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Sample records for electronic blood establishment

  1. 21 CFR 607.65 - Exemptions for blood product establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... certified under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (42 U.S.C. 263a) and 42 CFR part 493... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemptions for blood product establishments. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Exemptions § 607.65 Exemptions for blood product establishments. The...

  2. 21 CFR 607.65 - Exemptions for blood product establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... certified under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (42 U.S.C. 263a) and 42 CFR part 493... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemptions for blood product establishments. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Exemptions § 607.65 Exemptions for blood product establishments. The...

  3. 21 CFR 607.65 - Exemptions for blood product establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... certified under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (42 U.S.C. 263a) and 42 CFR part 493... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemptions for blood product establishments. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Exemptions § 607.65 Exemptions for blood product establishments. The...

  4. 21 CFR 607.65 - Exemptions for blood product establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... certified under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (42 U.S.C. 263a) and 42 CFR part 493... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exemptions for blood product establishments. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Exemptions § 607.65 Exemptions for blood product establishments. The...

  5. 21 CFR 607.40 - Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product establishments. 607.40 Section 607.40 Food and Drugs FOOD... REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for...

  6. 21 CFR 607.40 - Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product establishments. 607.40 Section 607.40 Food and Drugs FOOD... REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for...

  7. 21 CFR 607.40 - Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product establishments. 607.40 Section 607.40 Food and Drugs FOOD... REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for...

  8. 21 CFR 607.40 - Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product establishments. 607.40 Section 607.40 Food and Drugs FOOD... REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for...

  9. 21 CFR 607.40 - Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product establishments. 607.40 Section 607.40 Food and Drugs FOOD... REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for...

  10. 21 CFR 607.65 - Exemptions for blood product establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (42 U.S.C. 263a) and 42 CFR part 493 or has met... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemptions for blood product establishments. 607.65... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD...

  11. A rational framework for production decision making in blood establishments.

    PubMed

    Ramoa, Augusto; Maia, Salomé; Lourenço, Anália

    2012-07-24

    SAD_BaSe is a blood bank data analysis software, created to assist in the management of blood donations and the blood production chain in blood establishments. In particular, the system keeps track of several collection and production indicators, enables the definition of collection and production strategies, and the measurement of quality indicators required by the Quality Management System regulating the general operation of blood establishments. This paper describes the general scenario of blood establishments and its main requirements in terms of data management and analysis. It presents the architecture of SAD_BaSe and identifies its main contributions. Specifically, it brings forward the generation of customized reports driven by decision making needs and the use of data mining techniques in the analysis of donor suspensions and donation discards.

  12. 21 CFR 607.37 - Inspection of establishment registrations and blood product listings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inspection of establishment registrations and blood... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.37 Inspection of establishment registrations and blood product listings. (a) A copy of the Form FD-2830...

  13. 21 CFR 607.21 - Times for establishment registration and blood product listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Times for establishment registration and blood... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.21 Times for establishment registration and blood product listing. The owner or operator of...

  14. 21 CFR 607.21 - Times for establishment registration and blood product listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Times for establishment registration and blood... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.21 Times for establishment registration and blood product listing. The owner or operator of...

  15. 21 CFR 607.21 - Times for establishment registration and blood product listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Times for establishment registration and blood... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.21 Times for establishment registration and blood product listing. The owner or operator of...

  16. 21 CFR 607.21 - Times for establishment registration and blood product listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Times for establishment registration and blood... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.21 Times for establishment registration and blood product listing. The owner or operator of...

  17. 21 CFR 607.21 - Times for establishment registration and blood product listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Times for establishment registration and blood... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.21 Times for establishment registration and blood product listing. The owner or operator of...

  18. Ovine blood: establishment of a list of reference values relevant for blood coagulation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmi, Mathias H; Tiede, Andreas; Teebken, Omke E; Bisdas, Theodosios; Haverich, Axel; Mischke, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Ovine animal models are widely used to conduct preclinical studies, e.g., to evaluate cardiovascular prostheses intended to be applied in man. However, although analyzed in many of those studies, information about ovine blood reference values is scanty. The aim of this study is to establish a reference list of ovine blood parameters relevant for blood coagulation. A cohort of 47 mature ewes was evaluated. Parameters comprised the following: cells and cellular components-platelet, red, and white cell counts (including subsets), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and MCH concentration (MCHC); global tests of coagulation-prothrombin time (Quick's time) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT); and parameters relevant for blood coagulation-fibrinogen, antithrombin (AT), and von Willebrand Factor. After explorative data analysis, a list of ovine reference values was established. Interestingly, a comparison with human reference values revealed some interspecies differences between sheep and man, i.e., much higher ovine ranges for some cell counts (neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils, and platelets) but lower values for some other parameters (Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, AT, and Quick's test). We established a reference list of ovine blood count and blood coagulation parameters. Because of some peculiarities of the ovine blood, this list may have implications for the interpretation of experimental data.

  19. 21 CFR 207.7 - Establishment registration and product listing for human blood and blood products and for medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... human blood and blood products and for medical devices. 207.7 Section 207.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... product listing for human blood and blood products and for medical devices. (a) Owners and operators of human blood and blood product establishments shall register and list their products with the Center...

  20. 21 CFR 207.7 - Establishment registration and product listing for human blood and blood products and for medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... human blood and blood products and for medical devices. 207.7 Section 207.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... product listing for human blood and blood products and for medical devices. (a) Owners and operators of human blood and blood product establishments shall register and list their products with the Center...

  1. 21 CFR 207.7 - Establishment registration and product listing for human blood and blood products and for medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... human blood and blood products and for medical devices. 207.7 Section 207.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... product listing for human blood and blood products and for medical devices. (a) Owners and operators of human blood and blood product establishments shall register and list their products with the Center...

  2. 21 CFR 207.7 - Establishment registration and product listing for human blood and blood products and for medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... human blood and blood products and for medical devices. 207.7 Section 207.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... product listing for human blood and blood products and for medical devices. (a) Owners and operators of human blood and blood product establishments shall register and list their products with the Center...

  3. 21 CFR 207.7 - Establishment registration and product listing for human blood and blood products and for medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... human blood and blood products and for medical devices. 207.7 Section 207.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... product listing for human blood and blood products and for medical devices. (a) Owners and operators of human blood and blood product establishments shall register and list their products with the Center...

  4. 21 CFR 607.25 - Information required for establishment registration and blood product listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... registration and blood product listing. 607.25 Section 607.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.25 Information required for establishment registration and blood product listing. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 607.25 - Information required for establishment registration and blood product listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... registration and blood product listing. 607.25 Section 607.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.25 Information required for establishment registration and blood product listing. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 607.22 - How and where to register establishments and list blood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... blood products. 607.22 Section 607.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.22 How and where to register establishments and list blood products. (a) The first registration of...

  7. 21 CFR 607.22 - How and where to register establishments and list blood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blood products. 607.22 Section 607.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.22 How and where to register establishments and list blood products. (a) The first registration of...

  8. 21 CFR 607.22 - How and where to register establishments and list blood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... blood products. 607.22 Section 607.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.22 How and where to register establishments and list blood products. (a) The first registration of...

  9. 21 CFR 607.25 - Information required for establishment registration and blood product listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... registration and blood product listing. 607.25 Section 607.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.25 Information required for establishment registration and blood product listing. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 607.37 - Inspection of establishment registrations and blood product listings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... blood product listings. 607.37 Section 607.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.37 Inspection of establishment registrations and blood product listings. (a) A copy of the Form FD-2830...

  11. 21 CFR 607.37 - Inspection of establishment registrations and blood product listings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... blood product listings. 607.37 Section 607.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.37 Inspection of establishment registrations and blood product listings. (a) A copy of the Form FD-2830...

  12. 21 CFR 607.22 - How and where to register establishments and list blood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... blood products. 607.22 Section 607.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.22 How and where to register establishments and list blood products. (a) The first registration of...

  13. 21 CFR 607.22 - How and where to register establishments and list blood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... blood products. 607.22 Section 607.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.22 How and where to register establishments and list blood products. (a) The first registration of...

  14. 21 CFR 607.25 - Information required for establishment registration and blood product listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and blood product listing. 607.25 Section 607.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.25 Information required for establishment registration and blood product listing. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 607.25 - Information required for establishment registration and blood product listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... registration and blood product listing. 607.25 Section 607.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.25 Information required for establishment registration and blood product listing. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 607.37 - Inspection of establishment registrations and blood product listings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blood product listings. 607.37 Section 607.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.37 Inspection of establishment registrations and blood product listings. (a) A copy of the Form FD-2830...

  17. 21 CFR 607.37 - Inspection of establishment registrations and blood product listings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... blood product listings. 607.37 Section 607.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.37 Inspection of establishment registrations and blood product listings. (a) A copy of the Form FD-2830...

  18. [How do I assess requirement of a blood bank and its kind for a healthcare establishment?].

    PubMed

    Lafeuillade, B; Tixier, A; Bliem, C; Meyer, F

    2014-12-01

    Access to blood components is required for healthcare establishments, particularly for emergency situation and hospital blood bank was often a response to this requirement. However, the complexity of regulation and economic pressures lead healthcare establishment to review regularly their need for a blood bank. This assessment requires analysis of need for transfusions in terms of delay, quantity and clinical situations to which they must respond. When a blood bank is required, three kinds could be under consideration: emergency blood bank, intermediate blood bank and issuance blood bank. According to requirements, advantages and disadvantages of each kind, healthcare establishments would select the most suitable one.

  19. Establishment of outgrowth endothelial cells from peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Martin-Ramirez, Javier; Hofman, Menno; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Hebbel, Robert P; Voorberg, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) are important tools when investigating diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for vascular disease. In this protocol, mononuclear cells are isolated from peripheral blood and plated on type I collagen at ∼135,000 cells per cm(2) in endothelial cell differentiation medium. On average, 0.34 colonies of endothelial cells per milliliter of blood can be obtained. Colonies of endothelial cells become visible after 14-28 d. Upon confluence, these rapidly expanding colonies can be passaged and have been shown to propagate up to 10(18)-fold. Isolated BOECs are phenotypically similar to vascular endothelial cells, as revealed by their cobblestone morphology, the presence of endothelial cell-specific Weibel-Palade bodies and the expression of endothelial cell markers such as VE-cadherin. The protocol presented here also provides a particularly useful tool for the ex vivo assessment of endothelial cell function from patients with different vascular abnormalities. PMID:22918388

  20. 78 FR 18353 - Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... the Federal Register of October 29, 2007 (72 FR 61171), FDA announced the availability of the draft... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System... ``Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility'' dated...

  1. Proposed policies and procedures for the establishment of a cord blood bank.

    PubMed

    McCullough, J; Clay, M E; Fautsch, S; Noreen, H; Segall, M; Perry, E; Stroncek, D

    1994-01-01

    To carry out cord blood transplants from allogeneic unrelated donors, cord blood stem cell banks must be established. This report proposed the policies and procedures that can be used to establish cord blood banks. The areas covered include donor consent and suitability criteria; infectious and genetic disease testing; collection, processing, and preservation of the cord blood; retention of specimens for special testing; confidentiality; documentation and record keeping; establishment of a quality control program; and related regulatory issues. There are no technologic impediments to establishing cord blood banks. Agreement on some standard policies and procedures would facilitate exchange of cord blood stem cells among transplant centers and should increase the number of transplants that can be done.

  2. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  3. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  4. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  5. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  6. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  7. 21 CFR 607.35 - Notification of registrant; blood product establishment registration number and NDC Labeler Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of registrant; blood product... PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.35 Notification of registrant; blood product establishment registration number and...

  8. 21 CFR 607.35 - Notification of registrant; blood product establishment registration number and NDC Labeler Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification of registrant; blood product... PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.35 Notification of registrant; blood product establishment registration number and...

  9. 21 CFR 607.35 - Notification of registrant; blood product establishment registration number and NDC Labeler Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification of registrant; blood product... PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.35 Notification of registrant; blood product establishment registration number and...

  10. 21 CFR 607.35 - Notification of registrant; blood product establishment registration number and NDC Labeler Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Notification of registrant; blood product... PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.35 Notification of registrant; blood product establishment registration number and...

  11. 21 CFR 607.35 - Notification of registrant; blood product establishment registration number and NDC Labeler Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification of registrant; blood product... PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.35 Notification of registrant; blood product establishment registration number and...

  12. Quality management in European screening laboratories in blood establishments: A view of current approaches and trends.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard; de Sousa, Gracinda

    2015-04-01

    The screening laboratory has a critical role in the post-transfusion safety. The success of its targets and efficiency depends on the management system used. Even though the European Union directive 2002/98/EC requires a quality management system in blood establishments, its requirements for screening laboratories are generic. Complementary approaches are needed to implement a quality management system focused on screening laboratories. This article briefly discusses the current good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices, as well as the trends in quality management system standards. ISO 9001 is widely accepted in some European Union blood establishments as the quality management standard, however this is not synonymous of its successful application. The ISO "risk-based thinking" is interrelated with the quality risk-management process of the EuBIS "Standards and criteria for the inspection of blood establishments". ISO 15189 should be the next step on the quality assurance of a screening laboratory, since it is focused on medical laboratory. To standardize the quality management systems in blood establishments' screening laboratories, new national and European claims focused on technical requirements following ISO 15189 is needed.

  13. Quality management in European screening laboratories in blood establishments: A view of current approaches and trends.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard; de Sousa, Gracinda

    2015-04-01

    The screening laboratory has a critical role in the post-transfusion safety. The success of its targets and efficiency depends on the management system used. Even though the European Union directive 2002/98/EC requires a quality management system in blood establishments, its requirements for screening laboratories are generic. Complementary approaches are needed to implement a quality management system focused on screening laboratories. This article briefly discusses the current good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices, as well as the trends in quality management system standards. ISO 9001 is widely accepted in some European Union blood establishments as the quality management standard, however this is not synonymous of its successful application. The ISO "risk-based thinking" is interrelated with the quality risk-management process of the EuBIS "Standards and criteria for the inspection of blood establishments". ISO 15189 should be the next step on the quality assurance of a screening laboratory, since it is focused on medical laboratory. To standardize the quality management systems in blood establishments' screening laboratories, new national and European claims focused on technical requirements following ISO 15189 is needed. PMID:25765135

  14. Importance of monitoring family members in establishing sources and pathways of lead in blood.

    PubMed

    Gulson, B L; Mizon, K J; Korsch, M J; Howarth, D

    1996-10-11

    High precision lead isotope measurements were undertaken to establish the sources and pathways in blood and environmental samples of five families from the Broken Hill lead mining community, New South Wales, Australia. The five families were selected from 27 families investigated to illustrate the different sources and pathways of lead into blood and the importance of monitoring the whole family. The results illustrate that although the major source of lead is from the orebody, paint and petrol can be significant contributors to both house dust and blood leads. The results also show that the sources and pathways can be from the father's occupation and hence monitoring of families is important, especially in high risk locations. In two cases, the elevated blood leads in the children did not derive from their current residence but from other residences in the community.

  15. A modified Fricke gel dosimeter for fast electron blood dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Lama, L. S.; de Góes, E. G.; Sampaio, F. G. A.; Petchevist, P. C. D.; de Almeida, A.

    2014-12-01

    It has been suggested for more than forty years that blood and blood components be irradiated before allogeneic transfusions for immunosuppressed patients in order to avoid the Transfusion-Associated Graft-versus-Host Disease (TA-GVHD). Whole blood, red blood cells, platelets and granulocytes may have viable T cells and should be irradiated before transfusion for different patient clinical conditions. According to international guides, absorbed doses from 25 up to 50 Gy should be delivered to the central middle plane of each blood bag. Although gamma and X-rays from radiotherapy equipments and dedicated cell irradiators are commonly used for this purpose, electron beams from Linear Accelerators (LINACs) could be used as well. In this work, we developed a methodology able to acquire dosimetric data from blood irradiations, especially after fast electrons exposures. This was achieved using a proposed Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXGp) dosimeter, which presents closer radiological characteristics (attenuation coefficients and stopping-powers) to the whole blood, as well as complete absorbed dose range linearity. The developed methodology and the FXGp dosimeter were also able to provide isodose curves and field profiles for the irradiated samples.

  16. Electron microscopic structure of human umbilical cord blood lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, T.M.; Davis, P.A.; Nordhausen, R.W.; Glueck, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    Neonatal VLDL, LDL, HDL/sub 2/ and HDL/sub 3/ were isolated from umbilical cord blood by preparative ultracentrifugation and analyzed by electron microscopy. Cord blood VLDL were round particles that were heterogeneous in size, mean diameter 49.5 +/- 10.3 nm. This size was very similar to that of the normal adult population. Cord blood LDL had a mean diameter of 25.9 +/- 3.4 nm. Most LDL particles were round in profile, but there was always a small fraction of particles which had flattened sides and formed short, linear aggregates. Cord blood HDL/sub 3/ were homogeneous round particles indistinguishable from those of the adult. HDL/sub 2/ from cord blood had a mean diameter of 11.5 +/- 1.7 nm and are larger than the adult population. The HDL/sub 2/ were characterized by the presence of small amounts of rectangular-shaped structures, 14.0 by 10.0 nm in size. These latter particles are enriched in the density fraction d 1.095 g/ml and are unique to the cord blood HDL. The presence of these unusual particles suggests that cord blood HDL may transport lipids in a somewhat different fashion from that of normal adult HDL.

  17. Establishing traceability of photometric absorbance values for accurate measurements of the haemoglobin concentration in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, K.; Wolf, H. U.; Heuck, C.; Kammel, M.; Kummrow, A.; Neukammer, J.

    2013-10-01

    Haemoglobin concentration in blood is one of the most frequently measured analytes in laboratory medicine. Reference and routine methods for the determination of the haemoglobin concentration in blood are based on the conversion of haeme, haemoglobin and haemiglobin species into uniform end products. The total haemoglobin concentration in blood is measured using the absorbance of the reaction products. Traceable absorbance measurement values on the highest metrological level are a prerequisite for the calibration and evaluation of procedures with respect to their suitability for routine measurements and their potential as reference measurement procedures. For this purpose, we describe a procedure to establish traceability of spectral absorbance measurements for the haemiglobincyanide (HiCN) method and for the alkaline haematin detergent (AHD) method. The latter is characterized by a higher stability of the reaction product. In addition, the toxic hazard of cyanide, which binds to the iron ion of the haem group and thus inhibits the oxygen transport, is avoided. Traceability is established at different wavelengths by applying total least-squares analysis to derive the conventional quantity values for the absorbance from the measured values. Extrapolation and interpolation are applied to get access to the spectral regions required to characterize the Q-absorption bands of the HiCN and AHD methods, respectively. For absorbance values between 0.3 and 1.8, the contributions of absorbance measurements to the total expanded uncertainties (95% level of confidence) of absorbance measurements range from 1% to 0.4%.

  18. Establishment of electronic chart-based stroke registry system in a medical system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsong-Hai; Chang, Chien-Hung; Chang, Yeu-Jhy; Chang, Ku-Chou; Chung, Jacky

    2011-08-01

    To establish a prospective, real-time, self-sustainable stroke registry system, we incorporated a registry with an electronic chart to create an electronic chart-based stroke registry system in November 2006. The International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision code (430-437) was used to auto-enroll stroke patients admitted to neurology departments. Clinical information was written by doctors, nursing information was recorded by nurses, and basic patient information was entered by administrative departments. Numerical data and the date and time of any studies were auto-downloaded from the hospital computer. In total, 212 items were auto-downloaded, including basic patient information, laboratory blood test and examination results, and the date and time of imaging and special intervention. The stroke scales (121 items, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Barthel index, and modified Rankin scale) were designed to be auto-adjusted to reduce incompatibility. The 95 items with pull-down options were used to specify the contents. This registry system can be time-, labor- and money-saving with secured data accuracy.

  19. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  20. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  1. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  2. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  3. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  4. Divergent effects of flavone acetic acid on established versus developing tumour blood flow.

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, V.; Hart, I. R.

    1991-01-01

    Flavone Acetic Acid (FAA) exerts much of its effect by reducing tumour blood flow. Previous studies on FAA-induced changes in blood flow have used established tumours with a functional microvasculature. Using radioactive Xenon(133Xe) clearance to monitor local blood flow we show that the effects of FAA are dependent on the presence of this functional microvasculature with no evidence that FAA inhibits the actual development of tumour microcirculation. Thus, administration of multiple doses of FAA around the time of tumour cell injection failed to diminish t1/2 values of 133Xe (e.g. t1/2 16 min for FAA vs 14 min for saline controls at 10 days) or to affect tumour volumes (5.55 +/- 0.06 cm3 in FAA-treated animals vs 5.7 +/- 1.3 cm3 in controls at 25 days). In marked contrast a single dose of FAA (200 mg kg-1 body weight) 2 weeks after tumour cell injection dramatically extended t1/2 times (47 min for FAA vs 7 min for controls; P less than 0.001) and significantly reduced tumour burden. This effect is specific for tumour microvasculature and is not directed simply at new vessels since a similar treatment of animals with implanted-sponge-induced granulation tissue had no effect on t1/2 times (6.8 +/- 1.1 min for FAA at 200 mg kg-1 vs 7.2 +/- 1.0 min for saline-treated controls. PMID:1712621

  5. [Preparation of bovine hemoglobin-loaded nanoparticles used as blood substitutes and establishment of reduction system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Yuan, Yuan; Shan, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Yan; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Changsheng

    2008-12-01

    Bovine Hb-loaded nanoparticles with modulated size of pores, for use as blood substitutes, were prepared and a nonenzymatic reduction system including two-step-reduction and process optimization was established to control the metHb level in the present study. After the first-step-reduction procedure was performed, the raw BHb, being oxidized severely, was encapsulated to form nanoparticles by the modified double emulsion method. The binary solvent of dichloromethane (DCM) and acetonitrile (Aci) showed properties such as minimizing Hb oxidation and enlarging the pores of nanopartilces. Based on the size of pores o f nanoparticles evaluated by the diffusion of various substances wi thdifferent molecular weights, reducing agents such as ascorbic acid and glutathione present in the plasma were selected to perform the second-step-reduction, i. e. to further reduce the metHb in nanoparticles. The metHb level was reduced from over 90% in the raw materials to 1.25% by the two-step-reduction and controlled preparation; this is near the level of native blood, possessing the ability of carrying/releasing oxygen.

  6. Genotyping of 22 blood group antigen polymorphisms and establishing a national recipient registry in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun Ji; Chung, Yousun; Hwang, Sang Mee; Park, Jeong Su; Kwon, Jeong-Ran; Choi, Young Sill; Kim, Jun Nyun; Lee, Dong Han; Kwon, So-Yong; Cho, Nam-Sun; Song, Eun Young; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Han, Kyou Sup

    2016-05-01

    It is often difficult for standard blood banks in Korea to supply adequate amounts of blood for patients with rare phenotype. Moreover, the definition of a blood in need is ambiguous, and much remains to be learned. In this study, we determined the prevalence of various red blood cell (RBC) antigens from a donor viewpoint and estimated the demand for specific antigen-negative blood from a patient viewpoint. Our data will aid the establishment of a Rare Blood Program in Korea (KRBP). RBC genotyping of 419 blood donors was performed using a Lifecodes RBC/RBC-R typing kit (Immucor, Norcross, GA). A national recipient registry website has been established. Each hospital-based blood bank voluntarily enters data on antibodies detected and identified and the outcomes of specific antigen testing. We calculated the availabilities of specific antigen-negative blood components based on these registry data and predicted the prevalence of RBC antigens via RBC genotyping. The prevalences of various RBC antigens in the D-negative population were determined for the first time, and the Cartwright, Scianna, Dombrock, Colton, Landsteiner-Wiener, Cromer, and Knops blood group systems were identified. The availabilities of specific antigen-negative units differed when calculations were based on serotyping or genotyping, especially in the D-negative group. Data on the prevalences of various blood antigens are essential for estimating the availabilities of blood components that are appropriate for use by patients expressing relevant antibodies. Then, blood banks would be able to efficiently supply safe blood products. PMID:27021300

  7. Establishment of Immortalized Human Erythroid Progenitor Cell Lines Able to Produce Enucleated Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Ryo; Suda, Noriko; Sudo, Kazuhiro; Miharada, Kenichi; Hiroyama, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Kenzaburo; Nakamura, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is a standard and indispensable therapy in current clinical practice. In vitro production of RBCs offers a potential means to overcome a shortage of transfusable RBCs in some clinical situations and also to provide a source of cells free from possible infection or contamination by microorganisms. Thus, in vitro production of RBCs may become a standard procedure in the future. We previously reported the successful establishment of immortalized mouse erythroid progenitor cell lines that were able to produce mature RBCs very efficiently. Here, we have developed a reliable protocol for establishing immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines that are able to produce enucleated RBCs. These immortalized cell lines produce functional hemoglobin and express erythroid-specific markers, and these markers are upregulated following induction of differentiation in vitro. Most importantly, these immortalized cell lines all produce enucleated RBCs after induction of differentiation in vitro, although the efficiency of producing enucleated RBCs remains to be improved further. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the feasibility of using immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines as an ex vivo source for production of enucleated RBCs. PMID:23533656

  8. Red blood cells donate electrons to methylene blue mediated chemical reduction of methemoglobin compartmentalized in liposomes in blood.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiromi; Li, Bing; Lim, Wei Lee; Iga, Yumika

    2014-07-16

    Electron-energy-rich coenzymes in cells, NADH and NADPH, are re-energized repeatedly through the Embden-Meyerhof and pentose-phosphate glycolytic pathways, respectively. This study demonstrates extraction of their electron energies in red blood cells (RBCs) for in vivo extracellular chemical reactions using an electron mediator shuttling across the biomembrane. Hemoglobin-vesicles (HbVs) are an artificial oxygen carrier encapsulating purified and concentrated Hb solution in liposomes. Because of the absence of a metHb-reducing enzymatic system in HbV, HbO2 gradually autoxidizes to form metHb. Wistar rats received HbV suspension (10 mL/kg body weight) intravenously. At the metHb level of around 50%, methylene blue [MB(+); 3,7-bis(dimethylamino)phenothiazinium chloride] was injected. The level of metHb quickly decreased to around 16% in 40 min, remaining for more than 5 h. In vitro mixing of HbV/MB(+) with RBCs recreated the in vivo metHb reduction, but not with plasma. NAD(P)H levels in RBCs decreased after metHb reduction. The addition of glucose facilitated metHb reduction. Liposome-encapsulated NAD(P)H, a model of RBC, reduced metHb in HbV in the presence of MB(+). These results indicate that (i) NAD(P)H in RBCs reacts with MB(+) to convert it to leukomethylene blue (MBH); (ii) MB(+) and MBH shuttle freely between RBC and HbV across the hydrophobic lipid membranes; and (iii) MBH is transferred into HbV and reduces metHb in HbV. Four other electron mediators with appropriate redox potentials appeared to be as effective as MB(+) was, indicating the possibility for further optimization of electron mediators. We established an indirect enzymatic metHb reducing system for HbV using unlimited endogenous electrons created in RBCs in combination with an effective electron mediator that prolongs the functional lifespan of HbV in blood circulation.

  9. [Electron paramagnetic resonance study of blood of anemic patients with urological cancer].

    PubMed

    Ibragimova, M I; Chushnikov, V N; Moiseev, V N; Petukhov, V Iu; Zheglov, E P; Cherepnev, G V

    2013-01-01

    Changes in Fe(3+)-transferrin (Fe(3+)-Tf) and Cu(2+)-ceruloplasmin (Cu(2+)-Cp) concentrations in venous blood sampled from anemic patients with urinary bladder and kidney cancer in I-IV stages were investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was established that at malignancy-associated anemia the paramagnetic Fe3+ ion concentration in transferrin is below a norm, while in anemic non-oncology patients the Tf iron saturation is normal. Moreover, in patients with malignancy-associated anemia the Cu(2+)-Cp average value is nearly twice as large as that for healthy volunteers (confidence probability P). It was shown that simultaneous EPR measuring of paramagnetic centers (such as Fe(3+)-Tf and Cu(2+)-Cp) in blood of anemic patients can be used as a biomarker for urological cancer diagnosis even at early stages of the growth of a malignant tumor.

  10. 75 FR 75483 - Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Blood Establishments: Training of Back-Up Personnel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... guidance, the H1N1 influenza pandemic has waned in the United States and disruptions in the blood supply..., and Preservation of the Blood Supply in Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus'' dated November 2009... in Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus'' (November 2009). At that time, we anticipated that...

  11. 36 CFR 1236.10 - What records management controls must agencies establish for records in electronic information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Implementing Electronic Information Systems § 1236.10 What records management controls must agencies establish for records in electronic information systems? The following types of records management controls are... controls must agencies establish for records in electronic information systems? 1236.10 Section...

  12. Establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank for South Africa: an enquiry into public acceptability.

    PubMed

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    South Africa (SA) faces a large unmet need for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, which could be alleviated in part by establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank (UCB SCB). Umbilical cord blood is an increasingly utilised source of hematopoietic stem cells for BM transplantation in addition to BM or mobilized peripheral blood stem cells. Establishing a public UCB SCB would therefore be a positive step towards improving the quality of health care in SA by providing for an important unmet need. This study takes the form of an enquiry into the acceptability of establishing a public bank through an interview with and questionnaire completed by mothers-to-be in the antenatal clinic of a large public hospital in SA. Initial results are positive, with 85 % of the participants in favour of establishing a public UCB SCB in SA. This initial probe will serve as a model for a more comprehensive national enquiry into public support and acceptability in different clinics, hospitals and provinces in SA. PMID:23943126

  13. Establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank for South Africa: an enquiry into public acceptability.

    PubMed

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    South Africa (SA) faces a large unmet need for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, which could be alleviated in part by establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank (UCB SCB). Umbilical cord blood is an increasingly utilised source of hematopoietic stem cells for BM transplantation in addition to BM or mobilized peripheral blood stem cells. Establishing a public UCB SCB would therefore be a positive step towards improving the quality of health care in SA by providing for an important unmet need. This study takes the form of an enquiry into the acceptability of establishing a public bank through an interview with and questionnaire completed by mothers-to-be in the antenatal clinic of a large public hospital in SA. Initial results are positive, with 85 % of the participants in favour of establishing a public UCB SCB in SA. This initial probe will serve as a model for a more comprehensive national enquiry into public support and acceptability in different clinics, hospitals and provinces in SA.

  14. On the electron-ion temperature ratio established by collisionless shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Jacco; Broersen, Sjors; Bykov, Andrei; Gabici, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Astrophysical shocks are often collisionless shocks, in which the changes in plasma flow and temperatures across the shock are established not through Coulomb interactions, but through electric and magnetic fields. An open question about collisionless shocks is whether electrons and ions each establish their own post-shock temperature (non-equilibration of temperatures), or whether they quickly equilibrate in the shock region. Here we provide a simple, thermodynamic, relation for the minimum electron-ion temperature ratios that should be expected as a function of Mach number. The basic assumption is that the enthalpy-flux of the electrons is conserved separately, but that all particle species should undergo the same density jump across the shock, in order for the plasma to remain charge neutral. The only form of additional electron heating that we allow for is adiabatic heating, caused by the compression of the electron gas. These assumptions result in an analytic treatment of expected electron-ion temperature ratio that agrees with observations of collisionless shocks: at low sonic Mach numbers, Ms ≲ 2, the electron-ion temperature ratio is close to unity, whereas for Mach numbers above Ms ≈ 60 the electron-ion temperature ratio asymptotically approaches a temperature ratio of Te/Ti = me/ ⟨ mi ⟩. In the intermediate Mach number range the electron-ion temperature ratio scales as Te/Ti ∝ Ms-2. In addition, we calculate the electron-ion temperature ratios under the assumption of adiabatic heating of the electrons only, which results in a higher electron-ion temperature ratio, but preserves the Te/Ti ∝ Ms-2 scaling. We also show that for magnetised shocks the electron-ion temperature ratio approaches the asymptotic value Te/Ti = me/ ⟨ mi ⟩ for lower magnetosonic Mach numbers (Mms), mainly because for a strongly magnetised shock the sonic Mach number is larger than the magnetosonic Mach number (Mms ≤ Ms). The predicted scaling of the electron

  15. 76 FR 42715 - Quarantine Release Errors in Blood Establishments; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... workshop has been planned in partnership with the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, America's Blood Centers, and AABB. This public workshop will... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  16. [Blood bank dictionary, definition of the concept and blood unit status for blood recipients--an electronic data processing system].

    PubMed

    Kluge, A; Wagner, G

    1990-01-01

    The definition of terms using the blood bank data dictionary results in a number of advantages in practice. Previously vague terms could be clearly defined when they are broken down into their constituent parts. The relationships within a blood bank can be more precisely documented by working with standard terms. The descriptions within the specification are thereby unambiguous and in this way a precise program specification can be achieved. Standardized terms facilitate the functional comparison of programs from different authors or different software sources. The use of defined terms within wards and the blood bank area results in more transparency even before the introduction of data processing.

  17. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  18. 36 CFR 1236.10 - What records management controls must agencies establish for records in electronic information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controls must agencies establish for records in electronic information systems? 1236.10 Section 1236.10... ELECTRONIC RECORDS MANAGEMENT Records Management and Preservation Considerations for Designing and Implementing Electronic Information Systems § 1236.10 What records management controls must agencies...

  19. Empirically establishing blood glucose targets to achieve HbA1c goals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Nancy; Zheng, Hui; Nathan, David M

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the average fasting, postprandial, and bedtime self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) concentrations associated with specified HbA1c levels using data from the A1c-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The ADAG study was a multicenter observational study that used continuous glucose monitoring and SMBG testing to determine the relationship between mean average glucose and HbA1c. We used the SMBG data from 470 of the ADAG study participants (237 with type 1 diabetes and 147 with type 2 diabetes) to determine the average fasting, premeal, 90-min postmeal, and bedtime blood glucose (BG) for predefined target HbA1c groups between 5.5 and 8.5% (37-69 mmol/mol). t Tests were used to compare mean BG values between type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups. RESULTS The average fasting BG needed to achieve predefined HbA1c target levels of 5.5-6.49% (37-47 mmol/mol), 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol), 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol), 7.5-7.99% (58-64 mmol/mol), and 8.0-8.5% (64-69 mmol/mol) were 122 mg/dL with 95% CI 117-127, 142 mg/dL (135-150), 152 mg/dL (143-162), 167 mg/dL (157-177), and 178 mg/dL (164-192), respectively. Postmeal BG to achieve the HbA1c level of 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol) and 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol) were 139 mg/dL (134-144) and 152 mg/dL (147-157), respectively. Bedtime BG was 153 mg/dL (145-161) and 177 mg/dL (166-188), respectively. CONCLUSIONS We have determined the average BG at premeal, postmeal, and bedtime to achieve a variety of HbA1c targets. These results, based on empirical data, will help patients and providers set realistic day-to-day SMBG targets to achieve individualized HbA1c goals.

  20. Reducing Unnecessary Preoperative Blood Orders and Costs by Implementing an Updated Institution-specific Maximum Surgical Blood Order Schedule and a Remote Electronic Blood Release System

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Steven M.; Oleyar, Michael J.; Ness, Paul M.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Using blood utilization data acquired from our anesthesia information management system, an updated institution-specific maximum surgical blood order schedule (MSBOS) was introduced. We evaluate whether the MSBOS, along with a remote electronic blood release system (EBRS), reduced unnecessary preoperative blood orders and costs. Methods At a large academic medical center, data for preoperative blood orders were analyzed for 63,916 surgical patients over a 34-month period. The new MSBOS and the EBRS (Hemosafe®, Haemonetics Corp., Braintree, MA) were introduced mid-way through this time period. We assessed whether these interventions led to reductions in unnecessary preoperative orders and associated costs. Results Among patients having surgical procedures deemed not to require a type and screen or crossmatch (n = 33,216), the percentage of procedures with preoperative blood orders decreased by 38% [from 40.4% (7,167 of 17,740 patients) to 25.0% (3,869 of 15,476 patients), P < 0.001]. Among all hospitalized inpatients, the crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio decreased by 27% (from 2.11 to 1.54; P < 0.001) over the same time period. The proportion of patients who required emergency release uncrossmatched blood increased from 2.2 to 3.1 per 1,000 patients (P = 0.03); however, most of these patients were having emergency surgery. Based on the realized reductions in blood orders, annual costs were reduced by $137,223 ($6.08/patient) for surgical patients, and by $298,966 ($6.20/patient) for all hospitalized patients. Conclusions Implementing institution-specific, updated MSBOS-directed preoperative blood ordering guidelines along with an EBRS results in a substantial reduction in unnecessary orders and costs, with a clinically insignificant increase in requirement for emergency release blood transfusions. PMID:24932853

  1. Influence of Blood on the Accuracy of Raypex 5 and Root ZX Electronic Foramen Locators: An In Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Saatchi, Masoud; Aminozarbian, Mohammad Ghasem; Noormohammadi, Hamid; Baghaei, Badri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the accuracy of the Raypex 5 and Root ZX electronic foramen locators (EFLs) in the presence of blood in the root canal space. Forty single-canal teeth scheduled for extraction were selected. Access cavity was prepared and coronal enlargement was carried out. Approximately two drops of blood were collected by finger prick and injected into the root canal space. The electronic working length (EWL) of each tooth by each device was established twice before (NB group) and after (WB group) injecting blood into the root canal. The tooth was extracted and the actual working length (AWL) was determined. Data were analyzed using McNemar's test. The accuracy rates of Raypex 5 and Root ZX within 0.5 mm in the NB group were 88.9% and 91.5%, with 83.3% and 86.2% in the WB group, respectively. There were no significant differences between the accuracy of each EFL in the two groups (p>0.05). Considering the NB and WB groups, there were no statistically significant differences in the accuracy of the EFLs (p>0.05). The presence of blood in the root canal space did not influence the accuracy of the EFLs.

  2. Influence of Blood on the Accuracy of Raypex 5 and Root ZX Electronic Foramen Locators: An In Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Saatchi, Masoud; Aminozarbian, Mohammad Ghasem; Noormohammadi, Hamid; Baghaei, Badri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the accuracy of the Raypex 5 and Root ZX electronic foramen locators (EFLs) in the presence of blood in the root canal space. Forty single-canal teeth scheduled for extraction were selected. Access cavity was prepared and coronal enlargement was carried out. Approximately two drops of blood were collected by finger prick and injected into the root canal space. The electronic working length (EWL) of each tooth by each device was established twice before (NB group) and after (WB group) injecting blood into the root canal. The tooth was extracted and the actual working length (AWL) was determined. Data were analyzed using McNemar's test. The accuracy rates of Raypex 5 and Root ZX within 0.5 mm in the NB group were 88.9% and 91.5%, with 83.3% and 86.2% in the WB group, respectively. There were no significant differences between the accuracy of each EFL in the two groups (p>0.05). Considering the NB and WB groups, there were no statistically significant differences in the accuracy of the EFLs (p>0.05). The presence of blood in the root canal space did not influence the accuracy of the EFLs. PMID:27224570

  3. Early establishment of hematopoietic chimerism following allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in comparison with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nakao, S; Zeng, W; Yamazaki, H; Wang, H; Takami, A; Sugimori, N; Miura, Y; Shiobara, S; Matsuda, T; Shinagawa, Y; Harada, M

    1999-04-01

    To characterize the process of the establishment of complete chimerism after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (allo-PBSCT), we determined the origin of leukocytes in peripheral blood (PB) obtained from 23 patients in the very early period after allo-PBSCT using amplification of mini- or microsatellite regions of genomic DNA. Donor-specific alleles were amplified from the PB obtained at day 8 post-transplant for 19 allo-PBSCT patients. Among the 19 patients, 12 showed only donor-specific alleles (complete chimerism) while 7 did both donor and host-specific alleles (mixed chimerism). Although donor specific alleles were amplified in 10 of 12 patients who received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) similarly to allo-PBSCT, all of these ten showed mixed chimerism. When the chimeric state was examined in PB samples obtained serially at 2-3-day intervals post-transplant, host-specific alleles in allo-PBSCT patients were not detectable in the PB much earlier than those in allo-BMT patients. These findings indicate that the appearance of donor-derived cells associated with the disappearance of host-derived cells in the circulation occurs earlier after allo-PBSCT as compared with allo-BMT, leading to the rapid establishment of complete chimerism.

  4. 36 CFR 1236.10 - What records management controls must agencies establish for records in electronic information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Implementing Electronic Information Systems § 1236.10 What records management controls must agencies establish for records in electronic information systems? The following types of records management controls are... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What records...

  5. Genetically modified T cells targeting neovasculature efficiently destroy tumor blood vessels, shrink established solid tumors and increase nanoparticle delivery.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xinping; Rivera, Armando; Tao, Lihua; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2013-11-15

    Converting T cells into tumor cell killers by grafting them with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has shown promise as a cancer immunotherapeutic. However, the inability of these cells to actively migrate and extravasate into tumor parenchyma has limited their effectiveness in vivo. Here we report the construction of a CAR containing an echistatin as its targeting moiety (eCAR). As echistatin has high binding affinity to αvβ3 integrin that is highly expressed on the surface of endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature, T cells engrafted with eCAR (T-eCAR) can efficiently lyse human umbilical vein endothelial cells and tumor cells that express αvβ3 integrin when tested in vitro. Systemic administration of T-eCAR led to extensive bleeding in tumor tissues with no evidence of damage to blood vessels in normal tissues. Destruction of tumor blood vessels by T-eCAR significantly inhibited the growth of established bulky tumors. Moreover, when T-eCAR was codelivered with nanoparticles in a strategically designed temporal order, it dramatically increased nanoparticle deposition in tumor tissues, pointing to the possibility that it may be used together with nanocarriers to increase their capability to selectively deliver antineoplastic drugs to tumor tissues.

  6. Pilot social feasibility study for the establishment of a public human umbilical cord blood stem cell bank in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Young, Wendy; Rangaka, Isabella; Lombaard, Hennie; Dhai, Ames; Tsotsi, Norma; Pepper, Michael S

    2012-12-01

    There is a large unmet need in South Africa for bone marrow transplantation. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of stem cells for the treatment of haematological and non-haematological diseases. Access to the two existing private umbilical cord blood stem cell banks (UCB SCBs) in South Africa is limited to individuals that can afford it, which further aggravates the ever increasing divide between families from different socio-economic classes. The problem is compounded by a severe global shortage of genetically compatible samples, representative of the South African demographics. Establishing a public human UCB SCB in South Africa would provide more South Africans with access to previously unavailable treatment in the form of affordable, genetically compatible stem cells for bone marrow transplantation. A public UCB SCB has many facets to consider, one of which is public preparedness and support for the bank. This was assessed in a social feasibility pilot study which is reported here. In addition to the findings of this social feasibility study, other important considerations for establishing a public human UCB SCB in SA include; (a) testing the samples for HIV and other infectious diseases (required for compliance with international regulatory standards); (b) flow cytometric analysis for enumeration of CD34+ UCB stem cells; (c) mapping of HLA genotypes/alleles; and (d) a study of the economic feasibility of this endeavour.The social feasibility study was conducted to gauge public preparedness and support for a public SCB through patient interviews and questionnaires. The process was dynamic due to its novel nature for interviewers and interviewees alike. Many obstacles were met and dealt with which lead to the compilation of results discussed here in the form of a pilot social feasibility study.In the South African context, we are faced with unique and rich challenges relating to cultural and religious differences that are further augmented by

  7. Effects of Electron Beam and Microwave Irradiation on Human Blood Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Diana I.; Craciun, Gabriela D.; Manaila, Elena N.; Ighigeanu, Daniel I.; Iacob, Nicusor I.; Oproiu, Constantin V.; Stan, Dana E.; Radu, Roxana R.; Margaritescu, Irina D.; Chirita, Doru I.

    2007-04-23

    The effects of separated and combined accelerated electron beam (EB) of 6.23 MeV and microwave (MW) of 2.45GHz irradiation on proteins in samples of human serum, human plasma and human integral blood are presented. Also, it was studied the effect of separate and combined EB and MW irradiation on proteins irradiated in samples of human integral blood, without and in the presence of a synthetic compound solution (S.C.S.) which is expected to exhibit various biological actions, such as to diminish or to increase the irradiation effects.

  8. Who Said It? Establishing Professional Attribution among Authors of Veterans’ Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Ruth M.; FitzHenry, Fern; Brown, Steve H.; Kotter, Kristen; Gobbel, Glenn T.; Montella, Diane; Murff, Harvey J.; Speroff, Ted; Matheny, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Background A practical data point for assessing information quality and value in the Electronic Health Record (EHR) is the professional category of the EHR author. We evaluated and compared free form electronic signatures against LOINC note titles in categorizing the profession of EHR authors. Methods A random 1000 clinical document sample was selected and divided into 500 document sets for training and testing. The gold standard for provider classification was generated by dual clinician manual review, disagreements resolved by a third reviewer. Text matching algorithms composed of document titles and author electronic signatures for provider classification were developed on the training set. Results Overall, detection of professional classification by note titles alone resulted in 76.1% sensitivity and 69.4% specificity. The aggregate of note titles with electronic signatures resulted in 95.7% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity. Conclusions Note titles alone provided fair professional classification. Inclusion of author electronic signatures significantly boosted classification performance. PMID:23304349

  9. Establishment of a reference value for chromium in the blood for biological monitoring among occupational chromium workers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ji; Yu, Shan-Fa; Wang, Zhi-Liang; Jia, Guang

    2016-10-01

    The concentration of chromium in the blood (CrB) has been confirmed as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure, but its biological exposure indices (BEIs) are still unclear, so we collected data from the years 2006 and 2008 (Shandong Province, China) to analyze the relationship between the concentration of chromium in the air (CrA) of the workplaces and CrB to establish a reference value of CrB for biological monitoring of occupational workers. The levels of the indicators for nasal injury, kidney (β2 microglobulin (β2-MG)), and genetic damages (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and micronucleus (MN)) were measured in all subjects of the year 2011 (Henan Province, China) to verify the protective effect in this reference value of CrB. Compared with the control groups, the concentrations of CrA and CrB in chromium exposed groups were significantly higher (P < 0.05). Positive correlations were found between CrA and CrB in chromium exposed groups (r 2006 = 0.60, r 2008 = 0.35) in the years 2006 and 2008. According to the occupational exposure limitation of CrA (50 μg/m(3), China), the reference value of CrB was recommended to 20 μg/L. The levels of nasal injury, β2-MG, 8-OhdG, and MN were not significantly different between the low chromium exposed group (CrB ≤ 20 μg/L) and the control group, while the levels of β2-MG, 8-OHdG, and MN were statistically different in the high chromium exposed group than that in the control group. This research proved that only in occupational workers, CrB could be used as a biomarker to show chromium exposure in the environment. The recommended reference value of CrB was 20 μg/L.

  10. The food and drug administration is now preparing to establish tighter performance requirements for blood glucose monitors.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C

    2010-05-01

    On March 16 and 17, 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) presented a public meeting about blood glucose monitoring at the Gaithersberg Hilton Hotel. The meeting was intended to present expert opinions and solicit input from the public about whether to develop new regulatory policies for blood glucose monitors. The meeting was divided into three sections: (1) Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Blood Glucose Monitors, (2) Interferences and Limitations of Blood Glucose Monitors, and (3) Tight Glycemic Control. Many officials from the Center for Devices and Radiologic Health and the Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices, which are the parts of FDA that regulate approval of blood glucose monitors, either spoke on the agenda or attended in the audience. Approximately 300 people attended; they were mostly clinicians (such as adult endocrinologists, pediatric endocrinologists, internists, clinical chemists, intensivists, surgeons, nurses, and diabetes educators) or industry officials from companies involved in glucose monitoring, pharmaceutical products, data analysis, or regulatory consulting. PMID:20513313

  11. Study of photon emission by electron capture during solar nuclei acceleration. 2: Delimitation of conditions for charge transfert establishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    The conditions for establishment of charge transfer during acceleration of nuclei up to Fe, for typical conditions of solar flare regions T = 5 x 10 to the 3rd power to 2.5 x 10 to the 8th power degrees K were explored. Results show that such conditions are widely assorted, depending on the acceleration mechanism, the kind of projections and their velocity, the target elements, the source temperature and consequently on the degree of ionization of matter and the local charge state of the accelerated ions. Nevertheless, in spite of that assorted behavior, there are some general tendencies that can be summarized as follows. In atomic H electron capture is systematically established from thermal energies up to high energies, whatever the element and for both acceleration process. For a given element and fixed temperature (T), the probability and energy domain of electron capture and loss with Fermi are higher than with Betatron acceleration. For a given acceleration process the heavier the ion the higher the probability and the wider the energy range for electron capture and loss. For given acceleration mechanism and fixed element the importance and energy domain of capture and loss increase with T: for those reasons, the energy range of charge equilibrium (illustrated with solid lines on the next figs.) is wider with Fermi and increases with temperature and atomic number of projectiles. For the same reasons, electron loss is smaller while the lighter the element, the lower the temperature and the Betatron process, such that there are conditions for which electron loss is not allowed at low energies, but only electron capture is established.

  12. Electronic Communications and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring (e-BP) study: Design, delivery, and evaluation framework

    PubMed Central

    Green, Beverly B.; Ralston, James D.; Fishman, Paul A.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Cook, Andrea; Carlson, Jim; Tyll, Lynda; Carrell, David; Thompson, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials have provided unequivocal evidence that treatment of hypertension decreases mortality and major disability from cardiovascular disease; however, blood pressure remains inadequately treated in most affected individuals. This large gap continues despite the facts that more than 90% of adults with hypertension have health insurance, and hypertension is the leading cause of visits to the doctor. New approaches are needed to improve hypertension care. Objectives The Electronic Communications and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring (e-BP) study is a three-arm randomized controlled trial designed to determine whether care based on the Chronic Care Model and delivered over the Internet improves hypertension care. The primary study outcomes are systolic, diastolic, and blood pressure control; secondary outcomes are medication adherence, patient self-efficacy, satisfaction and quality of life, and healthcare utilization and costs. Methods Hypertensive patients receiving care at Group Health medical centers are eligible if they have uncontrolled blood pressure on two screening visits and access to the Web and an e-mail address. Study participants are randomly assigned to three intervention groups: (a) usual care; (b) home blood pressure monitoring receipt and proficiency training on its use and the Group Health secure patient website (with secure e-mail access to their healthcare provider, access to a shared medical record, prescription refill and other services); or (c) this plus pharmacist care management (collaborative care management between the patient, the pharmacist, and the patient’s physician via a secure patient website and the electronic medical record). Conclusion We will determine whether a new model of patient-centered care that leverages Web communications, self-monitoring, and collaborative care management improves hypertension control. If this model proves successful and cost-effective, similar interventions could be used

  13. [Electron paramagnetic resonance determination of ceruloplasmin concentration in the blood of patients for the diagnosis of urological cancer diseases].

    PubMed

    Ibragimova, M I; Chushnikov, A I; Moiseev, V N; Petukhov, V Iu; Zheglov, E P; Pogorel'tsev, V I; Khardina, N B

    2010-04-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance technique was used to study the venous blood levels of ceruloplasmin (CP) in 93 cancer patients with Stages I-IV malignancies of the urinary bladder and kidneys. Two groups were selected as a control; one of them comprised 44 donors who were considered to be apparently healthy and the other included 32 outpatients, some of whom had noncancer diseases. It has been established that in urological cancer, the level of the paramagnetic phase of Cu2+ -CP may vary in the wide range: from the lower to exceeding upper normal range in noncancer disease. The content of Cu2+ -CP does not virtually depend on the site and differentiation of a tumor. A correlation between the blood concentration of Cu2+ -CP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in urological cancer patients has been considered. Determination of CP levels at the ESR exceeding the normal values may be expedient for the early diagnosis of cancer and also an addition to the biological individual screening of patients in the preoperative period to choose the correct and effective treatment tactics.

  14. Distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities; Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; delay of applicability date. Final rule; delay of applicability date.

    PubMed

    2006-11-13

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2008, the applicability date of a certain requirement of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720) (the final rule). The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The provisions of the final rule became effective on December 4, 2000, except for certain provisions whose effective or applicability dates were delayed in five subsequent Federal Register notices, until December 1, 2006. The provision with the delayed applicability date would prohibit wholesale distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that meet the definition of a "health care entity." In the Federal Register of February 1, 2006 (71 FR 5200), FDA published a proposed rule specific to the distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities (the proposed rule). The proposed rule would amend certain limited provisions of the final rule to allow certain registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities to distribute blood derivatives. In response to the proposed rule, FDA received substantive comments. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document, further delaying the applicability of Sec. 203.3(q) (21 CFR 203.3(q)) to the wholesale distribution of blood derivatives by health care entities is necessary to give the agency additional time to address comments on the proposed rule, consider whether regulatory changes are appropriate, and, if so, to initiate such changes.

  15. Transverse mode coupling and supermode establishment in a free-electron laser oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Pinhasi, Y.; Gover, A.

    1995-12-31

    A three-dimensional study of transverse mode evolution in a free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator is presented. The total electromagnetic field circulating in the resonator is represented as a superposition of transverse modes of the cavity. Coupled-mode theory is employed to derive a generalized 3-D steady-state oscillation criterion, from which the oscillator supermode is found analytically. The oscillator supermode keeps its transverse features after each round-trip, and it is the eigenmode solution of the oscillator at steady-state. Relations between the oscillator supermode and the amplifier supermode are discussed. It is shown that they are identical only when the feedback process is entirely non-disperssive and non-discriminating. We employ a 3-D, non-linear simulation code to demonstrate the evolvement of transverse modes in the oscillator towards formation of a supermode. The simulation shows that the resulted supermode is identical to that predicted by the analytical approach.

  16. [Establishment of a method for HLA-DRB genotyping in cord blood by reverse dot-blot hybridization technique].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ning; Liao, Can; Tang, Xue-Wei; Li, Yan; Xie, Xing-Mei; Zeng, Rui-Ping

    2002-04-01

    The HLA system was discovered by virtue of the fact that it was polymorphic. The impetus for its discovery was the search for polymorphic antigens to match for transplantation, by analogy with the human red cell blood groups. The most usually DNA method of HLA typing is sequence specific oligonucleotides (SSO) and PCR sequence specific primers (SSP). SSO technique is perfectly suited for analyzing large number of samples, it is not suitable for individual or small numbers. The SSP method is ideal for typing individual samples, but it is costly and requires high capacity thermal cycles for larger numbers of samples. To set up a simple, quick, cheap and high resolution DNA method, were collected sixty-three cord blood samples from Guangzhou Cord Blood Bank, got DNA from blood by the traditional guanidine hydrochloride distillation method. Each sample was simultaneously typed by SSOP, PCR-SSP and reverse dot-blot hybridization (RDB) methods. All of typed is success. The results of three DNA methods are consistent each other. 60 HLA-DRB1 alleles could be accurately distinguished with the RDB method. Our results show that RDB method is a simple, quick, cheap and high resolution method for HLA-DRB types. It can be used in any HLA typing.

  17. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: implications for non-invasive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Colleen E; Christopher, Steven J; Balmer, Brian C; Wells, Randall S

    2007-12-15

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n=51) and skin (n=40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (p<0.05) were found for V, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Hg between blood and skin demonstrating that these tissues can be used as effective non-lethal monitoring tools. The strongest correlation was established for Hg (r=0.9689) and concentrations in both blood and skin were above the threshold at which detrimental effects are observed in other vertebrate species. Female dolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends

  18. Isolated microvesicles from peripheral blood and body fluids as observed by scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Mrvar-Brecko, Anita; Sustar, Vid; Jansa, Vid; Stukelj, Roman; Jansa, Rado; Mujagić, Emir; Kruljc, Peter; Iglic, Ales; Hägerstrand, Henry; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika

    2010-04-15

    Microvesicles are sub-micron structures shed from the cell membrane in a final step of the budding process. After being released into the microenvironment they are free to move and carry signaling molecules to distant cells, thereby they represent a communication system within the body. Since all cells shed microvesicles, it can be expected that they will be found in different body fluids. The potential diagnostic value of microvesicles has been suggested, however, a standardized protocol for isolation has not yet been agreed upon. It is unclear what is the content of the isolates and whether the isolated microvesicles were present in vivo or-have they been created within the isolation procedure. To present evidence in this direction, in this work we focus on the visualization of the material obtained by the microvesicle isolation procedure. We present scanning electronic microscope images of microvesicles isolated from blood, ascites, pleural fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, postoperative drainage fluid and chyloid fluid acquired from human and animal patients. Vesicular structures sized from 1microm downto 50nm are present in isolates of all considered body fluids, however, the populations differ in size and shape reflecting also the composition of the corresponding sediments. Isolates of microvesicles contain numerous cells which indicates that methods of isolation and determination of the number of microvesicles in the peripheral blood are to be elaborated and improved. PMID:20199878

  19. Infrared Free Electron Laser Induced Angioplasty for Arteriosclerotic Region of Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awazu, Kunio; Fukami, Yuko

    2004-08-01

    In order to estimate the optimum laser conditions for efficient dissociation of cholesterol ester in an arteriosclerotic region of blood vessels, we have investigated the relationship between laser wavelength and power density on cholesterol ester dissociation using a mid infrared free electron laser (MIR-FEL). In this study, cholesteryl oleate, which is a typical cholesterol ester found in arteriosclerotic regions, was irradiated with 5.75-μm-FELs, which cause vibration of ester bonds. Two results were obtained. (1) Ester dissociated depending on the absorption coefficient, and the macropulse duration was shorter than the thermal relaxation time, showing that ester bonds dissociated into carboxylic acid and cholesterol by macropulse-induced thermal effects without accompanying thermal diffusion, (2) Using a wavelength of 5.75 μm, the maximum ester dissociation ratio was achieved under the optimum laser conditions of a macropulse energy density of 0.4-1.0 J/cm2. We conclude that MIR pulsed-lasers with a wavelength of 5.75 μm can be useful for removal of cholesteryl ester in an arteriosclerotic region of blood vessels.

  20. Isolated microvesicles from peripheral blood and body fluids as observed by scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Mrvar-Brecko, Anita; Sustar, Vid; Jansa, Vid; Stukelj, Roman; Jansa, Rado; Mujagić, Emir; Kruljc, Peter; Iglic, Ales; Hägerstrand, Henry; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika

    2010-04-15

    Microvesicles are sub-micron structures shed from the cell membrane in a final step of the budding process. After being released into the microenvironment they are free to move and carry signaling molecules to distant cells, thereby they represent a communication system within the body. Since all cells shed microvesicles, it can be expected that they will be found in different body fluids. The potential diagnostic value of microvesicles has been suggested, however, a standardized protocol for isolation has not yet been agreed upon. It is unclear what is the content of the isolates and whether the isolated microvesicles were present in vivo or-have they been created within the isolation procedure. To present evidence in this direction, in this work we focus on the visualization of the material obtained by the microvesicle isolation procedure. We present scanning electronic microscope images of microvesicles isolated from blood, ascites, pleural fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, postoperative drainage fluid and chyloid fluid acquired from human and animal patients. Vesicular structures sized from 1microm downto 50nm are present in isolates of all considered body fluids, however, the populations differ in size and shape reflecting also the composition of the corresponding sediments. Isolates of microvesicles contain numerous cells which indicates that methods of isolation and determination of the number of microvesicles in the peripheral blood are to be elaborated and improved.

  1. VPX mutants of HIV-2 are infectious in established cell lines but display a severe defect in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Guyader, M; Emerman, M; Montagnier, L; Peden, K

    1989-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence comparison between HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV has revealed the presence of an open reading frame (ORF) in the central region of the genomes of HIV-2 and SIV that has no counterpart in HIV-1. This new ORF, called vpx, is highly conserved between HIV-2ROD and SIVmac. Using anti-peptide sera to the predicted protein and site-directed mutagenesis, we show that mutations in the vpx ORF eliminate the synthesis of a 16 kd protein in HIV-2 infected cells, confirming that this protein is the product of this gene. Full-length clones of HIV-2 containing these mutations are infectious in two permanent T lymphocytic cell lines and two monocytic cell lines. In contrast, we show that loss of VPX function results in a severe defect in the productive infection of human peripheral blood lymphocytes both in the amount of reverse transcriptase activity produced and in core protein expression. These findings suggest that the VPX protein plays an important role in the in vivo life cycle of the HIV-2/SIV viruses. Images PMID:2743977

  2. Establishment of a comprehensive set of regional DRLs for CT by means of electronic X-ray examination records.

    PubMed

    Charnock, P; Dunn, A F; Moores, B M; Murphy, J; Wilde, R

    2015-03-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has indicated that the diagnostic reference level (DRL) has the optimisation of protection as its objective for diagnostic and interventional procedures [International Commission on Radiological Protection. Protection against ionising radiation from external sources: ICRP Report 105 (2007)]. An important aim of this paper was to demonstrate a straightforward and cost-effective mechanism for undertaking patient dose audits that can be employed in the production of local and regional DRLs for use by medical physics experts in the provision of scientific support services to diagnostic radiology. The process developed employs electronic X-ray examination records obtained from multiple hospital sites transferred to a central processing and reporting facility. Results of a large-scale audit of patient doses resulting from CT examinations are presented. Doses are expressed in terms of dose length product (DLP) and were collected by remotely accessing electronic examination records held in hospital radiology information systems. Data were collected from 18 hospital sites involving up to 123 different types of examinations covering an ∼18-month period from July 2011 to December 2012. In total, 177 000 CT examination records were collected. Values have been validated against equivalent records obtained from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) header data and found to be in excellent statistical agreement. Extremely large variations in DLP values were noted for many examinations when data for all scanners were pooled. Results are discussed in relation to other surveys and differences highlighted in terms of the variations in methodologies employed and the numbers of examination records investigated. A mechanism for establishing DRLs is proposed, which could help to unify mechanisms for establishing DRLs for CT examinations.

  3. A facile method to establish human induced pluripotent stem cells from adult blood cells under feeder-free and xeno-free culture conditions: a clinically compliant approach.

    PubMed

    Chou, Bin-Kuan; Gu, Haihui; Gao, Yongxing; Dowey, Sarah N; Wang, Ying; Shi, Jun; Li, Yanxin; Ye, Zhaohui; Cheng, Tao; Cheng, Linzhao

    2015-04-01

    Reprogramming human adult blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) cells by transient plasmid expression is becoming increasingly popular as an attractive method for generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells without the genomic alteration caused by genome-inserting vectors. However, its efficiency is relatively low with adult MNCs compared with cord blood MNCs and other fetal cells and is highly variable among different adult individuals. We report highly efficient iPS cell derivation under clinically compliant conditions via three major improvements. First, we revised a combination of three EBNA1/OriP episomal vectors expressing five transgenes, which increased reprogramming efficiency by ≥10-50-fold from our previous vectors. Second, human recombinant vitronectin proteins were used as cell culture substrates, alleviating the need for feeder cells or animal-sourced proteins. Finally, we eliminated the previously critical step of manually picking individual iPS cell clones by pooling newly emerged iPS cell colonies. Pooled cultures were then purified based on the presence of the TRA-1-60 pluripotency surface antigen, resulting in the ability to rapidly expand iPS cells for subsequent applications. These new improvements permit a consistent and reliable method to generate human iPS cells with minimal clonal variations from blood MNCs, including previously difficult samples such as those from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. In addition, this method of efficiently generating iPS cells under feeder-free and xeno-free conditions allows for the establishment of clinically compliant iPS cell lines for future therapeutic applications.

  4. A facile method to establish human induced pluripotent stem cells from adult blood cells under feeder-free and xeno-free culture conditions: a clinically compliant approach.

    PubMed

    Chou, Bin-Kuan; Gu, Haihui; Gao, Yongxing; Dowey, Sarah N; Wang, Ying; Shi, Jun; Li, Yanxin; Ye, Zhaohui; Cheng, Tao; Cheng, Linzhao

    2015-04-01

    Reprogramming human adult blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) cells by transient plasmid expression is becoming increasingly popular as an attractive method for generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells without the genomic alteration caused by genome-inserting vectors. However, its efficiency is relatively low with adult MNCs compared with cord blood MNCs and other fetal cells and is highly variable among different adult individuals. We report highly efficient iPS cell derivation under clinically compliant conditions via three major improvements. First, we revised a combination of three EBNA1/OriP episomal vectors expressing five transgenes, which increased reprogramming efficiency by ≥10-50-fold from our previous vectors. Second, human recombinant vitronectin proteins were used as cell culture substrates, alleviating the need for feeder cells or animal-sourced proteins. Finally, we eliminated the previously critical step of manually picking individual iPS cell clones by pooling newly emerged iPS cell colonies. Pooled cultures were then purified based on the presence of the TRA-1-60 pluripotency surface antigen, resulting in the ability to rapidly expand iPS cells for subsequent applications. These new improvements permit a consistent and reliable method to generate human iPS cells with minimal clonal variations from blood MNCs, including previously difficult samples such as those from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. In addition, this method of efficiently generating iPS cells under feeder-free and xeno-free conditions allows for the establishment of clinically compliant iPS cell lines for future therapeutic applications. PMID:25742692

  5. Elevated Blood Lead Levels of Children in Guiyu, an Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xia; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Liangkai; Qiu, Bo; Qi, Zongli; Zhang, Bao; Han, Dai; Piao, Zhongxian

    2007-01-01

    Background Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has remained primitive in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children living in the local environment. Objectives We compared the BLLs in children living in the e-waste recycling town of Guiyu with those living in the neighboring town of Chendian. Methods We observed the processing of e-waste recycling in Guiyu and studied BLLs in a cluster sample of 226 children < 6 years of age who lived in Guiyu and Chendian. BLLs were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Hemoglobin (Hgb) and physical indexes (height and weight, head and chest circumferences) were also measured. Results BLLs in 165 children of Guiyu ranged from 4.40 to 32.67 μg/dL with a mean of 15.3 μg/dL, whereas BLLs in 61 children of Chendian were from 4.09 to 23.10 μg/dL with a mean of 9.94 μg/dL. Statistical analyses showed that children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs compared with those living in Chendian (p < 0.01). Of children in Guiyu, 81.8% (135 of 165) had BLLs > 10 μg/dL, compared with 37.7% of children (23 of 61) in Chendian (p < 0.01). In addition, we observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p < 0.01). It appeared that there was correlation between the BLLs in children and numbers of e-waste workshops. However, no significant difference in Hgb level or physical indexes was found between the two towns. Conclusions The primitive e-waste recycling activities may contribute to the elevated BLLs in children living in Guiyu. PMID:17637931

  6. Circadian blood pressure variability in type 1 diabetes subjects and their nondiabetic siblings - influence of erythrocyte electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Normotensive non-diabetic relatives of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients have an abnormal blood pressure response to exercise testing that is associated with indices of metabolic syndrome and increased oxidative stress. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the circadian variability of blood pressure and the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) in healthy siblings of T1D patients vs healthy control subjects who had no first-degree relative with T1D. Secondary aims of the study were to explore the influence of both cardiovascular autonomic function and erythrocyte electron transfer activity as oxidative marker on the ambulatory blood pressure profile. Methods Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was undertaken in 25 controls, 20 T1D patients and 20 siblings. In addition to laboratory examination (including homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity) and clinical testing of autonomic function, we measured the rate of oxidant-induced erythrocyte electron transfer to extracellular ferricyanide (RBC vfcy). Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP) midline-estimating statistic of rhythm and pulse pressure were higher in T1D patients and correlated positively with diabetes duration and RBC vfcy; autonomic dysfunction was associated with diastolic BP ecphasia and increased AASI. Siblings had higher BMI, lower insulin sensitivity, larger SBP amplitude, and higher AASI than controls. Daytime SBP was positively, independently associated with BMI and RBC vfcy. Among non-diabetic people, there was a significant correlation between AASI and fasting plasma glucose. Conclusions Siblings of T1D patients exhibited a cluster of sub-clinical metabolic abnormalities associated with consensual perturbations in BP variability. Moreover, our findings support, in a clinical setting, the proposed role of transplasma membrane electron transport systems in vascular pathobiology. PMID:20920366

  7. Establishment of the biochemical and endocrine blood profiles in the Majorera and Palmera dairy goat breeds: the effect of feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Lérias, Joana R; Peña, Raquel; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Capote, Juan; Castro, Noemí; Argüello, Anastasio; Araújo, Susana S; Saco, Yolanda; Bassols, Anna; Almeida, André M

    2015-11-01

    Feed restriction, and seasonal weight loss (SWL), are major setbacks for animal production in the tropics and the Mediterranean. They may be solved through the use of autochthonous breeds particularly well adapted to SWL. It is therefore of major importance to determine markers of tolerance to feed restriction of putative use in animal selection. Two indigenous breeds from the Canary Islands, Palmera and Majorera, are commonly used by dairy goat farmers and, interestingly, have different phenotype characteristics albeit with a common ancestry. Indeed, Majorera is well adapted to feed restriction whereas the Palmera is susceptible to feed restriction. In addition, regardless of their importance in dairy production, there are only a limited number of reports relating to these breeds and, to the best of our knowledge, there is no description of their blood metabolite standard values under control conditions or as affected by feed restriction. In this study we analysed the blood metabolite profiles in Majorera and Palmera goats aiming to establish the differential responses to feed restriction between the two breeds and to characterise their metabolite standard values under control conditions. We observed significant differences in creatinine, urea, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), cholesterol, IGF-1 and T3 due to underfeeding. Furthermore, a PCA analysis, revealed that animals submitted to undernutrition could be distinguished from the control groups, with the formation of three separate clusters (Palmera individuals after 22 d of subnutrition (PE22); Majorera individuals after 22 d of subnutrition (ME22) and animals assigned to control conditions (MC0, MC22, PC0 and PC22)), highlighting different responses of the two breeds to undernutrition. PMID:26290160

  8. Establishment of the biochemical and endocrine blood profiles in the Majorera and Palmera dairy goat breeds: the effect of feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Lérias, Joana R; Peña, Raquel; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Capote, Juan; Castro, Noemí; Argüello, Anastasio; Araújo, Susana S; Saco, Yolanda; Bassols, Anna; Almeida, André M

    2015-11-01

    Feed restriction, and seasonal weight loss (SWL), are major setbacks for animal production in the tropics and the Mediterranean. They may be solved through the use of autochthonous breeds particularly well adapted to SWL. It is therefore of major importance to determine markers of tolerance to feed restriction of putative use in animal selection. Two indigenous breeds from the Canary Islands, Palmera and Majorera, are commonly used by dairy goat farmers and, interestingly, have different phenotype characteristics albeit with a common ancestry. Indeed, Majorera is well adapted to feed restriction whereas the Palmera is susceptible to feed restriction. In addition, regardless of their importance in dairy production, there are only a limited number of reports relating to these breeds and, to the best of our knowledge, there is no description of their blood metabolite standard values under control conditions or as affected by feed restriction. In this study we analysed the blood metabolite profiles in Majorera and Palmera goats aiming to establish the differential responses to feed restriction between the two breeds and to characterise their metabolite standard values under control conditions. We observed significant differences in creatinine, urea, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), cholesterol, IGF-1 and T3 due to underfeeding. Furthermore, a PCA analysis, revealed that animals submitted to undernutrition could be distinguished from the control groups, with the formation of three separate clusters (Palmera individuals after 22 d of subnutrition (PE22); Majorera individuals after 22 d of subnutrition (ME22) and animals assigned to control conditions (MC0, MC22, PC0 and PC22)), highlighting different responses of the two breeds to undernutrition.

  9. Dose rate effect on micronuclei induction in human blood lymphocytes exposed to single pulse and multiple pulses of electrons.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Santhosh; Bhat, N N; Joseph, Praveen; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Sreedevi, B; Narayana, Y

    2011-05-01

    The effects of single pulses and multiple pulses of 7 MV electrons on micronuclei (MN) induction in cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were investigated over a wide range of dose rates per pulse (instantaneous dose rate). PBLs were exposed to graded doses of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 Gy of single electron pulses of varying pulse widths at different dose rates per pulse, ranging from 1 × 10(6) Gy s(-1) to 3.2 × 10(8) Gy s(-1). Different dose rates per pulse were achieved by changing the dose per electron pulse by adjusting the beam current and pulse width. MN yields per unit absorbed dose after irradiation with single electron pulses were compared with those of multiple pulses of electrons. A significant decrease in the MN yield with increasing dose rates per pulse was observed, when dose was delivered by a single electron pulse. However, no reduction in the MN yield was observed when dose was delivered by multiple pulses of electrons. The decrease in the yield at high dose rates per pulse suggests possible radical recombination, which leads to decreased biological damage. Cellular response to the presence of very large numbers of chromosomal breaks may also alter the damage.

  10. Establishment of an adherent cell feeder layer from human umbilical cord blood for support of long-term hematopoietic progenitor cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Z Q; Burkholder, J K; Qiu, P; Schultz, J C; Shahidi, N T; Yang, N S

    1994-01-01

    Previous attempts to establish a stromal cell feeder layer from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) have met with very limited success. It has been suggested that there is an insufficient number of stromal precursor cells in HUCB to form a hematopoietic-supporting feeder layer in primary cultures. The present study shows that HUCB does contain a significant accessory cell population that routinely develops into a confluent, adherent cell layer under defined primary culture conditions. HUCB-derived adherent layers were shown to support long-term hematopoietic activity for an average of 4 months. This was achieved by using a customized coverslip with a modified surface structure as the cell attachment substratum and using a specialized culture feeding regime. We have characterized the various cell types (including fibroblasts, macrophages, and endothelial cells) and extracellular matrix proteins (including fibronectin, collagen III, and laminin) that were present in abundance in the HUCB-derived adherent cell layer. In contrast, oil red O-staining fat cells were rarely detected. ELISA and bioassays showed that stem cell factor and interleukin 6 were produced by the HUCB stromal cell cultures, but interleukin 3 or granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor was not detected. Application of this hematopoietic culture system to transgenic and gene therapy studies of stem cells is discussed. Images PMID:7527553

  11. Biodegradable radiopaque microspheres for the evaluation of regional pulmonary blood flow distribution using electron-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, Michael J.; Tajik, Jehangir K.; Robinson, Miguel T.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate measurement of regional pulmonary blood flow distribution is of interest both as a research and diagnostic tool. Measurements of regional pulmonary perfusion via x-ray CT offer the possibility of detecting perfusion deficits due to pulmonary embolus while maintaining a high degree of anatomic detail. Use of bolus injection of conventional radiopaque contrast with associated short mean transit times (5 - 7 seconds), requires a high degree of temporal resolution offered clinically only by electron beam x-ray CT (Imatron). The present study was intended to characterize biodegradable radiopaque microspheres as an alternative contrast agent which would allow for measurement of regional pulmonary blood flow with scanning times associated with conventional or spiral thin slice, volumetric x-ray CT protocols. To test this, a dog was scanned at 6 slice levels and 13 time points with image acquisition gated to the cardiac cycle. Lung volumes were maintained at functional residual capacity.

  12. Effect of salt reduction intervention program using an electronic salt sensor and cellular phone on blood pressure among hypertensive workers.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Nozomi; Yamasue, Kotaro; Tochikubo, Osamu; Mizushima, Shunsaku

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of a workplace intervention program that utilized self-monitoring of daily salt excretion by an electronic salt sensor and sent personalized e-mail advice via cellular phone. Forty-one hypertensive male workers were assigned to intervention and control groups, then counseled together. Intervention group members were asked to measure daily salt excretion and received e-mail advice. After 4 weeks, a greater decrease of blood pressure (BP) was observed in the intervention group, with significant reductions to daily salt excretion and home BP. The new intervention program is considered useful for BP control among hypertensive workers.

  13. A novel blood-brain barrier co-culture system for drug targeting of Alzheimer's disease: establishment by using acitretin as a model drug.

    PubMed

    Freese, Christian; Reinhardt, Sven; Hefner, Gudrun; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, C James; Endres, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) the homeostasis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing in the brain is impaired. The expression of the competing proteases ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) and BACE-1 (beta site APP cleaving enzyme 1) is shifted in favor of the A-beta generating enzyme BACE-1. Acitretin--a synthetic retinoid-e.g., has been shown to increase ADAM10 gene expression, resulting in a decreased level of A-beta peptides within the brain of AD model mice and thus is of possible value for AD therapy. A striking challenge in evaluating novel therapeutically applicable drugs is the analysis of their potential to overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for central nervous system targeting. In this study, we established a novel cell-based bio-assay model to test ADAM10-inducing drugs for their ability to cross the BBB. We therefore used primary porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs) and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with an ADAM10-promoter luciferase reporter vector in an indirect co-culture system. Acitretin served as a model substance that crosses the BBB and induces ADAM10 expression. We ensured that ADAM10-dependent constitutive APP metabolism in the neuronal cells was unaffected under co-cultivation conditions. Barrier properties established by PBECs were augmented by co-cultivation with SH-SY5Y cells and they remained stable during the treatment with acitretin as demonstrated by electrical resistance measurement and permeability-coefficient determination. As a consequence of transcellular acitretin transport measured by HPLC, the activity of the ADAM10-promoter reporter gene was significantly increased in co-cultured neuronal cells as compared to vehicle-treated controls. In the present study, we provide a new bio-assay system relevant for the study of drug targeting of AD. This bio-assay can easily be adapted to analyze other Alzheimer- or CNS disease-relevant targets in neuronal cells, as their

  14. A novel blood-brain barrier co-culture system for drug targeting of Alzheimer's disease: establishment by using acitretin as a model drug.

    PubMed

    Freese, Christian; Reinhardt, Sven; Hefner, Gudrun; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, C James; Endres, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) the homeostasis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing in the brain is impaired. The expression of the competing proteases ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) and BACE-1 (beta site APP cleaving enzyme 1) is shifted in favor of the A-beta generating enzyme BACE-1. Acitretin--a synthetic retinoid-e.g., has been shown to increase ADAM10 gene expression, resulting in a decreased level of A-beta peptides within the brain of AD model mice and thus is of possible value for AD therapy. A striking challenge in evaluating novel therapeutically applicable drugs is the analysis of their potential to overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for central nervous system targeting. In this study, we established a novel cell-based bio-assay model to test ADAM10-inducing drugs for their ability to cross the BBB. We therefore used primary porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs) and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with an ADAM10-promoter luciferase reporter vector in an indirect co-culture system. Acitretin served as a model substance that crosses the BBB and induces ADAM10 expression. We ensured that ADAM10-dependent constitutive APP metabolism in the neuronal cells was unaffected under co-cultivation conditions. Barrier properties established by PBECs were augmented by co-cultivation with SH-SY5Y cells and they remained stable during the treatment with acitretin as demonstrated by electrical resistance measurement and permeability-coefficient determination. As a consequence of transcellular acitretin transport measured by HPLC, the activity of the ADAM10-promoter reporter gene was significantly increased in co-cultured neuronal cells as compared to vehicle-treated controls. In the present study, we provide a new bio-assay system relevant for the study of drug targeting of AD. This bio-assay can easily be adapted to analyze other Alzheimer- or CNS disease-relevant targets in neuronal cells, as their

  15. 36 CFR 1236.10 - What records management controls must agencies establish for records in electronic information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What records management... Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT ELECTRONIC RECORDS MANAGEMENT Records Management and Preservation Considerations for Designing...

  16. 36 CFR 1236.10 - What records management controls must agencies establish for records in electronic information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What records management... Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT ELECTRONIC RECORDS MANAGEMENT Records Management and Preservation Considerations for Designing...

  17. Establishment and metabolic analysis of a model microbial community for understanding trophic and electron accepting interactions of subsurface anaerobic environments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Communities of microorganisms control the rates of key biogeochemical cycles, and are important for biotechnology, bioremediation, and industrial microbiological processes. For this reason, we constructed a model microbial community comprised of three species dependent on trophic interactions. The three species microbial community was comprised of Clostridium cellulolyticum, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, and Geobacter sulfurreducens and was grown under continuous culture conditions. Cellobiose served as the carbon and energy source for C. cellulolyticum, whereas D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens derived carbon and energy from the metabolic products of cellobiose fermentation and were provided with sulfate and fumarate respectively as electron acceptors. Results qPCR monitoring of the culture revealed C. cellulolyticum to be dominant as expected and confirmed the presence of D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens. Proposed metabolic modeling of carbon and electron flow of the three-species community indicated that the growth of C. cellulolyticum and D. vulgaris were electron donor limited whereas G. sulfurreducens was electron acceptor limited. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. cellulolyticum, D. vulgaris, and G. sulfurreducens can be grown in coculture in a continuous culture system in which D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens are dependent upon the metabolic byproducts of C. cellulolyticum for nutrients. This represents a step towards developing a tractable model ecosystem comprised of members representing the functional groups of a trophic network. PMID:20497531

  18. Safety and efficiency considerations for the introduction of electronic ordering in a blood bank.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Andrew; Greenfield, Tony; Callen, Joanne; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2009-06-01

    The introduction of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems is associated with major changes in work processes. Implementation strategies need to consider how the technology will affect and be affected by the organization in which it is being installed. The aim of this study was to examine the potential effect of the introduction of a CPOE system on key work processes in a hospital blood bank by using qualitative data from focus groups, interviews, and participant observation and quantitative data of telephone communication. We found that work practices in the blood bank are made up of a mosaic of collaborative processes underpinned by communication channels to facilitate safe and efficient work practices. The introduction of CPOE systems requires consideration of these channels and of the ways that CPOE may disrupt existing communication processes. There needs to be high levels of staff preparedness to minimize patient risk and optimize performance.

  19. Electronic and oscillation absorption spectra of blood plamsa at surgical diseases of thyroid gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guminetskiy, S. G.; Motrich, A. V.; Poliansky, I. Y.; Hyrla, Ya. V.

    2011-09-01

    The results of investigating the absorption spectra of blood plasma in the visible and infrared parts of spectra obtained using the techniques of spherical photometer and spectrophotometric complex "Specord IR75" are presented. The possibility of using these spectra for diagnoses the cases of diffuse toxic goiter and nodular goiter and control of treatment process in postsurgical period in the cases of thyroid gland surgery is estimated.

  20. Electronic and oscillation absorption spectra of blood plamsa at surgical diseases of thyroid gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guminetskiy, S. G.; Motrich, A. V.; Poliansky, I. Y.; Hyrla, Ya. V.

    2012-01-01

    The results of investigating the absorption spectra of blood plasma in the visible and infrared parts of spectra obtained using the techniques of spherical photometer and spectrophotometric complex "Specord IR75" are presented. The possibility of using these spectra for diagnoses the cases of diffuse toxic goiter and nodular goiter and control of treatment process in postsurgical period in the cases of thyroid gland surgery is estimated.

  1. The blood vascular architecture of the salamander external gill: a scanning electron microscopic study of corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Kato, S; Kurihara, K

    1989-10-01

    The blood vascular architecture in three-paired external gills of salamander tadpoles, Hynobius dunni Tago, was demonstrated with special reference to metamorphosis by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. In the fully developed gill, each of the three-paired afferent branchial arteries gave off secondary afferent filament arterioles. The afferent filament arteriole drained toward the efferent filament arteriole, forming the loop at the posterior extremity of the gill filament. The branched capillaries from the afferent filament arteriole formed two plates of respiratory capillary networks with irregular honeycomb-shaped meshes. In addition, there were non-respiratory shunts as bypass of the blood circulation between the afferent and efferent branchial arteries without branching filament arterioles. Furthermore, the deep venous plexus and subepithelial capillary plexus were seen around each efferent branchial artery. The filament central venule in the central part of the filament merged into the venous plexus. Nutritive capillaries branched from efferent branchial arteries also drained toward the venous plexus. Such general vascular architecture is simpler than that of the fish. During metamorphosis, the pattern of the vascular distribution, especially filament net capillaries became irregular, and then markedly tortuous or convoluted blood vessels occurred in the absorbing gill. At the metamorphic climax, the capillary network practically disappeared in the remnant of the gill but the bypass shunt as a non-respiratory artery remained almost unchanged.

  2. Establishment and metabolic analysis of a model microbial community for understanding trophic and electron accepting interactions of subsurface anaerobic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Lance D; Mosher, Jennifer J; Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Yang, Zamin Koo; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Podar, Mircea; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Keller, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Communities of microorganisms control the rates of key biogeochemical cycles, and are important for biotechnology, bioremediation, and industrial microbiological processes. For this reason, we constructed a model microbial community comprised of three species dependent on trophic interactions. The three species microbial community was comprised of Clostridium cellulolyticum, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, and Geobacter sulfurreducens and was grown under continuous culture conditions. Cellobiose served as the carbon and energy source for C. cellulolyticum, whereas D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens derived carbon and energy from the metabolic products of cellobiose fermentation and were provided with sulfate and fumarate respectively as electron acceptors.

  3. Storing Blood Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  4. Development and characterization of high temperature, high energy density dielectric materials to establish routes towards power electronics capacitive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, Dennis P.

    The maximum electrostatic energy density of a capacitor is a function of the relative permittivity (epsilonr) and the square of the dielectric breakdown strength (Eb). Currently, state-of-the art high temperature (>200 °C), SiC-based power electronics utilize CaZrO3-rich NP0/C0G-type capacitors, which have low relative permittivities of epsilonr ˜ 30-40, high breakdown strengths (> 1.0 MV/cm), and are chosen for their minimal change in energy storage with temperature. However, with operating temperatures exceeding the rated temperatures for such capacitors, there is an opportunity to develop new dielectric ceramics having higher energy densities and volumetric efficiencies at high temperatures (>200 °C) by utilizing higher permittivity dielectrics while maintaining high breakdown strengths via doping. The solid solution behavior of was characterized in order to determine the optimal composition for balancing permittivity and dielectric breakdown strength to obtain high energy densities at elevated temperatures. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed Vegard's law behavior across the solid solution with minimal 2nd phases. To determine a Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 composition that will also minimize electronic or band conduction, the optical properties of the Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 solid solution were investigated to identify a composition on the CaTiO3 - rich end of the solid solution with a large band gap. Both ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and spectroscopic ellipsometry were utilized to determine the Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 band gaps and optical properties. The resistivity at 250 °C scaled with the band gap energy across the solid solution. Comparing the current-voltage (I--V) behavior at 250 °C for Ca(Tix-yMnyZr0.2)O3 (CTZ + Mn) where x = 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and y = 0.005, it was found that the Ca(Ti 0.795Mn0.005Zr0.2)O3 composition showed the lowest current density and a decrease in current density of 5 orders of magnitude compared to the un

  5. Influence of acceleration voltage on scanning electron microscopy of human blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, E

    2010-03-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to view a variety of surface structures, molecules, or nanoparticles of different materials, ranging from metals, dental and medical instruments, and chemistry (e.g. polymer analysis) to biological material. Traditionally, the operating conditions of the SEM are very important in the material sciences, particularly the acceleration voltage. However, in biological sciences, it is not typically seen as an important parameter. Acceleration voltage allows electrons to penetrate the sample; thus, the higher the acceleration voltage the more penetration into the sample will occur. As a result, ultrastructural information from deeper layers will interfere with the actual surface morphology that is seen. Therefore, ultimately, if acceleration voltage is lower, a better quality of the surface molecules and structures will be produced. However, in biological sciences, this is an area that is not well-documented. Typically, acceleration voltages of between 5 and 20 kV are used. This manuscript investigates the influence of acceleration voltages ranging from 5 kV to as low as 300 V, by studying surface ultrastructure of a human platelet aggregate. It is concluded that, especially at higher magnifications, much more surface detail is visible in biological samples when using an acceleration voltage between 2 kV and 300 V.

  6. Structure-function studies of blood and air capillaries in chicken lung using 3D electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    West, John B; Fu, Zhenxing; Deerinck, Thomas J; Mackey, Mason R; Obayashi, James T; Ellisman, Mark H

    2010-02-28

    Avian pulmonary capillaries differ from those of mammals in three important ways. The blood-gas barrier is much thinner, it is more uniform in thickness, and the capillaries are far more rigid when their transmural pressure is altered. The thinness of the barrier is surprising because it predisposes the capillaries to stress failure. A possible mechanism for these differences is that avian pulmonary capillaries, unlike mammalian, are supported from the outside by air capillaries, but the details of the support are poorly understood. To clarify this we studied the blood and air capillaries in chicken lung using transmission electron microscopy (EM) and two relatively new techniques that allow 3D visualization: electron tomography and serial block-face scanning EM. These studies show that the pulmonary capillaries are flanked by epithelial bridges composed of two extremely thin epithelial cells with large surface areas. The junctions of the bridges with the capillary walls show thickening of the epithelial cells and an accumulation of extracellular matrix. Collapse of the pulmonary capillaries when the pressure outside them is increased is apparently prevented by the guy wire-like action of the epithelial bridges. The enlarged junctions between the bridges and the walls could provide a mechanism that limits the hoop stress in the capillary walls when the pressure inside them is increased. The support of the pulmonary capillaries may also be explained by an interdependence mechanism whereby the capillaries are linked to a rigid assemblage of air capillaries. These EM studies show the supporting structures in greater detail than has previously been possible, particularly in 3D, and they allow a more complete analysis of the mechanical forces affecting avian pulmonary capillaries. PMID:20038456

  7. [Introduction of the electronic health card in Germany: influence of interest positions and sector membership on the establishment of an implementation network].

    PubMed

    Lang, A; Mertes, A

    2011-01-01

    This article raises the question as to which mode of governance has been established for the implementation of the electronic health card (eHC) in Germany and which coordination problems have emerged. It will be shown that the amalgamation of two different policy domains - namely health-care and innovation policy - leads to a novel governance configuration in which information exchange (hence governance) is affected by sector membership and interest similarity as opposed to anticipated financial burdens or influence reputation in the newly established policy domain. The study is based on a standardised survey of 29 organisations that are involved in the implementation of the eHC. The analysis is carried out using quantitative methods such as social network analysis.

  8. Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springford, Michael

    1997-03-01

    1. J. J. Thomson and the discovery of the electron A. B. P. Pippard; 2. The isolated electron W. N. Cottingham; 3. The relativistic electron D. I. Olive; 4. The electron glue B. L. Gyorffy; 5. The electron fluid P. Coleman; 6. The magnetic electron G. G. Lonzarich; 7. The paired electron A. J. Leggett; 8. The heavy electron M. Springford; 9. The coherent electron Y. Imry and M. Peskin; 10. The composite electron R. Nicholas; 11. The electron in the cosmos M. S. Longair.

  9. Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springford, Michael

    2008-12-01

    1. J. J. Thomson and the discovery of the electron A. B. P. Pippard; 2. The isolated electron W. N. Cottingham; 3. The relativistic electron D. I. Olive; 4. The electron glue B. L. Gyorffy; 5. The electron fluid P. Coleman; 6. The magnetic electron G. G. Lonzarich; 7. The paired electron A. J. Leggett; 8. The heavy electron M. Springford; 9. The coherent electron Y. Imry and M. Peskin; 10. The composite electron R. Nicholas; 11. The electron in the cosmos M. S. Longair.

  10. Regional pulmonary blood flow measurement in humans with electron-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, William W.; Konhilas, John; Wolfkiel, Christopher J.

    1995-05-01

    Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) is a potentially useful modality to quantitate regional pulmonary flow (RPF) with minimal invasiveness, in part because it has good spatial and temporal resolution. The present studies used a single compartment model of indicator transport and EBCT to measure regional tissue flow in the lungs of human subjects. The model postulates that flow is proportional to maximal enhancement and assumes complete tissue accumulation of indicator before significant indicator washout (WO). EBCT flow studies were retrospectively analyzed with respect to RPF in 10 adult patients who had undergone clinically indicated or research cardiovascular studies. Time density curves from the left atrial (LA) cavity and one-third segments of left (LL) and right (RL) lungs (A: anterior, M: middle, and P: posterior segments) were used to calculate RPF. Washout was determined as the percent of the LA curve at the time of peak parenchymal opacification using gamma curve fits to both tissue data and the LA curve data. Mean +/- standard deviation RPF in ml/min/ml was 0.8 +/- 0.4, 1.1 +/- 0.4, and 1.3 +/- 0.4 for A, M, and P respectively for one-third regions in the left lung. Similar results were found in the right lung. No difference in RPF was found when images were measured either by including the largest of visible parenchymal vessels or when such vessels were excluded. Flow in A of LL and RL was less than that in M or P. Average WO was about 10%, with a range of 0-41% of the LA curve area. There was no significant difference between one-third segment WO using pairwise comparison on the left and right sides when tested separately. RPF values were greater in the posterior vs anterior regions of these supine patients. In conclusion, EBCT can detect gravity related flow differences in the human lung. EBCT has potential for clinical assessment of absolute regional pulmonary flow determination in animals and man.

  11. Regional pulmonary blood flow measurement in humans with electron beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, W.W.; Konhilas, J.; Wolfkiel, C.

    1995-12-31

    Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) is a potentially useful modality to quantitate regional pulmonary flow (RPF) with minimal invasiveness, in part because it has good spatial and temporal resolution. The present studies used a single compartment model of indicator transport and EBCT to measure regional tissue flow in the lungs of human subjects. The model postulates that flow is proportional to maximal enhancement and assumes complete tissue accumulation of indicator before significant indicator washout (WO). EBCT flow studies were retrospectively analyzed with respect to regional pulmonary flow (RPF) in 10 adult patients who had undergone clinically indicated or research cardiovascular studies. Time density curves from the left atrial (LA) cavity and one-third segments of left (LL) and right (RL) lungs (A: anterior, M: middle and P: posterior segments) were used to calculate RPF. Washout was determined as the percent of the LA curve at the time of peak parenchymal opacification using gamma curve fits to both tissue data and the LA curve data. Mean {+-} standard deviation RPF in ml/min/ml was 0.8 {+-} 0.4, 1.1 {+-} 0.4 and 1.3 {+-} 0.4 for A, M and P respectively for one-third regions in the left lung. Similar results were found in the right lung. No difference in RPF was found when images were measured either by including the largest of visible parenchymal vessels or when such vessels were excluded. Flow in A of LL and RL was less than that in M or P. Average WO was about 10%, with a range of 0--41% of the LA curve area. There was no significant difference between one-third segment WO using pairwise comparison on the left and right sides when tested separately. RPF values were greater in the posterior vs anterior regions of these supine patients. In conclusion, EBCT can detect gravity related flow differences in the human lung. EBCT has potential for clinical assessment of absolute regional pulmonary flow determination in animals and man.

  12. Autologous blood donor screening indicated a lower prevalence of viral hepatitis in East vs West Germany: epidemiological benefit from established health resources.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, J; Luz, B; Mengelkamp, A-K; Moog, R; Koscielny, J; Halm-Heinrich, I; Susemihl, C; Bentzien, F; Diekmann, J; Wernet, D; Karger, R; Angert, K; Schmitt-Thomssen, A; Kiefel, V; Lutter, K; Hesse, R; Kätzel, R; Opitz, A; Luhm, J; Barz, D; Leib, U; Matthes, G; Tillmann, H L

    2009-10-01

    Prevalence data concerning viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the general population are usually scarce. We aimed for a large cohort representative of the general population that required little funding. Autologous blood donors are relatively representative of the general population, and are tested for viral hepatitis and HIV in many countries. However, frequently these data are not captured for epidemiologic purposes. We analysed data from well over 35,000 autologous blood donors as recorded in 21 different transfusion centres for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), HBsAg and anti-HIV, as well as TPHA if available. We found a lower prevalence of hepatitis B virus and HCV in East vs West Germany, 0.2%vs 0.32% and 0.16%vs 0.32% respectively, which confirms earlier data in smaller cohorts, thus supporting the value of our approach. HIV was too rare to disclose significant differences, 0.01%vs 0.02%. TPHA was higher in East (0.34%) vs West Germany (0.29%) without significant differences. HCV was more frequent in women vs men. Transfusion institutes managing autologous blood donations should be used as a resource for epidemiological data relating to viral hepatitis and HIV, if such testing is performed routinely. This approach generates data relating to the general population with special emphasis on undiagnosed cases.

  13. Inspection of chemically roughened copper surfaces using optical interferometry and scanning electron microscopy: Establishing a correlation between surface morphology and solderability

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.O.; Hosking, F.M.; Guilinger, T.R.; Yost, F.G.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1995-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with consortium members of the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) to develop fundamental generic technology in printed wiring board materials and surface finishes. We are investigating the effects of surface roughness on the wettability and solderability behavior of several types of copper board finishes to gain insight into surface morphologies that lead to improved solderability. In this paper, we present optical interterometry and scanning electron microscopy results for a variety of chemically-etched copper substrates. Initial testing on six chemical etches demonstrate that surface roughness can be greatly enhanced through chemical etching. Noticeable movements in solder wettability were observed to company increases in roughness.

  14. Establishment of selected baseline blood chemistry and hematologic parameters in captive and wild-caught African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus).

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Diekmann, M; Wolters, K; Swan, G E

    2008-07-01

    Despite the devastating collapse of three vulture populations on the Asian subcontinent as a result of their exposure to diclofenac, there is little available information on the normal physiology of many vulture species, including the African White-backed Vulture (Gyps africanus). Such information is needed to fully understand mechanisms for toxicity and to identify and prevent future health problems. The aim of this study was to establish baseline parameters for hematologic and selected serum chemistry parameters for this model species for further studies into the toxicity of diclofenac. Captive nonreleasable and wild African White-backed Vultures were used to determine reference values. For hematology, erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured. Chemical analytes measured included sodium, potassium, calcium, albumin, and globulin concentrations, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. Uric acid and urea concentrations and the urea:uric acid ratio also were evaluated. Values are presented as means, standard deviations, and reference intervals. The serum chemistry parameters selected may provide a starting point for the evaluation of changes in renal and hepatic function; these organ systems are most severely affected by diclofenac. Results were also compared with values reported for G. africanus nestlings, and from these results it is evident that the clinical pathologic parameters are age related. This indicates that the use of nestling values for the evaluation of clinical pathologic findings in adults may be unreliable and could lead to incorrect assumptions. PMID:18689650

  15. Brain damage from sup 125 I brachytherapy evaluated by MR imaging, a blood-brain barrier tracer, and light and electron microscopy in a rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, M.; Marotta, T.; Stewart, P.; Glen, J.; Resch, L.; Henkelman, M. )

    1990-10-01

    Changes in normal rat brain were studied acutely, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months following interstitial brachytherapy with high-activity {sup 125}I seeds. An 80-Gy radiation dose was administered to an area with a 5.5-mm radius. Effects were measured with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (with and without gadolinium enhancement), leakage of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Significant histological damage was seen at radiation doses above 295 Gy, and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier was observed only in tissue receiving a dose of 165 Gy or greater. Blood-brain barrier breakdown increased up to the 6-month time point, and thereafter appeared to stabilize or decrease. The area of blood-brain barrier disruption indicated by gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging was greater than that indicated by leakage of HRP.

  16. Comparison of 2 electronic cowside tests to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cows and the influence of the temperature and type of blood sample on the test results.

    PubMed

    Iwersen, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Pichler, M; Roland, L; Fidlschuster, B; Schwendenwein, I; Drillich, M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of 2 electronic hand-held devices [FreeStyle Precision (FSP), Abbott GmbH & Co. KG, Wiesbaden, Germany and GlucoMen LX Plus (GLX), A. Menarini GmbH, Vienna, Austria] for measuring β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in dairy cows. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate (1) the diagnostic performance of the devices, (2) the effect of the type of blood sample, and (3) the influence of the ambient temperature on the determined results. A total of 415 blood samples from lactating Holstein and Simmental cows were collected and analyzed with both devices (whole blood) and in a laboratory (serum). Correlation coefficients between whole-blood and serum BHBA concentrations were highly significant, with 94% for the FSP and 80% for the GLX device. Based on thresholds for subclinical ketosis of 1.2 and 1.4 mmol of BHBA/L, results obtained with the hand-held devices were evaluated by receiver operating characteristics analyses. This resulted in adjusted thresholds of 1.2 and 1.4 mmol/L for the FSP and 1.1 and 1.3 mmol/L for the GLX device. Applying these thresholds, sensitivities were 98 and 100% for the FSP and 80 and 86% for the GLX device, respectively. Corresponding specificities were 90 and 97% for the FSP and 87 and 96% for the GLX device, respectively. Additionally, concentrations of BHBA were tested with both devices in whole blood, EDTA-added whole blood, and in their resulting serum and plasma, collected from 65 animals. Determined BHBA concentrations were similar within each device for whole and EDTA-added blood, and in serum and plasma, but differed between whole blood and serum and between EDTA-added blood and plasma. Blood samples with low (0.4 mmol/L), medium (1.1 mmol/L), and high (1.6 mmol/L) BHBA concentrations were stored between +5 to +32°C and analyzed repeatedly at temperature levels differing by 4°C. Additionally, devices and test strips were stored at equal conditions and used for measurement

  17. [Hospital blood bank: information system and immuno-hematology].

    PubMed

    Vaquier, C; Caldani, C

    2010-12-01

    Due to regulations, hospital blood banks have to equip them with a computer-based information system. This system facilitates the management of the blood bank and ensures the safety of the storage, issuing and traceability of the blood and blood components. It permits to create a medical file for each transfused patient, which contains the characteristics of the blood components transfused and the immunohematological status of the patient, received by electronic data interchange from the blood establishment. Thus, from the assistance to the prescription of blood transfusion to the issuing and traceability of the blood components, the computer-based information system is the guarantee of the transfusion security in a hospital blood bank.

  18. [Hospital blood bank: information system and immuno-hematology].

    PubMed

    Vaquier, C; Caldani, C

    2010-12-01

    Due to regulations, hospital blood banks have to equip them with a computer-based information system. This system facilitates the management of the blood bank and ensures the safety of the storage, issuing and traceability of the blood and blood components. It permits to create a medical file for each transfused patient, which contains the characteristics of the blood components transfused and the immunohematological status of the patient, received by electronic data interchange from the blood establishment. Thus, from the assistance to the prescription of blood transfusion to the issuing and traceability of the blood components, the computer-based information system is the guarantee of the transfusion security in a hospital blood bank. PMID:21051266

  19. Fine structure of the "PcG body" in human U-2 OS cells established by correlative light-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Smigová, Jana; Juda, Pavel; Cmarko, Dušan; Raška, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) are found to be diffusely distributed in nuclei of cells from various species. However they can also be localized in intensely fluorescent foci, whether imaged using GFP fusions to proteins of PRC1 complex, or by conventional immunofluorescence microscopy. Such foci are termed PcG bodies, and are believed to be situated in the nuclear intechromatin compartment. However, an ultrastructural description of the PcG body has not been reported to date. To establish the ultrastructure of PcG bodies in human U-2 OS cells stably expressing recombinant polycomb BMI1-GFP protein, we used correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM) implemented with high-pressure freezing, cryosubstitution and on-section labeling of BMI1 protein with immunogold. This approach allowed us to clearly identify fluorescent PcG bodies, not as distinct nuclear bodies, but as nuclear domains enriched in separated heterochromatin fascicles. Importantly, high-pressure freezing and cryosubstitution allowed for a high and clear-cut immunogold BMI1 labeling of heterochromatin structures throughout the nucleus. The density of immunogold labeled BMI1 in the heterochromatin fascicles corresponding to fluorescent "PcG bodies" did not differ from the density of labeling of heterochromatin fascicles outside of the "PcG bodies". Accordingly, an appearance of the fluorescent "PcG bodies" seems to reflect a local accumulation of the labeled heterochromatin structures in the investigated cells. The results of this study should allow expansion of the knowledge about the biological relevance of the "PcG bodies" in human cells.

  20. Fine structure of the “PcG body” in human U-2 OS cells established by correlative light-electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Juda, Pavel; Cmarko, Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) are found to be diffusely distributed in nuclei of cells from various species. However they can also be localized in intensely fluorescent foci, whether imaged using GFP fusions to proteins of PRC1 complex, or by conventional immunofluorescence microscopy. Such foci are termed PcG bodies, and are believed to be situated in the nuclear intechromatin compartment. However, an ultrastructural description of the PcG body has not been reported to date. To establish the ultrastructure of PcG bodies in human U-2 OS cells stably expressing recombinant polycomb BMI1-GFP protein, we used correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM) implemented with high-pressure freezing, cryosubstitution and on-section labeling of BMI1 protein with immunogold. This approach allowed us to clearly identify fluorescent PcG bodies, not as distinct nuclear bodies, but as nuclear domains enriched in separated heterochromatin fascicles. Importantly, high-pressure freezing and cryosubstitution allowed for a high and clear-cut immunogold BMI1 labeling of heterochromatin structures throughout the nucleus. The density of immunogold labeled BMI1 in the heterochromatin fascicles corresponding to fluorescent “PcG bodies” did not differ from the density of labeling of heterochromatin fascicles outside of the “PcG bodies”. Accordingly, an appearance of the fluorescent “PcG bodies” seems to reflect a local accumulation of the labeled heterochromatin structures in the investigated cells. The results of this study should allow expansion of the knowledge about the biological relevance of the “PcG bodies” in human cells. PMID:21818415

  1. In vivo singlet-oxygen generation in blood of chromium(VI)-treated mice: an electron spin resonance spin-trapping study.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Y; Okado, A; Kawazoe, S; Mizutani, T

    2000-07-01

    Although it is assumed from in vitro experiments that the generation of reactive oxygen species such as the singlet oxygen (1O2), the hydroxyl radical, and the superoxide anion are responsible for chromium(VI) toxicity/carcinogenicity, no electron spin resonance (ESR) evidence for the generation of 1O2 in vivo has been reported. In this study, we have employed an ESR spin-trapping technique with 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone (TMPD), a specific 1O2 trap, to detect 1O2 in blood. The ESR spectrum of the spin adduct observed in the blood of mice given 4.8 mmol Cr(VI)/kg body weight exhibited the 1:1:1 intensity pattern of three lines with a hyperfine coupling constant A(N) = 16.08 G and a g-value = 2.0066. The concentration of spin adduct detected in the blood was 1.46 microM (0.1% of total Cr concentration). The adduct production was inhibited by the addition of specific 1O2 scavengers such as 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane and sodium azide to the blood. The results indicate that the spin adduct is nitroxide produced by the reaction of 1O2 with TMPD. This is the first report of ESR evidence for the in vivo generation of 1O2 in mammals by Cr(VI).

  2. Direct evidence for in vivo hydroxyl radical generation in blood of mice after acute chromium(VI) intake: electron spin resonance spin-trapping investigation.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Y; Okado, A; Kawazoe, S; Mizutani, T

    2000-07-01

    Although it is assumed from in vitro experiments that the hydroxyl radical (*OH) may be responsible for chromium(VI) toxicity/carcinogenicity, no electron spin resonance (ESR) evidence for the generation of *OH in vivo has been reported. In this study, we have employed an ESR spin-trapping technique with 5,5-dimethylpyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), a selective *OH trap, to detect *OH in blood. The ESR spectrum of spin adduct observed in the blood of mice given 4.8 mmol Cr(VI)/kg body weight exhibited the 1:2:2:1 intensity pattern of a quartet with a hyperfine coupling constant A(N) = A(H) = 14.81 G and g-value = 2.0067. The concentration of the spin adduct detected in the blood was 7.37 microM. The adduct production was inhibited by the addition of specific *OH scavengers such as sodium benzoate and methional to the blood. The results indicate that the spin adduct is nitroxide produced by the reaction of *OH with DMPO. This is the first report of ESR evidence for the in vivo generation of *OH in mammals by Cr(VI).

  3. Establishing operations

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack

    1993-01-01

    The first two books on behavior analysis (Skinner, 1938; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950) had chapter-length coverage of motivation. The next generation of texts also had chapters on the topic, but by the late 1960s it was no longer being given much treatment in the behavior-analytic literature. The present failure to deal with the topic leaves a gap in our understanding of operant functional relations. A partial solution is to reintroduce the concept of the establishing operation, defined as an environmental event, operation, or stimulus condition that affects an organism by momentarily altering (a) the reinforcing effectiveness of other events and (b) the frequency of occurrence of that part of the organism's repertoire relevant to those events as consequences. Discriminative and motivative variables can be distinguished as follows: The former are related to the differential availability of an effective form of reinforcement given a particular type of behavior; the latter are related to the differential reinforcing effectiveness of environmental events. An important distinction can also be made between unconditioned establishing operations (UEOs), such as food deprivation and painful stimulation, and conditioned establishing operations (CEOs) that depend on the learning history of the organism. One type of CEO is a stimulus that has simply been paired with a UEO and as a result may take on some of the motivative properties of that UEO. The warning stimulus in avoidance procedures is another important type of CEO referred to as reflexive because it establishes its own termination as a form of reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has accomplished such termination. Another CEO is closely related to the concept of conditional conditioned reinforcement and is referred to as a transitive CEO, because it establishes some other stimulus as a form of effective reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has produced that other stimulus. The multiple control of human

  4. Data correction pre-processing for electronically stored blood culture results: Implications on microbial spectrum and empiric antibiotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The outcome of patients with bacteraemia is influenced by the initial selection of adequate antimicrobial therapy. The objective of our study was to clarify the influence of different crude data correction methods on a) microbial spectrum and ranking of pathogens, and b) cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of blood culture isolates obtained from patients from intensive care units (ICUs) using a computer based tool, MONI. Methods Analysis of 13 ICUs over a period of 7 years yielded 1427 microorganisms from positive results. Three different data correction methods were applied. Raw data method (RDM): Data without further correction, including all positive blood culture results. Duplicate-free method (DFM): Correction of raw data for consecutive patient's results yielding same microorganism with similar antibiogram within a two-week period. Contaminant-free method (CFM): Bacteraemia caused by possible contaminants was only assumed as true bloodstream infection, if an organism of the same species was isolated from > 2 sets of blood cultures within 5 days. Results Our study demonstrates that different approaches towards raw data correction – none (RDM), duplicate-free (DFM), and a contaminant-free method (CFM) – show different results in analysis of positive blood cultures. Regarding the spectrum of microorganisms, RDM and DFM yielded almost similar results in ranking of microorganisms, whereas using the CFM resulted in a clinically and epidemiologically more plausible spectrum. Conclusion For possible skin contaminants, the proportion of microorganisms in terms of number of episodes is most influenced by the CFM, followed by the DFM. However, with exception of fusidic acid for gram-positive organisms, none of the evaluated correction methods would have changed advice for empiric therapy on the selected ICUs. PMID:19500418

  5. Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Marginal Adaptation of Four Root-End Filling Materials in Presence and Absence of Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bolhari, Behnam; Ashofteh Yazdi, Kazem; Sharifi, Farnood; Pirmoazen, Salma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Biodentine and BioAggregate in presence of normal saline and human blood. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, 80 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. After resecting the root-end, apical cavity preparation was done and the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (N=20)(a total of 8 subgroups). Root-end filling materials were placed in 3mm root-end cavities prepared ultrasonically. Half the specimens in each group were exposed to normal saline and the other half to fresh whole human blood. After 4 days, epoxy resin replicas of the apical portion of samples were fabricated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to find gaps in the adaptation of the root-end filling materials at their interface with dentin. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis of data with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: There were no significant differences in marginal adaptation of the 8 tested groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results, blood contamination does not affect the marginal adaptation of MTA, CEM cement, Biodentine or BioAggregate. PMID:26622276

  6. 21 CFR 864.9700 - Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9700 Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer. (a) Identification. A blood storage refrigerator and a blood storage freezer are devices...

  7. 21 CFR 864.9700 - Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9700 Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer. (a) Identification. A blood storage refrigerator and a blood storage freezer are devices...

  8. 21 CFR 864.9700 - Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9700 Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer. (a) Identification. A blood storage refrigerator and a blood storage freezer are devices...

  9. 21 CFR 864.9700 - Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9700 Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer. (a) Identification. A blood storage refrigerator and a blood storage freezer are devices...

  10. Suitability of capillary blood obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cows by using 3 different electronic hand-held devices.

    PubMed

    Kanz, P; Drillich, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Mair, B; Borchardt, S; Meyer, L; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of capillary blood obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique to detect subclinical ketosis in 49 prepartum and 191 postpartum Holstein-Friesian cows using 3 different electronic hand-held devices [FreeStyle Precision (FSP, Abbott), GlucoMen LX Plus (GLX, A. Menarini), NovaVet (NOV, Nova Biomedical)]. The β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration in serum harvested from coccygeal blood samples was analyzed in a laboratory and used as a reference value. Capillary samples were obtained from the skin of the exterior vulva by using 1 of 3 different lancets. In all samples, the concentration of BHBA was immediately analyzed with all 3 hand-held devices used in random order. All lancets used in the study were eligible for capillary blood collection but differed in the total number of incisions needed. Spearman correlation coefficients between the BHBA concentrations in capillary blood and the reference test were highly significant with 83% for the FSP, 73% for the NOV, and 63% for the GLX. Using capillary blood, the FSP overestimated the mean BHBA concentration compared with the reference test (+0.08 mmol/L), whereas the GLX and NOV underestimated the mean concentration (-0.07 and -0.01 mmol/L). When a BHBA concentration of 1.2 mmol/L in serum was used to define subclinical ketosis, the corresponding analyses of receiver operating characteristics resulted in optimized thresholds for capillary blood of 1.1 mmol/L for the NOV and GLX devices, and of 1.0 mmol/L for the FSP. Based on these thresholds, sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were 89 and 84% for the NOV, 80 and 89% for the GLX, and 100 and 76% for the FSP. Based on a serum BHBA concentration of 1.4 mmol/L, analyses of receiver operating characteristics resulted in optimized cut-offs of 1.4 mmol/L for the FSP (Se 100%, Sp 92%), 1.3 mmol/L for the NOV (Se 80%, Sp 95%), and 1.1 mmol/L (Se 90%, Sp 85%) for the GLX. Using these optimized thresholds

  11. Gas chromatographic method using electron-capture detection for the determination of musk xylene in human blood samples. Biological monitoring of the general population.

    PubMed

    Angerer, J; Käfferlein, H U

    1997-05-23

    Musk xylene (2,4,6-trinitro-1,3-dimethyl-5-tert.-butylbenzene, MX), a synthetic musk often used in different fragrances and soaps to substitute the natural musk, is a potential contaminant of humans. In this publication, a specific and sensitive detection method for the determination of musk xylene in human blood samples is described. The clean-up of the blood samples includes an extraction step followed by a solid-phase adsorption to separate MX from other plasma components. Separation and detection was carried out by capillary gas chromatography and an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results were verified using qualitative capillary gas chromatography and a mass selective detector with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). epsilon-Hexachlorocyclohexane (epsilon-HCH) is used as internal standard. The reliability of the GC-ECD method has been proved. The relative standard deviations of the within-series imprecision were 12.7% for samples with a concentration of 0.5 microg/l and 2.1% for samples with a concentration of 5.0 microg/l, whereas the relative standard deviations for the between-day imprecision were 14.9% (0.5 microg/l samples) and 3.4% (5.0 microg/l samples). The losses during sample treatment were between 10.1% and 17.8%. No interfering peaks were observed. The absolute detection limit was 0.1 microg/l plasma. A total of 72 human blood samples were analysed to determine the MX concentrations within the general population. In 66 of the 72 human blood samples, the MX concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 1.12 microg/l plasma for the described method. In six samples no MX was detected. The median concentration was 0.24+/-0.23 microg MX/l plasma. The 95 percentile was 0.79 microg/l. No correlation could be found between MX concentrations and smoking habit, broca index, age, sex as well as fish consumption habits. Nevertheless, the results demonstrate the exposure of the general population to MX.

  12. The opisthonephric blood vascular system of the chicken embryo as studied by scanning electron microscopy of microvascular corrosion casts and critical point dried preparations.

    PubMed

    Ditrich, H; Splechtna, H

    1989-06-01

    Microvascular corrosion casts of chicken embryos between four and 19 days after fertilization have been prepared. The developing kidney was investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The injection technique and resin composition were modified in order to facilitate the complete replication of native blood vascular systems of specimens as small as 15 mm body length. The development of the opisthonephros was followed from near the beginning of its function until a vascular development comparable to the adult situation was reached. Critical point dried glomeruli show the differentiation of the glomerular visceral epithelium (podocytes) from initially epithelioid to highly branched forms. The embryonic kidney (cranial part of the opisthonephros-mesonephros) shows a construction-principle resembling amphibians that is entirely different from the definitive excretory organ (caudal part of the opisthonephros-metanephros). PMID:2814402

  13. Imaging the interaction between dengue 2 virus and human blood platelets using atomic force and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Gangodkar, Shobha; Jain, Preksha; Shetty, Shrimati; Ramjee, Sandhya; Poddar, Pankaj; Basu, Atanu

    2008-06-01

    Thrombocytopenia is frequently associated with dengue virus infection. Host factors such as anti-platelet immunopathogenic processes have been implicated in the origin of dengue-associated thrombocytopenia but the role of dengue virus in directly interacting with platelets and altering their hemostatic property remains incompletely understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of dengue 2 virus on the morphology and physiological activation profile of normal human platelets using atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy and flowcytometry. Platelets obtained from healthy donors were exposed to a cell culture-adapted 10(4) LD(50) dengue 2 virus isolate in vitro and the subsequent effect on morphology and activation biology studied. Our results show that dengue 2 virus exposure at doses comparable to natural viremic states in human infections can activate platelets with an increase in P-selectin expression and fibrinogen-binding property. Atomic force, scanning and transmission electron microscopy also showed typical activation-related morphological changes such as altered platelet membrane architecture, degranulation, presence of filopodia and dilatation of the open canalicular system in the dengue 2 virus-exposed platelets but not in the controls. Importantly, Japanese encephalitis virus exposure at the same dose did not activate platelets or show any morphological changes. Our findings suggest that dengue 2 virus may directly interact with and activate platelets - an event that might be important in the origin of dengue-associated thrombocytopenia. Detailed molecular characterization of this effect might provide key knowledge toward better prophylaxis of the hemostatic complications of dengue disease.

  14. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... first part of the small intestine, or esophagus Blood clotting disorders Defects in the blood vessels of the ... as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (placing ...

  15. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect ...

  16. A Structural Approach to Establishing a Platform Chemistry for the Tunable, Bulk Electron Beam Cross-Linking of Shape Memory Polymer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hearon, Keith; Besset, Celine J.; Lonnecker, Alexander T.; Ware, Taylor; Voit, Walter E.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Wooley, Karen L.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic design and thermomechanical characterization of shape memory polymers (SMPs) built from a new polyurethane chemistry that enables facile, bulk and tunable cross-linking of low-molecular weight thermoplastics by electron beam irradiation is reported in this study. SMPs exhibit stimuli-induced geometry changes and are being proposed for applications in numerous fields. We have previously reported a polyurethane SMP system that exhibits the complex processing capabilities of thermoplastic polymers and the mechanical robustness and tunability of thermomechanical properties that are often characteristic of thermoset materials. These previously reported polyurethanes suffer practically because the thermoplastic molecular weights needed to achieve target cross-link densities severely limit high-throughput thermoplastic processing and because thermally unstable radiation-sensitizing additives must be used to achieve high enough cross-link densities to enable desired tunable shape memory behavior. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to manipulate cross-link density in low-molecular weight aliphatic thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs (Mw as low as ~1.5 kDa) without radiation-sensitizing additives by incorporating specific structural motifs into the thermoplastic polymer side chains that we hypothesized would significantly enhance susceptibility to e-beam cross-linking. A custom diol monomer was first synthesized and then implemented in the synthesis of neat thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs that were irradiated at doses ranging from 1 to 500 kGy. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) demonstrated rubbery moduli to be tailorable between 0.1 and 55 MPa, and both DMA and sol/gel analysis results provided fundamental insight into our hypothesized mechanism of electron beam cross-linking, which enables controllable bulk cross-linking to be achieved in highly processable, low-molecular weight thermoplastic shape memory polymers without sensitizing additives. PMID

  17. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.

    PubMed

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed--and sometimes practiced--as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood--shed or given--is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy.

  18. Hands-On Instruction in an Electronic Classroom. A Final Report to the U.S. Dept. of Education of a Research and Development Grant Awarded To Establish a Fully-Equipped Electronic Training Room and Test the Effectiveness of Hands-On Instruction in Learning the NOTIS OPAC and Silver-Platter ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Marvin E.

    This document is the final report to the U.S. Department of Education of a research and development grant awarded to establish a fully equipped electronic training room and test the effectiveness of hands-on instruction in learning the NOTIS OPAC (online public access catalog) and the Silver-Platter ERIC database on CD-ROM. The purpose of the…

  19. Blood clotting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  20. [The structure of the developing blood vessels of the neocortical anlage of the human embryo].

    PubMed

    Korzhevskiĭ, D E; Omel'chenko, N V; Smirnov, E B; Petrova, E S

    2000-01-01

    Using light and electron microscopy the structure of blood vessels of neocortical anlage of human 7-12 embryos was studied. It was shown that at the early stage of formation of intraorgan vascular network the wall of blood vessels of ventricular zone successively differentiate, which is characterized by the appearance of second layer of cells (pericytes), accumulation of basement membrane components, widening of the zone of contacts between endotheliocytes and establishment of the contacts with bipolar cells of neocortex anlage. The morphological data obtained assist in comprehension of physiological aspects of formation of blood brain barrier and regulation of blood flow in human embryonal neocortex.

  1. Blood pressure outcomes in patients receiving angiotensin II receptor blockers in primary care: a comparative effectiveness analysis from electronic medical record data.

    PubMed

    Ram, C Venkata S; Ramaswamy, Krishnan; Qian, Chunlin; Biskupiak, Joe; Ryan, Amy; Quah, Ruth; Russo, Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    The authors examined the comparative effectiveness of 4 angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with hypertension using a large electronic medical record database. Analysis of covariance and logistic multivariate regression models were used to estimate the blood pressure (BP) outcomes of 73,012 patients during 13 months of treatment with olmesartan, losartan, valsartan, and irbesartan. Results were adjusted by baseline BP, starting dose, year, age, sex, race, body mass index, comorbid conditions, and concomitant medications of patients. All ARBs led to sustained reductions in BP, but with significant differences in the magnitude of BP reduction. Raw mean systolic BP/diastolic BP reductions with losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, and olmesartan were 9.3/4.9 mm Hg, 10.4/5.6 mm Hg, 10.1/5.3 mm Hg, and 12.4/6.8 mm Hg, respectively. Adjusting for all covariates, the overall BP reductions with olmesartan were 1.88/0.86 mm Hg, 1.21/0.52 mm Hg, and 0.89/0.51 mm Hg greater than for losartan, valsartan, and irbesartan, respectively, and mean differences were higher for monotherapy: 2.43/1.16 mm Hg; 2.18/0.93 mm Hg; 1.44/0.91 mm Hg, respectively (all P values <.0001). Adjusted odds ratios of the JNC 7 goal attainment for losartan, valsartan, and irbesartan compared with olmesartan were 0.76, 0.86, and 0.91 (P<.05). Differences were also found in subpopulations: African Americans, diabetics, and obese/overweight patients but not all of these reached statistical significance. A broad choice of ARBs may be required to get patients to treatment goals. PMID:22051424

  2. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure of 115 millimeters of ... pressure reading of 140 over 90, he would be evaluated for having high blood pressure. If left ...

  3. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  4. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePlus

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  5. Thrombin Generation in Zebrafish Blood.

    PubMed

    Schurgers, Evelien; Moorlag, Martijn; Hemker, Coenraad; Lindhout, Theo; Kelchtermans, Hilde; de Laat, Bas

    2016-01-01

    To better understand hypercoagulability as an underlying cause for thrombosis, the leading cause of death in the Western world, new assays to study ex vivo coagulation are essential. The zebrafish is generally accepted as a good model for human hemostasis and thrombosis, as the hemostatic system proved to be similar to that in man. Their small size however, has been a hurdle for more widespread use in hemostasis related research. In this study we developed a method that enables the measurement of thrombin generation in a single drop of non-anticoagulated zebrafish blood. Pre-treatment of the fish with inhibitors of FXa and thrombin, resulted in a dose dependent diminishing of thrombin generation, demonstrating the validity of the assay. In order to establish the relationship between whole blood thrombin generation and fibrin formation, we visualized the resulting fibrin network by scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, in this study we developed a fast and reliable method to measure thrombin generation in whole blood collected from a single zebrafish. Given the similarities between coagulation pathways of zebrafish and mammals, zebrafish may be an ideal animal model to determine the effect of novel therapeutics on thrombin generation. Additionally, because of the ease with which gene functions can be silenced, zebrafish may serve as a model organism for mechanistical research in thrombosis and hemostasis. PMID:26872266

  6. Thrombin Generation in Zebrafish Blood

    PubMed Central

    Hemker, Coenraad; Lindhout, Theo; Kelchtermans, Hilde; de Laat, Bas

    2016-01-01

    To better understand hypercoagulability as an underlying cause for thrombosis, the leading cause of death in the Western world, new assays to study ex vivo coagulation are essential. The zebrafish is generally accepted as a good model for human hemostasis and thrombosis, as the hemostatic system proved to be similar to that in man. Their small size however, has been a hurdle for more widespread use in hemostasis related research. In this study we developed a method that enables the measurement of thrombin generation in a single drop of non-anticoagulated zebrafish blood. Pre-treatment of the fish with inhibitors of FXa and thrombin, resulted in a dose dependent diminishing of thrombin generation, demonstrating the validity of the assay. In order to establish the relationship between whole blood thrombin generation and fibrin formation, we visualized the resulting fibrin network by scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, in this study we developed a fast and reliable method to measure thrombin generation in whole blood collected from a single zebrafish. Given the similarities between coagulation pathways of zebrafish and mammals, zebrafish may be an ideal animal model to determine the effect of novel therapeutics on thrombin generation. Additionally, because of the ease with which gene functions can be silenced, zebrafish may serve as a model organism for mechanistical research in thrombosis and hemostasis. PMID:26872266

  7. 21 CFR 607.30 - Updating blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Updating blood product listing information. 607.30... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.30 Updating blood...

  8. 21 CFR 607.30 - Updating blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Updating blood product listing information. 607.30... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.30 Updating blood...

  9. 21 CFR 607.30 - Updating blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Updating blood product listing information. 607.30... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.30 Updating blood...

  10. 21 CFR 607.30 - Updating blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Updating blood product listing information. 607.30... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.30 Updating blood...

  11. 21 CFR 607.30 - Updating blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Updating blood product listing information. 607.30... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.30 Updating blood...

  12. Measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate in capillary blood obtained from an ear to detect hyperketonemia in dairy cows by using an electronic handheld device.

    PubMed

    Süss, D; Drillich, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Wagener, K; Krieger, S; Thiel, A; Meyer, L; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to test whether capillary blood obtained by puncturing the skin of an ear with a minimal invasive lancet technique is able to detect hyperketonemia (HYK) in dairy cows. Furthermore, test characteristics of a new available handheld device, the FreeStyle Precision Neo (FSP-Neo, Abbott GmbH & Co. KG, Wiesbaden, Germany) for determination of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in bovine blood were evaluated by comparing the measurements with a laboratory reference. The BHB concentration was determined with the FSP-Neo device in 720 capillary blood samples from 3 different sampling sites (left, right ear, and repeated measurement) and in 240 samples from a coccygeal vessel. The concentration of BHB in serum harvested from the coccygeal blood samples was analyzed at the laboratory and was used as reference. The Spearman correlation coefficient (ρs) between the BHB concentrations in capillary blood measured with the handheld device and the reference test was between 0.76 and 0.81. Using capillary blood, the mean ± standard deviation BHB difference compared with the reference test was 0.20±0.47 mmol/L for all 3 sampling locations at the ears. The receiver operating characteristic analyses for the FSP-Neo device resulted in an optimized threshold for the detection of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in capillary blood of 1.3 mmol/L (left and right ear) and 1.2 mmol/L (repeated measurements). Applying these adjusted threshold sensitivities (Se) for all 3 capillary sampling sites at the ear were 100%, and specificities (Sp) ranged between 93 and 94%. Hence, we conclude that all sampling locations were suitable to identify cows suffering from SCK. The reference test compared with BHB measurements in coccygeal blood resulted in a ρs of 0.92 with a mean ± standard deviation of 0.02±0.21 mmol/L. The receiver operating characteristic analyses for the FSP-Neo device resulted in an optimized threshold for the detection of SCK in

  13. Blood-related proteomics.

    PubMed

    Liumbruno, Giancarlo; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Grazzini, Giuliano; Zolla, Lello

    2010-01-01

    Blood-related proteomics is an emerging field, recently gaining momentum. Indeed, a wealth of data is now available and a plethora of groups has contributed to add pieces to the jigsaw puzzle of protein complexity within plasma and blood cells. In this review article we purported to sail across the mare magnum of the actual knowledge in this research endeavour. The main strides in proteomic investigations on red blood cells, platelets, plasma and white blood cells are hereby presented in a chronological order. Moreover, a glance is given at prospective studies which promise to shift the focus of attention from the end product to its provider, the donor, in a sort of Kantian "Copernican revolution". A well-rounded portrait of the usefulness of proteomics in blood-related research is accurately given. In particular, proteomic tools could be adopted to follow the main steps of the blood-banking production processes (a comparison of collection methods, pathogen inactivation techniques, storage protocols). Thus proteomics has been recently transformed from a mere basic-research extremely-expensive toy into a dramatically-sensitive and efficient eye-lens to either delve into the depths of the molecular mechanisms of blood and blood components or to establish quality parameters in the blood-banking production chain totally anew. PMID:19567275

  14. Blood Pressure Checker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An estimated 30 million people in the United States have high blood pressure, or hypertension. But a great many of them are unaware of it because hypertension, in its initial stages, displays no symptoms. Thus, the simply-operated blood pressure checking devices now widely located in public places are useful health aids. The one pictured above, called -Medimax 30, is a direct spinoff from NASA technology developed to monitor astronauts in space. For manned space flights, NASA wanted a compact, highly-reliable, extremely accurate method of checking astronauts' blood pressure without the need for a physician's interpretive skill. NASA's Johnson Space Center and Technology, Inc., a contractor, developed an electronic sound processor that automatically analyzes blood flow sounds to get both systolic (contracting arteries) and diastolic (expanding arteries) blood pressure measurements. NASA granted a patent license for this technology to Advanced Life Sciences, Inc., New York City, manufacturers of Medimax 30.

  15. Blood Pressure Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering Development Laboratory developed a system for the cardiovascular study of weightless astronauts. This was designed to aid people with congestive heart failure and diabetes. While in space, astronauts' blood pressure rises, heart rate becomes unstable, and there are sometimes postflight lightheadedness or blackouts. The Baro-Cuff studies the resetting of blood pressure. When a silicone rubber chamber is strapped to the neck, the Baro-Cuff stimulates the carotid arteries by electronically controlled pressure application. Blood pressure controls in patients may be studied.

  16. Analytical model for calculating indeterminate results interval of screening tests, the effect on seroconversion window period: a brief evaluation of the impact of uncertain results on the blood establishment budget.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is not required by the European Union regulation or blood establishments’ laboratory tests. However, it is required for tests accredited by ISO 15189. Also, the forthcoming ISO 9001 edition requires “risk based thinking” with risk described as “the effect of uncertainty on an expected result”. ISO recommends GUM models for determination of measurement uncertainty, but their application is not intended for ordinal value measurements, such as what happens with screening test binary results. This article reviews, discusses and proposes concepts intended for measurement uncertainty of screening test results. The precision model focuses on cutoff level allowing the evaluation of the indeterminate interval using analytical sources of variance. The intervalis considered in the estimation of the seroconversion window period. The delta-value of patients and healthy subjects’ samples allows ranking two tests according to the probability of the two classes of indeterminate results: chance of false negative results and chance of false positive results (waste on budget).

  17. Analytical model for calculating indeterminate results interval of screening tests, the effect on seroconversion window period: a brief evaluation of the impact of uncertain results on the blood establishment budget.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is not required by the European Union regulation or blood establishments’ laboratory tests. However, it is required for tests accredited by ISO 15189. Also, the forthcoming ISO 9001 edition requires “risk based thinking” with risk described as “the effect of uncertainty on an expected result”. ISO recommends GUM models for determination of measurement uncertainty, but their application is not intended for ordinal value measurements, such as what happens with screening test binary results. This article reviews, discusses and proposes concepts intended for measurement uncertainty of screening test results. The precision model focuses on cutoff level allowing the evaluation of the indeterminate interval using analytical sources of variance. The intervalis considered in the estimation of the seroconversion window period. The delta-value of patients and healthy subjects’ samples allows ranking two tests according to the probability of the two classes of indeterminate results: chance of false negative results and chance of false positive results (waste on budget). PMID:25457752

  18. Implementing a patient blood management program in Norway: Where to start?

    PubMed

    Espinosa, A; Arsenovic, M; Hervig, T; Sundic, T; Aandahl, A; Kronborg, J; Seghatchian, J

    2016-06-01

    Norway has recently established a working group to implement a national patient blood management (PBM) program. Although benchmarking regarding blood usage is challenging in Norway due to legal barriers, a survey was sent to different hospitals to identify possible areas to be prioritized in the first phase of the PBM program. Among them, optimizing the patient's hemoglobin level before elective surgery and implementing electronic check-lists for the indication of transfusion when ordering blood products are two measures that may have a considerable impact on blood usage. The results of the survey also showed that patients may receive a red blood cell transfusion at hemoglobin levels that are higher than those internationally recommended. Since there are no national guidelines for the use of blood products, agreement regarding hemoglobin thresholds is essential to reduce variation in transfusion practice. To achieve these goals, the transfusion specialist plays a key role in promoting the principles behind the PBM concept at the local hospital. PMID:27216542

  19. Blood Typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Group; Rh Factor Formal name: ABO Group and Rh Type Related ... mother's and baby's ABO blood groups, not the Rh factor. However, ABO grouping cannot be used to predict ...

  20. Blood smear

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral smear; Complete blood count - peripheral; CBC - peripheral ... Bain BJ. The peripheral blood smear. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 157. ...

  1. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  2. What's Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... You know what blood is — it's that red stuff that oozes out if you get a paper ... ingredients. It makes them. Bone marrow — that goopy stuff inside your bones — makes the red blood cells, ...

  3. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... matches yours. You may have read about the danger of becoming infected with hepatitis, HIV, or other ... member or friend donating blood before a planned surgery. This blood is then set aside and held ...

  4. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  6. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  7. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  8. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  9. Low density solvent based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with gas chromatography-electron capture detection for the determination of cypermethrin in tissues and blood of cypermethrin treated rats.

    PubMed

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Jain, Rajeev; Maurya, Shailendra Kumar; Khan, Haider A; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Murthy, R C

    2012-05-01

    A simple and rapid method to determine the cypermethrin (CYP) insecticide in rat tissues (kidney, liver and brain) and blood has been developed for the first time using low density solvent-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (LDS-DLLME) followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) analysis. Initially, tissue samples containing CYP were homoginized in acetone. Subsequently, homogenate was mixed with n-hexane (extraction solvent) and the mixture was rapidly injected into water. The upper n-hexane layer was collected in a separate microtube and injected into GC-ECD for analysis. Blood samples were diluted with ultrapure water and subjected to DLLME through similar procedure. Parameters such as type and volume of disperser and extraction solvent, salting out effect and extraction time, which can affect the extraction efficiency of DLLME, were optimized. Method was validated by investigating linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ). LODs in tissue were in the range of 0.043-0.314 ng mg(-1) and for blood it was 8.6 ng mL(-1) with a signal to noise ratio of 3:1. LOQs in tissue were in the range of 0.143-1.03 ng mg(-1) and for blood it was 28.3 ng mL(-1) with a signal to noise ratio of 10:1. Mean recoveries of CYP at three different concentation levels in all the matrices were found to be in the range of 81.6-103.67%. The results show that, LDS-DLLME coupled with GC-ECD offers a simple, rapid and efficient technique for extraction and determination of CYP in rat tissues and blood samples, which in turn would be useful for toxicological studies of CYP.

  10. Molecular Electronics - Current Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vilan, Ayelet; Cahen, David

    2010-12-01

    Molecular electronics is a flourishing area of nano-science and -technology, with a promise for cheap electronics of novel functionality. Here we outline the major challenges for molecular electronics becoming an established scientific discipline, including models with predictive power.

  11. An electron paramagnetic resonance investigation of the oxygen dependence of the arterial-venous gradient of nitrosyl hemoglobin in blood circulation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, JinJie; Corbett, Jean; Hogg, Neil; Mason, Ronald P

    2007-10-15

    Whether there is a nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO) gradient between the venous and the arterial parts of the circulatory system is a very controversial issue in nitric oxide research. We have carefully evaluated the measurement of HbNO concentration in blood using EPR generated in vivo by the NO donor DEANO under various oxygen tensions. We found that the absolute concentrations of HbNO in venous and arterial blood were the same within experimental error, independent of hemoglobin saturation; only the ratios of 5-coordinate and 6-coordinate HbNO differed. The HbNO concentration increased when the oxygen concentration breathed by the rats decreased in a manner that was linear in hemoglobin saturation. These results do not support the existence of an arterial-venous gradient of HbNO under our experimental conditions.

  12. Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood circulation within the tendons contributes to repair of the tendon after the exercises. Recently, blood circulation of human tendons could be measured using red laser lights (Kubo et al. 2008b). Using this technique, we were able to measure changes in blood volume and oxygen saturation of human tendons by various treatments. During a 60-min heating, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased significantly from the resting level, and continued to increase by 35 min. These changes in blood circulation of tendon were considerably different from the temperatures of muscle and skin. Furthermore, when the needle tip was moved up and down from the targeted depth (up-and-down manipulation) at approximately 1 mm amplitude, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the treated tendon increased significantly. After the removal of the acupuncture needle, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased gradually for the non-treated side. These results suggested that the change in blood circulation of the tendon during acupuncture with up-and-down manipulation was caused by axon reflex, and increase in blood flow in the tendons after the needle removal might be caused through the central nervous system. It is well known that heating and acupuncture treatments were quite effective in the management of tendon injuries. Therefore, these phenomena would be related to the changes in blood circulation of tendons due to heating and acupuncture treatments. PMID:27535246

  13. Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood circulation within the tendons contributes to repair of the tendon after the exercises. Recently, blood circulation of human tendons could be measured using red laser lights (Kubo et al. 2008b). Using this technique, we were able to measure changes in blood volume and oxygen saturation of human tendons by various treatments. During a 60-min heating, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased significantly from the resting level, and continued to increase by 35 min. These changes in blood circulation of tendon were considerably different from the temperatures of muscle and skin. Furthermore, when the needle tip was moved up and down from the targeted depth (up-and-down manipulation) at approximately 1 mm amplitude, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the treated tendon increased significantly. After the removal of the acupuncture needle, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased gradually for the non-treated side. These results suggested that the change in blood circulation of the tendon during acupuncture with up-and-down manipulation was caused by axon reflex, and increase in blood flow in the tendons after the needle removal might be caused through the central nervous system. It is well known that heating and acupuncture treatments were quite effective in the management of tendon injuries. Therefore, these phenomena would be related to the changes in blood circulation of tendons due to heating and acupuncture treatments.

  14. An elapsed time-temperature monitor for blood storage.

    PubMed

    Harris, G E; Cloud, S; Myhre, B A

    1977-01-01

    Blood should not be allowed to exceed 10 C while being stored or transported. However, one cannot test the internal temperature of a unit of blood without contaminating it. Most blood banks have established an arbitrary time limit beyond which a blood unit cannot be kept out of the refrigerator. This method is ineffective if blood is stored in a satellite refrigerator, since the blood may be moved in and out of the refrigerator and the blood bank personnel will be unaware of it. An elapsed time indicator is described which employs a small condenser (E-Cell-Plessey Electronics) charged with a known amount of electricity. If the device is removed from the refrigerator, it begins to discharge at a known rate. The amount of time subsequently can be determined by the loss of charge. The prototype of this instrument has been found to be quite accurate and small (2 inches X 2 inches X 1 inch). It would be rather inexpensive if made in considerable numbers. PMID:867474

  15. Blood groups and filariasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, H; Santhanam, S

    1989-01-01

    Only a little is known about the studies done with filariasis in relation to blood groups. The present communication reports the results of a preliminary study carried out to investigate any relationship of ABO and Rho(D) blood groups in persons with circulating microfilariae (mf) in blood and with disease manifestations compared with healthy normal controls within a population in similar epidemiological and ecological conditions. Blood groups ABO and Rho(D) were investigated among 271 persons with filarial disease and 172 normal subjects from an endemic area of bancroftian filariasis. No relationship was observed between infection and blood groups. It appeared that blood groups and filarial infection were independent of each other. Also the sex of the individual and stage of the infection, i.e. persons with circulating mf only without manifestations and persons with established manifestation without mf, has no bearing on blood group inheritance. There were 95.05% of Rh-positive and 4.95% of Rh-negative persons in the whole studied population. The observations are similar to other studies.

  16. Blood Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

  17. The blood-tendon barrier: identification and characterisation of a novel tissue barrier in tendon blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Lehner, C; Gehwolf, R; Ek, J C; Korntner, S; Bauer, H; Bauer, H C; Traweger, A; Tempfer, H

    2016-01-01

    Tissue barriers function as "gate keepers" between different compartments (usually blood and tissue) and are formed by specialised membrane-associated proteins, localising to the apicolateral plasma membrane domain of epithelial and endothelial cells. By sealing the paracellular space, the free diffusion of solutes and molecules across epithelia and endothelia is impeded. Thereby, tissue barriers contribute to the establishment and maintenance of a distinct internal and external environment, which is crucial during organ development and allows maintenance of an organ-specific homeostatic milieu. So far, various epithelial and endothelial tissue barriers have been described, including the blood-brain barrier, the blood-retina barrier, the blood-testis barrier, the blood-placenta barrier, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-brain barrier, which are vital for physiological function and any disturbance of these barriers can result in severe organ damage or even death. Here, we describe the identification of a novel barrier, located in the vascular bed of tendons, which we term the blood-tendon barrier (BTB). By using immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and tracer studies we demonstrate the presence of a functional endothelial barrier within tendons restricting the passage of large blood-borne molecules into the surrounding tendon tissue. We further provide in vitro evidence that the BTB potentially contributes to the creation of a distinct internal tissue environment impacting upon the proliferation and differentiation of tendon-resident cells, effects which might be fundamental for the onset of tendon pathologies. PMID:27227787

  18. 21 CFR 807.40 - Establishment registration and device listing for foreign establishments importing or offering...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... register such establishment and list such devices using the FDA electronic device registration and listing... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Establishment registration and device listing for foreign establishments importing or offering for import devices into the United States. 807.40 Section...

  19. 21 CFR 807.40 - Establishment registration and device listing for foreign establishments importing or offering...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... register such establishment and list such devices using the FDA electronic device registration and listing... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Establishment registration and device listing for foreign establishments importing or offering for import devices into the United States. 807.40 Section...

  20. 9th GCC closed forum: CAPA in regulated bioanalysis; method robustness, biosimilars, preclinical method validation, endogenous biomarkers, whole blood stability, regulatory audit experiences and electronic laboratory notebooks.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Roger; LeLacheur, Richard; Dumont, Isabelle; Couerbe, Philippe; Safavi, Afshin; Islam, Rafiq; Pattison, Colin; Cape, Stephanie; Rocci, Mario; Briscoe, Chad; Cojocaru, Laura; Groeber, Elizabeth; Silvestro, Luigi; Bravo, Jennifer; Shoup, Ron; Verville, Manon; Zimmer, Jennifer; Caturla, Maria Cruz; Khadang, Ardeshir; Bourdage, James; Hughes, Nicola; Fatmi, Saadya; Di Donato, Lorella; Sheldon, Curtis; Keyhani, Anahita; Satterwhite, Christina; Yu, Mathilde; Fiscella, Michele; Hulse, James; Lin, Zhongping John; Garofolo, Wei; Savoie, Natasha; Xiao, Yi Qun; Kurylak, Kai; Harris, Sarah; Saxena, Manju; Buonarati, Mike; Lévesque, Ann; Boudreau, Nadine; Lin, Jenny; Khan, Masood U; Ray, Gene; Liu, Yansheng; Xu, Allan; Soni, Gunjan; Ward, Ian; Kingsley, Clare; Ritzén, Hanna; Tabler, Edward; Nicholson, Bob; Bennett, Patrick; van de Merbel, Nico; Karnik, Shane; Bouhajib, Mohammed; Wieling, Jaap; Mulvana, Daniel; Ingelse, Benno; Allen, Mike; Malone, Michele; Fang, Xinping

    2016-03-01

    The 9th GCCClosed Forum was held just prior to the 2015 Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (WRIB) in Miami, FL, USA on 13 April 2015. In attendance were 58 senior-level participants, from eight countries, representing 38 CRO companies offering bioanalytical services. The objective of this meeting was for CRO bioanalytical representatives to meet and discuss scientific and regulatory issues specific to bioanalysis. The issues selected at this year's closed forum include CAPA, biosimilars, preclinical method validation, endogenous biomarkers, whole blood stability, and ELNs. A summary of the industry's best practices and the conclusions from the discussion of these topics is included in this meeting report.

  1. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version High Blood Pressure Overview What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the amount of force that your ... called your blood pressure. What is high blood pressure? High blood pressure (also called hypertension) occurs when your blood ...

  2. Blood gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine the ... oxygen (PaO2): 75 - 100 mmHg Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2): 38 - 42 mmHg Arterial blood pH: 7. ...

  3. 76 FR 48167 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Blood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... banks, certain transfusion services, other blood product manufacturers, and independent laboratories... Collection; Comment Request; Blood Establishment Registration and Product Listing, Form FDA 2830 AGENCY: Food... blood establishment registration and product listing requirements in the Agency's regulations and...

  4. Microfluidic electronics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  5. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  6. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  7. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  8. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  9. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  10. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  11. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  15. Establishment and Characterization of a Newly Established Diabetic Gerbil Line

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohong; Lu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Huo, Xueyun; Li, Zhenkun; Zhang, Shuangyue; Li, Changlong; Guo, Meng; Du, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to selectively breed a spontaneous diabetic gerbil when a sub-line of inbred gerbil showed increased blood glucose levels was found recently. Then we investigated the characteristics including the serum insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and explored the underlying molecular mechanism for the diabetic phenotype. Methods The spontaneous diabetic line of gerbils was selectively inbreed the sub-line of gerbil by monitoring blood glucose of each animal. The serum insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were tested using an ELISA kit. The expression levels of GLUT4, Akt, leptin, adiponectin, and calpain 10 (CAPN10) were tested by western blot and Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose. Results Our results show that the percentages of animals with FPG≥5.2 (mmol/l), PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l) and both FPG≥5.2 and PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l) were increased with the number of breeding generations from F0 (21.33%) to F6 (38.46%). These diabetic gerbils exhibited insulin resistance and leptin resistance as well as decreased adiponectin level in the serum. We also observed decreased expression of adiponectin and increased expression of leptin in the skeletal muscle, respectively. Conclusions These results indicate that we have primarily established a spontaneous diabetic gerbil line, and the diabetic phenotypes may have been accounted for by altered expression of leptin and adiponectin. PMID:27427908

  16. The Protestant Establishment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzell, E. Digby

    1976-01-01

    The author's book, "The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America", is highly critical of the WASP (White-Anglo-Saxon-Protestant) establishment and proposed the development and need for some sort of upper-class ruling-group. Here is a re-evaluation of his book, now thirteen years old, by the author. (Author/RK)

  17. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... made by the kidneys that stimulates red cell production {{ Immunoglobulins, antibodies made by plasma cells in response ... used for chemotherapy cause temporarily impaired blood cell production in the marrow and depressed immune system functions. ...

  18. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether or not you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells. If you have this substance, you are considered Rh+ (positive). Those without it are considered Rh- (negative). ...

  19. Moving blood.

    PubMed

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

  20. Photodynamic inactivation of enveloped viruses using sapphyrin, a 22 pi-electron expanded porphyrin: possible approaches to prophylactic blood purification protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessler, Jonathan L.; Cyr, Michael J.; Maiya, Bhaskar G.; Judy, Millard M.; Newman, Joseph T.; Skiles, Helen L.; Boriak, Richard L.; Matthews, James Lester; Chanh, Tran C.

    1990-07-01

    The in vitro photodynamic inactivation ofherpes simplex virus (HSV-1), an enveloped virus with a membranous coat, was studied using the decaalky sapphyrin 2. This new sensitizer, an unusual 22 icelectron "expanded porphyrin" with an absorption maximum at roughly 680 nm, generates singlet oxygen in roughly 25% quantum yield in its non-aggregated monomeric form and is very efficient for the photo-inactivation of HSV- 1 . It is as active as dihematoporphyrin derivative (DHE) on a per macrocycle basis and, because of light absorption by oxyhemoglobin, considerably more so in blood on a per mcident light intensity basis. Supporting fluorescence studies indicate that compound 2 has a high affinity for nonpolar environments, where it exists in its most active monomeric form, suggesting a mechanism of action that depends both on selective localization in the HSV- 1 viral membrane and accompanying efficient singlet oxygen production. In preliminary experiments with cell-free HIV-1 (also an enveloped virus), it was found that compound 2 effects a ca. 50% photo-killing with little dark toxicity at 4 jiM concentration and an essentially complete photo-eradication at 16 jiM concentration, as judged by standard reverse transcriptase assay. At this latter concentration, however, the light-induced viral inactivation is accompanied by considerable dark toxicity, which, on the basis of control experiments with uninfected cells, is ascribed to a high sensitivity of the H9 cell line employed and not to an overall, or inherent, cytotoxicity of the sapphyrin nucleus.

  1. Evaluation of an electronic device used as a quick screening method to detect changes in the red cell content of the blood in horses participating in endurance trail rides.

    PubMed

    de Waal, A; Potgieter, F J

    1991-01-01

    Dehydration, to varying degrees, will inevitably occur in horses participating in endurance trail rides. This water loss is directly related to the amount of body water lost through evaporative cooling, that in turn being related to the amount and rate of work performed, and to the environmental temperature and humidity. An electronic apparatus that can substitute for the conventional and time-consuming venous haematocrit was developed to measure the animals' hydration status. The mechanism of this electrometer is based upon the relationship between the red cell content and the electrical conductivity of the blood. The electrometer reading gave a significant correlation (p less than 0.001) with the venous haematocrit, thus indicating that the electrometer is a reliable apparatus for determining the animals' hydration status within seconds of venepuncture.

  2. Catecholamine blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  3. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  4. Simultaneous congener-specific determination of selected organochlorine compounds and nitro musks in human whole blood samples by solid-phase extraction and capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Maret; Hilpert, Felix; Arnold, Norbert; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Jonat, Walter; Kruse, Hermann

    2005-03-01

    Chlororganic compounds like pesticides or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and nitro musks are environmental contaminants, which remain public health concerns because of their persistence in humans and their toxicological properties. Many of these substances are associated with endocrine dysfunction or with carcinogenicity. Therefore, a simple method using solid-phase extraction followed by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection for the simultaneous determination of both organochlorines and nitro musks in human whole blood samples has been developed. Recovery rates of 13 PCB congeners and of 7 pesticides ranged from 67.5% to 100.4% and from 81.1% to 110.5%, respectively. Recoveries of the 5 nitro musks were consistent and ranged from 90.2% to 98.8%. The accuracy for organochlorines and nitro musks varied from 6.3% to 8.6%. Method detection limits ranged from 0.02 microg/L to 0.11 microg/L for the organochlorines and from 0.04 microg/L to 0.08 microg/L for the nitro musks. The method has a high sensitivity with a low detection limit even in slightly contaminated human blood samples. The time and technical effort is small, so the method is feasible for epidemiological studies with regard to the impact of organochlorines and nitro musks on certain diseases.

  5. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  6. Blood and war.

    PubMed

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2010-09-01

    In 1894 Ulsterman and pathologist Almroth Wright described the citation of blood. Twenty-one years later it was introduced into wartime and clinical practice. Harvard Medical School had a large part in providing Colonel Andrew Fullerton, later Professor of Surgery, Queen's Belfast, with the intellectual and practical help for the Allies to deploy blood on the post-Somme Western Front and in Salonika. The key investigators and clinicians were Americans and Canadians who with Fullerton and Wright instructed the Allies. The key enablers were two Harvard-trained surgeons surnamed Robertson-Oswald H. ("Robby") and L. Bruce (no relation). Physician Roger I. Lee of Harvard, surgeon George W Crile of Cleveland, Peyton Rous of the Rockefeller Institute and Richard Lewisohn of Mount Sinai Hospital, both located in the Upper East Side of New York City, played key roles.By Armistice in 1918, indirect citrated nutrient-enhanced blood transfusion was widely used by the Allies. Geoffrey Keynes was taught the techniques of blood transfusion by Dr. Benjamin Harrison Alton of Harvard at a Casualty Clearing Station near Albert at the time of the Battle of Passchendaele. Professor "Robby" Robertson, DSO, Sir Geoffrey Keynes and Sir Thomas Houston established blood banking.

  7. Blood and War

    PubMed Central

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY In 1894 Ulsterman and pathologist Almroth Wright described the citation of blood. Twenty-one years later it was introduced into wartime and clinical practice. Harvard Medical School had a large part in providing Colonel Andrew Fullerton, later Professor of Surgery, Queen's Belfast, with the intellectual and practical help for the Allies to deploy blood on the post-Somme Western Front and in Salonika. The key investigators and clinicians were Americans and Canadians who with Fullerton and Wright instructed the Allies. The key enablers were two Harvard-trained surgeons surnamed Robertson—Oswald H. (“Robby”) and L. Bruce (no relation). Physician Roger I. Lee of Harvard, surgeon George W Crile of Cleveland, Peyton Rous of the Rockefeller Institute and Richard Lewisohn of Mount Sinai Hospital, both located in the Upper East Side of New York City, played key roles. By Armistice in 1918, indirect citrated nutrient-enhanced blood transfusion was widely used by the Allies. Geoffrey Keynes was taught the techniques of blood transfusion by Dr. Benjamin Harrison Alton of Harvard at a Casualty Clearing Station near Albert at the time of the Battle of Passchendaele. Professor “Robby” Robertson, DSO, Sir Geoffrey Keynes and Sir Thomas Houston established blood banking. PMID:22375087

  8. AUDIT OF BLOOD REQUISITION.

    PubMed

    Deb, P; Swarup, D; Singh, M M

    2001-01-01

    A total of 2793 requisition forms received by the blood banks of a Service zonal hospital, between June 1995 and December 1999, were analysed. 1697 (60.71%) forms were demand for single unit blood. Blood was collected against only 1099 forms (39.34%) out of which 713 (64.88%) were single unit issue. Urgency of requirement and blood group of patients was omitted in 56% cases. 104 forms were received without mention of the indications for transfusion. History of previous transfusion and pregnancy/HDN were omitted in 25.1% and 37.38% cases respectively. At an average 14.61% of the total collection was discarded. Of the 292 units discarded, 242 units were due to non utilisation. A transfusion committee should be established in all hospitals with a licensed blood bank. It should constitute definite objectives and conduct regular audits (prospective audit, concurrent review or retrospective review), in order to achieve utmost efficiency and numerous benefits, in terms of workload, cost, errors, risks of transfusion and ultimately increased customer satisfaction. It should strive to abolish single unit and inappropriate transfusion, and advocate autologous transfusion. PMID:27365575

  9. An underwater blood pressure measuring device.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Arne; Kuch, Benjamin; L'abbate, Antonio; Wagner, Matthias; Dario, Paolo; Bedini, Remo

    2008-09-01

    Measurement of arterial blood pressure is an important vital sign for monitoring the circulation. However, up to now no instrument has been available that enables the measurement of blood pressure underwater. The present paper details a novel, oscillometric, automatic digital blood pressure (BP) measurement device especially designed for this purpose. It consists mainly of analogue and digital electronics in a lexan housing that is rated to a depth of up to 200 metres' sea water, a cuff and a solenoid for inflation of the cuff with air supplied from a scuba tank. An integrated differential pressure sensor, exposed to the same ambient pressure as the cuff, allows accurate BP measurement. Calculation of systolic and diastolic pressures is based on the analysis of pressure oscillations recorded during the deflation. In hyperbaric chamber tests to pressures up to 405 kPa, BP measurements taken with the prototype were comparable to those obtained with established manual and automated methods. Swimming pool tests confirmed the correct functioning of the system underwater. The quality of the recorded pressure oscillations was very good even at 10 metres' fresh water, and allowed determination of diastolic and systolic pressure values. Based on these results we envisage that this device will lead to a better understanding of human cardiovascular physiology in underwater and hyperbaric environments.

  10. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  11. Blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Andre F; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2014-07-11

    The toxic side effects of early generations of red blood cell substitutes have stimulated development of more safe and efficacious high-molecular-weight polymerized hemoglobins, poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated hemoglobins, and vesicle-encapsulated hemoglobins. Unfortunately, the high colloid osmotic pressure and blood plasma viscosity of these new-generation materials limit their application to blood concentrations that, in general, are not sufficient for full restoration of oxygen-carrying and -delivery capacity. However, these materials may serve as oxygen therapeutics for treating tissues affected by ischemia and trauma, particularly when the therapeutics are coformulated with antioxidants. These new oxygen therapeutics also possess additional beneficial effects owing to their optimal plasma expansion properties, which induce systemic supraperfusion that increases endothelial nitric oxide production and improves tissue washout of metabolic wastes, further contributing to their therapeutic role.

  12. Traditional coating techniques in scanning electron microscopy compared to uncoated charge compensator technology: looking at human blood fibrin networks with the ZEISS ULTRA Plus FEG-SEM.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Etheresia

    2011-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies surface morphology. Biological material needs to be coated to render the material conductive, and gold coating is traditionally used, although other coating material like carbon and ruthenium vapors may also be used. With modern SEM technology (e.g., ZEISS ULTRA Plus FEG-SEM), we are able to work at very low kilovolts and also view fine surface structure in much better detail than with previous older technology. Some machines also allow for the study of uncoated material, although this is usually not done with biological material. This study focuses on surface clarity by comparing gold, ruthenium vapor, and carbon coating techniques for biological material. Human fibrin networks are used as example. Uncoated specimens are also viewed with a ZEISS ULTRA Plus FEG-SEM because of its unique nitrogen charge compensator, and here, the first micrographs for uncoated human fibrin networks versus carbon, gold, and ruthenium coating are shown. We conclude that gold coating for biological material is not preferable with the latest SEM machines, as this method forms gold islands on top of the biological material and therefore produces a false surface morphology.

  13. Zinc oxide nanoflowers make new blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barui, Ayan Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Mukherjee, Sudip; Manna, Joydeb; Patel, Ajay Kumar; Patra, Sujata; Pal, Krishnendu; Murali, Shruthi; Rana, Rohit K.; Chatterjee, Suvro; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2012-11-01

    It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood vessels formation. Additionally, it helps to promote endothelial cell (EA.hy926 cells) migration in wound healing assays. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)--a redox signaling molecule, might be the plausible mechanism for nanoflower-based angiogenesis. Angiogenesis by nanoflowers may provide the basis for the future development of new alternative therapeutic treatment strategies for cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, where angiogenesis plays a significant role.It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood

  14. Electronic Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  15. 21 CFR 607.20 - Who must register and submit a blood product list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who must register and submit a blood product list... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.20 Who must register and submit a blood product list. (a) Owners or operators of all establishments, not exempt...

  16. 21 CFR 607.20 - Who must register and submit a blood product list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Who must register and submit a blood product list... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.20 Who must register and submit a blood product list. (a) Owners or operators of all establishments, not exempt...

  17. 21 CFR 607.20 - Who must register and submit a blood product list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who must register and submit a blood product list... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.20 Who must register and submit a blood product list. (a) Owners or operators of all establishments, not exempt...

  18. 21 CFR 607.20 - Who must register and submit a blood product list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who must register and submit a blood product list... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.20 Who must register and submit a blood product list. (a) Owners or operators of all establishments, not exempt...

  19. 21 CFR 607.20 - Who must register and submit a blood product list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who must register and submit a blood product list... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.20 Who must register and submit a blood product list. (a) Owners or operators of all establishments, not exempt...

  20. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens – A and B – on the surface of red blood cells: Group A – has only the A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma) Group B – has only the B antigen on ...

  1. Blood flow

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    As the heart pumps, the arteries carry oxygen-rich blood (shown in red) away from the heart and toward the body's tissues and vital organs. ... brain, liver, kidneys, stomach, and muscles, including the heart muscle itself. At the same time, the veins ...

  2. Establishing American Colleges Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the growing involvement of U.S. two-year colleges in establishing programs abroad to enable foreign students to complete one or two years of college-level work in their home country before transferring to U.S. universities. Highlights the activities of several community colleges in the Pacific Rim. Identifies conditions basic to future…

  3. Blood circulation under weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.; Yazdovskiy, V. I.

    1975-01-01

    Biomedical data obtained on men and animals during weightlessness conditions establish instabilities in pulse rate and blood circulation that smooth out in proportion to adaptation to the weightless condition. The unusual slowness of recovery of pulse rate to initial values after space flight stress is attributed to biological simulation of hormonal shifts and discharge of humoral substances into the blood that prevent a rapid recovery of some biological indicators to initial values.

  4. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  5. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... blood vessel of the kidney) In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  6. Blood Pressure Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  7. [Distribution of chemical elements in whole blood and plasma].

    PubMed

    Barashkov, G K; Zaĭtseva, L I; Kondakhchan, M A; Konstantinova, E A

    2003-01-01

    The distribution factor (Fd) of 35 elements of plasma and whole blood in 26 healthy men and women was detected by ICP-OES. Usilig this parameter the elements were subdivided in 3 pools. 9 of them have Fd higher than 1.5 ("elements of plasma"-Ag, Ca, Cu, In, Li, Na, Se, Si, Sr); 6 have lower than 0.5 ("elements of blood cells"-Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, Zn), other 20-about 1 ("blood elements"). Fd of all elements depends on ionic radius. Elements of 2nd sub-groups of all groups of Mendeleev's periodic table ("heavy metals") depend on the similar law: "with growing of ionic radius the concentration of elements in plasma enhances". In alkaline metals Fd depends on the opposite law:" with growing of ionic radius of alkaline metal the quantity of elements in blood cells enhance". Dependence of Fd on the value of atomic mass in periods or in exterior electronic cloud (s-, p-, d-, f-) was not established. The table of distribution of all detected elements in whole blood in relation to 8 macroelements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, S, P, Fe, Zn,) is presented, as a basic diagnostic criteria in metal-ligand homeostasis disturbance.

  8. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  9. Protocol for a national blood transfusion data warehouse from donor to recipient

    PubMed Central

    van Hoeven, Loan R; Hooftman, Babette H; Janssen, Mart P; de Bruijne, Martine C; de Vooght, Karen M K; Kemper, Peter; Koopman, Maria M W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Blood transfusion has health-related, economical and safety implications. In order to optimise the transfusion chain, comprehensive research data are needed. The Dutch Transfusion Data warehouse (DTD) project aims to establish a data warehouse where data from donors and transfusion recipients are linked. This paper describes the design of the data warehouse, challenges and illustrative applications. Study design and methods Quantitative data on blood donors (eg, age, blood group, antibodies) and products (type of product, processing, storage time) are obtained from the national blood bank. These are linked to data on the transfusion recipients (eg, transfusions administered, patient diagnosis, surgical procedures, laboratory parameters), which are extracted from hospital electronic health records. Applications Expected scientific contributions are illustrated for 4 applications: determine risk factors, predict blood use, benchmark blood use and optimise process efficiency. For each application, examples of research questions are given and analyses planned. Conclusions The DTD project aims to build a national, continuously updated transfusion data warehouse. These data have a wide range of applications, on the donor/production side, recipient studies on blood usage and benchmarking and donor–recipient studies, which ultimately can contribute to the efficiency and safety of blood transfusion. PMID:27491665

  10. LIGA Micromachining: Infrastructure Establishment

    SciTech Connect

    Alfredo M. Morales; Barry V. Hess; Dale R. Boehme; Jill M. Hruby; John S. Krafcik; Robert H. Nilson; Stewart K. Griffiths; William D. Bonivert

    1999-02-01

    LIGA is a micromachining technology that uses high energy x-rays from a synchrotron to create patterns with small lateral dimensions in a deep, non-conducting polymeric resist. Typical dimensions for LIGA parts are microns to tens of microns in lateral size, and hundreds of microns to millimeters in depth. Once the resist is patterned, metal is electrodeposited in the features to create metal microparts, or to create a metal mold for subsequent replication. The acronym LIGA comes from the German words for lithography, electroforming, and molding, and the technology has been under worldwide development for more than a decade. over the last five years, a full-service capability to produce metal microparts using the LIGA process has been established at Sandia national Laboratories, California. This report describes the accomplishments made during the past two years in infrastructure establishment funded by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''LIGA Micromachining.'' Specific topics include photoresist processing for LIGA mask making, x-ray scanning equipment, plating bath instrumentation, plating uniformity, and software architecture.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Menstrual Blood*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Heyi; Zhou, Bo; Prinz, Mechthild; Siegel, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Menstruation is the expulsion of the endometrial lining of the uterus following a nearly month long preparation for embryo implantation and pregnancy. Increasingly, the health of the endometrium is being recognized as a critical factor in female fertility, and proteomes and transcriptomes from endometrial biopsies at different stages of the menstrual cycle have been studied for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes (1 Kao, L. C., et al. 2003 Endocrinology 144, 2870–2881; Strowitzki, Tet al. 2006 Hum. Reprod. Update 12, 617–630; DeSouza, L., et al. 2005 Proteomics 5, 270–281). Disorders of the uterus ranging from benign to malignant tumors, as well as endometriosis, can cause abnormal menstrual bleeding and are frequently diagnosed through endometrial biopsy (Strowitzki, Tet al. 2006 Hum. Reprod. Update 12, 617–630; Ferenczy, A. 2003 Maturitas 45, 1–14). Yet the proteome of menstrual blood, an easily available noninvasive source of endometrial tissue, has yet to be examined for possible causes or diagnoses of infertility or endometrial pathology. This study employed five different methods to define the menstrual blood proteome. A total of 1061 proteins were identified, 361 were found by at least two methods and 678 were identified by at least two peptides. When the menstrual blood proteome was compared with those of circulating blood (1774 proteins) and vaginal fluid (823 proteins), 385 proteins were found unique to menstrual blood. Gene ontology analysis and evaluation of these specific menstrual blood proteins identified pathways consistent with the processes of the normal endometrial cycle. Several of the proteins unique to menstrual blood suggest that extramedullary uterine hematopoiesis or parenchymal hemoglobin synthesis may be occurring in late endometrial tissue. The establishment of a normal menstrual blood proteome is necessary for the evaluation of its usefulness as a diagnostic tool for infertility and uterine pathologies. Identification of

  12. Catalytic electron transport in Chromatium vinosum [NiFe]-hydrogenase: application of voltammetry in detecting redox-active centers and establishing that hydrogen oxidation is very fast even at potentials close to the reversible H+/H2 value.

    PubMed

    Pershad, H R; Duff, J L; Heering, H A; Duin, E C; Albracht, S P; Armstrong, F A

    1999-07-13

    The nickel-iron hydrogenase from Chromatium vinosum adsorbs at a pyrolytic graphite edge-plane (PGE) electrode and catalyzes rapid interconversion of H(+)((aq)) and H(2) at potentials expected for the half-cell reaction 2H(+) right arrow over left arrow H(2), i.e., without the need for overpotentials. The voltammetry mirrors characteristics determined by conventional methods, while affording the capabilities for exquisite control and measurement of potential-dependent activities and substrate-product mass transport. Oxidation of H(2) is extremely rapid; at 10% partial pressure H(2), mass transport control persists even at the highest electrode rotation rates. The turnover number for H(2) oxidation lies in the range of 1500-9000 s(-)(1) at 30 degrees C (pH 5-8), which is significantly higher than that observed using methylene blue as the electron acceptor. By contrast, proton reduction is slower and controlled by processes occurring in the enzyme. Carbon monoxide, which binds reversibly to the NiFe site in the active form, inhibits electrocatalysis and allows improved definition of signals that can be attributed to the reversible (non-turnover) oxidation and reduction of redox centers. One signal, at -30 mV vs SHE (pH 7.0, 30 degrees C), is assigned to the [3Fe-4S](+/0) cluster on the basis of potentiometric measurements. The second, at -301 mV and having a 1. 5-2.5-fold greater amplitude, is tentatively assigned to the two [4Fe-4S](2+/+) clusters with similar reduction potentials. No other redox couples are observed, suggesting that these two sets of centers are the only ones in CO-inhibited hydrogenase capable of undergoing simple rapid cycling of their redox states. With the buried NiFe active site very unlikely to undergo direct electron exchange with the electrode, at least one and more likely each of the three iron-sulfur clusters must serve as relay sites. The fact that H(2) oxidation is rapid even at potentials nearly 300 mV more negative than the reduction

  13. Establishing effective working relationships.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  14. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  15. Establishing a Presence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCandless, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    The basis for this successful collaboration was face-to-face communication. Though it was sometimes stressful being on the road so much, I really learned the importance of being present to work together and ask questions in person. Another measure of success was that in the midst of this project and traveling, my wife and I managed to start a family. My oldest boy got a real kick out of visiting Space Center Houston when he was two to learn all about the "face futtle" which goes way up in the sky. When practical, collocation and face-to-face communication on a project eliminate misunderstandings, establish relationships, make information more easily accessible, and promote a team atmosphere. Compromise is key to balancing both family and career goals. Knowing when to prioritize each is important to success in both aspects.

  16. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart ... it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the ...

  17. Protein S blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... family history of blood clots. Protein S helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  18. Protein C blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... history of blood clots. Protein C helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  19. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  20. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Low Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 30,2016 To know if you ... to learn more about blood pressure . If my blood pressure stays around 85/55, do I have a ...

  1. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Donation Information > Blood Donation Process Blood Donation Process Page Content Donating blood is a safe, simple, ... this test, as well as during the donation process, is sterile, used only once and then disposed. ...

  2. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States receive life-saving blood transfusions. During a transfusion, you receive whole blood or parts of blood ... liver failure or a severe infection. Most blood transfusions go very smoothly. Some infectious agents, such as ...

  3. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  4. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Aug 17,2016 Blood pressure is typically ... Your doctor should evaluate unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare ...

  5. Yeasts in spa establishments.

    PubMed

    Svorcová, L

    1982-05-01

    It was investigated occurrence of yeasts on bathsurfaces, in sauna rooms, in swimming and therapeutic pool water. The number of yeasts decreased depending on patients age, if the rooms were furnished with bath. The lowest contamination was found after bath of 40-60 years-old women. In the saunas were yeasts not found on the upper benches with temperature above 55 degrees C. Much higher counts on lower benches and wood mats with temperature 35-40 degrees C, on basin walls and bottom-up to 10(4)-10(6)/100 cm2. It was isolated 172 yeast strains. The occurrence of some selected strains is given in Table 7, with the toxic effect of disinfectants. The most strains were resistant to Peracetic acid and Chloramin B. Since most of the isolated and determinated strains were found in contaminated environment or during various diseases, the yeasts of the genus Cryptococcus, Candida, Rhodotorula, Torulopsis and Metschnikowia should not occur in bath establishment, and should be classified among indicators of contamination of environment including water. PMID:7124167

  6. Red blood cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Ford, J

    2013-06-01

    The foundation of laboratory hematologic diagnosis is the complete blood count and review of the peripheral smear. In patients with anemia, the peripheral smear permits interpretation of diagnostically significant red blood cell (RBC) findings. These include assessment of RBC shape, size, color, inclusions, and arrangement. Abnormalities of RBC shape and other RBC features can provide key information in establishing a differential diagnosis. In patients with microcytic anemia, RBC morphology can increase or decrease the diagnostic likelihood of thalassemia. In normocytic anemias, morphology can assist in differentiating among blood loss, marrow failure, and hemolysis-and in hemolysis, RBC findings can suggest specific etiologies. In macrocytic anemias, RBC morphology can help guide the diagnostic considerations to either megaloblastic or nonmegaloblastic causes. Like all laboratory tests, RBC morphologies must be interpreted with caution, particularly in infants and children. When used properly, RBC morphology can be a key tool for laboratory hematology professionals to recommend appropriate clinical and laboratory follow-up and to select the best tests for definitive diagnosis. PMID:23480230

  7. Red blood cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Ford, J

    2013-06-01

    The foundation of laboratory hematologic diagnosis is the complete blood count and review of the peripheral smear. In patients with anemia, the peripheral smear permits interpretation of diagnostically significant red blood cell (RBC) findings. These include assessment of RBC shape, size, color, inclusions, and arrangement. Abnormalities of RBC shape and other RBC features can provide key information in establishing a differential diagnosis. In patients with microcytic anemia, RBC morphology can increase or decrease the diagnostic likelihood of thalassemia. In normocytic anemias, morphology can assist in differentiating among blood loss, marrow failure, and hemolysis-and in hemolysis, RBC findings can suggest specific etiologies. In macrocytic anemias, RBC morphology can help guide the diagnostic considerations to either megaloblastic or nonmegaloblastic causes. Like all laboratory tests, RBC morphologies must be interpreted with caution, particularly in infants and children. When used properly, RBC morphology can be a key tool for laboratory hematology professionals to recommend appropriate clinical and laboratory follow-up and to select the best tests for definitive diagnosis.

  8. What Is Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 9% A+ 31% A- 6% B+ 9% B- 2% AB+ 3% AB- 1% Blood Group Compatibility There are very specific ways in which blood types must be matched for a safe transfusion. Rollover blood group to view compatibility. RED BLOOD CELLS WHOLE BLOOD PLASMA Donor O Group O can donate red blood ...

  9. Red blood cell damage by shear stress for different blood types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arwatz, Gilad; Bedkowski, Katherine; Smits, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    In surgical practice, blood damage caused by medical devices is often a limiting factor in the duration of an acute procedure or in chronic exposures such as hemodialysis. In order to establish guidelines for designing medical devices, a study was conducted to determine the relationship between shear stress and damage to red blood cells using a concentric Couette device. By measuring the hemolysis level for various shear stresses and exposure times, a non-dimensional relationship between shear stress and blood damage for different blood types was established. Funding provided by Princeton University's Project X.

  10. 21 CFR 606.171 - Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171 Section 606.171...) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.171 Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments,...

  11. 21 CFR 606.171 - Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171 Section 606.171...) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.171 Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments,...

  12. 21 CFR 606.171 - Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171 Section 606.171...) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.171 Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments,...

  13. 21 CFR 606.171 - Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171 Section 606.171...) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.171 Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments,...

  14. 21 CFR 606.171 - Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services. 606.171 Section 606.171...) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.171 Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood establishments,...

  15. Blood Vessels Form a Migratory Scaffold in the Rostral Migratory Stream

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Mary C.; Fan, Wen; Rela, Lorena; Rodriguez-Gil, Diego J.; Greer, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    In adult mice, new neurons born in the subventricular zone (SVZ), lining the lateral ventricles, migrate tangentially into the olfactory bulb along a well-delineated path, the Rostral Migratory Stream (RMS). Neuroblasts in the RMS migrate tangentially in chains, without a recognized migratory scaffold. Here, we quantitatively examine the distribution of, and relationships between, cells within the RMS, throughout its rostral-caudal extent. We show that there is a higher density of blood vessels in the RMS than in other brain regions, including areas with equal cell density, and that the orientation of blood vessels parallels the RMS throughout the caudal to rostral path. Of particular interest, migratory neuroblast chains are longitudinally aligned along blood vessels within the RMS, with over 80% of vessel length in rostral areas of the RMS apposed by neuroblasts. Electron micrographs show direct contact between endothelial cells and neuroblasts, although intervening astrocytic processes are often present. Within the RMS, astrocytes arborize extensively, extending long processes which are parallel to blood vessels and the direction of neuroblast migration. Thus, the astrocytic processes establish a longitudinal alignment within the RMS, rather than a more typical stellate shape. This complementary alignment suggests that blood vessels and astrocytes may cooperatively establish a scaffold for migrating neuroblasts, as well as provide and regulate migratory cues. PMID:19575445

  16. Measurement and interpretation of arterial blood gases.

    PubMed

    Syabbalo, N

    1997-01-01

    Arterial blood gases and pH are routinely being measured in clinical practice, both to provide diagnosis and to guide therapy in critically ill patients. Oximetry is clinically useful in establishing the presence of hypoxaemia in patients with respiratory diseases. Oximetry is also a simple and reliable method for monitoring patients undergoing anaesthesia, sleep studies and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The search continues for new innovative techniques for continuous transcutaneous and intra-arterial blood gas monitoring. This is essential in the management of critically ill patients because blood analysers provide only intermittent monitoring of arterial blood gases. PMID:9293061

  17. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  18. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  19. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  20. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  1. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure What Is High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a common disease in ... the heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes. Types of High Blood Pressure There are two main types of high blood ...

  2. Blood cell findings resembling Bartonella spp.

    PubMed

    Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Cintra, Maria Letícia; Ferreira, Marilucia Ruggiero Martins; Magalhães, Renata Ferreira; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2010-02-01

    Some Bartonella species are able to invade red blood cells (RBC) and may cause persistent infection in the susceptible host. Use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrates, inside erythrocytes, the typical triple-walled agents. However, when examining ultrathin sections of blood cells, the authors have, on several occasions, detected intraerythrocytic abnormalities that mimic but are not typical of Bartonella spp. Small endovesicles, pseudoinclusions, cavities, and irregular hemoglobin granules distribution, resulting in regions of increased or decreased electron density, may be observed in the erythrocytes and platelets, which may be confused with bartonellas. So far, detailed ultrastructural findings of Bartonella spp. in blood cells have not yet been described. Aiming to improve TEM interpretation of blood cells changes, in routine examination of blood sections of patients with suspected bartonellosis, the authors studied the morphological findings they have observed, and present their putative nature, according to information in the literature.

  3. Blood vessels and red blood cells preserved in dinosaur bones.

    PubMed

    Pawlicki, R; Nowogrodzka-Zagórska, M

    1998-02-01

    Dinosaur bones, 80 million years old, were studied in the scanning electron microscope, and subjected to X-ray microanalysis. Samples for the investigations were prepared according to specially elaborated, and simultaneously described methods. Analysed were (a) the morphological structure of the blood vessels and (b) the remains of their contents. The walls of the blood vessels were found to be morphologically identical with those in present-day reptiles. Bodies were found at several places inside the vessels which strongly remind one of erythrocytes in modern bones. X-ray microanalysis of places where these bodies were accumulated revealed much higher levels of iron, than at any other regions of the blood-vessel wall. Further analysis of the "dinosaur erythrocyte" iron content could be a starting point for the possible determination of oxygen in the earth's atmosphere, 80 million years ago.

  4. Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine.

    PubMed

    Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A; Kamshilin, Alexei A; Närhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology. PMID:24324592

  5. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  6. Korean Studies on Blood Stasis: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Lee, Ju Ah; Yun, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Blood stasis is one of the important pathological concepts in Korean medicine. We analyzed the Korean studies concerning blood stasis. We searched for articles in eight electronic databases from their inception to September, 2014. We included reviews, clinical studies, and preclinical studies that had studied blood stasis and excluded articles in which blood stasis was not mentioned or in which the original authors had not explained blood stasis. Of 211 total included studies, 19 were reviews, 52 were clinical studies, and 140 were preclinical articles. “Stagnant blood within the body” was the most frequently mentioned phrase of the traditional concept of blood stasis. Traumatic injury was the most frequently studied disease/condition in the clinical studies. In the preclinical studies, coagulopathy was studied most frequently, followed by hyperviscosity, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, neoplasm, ischemic brain injury, and atherosclerosis. Hyeolbuchukeo-tang and Angelicae Gigantis Radix were the most frequent formula and single herb, respectively, used in the blood stasis researches. The results showed that blood stasis was mainly recognized as disorder of circulation and many studies showed the effectiveness of activating blood circulating herbs for diseases and pathologies such as traumatic injury or coagulopathy. Further studies are needed in the pathologic mechanisms and various diseases of blood stasis. PMID:25821483

  7. [Blood transfusion and supply chain management safety].

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Jean-François; Caldani, Cyril; Cabaud, Jean-Jacques; Chavarin, Patricia; Rochette-Eribon, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    The level of safety attained in blood transfusion now makes this a discipline better managed care activities. This was achieved both by scientific advances and policy decisions regulating and supervising the activity, as well as by the quality system, which we recall that affects the entire organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources in place to achieve quality management. So, an effective quality system provides a framework within which activities are established, performed in a quality-focused way and continuously monitored to improve outcomes. This system quality has to irrigate all the actors of the transfusion, just as much the establishments of blood transfusion than the health establishments. PMID:25578550

  8. [Blood transfusion and supply chain management safety].

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Jean-François; Caldani, Cyril; Cabaud, Jean-Jacques; Chavarin, Patricia; Rochette-Eribon, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    The level of safety attained in blood transfusion now makes this a discipline better managed care activities. This was achieved both by scientific advances and policy decisions regulating and supervising the activity, as well as by the quality system, which we recall that affects the entire organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources in place to achieve quality management. So, an effective quality system provides a framework within which activities are established, performed in a quality-focused way and continuously monitored to improve outcomes. This system quality has to irrigate all the actors of the transfusion, just as much the establishments of blood transfusion than the health establishments.

  9. Blood Donation by Elderly Repeat Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Thomas; Lander-Kox, Jutta; Alt, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Upper age limits for blood donors are intended to protect elderly blood donors from donor reactions. However, due to a lack of data about adverse reactions in elderly blood donors, upper age limits are arbitrary and vary considerably between different countries. Methods Here we present data from 171,231 voluntary repeat whole blood donors beyond the age of 68 years. Results Blood donations from repeat blood donors beyond the age of 68 years increased from 2,114 in 2005 to 38,432 in 2012 (from 0,2% to 4.2% of all whole blood donations). Adverse donor reactions in repeat donors decreased with age and were lower than in the whole group (0.26%), even in donors older than 71 years (0.16%). However, from the age of 68 years, the time to complete recovery after donor reactions increased. Donor deferrals were highest in young blood donors (21.4%), but increased again in elderly blood donors beyond 71 years (12.6%). Conclusion Blood donation by regular repeat blood donors older than 71 years may be safely continued. However, due to a lack of data for donors older than 75 years, blood donation in these donors should be handled with great caution. PMID:25254019

  10. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps out blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. ...

  11. Coughing up blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastrointestinal tract. Blood that comes up with a cough often looks bubbly because it is mixed with ... conditions, diseases, and medical tests may make you cough up blood. These include: Blood clot in the ...

  12. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  13. Ketones blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  14. Magnesium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  15. CEA blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  16. Postpartum Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression The risk of developing blood clots (thrombophlebitis) is ... Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: Click ...

  17. Blood Test: Testosterone

    MedlinePlus

    ... secretes two hormones (luteinizing hormone, or LH; and follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH) that work together to ... TOPIC Blood Test: Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Blood Test: Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Blood Test: Estradiol Precocious Puberty ...

  18. Blood Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... manufacturers commonly produce these blood products. Top What fees are associated with blood? While donated blood is ... donors; and quality assurance. As a result, processing fees are charged to recover costs. Processing fees for ...

  19. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  20. Blood Type Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  1. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III): A research program striving to improve blood donor and transfusion recipient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Steven; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Shan, Hua; Ness, Paul; Glynn, Simone A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study -III (REDS-III) is a 7-year multicenter transfusion safety research initiative launched in 2011 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Study design The domestic component involves 4 blood centers, 12 hospitals, a data coordinating center, and a central laboratory. The international component consists of distinct programs in Brazil, China, and South Africa which involve US and in-country investigators. Results REDS-III is using two major methods to address key research priorities in blood banking/transfusion medicine. First, there will be numerous analyses of large “core” databases; the international programs have each constructed a donor/donation database while the domestic program has established a detailed research database that links data from blood donors and their donations, the components made from these donations, and data extracts from the electronic medical records of the recipients of these components. Secondly, there are more than 25 focused research protocols involving transfusion recipients, blood donors, or both that are either in progress or scheduled to begin within the next 3 years. Areas of study include transfusion epidemiology and blood utilization; transfusion outcomes; non-infectious transfusion risks; HIV-related safety issues (particularly in the international programs); emerging infectious agents; blood component quality; donor health and safety; and other donor issues. Conclusions It is intended that REDS-III serve as an impetus for more widespread recipient and linked donor-recipient research in the US as well as to help assure a safe and available blood supply in the US and in international locations. PMID:24188564

  2. Blood stain pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Peschel, O; Kunz, S N; Rothschild, M A; Mützel, E

    2011-09-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) refers to the collection, categorization and interpretation of the shape and distribution of bloodstains connected with a crime. These kinds of stains occur in a considerable proportion of homicide cases. They offer extensive information and are an important part of a functional, medically and scientifically based reconstruction of a crime. The following groups of patterns can essentially be distinguished: dripped and splashed blood, projected blood, impact patterns, cast-off stains, expirated and transferred bloodstains. A highly qualified analysis can help to estimate facts concerning the location, quality and intensity of an external force. A sequence of events may be recognized, and detailed questions connected with the reconstruction of the crime might be answered. In some cases, BPA helps to distinguish between accident, homicide and suicide or to identify bloodstains originating from a perpetrator. BPA is based on systematic training, a visit to the crime scene or alternatively good photographic documentation, and an understanding and knowledge of autopsy findings or statements made by the perpetrator and/or victim. A BPA working group has been established within the German Society of Legal Medicine aiming to put the knowledge and practical applications of this subdiscipline of forensic science on a wider basis. PMID:21069481

  3. Blood transfusion and coagulation management.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Despite impressive progress in surgical technique, aortic surgery is still associated with relatively high morbidity and mortality. One of the most important contributors to this phenomenon is the triad of bleeding, anemia, and transfusion. All three factors are known to influence the outcome of aortic surgery to a great extent. However, over the last few years a multidisciplinary, multimodal concept has been established, which enables the physician to avoid bleeding, anemia, and transfusion as much as possible. The concept of "patient blood management" combines several established measures with the potential to improve perioperative outcome. This chapter describes these measures with regard to aortic surgery and assesses their respective efficacy. PMID:27650346

  4. Blood Test: Estradiol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testosterone Blood Test: Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Blood Test: Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Understanding Early Sexual Development Precocious Puberty Understanding Puberty Endocrine System Getting a ...

  5. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure. Objectives The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We extracted data regarding trial

  6. 9 CFR 332.3 - Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; ineligible establishments. 332.3 Section 332.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... SHIPMENT OF CARCASSES, PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.3 Requirements for... supervisory and non-supervisory, employed by the establishment on a full-time, part-time, or temporary...

  7. 9 CFR 332.3 - Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; ineligible establishments. 332.3 Section 332.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... SHIPMENT OF CARCASSES, PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.3 Requirements for... supervisory and non-supervisory, employed by the establishment on a full-time, part-time, or temporary...

  8. 9 CFR 332.3 - Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments. 332.3 Section 332.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  9. Polarized Electron Source Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Charles K. Sinclair

    1990-02-23

    Presently, only two methods of producing beams of polarized electrons for injection into linear accelerators are in use. Each of these methods uses optical pumping by circularly polarized light to produce electron polarization. In one case, electron polarization is established in metastable helium atoms, while in the other case, the polarized electrons are produced in the conduction band of appropriate semiconductors. The polarized electrons are liberated from the helium metastable by chemi-ionization, and from the semiconductors by lowering the work function at the surface of the material. Developments with each of these sources since the 1988 Spin Physics Conference are reviewed, and the prospects for further improvements discussed.

  10. Glycerol monooleate-blood interactions.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Emma M; Faxälv, Lars; Weissenrieder, Anna; Askendal, Agneta; Lindahl, Tomas L; Tengvall, Pentti

    2009-01-01

    In the present study the initial blood compatibility of glycerol monooleate (GMO)-coated surfaces was evaluated after deposition to surfaces and in bulk. The model surface was silica onto which multiple layers of fibrinogen or human serum albumin (HSA) was immobilized. The protein-coated surfaces were subsequently dip-coated in GMO in ethanol and used for blood plasma and whole blood experiments. The characterization methods included null ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, imaging of coagulation, hemolysis test and whole blood coagulation time by free oscillation rheometry. The results showed a GMO film thickness of approximately 350 A (approximately 4 microg/cm(2)) upon dip-coating in ethanolic solution. A major part of the deposited layer detached in aqueous solutions, especially during shear conditions. The coagulation time on GMO was significantly prolonged compared to that on HSA coated silica. Whole blood tests showed that GMO is a very weak hemolytic agent. Deposited GMO detached easily from surfaces upon rinsing or shearing, although a stable layer with undefined phase structure and a thickness of 50-70 A remained on HSA and fibrinogen precoated surfaces. This indicates that GMO has stronger adhesive forces to its substrate compared to the cohesive forces acting within the bulk GMO. The ability of GMO to detach from itself and tentatively form micelles or lipid bilayers when subjected to flowing blood may be of use in extravascular applications. It is concluded that GMO results in weak blood activation, and the material may in spite of this be suitable in selected biomaterial applications, especially as a biosealant and in colloidal dispersions.

  11. Do blood-borne calcifying nanoparticles self-propagate?

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Grace; McKay, David S; Çiftçioglu, Neva

    2008-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry is currently in the process of producing new nanoparticles. The biological activity of nanoparticles including adverse as well as beneficial effects tends to increase as their size decreases. The smaller the particles are, the greater their bioactivity and toxicity. Thus, one can easily conjecture the impact of a nanoparticle if it could also self-replicate. This in vitro study reveals the self-propagating ability of unique calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) that can be as small as 50 nm in size and found in blood, blood products, and calcified soft tissues. Although specific detection techniques, morphological characteristics and biomineralizing properties of CNP are well established, their genomic information and self-propagating capability have always been challenged. The objective of this study is to document the propagation of CNP under physiological conditions, using inverted light microscopy (LM) and the Biostation IM time-lapse imaging system. Their detailed morphological structure was examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. This present study, in conjunction with previous findings of metabolic activity, antibiotic sensitivity, antibody specificity, morphological aspects and infectivity, validates CNP as self-replicators. Therefore these sterile-filterable, blood-borne nanoparticles should be of concern to the nanomedicine industry. PMID:18686786

  12. Do blood-borne calcifying nanoparticles self-propagate?

    PubMed

    Mathew, Grace; Mckay, David S; Ciftçioglu, Neva

    2008-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry is currently in the process of producing new nanoparticles. The biological activity of nanoparticles including adverse as well as beneficial effects tends to increase as their size decreases. The smaller the particles are, the greater their bioactivity and toxicity. Thus, one can easily conjecture the impact ofa nanoparticle if it could also self-replicate. This in vitro study reveals the self-propagating ability of unique calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) that can be as small as 50 nm in size and found in blood, blood products, and calcified soft tissues. Although specific detection techniques, morphological characteristics and biomineralizing properties of CNP are well established, their genomic information and self-propagating capability have always been challenged. The objective of this study is to document the propagation of CNP under physiological conditions, using inverted light microscopy (LM) and the Biostation IM time-lapse imaging system. Their detailed morphological structure was examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. This present study, in conjunction with previous findings of metabolic activity, antibiotic sensitivity, antibody specificity, morphological aspects and infectivity, validates CNP as self-replicators. Therefore these sterile-filterable, blood-borne nanoparticles should be of concern to the nanomedicine industry. PMID:18686786

  13. 75 FR 36060 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Blood and Tissue...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... Collection; Blood and Tissue Collection at Slaughtering and Rendering Establishments AGENCY: Animal and Plant... collection associated with regulations for blood and tissue collection at slaughtering and rendering... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for blood and tissue collection...

  14. BUN - blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  15. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... laboratory and separated into components (red blood cells, plasma and sometimes into platelets and cryoprecipitate). After processing, the red blood cells can be stored for up to 42 days. Apheresis An apheresis blood donation is one where the blood goes through a special machine ...

  16. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Description of High Blood Pressure Español High blood pressure is a common disease ... defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom ...

  17. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  18. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    SciTech Connect

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  19. 9 CFR 381.513 - Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... establishment from a temporary employee agency, professional employee organization, or leasing concern whose... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY..., part-time, or temporary basis whose duties involve handling the poultry products prepared by...

  20. NADH augments blood flow in physiologically activated retina and visual cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ido, Yasuo; Chang, Katherine; Williamson, Joseph R.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism(s) that increase retinal and visual cortex blood flows in response to visual stimulation are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that increased transfer of electrons and protons from glucose to cytosolic free NAD+, reducing it to NADH, evoked by increased energy metabolism, fuels redox-signaling pathways that augment flow. The near-equilibrium between free cytosolic NADH/NAD+ and lactate/pyruvate ratios established by lactate dehydrogenase predicts that transfer of additional electrons and protons from injected lactate to NAD+ will augment the elevated blood flows in stimulated retina and cortex, whereas transfer of electrons and protons from NADH to injected pyruvate will attenuate the elevated flows. These predictions were tested and confirmed in rats. Increased flows evoked by stimulation also were prevented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. These findings support an important role for cytosolic free NADH in fueling a signaling cascade that increases NO production, which augments blood flow in photostimulated retina and visual cortex.

  1. The Molecular Control of Blood Cell Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Leo

    1987-12-01

    The establishment of a cell culture system for the clonal development of blood cells has made it possible to identify the proteins that regulate the growth and differentiation of different blood cell lineages and to discover the molecular basis of normal and abnormal cell development in blood forming tissues. A model system with myeloid blood cells has shown that (i) normal blood cells require different proteins to induce cell multiplication (growth inducers) and cell differentiation (differentiation inducers), (ii) there is a hierarchy of growth inducers as cells become more restricted in their developmental program, and (iii) a cascade of interactions between proteins determines the correct balance between immature and mature cells in normal blood cell development. Gene cloning has shown that there is a family of different genes for these proteins. Normal protein regulators of blood cell development can control the abnormal growth of certain types of leukemic cells and suppress malignancy by incuding differentiation to mature nondividing cells. Chromosome abnormalities that give rise to malignancy in these leukemic cells can be bypassed and their effects nullified by inducing differentiation, which stops cells from multiplying. These blood cell regulatory proteins are active in culture and in the body, and they can be used clinically to correct defects in blood cell development.

  2. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  3. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Health Information Center High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy What Is High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is ... Are the Effects of High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy? Although many pregnant women with high blood pressure ...

  4. Blood Component Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kelton, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Human blood has been transfused for about 60-70 years. Over this time, the practice of blood transfusion has changed dramatically. One major change is the separation of blood into its various components. As a result, the patient can receive only the blood component in which he is deficient. In this way, the risk of side effects—particularly hepatitis—is lessened. This article briefly reviews the various blood products, the indications for their use, and some associated risks. These products include oxygen-carrying products, plasma products, blood products used to correct hemostatic defects, and immune globulin. PMID:21279096

  5. Relativistic electrons in space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simnett, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    This paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning relativistic electrons, above 0.3 MeV, in interplanetary space, as measured by detectors on board satellites operating beyond the influence of the magnetosphere. The electrons have a galactic component, which at the lower energies is subject both to solar modulation and to spasmodic 'quiet time' increases and a direct solar component correlated with flare activity. The recent measurements have established the form of the differential energy spectrum of solar flare electrons. Electrons have been detected from flares behind the visible solar disk. Relativistic electrons do not appear to leave the sun at the time of the flash phase of the flare, although there are several signatures of electron acceleration at this time. The delay is interpreted as taking place during the transport of the electrons through the lower corona.

  6. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, ... failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  7. Low blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    Hypotension; Blood pressure - low; Postprandial hypotension; Orthostatic hypotension; Neurally mediated hypotension; NMH ... Blood pressure varies from one person to another. A drop as little as 20 mmHg, can cause problems for ...

  8. Lyme disease blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . If the ELISA test is positive, it must be confirmed with another ... were seen in your blood sample. If the ELISA test is negative, usually no other testing is needed. ...

  9. Haptoglobin blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver. It attaches to a certain type of hemoglobin in the blood. How the Test is Performed ... destroyed. When red blood cells die, they release hemoglobin. Haptoglobin attaches to this released hemoglobin, which is ...

  10. Blood and Diversity

    MedlinePlus

    ... type O negative blood, in particular, is the universal type needed for emergency transfusions. Minority and diverse ... levels. “I was deferred from giving blood 10 times or more.” However, in October 2005 Rosalyn’s iron ...

  11. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... help to clot the blood and control bleeding. Plasma , the pale yellow liquid part of whole blood. ... patients with bleeding problems, transfusions with platelets or plasma can help to control or prevent bleeding complications. ...

  12. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure to live. Without it, blood can't flow through our bodies and carry oxygen to our vital organs. But when blood pressure gets too high — a condition called hypertension — it can lead to ...

  13. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Donating Blood > Donation Process Printable Version Donation Process View Video Getting Ready for Your Donation The ... worry about. Make a Donation Appointment The Donation Process Step by Step Donating blood is a simple ...

  14. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  15. Blood pressure check (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more often referred to as a blood pressure cuff. The cuff is wrapped around your upper arm and inflated ... flow of blood in your artery. As the cuff is slowly deflated, your doctor uses a stethoscope ...

  16. Blood Sugar and Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... a deciliter) of blood, or mg/dL. Measuring Triglycerides Triglyceride levels in the blood rise quickly after you ... with HIV disease have unusually high levels of triglycerides. This is especially true for people taking protease ...

  17. CBC blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and fluids, such as from severe diarrhea, excessive sweating, or water pills used to treat high blood pressure Kidney disease with high erythropoietin production Low oxygen level in the blood for a long time, most ...

  18. Where to Donate Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... HUB AABB Professional Engagement Program (PEP) Association Bulletins Governance and Policies Membership Directory Team Sites Blood FAQ ... Blood Foundation Hemovigilance Membership AABB HUB Membership Directory Corporate Supporters Advertise Copyright © AABB. Privacy Statement | Terms of ...

  19. Osmolality - blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood becomes high, the body releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH). This hormone causes the kidneys to reabsorb water. ... fall back to normal. Low blood osmolality suppresses ADH. This reduces how much water the kidneys reabsorb. ...

  20. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure with the development of a practical method to measure it. Physicians began to note associations between hypertension and risk of heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Although scientists had yet to prove that lowering blood pressure ...

  1. Blood Culture Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to detect the presence of bacteria or fungi in the blood, to identify the type present, ... blood cultures to detect and identify bacteria and fungi. Other related tests that may be performed include: ...

  2. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... re needed. Blood also collects waste products, like carbon dioxide, and takes them to the organs responsible for ... carry oxygen to the body's tissues and remove carbon dioxide. Red blood cells make up about 40%–45% ...

  3. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  4. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  5. Blood Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to Top Facts about the blood donation process Donating blood is a safe process. A sterile needle is used only once for ... discarded. Blood donation is a simple four-step process: registration, medical history and mini-physical, donation and ...

  6. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... En Español Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...

  7. Indian Supreme Court demands cleaner blood supply.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S

    1996-01-13

    The government of India recently admitted in parliament that 25% of the country's blood banks remain unlicensed. The Supreme Court has directed the government to establish a National Council for Blood Transfusion in an attempt to curb malpractice, malfunctioning, and corruption in the national blood banking system, and to ensure a safe blood supply. Furthermore, the Court advised the government to enact separate legislation for regulating the collection, processing, storage, distribution, and transportation of blood and the operation of blood banks. Legal action will be taken if any blood banks remain ill equipped or unlicensed after the period of one year. Agencies have been directed to take steps to eliminate professional blood selling within two years. They have also been asked to ensure that there are trained drug inspectors to check upon the banks. To boost funding for the councils, the government has been advised to allow 100% exemption upon income tax to those who donate money to the organizations. The Director General of Health Services has been asked to submit a report on action taken by July 16, 1996, to ensure compliance.

  8. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement in mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Minjie; DiPetrillo, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a leading cause of heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure and represents a serious medical issue worldwide. The genetic basis of hypertension is well-established, but few causal genes have been identified thus far. Non-invasive blood pressure measurements are a critical component of high-throughput genetic studies to identify genes controlling blood pressure. Whereas this technique is fairly routine for blood pressure measurements in rats, non-invasive blood pressure measurement in mice has proven to be more challenging. This chapter describes an experimental protocol measuring blood pressure in mice using a CODA non-invasive blood pressure monitoring system. This method enables accurate blood pressure phenotyping in mice for linkage or mutagenesis studies, as well as for other experiments requiring high-throughput blood pressure measurement.

  9. [Autologous blood transfusion].

    PubMed

    Rosencher, N; Conseiller, C

    2001-06-30

    Autologous blood transfusion techniques are the principal means of reducing allogeneic blood exposure. Those techniques were developed in order to prevent the risk of contamination by viruses, mainly HVB, HCV and HIV. However that risk has become so small that all studies show an exorbitant cost/efficiency ratio. Autologous blood transfusion would therefore be of no interest in terms of public health but a recent experimental study suggested a possible transmission of the BSE agent through blood. Until the matter is settled, the precaution principle means we should prefer alternative techniques to allogeneic blood whenever possible, hence a renewed interest in autologous transfusion. PMID:11503506

  10. Electron radiography

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  11. Establishing a Local Education Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, James S.; Markland, Maureen S.

    This paper describes the process of establishing local education foundations for the purpose of raising revenues to supplement, not supplant, existing school programs. Plans to identify funding sources and define the purpose of the foundation tied to student and academic achievement must emerge in order to solicit private individuals or groups,…

  12. Methods for improving PGPR establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are often touted as a useful means to improve crop productivity and sustainability. However, field studies with PGPR inoculants often result in limited PGPR establishment and colonization, highlighting the need to better understand the factors involved in...

  13. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Time for collaborative learning is an essential resource for educators working to implement college- and career-ready standards. The pages in this article include tools from the workbook "Establishing Time for Professional Learning." The tools support a complete process to help educators effectively find and use time. The following…

  14. Establishing Rapport with Deviant Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Richard A.; Adams, Joseph M.

    1970-01-01

    Techniques recommended for establishing and maintaining rapport with deviant groups focus on overcoming problems of social distance and mistrust. Although based on experience with juvenile delinquents and drug addicts, the suggestions made are held to offer potential for wider applicability. (RJ)

  15. Establishing Community College Honors Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, James

    Drawing from a literature review and survey of community colleges with honors programs, this paper presents a series of recommended strategies and tactics for the establishment and continuation of community college honors programs. The recommendations are structured around the five developmental stages of academic innovation identified by S. V.…

  16. On Establishing Underlying Tonal Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Phonological field work is largely about establishing contrast in comparable environments. The notion of phonological contrast, however, can be confusing, particularly in its application to tone analysis. Does it mean phonemic contrast in the structuralist sense, or does it mean underlying contrast in the generative sense? Many linguists, in…

  17. [A model of blood pressure measurement which based on NN with raised accuracy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiqi

    2011-07-01

    To address the accuracy problem of the oscillometric method in electronic blood pressure monitor, this paper introduces a more accurate new blood pressure measurement model, which based on ANN. And simulation checking method is put forward.

  18. Blood groups systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-01-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  19. Blood groups systems.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-09-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  20. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels (also ... sugar levels. continue How to Check Blood Sugar Levels Blood glucose testing is easier, less painful, and ...

  1. Radiation dose from reentrant electrons.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Watts, J; Cleghorn, T E

    2001-06-01

    In estimating the crew exposures during an extra vehicular activity (EVA), the contribution of reentrant electrons has always been neglected. Although the flux of these electrons is small compared to the flux of trapped electrons, their energy spectrum extends to several GeV compared to about 7 MeV for trapped electrons. This is also true of splash electrons. Using the measured reentrant electron energy spectra, it is shown that the dose contribution of these electrons to the blood forming organs (BFO) is more that 10 times greater than that from the trapped electrons. The calculations also show that the dose-depth response is a very slowly changing function of depth, and thus adding reasonable amounts of additional shielding would not significantly lower the dose to BFO. PMID:11855420

  2. Radiation Dose from Reentrant Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G.D.; Cleghorn, T. E.; Watts, J.

    2003-01-01

    In estimating the crew exposures during an EVA, the contribution of reentrant electrons has always been neglected. Although the flux of these electrons is small compared to the flux of trapped electrons, their energy spectrum extends to several GeV compared to about 7 MeV for trapped electrons. This is also true of splash electrons. Using the measured reentrant electron energy spectra, it is shown that the dose contribution of these electrons to the blood forming organs (BFO) is more than 10 times greater than that from the trapped electrons. The calculations also show that the dose-depth response is a very slowly changing function of depth, and thus adding reasonable amounts of additional shielding would not significantly lower the dose to BFO.

  3. Blood porphyrin luminescence and tumor growth correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courrol, Lilia Coronato; Silva, Flávia Rodrigues de Oliveira; Bellini, Maria Helena; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Schor, Nestor; Vieira, Nilson Dias, Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Fluorescence technique appears very important for the diagnosis of cancer. Fluorescence detection has advantages over other light-based investigation methods: high sensitivity, high speed, and safety. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3% of new cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. Unfortunately many RCC masses remain asymptomatic and nonpalpable until they are advanced. Diagnosis and localization of early carcinoma play an important role in the prevention and curative treatment of RCC. Certain drugs or chemicals such as porphyrin derivatives accumulate substantially more in tumors than normal tissues. The autofluorescence of blood porphyrin of healthy and tumor induced male SCID mice was analyzed using fluorescence and excitation spectroscopy. A significant contrast between normal and tumor blood could be established. Blood porphyrin fluorophore showed enhanced fluorescence band (around 630 nm) in function of the tumor growth. This indicates that either the autofluorescence intensity of the blood fluorescence may provide a good parameter for the "first approximation" characterization of the tumor stage.

  4. Blood Far Forward--a whole blood research and training program for austere environments.

    PubMed

    Strandenes, Geir; Cap, Andrew P; Cacic, Daniel; Lunde, Turid Helen Felli; Eliassen, Håkon Skogrand; Hervig, Tor; Spinella, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    The Blood Far Forward (BFF) research program was established to conduct blood product efficacy and safety studies, donor performance studies, and research on optimal training methods to improve the safety of blood collection and transfusion performed by Norwegian Naval Special Operation Commando soldiers. The use of intravenous fluids for volume replacement during hemorrhagic shock is controversial, but it is currently the standard of care. In the far-forward environment, large volume resuscitation for massive bleeding is a great challenge. Crystalloid and colloid solutions add weight and bulk to the medic's kit, require temperature sensitive storage, and should be warmed before infusion to prevent hypothermia. Excessive use of these solutions causes a dilutional coagulopathy, acidosis, and potentially increased inflammatory injury compared with blood products. Type-specific whole blood from an uninjured combat companion on the other hand is almost always available. It is warm, replaces intravascular volume, and provides oxygen delivery and hemostatic capacity to prevent or treat shock and coagulopathy. Whole blood may be ideal for the resuscitation of combat casualties with hemorrhagic shock. BFF program pilot studies on use of platelet-sparing leukoreduction filters, whole blood transport tolerance, donor performance, and autologous reinfusion of 24-hour ambient temperature stored whole blood have been performed and suggest the feasibility of expanding whole blood use in resuscitation. If successful, the BFF program will change tactics, techniques, and procedures with a new lifesaving capability.

  5. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE. PMID:27120626

  6. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J.; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE. PMID:27120626

  7. Non-respiratory blood vessels in Latimeria gill filaments

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, W. O. P.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the blood pathways within the gills of Latimeria has been carried out using light and transmission electron microscopy. Clear evidence has been found for the presence of a secondary non-respiratory circulation in addition to the well-established respiratory pathway through the gill lamellae. All essential components of this system have been observed and have the same relationships and basic structure as comparable secondary systems in actinopterygian and elasmobranch fishes. These include a central venous sinus (CVS), arterio-venous anastomoses (AVAs) and central filament arteries (CFAs). AVAs connect both arterial vessels of the primary circulation and CFAs of the secondary circulation to the CVS. The latter contained many red blood cells. The presence of this secondary circulation in Latimeria gills contrasts with the situation in the gills of the three living genera of lungfishes where a system possessing the essential features of the tetrapod lymphatic vessel system has been recognized. No suggestions of a true lymphatic vessel system were observed in Latimeria. Other features of gill and vascular anatomy in Latimeria show its closer relationship to dipnoans than other groups of living fishes but evidence derived from this study of the secondary circulation clearly supports the view that the Dipnoi rather than Latimeria represent the living fishes most closely related to the tetrapods.

  8. Blood histamine release: A new allergy blood test

    SciTech Connect

    Faraj, B.A.; Gottlieb, G.R.; Camp, V.M.; Lollies, P.

    1985-05-01

    Allergen-mediated histamine release from human leukocytes represents an important model for in vitro studies of allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the measurement of histamine released in allergic patients (pts) by radioenzymatic assay following mixing of their blood with common allergens represents a reliable index for diagnosis of atopic allergy. Three categories of allergies were used: (1) housedust and mite; (2) cat and dog dander; (3) trees and grasses and ragweed mixture. The presence of allergy was established by intradermal skin testing in the study group of 82 pts. Significant atopy was defined as greater than or equal to 3+ (overall range 0-4 +, negative to maximum) on skin testing. The test was carried out in tubes with 0.5 ml heparinized blood, 0.5 ml tris albumin buffer, and one of the allergens (60-100 PNU/ml). In 20 controls without allergy, there always was less than or equal to 4% histamine release (normal response). A significant allergen-mediated histamine release, ranging from 12 to 30% of the total blood histamine content, was observed in 96% of the pts with skin test sensitivity of greater than or equal to 3+. There was good agreement between skin testing and histamine release in terms of the allergen causing the response. Thus, measurement of histamine release in blood in response to allergen challenge represents a clinically useful in vitro test for the diagnosis of atopic allergy. Because data can be obtained from a single sample and are highly quantitative, this new method should have application to the longitudinal study of allergic pts and to the assessment of interventions.

  9. Brain neuroprotection by scavenging blood glutamate.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Alexander; Gurevich, Boris; Tkachov, Sergei; Maoz, Ilana; Shapira, Yoram; Teichberg, Vivian I

    2007-01-01

    Excess glutamate in brain fluids characterizes acute brain insults such as traumatic brain injury and stroke. Its removal could prevent the glutamate excitotoxicity that causes long-lasting neurological deficits. As blood glutamate scavenging has been demonstrated to increase the efflux of excess glutamate from brain into blood, we tested the prediction that oxaloacetate-mediated blood glutamate scavenging causes neuroprotection in a pathological situation such as closed head injury (CHI), in which there is a well established deleterious increase of glutamate in brain fluids. We observed highly significant improvements of the neurological status of rats submitted to CHI following an intravenous treatment with 1 mmol oxaloacetate/100 g rat weight which decreases blood glutamate levels by 40%. No detectable therapeutic effect was obtained when rats were treated IV with 1 mmol oxaloacetate together with 1 mmol glutamate/100 g rat. The treatment with 0.005 mmol/100 g rat oxaloacetate was no more effective than saline but when it was combined with the intravenous administration of 0.14 nmol/100 g of recombinant glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, recovery was almost complete. Oxaloacetate provided neuroprotection when administered before CHI or at 60 min post CHI but not at 120 min post CHI. Since neurological recovery from CHI was highly correlated with the decrease of blood glutamate levels (r=0.89, P=0.001), we conclude that blood glutamate scavenging affords brain neuroprotection Blood glutamate scavenging may open now new therapeutic options.

  10. Blood flow boosts BMP signaling to keep vessels in shape.

    PubMed

    Franco, Claudio A; Gerhardt, Holger

    2016-09-26

    Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and blood flow regulate vascular remodeling and homeostasis. In this issue, Baeyens et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201603106) show that blood flow sensitizes endothelial cells to BMP9 signaling by triggering Alk1/ENG complexing to suppress cell proliferation and to recruit mural cells, thereby establishing endothelial quiescence. PMID:27672213

  11. Electron cooling of electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.J.

    1993-09-01

    Electron cooling of electron (and positron) sources may be important for future linear collider applications. In order to cool electrons with electrons, an intermediary positron beam must be employed, since it is impossible to merge two beams of identical particles into the cooling straight. By adjusting the beta functions of the electron and positron lattices appropriately, the final emittance of the stored electron beam can be made less than the emittance of the cooling electron beam. This paper will discuss accelerator physics issues relating to an electron-cooled electron beam source.

  12. The evolution of perioperative transfusion testing and blood ordering.

    PubMed

    White, Marissa J; Hazard, Sprague W; Frank, Steven M; Boyd, Joan S; Wick, Elizabeth C; Ness, Paul M; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of modern anesthesia and surgical practices has been accompanied by enhanced supportive procedures in blood banking and transfusion medicine. There is increased focus on the preparation and the use of blood components including, but not limited to, preventing unnecessary type and screen/crossmatch orders, decreasing the time required to provide compatible red blood cells (RBCs), and reducing the waste of limited blood and personnel resources. The aim of this review is to help the anesthesiologist and surgical staff identify patients at highest risk for surgical bleeding. In addition, this review examines how anesthesia and transfusion medicine can efficiently and safely allocate blood components for surgical patients who require transfusions. The following databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library from January 1970 through March 2014. Subsequent reference searches of retrieved articles were also assessed. Several innovations have drastically changed the procedures by which blood is ordered, inventoried, and the speed in which blood is delivered for patient care. Before entering an operating room, patient blood management provides guidance to clinicians about when and how to treat preoperative anemia and intra- and postoperative strategies to limit the patient's exposure to blood components. Timely updates of the recommendations for blood orders (maximum surgical blood ordering schedule) have enhanced preoperative decision making regarding the appropriateness of the type and screen versus the type and crossmatch order. The updated maximum surgical blood ordering schedule reflects modern practices, such as laparoscopy, improved surgical techniques, and use of hemostatic agents resulting in a more streamlined process for ordering and obtaining RBCs. The electronic (computer) crossmatch and electronic remote blood issue have also dramatically reduced the amount of time required to obtain crossmatch-compatible RBCs

  13. The evolution of perioperative transfusion testing and blood ordering.

    PubMed

    White, Marissa J; Hazard, Sprague W; Frank, Steven M; Boyd, Joan S; Wick, Elizabeth C; Ness, Paul M; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of modern anesthesia and surgical practices has been accompanied by enhanced supportive procedures in blood banking and transfusion medicine. There is increased focus on the preparation and the use of blood components including, but not limited to, preventing unnecessary type and screen/crossmatch orders, decreasing the time required to provide compatible red blood cells (RBCs), and reducing the waste of limited blood and personnel resources. The aim of this review is to help the anesthesiologist and surgical staff identify patients at highest risk for surgical bleeding. In addition, this review examines how anesthesia and transfusion medicine can efficiently and safely allocate blood components for surgical patients who require transfusions. The following databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library from January 1970 through March 2014. Subsequent reference searches of retrieved articles were also assessed. Several innovations have drastically changed the procedures by which blood is ordered, inventoried, and the speed in which blood is delivered for patient care. Before entering an operating room, patient blood management provides guidance to clinicians about when and how to treat preoperative anemia and intra- and postoperative strategies to limit the patient's exposure to blood components. Timely updates of the recommendations for blood orders (maximum surgical blood ordering schedule) have enhanced preoperative decision making regarding the appropriateness of the type and screen versus the type and crossmatch order. The updated maximum surgical blood ordering schedule reflects modern practices, such as laparoscopy, improved surgical techniques, and use of hemostatic agents resulting in a more streamlined process for ordering and obtaining RBCs. The electronic (computer) crossmatch and electronic remote blood issue have also dramatically reduced the amount of time required to obtain crossmatch-compatible RBCs

  14. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues and their…

  15. Acceptability of blood and blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, E; Prowse, C; Townsend, E; Spence, A; Hilten, J A van; Lowe, K

    2008-03-01

    Alternatives to donor blood have been developed in part to meet increasing demand. However, new biotechnologies are often associated with increased perceptions of risk and low acceptance. This paper reviews developments of alternatives and presents data, from a field-based experiment in the UK and Holland, on the risks and acceptance of donor blood and alternatives (chemical, genetically modified and bovine). UK groups perceived all substitutes as riskier than the Dutch. There is a negative association between perceived risk and acceptability. Solutions to increasing acceptance are discussed in terms of implicit attitudes, product naming and emotional responses.

  16. Electron cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  17. BLOOD DESTRUCTION DURING EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    Broun, G. O.

    1922-01-01

    The following changes have been demonstrated to take place in the blood of dogs during exercise. 1. An increase in the per cent of cells and hemoglobin in the blood of the jugular vein occurs early in the course of exercise. It probably results from a redistribution of red corpuscles, with an increase in their proportion in the peripheral blood. 2. As exercise is continued, there is a definite increase in plasma volume. 3. A coincident decrease both in the total cell volume and the pigment volume during prolonged exercise suggests that blood destruction then occurs. PMID:19868689

  18. Drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

    2010-11-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

  19. Electron Beam Materials Irradiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2012-06-01

    Radiation processing is a well established method for enhancing the properties of materials and commercial products by treating them with ionizing energy in the form of high-energy electrons, X-rays, and gamma rays. Beneficial effects include polymerizing, cross-linking, grafting and degrading plastics, sterilizing single-use medical devices, disinfecting and disinfesting fresh foods, purifying drinking water, treating wastewater and other toxic waste materials that harm the environment, and many other applications that are still being evaluated. Industrial electron accelerators of several types have been developed and are being used for these applications. More than 1800 electron accelerators are presently installed in facilities worldwide for these purposes.

  20. 42 CFR 495.306 - Establishing patient volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishing patient volume. 495.306 Section 495.306 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY...

  1. 42 CFR 495.306 - Establishing patient volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishing patient volume. 495.306 Section 495.306 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY...

  2. 42 CFR 495.306 - Establishing patient volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing patient volume. 495.306 Section 495.306 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY...

  3. Beyond an Electronic Logbook

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore Larrieu; Theo McGuckin

    2005-03-01

    Beyond an Electronic Logbook Larrieu, Theodore L. and McGuckin, Theodore S. The advantages of an electronic logbook over a paper logbook have been well-established by presenters at various conferences: multiple simultaneous access, readily attached supporting documentation, easy searchability. At Jefferson Lab, we view these benefits as a start rather than an end. Instead of a being a static repository for operational history, the electronic logbook should actively inform machine operations. We take advantage of a decision early in development to make our operational problem reporting system integral to the electronic logbook. Log entries requiring attention of system experts are dispatched directly from within the logbook. And more importantly, the follow-up and resolution of those same problems is also captured in the electronic logbook. The interface for making log entries is being extended to query the logbook database immediately when a new problem report is initiated

  4. [Blood in art, art in blood].

    PubMed

    Danic, B; Lefrère, J-J

    2010-12-01

    In the different forms of art developed by Humanity over the centuries, artists have at times chosen themes from the world of medicine or health, such as blood donation or transfusion. In order to illustrate this, we have looked at three artistic domains: painting, movies and body art.

  5. Establishing nuclear facility drill programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of DOE Handbook, Establishing Nuclear Facility Drill Programs, is to provide DOE contractor organizations with guidance for development or modification of drill programs that both train on and evaluate facility training and procedures dealing with a variety of abnormal and emergency operating situations likely to occur at a facility. The handbook focuses on conducting drills as part of a training and qualification program (typically within a single facility), and is not intended to included responses of personnel beyond the site boundary, e.g. Local or State Emergency Management, Law Enforcement, etc. Each facility is expected to develop its own facility specific scenarios, and should not limit them to equipment failures but should include personnel injuries and other likely events. A well-developed and consistently administered drill program can effectively provide training and evaluation of facility operating personnel in controlling abnormal and emergency operating situations. To ensure the drills are meeting their intended purpose they should have evaluation criteria for evaluating the knowledge and skills of the facility operating personnel. Training and evaluation of staff skills and knowledge such as component and system interrelationship, reasoning and judgment, team interactions, and communications can be accomplished with drills. The appendices to this Handbook contain both models and additional guidance for establishing drill programs at the Department`s nuclear facilities.

  6. Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion: Military and Civilian Implications.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Carl W; Tranberg, John W; Boyer, Phillip; Silvestri, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage and exsanguination are the leading cause of preventable death, and resuscitative therapy is a critical component for survival. In various combinations, fresh whole blood, blood components, colloids, and crystalloids have all been staples of trauma care. The use of fresh whole blood is a well-established military practice that has saved the lives of thousands of American and coalition military personnel. Civilian use of fresh whole blood is far less established owing to the wide availability of individual blood components. However, this highly tailored blood supply is vulnerable to both natural and man-made disasters. In the event of such disruption, such as a major hurricane, it may be necessary for civilian hospitals to rapidly enact a fresh whole blood program. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the current use of blood therapy for trauma resuscitation, the US military's approach to fresh whole blood, and how maintaining a civilian capacity for fresh whole blood collection in the event of future man-made and natural disasters is key to promoting survival from trauma. PMID:27252101

  7. The Electronic Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizell, Al P.; Centini, Barry M.

    The role of telecommunications in establishing the electronic classroom in distance education is illustrated. Using a computer-based doctoral program and the UNIX operating system as an example, how a personal computer and modem may be combined with a telephone line for instructional delivery is described. A number of issues must be addressed in…

  8. The Schistosome Oesophageal Gland: Initiator of Blood Processing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Hong; de Castro-Borges, William; Parker-Manuel, Sophie; Vance, Gillian M.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Neves, Leandro X.; Evans, Gareth J. O.; Wilson, R. Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the ultrastructure of the schistosome esophageal gland was described >35 years ago, its role in the processing of ingested blood has never been established. The current study was prompted by our identification of MEG-4.1 expression in the gland and the observation of erythrocyte uncoating in the posterior esophagus. Methodology/Principal Findings The salient feature of the posterior esophagus, characterized by confocal and electron microscopy, is the enormous increase in membrane surface area provided by the plate-like extensions and basal invaginations of the lining syncytium, with unique crystalloid vesicles releasing their contents between the plates. The feeding process was shown by video microscopy to be divided into two phases, blood first accumulating in the anterior lumen before passing as a bolus to the posterior. There it streamed around a plug of material revealed by confocal microscopy as tethered leucocytes. These were present in far larger numbers than predicted from the volume of the lumen, and in varying states of damage and destruction. Intact erythrocytes were detected in the anterior esophagus but not observed thereafter, implying that their lysis occurred rapidly as they enter the posterior. Two further genes, MEGs 4.2 and 14, were shown to be expressed exclusively in the esophageal gland. Bioinformatics predicted that MEGs 4.1 and 4.2 possessed a common hydrophobic region with a shared motif, while antibodies to SjMEG-4.1 showed it was bound to leucocytes in the esophageal lumen. It was also predicted that MEGs 4.1 and 14 were heavily O-glycosylated and this was confirmed for the former by 2D-electrophoresis and Western blotting. Conclusions/Significance The esophageal gland and its products play a central role in the processing of ingested blood. The binding of host antibodies in the esophageal lumen shows that some constituents are antibody targets and could provide a new source of vaccine candidates. PMID:23936568

  9. Blood culture contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dawson, S

    2014-05-01

    Blood cultures are an essential diagnostic tool. However, contamination may impact on patients' care and lead to increased patient stay, additional tests, and inappropriate antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to review the literature for factors that influence the rate of blood culture contamination. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and CINAHL on blood culture contamination. Hospitals/units should have in place a protocol for staff on how to take blood cultures, incorporating use of an aseptic technique. Studies have shown that several key factors in the process may lower contamination rates such as adherence to a protocol, sampling by peripheral venepuncture route rather than via an intravascular catheter, use of sterile gloves, cleaning tops of blood culture bottles with antiseptics and inoculating blood culture bottles before other blood tubes, samples being taken by a phlebotomy team, monitoring contamination rates, and providing individual feedback and retraining for those with contaminants. Although skin antisepsis is advocated there is still debate on which antiseptic is most effective, as there is no conclusive evidence, only that there is benefit from alcohol-containing preparations. In conclusion, hospitals should aim to minimize their blood culture contamination rates. They should monitor their rate regularly and aim for a rate of ≤3%. PMID:24768211

  10. Blood culture contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dawson, S

    2014-05-01

    Blood cultures are an essential diagnostic tool. However, contamination may impact on patients' care and lead to increased patient stay, additional tests, and inappropriate antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to review the literature for factors that influence the rate of blood culture contamination. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and CINAHL on blood culture contamination. Hospitals/units should have in place a protocol for staff on how to take blood cultures, incorporating use of an aseptic technique. Studies have shown that several key factors in the process may lower contamination rates such as adherence to a protocol, sampling by peripheral venepuncture route rather than via an intravascular catheter, use of sterile gloves, cleaning tops of blood culture bottles with antiseptics and inoculating blood culture bottles before other blood tubes, samples being taken by a phlebotomy team, monitoring contamination rates, and providing individual feedback and retraining for those with contaminants. Although skin antisepsis is advocated there is still debate on which antiseptic is most effective, as there is no conclusive evidence, only that there is benefit from alcohol-containing preparations. In conclusion, hospitals should aim to minimize their blood culture contamination rates. They should monitor their rate regularly and aim for a rate of ≤3%.

  11. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen to the body’s tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide, which is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts ...

  12. Cord blood testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... gases (to evaluate the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood sugar level Blood type and Rh Complete ... A low pH (less than 7.04 to 7.10) means there are higher levels ... This might occur when the baby does not get enough oxygen during ...

  13. Low blood sugar - newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... neonatal hypoglycemia. It refers to low blood sugar (glucose) in the first few days after birth. ... Babies need blood sugar (glucose) for energy. Most of that glucose is used by the brain. The baby gets glucose from the mother through the ...

  14. Portable automatic blood analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Analyzer employs chemical-sensing electrodes for determination of blood, gas, and ion concentrations. It is rugged, easily serviced, and comparatively simple to operate. System can analyze up to eight parameters and can be modified to measure other blood constituents including nonionic species, such as urea, glucose, and oxygen.

  15. Blood-type distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beom Jun; Myeong Lee, Dong; Hun Lee, Sung; Gim, Wan-Suk

    2007-01-01

    We statistically verify the Hardy-Weinberg principle in genetics by investigating the independence of ABO-blood types of married couples. The allelic frequencies derived from the phenotypic frequencies in ethnic groups via the Hardy-Weinberg principle are used to define a genetic distance (called the blood distance in this work) between two groups. The blood distances are compared with the geographic distances, and then used to construct a network of ethnic groups. We also investigate the relationship between the ABO blood types and the human personalities, gauged by the Myers-Briggs-type indicator (MBTI) psychological test. The statistical χ2-test reveals the independence between the blood types and MBTI results with an exception of type B males. A psychological implication is discussed.

  16. Bioengineered blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Niu, Guoguang; Sapoznik, Etai; Soker, Shay

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) affecting blood vessel function is a leading cause of death around the world. A common treatment option to replace the diseased blood vessels is vascular grafting using the patient's own blood vessels. However, patients with CVD are usually lacking vessels for grafting. Recent advances in tissue engineering are now providing alternatives to autologous vascular grafts in the form of tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs). In this review, we will describe the use of different scaffolding systems, cell sources and conditioning approaches for creating fully functional blood vessels. Additionally, we will present the methods used for assessing TEBV functions and describe preclinical and clinical trials for TEBV. Although the early results were encouraging, current designs of TEBV still fall short as a viable clinical option. Implementing the current knowledge in vascular development can lead to improved fabrication and function of TEBV and hasten clinical translation.

  17. Mechanics of blood flow.

    PubMed

    Skalak, R; Keller, S R; Secomb, T W

    1981-05-01

    The historical development of the mechanics of blood flow can be traced from ancient times, to Leonardo da Vinci and Leonhard Euler and up to the present times with increasing biological knowledge and mathematical analysis. In the last two decades, quantitative and numerical methods have steadily given more complete and precise understanding. In the arterial system wave propagation computations based on nonlinear one-dimensional modeling have given the best representation of pulse wave propagation. In the veins, the theory of unsteady flow in collapsible tubes has recently been extensively developed. In the last decade, progress has been made in describing the blood flow at junctions, through stenoses, in bends and in capillary blood vessels. The rheological behavior of individual red blood cells has been explored. A working model consists of an elastic membrane filled with viscous fluid. This model forms a basis for understanding the viscous and viscoelastic behavior of blood. PMID:7024641

  18. Rasip1 is essential to blood vessel stability and angiogenic blood vessel growth.

    PubMed

    Koo, Yeon; Barry, David M; Xu, Ke; Tanigaki, Keiji; Davis, George E; Mineo, Chieko; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular function depends on patent, continuous and stable blood vessel formation by endothelial cells (ECs). Blood vessel development initiates by vasculogenesis, as ECs coalesce into linear aggregates and organize to form central lumens that allow blood flow. Molecular mechanisms underlying in vivo vascular 'tubulogenesis' are only beginning to be unraveled. We previously showed that the GTPase-interacting protein called Rasip1 is required for the formation of continuous vascular lumens in the early embryo. Rasip1(-/-) ECs exhibit loss of proper cell polarity and cell shape, disrupted localization of EC-EC junctions and defects in adhesion of ECs to extracellular matrix. In vitro studies showed that Rasip1 depletion in cultured ECs blocked tubulogenesis. Whether Rasip1 is required in blood vessels after their initial formation remained unclear. Here, we show that Rasip1 is essential for vessel formation and maintenance in the embryo, but not in quiescent adult vessels. Rasip1 is also required for angiogenesis in three models of blood vessel growth: in vitro matrix invasion, retinal blood vessel growth and directed in vivo angiogenesis assays. Rasip1 is thus necessary in growing embryonic blood vessels, postnatal angiogenic sprouting and remodeling, but is dispensable for maintenance of established blood vessels, making it a potential anti-angiogenic therapeutic target.

  19. Quality of transfusion products in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Capuzzo, Enrico; Turdo, Rosalia; Glingani, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    The primary goal in transfusion medicine and cellular therapies is to promote high standards of quality and produce ever safer and more efficacious products. The establishment of a transfusion service quality management system, which includes several organizational structures, responsibilities, policies, processes, procedures, and resources, is now mandatory and widely regulated worldwide. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the quality system in transfusion medicine as applied to the production of blood components, including red blood cells, platelets, and fresh frozen plasma. PMID:24474089

  20. Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, Shivaram; Kantharaj, Ambuja

    2014-01-01

    Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre) is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI) requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO) and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal. PMID:25535417

  1. Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Shivaram; Kantharaj, Ambuja

    2014-09-01

    Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre) is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI) requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO) and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal.

  2. Red blood cells in retinal vascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Sherwood, Joseph; Chhablani, Jay; Ricchariya, Ashutosh; Kim, Sangho; Jones, Philip H; Balabani, Stavroula; Shima, David

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular circulation plays a vital role in regulating physiological functions, such as vascular resistance, and maintaining organ health. Pathologies such as hypertension, diabetes, or hematologic diseases affect the microcirculation posing a significant risk to human health. The retinal vasculature provides a unique window for non-invasive visualisation of the human circulation in vivo and retinal vascular image analysis has been established to predict the development of both clinical and subclinical cardiovascular, metabolic, renal and retinal disease in epidemiologic studies. Blood viscosity which was otherwise thought to play a negligible role in determining blood flow based on Poiseuille's law up to the 1970s has now been shown to play an equally if not a more important role in controlling microcirculation and quantifying blood flow. Understanding the hemodynamics/rheology of the microcirculation and its changes in diseased states remains a challenging task; this is due to the particulate nature of blood, the mechanical properties of the cells (such as deformability and aggregability) and the complex architecture of the microvasculature. In our review, we have tried to postulate a possible role of red blood cell (RBC) biomechanical properties and laid down future framework for research related to hemorrheological aspects of blood in patients with retinal vascular disorders.

  3. Pancreatic blood flow in experimental acute pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, A.R.; Millar, A.M.; Taylor, T.V.

    1982-05-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of acute necrotizing hemorrhagic pancreatitis remain controversial. Recent work has suggested that an early fall in pancreatic blood flow, causing ischemia, may be the initiating factor. Using an established rat model of hemorrhagic pancreatitis and the fractional indicator distribution technique with /sup 86/RbCl, pancreatic blood flow and tissue perfusion have been measured at various times in the condition. Six groups of ten rats were studied: control sham operation and pancreatitis groups were sacrificed at 1, 6, and 24 hr. Pancreatic blood flow (% of cardiac output) and perfusion (blood flow/g tissue) were measured. Blood flow was increased by a maximum of 53% at 1 hr (P less than 0.001) and remained elevated for 24 hr, and perfusion was increased by a maximum of 70% (P less than 0.001) at 1 hr and remained elevated at 6 hr. Pancreatic perfusion declines after 6 hr due to increasing gland edema. The results demonstrate a significant increase in pancreatic blood flow and perfusion in experimentally induced acute pancreatitis, suggesting a primary inflammatory response, and refute the ischemic etiological theory.

  4. A question of blood, race, and politics.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Michael G

    2006-10-01

    This article explores the political and intellectual context of a controversy arising from a proposal made at the 1959 meetings of the American Society of Blood Banks to divide the blood supply by race. The authors, a group of blood-bankers and surgeons in New York, outlined difficulties in finding compatible blood for transfusion during open-heart surgery, which they attributed to prior sensitization of their patient, a Caucasian, by a previous transfusion from an African American donor. Examining the statistical distribution of blood-group antigens among the various races, they concluded that risk of adverse hemolytic reactions and the cost of testing could be reduced by establishing separate donor pools. The media reported the suggestion, which, given the political climate of the day, rapidly became a public issue involving geneticists, blood-bankers, physical anthropologists, and the African American medical community. Liberals condemned it, whereas eugenically inclined segregationists used the finding to support their views concerning evolutionary distance between the races and the dangers of miscegenation. Here we examine the contribution of comparative racial serology to this affair, the arguments and background of the main players, and the relevance of the debate to discussions about the role of "race" in post-genomic medicine. PMID:16788092

  5. Drosophila blood as a model system for stress sensing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jiwon

    2015-04-01

    The Drosophila lymph gland is the hematopoietic organ in which stem-like progenitors proliferate and give rise to myeloid-type blood cells. Mechanisms involved in Drosophila hematopoiesis are well established and known to be conserved in the vertebrate system. Recent studies in Drosophila lymph gland have provided novel insights into how external and internal stresses integrate into blood progenitor maintenance mechanisms and the control of blood cell fate decision. In this review, I will introduce a developmental overview of the Drosophila hematopoietic system, and recent understandings of how the system uses developmental signals not only for hematopoiesis but also as sensors for stress and environmental changes to elicit necessary blood responses.

  6. [History of blood transfusion].

    PubMed

    Izaguirre Avila, Raúl; de Micheli, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    The idea of transfusing blood of an animal to another or from an animal to a man or from one to another man, is very ancient. When the doctrine of blood circulation was diffused, in the first third of the XVII century, this idea was give fresh impetus. On began also to inject some substance into the blood, wich will permit to introduce medicaments intravenously. It is worthy to be remembered that in the same year when the Harveyan monography De motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus was published (1628), the Paduan professor Giovanni Colle suggested a procedure for blood transfusions. Later (1645) the Tuscan physician Francesco Folli showed another procedure, in the presence of the great duke of Toscana, Ferdinando II de Medici. On his side, the surgeon Giovanni Guglielmo Riva realized blood transfusions from animals to men in 1668. Transfusions were already carried out by Richard Lower in London and by Jean-Baptiste Denis in Paris. During the XVIII century, blood transfusions were not effectuated because of some failure occurred in the formed century and of the proscription by civil and religious authorities. Nevertheless these were renewed during the first third of the XIX century in England as well as in the continental Europe. In Mexico the first blood transfusion was effectuated in 1845 by the physician Matias D. Beistegui. At the time persisted the problem of blood coagulation, which could be resolved during the XX century in North America (Crile, 1906) as well as in Latin America (Luis Agote, 1914). Moreover the blood groups were described in 1900 by the Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner, who identified later the Rh factor. It seems completely justified the inscription shining on the façade of the National Archive in Washington: "The past is only prologue".

  7. What Is a Blood Transfusion?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells, white blood cells, platelets (PLATE-lets), and plasma. Blood is transfused either as whole blood (with all its parts) or, more often, as individual parts. Blood Types Every person has one of the following blood types: A, B, AB, ...

  8. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Aug 26,2016 High blood pressure, also ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  9. Development of a robust method for establishing B cell lines using Epstein-Barr Virus.

    PubMed

    Danjoh, Inaho; Sone, Hiyori; Shirota, Ryoko; Hiroyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Yukio

    2012-08-01

    B lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCLs) are generally established from B lymphocytes by infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). As their genomic structure is stable in culture, B-LCLs are a valuable resource for many types of analysis. The efficiency of establishing B-LCLs from freshly obtained blood samples from healthy individuals is almost 100 %; however, for blood samples stored inappropriately after collection or held in long-term storage as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in liquid nitrogen, the efficiency of B-LCL establishment can be considerably lower. To date, we have established more than 550 B-LCLs from 685 PBMC samples that have been stored in liquid nitrogen for over 20 yr. The PBMCs were prepared from blood samples donated by individuals belonging to native minority ethnic groups in outlying regions of South America and elsewhere. The establishment of B-LCLs from this material is difficult, and failure results in the waste of valuable and rare samples. We sought to improve our success rate for establishing B-LCLs from these difficult and irreplaceable samples by a detailed examination of each step of the process. The analysis showed that two parameters were particularly critical to the success rate: the density of the PBMCs plated after EBV infection and the EBV titer. These observations shed light on cases where establishment of B-LCLs was hard due to the small number of PBMCs or damage to the cells.

  10. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  11. Blood Gas Analyzers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Anthony L; Waddell, Lori S

    2016-03-01

    Acid-base and respiratory disturbances are common in sick and hospitalized veterinary patients; therefore, blood gas analyzers have become integral diagnostic and monitoring tools. This article will discuss uses of blood gas analyzers, types of samples that can be used, sample collection methods, potential sources of error, and potential alternatives to blood gas analyzers and their limitations. It will also discuss the types of analyzers that are available, logistical considerations that should be taken into account when purchasing an analyzer, and the basic principles of how these analyzers work. PMID:27451046

  12. Development of a district Cord Blood Bank: a model for cord blood banking in the National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, C; Buchanan, R; Webster, J; Laundy, V; Horsley, H; Barron, C; Anderson, N; Bradley, B; Hows, J

    2000-04-01

    The Bristol Cord Blood Bank was established as a pilot project within existing health services to establish cost-effective recruitment, collection and processing suitable for use in the NHS should cord blood become a routine source of haemopoietic stem cells for transplantation in the UK. An important aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of establishing a midwifery-based collection network, thus utilising expertise already in place. Collection was performed on the delivery suite immediately after the placenta was delivered. The clinical experience of the midwife collector/counsellors allowed rapid pre-collection assessment of the condition of the cord and placenta. This prevented collection attempts from diseased or otherwise damaged placentas, leading to conservation of resources by preventing collection of most small volume donations. The bank was established within the National Blood Service, Bristol Centre to achieve Good Manufacturing Practice standards and ensure that processing was subject to the same stringency required for other sources of haemopoietic stem cells. Cord blood is an expensive resource. By utilising existing expertise in district Obstetric and National Blood Services, the Bristol Cord Blood Bank may serve as a model for health economic evaluation of cord blood banking of volunteer donations within the NHS. PMID:10808213

  13. Development of a district Cord Blood Bank: a model for cord blood banking in the National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, C; Buchanan, R; Webster, J; Laundy, V; Horsley, H; Barron, C; Anderson, N; Bradley, B; Hows, J

    2000-04-01

    The Bristol Cord Blood Bank was established as a pilot project within existing health services to establish cost-effective recruitment, collection and processing suitable for use in the NHS should cord blood become a routine source of haemopoietic stem cells for transplantation in the UK. An important aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of establishing a midwifery-based collection network, thus utilising expertise already in place. Collection was performed on the delivery suite immediately after the placenta was delivered. The clinical experience of the midwife collector/counsellors allowed rapid pre-collection assessment of the condition of the cord and placenta. This prevented collection attempts from diseased or otherwise damaged placentas, leading to conservation of resources by preventing collection of most small volume donations. The bank was established within the National Blood Service, Bristol Centre to achieve Good Manufacturing Practice standards and ensure that processing was subject to the same stringency required for other sources of haemopoietic stem cells. Cord blood is an expensive resource. By utilising existing expertise in district Obstetric and National Blood Services, the Bristol Cord Blood Bank may serve as a model for health economic evaluation of cord blood banking of volunteer donations within the NHS.

  14. Cholangiocytes and blood supply

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Eugenio; Franchitto, Antonio; Pannarale, Luigi; Carpino, Guido; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The microvascular supply of the biliary tree, the peribiliary plexus (PBP), stems from the hepatic artery branches and flows into the hepatic sinusoids. A detailed three-dimensional study of the PBP has been performed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy vascular corrosion casts (SEMvcc) technique. Considering that the PBP plays a fundamental role in supporting the secretory and absorptive functions of the biliary epithelium, their organization in either normalcy and pathology is explored. The normal liver shows the PBP arranged around extra- and intrahepatic biliary tree. In the small portal tract PBP was characterized by a single layer of capillaries which progressively continued with the extrahepatic PBP where it showed a more complex vascular network. After common duct ligation (BDL), progressive modifications of bile duct and PBP proliferation are observed. The PBP presents a three-dimensional network arranged around many bile ducts and appears as bundles of vessels, composed by capillaries of homogeneous diameter with a typical round mesh structure. The PBP network is easily distinguishable from the sinusoidal network which appears normal. Considering the enormous extension of the PBP during BDL, the possible role played by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is evaluated. VEGF-A, VEGF-C and their related receptors appeared highly immunopositive in proliferating cholangiocytes of BDL rats. The administration of anti-VEGF-A or anti-VEGF-C antibodies to BDL rats as well as hepatic artery ligation induced a reduced bile duct mass. The administration of rVEGF-A to BDL hepatic artery ligated rats prevented the decrease of cholangiocyte proliferation and VEGF-A expression as compared to BDL control rats. These data suggest the role of arterial blood supply of the biliary tree in conditions of cholangiocyte proliferation, such as it occurs during chronic cholestasis. On the other hand, the role played by VEGF as a tool of cross-talk between

  15. Establishment of ApoE-knockout mouse model of preeclampsia and relevant mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenjuan; Cui, Baoxia; Hong, Fanzhen; Xu, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we established an ApoE-knockout mouse model of preeclampsia to examine the role of vascular endothelial injury associated with abnormal lipid metabolism in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. To establish the ApoE-knockout homozygous (ApoE−/−) and heterozygous (ApoE+/−) mouse model, mice were mated with the same genotype and orbital blood on day 19 of conception was collected. The progeny mice were assigned into 3 groups: ApoE−/, ApoE+/− and wild-type (WT) groups. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density and high-density lipoprotein were measured in the serum at the end of conception. During conception, the systolic blood pressure of caudal artery was measured every 4 days. Using bicinchoninic acid protein assay, urinary protein and creatinine ratio was measured with a creatinine kit. We observed the pathological changes of glomerular filtration membrane and macroscopic/microscopic morphological changes of placenta by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and transmission electron microscope. Take fetal mouse through cesarean section on 19th day, measure the birth weight and placental weight of fetal mouse. Using ELISA we measured the expression levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1). Our results showed that the differences in serum lipid levels were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The mean systolic blood pressure, urinary protein and creatinine in ApoE−/− group were significantly higher than ApoE+/− group and WT group (P<0.05). Thickening and edema of glomerular filtration membrane, capillary thrombosis, significant edema and necrosis of placental villous stroma were observed in ApoE−/− group. No significant change was detected in the ApoE+/− or WT group. The TLR4 and sFlt-1 expression levels in ApoE−/− group were significantly higher than ApoE+/− and WT group (P<0.05). We concluded that ApoE-knockout mouse could simulate the pathologic process of preeclampsia

  16. Establishment of ApoE-knockout mouse model of preeclampsia and relevant mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenjuan; Cui, Baoxia; Hong, Fanzhen; Xu, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we established an ApoE-knockout mouse model of preeclampsia to examine the role of vascular endothelial injury associated with abnormal lipid metabolism in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. To establish the ApoE-knockout homozygous (ApoE−/−) and heterozygous (ApoE+/−) mouse model, mice were mated with the same genotype and orbital blood on day 19 of conception was collected. The progeny mice were assigned into 3 groups: ApoE−/, ApoE+/− and wild-type (WT) groups. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density and high-density lipoprotein were measured in the serum at the end of conception. During conception, the systolic blood pressure of caudal artery was measured every 4 days. Using bicinchoninic acid protein assay, urinary protein and creatinine ratio was measured with a creatinine kit. We observed the pathological changes of glomerular filtration membrane and macroscopic/microscopic morphological changes of placenta by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and transmission electron microscope. Take fetal mouse through cesarean section on 19th day, measure the birth weight and placental weight of fetal mouse. Using ELISA we measured the expression levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1). Our results showed that the differences in serum lipid levels were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The mean systolic blood pressure, urinary protein and creatinine in ApoE−/− group were significantly higher than ApoE+/− group and WT group (P<0.05). Thickening and edema of glomerular filtration membrane, capillary thrombosis, significant edema and necrosis of placental villous stroma were observed in ApoE−/− group. No significant change was detected in the ApoE+/− or WT group. The TLR4 and sFlt-1 expression levels in ApoE−/− group were significantly higher than ApoE+/− and WT group (P<0.05). We concluded that ApoE-knockout mouse could simulate the pathologic process of preeclampsia

  17. Osmotic parameters of red blood cells from umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Zhurova, Mariia; McGann, Locksley E; Acker, Jason P

    2014-06-01

    The transfusion of red blood cells from umbilical cord blood (cord RBCs) is gathering significant interest for the treatment of fetal and neonatal anemia, due to its high content of fetal hemoglobin as well as numerous other potential benefits to fetuses and neonates. However, in order to establish a stable supply of cord RBCs for clinical use, a cryopreservation method must be developed. This, in turn, requires knowledge of the osmotic parameters of cord RBCs. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the osmotic parameters of cord RBCs: osmotically inactive fraction (b), hydraulic conductivity (Lp), permeability to cryoprotectant glycerol (Pglycerol), and corresponding Arrhenius activation energies (Ea). For Lp and Pglycerol determination, RBCs were analyzed using a stopped-flow system to monitor osmotically-induced RBC volume changes via intrinsic RBC hemoglobin fluorescence. Lp and Pglycerol were characterized at 4°C, 20°C, and 35°C using Jacobs and Stewart equations with the Ea calculated from the Arrhenius plot. Results indicate that cord RBCs have a larger osmotically inactive fraction compared to adult RBCs. Hydraulic conductivity and osmotic permeability to glycerol of cord RBCs differed compared to those of adult RBCs with the differences dependent on experimental conditions, such as temperature and osmolality. Compared to adult RBCs, cord RBCs had a higher Ea for Lp and a lower Ea for Pglycerol. This information regarding osmotic parameters will be used in future work to develop a protocol for cryopreserving cord RBCs. PMID:24727610

  18. Establishing operations and reinforcement effects.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A

    1991-01-01

    Positive reinforcement procedures have had a major impact on educational programs for the developmentally disabled; nevertheless, variation in reinforcer effectiveness both within and across individuals is a common phenomenon. This study examined one class of variables--establishing operations--that might influence the effectiveness of reinforcers. Five developmentally disabled adult males participated. Responding on one of two motor tasks--switch closure or block placement--was assessed during baseline, satiation, and deprivation conditions with respect to three classes of consequences: small food items, music, and social praise. Deprivation and satiation conditions were constructed so as not to alter significantly the normal course of events in a subject's day. For example, food deprivation entailed scheduling sessions just prior to a subject's regular lunch, and social deprivation involved limiting a subject's access to social interaction for 15 minutes, during which time the subject had access to an assortment of other activities. Results showed that each stimulus class functioned as reinforcement with different degrees of effectiveness during satiation versus deprivation conditions. These results are discussed in light of previous research on enhancement of reinforcer efficacy as well as the assessment and identification of functional reinforcers, and implications are presented for future research and client habilitation. PMID:1890048

  19. Metalloprotease-dependent onset of blood circulation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Iida, Atsuo; Sakaguchi, Kazuya; Sato, Kiyoaki; Sakurai, Hidetoshi; Nishimura, Daigo; Iwaki, Aya; Takeuchi, Miki; Kobayashi, Makoto; Misaki, Kazuyo; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Kawahara, Atsuo; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko

    2010-06-22

    The primitive blood circulation requires intravascular plasma flow. However, it remains unclear whether the onset of earliest blood circulation is dependent solely on establishment of a functional circulatory organ or whether it also requires active processes inherent in blood cells. In this study, we present novel mechanisms for the onset of blood circulation by monitoring fluorescently labeled blood precursors and blood vessels in zebrafish. The earliest blood circulation occurs synchronously. This synchrony is achieved by the retention of erythroid precursors on the lumen of the vasculature after their invasion from the subaortic region, and then by simultaneous release of these precursors into the flow. Morphological and biochemical analyses suggest that the onset of blood circulation accompanies disruption of blood cell-to-vessel adhesion and requires metalloprotease-dependent processes. ADAM8, a member of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family, mediates the onset of blood circulation. In ADAM8-depleted embryos, erythroid cells fail to detach from the vascular lumen and stagnate. Expression of a protease-defective ADAM8 in erythroid cells causes dominant-negative effects on blood circulation, suggesting cell-autonomous roles of ADAM8. Based on these findings, we propose that the first erythroid cells require both flow-dependent passive and proteolysis-dependent active processes to enter the circulation.

  20. Comparison of Established and Emerging Biodosimetry Assays

    PubMed Central

    Rothkamm, K.; Beinke, C.; Romm, H.; Badie, C.; Balagurunathan, Y.; Barnard, S.; Bernard, N.; Boulay-Greene, H.; Brengues, M.; De Amicis, A.; De Sanctis, S.; Greither, R.; Herodin, F.; Jones, A.; Kabacik, S.; Knie, T.; Kulka, U.; Lista, F.; Martigne, P.; Missel, A.; Moquet, J.; Oestreicher, U.; Peinnequin, A.; Poyot, T.; Roessler, U.; Scherthan, H.; Terbrueggen, B.; Thierens, H.; Valente, M.; Vral, A.; Zenhausern, F.; Meineke, V.; Braselmann, H.; Abend, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid biodosimetry tools are required to assist with triage in the case of a large-scale radiation incident. Here, we aimed to determine the dose-assessment accuracy of the well-established dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in comparison to the emerging γ-H2AX foci and gene expression assays for triage mode biodosimetry and radiation injury assessment. Coded blood samples exposed to 10 X-ray doses (240 kVp, 1 Gy/min) of up to 6.4 Gy were sent to participants for dose estimation. Report times were documented for each laboratory and assay. The mean absolute difference (MAD) of estimated doses relative to the true doses was calculated. We also merged doses into binary dose categories of clinical relevance and examined accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the assays. Dose estimates were reported by the first laboratories within 0.3–0.4 days of receipt of samples for the γ-H2AX and gene expression assays compared to 2.4 and 4 days for the DCA and CBMN assays, respectively. Irrespective of the assay we found a 2.5–4-fold variation of interlaboratory accuracy per assay and lowest MAD values for the DCA assay (0.16 Gy) followed by CBMN (0.34 Gy), gene expression (0.34 Gy) and γ-H2AX (0.45 Gy) foci assay. Binary categories of dose estimates could be discriminated with equal efficiency for all assays, but at doses ≥1.5 Gy a 10% decrease in efficiency was observed for the foci assay, which was still comparable to the CBMN assay. In conclusion, the DCA has been confirmed as the gold standard biodosimetry method, but in situations where speed and throughput are more important than ultimate accuracy, the emerging rapid molecular assays have the potential to become useful triage tools. PMID:23862692

  1. Blood donation before surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 112. Miller RD. Patient blood management: transfusion therapy. In: Miller RD, ed. Miller's Anesthesia . ...

  2. Anthrax blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Anthrax serology test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B anthracis ... A normal result means no antibodies to the anthrax bacteria were seen in your blood sample. However, during the early stages of infection, your body may only ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ...

  4. Ferritin blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Serum ferritin level ... amount of ferritin in the blood (serum ferritin level) is directly related to the amount of iron ... to 150 ng/mL The lower the ferritin level, even within the "normal" range, the more likely ...

  5. ACE blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme; SACE ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:138-139.

  6. Types of Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... especially in the joints (knees, ankles, and elbows). Plasma Transfusions Plasma is the liquid part of your blood. It's ... or a severe infection, you may need a plasma transfusion. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: January 30, ...

  7. All about Blood Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Glucose Before meals: 80 to 130 mg/dl My Usual Results My Goals ______ to ______ ______ to ______ 2 ... the start of a meal: below 180 mg/dl below ______ below ______ What’s the best way to keep ...

  8. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  9. Low blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have when your blood sugar gets too low include: Double vision or blurry vision Fast or pounding heartbeat Feeling cranky or acting aggressive Feeling nervous Headache Hunger Shaking or trembling Sweating ...

  10. National Blood Clot Alliance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mon-Fri, 8:30am - 5:00pm EDT National Blood Clot Alliance 8321 Old Courthouse Road Suite ... not rely on the information provided as a substitute for actual professional medical advice, care, or treatment. ...

  11. Fibrinopeptide A blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems with blood clotting such as disseminated intravascular coagulation ( DIC ). Certain types of leukemia are associated with ... be a sign of: Cellulitis DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation) Leukemia at the time of diagnosis, during early ...

  12. Calcium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... failure Low blood level of albumin Liver disease Magnesium deficiency Pancreatitis Vitamin D deficiency ... PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 66. Leone KA. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine: ...

  13. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults: selective update of 2001 US Preventive Services Task Force Review. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and ... 2016:chap 206. Siu AL; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for high blood pressure in adults: U.S. ...

  14. Vitamin A blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  15. Cord-Blood Banking

    MedlinePlus

    ... cord blood mainly because of the promise that stem cell research holds for the future. Most of us would have little use for stem cells now, but research into using them to treat diseases is ongoing — ...

  16. Nitroblue tetrazolium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... called nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) into a deep blue color. ... If the sample does not change color when NBT is added, the white blood cells are missing the substance needed to kill bacteria. This may be due to chronic granulomatous disease.

  17. Electron Microscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  18. [IT network establishment for neuropatients].

    PubMed

    Abe, Koji; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Matsubara, Etsuro; Muramatsu, Shin-Ichi; Atsuta, Naoki; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Kaji, Ryuji; Terao, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, big earthquake and subsequent gigantic tsunami killed more than 20,000 peoples in Tohoku area of Japan. Neurological patients were one such victim because they are usually very vulnerable to such a huge tragedy due to their physical disability including artificial ventilator-support. On occasion of the last tsunami, most cases showed "all or nothing" to lose life or to survive, and there were only a little cases who needed emergency surgical treatment. In the very early period, some neurological patients required electric power to keep their lifesupportive ventilator at evacuation house or even at home. In a week to a couple of months, many neurological patients needed continuous supply of their daily drugs which are essential to keep themselves in steady physical conditions and even for keeping their life.Japanese Neurological Society (JNS) began to establish an emergent assistant network system from January 2012 in an attempt of supplying materials, drugs and energy power to neurological patients who require both under a very early period after any natural or political disaster and a later period. For example, JNS is going to apply IT system to connect distant but safer hospitals which accept emergent patients from the center of disastrous place. JNS may also send emergency medical team to the disastrous place to save neurological patients by passing necessary medicine and materials or moving patients to safer hospitals. JNS will make such a tentative program public on our website to collect many other constructive opinions from general member of the society and neurological patients. After getting those opinions, JNS made up the exact team for this purpose after general meeting of JNS on this May 2012.Based on this team, disaster-mimic trial will be performed in Tokyo, Shizuoka, and Kochi where the next big disaster is going to hit the cities. PMID:24291913

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  20. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  1. Preventing and Treating Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treating Blood Clots Request Permissions Download PDF Preventing and Treating Blood Clots January 20, 2015 To ... 2013, ASCO updated the clinical practice guideline about preventing and treating blood clots for people with cancer ...

  2. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  3. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  4. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  5. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests ...

  6. Blood pressure monitors for home

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of blood pressure monitor for home use. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS A digital device will also have a cuff that wraps ... on its own. The screen will show a digital readout of your systolic and diastolic blood pressure. ...

  7. Tissue blood flow mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    The operating principles of Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI) for visualization of the tissue blood perfusion are explained. Using this emerging technology skin perfusion has been investigated in healthy volunteers and in patients with various conditions that affect skin blood flow. LDPI is anticipated to be particularly useful in evaluation of peripheral circulation in diabetics, as an objective tool in irritancy patch testing, assessment of burnt skin and visualization of spot-wise hyperperfusion in breast skin in association with carcinoma.

  8. [Blood doping: 2].

    PubMed

    Cristani, Alessandro; Boldrini, Elena; Amateis, Elisa; Arioli, Dimitriy

    2005-01-01

    Blood Doping has recently obtained a large diffusion between professional and nonprofessional athletes, in particular for endurance sports it has almost become a necessary way to warrant best performance. Seven years after the publication of our article "Blood Doping", this second installment was born to emphasize the way the biomedical research supplies (often unintentionally) new drugs and new technology to improve athletic performance and, on the other hand, to underline the antidoping strategies.

  9. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person...

  10. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person...

  11. 76 FR 11491 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Request for Nominations for Voting Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... requesting nominations to fill expected vacancies on the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. The Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation was established pursuant to Public Law...

  12. A blood chemistry profile for lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1999-01-01

    A blood chemistry profile for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush was developed by establishing baseline ranges for several clinical chemistry tests (glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, and magnesium). Measurements were made accurately and rapidly with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer and the Ektachem DTSC Module. Blood serum was collected from both laboratory-reared lake trout (1978 and 1986 year-classes) and feral spawning trout from Lake Michigan and then analyzed in the laboratory. No clinically significant differences were found between samples analyzed fresh and those frozen for 1 or 6 weeks. The ranges in chemistry variables for feral lake trout were generally wider than those for laboratory-reared lake trout, and significant differences existed between male and female feral lake trout for several tests. Blood chemistry profiles also varied seasonally on fish sampled repeatedly.

  13. Whole blood filterability in elderly obese women.

    PubMed

    Gelmini, G; Butturini, L; Cucinotta, D; Delsignore, R; Coiro, V

    1987-01-01

    In order to establish whether obesity alters whole blood filterability, the corrected whole blood filtration (VRBC) was measured in 54 elderly obese women (mean age +/- SE = 67 +/- 2 years) without (n = 15) or with associated cardiovascular risk factors such as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n = 11), non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) (n = 14) or hypertension (n = 14). Twenty-two age matched women with normal body weight participated as controls. VRBC values were similar in normal controls and obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), whereas they were significantly lower in obese subjects with hypertension, NIDDM or IGT. When subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance were combined, a significant negative correlation was found between glucose incretory areas during OGTT and VRBC values. These data demonstrate that obesity per se does not alter whole blood filterability; furthermore, our results indicate that this modification is a precocious and sensitive index of altered glucose metabolism.

  14. Noninvasive continuous blood pressure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Mouradian, Vahram; Hovhannisyan, Levon

    2015-03-01

    We are presenting a novel photoplethysmographic (PPG) optical sensor and device with ambient optical, electrical and electromagnetic noises cancellation, thus allowing only the useful optical signals to be received by the health monitoring device. We are also presenting a new processing technique for canceling the ambient noises contributed by optical, electrical and electromagnetic artifacts in the measured PPG signals. Such a device and method allow the enhancement of the performance of the PPG sensors compared to conventional apparatus and methods. The presented sensor and methodology have been integrated into a prototype standalone device for noninvasive, continuous, wearable, remote and mobile monitoring of blood pressure and other human vital signs, such as heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, etc This small device allows the user to read, store, process and transmit all the measurements made using the PPG optical sensor and the electronic unit to a remote location.

  15. Development of blood extraction system designed by female mosquito's blood sampling mechanism for bio-MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2005-02-01

    A compact and wearable wristwatch type Bio-MEMS such as a health monitoring system (HMS) to detect blood sugar level for diabetic patient, was newly developed. The HMS consists of (1) a indentation unit with a microneedle to generate the skin penetration force using a shape memory alloy(SMA) actuator, (2) a pumping unit using a bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator to extract the blood and (3) a gold (Au) electrode as a biosensor immobilized GOx and attached to the gate electrode of MOSFET to detect the amount of Glucose in extracted blood. GOx was immobilized on a self assembled spacer combined with an Au electrode by the cross-link method using BSA as an additional bonding material. The device can extract blood in a few microliter through a painless microneedle with the negative pressure by deflection of the bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator produced in the blood chamber, by the similar way the female mosquito extracts human blood with muscle motion to flex or relax. The performances of the liquid sampling ability of the pumping unit through a microneedle (3.8mm length, 100μm internal diameter) using the bimorph PZT piezoelectric microactuator were measured. The blood extraction micro device could extract human blood at the speed of 2μl/min, and it is enough volume to measure a glucose level, compared to the amount of commercial based glucose level monitor. The electrode embedded in the blood extraction device chamber could detect electrons generated by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide produced by the reaction between GOx and glucose in a few microliter extracted blood, using the constant electric current measurement system of the MOSFET type hybrid biosensor. The output voltage for the glucose diluted in the chamber was increased lineally with increase of the glucose concentration.

  16. Electronic Mail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jim; Holznagel, Don

    1984-01-01

    Decision makers must address the issues of (1) just what are electronic communications? (2) how will they help me teach, administer, or survive? and (3) what will it cost in time and money? Electronic mail allows the sending of letters, memos, and messages to anyone who uses the same electronic mail system, and provides most of the options that…

  17. Electronics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, Charlotte

    This document presents results of research conducted by industry representatives regarding tasks performed by electronic technicians and line manufacturing electro-mechanical technicians in Arizona electronics industries. Based on this research, a competency-based curriculum was developed for training entry-level electronics technicians. Twelve…

  18. 20 CFR 801.101 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Establishment. 801.101 Section 801.101... Establishment and Authority of the Board § 801.101 Establishment. By Pub. L. 92-576, 82 Stat. 1251, in an... was established effective November 26, 1972, a Benefits Review Board, which is composed of...

  19. 20 CFR 801.101 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Establishment. 801.101 Section 801.101... Establishment and Authority of the Board § 801.101 Establishment. By Pub. L. 92-576, 82 Stat. 1251, in an... was established effective November 26, 1972, a Benefits Review Board, which is composed of...

  20. 20 CFR 801.101 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Establishment. 801.101 Section 801.101... Establishment and Authority of the Board § 801.101 Establishment. By Pub. L. 92-576, 82 Stat. 1251, in an... was established effective November 26, 1972, a Benefits Review Board, which is composed of...

  1. 20 CFR 801.101 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment. 801.101 Section 801.101... Establishment and Authority of the Board § 801.101 Establishment. By Pub. L. 92-576, 82 Stat. 1251, in an... was established effective November 26, 1972, a Benefits Review Board, which is composed of...

  2. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at http://sbrblood.nhgri.nih.gov, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles. PMID:26590403

  3. Umbilical Cord Blood Banking and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Alkindi, Salam; Dennison, David

    2011-01-01

    It is more than 20 years since the first cord blood transplant (CBT) was performed, following the realisation that cord blood (CB), which is normally wasted, is rich in progenitor cells and capable of rescuing haematopoiesis. Since then it has been appreciated that CB is rich in stem cells, and has many other features not the least of which is its ability to rescue the transplanted patient without a rigid need for full human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) compatibility. Also it is easily accessible, relatively free from infections and poses no medical risk to the donor. However, the quantity of the stem cells is rather small, thus predominantly restricting its use to children or adults requiring double units. In Oman, we have taken a keen interest in stem cell research and also CBT. We see such activities as an avenue for our patients, for whom a compatible bone marrow (BM) or a peripheral blood donor cannot be found, to have an alternative in the form of CBT. This has encouraged us to establish a national voluntary cord blood bank (CBB) which is a valuable option open to a selected group of patients, as compared to the controversial private CBB. This national CBB will have a better representation of HLA-types common in the region, an improvement on relying on banks in other countries. Considering the need for stem cell transplant/therapy in this country, it is only appropriate that this sort of bank is established to cater for some of these requirements. PMID:22087393

  4. Preventing Arc Welding From Damaging Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Noel; Mareen, D.

    1988-01-01

    Shielding technique developed to protect sensitive electronic equipment from damage due to electromagnetic disturbances produced by arc welding. Established acceptable alternative in instances in which electronic equipment cannot be removed prior to arc welding. Guidelines established for open, unshielded welds. Procedure applicable to robotics or computer-aided manufacturing.

  5. Stretchability of encapsulated electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Liu, Z. J.; Song, J.; Huang, Y.; Hwang, K.-C.; Zhang, Y. W.; Rogers, J. A.

    2011-08-01

    Stretchable and flexible electronics offer the performance of conventional wafer-based systems but can be stretched like a rubber band, twisted like a rope, and bent over a pencil. Such a technology offers new application opportunities, in areas of surgical and diagnostic implements that naturally integrate with the human body to provide advanced capabilities, to curvilinear devices such as hemispherical "eyeball" cameras. In practice, stretchable and flexible electronic systems require encapsulation layers to provide mechanical and environmental protection. This paper establishes a simple, analytical model for the optimal design of encapsulation.

  6. Limiting excessive postoperative blood transfusion after cardiac procedures. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, V A; Ferraris, S P

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of blood product use after cardiac operations reveals that a few patients (< or = 20%) consume the majority of blood products (> 80%). The risk factors that predispose a minority of patients to excessive blood use include patient-related factors, transfusion practices, drug-related causes, and procedure-related factors. Multivariate studies suggest that patient age and red blood cell volume are independent patient-related variables that predict excessive blood product transfusion after cardiac procedures. Other factors include preoperative aspirin ingestion, type of operation, over- or underutilization of heparin during cardiopulmonary bypass, failure to correct hypothermia after cardiopulmonary bypass, and physician overtransfusion. A survey of the currently available blood conservation techniques reveals 5 that stand out as reliable methods: 1) high-dose aprotinin therapy, 2) preoperative erythropoietin therapy when time permits adequate dosage before operation, 3) hemodilution by harvest of whole blood immediately before cardiopulmonary bypass, 4) autologous predonation of blood, and 5) salvage of oxygenator blood after cardiopulmonary bypass. Other methods, such as the use of epsilon-aminocaproic acid or desmopressin, cell saving devices, reinfusion of shed mediastinal blood, and hemofiltration have been reported to be less reliable and may even be harmful in some high-risk patients. Consideration of the available data allows formulation of a 4-pronged plan for limiting excessive blood transfusion after surgery: 1) recognize the causes of excessive transfusion, including the importance of red blood cell volume, type of procedure being performed, preoperative aspirin ingestion, etc.; 2) establish a quality management program, including a survey of transfusion practices that emphasizes physician education and availability of real-time laboratory testing to guide transfusion therapy; 3) adopt a multimodal approach using institution-proven techniques; and

  7. Umbilical cord blood transplant for malignancies: a hope or hype.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Ankur; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2013-08-01

    Cord blood is a rich and unlimited source of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic stem cell transplant to treat a variety of oncologic, genetic, hematologic, and immunodeficiency disorders. Since the first successful cord blood transplant in 1988, a large number of cord blood banks have been established world over for collection and storage of cord blood for future use. Majority of such transplants are performed in children, however, the number in adults have been growing steadily in recent years. Results from various transplant registries reveals that a single cord blood provides enough stem cells to provide short and long term engraftment, and has low incidence and less severity of graft versus host disease. With a high booming birth rate and a large genetic diversity, India has potential to become the largest supplier of cord blood stem cells in world. To meet the future transplant need of the country sincere efforts from various institutes and government agencies are needed to increase the number of public cord blood banks in the country. In this article the author will focus on the issue of public and private cord blood banking; the role of physicians in educating and counseling families with regard to the utility of cord blood for donor itself as well as the future of umbilical cord blood transplant in India.

  8. [Necessity of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing].

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    The preventive effects of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing on mistyping of transfused blood was examined. Blood transfusion tests have been performed by blood transfusion technologists during working hours and by physicians at other times. In March 2000, we introduced a system in which technologists perform blood transfusion tests after working hours. Technologists of the Blood Transfusion Unit and Central Clinical Laboratory perform the test jointly, and column agglutination technology was introduced as the test method. A computer system setup exclusively for the testing was also introduced to perform computer cross-matching. Since transfusion error is likely to occur during emergency blood transfusion, a manual was established to prioritize safety. After introduction of the system, mistyping that may have been caused by inaccurate blood test results markedly decreased, confirming the usefulness of this system for prevention of mistyping. In addition, transfusion errors also decreased in wards and the improved system increased the safety of the entire medical care system. The frequency of mistyping was about 1% when physicians performed blood typing, showing the importance of clinical technologists for blood transfusion tests. PMID:12652691

  9. Blood Vessel Tension Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  10. Rotary blood pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor); Kiris, Cetin (Inventor); Kwak, Dochan (Inventor); Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); DeBakey, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A blood pump that comprises a pump housing having a blood flow path therethrough, a blood inlet, and a blood outlet; a stator mounted to the pump housing, the stator having a stator field winding for producing a stator magnetic field; a flow straightener located within the pump housing, and comprising a flow straightener hub and at least one flow straightener blade attached to the flow straightener hub; a rotor mounted within the pump housing for rotation in response to the stator magnetic field, the rotor comprising an inducer and an impeller; the inducer being located downstream of the flow straightener, and comprising an inducer hub and at least one inducer blade attached to the inducer hub; the impeller being located downstream of the inducer, and comprising an impeller hub and at least one impeller blade attached to the impeller hub; and preferably also comprising a diffuser downstream of the impeller, the diffuser comprising a diffuser hub and at least one diffuser blade. Blood flow stagnation and clot formation within the pump are minimized by, among other things, providing the inducer hub with a diameter greater than the diameter of the flow straightener hub; by optimizing the axial spacing between the flow straightener hub and the inducer hub, and between the impeller hub and the diffuser hub; by optimizing the inlet angle of the diffuser blades; and by providing fillets or curved transitions between the upstream end of the inducer hub and the shaft mounted therein, and between the impeller hub and the shaft mounted therein.

  11. Reactions of Blood with Nonbiologic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Reginald G.; Shermer, Richard W.; Rodman, Nathaniel F.

    1972-01-01

    Interaction of normal and coagulation factor deficient bloods with glass, Teflon and silicone-coated glass surfaces have been studied. The morphology of the blood-surface interaction was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Activation of the intrinsic coagulation system and progression of these changes, monitored by use of the partial thromboplastin time test, were influenced by both the type of surface to which blood was exposed and the deficiencies of coagulation Factors I, VIII, IX, or XII. Deficiency of fibrinogen appears to enhance, minimally, activation of the coagulation sequences by test materials. However, deficiency of fibrinogen markedly reduces adhesion of platelets to foreign surfaces. Deficiency of Factor XII, but not of Factors VIII or IX, decreases platelet adhesion to nonbiologic surfaces but to a lesser extent than does deficiency of fibrinogen. Roughness of test surfaces appears to encourage cellular deposition from blood. An ex vivo model designed for screening materials for their compatibility with blood is described. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 PMID:4634736

  12. Reliable noninvasive measurement of blood gases

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Edward V.; Robinson, Mark R.; Haaland, David M.; Alam, Mary K.

    1994-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for, preferably, determining noninvasively and in vivo at least two of the five blood gas parameters (i.e., pH, PCO.sub.2, [HCO.sub.3.sup.- ], PO.sub.2, and O.sub.2 sat.) in a human. The non-invasive method includes the steps of: generating light at three or more different wavelengths in the range of 500 nm to 2500 nm; irradiating blood containing tissue; measuring the intensities of the wavelengths emerging from the blood containing tissue to obtain a set of at least three spectral intensities v. wavelengths; and determining the unknown values of at least two of pH, [HCO.sub.3.sup.- ], PCO.sub.2 and a measure of oxygen concentration. The determined values are within the physiological ranges observed in blood containing tissue. The method also includes the steps of providing calibration samples, determining if the spectral intensities v. wavelengths from the tissue represents an outlier, and determining if any of the calibration samples represents an outlier. The determination of the unknown values is performed by at least one multivariate algorithm using two or more variables and at least one calibration model. Preferably, there is a separate calibration for each blood gas parameter being determined. The method can be utilized in a pulse mode and can also be used invasively. The apparatus includes a tissue positioning device, a source, at least one detector, electronics, a microprocessor, memory, and apparatus for indicating the determined values.

  13. [Donation of blood components].

    PubMed

    Ladrón Llorente, Yolanda; Rández Alvero, Mónica; Carrascosa Ridruejo, Ana Isabel; Bregua García, Judith; Blanco Sotés, Carmelo; Calavia Lacarra, Jesús

    2004-06-01

    The donation of blood by means of aphaeresis by means of a cellular separator is a procedure through which one obtains blood components in the most efficient manner, yielding the best quality in the final product although this procedure requires special characteristics on behalf of the donor and consequently has a higher cost. The authors have analyzed the characteristics of 81 donors who used this procedure and who voluntarily came to our blood bank over a 17 month period from January 2002 until May 2003; 287 such procedures were carried out. The quality of the product obtained, as a benefit for the possible receptor, compensates the greater dedication by the donor and the high cost of this technique.

  14. Development of blood vessel searching system using near-infrared light stereo method for clinical blood sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kai; Morita, Yusuke; Nakamachi, Eiji; Honda, Norihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2014-10-01

    We developed an accurate three-dimensional blood vessel search (3D BVS) system using NIR light for the clinical blood sampling. In the previous study, the 3D BVS system, which used near-infrared (NIR) light imaging and the stereo method to locate blood vessel accurately in three dimensions has been developed(1). However, as NIR lights could not transmit the human arm, this system could not be used for the subcutaneous blood vessel detection. In this study, we developed a BVS by using the reflecting NIR light for blood sampling assist. The light scattering in human tissue will cause blur of blood vessel edge in image, that makes the diameter of blood vessel became uncertain. In this study, a light propagation simulation and a multilayer phantom were adopted to estimate the measurement error of blood vessel diameter in our BSV system. In the simulation, the optical properties of scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient, and refractive index were set similar with human skin. Next, we fabricated a multilayer phantom, which has the similar structure and optical properties with the human skin to confirm availability of the simulation. Also, the optical properties of our phantom are adjustable in our phantom to imitate the different color of skin. We established the estimation algorithm to detect the blood vessel accurately. Finally, we confirm the availability of our BVS for the blood sampling assist system.

  15. Living with High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  16. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 6,2015 Stroke is a leading ... to heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  17. [Data processing and blood transfusion activities: fact and future in 2013].

    PubMed

    Py, J-Y; Daurat, G

    2013-05-01

    It is now hard to think of blood transfusion activities without data processing. Blood transfusion centers are unable to work without it since a long time. Its necessity in hospital blood banks is following the same pattern. Electronic data interchange between them is growing because of their high interdependence. A lot has already been done and works routinely. But a lot remains to be done, due to continuous evolution of computer science and blood transfusion itself. PMID:23622839

  18. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, Sergei M.

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the ¯rst cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cool- ing. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Teva- tron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV car- rying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 ¹rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible.

  19. Thrombocytopenia model with minimal manipulation of blood cells allowing whole blood assessment of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Tiedemann Skipper, Mette; Rubak, Peter; Halfdan Larsen, Ole; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2016-06-01

    In vitro models of thrombocytopenia are useful research tools. Previously published models have shortcomings altering properties of platelets and other blood components. The aim of the present study was to develop a whole blood method to induce thrombocytopenia with minimal manipulation, and to describe platelet function in induced thrombocytopenia in individuals with healthy platelets. Hirudin anticoagulated blood was obtained from 20 healthy volunteers. One part of the blood was gently centrifuged at 130g for 15 minutes. The platelet-rich plasma was replaced with phosphate-buffered saline to establish thrombocytopenia. Various levels of thrombocytopenia were achieved by combining different volumes of baseline whole blood and thrombocytopenic blood. Platelet counts were measured by flow cytometry (Navios, Beckman Coulter) and routine haematological analyser (Sysmex XE-5000). Platelet function was analysed by impedance aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyzer, Roche) and by flow cytometry (Navios, Beckman Coulter) using collagen, adenosine diphosphate, thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 and ristocetin as agonists. Median baseline platelet count was 227×10(9)/l. The in vitro model yielded median platelet counts at 51×10(9)/l (range 26-93×10(9)/l). We observed minor, yet significant, changes in platelet size and maturity from baseline to modelled thrombocytopenia. In the thrombocytopenic samples, significant and positive linear associations were found between platelet count and platelet aggregation across all agonists (all p-values<0.001). Platelet function assessed by flow cytometry showed minimal alterations in the thrombocytopenic samples. A new whole blood-based model of thrombocytopenia was established and validated. This new model serves as a useful future tool, particularly to explore platelet function in patients with thrombocytopenia.

  20. 77 FR 46096 - Statistical Process Controls for Blood Establishments; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...: Statistical process control is the application of statistical methods to the monitoring, or quality control... monitors manufacturing procedures, validation summaries, and quality control data prior to licensure and... at implementation and then monitor these processes on a regular basis, using quality control...

  1. Paper electronics.

    PubMed

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-01

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed.

  2. Electron bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Peters, John W; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K; King, Paul W; Adams, Michael Ww

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths. PMID:27016613

  3. Processing dental claims electronically.

    PubMed

    Mylan, V

    1996-01-01

    A reduction of healthcare costs is an important part of the reform our society is demanding. We cannot ignore this. Lowering administrative costs is a particularly good way to reduce health care expenditures since this decreases the cost without compromising the quality of services. Implementing an EDI structure for submitting claims and receiving claim remittance advice is one way to significantly reduce the cost of health care by lowering administrative costs. EDI allows the consumer to receive the same level of health care at a lower cost. To accomplish this goal, the industry must accept some standardization. While providers, dental software vendors, and clearinghouses request an electronic claims system that is uniform-payers (insurance companies, State-administered Medicaid programs, etc.) often insist on proprietary formats that fit their own requirements. This impedes the implementation of a successful electronic interchange of data. Under the leadership of the Canadian Dental Association, payers and dentists in Canada were able to create a superior electronic claim processing network, CDAnet. Providers and payers using CDAnet agree that the system works very well. The Canadian dentist does not pay for this service, and insurance companies benefit significantly. Dentists in the USA do not have a universal electronic claim processing network. A USA dentist who wants to send claims electronically has limited selections and often pays additional fees. Organized dentistry has the best opportunity of establishing electronic data interchange between providers and payers in the USA. The first step is creating a universal electronic claim processing system. This system must protect confidentiality by maintaining data that keeps anonymous provider and patient data. It is the dentist who produces the claim. Dentists must become involved in the decisions affecting electronic claim processing. The proper guidance from organized dentistry will enable providers, payers

  4. Two-Electron Transfer Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiaxing; Balamurugan, D; Zhang, Peng; Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N

    2015-06-18

    The frontiers of electron-transfer chemistry demand that we develop theoretical frameworks to describe the delivery of multiple electrons, atoms, and ions in molecular systems. When electrons move over long distances through high barriers, where the probability for thermal population of oxidized or reduced bridge-localized states is very small, the electrons will tunnel from the donor (D) to acceptor (A), facilitated by bridge-mediated superexchange interactions. If the stable donor and acceptor redox states on D and A differ by two electrons, it is possible that the electrons will propagate coherently from D to A. While structure-function relations for single-electron superexchange in molecules are well established, strategies to manipulate the coherent flow of multiple electrons are largely unknown. In contrast to one-electron superexchange, two-electron superexchange involves both one- and two-electron virtual intermediate states, the number of virtual intermediates increases very rapidly with system size, and multiple classes of pathways interfere with one another. In the study described here, we developed simple superexchange models for two-electron transfer. We explored how the bridge structure and energetics influence multielectron superexchange, and we compared two-electron superexchange interactions to single-electron superexchange. Multielectron superexchange introduces interference between singly and doubly oxidized (or reduced) bridge virtual states, so that even simple linear donor-bridge-acceptor systems have pathway topologies that resemble those seen for one-electron superexchange through bridges with multiple parallel pathways. The simple model systems studied here exhibit a richness that is amenable to experimental exploration by manipulating the multiple pathways, pathway crosstalk, and changes in the number of donor and acceptor species. The features that emerge from these studies may assist in developing new strategies to deliver multiple

  5. Knowledge about umbilical cord blood banking among Greek citizens

    PubMed Central

    Karagiorgou, Louiza Z.; Pantazopoulou, Maria-Nikoletta P.; Mainas, Nikolaos C.; Beloukas, Apostolos I.; Kriebardis, Anastasios G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord blood supplies in Greece are not sufficient to meet the high transfusion needs. This study was designed to determine Greeks’ opinion about umbilical cord blood, identify the reasons for the lack of motivation to donate umbilical cord blood and allow experts to establish better recruitment campaigns to enrich the donor pool. Materials and methods The attitudes and knowledge about umbilical cord blood of randomly selected Greek citizens (n=1,019) were assessed by means of a standardised anonymous questionnaire. The results were analysed using the χ2test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results Forty-eight percent of respondents knew about umbilical cord blood and had full knowledge about what storage/donation offers. Media (35%) and doctors (25%) were the main source of information. The information from the state was considered either inadequate or non-existent by 85% of the responders. Ninety-five percent of the people questioned would like further information regarding umbilical cord blood transplantation and umbilical cord blood storage/donation. Six percent of the respondents who had children and were in favour of umbilical cord blood transplantation, had stored/donated UCB. With regards to future decisions, 84% of the sample would store/donate umbilical cord blood, of whom 57% would keep the umbilical cord blood in a private bank. Discussion It was concluded that Greek citizens receive information about umbilical cord blood from both the state and advertising campaigns by the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. A kind of cooperation between all hospitals and public umbilical cord blood banks would be advisable in order to facilitate access to umbilical cord blood donations. PMID:24120604

  6. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, W.C.; Shelton, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    Electron beam precharging of a high resistivity aerosol was successfully performed under a range of experimental conditions during Quarter Six of the contract. The initial E-beam particle precharging experiments completed this term were designed to extend the efficiency of particle charging and collection using a fine, monodisperse aerosol at relatively large loadings in the FSU Electron Beam Precipitator wind tunnel. There are several reasons for doing this: (1) to re-establish a baseline performance criterion for comparison to other runs, (2) to test several recently upgraded or repaired subsystems, and (3) to improve upon the collection efficiency of the electron beam precipitator when testing precharging effectiveness with a very high resistivity, moderate-to-high dust concentration. In addition, these shakedown runs were used to determine a set of suitable operational parameters for the wind tunnel, the electrostatic collecting sections, and the MINACC E-beam accelerator. These parameters will normally be held constant while the precharging parameters are varied to produce an optimum particle charge. The electron beam precharging investigation performed during the period covered by Quarter Six used virtually the same experimental apparatus and procedures as in previous contract work, and these are described for review in this report. This investigation was part of an experimental effort which ran nearly continuously for nine months, encompassing work on the electrostatic collecting section, electron beam precharger, and particle charge-to-radius measuring apparatus. A summary of the work on dc electron beam precipitation is presented here.

  7. 42 CFR 24.1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishment. 24.1 Section 24.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.1 Establishment. There is established in the Public Health Service (PHS) a Senior...

  8. 42 CFR 24.1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishment. 24.1 Section 24.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.1 Establishment. There is established in the Public Health Service (PHS) a Senior...

  9. 42 CFR 24.1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishment. 24.1 Section 24.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.1 Establishment. There is established in the Public Health Service (PHS) a Senior...

  10. 42 CFR 24.1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishment. 24.1 Section 24.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.1 Establishment. There is established in the Public Health Service (PHS) a Senior...

  11. 42 CFR 24.1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishment. 24.1 Section 24.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.1 Establishment. There is established in the Public Health Service (PHS) a Senior...

  12. 33 CFR 165.5 - Establishment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS General § 165.5 Establishment procedures. (a) A safety zone, security zone, or regulated navigation area may be established on..., security zone, or regulated navigation area be established. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of...

  13. A photonic crystal hydrogel suspension array for the capture of blood cells from whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Cai, Yunlang; Shang, Luoran; Wang, Huan; Cheng, Yao; Rong, Fei; Gu, Zhongze; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells.Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06368j

  14. Blood Typing--Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, W. T., Jr.

    This instructional packet deals with the study of hematology. It is recommended for all high school students of biology. A general understanding of antigen-antibody reactions is necessary before attempting this learning activity. Behavioral objectives place emphasis on the techniques of and understanding of blood typing. The equipment and…

  15. Chemistry of Blood Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.

    2005-01-01

    The molecule of December 2005 comes from the paper by Rose, Palcic and Evans on structural factors determining the blood type. The structure was previously reported by Palcic and Evans and is presented without the water molecule that is determined in the crystal structure.

  16. Teaching "In Cold Blood."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berbrich, Joan D.

    1967-01-01

    The Truman Capote nonfiction novel, "In Cold Blood," which reflects for adolescents the immediacy of the real world, illuminates (1) social issues--capital punishment, environmental influence, and the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots," (2) moral issues--the complexity of man's nature, the responsibility of one man for another, and the place…

  17. CO2 blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  18. Blood glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Davey, Sarah

    2014-06-10

    I found the CPD article on blood glucose monitoring and management in acute stroke care interesting and informative. As I am a mental health nursing student, my knowledge of chronic physical conditions is limited, so I learned a lot. PMID:24894257

  19. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  20. Communications Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorderstrasse, Ron; Siebert, Leo

    This module is the third in a series of electronics publications and serves as a supplement to "General Electronics Technician." It is designed to provide students with an overview of the broad field of communications. Included are those tasks above the basic skills level that allow students to progress to a higher level of competency in the…