challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Adnan

    2012-09-15

    The issue of organ donation in Islam has been debated for decades, with most religious authorities sanctioning both living-organ and deceased-organ donation. However, disquiet among the Islamic community on the compatibility of organ donation with their faith remains, especially in relation to deceased-organ donation. This remains a topical, controversial, and challenging component of organ procurement at both local and international levels. In this article, I will explore Islamic arguments both for and against organ donation, in the context of both living-donor and deceased-donor models. By discussing both practical and philosophical perspectives, the aim is to facilitate discussion on how best to achieve consensus on this issue by driving the debate forward in an open and all-encompassing manner. Although every attempt should be made to achieve consensus among key Muslim opinion makers (individuals, authorities, and institutions), encouraging personalized decision making by intellectual effort should be the goal to achieve genuine informed consent.

  13. On the impacts of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yu

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the impact of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation from the perspective of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In each of these cultural systems, it appears that there are some particular sayings or remarks that are often taken in modern Chinese society to be contrary to organ donation, especially cadaveric organ donation. However, this article argues that the central concerns of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism are "great love," "ren," and "dao," which can be reasonably interpreted to support organ donation. The author understands that each cultural system, in order to play its cultural function, must have its central concerns as well as relevant ritual practices (li) that incarnate its religious and ethical commitments. That is, each plays a general cultural role, which influences organ donation in particular not merely through abstract or general ethical principles and teachings, but through a combination of ethical teachings and the forming of particular ritual practices. This article contends that the primary reason Chinese individuals fail to donate sufficient cadaveric organs for transplantation is not because particular remarks or sayings from each of these systems appear to conflict with donation. Neither is it that the central concerns of these systems cannot support cadaveric donation. Rather, it is that modern Chinese individuals have failed to develop and secure relevant ritual practices that support the central concerns of organ transplantation. The article concludes that in order to promote more donations, there is a need to form relevant ritual practices supporting organ donation in conformity with the central concerns of these cultural systems.

  14. The attitude of future journalists toward living donation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ríos, A; López, M J; Sánchez, J; López-Navas, A; Parrilla, P; Ramírez, P

    2009-01-01

    The attitude of journalism students toward living donation (LD) could influence public opinion and help to promote this treatment option. We sought to analyze the attitude of journalism students toward LD and the factors that affect this attitude. We surveyed journalism students in the academic year 2005-2006 (N = 129). We used a validated psychosocial questionnaire (self-administered and anonymous) about organ donation and transplantation. Students were recruited in compulsory classes; the Student t-test and the chi(2) test were applied. The control group consisted of a sample of the native population (n = 2000). The questionnaire completion rate was 98% (n = 126). Regarding related living liver donation, 75% (n = 94) would be willing to donate a liver segment; 25% (n = 31) would refuse. Only 14% (n = 18) would donate part of their liver to an unrelated person if needed, 24% (n = 30) are against, and 62% (n = 78) are undecided. For living kidney donation, 85% (n = 107) would donate a kidney to a family member; 15% (n = 19) would refuse. Only 24% (n = 31) are in favor if donation were unrelated, 17% (n = 21) against, and 59% (n = 74) have doubts. The attitude toward LD is more favorable among those who would be willing to donate their organs upon death (P = .012 for the liver and P = .000 for the kidney); those who would accept part of a liver from a family member (P = .000); or those who would accept a kidney (P = .001); or would donate a kidney to an unrelated recipient while alive (P = .001) and liver (P = .003). Journalism students have a favorable attitude, which could be useful to keep society informed about the matter.

  15. A Confirmatory Analysis of the Organ Donation Readiness Index: Measuring the Potential for Organ Donations among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Christopher; Tamburlin, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The need for transplant exceeds the number of available organs. Antigen compatible organs are particularly scarce for African Americans because of their proportionately lower rate of donations. This study presents a measure of organ donation readiness. Examination of the factor structure and a test of weak invariance were conducted on…

  16. A Confirmatory Analysis of the Organ Donation Readiness Index: Measuring the Potential for Organ Donations among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Christopher; Tamburlin, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The need for transplant exceeds the number of available organs. Antigen compatible organs are particularly scarce for African Americans because of their proportionately lower rate of donations. This study presents a measure of organ donation readiness. Examination of the factor structure and a test of weak invariance were conducted on…

  17. Improving institutional fairness to live kidney donors: donor needs must be addressed by safeguarding donation risks and compensating donation costs.

    PubMed

    Schulz-Baldes, Annette; Delmonico, Francis L

    2007-11-01

    The number of kidney transplants from live donors is increasing worldwide, yet donor needs have not been satisfactorily addressed in either developed or developing countries. This paper argues that unmet donor needs are unfair to live kidney donors in two ways. First, when safeguards against the risks of donation are insufficient, live donation can impair the donor's health and thus his or her fair opportunities to access jobs and offices and to function as a free and equal citizen more generally. Secondly, when the financial costs of donation are not fully compensated, operational fairness (associated with the nephrectomy event) is compromised for the donor. The donor assumes the risks of a nontherapeutic intervention--for the good of the recipient and society--and should not have to incur costs for donating. Based on a systematic analysis of unmet donor needs in developed and developing countries, context-relative measures to improve institutional fairness to live kidney donors are delineated in this paper. The identified ways of safeguarding donation risks and compensating donation costs are not merely means to removing disincentives for donation and increasing donation rates. They are essential for preserving institutional fairness in the health care of the live kidney donor.

  18. On harm thresholds and living organ donation: must the living donor benefit, on balance, from his donation?

    PubMed

    Williams, Nicola Jane

    2017-05-19

    For the majority of scholars concerned with the ethics of living organ donation, inflicting moderate harms on competent volunteers in order to save the lives or increase the life chances of others is held to be justifiable provided certain conditions are met. These conditions tend to include one, or more commonly, some combination of the following: (1) The living donor provides valid consent to donation. (2) Living donation produces an overall positive balance of harm-benefit for donors and recipients which cannot be obtained in a less harmful manner. (3) Donation is not liable to cause significant and long-term morbidity to, or the death of, the donor. This paper critically examines the suggestion that these criteria are not sufficient to offer a general account of justified living organ donation in the context of competent volunteers and that key to justified living organ donation is that donors receive sufficient benefits from their donation that these outweigh the harms they suffer. However, although this view-termed here 'The Donor Benefit Standard'-directs welcome attention to the many and complex motives which may underlie living organ donation, this paper ultimately concludes that given the threats this position poses to individual autonomy and the lives of those in need of organ transplants 'The Donor Benefit Standard' should ultimately be rejected.

  19. HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis rate of positive donations among blood donations in Mali: lower rates among volunteer blood donors.

    PubMed

    Diarra, A; Kouriba, B; Baby, M; Murphy, E; Lefrere, J-J

    2009-01-01

    Good data on background seroprevalence of major transfusion transmitted infections is lacking in Mali. We gathered data on the rate of positive donations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis among blood donations in Mali for calendar year 2007. Donations with repeatedly reactive results on screening enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were considered to be seropositive. Rate of positive donations per blood unit collected was 2.6% for HIV, 3.3% for HCV, 13.9% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 0.3% for syphilis. For HIV, HBsAg and syphilis, rate of positive donations was significantly (p<0.001) higher among donations from replacement donors than those from volunteer donors, while HCV rate of positive donations was similar in the two groups. Rate of positive donations was also significantly (p<0.0001) lower in blood units from regular than from first-time donors. These data reinforce WHO recommendations for increasing the number of regular, volunteer blood donors in Africa.

  20. The attitude toward living kidney donation among personnel from units related to donation and transplantation in Spain, Mexico and Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Antonio; López-Navas, Ana; Ayala-García, Marco Antonio; Sebastián, María José; Abdo-Cuza, Anselmo; Martínez-Alarcón, Laura; Ramírez, Ector Jaime; Muñoz, Gerardo; Palacios, Gerardo; Suárez-López, Juliette; Castellanos, Ricardo; González, Beatriz; Martínez, Miguel Angel; Díaz, Ernesto; Ramírez, Pablo; Parrilla, Pascual

    2014-05-01

    Living kidney donation (LKD) is becoming increasingly necessary as a treatment option for reducing the deficit in transplant organs. Hospital personnel in services related to donation and transplantation play a key role in promoting this kind of donation. To analyze the attitude toward LKD among hospital workers in services related to donation and transplantation in Spain and Latin America. Eight hospitals in the "International Collaborative Donor Project" were selected (Spain-Mexico-Cuba). A random sample was taken which was stratified according to the type of service and job category, in transplant-related services. Of the 878 respondents, 90% were in favor of related LKD, and 28% were in favor if the LKD was not related. Attitude was more favorable among Latin Americans workers compared to the Spanish (p=0.014). Other factors associated to attitude included: age (p=0.004); an attitude in favor of deceased donation and living liver donation (p<0.001); and acceptance of a kidney from a donor (p<0.001). The attitude toward related LKD was very favorable among hospital personnel in units related to the donation and transplantation process in Spain and Latin America, which means that they could contribute to its promotion particularly at the current time when living kidney donation needs to be expanded.

  1. Improvements for international medicine donations: a review of the World Health Organization Guidelines for Medicine Donations, 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Cañigueral-Vila, Nuria; Chen, Jennifer C; Frenkel-Rorden, Lindsey; Laing, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Some humanitarian and development organizations respond to major natural disasters and emergencies by donating medicines. Many provide medicines on a routine basis to support health systems, particularly those run by Faith-Based Organizations. Although such donations can provide essential medicines to populations in great need, inappropriate donations also take place, with burdensome consequences. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the interagency Guidelines for Medicine Donations for use by donors and recipients in the context of emergency aid and international development assistance. Although comprehensive in nature and transferable to various emergency situations, adjustments to both content and formatting would improve this resource. Recommendations for the next version of these guidelines include: specific wording and consistent formatting; definition of who is a recipient, clear distinction between acute and long-term emergencies, and proper donation procedures pertaining to each; inclusion of visual aides such as flowcharts, checklists, and photos; and improving the citations system.

  2. Gay and Bisexual Men's Perceptions of the Donation and Use of Human Biological Samples for Research: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Hilton, Shona

    2015-01-01

    Human biological samples (biosamples) are increasingly important in diagnosing, treating and measuring the prevalence of illnesses. For the gay and bisexual population, biosample research is particularly important for measuring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By determining people's understandings of, and attitudes towards, the donation and use of biosamples, researchers can design studies to maximise acceptability and participation. In this study we examine gay and bisexual men's attitudes towards donating biosamples for HIV research. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 46 gay and bisexual men aged between 18 and 63 recruited in commercial gay scene venues in two Scottish cities. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically using the framework approach. Most men interviewed seemed to have given little prior consideration to the issues. Participants were largely supportive of donating tissue for medical research purposes, and often favourable towards samples being stored, reused and shared. Support was often conditional, with common concerns related to: informed consent; the protection of anonymity and confidentiality; the right to withdraw from research; and ownership of samples. Many participants were in favour of the storage and reuse of samples, but expressed concerns related to data security and potential misuse of samples, particularly by commercial organisations. The sensitivity of tissue collection varied between tissue types and collection contexts. Blood, urine, semen and bowel tissue were commonly identified as sensitive, and donating saliva and as unlikely to cause discomfort. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth study of gay and bisexual men's attitudes towards donating biosamples for HIV research. While most men in this study were supportive of donating tissue for research, some clear areas of concern were identified. We suggest that these minority concerns should be accounted for to develop

  3. Living-Donor Kidney Transplantation: Reducing Financial Barriers to Live Kidney Donation--Recommendations from a Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Tushla, Lara; Rudow, Dianne LaPointe; Milton, Jennifer; Rodrigue, James R; Schold, Jesse D; Hays, Rebecca

    2015-09-04

    Live-donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) is the best treatment for eligible people with late-stage kidney disease. Despite this, living kidney donation rates have declined in the United States in recent years. A potential source of this decline is the financial impact on potential and actual living kidney donors (LKDs). Recent evidence indicates that the economic climate may be associated with the decline in LDKT and that there are nontrivial financial ramifications for some LKDs. In June 2014, the American Society of Transplantation's Live Donor Community of Practice convened a Consensus Conference on Best Practices in Live Kidney Donation. The conference included transplant professionals, patients, and other key stakeholders (with the financial support of 10 other organizations) and sought to identify best practices, knowledge gaps, and opportunities pertaining to living kidney donation. This workgroup was tasked with exploring systemic and financial barriers to living kidney donation. The workgroup reviewed literature that assessed the financial effect of living kidney donation, analyzed employment and insurance factors, discussed international models for addressing direct and indirect costs faced by LKDs, and summarized current available resources. The workgroup developed the following series of recommendations to reduce financial and systemic barriers and achieve financial neutrality for LKDs: (1) allocate resources for standardized reimbursement of LKDs' lost wages and incidental costs; (2) pass legislation to offer employment and insurability protections to LKDs; (3) create an LKD financial toolkit to provide standardized, vetted education to donors and providers about options to maximize donor coverage and minimize financial effect within the current climate; and (4) promote further research to identify systemic barriers to living donation and LDKT to ensure the creation of mitigation strategies.

  4. Effect of media presentations on willingness to commit to organ donation.

    PubMed

    Harel, Inbal; Kogut, Tehila; Pinchas, Meir; Slovic, Paul

    2017-05-16

    We examine how presentations of organ donation cases in the media may affect people's willingness to sign organ donation commitment cards, donate the organs of a deceased relative, support the transition to an "opt-out" policy, or donate a kidney while alive. We found that providing identifying information about the prospective recipient (whose life was saved by the donation) increased the participants' willingness to commit to organ donation themselves, donate the organs of a deceased relative, or support a transition to an "opt-out" policy. Conversely, identifying the deceased donor tended to induce thoughts of death rather than about saving lives, resulting in fewer participants willing to donate organs or support measures that facilitated organ donation. A study of online news revealed that identification of the donor is significantly more common than identification of the recipient in the coverage of organ donation cases-with possibly adverse effects on the incidence of organ donations.

  5. A critical size for emergence of nonbulk electronic and geometric structures in dodecanethiolate-protected Au clusters.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Yuichi; Nakazaki, Tafu; Malola, Sami; Takano, Shinjiro; Niihori, Yoshiki; Kurashige, Wataru; Yamazoe, Seiji; Tsukuda, Tatsuya; Häkkinen, Hannu

    2015-01-28

    We report on how the transition from the bulk structure to the cluster-specific structure occurs in n-dodecanethiolate-protected gold clusters, Au(n)(SC12)m. To elucidate this transition, we isolated a series of Au(n)(SC12)m in the n range from 38 to ∼520, containing five newly identified or newly isolated clusters, Au104(SC12)45, Au(∼226)(SC12)(∼76), Au(∼253)(SC12)(∼90), Au(∼356)(SC12)(∼112), and Au(∼520)(SC12)(∼130), using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Low-temperature optical absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that the Au cores of Au144(SC12)60 and smaller clusters have molecular-like electronic structures and non-fcc geometric structures, whereas the structures of the Au cores of larger clusters resemble those of the bulk gold. A new structure model is proposed for Au104(SC12)45 based on combined approach between experiments and DFT calculations.

  6. Blood donation, body iron status and carotid intima-media thickness.

    PubMed

    Engberink, Mariëlle F; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Durga, Jane; Swinkels, Dorine W; de Kort, Wim L A M; Schouten, Evert G; Verhoef, Petra

    2008-02-01

    Iron could promote free radical formation, which may lead to injury of the arterial wall and atherosclerosis. Blood donation may reduce cardiovascular risk by lowering body iron status. We collected data on blood donation history and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CIMT) in 819 subjects (50-70 years), who were recruited from municipal and blood bank registries in The Netherlands. Serum iron parameters were assessed, including non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) that has recently been found in conditions of iron overload. Serum ferritin was lower in current donors (n=443; 44 microg/L) than in ex-donors (n=120; 114 microg/L) and never-donors (n=256; 124 microg/L, P for trend <0.001). For NTBI, values were 2.33, 2.54, and 2.51 micromol/L, respectively (P<0.05). CIMT was slightly reduced in frequent donors (i.e., > or =49 times during life or > or =2 times per year), although not statistically significant. CIMT was not significantly related to NTBI. Frequent blood donation, resulting in lowered body iron, might give some protection against accelerated atherosclerosis.

  7. Oral Iron Supplementation After Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Joseph E.; Brambilla, Donald; Glynn, Simone A.; Mast, Alan E.; Spencer, Bryan R.; Stone, Mars; Kleinman, Steven H.; Cable, Ritchard G.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Although blood donation is allowed every 8 weeks in the United States, recovery of hemoglobin to the currently accepted standard (12.5 g/dL) is frequently delayed, and some donors become anemic. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of oral iron supplementation on hemoglobin recovery time (days to recovery of 80% of hemoglobin removed) and recovery of iron stores in iron-depleted (“low ferritin,” ≤26 ng/mL) and iron-replete (“higher ferritin,” >26 ng/mL) blood donors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized, nonblinded clinical trial of blood donors stratified by ferritin level, sex, and age conducted in 4 regional blood centers in the United States in 2012. Included were 215 eligible participants aged 18 to 79 years who had not donated whole blood or red blood cells within 4 months. INTERVENTIONS One tablet of ferrous gluconate (37.5 mg of elemental iron) daily or no iron for 24 weeks (168 days) after donating a unit of whole blood (500 mL). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Time to recovery of 80% of the postdonation decrease in hemoglobin and recovery of ferritin level to baseline as a measure of iron stores. RESULTS The mean baseline hemoglobin levels were comparable in the iron and no-iron groups and declined from a mean (SD) of 13.4 (1.1) g/dL to 12.0 (1.2) g/dL after donation in the low-ferritin group and from 14.2 (1.1) g/dL to 12.9 (1.2) g/dL in the higher-ferritin group. Compared with participants who did not receive iron supplementation, those who received iron supplementation had shortened time to 80% hemoglobin recovery in both the low-ferritin and higher-ferritin groups. Recovery of iron stores in all participants who received supplements took a median of 76 days (IQR, 20–126); for participants not taking iron, median recovery time was longer than 168 days (IQR, 147->168 days; P < .001). Without iron supplements, 67% of participants did not recover iron stores by 168 days. Low-Ferritin Group (≤26 ng/mL) Higher-Ferritin Group (>26 ng

  8. Psycholegal issues in sibling bone marrow donation.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Victoria

    1992-01-01

    The only hope of survival for children with a number of life-threatening illnesses is a successful bone marrow transplant (BMT). Unlike the treatment source for most therapies, the raw material for transplant therapy comes from a human being. Although many BMTs are autologous, utilizing the patient's own bone marrow, a large percentage of childhood BMTs rely on bone marrow from children or adolescents who are biological siblings to the sick child. Medical and legal systems are confronted with a dilemma when healthy children are needed to undergo minimally risky, yet somewhat painful, procedures for the benefit of their critically ill siblings. This article reviews legal issues involved in sibling bone marrow donation and psychological research that is relevant to those issues. The article concludes with proposed directions for future psycholegal research and a discussion of ethical issues that are not amenable to empirical investigation.

  9. Citrate Anticoagulation: Are Blood Donors Donating Bone?

    PubMed Central

    Bialkowski, Walter; Bruhn, Roberta; Edgren, Gustaf; Papanek, Paula

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 2.4 million volunteer apheresis blood donation procedures were performed in the United States in 2010 and increases in the proportion of transfused blood products derived from apheresis blood collections have been consistently reported. Anticoagulation is required during apheresis and is achieved with citrate. Donor exposure to citrate causes an acute physiological response in the donor maintaining serum mineral homeostasis. Some data are available on the sequelae of this acute response in the days and weeks following exposure, raising questions about bone mineral density in regular apheresis donors. New research is emerging that addresses the potential long term health outcomes of repeated citrate exposure. This article reviews the acute physiological response to citrate anticoagulation in volunteer blood donors, presents contrasting perspectives on the potential effects of citrate exposure on bone density, and identifies key knowledge gaps in our understanding of long term health outcomes in apheresis donors. PMID:26607494

  10. Vascular control during laparoscopic kidney donation

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Patel, Premal; Sener, Alp; Chan, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Summary Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is the gold standard for kidney donation. Recent literature has led to considerable debate regarding the safest route to provide vascular control during this procedure. The most common devices used for vascular control during LDN are staplers and surgical clips. Opinions regarding the safety of these devices vary, as both are prone to dysfunction. Certain clips have already been contraindicated for use on the donor artery owing to reports of catastrophic complications of falling off. Donor safety is paramount to the continued success of renal transplantation in Canada. A review of existing practice at each institution may be called for to ensure the safest standards possible are in place. An appendix to this commentary is available at canjsurg.ca. PMID:28570212

  11. Vascular control during laparoscopic kidney donation.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Thomas B; Patel, Premal; Sener, Alp; Chan, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is the gold standard for kidney donation. Recent literature has led to considerable debate regarding the safest route to provide vascular control during this procedure. The most common devices used for vascular control during LDN are staplers and surgical clips. Opinions regarding the safety of these devices vary, as both are prone to dysfunction. Certain clips have already been contraindicated for use on the donor artery owing to reports of catastrophic complications of falling off. Donor safety is paramount to the continued success of renal transplantation in Canada. A review of existing practice at each institution may be called for to ensure the safest standards possible are in place. An appendix to this commentary is available at canjsurg.ca.

  12. Family discussions about organ donation: how the media influences opinions about donation decisions.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Susan E; Harrison, Tyler R; Long, Shawn D; Afifi, Walid A; Stephenson, Michael T; Stephenson, Michael S; Reichert, Tom

    2005-10-01

    In this study, 78 family pair dyads (spouses, parent-child pairs, or siblings) were brought into an interaction laboratory set up like a living room. After being briefed on the study, family members discussed a series of eight questions about their thoughts and opinions about organ donation. Thematic analysis of the thousands of pages of transcripts revealed that family members believe that they receive important information about organ donation through the media. Unfortunately, the most influential information came from sensationalistic, negative media portrayals. The myths that seem to be the most actively referenced by the media include premature declaration of death, the transference of personality traits from donor to recipient, a US black market for organs, corruption in the medical community, and corruption in the organ allocation system (which allows celebrities to get transplants first). Although these are not the only myths that the generally public holds to be true, the media is a powerful source of support for these particular myths. Therefore, such myths must be countered effectively if greater consent for organ donation is to be attained.

  13. Donation and back-donation analyzed through a charge transfer model based on density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Valencia, Ulises; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto

    2017-07-01

    The net charge transfer process that occurs between two species, A and B, interacting with each other, may be decomposed into two processes: one in which A receives charge from B, which can be identified as the electrophilic channel for A or the nucleophilic channel for B, and a second in which A donates charge to B, which can be identified as the nucleophilic channel for A or the electrophilic channel for B. By determining the amount of charge associated with both processes through the minimization of the interaction energy associated with each case, the expressions for the amount of charge involved in each case can be expressed in terms of the directional chemical potentials and the hardnesses of the interacting species. The correlation between the charges obtained for the interaction between phosphine ligands of the type PRR'R'' and Ni, and the A1 carbonyl stretching frequency provides support for their interpretation as measures of the electrophilicity and nucleophilicity of a chemical species, and, at the same time, allows one to describe the donation and back-donation processes in terms of the density functional theory of chemical reactivity.

  14. No-carrier-added (NCA) aryl ([sup 18]F) fluorides via the nucleophilic aromatic substitution of electron rich aromatic rings

    DOEpatents

    Yushin Ding; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1993-10-19

    A method for synthesizing no-carrier-added (NCA) aryl [.sup.18 F] fluoride substituted aromatic aldehyde compositions bearing an electron donating group is described. The method of the present invention includes the step of reacting aromatic nitro aldehydes having a suitably protected hydroxyl substitutent on an electron rich ring. The reaction is The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016, between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities Inc.

  15. No-carrier-added (NCA) aryl (18E) fluorides via the nucleophilic aromatic substitution of electron rich aromatic rings

    DOEpatents

    Ding, Yu-Shin; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1993-01-01

    A method for synthesizing no-carrier-added (NCA) aryl [.sup.18 F] fluoride substituted aromatic aldehyde compositions bearing an electron donating group is described. The method of the present invention includes the step of reacting aromatic nitro aldehydes having a suitably protected hydroxyl substitutent on an electron rich ring. The reaction is The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016, between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities Inc.

  16. Umbilical cord blood donation: public or private?

    PubMed

    Ballen, K K; Verter, F; Kurtzberg, J

    2015-10-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a graft source for patients with malignant or genetic diseases who can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but who do not have an appropriately HLA-matched family or volunteer unrelated adult donor. Starting in the 1990s, unrelated UCB banks were established, accepting donations from term deliveries and storing UCB units for public use. An estimated 730 000 UCB units have been donated and stored to date and ~35 000 UCB transplants have been performed worldwide. Over the past 20 years, private and family banks have grown rapidly, storing ~4 million UCB units for a particular patient or family, usually charging an up-front and yearly storage fee; therefore, these banks are able to be financially sustainable without releasing UCB units. Private banks are not obligated to fulfill the same regulatory requirements of the public banks. The public banks have released ~30 times more UCB units for therapy. Some countries have transitioned to an integrated banking model, a hybrid of public and family banking. Today, pregnant women, their families, obstetrical providers and pediatricians are faced with multiple choices about the disposition of their newborn's cord blood. In this commentary, we review the progress of UCB banking technology; we also analyze the current data on pediatric and adult unrelated UCB, including the recent expansion of interest in transplantation for hemoglobinopathies, and discuss emerging studies on the use of autologous UCB for neurologic diseases and regenerative medicine. We will review worldwide approaches to UCB banking, ethical considerations, criteria for public and family banking, integrated banking ideas and future strategies for UCB banking.

  17. Jewish medical ethics: monetary compensation for donating kidneys.

    PubMed

    Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2004-03-01

    The Israel Health Ministry is preparing legislation that would allow a person to receive monetary compensation in exchange for donating a kidney for a lifesaving transplant. Such a bill would be the first of its kind, and would seem to establish a policy that is in contrast with both existing international professional ethics and major Christian and Islamic religious ethics. In an attempt to investigate the extent to which such a bill would be consistent with traditional Jewish ethics, we reviewed the opinions of major traditional Jewish ethicists/halakhists, with emphasis on contemporary opinions, and found that compensating an organ donor for his or her time, discomfort, inconvenience, and recovery is fully consistent with traditional Jewish law and ethics. While non-altruistic sale of kidneys might be theoretically ethical from a Jewish perspective, ultimately its ethical status is inextricably connected to solving a series of pragmatic issues, such as creating a system that insures that potential vendors/donors are properly informed and not exploited, controlling and supervising medical screening and support of the donors to insure that their health is not permanently endangered, protecting minors and incompetents, and regulating payments so that they reasonably reflect compensation for pain and suffering.

  18. Sperm donation and its application in China: a 7-year multicenter retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Ping; Zhu, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Xin-Zong; Li, Yu-Shan; Wang, Quan-Xian; Cao, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Yong; Dai, Hui-Li; Huang, Yi-Ran; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Sperm donation in China is different from that in other countries due to cultural, social and political factors. This research presents the current status of sperm donation in Mainland China and highlights some problems. Between January 2003 and December 2009, 19 471 sperm donors were screened totally and 6467 donors (33.2%) were recruited. The primary reasons for non-recruitment were either inadequate semen parameters (55.0%) or positive results for sexually transmitted diseases (7.9%). There were 327 (1.7%) qualified donors who withdrew from the program because of frustration related to failed semen parameters, participation merely for free medical tests or job transfer. A questionnaire investigating donor intention, as well as other concerns associated with sperm donation, was distributed to 516 potential donors. All potential donors indicated their primary motivation as altruism, while 90.9% mentioned monetary reward as a second motivating factor. Approximately 93.4% of donors expressed some apprehension about the risk of consanguineous mating and the protection of their identity. Over the past 7 years, 488 389 vials of donors' semen have been cryopreserved. In 36 438 artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID) cycles, the clinical pregnancy rate was 23.9% and the live birth rate was 16.6%. In 7148 in vitro fertilization cycles, the clinical pregnancy rate was 45.8% and the live birth rate was 35.2%. Human sperm banks have been strictly monitored to ensure that each sperm donor can only impregnate five women nationwide. There is still a large gap between the supply and demand for sperm donation which may be solved by updated guidelines. PMID:21623386

  19. Religion and organ donation: the views of UK faith leaders.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurch; Brocklehurst, Anna; Pateman, Ruth; Kinsella, Suzannah; Parry, Vivienne

    2012-09-01

    This article reports the findings from the one-to-one interviews with the main UK faith and belief leaders which were commissioned by the Organ Donation Taskforce as part of its evidence gathering. Interviews were arranged with the main faith and belief organisations within the UK. Interviews covered a range of issues related to organ donation. Although some faith groups had some reservations regarding organ donation, interviews with these leaders demonstrated that none of these faith groups have reached a consensus against organ donation. The interviewees stated that the majority opinion in their faith or belief group is to permit organ donation, with some actively supporting it. Interviewees were keen to stress that there is a broad spectrum of opinion on organ transplantation within each faith and belief group and that consequently it is difficult to speak on behalf of an entire group. One complication mentioned by interviewees is that as organ transplantation is a relatively new medical procedure, there is no explicit reference to it in many original religious texts. Consequently, positions on the receipt and donation of organs are based on interpretation. It was felt that a much greater level of engagement is needed, as organ donation is currently not a priority for many faith and belief groups.

  20. Predictors of organ donation behavior among Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Eusebio M; Jones, Sara Pace; Robles, Antonio Santa Maria; Siegel, Jason T

    2005-06-01

    Hispanic Americans have a substantial need for organ transplants and are underrepresented among organ donors, yet little is known about predictors of organ donation outcomes in this population. To assess factors that may function as significant predictors of organ donation behavior among Hispanic Americans. A random-digit-dial computer-assisted telephone-interview survey. Setting-Pima and Maricopa counties in Arizona. 1200 Hispanic Americans. Family discussion of organ donation and willingness to be an organ donor. Significant predictors of family discussion of organ donation include knowing someone willing to be an organ donor and disagreeing that carrying a donor card results in inadequate medical care. Willingness to be a donor is also predictive of family discussion. Significant predictors of willingness to be an organ donor are knowing someone willing to be an organ donor, being female, and disagreeing that thoughts about donation leads to thoughts about one's own mortality. Having a family discussion about organ donation is also predictive of willingness to be an organ donor. The data provide a springboard for larger studies encompassing the diversity and geographical dispersion of Hispanic Americans. The data also highlight the importance of educational efforts to make Hispanic Americans aware of people in their community who have donated in the past or who are now potential donors.

  1. Psychosocial variables associated with willingness to donate organs.

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, B E; Spanos, N P

    1989-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 108 university psychology students to investigate attitudes and behaviour related to organ donation. Three groups (committed, uncommitted and opposed) were identified. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that, compared with uncommitted donors, committed donors felt better informed about organ donation, had discussed donation more often with family members and knew more people who had signed donor cards. The subjects in the opposed group and those in the uncommitted group cited different reasons for not signing a donor card. Empathy, religious beliefs and attitudes about death did not affect willingness to donate. Analyses of the interaction between willingness to donate one's own organs and willingness to donate those of a family member revealed a monotonic increase in willingness to donate the organs of a family member as the type of recipient became more personally relevant. Our findings indicate that when health care professionals request donor organs the potential recipients must be presented to the potential donors in a personally relevant manner. Educational programs must be developed to train medical personnel in how to effectively ask for organs without coercing the potential donor or invading the privacy of the potential recipient. PMID:2731099

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior of Nigerian Students Toward Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M; Randhawa, G

    2017-10-01

    The Nigerian transplantation program is evolving but is currently over-reliant on living donors. If deceased donation is to be viable in Nigeria, it is important to ascertain the views of the public. The objective of the study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Nigerian international students toward organ donation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Nigerian international students of the University of Bedfordshire through the use of a modified self-administered questionnaire. The participants were recruited by means of purposive sampling. Of the 110 questionnaires distributed, 103 were returned fully completed (response rate = 93.6%). A significant majority (93.2%) of the participants are aware of organ donation, and 76.7% have a good knowledge on the subject. Furthermore, more than half (52.8%) of the participants have a positive attitude toward organ donation, and less than half (42.8%) have favorable behavior toward it. Higher knowledge does not correlate to either positive attitude or behavior, but a positive attitude is correlated with favorable behavior toward donation. The attitudes and behavior of the respondents toward organ donation is not commensurate with the level of knowledge they possess. This highlights the urgent need for well-structured educational programs on deceased organ donation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Organ donation among Malaysian Muslims: the role of mosques.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Raja Ariffin, Raja Noriza; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Abdullah, Nawi; Wan Md Adnan, Wan Ahmad Hafiz; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhdi; Che Soh, Mazlan

    2015-04-13

    Malaysia, a country of Muslim majority, is suffering from a severe organ shortage due to the lack of donors. Mosques are the main gateways into the Muslim community. Hence, it is imperative to explore their role in facilitating organ donation. A self-administered survey was conducted between October and December 2013. We distributed 700 pilot-tested questionnaires to 82 mosques in Kuala Lumpur and its suburbs. The respondents were stratified into 2 groups: the mosque committees and the Muslim Jama'ah (individuals who come regularly to mosque for prayer). Data collected from a survey on 653 Malaysian Muslims reveals that the main factors that hamper organ donation-related activities at the mosques in Malaysia are the lack of experts and financial resources. The level of autonomy of the mosque is also another main issue. The respondents believe that talks and dialogues are the best methods for organ donation campaigns at the mosques. Conclusions We argue that if the mosques are to play a role in imparting knowledge on organ donation, there should be ample opportunity for the mosque committee to choose the content of religious talks held in their community. The mosques in Malaysia are not sufficiently facilitated to channel the information on organ donation to the Muslim community. Providing financial support and expert campaigners are expected to increase organ donation-related activities at the mosques and subsequently could increase awareness regarding organ donations among Malaysian Muslims.

  4. Causes of organ donation refusal in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, S M; Gholami, S; Bahador, A; Nikeghbalian, S; Eshraghian, A; Salahi, H; Kazemi, K; Shamsaei, A; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2011-03-01

    Family refusal is an important factor that limits the number of organ donations. Some studies from different centers have reported various reasons for family decisions of organ donation refusal. This study evaluated the reasons for organ donation refusal by family members covered in our organ procurement organization. This cross-sectional study was performed among families of potential organ donors who satisfied brain death criteria as identified between March 2009 and March 2010. Among 125 potential donors 73 (58.4%) families refused donation. Their main reasons were as follows: lack of acceptance of brain death n=26 (35.6%), belief in miracle and patient recovery (n=22; 30.1), fear of gossip regarding sale rather than autonomous organ donation (n=11; 15.1%), and fear about deformation of the donor's body (n=9; 12.3%). Family members play an important role in the final decision for organ donation. The general public should be encouraged to register their donation preferences in the case of brain death. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Health content analysis of organ donation and transplantation news on Turkish television channels and in Turkish print media.

    PubMed

    Colak, M Yavuz; Hekimoglu, D; Ersoy, K; Sozen, F; Haberal, M

    2010-01-01

    The media affects individuals' behaviors, especially by means of news and advertisements. In this study, we evaluated health content of organ donation and transplantation news in the printed media and on television programs for a 1-year period in Turkey. We examined 2449 news items in 230 newspapers and magazines; 1179 news programs on 45 television channels, all concerning organ donation and transplantation. The news obtained from the Media Pursuit Center were transferred to an electronic file to evaluate the format and content of the news. Nine variables were examined about the scope and the formal characteristics of the news: the publication name, its type, the province, the date, the headline, the title length, the presence of a photograph, or its kind, the news size, and the page number. In the content analysis of the news, we also examined 9 variables: the topic, the message of the headline, the property of the words in the title, the identification of photographs in the news, the age, gender of actors in the news, as well as donor or recipient. In a summary, print media and television channels, failed to show sufficient information about organ donation and transplantation. The percentage of news about organ donation and transplantation was small and mostly negative items in the media. On television channels, sufficient place was not given to organ donation and transplantation. The news in printed media and on television channels was not about motivated or altruistic behavior. The pattern of organ donation and transplantation news is important in terms of perception and comment by the public. Furthermore it directly affects the perception of the news by the reader.

  6. Breast milk donation after neonatal death in Australia: a report.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Katherine E; Lenne, Brydan S; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Amir, Lisa H; Bredemeyer, Sandra; Hartmann, Ben; Jones, Rachel; Koorts, Pieter; McConachy, Helen; Mumford, Patricia; Polverino, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Lactation and breast milk can hold great value and meaning for grieving mothers who have experienced a recent death of an infant. Donation to a human milk bank (HMB) as an alternative to discarding breast milk is one means of respecting the value of breast milk. There is little research, national policy discussion, or organizational representation in Australia on the subject of breast milk donation after infant death. On 29 November 2013 the Mercy Hospital for Women in Melbourne, Australia hosted Australia's first National Stakeholder Meeting (NSM) on the topic of milk donation after neonatal death. The NSM drew together representatives from Australian HMBs, neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) currently using donor human milk, and Australia's chief NICU parent support organization. The NSM was video-recorded and transcribed, and analyzed thematically by researchers. This article reports the seven dominant themes discussed by stakeholders during the NSM: the spectrum of women's lactation and donation experiences after infant death; the roles of the HMB and NICU in meeting the needs of the bereaved donor; how bereaved mothers' lactation autonomy may interface with a HMB's donation guidelines; how milk donation may be discussed with bereaved mothers; the variation between four categories of milk donation after neonatal death; the impact of limited resources and few HMBs on providing donation programs for bereaved mothers in Australia. This article provides evidence from researchers and practitioners that can assist HMB staff in refining their bank's policy on milk donation after infant death, and provides national policy makers with key considerations to support lactation, human milk banking, and bereavement services nation-wide.

  7. [Living organ donation vs. cadaveric donation - study of liver transplanted children and their families].

    PubMed

    Schulz, K H; Hofmann, C; Sander, K; Edsen, S; Burdelski, M; Koch, U; Rogiers, X

    2001-12-01

    There is only scarce information on the quality of life of child recipients of liver transplants and their families. Particularly children with a living related graft and their families never have been compared to children who received a cadaveric graft and their families. We investigated the following issues in our study: How do parents and children from participating families rate their strain, their quality of life and their relationships within their family? Do families with a living - related donor differ from those with a cadaveric donor? What do living donors and their partners think about the donation retrospectively? The study was conducted with 106 participants from 50 families (42 mothers, 40 fathers, and 24 children older than 6 years). In 20 of these families, a living transplantation had been performed. Participants were interviewed and asked to fill out several questionnaires. School-aged children with a liver transplant show good social integration among their peers and in school. The child's disease, however, has a great impact on the family. Family members show a reduction in social contact, and an increase in marital crises, and problematic relations amongst siblings. Families in which a cadaveric graft was performed, are less satisfied with life, and show more symptoms of exhaustion. Every family studied possessed or acquired - a high degree of internal or external coping resources. Living - related donors tried hard to obtain an understanding of the medical context. The partner, rather than the donor himself, feels anxious before the donation. The limited time available for the decision to donate is not perceived by the donors to be critical. Ten percent of living donors feel "a little" that their health is affected. The decision to donate is supported "strongly" or "very strongly" by the partners in 80 % of the cases. A possible strain on the child through the expectation of gratitude by the donor is stated by 20 %. All of the donors agree

  8. Progress Report on Neglected Tropical Disease Drug Donation Programs.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joshua P; Silva, Lisseth; Cohen, Alisa; Awatin, Josephine; Sturgeon, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) impose a significant burden on public health, particularly in developing nations. Many can be treated cost-effectively with drugs donated or offered at or below marginal cost. In 2012, the World Health Organization published an NTD roadmap that outlined a strategy for the prevention, control, and eradication of 17 NTDs by 2020. Inspired by this roadmap, executives from 13 pharmaceutical companies, government agencies, and other interested parties signed the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases in January 2012. In this paper, we will assess progress in meeting commitments on drug donations laid out in the London Declaration. We conducted Medline and LexisNexis searches of peer-reviewed publications and trade journals, as well as product development partnership and government reports. Subsequently, we designed a survey instrument and surveyed 10 company signatories (companies with drug donation programs) to the London Declaration to determine current donations and pledges. Nine of 10 companies with donation programs responded to the survey. The respondents reported substantial progress in meeting the goals laid out in the London Declaration. Survey respondents maintained 17 drug donation programs across 10 disease categories. In 2014, companies donated >1 billion treatments, with a dollar value of nearly $1.5 billion. However, not all donated products were distributed to patients in need. In addition, 4 of the 17 programs were slated to end before 2020, three of the 17 programs did not report explicit program objectives, and 7 of 17 did not measure the impact of programs in terms of numbers of patients treated. None of our survey respondents reported on whether the programs were leading to a reduction in disease prevalence. Donations are a necessary but insufficient condition for patient access to neglected disease drugs. Additional resources must be allocated to ensure delivery of donated products to patients. In

  9. [Latin program for organ donation: the intensivists are networking].

    PubMed

    Revelly, J-P; Heidegger, C-P; Eckert, P; Moretti, D; Chevrolet, J-C; Chioléro, R

    2008-12-10

    The new Swiss federal law on organ and transplantation strengthens the responsibilities of the intensive care units. In Italian and French speaking parts of Switzerland, the Programme Latin pour le Don d'Organe (PLDO) has been launched to foster a wider collaboration between intensivists and donation coordinators. The PLDO aims at optimising knowledge and expertise in organ donation through improvements in identification, notification and management of organ donors and their next of kin. The PLDO dispenses education to all professionals involved. Such organisation should allow increasing the number of organs available, while improving healthcare professionals experience and next of kin emotion throughout the donation process.

  10. Brain donation for schizophrenia research: gift, consent, and meaning

    PubMed Central

    Boyes, M; Ward, P

    2003-01-01

    The Neuroscience Institute of Schizophrenia and Allied Disorders's (NISAD) "Gift of Hope" Tissue Donor Program is a volunteer programme for people who wish to donate their brain when they die for neuroscience research into schizophrenia. Organ donation for purposes of research differs from transplant donation in a number of ways, most notably the absence of a single recipient. Within a particular community, however, (people with schizophrenia and their carers) the single recipient is replaced by a sense of shared experience and preventing suffering in others. Donors have an investment in the research. PMID:12796437

  11. [Organ donation after euthanasia. Handle with great care].

    PubMed

    Abdo, W F Farid

    2014-01-01

    Recently, organ donation after euthanasia has been a topic of discussion in the Dutch media and scientific literature. Unfortunately, both the articles in question and the media interviews contained several unsubstantiated statements. This article describes the background of organ donation after euthanasia and refutes some of the recent statements. It discusses why it is expected that organ donation after euthanasia will result in a far fewer additional organ donors that originally stated. In conclusion, euthanasia is a topic that should be handled with great care.

  12. Role of Religion in Organ Donation-Development of the United Kingdom Faith and Organ Donation Action Plan.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, G; Neuberger, J

    2016-04-01

    At a national policy level, the United Kingdom is at the forefront of recognizing the role of faith and its impact on organ donation. This is demonstrated by the recommendations of the Organ Donation Taskforce, National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines on organ donation, All-Party Parliamentary Kidney Group, and National Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Taskforce Alliance. Evidence to date shows that further thought is required to ensure the active engagement of faith communities with organ donation in the UK. The "Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020" strategy was launched in July 2013 by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) in collaboration with the Department of Health and Welsh, Scottish, and Northern Irish governments and seeks to increase the number of people, from all sections of the UK's multiethnic and multifaith population, who consent to and authorize organ donation in their life. NHSBT seeks to work in partnership with faith leaders and this culminated in a Faith and Organ Donation Summit. Faith leaders highlight that there is a need for engagement at both national and local levels concerning organ donation as well as diagnosis and definition of death.

  13. Development of common metrics for donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention for the blood donation context.

    PubMed

    France, Janis L; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; France, Christopher R; McGlone, Sarah T; Himawan, Lina K; Kessler, Debra A; Shaz, Beth H

    2014-03-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior has been widely used in blood donation research, but the lack of uniform, psychometrically sound measures makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions or compare results across studies. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to develop such measures of donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were conducted on survey responses collected from college students (n = 1080). The resulting scales were then administered to an independent sample of experienced donors (n = 433) for additional CFAs and to test whether the Theory of Planned Behavior model provided a good fit to the data. CFAs conducted on both samples support the use of six-item scales, with two factors each, to measure donation attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control and a single-factor three-item scale to measure donation intention. Further, structural equation modeling of these measures revealed that the Theory of Planned Behavior provided a strong fit to the data (comparative fit index, 0.976; root mean square error of approximation, 0.041; standardized root mean square residual, 0.055) and accounted for 73.7% of the variance in donation intention. The present findings confirm the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior to the blood donation context and more importantly provide psychometric support for the future use of four brief measures of donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  14. Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition: comparison with submerged leaves.

    PubMed

    Shabnam, Nisha; Sharmila, P; Sharma, Anuradha; Strasser, Reto J; Govindjee; Pardha-Saradhi, P

    2015-08-01

    Investigations were carried to unravel mechanism(s) for higher tolerance of floating over submerged leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition. Chloroplasts from floating leaves showed ~5- and ~6.4-fold higher Photosystem (PS) I (reduced dichlorophenol-indophenol → methyl viologen → O2) and PS II (H2O → parabenzoquine) activities over those from submerged leaves. The saturating rate (V max) of PS II activity of chloroplasts from floating and submerged leaves reached at ~600 and ~230 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Photosynthetic electron transport rate in floating leaves was over 5-fold higher than in submerged leaves. Further, floating leaves, as compared to submerged leaves, showed higher F v/F m (variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, a reflection of PS II efficiency), as well as a higher potential to withstand photoinhibitory damage by high light (1,200 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Cells of floating leaves had not only higher mitochondria to chloroplast ratio, but also showed many mitochondria in close vicinity of chloroplasts. Electron transport (NADH → O2; succinate → O2) in isolated mitochondria of floating leaves was sensitive to both cyanide (CN(-)) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), whereas those in submerged leaves were sensitive to CN(-), but virtually insensitive to SHAM, revealing the presence of alternative oxidase in mitochondria of floating, but not of submerged, leaves. Further, the potential of floating leaves to withstand photoinhibitory damage was significantly reduced in the presence of CN(-) and SHAM, individually and in combination. Our experimental results establish that floating leaves possess better photosynthetic efficiency and capacity to withstand photoinhibition compared to submerged leaves; and mitochondria play a pivotal role in protecting photosynthetic machinery of floating leaves against photoinhibition, most likely by oxidation of NAD(P)H and

  15. 41 CFR 102-37.565 - What is the authority for donations to public bodies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for donations to public bodies? 102-37.565 Section 102-37.565 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Bodies in Lieu of Abandonment/Destruction § 102-37.565 What is the authority for donations to public bodies? Section 527 of title 40, United...

  16. 41 CFR 109-44.701 - Findings justifying donation to public bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... donation to public bodies. 109-44.701 Section 109-44.701 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 44-DONATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 44.7-Donations of Property to Public Bodies § 109-44.701 Findings justifying donation to public bodies. The Director, Office of Administrative Services and...

  17. 41 CFR 102-37.565 - What is the authority for donations to public bodies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for donations to public bodies? 102-37.565 Section 102-37.565 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Bodies in Lieu of Abandonment/Destruction § 102-37.565 What is the authority for donations to public bodies? Section 527 of title 40, United...

  18. 41 CFR 109-44.701 - Findings justifying donation to public bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... donation to public bodies. 109-44.701 Section 109-44.701 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 44-DONATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 44.7-Donations of Property to Public Bodies § 109-44.701 Findings justifying donation to public bodies. The Director, Office of Administrative Services and...

  19. 41 CFR 102-37.565 - What is the authority for donations to public bodies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for donations to public bodies? 102-37.565 Section 102-37.565 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Bodies in Lieu of Abandonment/Destruction § 102-37.565 What is the authority for donations to public bodies? Section 527 of title 40, United...

  20. 41 CFR 109-44.701 - Findings justifying donation to public bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... donation to public bodies. 109-44.701 Section 109-44.701 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 44-DONATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 44.7-Donations of Property to Public Bodies § 109-44.701 Findings justifying donation to public bodies. The Director, Office of Administrative Services and...