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Sample records for electronic design automation

  1. Electronic Design Automation: Integrating the Design and Manufacturing Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachnak, Rafic; Salkowski, Charles

    1997-01-01

    As the complexity of electronic systems grows, the traditional design practice, a sequential process, is replaced by concurrent design methodologies. A major advantage of concurrent design is that the feedback from software and manufacturing engineers can be easily incorporated into the design. The implementation of concurrent engineering methodologies is greatly facilitated by employing the latest Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools. These tools offer integrated simulation of the electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing functions and support virtual prototyping, rapid prototyping, and hardware-software co-design. This report presents recommendations for enhancing the electronic design and manufacturing capabilities and procedures at JSC based on a concurrent design methodology that employs EDA tools.

  2. Using digital electronic design flow to create a Genetic Design Automation tool.

    PubMed

    Gendrault, Y; Madec, M; Wlotzko, V; Andraud, M; Lallement, C; Haiech, J

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic bio-systems become increasingly more complex and their development is lengthy and expensive. In the same way, in microelectronics, the design process of very complex circuits has benefited from many years of experience. It is now partly automated through Electronic Design Automation tools. Both areas present analogies that can be used to create a Genetic Design Automation tool inspired from EDA tools used in digital electronics. This tool would allow moving away from a totally manual design of bio-systems to assisted conception. This ambitious project is presented in this paper, with a deep focus on the tool that automatically generates models of bio-systems directly usable in electronic simulators.

  3. Electronic Design Automation (EDA) Roadmap Taskforce Report, Design of Microprocessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    The goal of this project was to support the establishment of tool interoperability standards for the semiconductor industry. Accomplishments include the publication of the 'EDA Industry Standards Roadmap - 1996' and the 'EDA Roadmap Taskforce Report - Design of Microprocessors.'

  4. A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Automated Electronic Circuit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Jason D.; Colombano, Silvano P.; Haith, Gary L.; Stassinopoulos, Dimitris

    2000-01-01

    Parallelized versions of genetic algorithms (GAs) are popular primarily for three reasons: the GA is an inherently parallel algorithm, typical GA applications are very compute intensive, and powerful computing platforms, especially Beowulf-style computing clusters, are becoming more affordable and easier to implement. In addition, the low communication bandwidth required allows the use of inexpensive networking hardware such as standard office ethernet. In this paper we describe a parallel GA and its use in automated high-level circuit design. Genetic algorithms are a type of trial-and-error search technique that are guided by principles of Darwinian evolution. Just as the genetic material of two living organisms can intermix to produce offspring that are better adapted to their environment, GAs expose genetic material, frequently strings of 1s and Os, to the forces of artificial evolution: selection, mutation, recombination, etc. GAs start with a pool of randomly-generated candidate solutions which are then tested and scored with respect to their utility. Solutions are then bred by probabilistically selecting high quality parents and recombining their genetic representations to produce offspring solutions. Offspring are typically subjected to a small amount of random mutation. After a pool of offspring is produced, this process iterates until a satisfactory solution is found or an iteration limit is reached. Genetic algorithms have been applied to a wide variety of problems in many fields, including chemistry, biology, and many engineering disciplines. There are many styles of parallelism used in implementing parallel GAs. One such method is called the master-slave or processor farm approach. In this technique, slave nodes are used solely to compute fitness evaluations (the most time consuming part). The master processor collects fitness scores from the nodes and performs the genetic operators (selection, reproduction, variation, etc.). Because of dependency

  5. A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Automated Electronic Circuit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason D.; Colombano, Silvano P.; Haith, Gary L.; Stassinopoulos, Dimitris; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe a parallel genetic algorithm (GA) that automatically generates circuit designs using evolutionary search. A circuit-construction programming language is introduced and we show how evolution can generate practical analog circuit designs. Our system allows circuit size (number of devices), circuit topology, and device values to be evolved. We present experimental results as applied to analog filter and amplifier design tasks.

  6. The design of the automated control system for warehouse equipment under radio-electronic manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapulin, D. V.; Chemidov, I. V.; Kazantsev, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the paper, the aspects of design, development and implementation of the automated control system for warehousing under the manufacturing process of the radio-electronic enterprise JSC «Radiosvyaz» are discussed. The architecture of the automated control system for warehousing proposed in the paper consists of a server which is connected to the physically separated information networks: the network with a database server, which stores information about the orders for picking, and the network with the automated storage and retrieval system. This principle allows implementing the requirements for differentiation of access, ensuring the information safety and security requirements. Also, the efficiency of the developed automated solutions in terms of optimizing the warehouse’s logistic characteristics is researched.

  7. Design automation for integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condrat, Christopher

    Recent breakthroughs in silicon photonics technology are enabling the integration of optical devices into silicon-based semiconductor processes. Photonics technology enables high-speed, high-bandwidth, and high-fidelity communications on the chip-scale---an important development in an increasingly communications-oriented semiconductor world. Significant developments in silicon photonic manufacturing and integration are also enabling investigations into applications beyond that of traditional telecom: sensing, filtering, signal processing, quantum technology---and even optical computing. In effect, we are now seeing a convergence of communications and computation, where the traditional roles of optics and microelectronics are becoming blurred. As the applications for opto-electronic integrated circuits (OEICs) are developed, and manufacturing capabilities expand, design support is necessary to fully exploit the potential of this optics technology. Such design support for moving beyond custom-design to automated synthesis and optimization is not well developed. Scalability requires abstractions, which in turn enables and requires the use of optimization algorithms and design methodology flows. Design automation represents an opportunity to take OEIC design to a larger scale, facilitating design-space exploration, and laying the foundation for current and future optical applications---thus fully realizing the potential of this technology. This dissertation proposes design automation for integrated optic system design. Using a building-block model for optical devices, we provide an EDA-inspired design flow and methodologies for optical design automation. Underlying these flows and methodologies are new supporting techniques in behavioral and physical synthesis, as well as device-resynthesis techniques for thermal-aware system integration. We also provide modeling for optical devices and determine optimization and constraint parameters that guide the automation

  8. Genetic circuit design automation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Der, Bryan S; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vaidyanathan, Prashant; Paralanov, Vanya; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Ross, David; Densmore, Douglas; Voigt, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Automated design of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Mccomb, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in structural analysis of aerospace vehicles is characterized, automated design technology is discussed, and an indication is given of the future direction of research in analysis and automated design. Representative computer programs for analysis typical of those in routine use in vehicle design activities are described, and results are shown for some selected analysis problems. Recent and planned advances in analysis capability are indicated. Techniques used to automate the more routine aspects of structural design are discussed, and some recently developed automated design computer programs are described. Finally, discussion is presented of early accomplishments in interdisciplinary automated design systems, and some indication of the future thrust of research in this field is given.

  10. Automated Hardware Design via Evolutionary Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason D.; Colombano, Silvano P.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the application of evolutionary search to the process of automated engineering design. Evolutionary search techniques involve the simulation of Darwinian mechanisms by computer algorithms. In recent years, such techniques have attracted much attention because they are able to tackle a wide variety of difficult problems and frequently produce acceptable solutions. The results obtained are usually functional, often surprising, and typically "messy" because the algorithms are told to concentrate on the overriding objective and not elegance or simplicity. advantages. First, faster design cycles translate into time and, hence, cost savings. Second, automated design techniques can be made to scale well and hence better deal with increasing amounts of design complexity. Third, design quality can increase because design properties can be specified a priori. For example, size and weight specifications of a device, smaller and lighter than the best known design, might be optimized by the automated design technique. The domain of electronic circuit design is an advantageous platform in which to study automated design techniques because it is a rich design space that is well understood, permitting human-created designs to be compared to machine- generated designs. developed for circuit design was to automatically produce high-level integrated electronic circuit designs whose properties permit physical implementation in silicon. This process entailed designing an effective evolutionary algorithm and solving a difficult multiobjective optimization problem. FY 99 saw many accomplishments in this effort.

  11. Design Automation in Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Appleton, Evan; Madsen, Curtis; Roehner, Nicholas; Densmore, Douglas

    2017-04-03

    Design automation refers to a category of software tools for designing systems that work together in a workflow for designing, building, testing, and analyzing systems with a target behavior. In synthetic biology, these tools are called bio-design automation (BDA) tools. In this review, we discuss the BDA tools areas-specify, design, build, test, and learn-and introduce the existing software tools designed to solve problems in these areas. We then detail the functionality of some of these tools and show how they can be used together to create the desired behavior of two types of modern synthetic genetic regulatory networks.

  12. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-07-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  13. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.

    1994-03-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents in electronic component cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. In addition, the use of robotic and automated systems can reduce the manual handling of parts that necessitates additional cleaning. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  14. Software design for distribution automation

    SciTech Connect

    Gillerman, J.; Nave, R.; Tran, T.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the design and implementation of standards based communications software for distribution automation. Design of a simple application to communicate with a program in control of sampling of a AC waveform and controlling a switch are detailed. The software developed provides one possible implementation of a standard communication method for communication between a central station and a remote controllers. The software has been built using an EPRI Utility Communications Architecture (UCA) component called Manufacturing Messaging Service (MMS).

  15. Automating Software Design Metrics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    declaration to be associated with it. Second, Byron tools can produce useful output from incomplete specifications. These advantages over pure Ada are...8217 implemented. Implementation independent details are included in Sec- tion 2.2. Requirements and Design information for the DARTS implemen- tation of both...The Intelligence Content (I) is an estimate of the Potential Volume. It is independent of the language used and is expected to be invariant over

  16. Automated Core Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Yoko; Aiyoshi, Eitaro

    2005-07-15

    Multistate searching methods are a subfield of distributed artificial intelligence that aims to provide both principles for construction of complex systems involving multiple states and mechanisms for coordination of independent agents' actions. This paper proposes a multistate searching algorithm with reinforcement learning for the automatic core design of a boiling water reactor. The characteristics of this algorithm are that the coupling structure and the coupling operation suitable for the assigned problem are assumed and an optimal solution is obtained by mutual interference in multistate transitions using multiagents. Calculations in an actual plant confirmed that the proposed algorithm increased the convergence ability of the optimization process.

  17. Automated Design of Quantum Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Colin P.; Gray, Alexander G.

    2000-01-01

    In order to design a quantum circuit that performs a desired quantum computation, it is necessary to find a decomposition of the unitary matrix that represents that computation in terms of a sequence of quantum gate operations. To date, such designs have either been found by hand or by exhaustive enumeration of all possible circuit topologies. In this paper we propose an automated approach to quantum circuit design using search heuristics based on principles abstracted from evolutionary genetics, i.e. using a genetic programming algorithm adapted specially for this problem. We demonstrate the method on the task of discovering quantum circuit designs for quantum teleportation. We show that to find a given known circuit design (one which was hand-crafted by a human), the method considers roughly an order of magnitude fewer designs than naive enumeration. In addition, the method finds novel circuit designs superior to those previously known.

  18. Automated Engineering Design (AED); An approach to automated documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, C. W.

    1970-01-01

    The automated engineering design (AED) is reviewed, consisting of a high level systems programming language, a series of modular precoded subroutines, and a set of powerful software machine tools that effectively automate the production and design of new languages. AED is used primarily for development of problem and user-oriented languages. Software production phases are diagramed, and factors which inhibit effective documentation are evaluated.

  19. Automation of Design Engineering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torrey, Glenn; Sawasky, Gerald; Courey, Karim

    2004-01-01

    A method, and a computer program that helps to implement the method, have been developed to automate and systematize the retention and retrieval of all the written records generated during the process of designing a complex engineering system. It cannot be emphasized strongly enough that all the written records as used here is meant to be taken literally: it signifies not only final drawings and final engineering calculations but also such ancillary documents as minutes of meetings, memoranda, requests for design changes, approval and review documents, and reports of tests. One important purpose served by the method is to make the records readily available to all involved users via their computer workstations from one computer archive while eliminating the need for voluminous paper files stored in different places. Another important purpose served by the method is to facilitate the work of engineers who are charged with sustaining the system and were not involved in the original design decisions. The method helps the sustaining engineers to retrieve information that enables them to retrace the reasoning that led to the original design decisions, thereby helping them to understand the system better and to make informed engineering choices pertaining to maintenance and/or modifications of the system. The software used to implement the method is written in Microsoft Access. All of the documents pertaining to the design of a given system are stored in one relational database in such a manner that they can be related to each other via a single tracking number.

  20. Automation design of cemented doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, Galina; Ivanova, Tatiana; Korotkova, Natalia

    2015-09-01

    Algorithm and software for cemented doublet synthesis by Slusarev's methodology are presented. Slusarev's methodology is based on lookup tables that allow calculating doublet radii by given value of third-order coma, spherical aberration and chromatic aberration by specific algorithm. This calculation is automated in this work. The input parameters for algorithm are desired values of third-order coma, spherical aberration and chromatic aberration of cemented doublet. The software looks up few pairs of optical glasses corresponding to specified value of chromatic aberration and then calculates radii of surfaces for each pair of glasses corresponding to specified third-order coma and spherical aberration. The resulted third-order aberrations and real aberrations on the edge of the pupil are calculated for obtained radiuses. Several doublets can be analyzed in result table and the chosen one can be imported into Zemax. The calculated cemented doublet parameters can be analyzed and optimized in optical system design software. The software allows to make the first step of optical system design fast and simple. It allows to design not only the system which is free of the third-order spherical aberration, coma and axial color, but obtain necessary value of aberration for compensation of aberrations in another part of optical system. Possibility to look up optical glasses automatically, what affects the chromatic aberration correction and aberration correction in general, is especially important. Examples of automatic calculation of cemented doublet and compensation of aberrations in another part of optical system are presented in the paper.

  1. Generic Automated Multi-function Finger Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honarpardaz, M.; Tarkian, M.; Sirkett, D.; Ölvander, J.; Feng, X.; Elf, J.; Sjögren, R.

    2016-11-01

    Multi-function fingers that are able to handle multiple workpieces are crucial in improvement of a robot workcell. Design automation of multi-function fingers is highly demanded by robot industries to overcome the current iterative, time consuming and complex manual design process. However, the existing approaches for the multi-function finger design automation are unable to entirely meet the robot industries’ need. This paper proposes a generic approach for design automation of multi-function fingers. The proposed approach completely automates the design process and requires no expert skill. In addition, this approach executes the design process much faster than the current manual process. To validate the approach, multi-function fingers are successfully designed for two case studies. Further, the results are discussed and benchmarked with existing approaches.

  2. Automated data collection in single particle electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yong Zi; Cheng, Anchi; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Automated data collection is an integral part of modern workflows in single particle electron microscopy (EM) research. This review surveys the software packages available for automated single particle EM data collection. The degree of automation at each stage of data collection is evaluated, and the capabilities of the software packages are described. Finally, future trends in automation are discussed. PMID:26671944

  3. Automated data collection in single particle electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yong Zi; Cheng, Anchi; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget

    2016-02-01

    Automated data collection is an integral part of modern workflows in single particle electron microscopy (EM) research. This review surveys the software packages available for automated single particle EM data collection. The degree of automation at each stage of data collection is evaluated, and the capabilities of the software packages are described. Finally, future trends in automation are discussed.

  4. Computer automation for feedback system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical techniques and explanations of various steps used by an automated computer program to design feedback systems are summarized. Special attention was given to refining the automatic evaluation suboptimal loop transmission and the translation of time to frequency domain specifications.

  5. Tools for Automating Instructional Design. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasowitz, Abby

    The instructional design process encompasses a set of interdependent phases including analysis of learners, contexts and goals; design of objectives, strategies and assessment tools; production of instructional materials; and evaluation of learner performance and overall instructional design effort. Automated instructional design (AID) tools…

  6. Automated CPX support system preliminary design phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordeaux, T. A.; Carson, E. T.; Hepburn, C. D.; Shinnick, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the Distributed Command and Control System (DCCS) is discussed. The development of an automated C2 system stimulated the development of an automated command post exercise (CPX) support system to provide a more realistic stimulus to DCCS than could be achieved with the existing manual system. An automated CPX system to support corps-level exercise was designed. The effort comprised four tasks: (1) collecting and documenting user requirements; (2) developing a preliminary system design; (3) defining a program plan; and (4) evaluating the suitability of the TRASANA FOURCE computer model.

  7. j5 DNA assembly design automation.

    PubMed

    Hillson, Nathan J

    2014-01-01

    Modern standardized methodologies, described in detail in the previous chapters of this book, have enabled the software-automated design of optimized DNA construction protocols. This chapter describes how to design (combinatorial) scar-less DNA assembly protocols using the web-based software j5. j5 assists biomedical and biotechnological researchers construct DNA by automating the design of optimized protocols for flanking homology sequence as well as type IIS endonuclease-mediated DNA assembly methodologies. Unlike any other software tool available today, j5 designs scar-less combinatorial DNA assembly protocols, performs a cost-benefit analysis to identify which portions of an assembly process would be less expensive to outsource to a DNA synthesis service provider, and designs hierarchical DNA assembly strategies to mitigate anticipated poor assembly junction sequence performance. Software integrated with j5 add significant value to the j5 design process through graphical user-interface enhancement and downstream liquid-handling robotic laboratory automation.

  8. Automated protein design: Landmarks and operational principles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Ranbhor, Ranjit; Patel, Kirti; Ramakrishnan, Vibin; Durani, Susheel

    2017-05-01

    Protein design has an eventful history spanning over three decades, with handful of success stories reported, and numerous failures not reported. Design practices have benefited tremendously from improvements in computer hardware and advances in scientific algorithms. Though protein folding problem still remains unsolved, the possibility of having multiple sequence solutions for a single fold makes protein design a more tractable problem than protein folding. One of the most significant advancement in this area is the implementation of automated design algorithms on pre-defined templates or completely new folds, optimized through deterministic and heuristic search algorithms. This progress report provides a succinct presentation of important landmarks in automated design attempts, followed by brief account of operational principles in automated design methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Automated Simulation For Analysis And Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E.; Shenk, Tim; Robinson, Peter; Upadhye, R.

    1992-01-01

    Design Assistant Workstation (DAWN) software being developed to facilitate simulation of qualitative and quantitative aspects of behavior of life-support system in spacecraft, chemical-processing plant, heating and cooling system of large building, or any of variety of systems including interacting process streams and processes. Used to analyze alternative design scenarios or specific designs of such systems. Expert system will automate part of design analysis: reason independently by simulating design scenarios and return to designer with overall evaluations and recommendations.

  10. Automated Simulation For Analysis And Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E.; Shenk, Tim; Robinson, Peter; Upadhye, R.

    1992-01-01

    Design Assistant Workstation (DAWN) software being developed to facilitate simulation of qualitative and quantitative aspects of behavior of life-support system in spacecraft, chemical-processing plant, heating and cooling system of large building, or any of variety of systems including interacting process streams and processes. Used to analyze alternative design scenarios or specific designs of such systems. Expert system will automate part of design analysis: reason independently by simulating design scenarios and return to designer with overall evaluations and recommendations.

  11. Asynchronous automated electronic laboratory result notifications: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Slovis, Benjamin H; Nahass, Thomas A; Salmasian, Hojjat; Kuperman, Gilad; Vawdrey, David K

    2017-05-18

    To systematically review the literature pertaining to asynchronous automated electronic notifications of laboratory results to clinicians. PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Collaboration were queried for studies pertaining to automated electronic notifications of laboratory results. A title review was performed on the primary results, with a further abstract review and full review to produce the final set of included articles. The full review included 34 articles, representing 19 institutions. Of these, 19 reported implementation and design of systems, 11 reported quasi-experimental studies, 3 reported a randomized controlled trial, and 1 was a meta-analysis. Twenty-seven articles included alerts of critical results, while 5 focused on urgent notifications and 2 on elective notifications. There was considerable variability in clinical setting, system implementation, and results presented. Several asynchronous automated electronic notification systems for laboratory results have been evaluated, most from >10 years ago. Further research on the effect of notifications on clinicians as well as the use of modern electronic health records and new methods of notification is warranted to determine their effects on workflow and clinical outcomes.

  12. Design considerations for automated packaging operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, J.; Jones, J.; Kincy, M.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on work performed at Sandia National Laboratories to automate DOE packaging operations. It is a general summary of work from several projects which may be applicable to other packaging operations. Examples are provided of robotic operations which have been demonstrated as well as operations that are currently being developed. General design considerations for packages and for automated handling systems are described.

  13. Improved automated electronic balance calibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.P.; Frickey, E.M.

    1995-11-01

    An improved automated electronic balance calibration and record system has been developed using a spread sheet to consolidate information required to calibrate electronic balances and satisfy requirements for traceability, validation and documentation. Several improvements have been made over an Epson HX-20{trademark} notebook computer-based balance calibration system, which was developed at the Savannah River Site in 1986 and used continuously since to annually calibrate electronic balances. These improvements included: built in tables of balance models performance test limits and calibration standards` apparent masses & uncertainties; calculated ratios of balance to test weight uncertainties; bar-code data input; enhanced graphs and tables; and permanent electronic records. The software and hardware were thoroughly tested by calibrating 30 balances in another department. Hardware for importing data from balances through an RS-232 interface and bar code reader into a portable computer`s spread sheet was evaluated and found to add little value to the calibration process. Computerized data collection minimizes record handling and reduces paper work costs by >50%. Databases are established for each organization`s electronic balances that contain records for each balance that are identified by model, property identification number and location. In addition, each record contains calibration and expiration dates, performance testing information, etc. Details of equipment, statistical testing, spread sheet features and examples of the program are described.

  14. An Automated Approach to Instructional Design Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, J. Michael; And Others

    This paper describes the Guided Approach to Instructional Design Advising (GAIDA), an automated instructional design tool that incorporates techniques of artificial intelligence. GAIDA was developed by the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Laboratory to facilitate the planning and production of interactive courseware and computer-based training materials.…

  15. ASTROS: A multidisciplinary automated structural design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neill, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    ASTROS (Automated Structural Optimization System) is a finite-element-based multidisciplinary structural optimization procedure developed under Air Force sponsorship to perform automated preliminary structural design. The design task is the determination of the structural sizes that provide an optimal structure while satisfying numerous constraints from many disciplines. In addition to its automated design features, ASTROS provides a general transient and frequency response capability, as well as a special feature to perform a transient analysis of a vehicle subjected to a nuclear blast. The motivation for the development of a single multidisciplinary design tool is that such a tool can provide improved structural designs in less time than is currently needed. The role of such a tool is even more apparent as modern materials come into widespread use. Balancing conflicting requirements for the structure's strength and stiffness while exploiting the benefits of material anisotropy is perhaps an impossible task without assistance from an automated design tool. Finally, the use of a single tool can bring the design task into better focus among design team members, thereby improving their insight into the overall task.

  16. Automating the automobile design process

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.

    1986-03-01

    Traditional CAD/CAM speeds product design, analysis, and manufacturing by giving engineers and designers the ability to view and manipulate computer models of automobiles from a variety of perspectives, such as interiors, exteriors, and cross sections. Computer-aided styling (CAS) hastens the automobile design process in the same manner by allowing data to be captured earlier in the design cycle. The goal of CAS is to be able to determine in advance if a design can be aesthetically pleasing - without having to build even the first prototype. Just like CAD/CAM, styling is an iterative process, with CAS techniques speeding the design. Faster iterations mean that more designs can be reviewed and that designers can react more quickly to changing market trends.

  17. Automated Quantitative Rare Earth Elements Mineralogy by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindern, Sven; Meyer, F. Michael

    2016-09-01

    Increasing industrial demand of rare earth elements (REEs) stems from the central role they play for advanced technologies and the accelerating move away from carbon-based fuels. However, REE production is often hampered by the chemical, mineralogical as well as textural complexity of the ores with a need for better understanding of their salient properties. This is not only essential for in-depth genetic interpretations but also for a robust assessment of ore quality and economic viability. The design of energy and cost-efficient processing of REE ores depends heavily on information about REE element deportment that can be made available employing automated quantitative process mineralogy. Quantitative mineralogy assigns numeric values to compositional and textural properties of mineral matter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with a suitable software package for acquisition of backscatter electron and X-ray signals, phase assignment and image analysis is one of the most efficient tools for quantitative mineralogy. The four different SEM-based automated quantitative mineralogy systems, i.e. FEI QEMSCAN and MLA, Tescan TIMA and Zeiss Mineralogic Mining, which are commercially available, are briefly characterized. Using examples of quantitative REE mineralogy, this chapter illustrates capabilities and limitations of automated SEM-based systems. Chemical variability of REE minerals and analytical uncertainty can reduce performance of phase assignment. This is shown for the REE phases parisite and synchysite. In another example from a monazite REE deposit, the quantitative mineralogical parameters surface roughness and mineral association derived from image analysis are applied for automated discrimination of apatite formed in a breakdown reaction of monazite and apatite formed by metamorphism prior to monazite breakdown. SEM-based automated mineralogy fulfils all requirements for characterization of complex unconventional REE ores that will become

  18. Automated fully-stressed design with NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallerstein, D. V.; Haggenmacher, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    An automated strength sizing capability is described. The technique determines the distribution of material among the elements of a structural model. The sizing is based on either a fully stressed design or a scaled feasible fully stressed design. Results obtained from the application of the strength sizing to the structural sizing of a composite material wing box using material strength allowables are presented. These results demonstrate the rapid convergence of the structural sizes to a usable design.

  19. Automated ILA design for synchronous sequential circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, M. N.; Liu, K. Z.; Maki, G. K.; Whitaker, S. R.

    1991-01-01

    An iterative logic array (ILA) architecture for synchronous sequential circuits is presented. This technique utilizes linear algebra to produce the design equations. The ILA realization of synchronous sequential logic can be fully automated with a computer program. A programmable design procedure is proposed to fullfill the design task and layout generation. A software algorithm in the C language has been developed and tested to generate 1 micron CMOS layouts using the Hewlett-Packard FUNGEN module generator shell.

  20. CMOS array design automation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombardi, T.; Feller, A.

    1976-01-01

    The design considerations and the circuit development for a 4096-bit CMOS SOS ROM chip, the ATL078 are described. Organization of the ATL078 is 512 words by 8 bits. The ROM was designed to be programmable either at the metal mask level or by a directed laser beam after processing. The development of a 4K CMOS SOS ROM fills a void left by available ROM chip types, and makes the design of a totally major high speed system more realizable.

  1. Automated solar collector installation design

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  2. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins’ functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000–160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging. PMID:27403922

  3. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-07-11

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins' functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000-160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.

  4. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; ...

    2016-07-11

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins' functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000-160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisitionmore » without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.« less

  5. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-07-11

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins' functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000-160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.

  6. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins’ functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000–160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.

  7. Automated design of controlled diffusion blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, Jose M.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical automation procedure was developed to be used in conjunction with an inverse hodograph method for the design of controlled diffusion blades. With this procedure a cascade of airfoils with a prescribed solidity, inlet Mach No., inlet air flow angle and air flow turning can be produced automatically. The trailing edge thickness of the airfoil, an important quantity in inverse methods, is also prescribed. The automation procedure consists of a multi-dimensional Newton iteration in which the objective design conditions are achieved by acting on the hodograph input parameters of the underlying inverse code. The method, although more general in scope, is applied to the design of axial flow turbomachinery blade sections, both compressors and turbines. A collaborative effort with U.S. Engine Companies to identify designs of interest to the industry will be described.

  8. Automated mixed traffic vehicle design AMTV 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The design of an improved and enclosed Automated Mixed Traffic Transit (AMTT) vehicle is described. AMTT is an innovative concept for low-speed tram-type transit in which suitable vehicles are equipped with sensors and controls to permit them to operate in an automated mode on existing road or walkway surfaces. The vehicle chassis and body design are presented in terms of sketches and photographs. The functional design of the sensing and control system is presented, and modifications which could be made to the baseline design for improved performance, in particular to incorporate a 20-mph capability, are also discussed. The vehicle system is described at the block-diagram-level of detail. Specifications and parameter values are given where available.

  9. Banning design automation software implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehlthau, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The research is reported for developing a system of computer programs to aid engineering in the design, fabrication, and testing of large scale integrated circuits, hybrid circuits, and printed circuit boards. The automatic layout programs, analysis programs, and interface programs are discussed.

  10. Automation of the aircraft design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenfels, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The increasing use of the computer to automate the aerospace product development and engineering process is examined with emphasis on structural analysis and design. Examples of systems of computer programs in aerospace and other industries are reviewed and related to the characteristics of aircraft design in its conceptual, preliminary, and detailed phases. Problems with current procedures are identified, and potential improvements from optimum utilization of integrated disciplinary computer programs by a man/computer team are indicated.

  11. Automated lower limb prosthesis design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Gulab H.; Commean, Paul K.; Smith, Kirk E.; Vannier, Michael W.

    1994-09-01

    The design of lower limb prostheses requires definitive geometric data to customize socket shape. Optical surface imaging and spiral x-ray computed tomography were applied to geometric analysis of limb residua in below knee (BK) amputees. Residua (limb remnants after amputation) of BK amputees were digitized and measured. Surface (optical) and volumetric (CT) data of the residuum were used to generate solid models and specify socket shape in (SDRC I-DEAS) CAD software. Volume measurements on the solid models were found to correspond within 2% of surface models and direct determinations made using Archimedean weighing. Anatomic 3D reconstruction of the residuum by optical surface and spiral x-ray computed tomography imaging are feasible modalities for prosthesis design.

  12. Generative Representations for Automated Design of Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homby, Gregory S.; Lipson, Hod; Pollack, Jordan B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of automated design of complex, modular robots involves an evolutionary process in which generative representations of designs are used. The term generative representations as used here signifies, loosely, representations that consist of or include algorithms, computer programs, and the like, wherein encoded designs can reuse elements of their encoding and thereby evolve toward greater complexity. Automated design of robots through synthetic evolutionary processes has already been demonstrated, but it is not clear whether genetically inspired search algorithms can yield designs that are sufficiently complex for practical engineering. The ultimate success of such algorithms as tools for automation of design depends on the scaling properties of representations of designs. A nongenerative representation (one in which each element of the encoded design is used at most once in translating to the design) scales linearly with the number of elements. Search algorithms that use nongenerative representations quickly become intractable (search times vary approximately exponentially with numbers of design elements), and thus are not amenable to scaling to complex designs. Generative representations are compact representations and were devised as means to circumvent the above-mentioned fundamental restriction on scalability. In the present method, a robot is defined by a compact programmatic form (its generative representation) and the evolutionary variation takes place on this form. The evolutionary process is an iterative one, wherein each cycle consists of the following steps: 1. Generative representations are generated in an evolutionary subprocess. 2. Each generative representation is a program that, when compiled, produces an assembly procedure. 3. In a computational simulation, a constructor executes an assembly procedure to generate a robot. 4. A physical-simulation program tests the performance of a simulated constructed robot, evaluating the performance

  13. Automated design of controlled-diffusion blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical automation procedure has been developed to be used in conjunction with an inverse hodograph method for the design of controlled diffusion blades. With this procedure a cascade of airfoils with a prescribed solidity, inlet Mach number, inlet air flow angle, and air flow turning can be produced automatically. The trailing edge thickness of the airfoil, an important quantity in inverse methods, is also prescribed. The automation procedure consists of a multidimensional Newton iteration in which the objective design conditions are achieved by acting on the hodograph input parameters of the underlying inverse code. The method, although more general in scope, is applied in this paper to the design of axial flow compressor blade sections, and a wide range of examples is presented.

  14. Design automation techniques for custom LSI arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, A.

    1975-01-01

    The standard cell design automation technique is described as an approach for generating random logic PMOS, CMOS or CMOS/SOS custom large scale integration arrays with low initial nonrecurring costs and quick turnaround time or design cycle. The system is composed of predesigned circuit functions or cells and computer programs capable of automatic placement and interconnection of the cells in accordance with an input data net list. The program generates a set of instructions to drive an automatic precision artwork generator. A series of support design automation and simulation programs are described, including programs for verifying correctness of the logic on the arrays, performing dc and dynamic analysis of MOS devices, and generating test sequences.

  15. Automated design of controlled-diffusion blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical automation procedure has been developed to be used in conjunction with an inverse hodograph method for the design of controlled diffusion blades. With this procedure a cascade of airfoils with a prescribed solidity, inlet Mach number, inlet air flow angle, and air flow turning can be produced automatically. The trailing edge thickness of the airfoil, an important quantity in inverse methods, is also prescribed. The automation procedure consists of a multidimensional Newton iteration in which the objective design conditions are achieved by acting on the hodograph input parameters of the underlying inverse code. The method, although more general in scope, is applied in this paper to the design of axial flow compressor blade sections, and a wide range of examples is presented.

  16. Automated design of controlled diffusion blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, Jose M.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical automation procedure has been developed to be used in conjunction with an inverse hodograph method for the design of controlled diffusion blades. With this procedure a cascade of airfoils with a prescribed solidity, inlet Mach number, inlet air flow angle, and air flow turning can be produced automatically. The trailing edge thickness of the airfoil, an important quantity in inverse methods, is also prescribed. The automation procedure consists of a multidimensional Newton iteration in which the objective design conditions are achieved by acting on the hodograph input parameters of the underlying inverse code. The method, although more general in scope, is applied in this paper to the design of axial flow compressor blade sections, and a wide range of examples is presented.

  17. Automating software design system DESTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovitsky, Vladimir A.; Pearce, Patricia D.

    1992-01-01

    'DESTA' is the acronym for the Dialogue Evolutionary Synthesizer of Turnkey Algorithms by means of a natural language (Russian or English) functional specification of algorithms or software being developed. DESTA represents the computer-aided and/or automatic artificial intelligence 'forgiving' system which provides users with software tools support for algorithm and/or structured program development. The DESTA system is intended to provide support for the higher levels and earlier stages of engineering design of software in contrast to conventional Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems which provide low level tools for use at a stage when the major planning and structuring decisions have already been taken. DESTA is a knowledge-intensive system. The main features of the knowledge are procedures, functions, modules, operating system commands, batch files, their natural language specifications, and their interlinks. The specific domain for the DESTA system is a high level programming language like Turbo Pascal 6.0. The DESTA system is operational and runs on an IBM PC computer.

  18. j5 DNA assembly design automation software.

    PubMed

    Hillson, Nathan J; Rosengarten, Rafael D; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-01-20

    Recent advances in Synthetic Biology have yielded standardized and automatable DNA assembly protocols that enable a broad range of biotechnological research and development. Unfortunately, the experimental design required for modern scar-less multipart DNA assembly methods is frequently laborious, time-consuming, and error-prone. Here, we report the development and deployment of a web-based software tool, j5, which automates the design of scar-less multipart DNA assembly protocols including SLIC, Gibson, CPEC, and Golden Gate. The key innovations of the j5 design process include cost optimization, leveraging DNA synthesis when cost-effective to do so, the enforcement of design specification rules, hierarchical assembly strategies to mitigate likely assembly errors, and the instruction of manual or automated construction of scar-less combinatorial DNA libraries. Using a GFP expression testbed, we demonstrate that j5 designs can be executed with the SLIC, Gibson, or CPEC assembly methods, used to build combinatorial libraries with the Golden Gate assembly method, and applied to the preparation of linear gene deletion cassettes for E. coli. The DNA assembly design algorithms reported here are generally applicable to broad classes of DNA construction methodologies and could be implemented to supplement other DNA assembly design tools. Taken together, these innovations save researchers time and effort, reduce the frequency of user design errors and off-target assembly products, decrease research costs, and enable scar-less multipart and combinatorial DNA construction at scales unfeasible without computer-aided design.

  19. Handbook: Design of automated redundancy verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F. A.; Hasslinger, T. W.; Moreno, F. J.

    1971-01-01

    The use of the handbook is discussed and the design progress is reviewed. A description of the problem is presented, and examples are given to illustrate the necessity for redundancy verification, along with the types of situations to which it is typically applied. Reusable space vehicles, such as the space shuttle, are recognized as being significant in the development of the automated redundancy verification problem.

  20. Expert System for Automated Design Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.; Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1987-01-01

    Expert-system computer program EXADS developed to aid users of Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general-purpose optimization program. EXADS aids engineer in determining best combination based on knowledge of specific problem and expert knowledge stored in knowledge base. Available in two interactive machine versions. IBM PC version (LAR-13687) written in IQ-LISP. DEC VAX version (LAR-13688) written in Franz-LISP.

  1. Computer-automated fixture configuration design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Y.; Bai, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Luo, Zhen-Bi

    1995-08-01

    Flexible fixturing is a necessary aspect of flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) and computer-integrated manufacturing systems (CIMS). Modular fixtures are mostly used in industry for job and small batch production. Computer-aided fixture design (CAFD) has become a research focus in implementing FMS and CIMS. Fixture configuration design is an important issue in the domain of CAFD. A review of the current research in CAFD indicates that one major problem impeding the automated generation of fixture configuration design is the negligence of study on fixture structures. This paper investigates fundamental structures of dowel-pin based modular fixtures and fixturing characteristics of commonly used modular fixture elements. A modular fixture element assembly relationship graph (MFEARG) is designed to represent combination relationships between fixture elements. Based on MFEARG, algorithms are developed to search all suitable fixturing unit candidates and mount them into appropriate positions on the baseplate with an interference check. A prototype system for automated design of dowel-pin modular fixture configurations is presented in this paper. Fixture design examples are given at the end of the paper.

  2. Efficient Maneuver Placement for Automated Trajectory Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landau, Damon

    2015-01-01

    When designing a mission, the addition of a maneuver at the right spot often improves the utility of an otherwise mediocre trajectory. However, the additional degrees of freedom of finding the best maneuver location can severely complicate automated broad-search algorithms. A computationally-efficient formulation that reduces the maneuver design space to a single dimension is presented, where the efficacy of additional maneuvers along previously computed transfers is calculated explicitly via Lawden's "primer vector." Examples include leveraging maneuvers to ease capture at Europa, phasing maneuvers to enable resonant-hopping among Saturn's moons, and broken-plane maneuvers on transfers to Mars.

  3. Design of the hybrid automated reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, R.; Trivedi, K.; Dugan, J. B.; Smotherman, M.

    1983-01-01

    The design of the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP), now under development at Duke University, is presented. The HARP approach to reliability prediction is characterized by a decomposition of the overall model into fault-occurrence and fault-handling sub-models. The fault-occurrence model is a non-homogeneous Markov chain which is solved analytically, while the fault-handling model is a Petri Net which is simulated. HARP provides automated analysis of sensitivity to uncertainties in the input parameters and in the initial state specifications. It then produces a predicted reliability band as a function of mission time, as well as estimates of the improvement (narrowing of the band) to be gained by a specified amount of reduction in uncertainty.

  4. Design of the hybrid automated reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, R.; Trivedi, K.; Dugan, J. B.; Smotherman, M.

    1983-01-01

    The design of the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP), now under development at Duke University, is presented. The HARP approach to reliability prediction is characterized by a decomposition of the overall model into fault-occurrence and fault-handling sub-models. The fault-occurrence model is a non-homogeneous Markov chain which is solved analytically, while the fault-handling model is a Petri Net which is simulated. HARP provides automated analysis of sensitivity to uncertainties in the input parameters and in the initial state specifications. It then produces a predicted reliability band as a function of mission time, as well as estimates of the improvement (narrowing of the band) to be gained by a specified amount of reduction in uncertainty.

  5. Automation enhancements in multidisciplinary design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wujek, Brett Alan

    The process of designing complex systems has necessarily evolved into one which includes the contributions and interactions of multiple disciplines. To date, the Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) process has been addressed mainly from the standpoint of algorithm development, with the primary concerns being effective and efficient coordination of disciplinary activities, modification of conventional optimization methods, and the utility of approximation techniques toward this goal. The focus of this dissertation is on improving the efficiency of MDO algorithms through the automation of common procedures and the development of improved methods to carry out these procedures. In this research, automation enhancements are made to the MDO process in three different areas: execution, sensitivity analysis and utility, and design variable move-limit management. A framework is developed along with a graphical user interface called NDOPT to automate the setup and execution of MDO algorithms in a research environment. The technology of automatic differentiation (AD) is utilized within various modules of MDO algorithms for fast and accurate sensitivity calculation, allowing for the frequent use of updated sensitivity information. With the use of AD, efficiency improvements are observed in the convergence of system analyses and in certain optimization procedures since gradient-based methods, traditionally considered cost-prohibitive, can be employed at a more reasonable expense. Finally, a method is developed to automatically monitor and adjust design variable move-limits for the approximate optimization process commonly used in MDO algorithms. With its basis in the well established and probably convergent trust region approach, the Trust region Ratio Approximation method (TRAM) developed in this research accounts for approximation accuracy and the sensitivity of the model error to the design space in providing a flexible move-limit adjustment factor. Favorable results

  6. Automating human intuition for protein design.

    PubMed

    Nivón, Lucas G; Bjelic, Sinisa; King, Chris; Baker, David

    2014-05-01

    In the design of new enzymes and binding proteins, human intuition is often used to modify computationally designed amino acid sequences prior to experimental characterization. The manual sequence changes involve both reversions of amino acid mutations back to the identity present in the parent scaffold and the introduction of residues making additional interactions with the binding partner or backing up first shell interactions. Automation of this manual sequence refinement process would allow more systematic evaluation and considerably reduce the amount of human designer effort involved. Here we introduce a benchmark for evaluating the ability of automated methods to recapitulate the sequence changes made to computer-generated models by human designers, and use it to assess alternative computational methods. We find the best performance for a greedy one-position-at-a-time optimization protocol that utilizes metrics (such as shape complementarity) and local refinement methods too computationally expensive for global Monte Carlo (MC) sequence optimization. This protocol should be broadly useful for improving the stability and function of designed binding proteins. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Automated design and fabrication of ocular optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutin, Mikhail; Gutin, Olga

    2008-08-01

    Automated computer-aided procedure for component selection, optical design, and optimization was developed and used to produce prototype ocular optics of a head-mounted display for biomedical imaging, with the field of view and resolution approaching those of normal human vision. The new display has the potential to dramatically increase the amount and fidelity of real-time visual information presented to the user. The selected approach was based on a tiled configuration and "optically stitched" virtual image, resulting in seamless imagery generated by multiple micro-displays. Several optical configurations were studied in the design stage, to arrive at the optimal optical layout. The automated procedure provided for extensive search of the best candidate stock components out of thousands of candidate lenses offered by different vendors. At each iteration, the candidate lens was "digitally inserted" in the optical layout, its position was optimized, and the achieved merit function characterizing the quality of the stitched image was stored, along with the design prescription. A few best designs were then closely evaluated in a traditional "manual" procedure. The design effort was followed by experimental demonstration and tests of a limited prototype optical system.

  8. Automated design of ligands to polypharmacological profiles.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Jérémy; Ruda, Gian Filippo; Setola, Vincent; Abecassis, Keren; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Huang, Xi-Ping; Norval, Suzanne; Sassano, Maria F; Shin, Antony I; Webster, Lauren A; Simeons, Frederick R C; Stojanovski, Laste; Prat, Annik; Seidah, Nabil G; Constam, Daniel B; Bickerton, G Richard; Read, Kevin D; Wetsel, William C; Gilbert, Ian H; Roth, Bryan L; Hopkins, Andrew L

    2012-12-13

    The clinical efficacy and safety of a drug is determined by its activity profile across many proteins in the proteome. However, designing drugs with a specific multi-target profile is both complex and difficult. Therefore methods to design drugs rationally a priori against profiles of several proteins would have immense value in drug discovery. Here we describe a new approach for the automated design of ligands against profiles of multiple drug targets. The method is demonstrated by the evolution of an approved acetylcholinesterase inhibitor drug into brain-penetrable ligands with either specific polypharmacology or exquisite selectivity profiles for G-protein-coupled receptors. Overall, 800 ligand-target predictions of prospectively designed ligands were tested experimentally, of which 75% were confirmed to be correct. We also demonstrate target engagement in vivo. The approach can be a useful source of drug leads when multi-target profiles are required to achieve either selectivity over other drug targets or a desired polypharmacology.

  9. Automated design of ligands to polypharmacological profiles

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Jérémy; Ruda, Gian Filippo; Setola, Vincent; Abecassis, Keren; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Huang, Xi-Ping; Norval, Suzanne; Sassano, Maria F.; Shin, Antony I.; Webster, Lauren A.; Simeons, Frederick R.C.; Stojanovski, Laste; Prat, Annik; Seidah, Nabil G.; Constam, Daniel B.; Bickerton, G. Richard; Read, Kevin D.; Wetsel, William C.; Gilbert, Ian H.; Roth, Bryan L.; Hopkins, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of a drug is determined by its activity profile across multiple proteins in the proteome. However, designing drugs with a specific multi-target profile is both complex and difficult. Therefore methods to rationally design drugs a priori against profiles of multiple proteins would have immense value in drug discovery. We describe a new approach for the automated design of ligands against profiles of multiple drug targets. The method is demonstrated by the evolution of an approved acetylcholinesterase inhibitor drug into brain penetrable ligands with either specific polypharmacology or exquisite selectivity profiles for G-protein coupled receptors. Overall, 800 ligand-target predictions of prospectively designed ligands were tested experimentally, of which 75% were confirmed correct. We also demonstrate target engagement in vivo. The approach can be a useful source of drug leads where multi-target profiles are required to achieve either selectivity over other drug targets or a desired polypharmacology. PMID:23235874

  10. Automating Risk Analysis of Software Design Models

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Guifré; Heymann, Elisa; César, Eduardo; Miller, Barton P.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of the internet and networked systems has exposed software to an increased amount of security threats. One of the responses from software developers to these threats is the introduction of security activities in the software development lifecycle. This paper describes an approach to reduce the need for costly human expertise to perform risk analysis in software, which is common in secure development methodologies, by automating threat modeling. Reducing the dependency on security experts aims at reducing the cost of secure development by allowing non-security-aware developers to apply secure development with little to no additional cost, making secure development more accessible. To automate threat modeling two data structures are introduced, identification trees and mitigation trees, to identify threats in software designs and advise mitigation techniques, while taking into account specification requirements and cost concerns. These are the components of our model for automated threat modeling, AutSEC. We validated AutSEC by implementing it in a tool based on data flow diagrams, from the Microsoft security development methodology, and applying it to VOMS, a grid middleware component, to evaluate our model's performance. PMID:25136688

  11. Automating risk analysis of software design models.

    PubMed

    Frydman, Maxime; Ruiz, Guifré; Heymann, Elisa; César, Eduardo; Miller, Barton P

    2014-01-01

    The growth of the internet and networked systems has exposed software to an increased amount of security threats. One of the responses from software developers to these threats is the introduction of security activities in the software development lifecycle. This paper describes an approach to reduce the need for costly human expertise to perform risk analysis in software, which is common in secure development methodologies, by automating threat modeling. Reducing the dependency on security experts aims at reducing the cost of secure development by allowing non-security-aware developers to apply secure development with little to no additional cost, making secure development more accessible. To automate threat modeling two data structures are introduced, identification trees and mitigation trees, to identify threats in software designs and advise mitigation techniques, while taking into account specification requirements and cost concerns. These are the components of our model for automated threat modeling, AutSEC. We validated AutSEC by implementing it in a tool based on data flow diagrams, from the Microsoft security development methodology, and applying it to VOMS, a grid middleware component, to evaluate our model's performance.

  12. Automation in single-particle electron microscopy connecting the pieces.

    PubMed

    Lyumkis, Dmitry; Moeller, Arne; Cheng, Anchi; Herold, Amber; Hou, Eric; Irving, Christopher; Jacovetty, Erica L; Lau, Pick-Wei; Mulder, Anke M; Pulokas, James; Quispe, Joel D; Voss, Neil R; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the history of single-particle electron microscopy (EM), automated technologies have seen varying degrees of emphasis and development, usually depending upon the contemporary demands of the field. We are currently faced with increasingly sophisticated devices for specimen preparation, vast increases in the size of collected data sets, comprehensive algorithms for image processing, sophisticated tools for quality assessment, and an influx of interested scientists from outside the field who might lack the skills of experienced microscopists. This situation places automated techniques in high demand. In this chapter, we provide a generic definition of and discuss some of the most important advances in automated approaches to specimen preparation, grid handling, robotic screening, microscope calibrations, data acquisition, image processing, and computational infrastructure. Each section describes the general problem and then provides examples of how that problem has been addressed through automation, highlighting available processing packages, and sometimes describing the particular approach at the National Resource for Automated Molecular Microscopy (NRAMM). We contrast the more familiar manual procedures with automated approaches, emphasizing breakthroughs as well as current limitations. Finally, we speculate on future directions and improvements in automated technologies. Our overall goal is to present automation as more than simply a tool to save time. Rather, we aim to illustrate that automation is a comprehensive and versatile strategy that can deliver biological information on an unprecedented scale beyond the scope available with classical manual approaches. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated methods for the summarization of electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Pivovarov, Rimma; Elhadad, Noémie

    2015-09-01

    This review examines work on automated summarization of electronic health record (EHR) data and in particular, individual patient record summarization. We organize the published research and highlight methodological challenges in the area of EHR summarization implementation. The target audience for this review includes researchers, designers, and informaticians who are concerned about the problem of information overload in the clinical setting as well as both users and developers of clinical summarization systems. Automated summarization has been a long-studied subject in the fields of natural language processing and human-computer interaction, but the translation of summarization and visualization methods to the complexity of the clinical workflow is slow moving. We assess work in aggregating and visualizing patient information with a particular focus on methods for detecting and removing redundancy, describing temporality, determining salience, accounting for missing data, and taking advantage of encoded clinical knowledge. We identify and discuss open challenges critical to the implementation and use of robust EHR summarization systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Automated Procedure for Roll Pass Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambiase, F.; Langella, A.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work has been to develop an automatic roll pass design method, capable of minimizing the number of roll passes. The adoption of artificial intelligence technologies, particularly expert systems, and a hybrid model for the surface profile evaluation of rolled bars, has allowed us to model the search for the minimal sequence with a tree path search. This approach permitted a geometrical optimization of roll passes while allowing automation of the roll pass design process. Moreover, the heuristic nature of the inferential engine contributes a great deal toward reducing search time, thus allowing such a system to be employed for industrial purposes. Finally, this new approach was compared with other recently developed automatic systems to validate and measure possible improvements among them.

  15. Designing the Electronic Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Laural L.

    In an increasingly technological environment, traditional teaching presentation methods such as the podium, overhead, and transparencies are no longer sufficient. This document serves as a guide to designing and planning an electronic classroom for "bidirectional" communication between teacher and student. Topics include: (1) determining…

  16. Team-Centered Perspective for Adaptive Automation Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2003-01-01

    Automation represents a very active area of human factors research. The journal, Human Factors, published a special issue on automation in 1985. Since then, hundreds of scientific studies have been published examining the nature of automation and its interaction with human performance. However, despite a dramatic increase in research investigating human factors issues in aviation automation, there remain areas that need further exploration. This NASA Technical Memorandum describes a new area of automation design and research, called adaptive automation. It discusses the concepts and outlines the human factors issues associated with the new method of adaptive function allocation. The primary focus is on human-centered design, and specifically on ensuring that adaptive automation is from a team-centered perspective. The document shows that adaptive automation has many human factors issues common to traditional automation design. Much like the introduction of other new technologies and paradigm shifts, adaptive automation presents an opportunity to remediate current problems but poses new ones for human-automation interaction in aerospace operations. The review here is intended to communicate the philosophical perspective and direction of adaptive automation research conducted under the Aerospace Operations Systems (AOS), Physiological and Psychological Stressors and Factors (PPSF) project.

  17. Automating analog design: Taming the shrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, A.

    1990-01-01

    The pace of progress in the design of integrated circuits continues to amaze observers inside and outside of the industry. Three decades ago, a 50 transistor chip was a technological wonder. Fifteen year later, a 5000 transistor device would 'wow' the crowds. Today, 50,000 transistor chips will earn a 'not too bad' assessment, but it takes 500,000 to really leave an impression. In 1975 a typical ASIC device had 1000 transistors, took one year to first samples (and two years to production) and sold for about 5 cents per transistor. Today's 50,000 transistor gate array takes about 4 months from spec to silicon, works the first time, and sells for about 0.02 cents per transistor. Fifteen years ago, the single most laborious and error prone step in IC design was the physical layout. Today, most IC's never see the hand of a layout designer: and automatic place and route tool converts the engineer's computer captured schematic to a complete physical design using a gate array or a library of standard cells also created by software rather than by designers. CAD has also been a generous benefactor to the digital design process. The architect of today's digital systems creates the design using an RTL or other high level simulator. Then the designer pushes a button to invoke the logic synthesizer-optimizer tool. A fault analyzer checks the result for testability and suggests where scan based cells will improve test coverage. One obstinate holdout amidst this parade of progress is the automation of analog design and its reduction to semi-custom techniques. This paper investigates the application of CAD techniques to analog design.

  18. Automating analog design: Taming the shrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, A.

    1990-01-01

    The pace of progress in the design of integrated circuits continues to amaze observers inside and outside of the industry. Three decades ago, a 50 transistor chip was a technological wonder. Fifteen year later, a 5000 transistor device would 'wow' the crowds. Today, 50,000 transistor chips will earn a 'not too bad' assessment, but it takes 500,000 to really leave an impression. In 1975 a typical ASIC device had 1000 transistors, took one year to first samples (and two years to production) and sold for about 5 cents per transistor. Today's 50,000 transistor gate array takes about 4 months from spec to silicon, works the first time, and sells for about 0.02 cents per transistor. Fifteen years ago, the single most laborious and error prone step in IC design was the physical layout. Today, most IC's never see the hand of a layout designer: and automatic place and route tool converts the engineer's computer captured schematic to a complete physical design using a gate array or a library of standard cells also created by software rather than by designers. CAD has also been a generous benefactor to the digital design process. The architect of today's digital systems creates the design using an RTL or other high level simulator. Then the designer pushes a button to invoke the logic synthesizer-optimizer tool. A fault analyzer checks the result for testability and suggests where scan based cells will improve test coverage. One obstinate holdout amidst this parade of progress is the automation of analog design and its reduction to semi-custom techniques. This paper investigates the application of CAD techniques to analog design.

  19. Automated Antenna Design with Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.; Globus, Al; Linden, Derek S.; Lohn, Jason D.

    2006-01-01

    Current methods of designing and optimizing antennas by hand are time and labor intensive, and limit complexity. Evolutionary design techniques can overcome these limitations by searching the design space and automatically finding effective solutions. In recent years, evolutionary algorithms have shown great promise in finding practical solutions in large, poorly understood design spaces. In particular, spacecraft antenna design has proven tractable to evolutionary design techniques. Researchers have been investigating evolutionary antenna design and optimization since the early 1990s, and the field has grown in recent years as computer speed has increased and electromagnetic simulators have improved. Two requirements-compliant antennas, one for ST5 and another for TDRS-C, have been automatically designed by evolutionary algorithms. The ST5 antenna is slated to fly this year, and a TDRS-C phased array element has been fabricated and tested. Such automated evolutionary design is enabled by medium-to-high quality simulators and fast modern computers to evaluate computer-generated designs. Evolutionary algorithms automate cut-and-try engineering, substituting automated search though millions of potential designs for intelligent search by engineers through a much smaller number of designs. For evolutionary design, the engineer chooses the evolutionary technique, parameters and the basic form of the antenna, e.g., single wire for ST5 and crossed-element Yagi for TDRS-C. Evolutionary algorithms then search for optimal configurations in the space defined by the engineer. NASA's Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission will launch three small spacecraft to test innovative concepts and technologies. Advanced evolutionary algorithms were used to automatically design antennas for ST5. The combination of wide beamwidth for a circularly-polarized wave and wide impedance bandwidth made for a challenging antenna design problem. From past experience in designing wire antennas, we chose to

  20. Automated Design Space Exploration with Aspen

    DOE PAGES

    Spafford, Kyle L.; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Architects and applications scientists often use performance models to explore a multidimensional design space of architectural characteristics, algorithm designs, and application parameters. With traditional performance modeling tools, these explorations forced users to first develop a performance model and then repeatedly evaluate and analyze the model manually. These manual investigations proved laborious and error prone. More importantly, the complexity of this traditional process often forced users to simplify their investigations. To address this challenge of design space exploration, we extend our Aspen (Abstract Scalable Performance Engineering Notation) language with three new language constructs: user-defined resources, parameter ranges, and a collection ofmore » costs in the abstract machine model. Then, we use these constructs to enable automated design space exploration via a nonlinear optimization solver. We show how four interesting classes of design space exploration scenarios can be derived from Aspen models and formulated as pure nonlinear programs. The analysis tools are demonstrated using examples based on Aspen models for a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform, the CoMD molecular dynamics proxy application, and the DARPA Streaming Sensor Challenge Problem. Our results show that this approach can compose and solve arbitrary performance modeling questions quickly and rigorously when compared to the traditional manual approach.« less

  1. Analyzing Automated Instructional Systems: Metaphors from Related Design Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.; Wilson, Brent G.

    Noting that automation has had an impact on virtually every manufacturing and information operation in the world, including instructional design (ID), this paper suggests three basic metaphors for automating instructional design activities: (1) computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems; (2) expert system advisor systems; and (3)…

  2. Analyzing Automated Instructional Systems: Metaphors from Related Design Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.; Wilson, Brent G.

    Noting that automation has had an impact on virtually every manufacturing and information operation in the world, including instructional design (ID), this paper suggests three basic metaphors for automating instructional design activities: (1) computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems; (2) expert system advisor systems; and (3)…

  3. Flight control system design factors for applying automated testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitz, Joel R.; Vernon, Todd H.

    1990-01-01

    Automated validation of flight-critical embedded systems is being done at ARC Dryden Flight Research Facility. The automated testing techniques are being used to perform closed-loop validation of man-rated flight control systems. The principal design features and operational experiences of the X-29 forward-swept-wing aircraft and F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) automated test systems are discussed. Operationally applying automated testing techniques has accentuated flight control system features that either help or hinder the application of these techniques. The paper also discusses flight control system features which foster the use of automated testing techniques.

  4. FINDMOL: automated identification of macromolecules in electron-density maps.

    PubMed

    McKee, E W; Kanbi, L D; Childs, K L; Grosse-Kunstleve, R W; Adams, P D; Sacchettini, J C; Ioerger, T R

    2005-11-01

    Automating the determination of novel macromolecular structures via X-ray crystallographic methods involves building a model into an electron-density map. Unfortunately, the conventional crystallographic asymmetric unit volumes are usually not well matched to the biological molecular units. In most cases, the facets of the asymmetric unit cut the molecules into a number of disconnected fragments, rendering interpretation by the crystallographer significantly more difficult. The FINDMOL algorithm is designed to quickly parse the arrangement of trace points (pseudo-atoms) derived from a skeletonized electron-density map without requiring higher level prior information such as sequence information or number of molecules in the asymmetric unit. The algorithm was tested with a variety of density-modified maps computed with medium- to low-resolution data. Typically, the resulting volume resembles the biological unit. In the remaining cases the number of disconnected fragments is very small. In all examples, secondary-structural elements such as alpha-helices or beta-sheets are easily identifiable in the defragmented arrangement. FINDMOL can greatly assist a crystallographer during manual model building or in cases where automatic model building can only build partial models owing to limitations of the data such as low resolution and/or poor phases.

  5. Automated Sensitivity Analysis of Interplanetary Trajectories for Optimal Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knittel, Jeremy; Hughes, Kyle; Englander, Jacob; Sarli, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a suite of Python tools known as the Python EMTG Automated Trade Study Application (PEATSA). PEATSA was written to automate the operation of trajectory optimization software, simplify the process of performing sensitivity analysis, and was ultimately found to out-perform a human trajectory designer in unexpected ways. These benefits will be discussed and demonstrated on sample mission designs.

  6. Design automation for wafer scale integration

    SciTech Connect

    Donlan, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    Wafer scale integration (WSI) is a technique for implementing large digital systems on a single wafer. This thesis describes a system of design automation tools developed to aid in the implementation of wafer scale integrated systems. An overview of wafer scale integration is given with fabrication details and yield considerations discussed. The Wafer architectural Design Language (WDL) used to describe and specify a system architecture to the development system is introduced along with a compiler that translates the high level WDL description into net lists and other internal data bases. Interactive placement tools used to map the system architecture onto the functional die sites on a wafer are described. A very fast line probe router was developed to perform the custom wafer level routing need to personalize each wafer. Router data structures, algorithms, techniques, and results are discussed in detail. Sample wafer scale architectures and the result of their WSI implementations are shown. Also presented is the Wafer Transmission Module (WTM) a packaging technology related to wafer scale integration.

  7. Electronic circuitry used to automate paper chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffensen, G. R.

    1967-01-01

    Electronic circuit is used in a paper chromatograph instrument that has excellent sensitivity and furnishes a printed record of each test. The circuit measures and records changes in conductivity in a strip of chromatographic paper as different solutions are placed on it.

  8. Optimized and Automated design of Plasma Diagnostics for Additive Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuber, James; Quinley, Morgan; Melnik, Paul; Sieck, Paul; Smith, Trevor; Chun, Katherine; Woodruff, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Despite having mature designs, diagnostics are usually custom designed for each experiment. Most of the design can be now be automated to reduce costs (engineering labor, and capital cost). We present results from scripted physics modeling and parametric engineering design for common optical and mechanical components found in many plasma diagnostics and outline the process for automated design optimization that employs scripts to communicate data from online forms through proprietary and open-source CAD and FE codes to provide a design that can be sent directly to a printer. As a demonstration of design automation, an optical beam dump, baffle and optical components are designed via an automated process and printed. Supported by DOE SBIR Grant DE-SC0011858.

  9. Automated monitoring to reduce electron microscope downtime.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Matthias J; Resch, Guenter P

    2009-10-01

    High-end transmission electron microscopes are complex and sensitive instruments. Failure of one of the external supplies, malfunction of the microscope hardware or maloperation are typical reasons for subsystems to fail. Especially if undiscovered for a longer period of time, this can cause unnecessary downtime, compromising user access and increasing operating costs. Utilizing the software introduced in this article ("MoniTEM"), we have succeeded to reduce downtime of an FEI Tecnai Polara by coupling constant monitoring of critical subsystems with automatic, remote feedback to the system supervisor, ensuring immediate problem solving. The software described here is freely available from http://www.imba.oeaw.ac.at/monitem/ and can be readily adapted for use with other FEI transmission electron microscopes.

  10. Design automation for integrated nonlinear logic circuits (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Thomas; Pelc, Jason; Santori, Charles; Bose, Ranojoy; Kielpinski, Dave; Beausoleil, Raymond G.

    2016-05-01

    A key enabler of the IT revolution of the late 20th century was the development of electronic design automation (EDA) tools allowing engineers to manage the complexity of electronic circuits with transistor counts now reaching into the billions. Recently, we have been developing large-scale nonlinear photonic integrated logic circuits for next generation all-optical information processing. At this time a sufficiently powerful EDA-style software tool chain to design this type of complex circuits does not yet exist. Here we describe a hierarchical approach to automating the design and validation of photonic integrated circuits, which can scale to several orders of magnitude higher complexity than the state of the art. Most photonic integrated circuits developed today consist of a small number of components, and only limited hierarchy. For example, a simple photonic transceiver may contain on the order of 10 building-block components, consisting of grating couplers for photonic I/O, modulators, and signal splitters/combiners. Because this is relatively easy to lay out by hand (or simple script) existing photonic design tools have relatively little automation in comparison to electronics tools. But demonstrating all-optical logic will require significantly more complex photonic circuits containing up to 1,000 components, hence becoming infeasible to design manually. Our design framework is based off Python-based software from Luceda Photonics which provides an environment to describe components, simulate their behavior, and export design files (GDS) to foundries for fabrication. At a fundamental level, a photonic component is described as a parametric cell (PCell) similarly to electronics design. PCells are described by geometric characteristics of their layout. A critical part of the design framework is the implementation of PCells as Python objects. PCell objects can then use inheritance to simplify design, and hierarchical designs can be made by creating composite

  11. An Intelligent Automation Platform for Rapid Bioprocess Design.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tianyi; Zhou, Yuhong

    2014-08-01

    Bioprocess development is very labor intensive, requiring many experiments to characterize each unit operation in the process sequence to achieve product safety and process efficiency. Recent advances in microscale biochemical engineering have led to automated experimentation. A process design workflow is implemented sequentially in which (1) a liquid-handling system performs high-throughput wet lab experiments, (2) standalone analysis devices detect the data, and (3) specific software is used for data analysis and experiment design given the user's inputs. We report an intelligent automation platform that integrates these three activities to enhance the efficiency of such a workflow. A multiagent intelligent architecture has been developed incorporating agent communication to perform the tasks automatically. The key contribution of this work is the automation of data analysis and experiment design and also the ability to generate scripts to run the experiments automatically, allowing the elimination of human involvement. A first-generation prototype has been established and demonstrated through lysozyme precipitation process design. All procedures in the case study have been fully automated through an intelligent automation platform. The realization of automated data analysis and experiment design, and automated script programming for experimental procedures has the potential to increase lab productivity. © 2013 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  12. Design of automated system for management of arrival traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William

    1989-01-01

    The design of an automated air traffic control system based on a hierarchy of advisory tools for controllers is described. Compatibility of the tools with the human controller, a key objective of the design, is achieved by a judicious selection of tasks to be automated and careful attention to the design of the controller system interface. The design comprises three interconnected subsystems referred to as the Traffic Management Advisor, the Descent Advisor, and the Final Approach Spacing Tool. Each of these subsystems provides a collection of tools for specific controller positions and tasks. The design of two of these tools, the Descent Advisor, which provides automation tools for managing descent traffic, and the Traffic Management Advisor, which generates optimum landing schedules is focused on. The algorithms, automation modes, and graphical interfaces incorporated in the design are described.

  13. The Electronic Nose Training Automation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schattke, Nathan

    2002-01-01

    The electronic nose is a method of using several sensors in conjunction to identify an unknown gas. Statistical analysis has shown that a large number of training exposures need to be performed in order to get a model that can be depended on. The number of training exposures needed is on the order of 1000. Data acquisition from the noses are generally automatic and built in. The gas generation equipment consists of a Miller-Nelson (MN) flow/temperature/humidity controller and a Kin-Tek (KT) trace gas generator. This equipment has been controlled in the past by an old data acquisition and control system. The new system will use new control boards and an easy graphical user interface. The programming for this is in the LabVIEW G programming language. A language easy for the user to make modifications to. This paper details some of the issues in selecting the components and programming the connections. It is not a primer on LabVIEW programming, a separate CD is being delivered with website files to teach that.

  14. An Automated System for Receiving KPNO Proposals by Electronic Mail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, David J.; Biemesderfer, Christopher D.; Barnes, Jeannette; Massey, Phil

    An automated system has been developed for receiving observing proposals by electronic mail. \\LaTeX\\ forms are made available through e-mail and by FTP and are filled in by the investigators. The completed forms are then e-mailed to KPNO where they are automatically processed with the procmail utility and UNIX shell scripts. Ancillary documents such as PostScript figures and observing lists are also processed and stored with the proposals. The system has been in use at KPNO during the past four observing semesters and now processes several hundred documents each semester. A modified version of the software has also been in use at CTIO, with both observatories now receiving the vast majority of all proposals electronically. Although a few problems have occurred over this time period, they are clearly outweighed by the time-cost benefits of such an automated system.

  15. EXADS - EXPERT SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED DESIGN SYNTHESIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The expert system called EXADS was developed to aid users of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general purpose optimization program. Because of the general purpose nature of ADS, it is difficult for a nonexpert to select the best choice of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options from the one hundred or so combinations that are available. EXADS aids engineers in determining the best combination based on their knowledge of the problem and the expert knowledge previously stored by experts who developed ADS. EXADS is a customized application of the AESOP artificial intelligence program (the general version of AESOP is available separately from COSMIC. The ADS program is also available from COSMIC.) The expert system consists of two main components. The knowledge base contains about 200 rules and is divided into three categories: constrained, unconstrained, and constrained treated as unconstrained. The EXADS inference engine is rule-based and makes decisions about a particular situation using hypotheses (potential solutions), rules, and answers to questions drawn from the rule base. EXADS is backward-chaining, that is, it works from hypothesis to facts. The rule base was compiled from sources such as literature searches, ADS documentation, and engineer surveys. EXADS will accept answers such as yes, no, maybe, likely, and don't know, or a certainty factor ranging from 0 to 10. When any hypothesis reaches a confidence level of 90% or more, it is deemed as the best choice and displayed to the user. If no hypothesis is confirmed, the user can examine explanations of why the hypotheses failed to reach the 90% level. The IBM PC version of EXADS is written in IQ-LISP for execution under DOS 2.0 or higher with a central memory requirement of approximately 512K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1986.

  16. EXADS - EXPERT SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED DESIGN SYNTHESIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The expert system called EXADS was developed to aid users of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general purpose optimization program. Because of the general purpose nature of ADS, it is difficult for a nonexpert to select the best choice of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options from the one hundred or so combinations that are available. EXADS aids engineers in determining the best combination based on their knowledge of the problem and the expert knowledge previously stored by experts who developed ADS. EXADS is a customized application of the AESOP artificial intelligence program (the general version of AESOP is available separately from COSMIC. The ADS program is also available from COSMIC.) The expert system consists of two main components. The knowledge base contains about 200 rules and is divided into three categories: constrained, unconstrained, and constrained treated as unconstrained. The EXADS inference engine is rule-based and makes decisions about a particular situation using hypotheses (potential solutions), rules, and answers to questions drawn from the rule base. EXADS is backward-chaining, that is, it works from hypothesis to facts. The rule base was compiled from sources such as literature searches, ADS documentation, and engineer surveys. EXADS will accept answers such as yes, no, maybe, likely, and don't know, or a certainty factor ranging from 0 to 10. When any hypothesis reaches a confidence level of 90% or more, it is deemed as the best choice and displayed to the user. If no hypothesis is confirmed, the user can examine explanations of why the hypotheses failed to reach the 90% level. The IBM PC version of EXADS is written in IQ-LISP for execution under DOS 2.0 or higher with a central memory requirement of approximately 512K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1986.

  17. Delivery validation of an automated modulated electron radiotherapy plan

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, T. Papaconstadopoulos, P.; Alexander, A.; Serban, M.; Devic, S.; Seuntjens, J.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) represents an active area of interest that offers the potential to improve healthy tissue sparing in treatment of certain cancer cases. Challenges remain however in accurate beamlet dose calculation, plan optimization, collimation method, and delivery accuracy. In this work, the authors investigate the accuracy and efficiency of an end-to-end MERT plan and automated delivery method. Methods: Treatment planning was initiated on a previously treated whole breast irradiation case including an electron boost. All dose calculations were performed using Monte Carlo methods and beam weights were determined using a research-based treatment planning system capable of inverse optimization. The plan was delivered to radiochromic film placed in a water equivalent phantom for verification, using an automated motorized tertiary collimator. Results: The automated delivery, which covered four electron energies, 196 subfields, and 6183 total MU was completed in 25.8 min, including 6.2 min of beam-on time. The remainder of the delivery time was spent on collimator leaf motion and the automated interfacing with the accelerator in service mode. Comparison of the planned and delivered film dose gave 3%/3mm gamma pass rates of 62.1%, 99.8%, 97.8%, 98.3%, and 98.7% for the 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV, and combined energy deliveries, respectively. Delivery was also performed with a MapCHECK device and resulted in 3%/3  mm gamma pass rates of 88.8%, 86.1%, 89.4%, and 94.8% for the 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV energies, respectively. Conclusions: Results of the authors’ study showed that an accurate delivery utilizing an add-on tertiary electron collimator is possible using Monte Carlo calculated plans and inverse optimization, which brings MERT closer to becoming a viable option for physicians in treating superficial malignancies.

  18. An Intelligent Automation Platform for Rapid Bioprocess Design

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tianyi

    2014-01-01

    Bioprocess development is very labor intensive, requiring many experiments to characterize each unit operation in the process sequence to achieve product safety and process efficiency. Recent advances in microscale biochemical engineering have led to automated experimentation. A process design workflow is implemented sequentially in which (1) a liquid-handling system performs high-throughput wet lab experiments, (2) standalone analysis devices detect the data, and (3) specific software is used for data analysis and experiment design given the user’s inputs. We report an intelligent automation platform that integrates these three activities to enhance the efficiency of such a workflow. A multiagent intelligent architecture has been developed incorporating agent communication to perform the tasks automatically. The key contribution of this work is the automation of data analysis and experiment design and also the ability to generate scripts to run the experiments automatically, allowing the elimination of human involvement. A first-generation prototype has been established and demonstrated through lysozyme precipitation process design. All procedures in the case study have been fully automated through an intelligent automation platform. The realization of automated data analysis and experiment design, and automated script programming for experimental procedures has the potential to increase lab productivity. PMID:24088579

  19. Designing Domain-Specific HUMS Architectures: An Automated Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi; Agarwal, Neha; Kumar, Pramod; Sundaram, Parthiban

    2004-01-01

    The HUMS automation system automates the design of HUMS architectures. The automated design process involves selection of solutions from a large space of designs as well as pure synthesis of designs. Hence the whole objective is to efficiently search for or synthesize designs or parts of designs in the database and to integrate them to form the entire system design. The automation system adopts two approaches in order to produce the designs: (a) Bottom-up approach and (b) Top down approach. Both the approaches are endowed with a Suite of quantitative and quantitative techniques that enable a) the selection of matching component instances, b) the determination of design parameters, c) the evaluation of candidate designs at component-level and at system-level, d) the performance of cost-benefit analyses, e) the performance of trade-off analyses, etc. In short, the automation system attempts to capitalize on the knowledge developed from years of experience in engineering, system design and operation of the HUMS systems in order to economically produce the most optimal and domain-specific designs.

  20. Semi-Automated Diagnosis, Repair, and Rework of Spacecraft Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Oeftering, Richard C.; Easton, John W.; Anderson, Eric E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program for Exploration of the Moon and Mars places human crews in extreme isolation in resource scarce environments. Near Earth, the discontinuation of Space Shuttle flights after 2010 will alter the up- and down-mass capacity for the International Space Station (ISS). NASA is considering new options for logistics support strategies for future missions. Aerospace systems are often composed of replaceable modular blocks that minimize the need for complex service operations in the field. Such a strategy however, implies a robust and responsive logistics infrastructure with relatively low transportation costs. The modular Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) used for ISS requires relatively large blocks of replacement hardware even though the actual failed component may really be three orders of magnitude smaller. The ability to perform in-situ repair of electronics circuits at the component level can dramatically reduce the scale of spares and related logistics cost. This ability also reduces mission risk, increases crew independence and improves the overall supportability of the program. The Component-Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task under the NASA Supportability program was established to demonstrate the practicality of repair by first investigating widely used soldering materials and processes (M&P) performed by modest manual means. The work will result in program guidelines for performing manual repairs along with design guidance for circuit reparability. The next phase of CLEAR recognizes that manual repair has its limitations and some highly integrated devices are extremely difficult to handle and demand semi-automated equipment. Further, electronics repairs require a broad range of diagnostic capability to isolate the faulty components. Finally repairs must pass functional tests to determine that the repairs are successful and the circuit can be returned to service. To prevent equipment demands from exceeding spacecraft volume

  1. Design and Development of an Integrated Workstation Automation Hub

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Andrew; Ghatikar, Girish; Sartor, Dale; Lanzisera, Steven

    2015-03-30

    Miscellaneous Electronic Loads (MELs) account for one third of all electricity consumption in U.S. commercial buildings, and are drivers for a significant energy use in India. Many of the MEL-specific plug-load devices are concentrated at workstations in offices. The use of intelligence, and integrated controls and communications at the workstation for an Office Automation Hub – offers the opportunity to improve both energy efficiency and occupant comfort, along with services for Smart Grid operations. Software and hardware solutions are available from a wide array of vendors for the different components, but an integrated system with interoperable communications is yet to be developed and deployed. In this study, we propose system- and component-level specifications for the Office Automation Hub, their functions, and a prioritized list for the design of a proof-of-concept system. Leveraging the strength of both the U.S. and India technology sectors, this specification serves as a guide for researchers and industry in both countries to support the development, testing, and evaluation of a prototype product. Further evaluation of such integrated technologies for performance and cost is necessary to identify the potential to reduce energy consumptions in MELs and to improve occupant comfort.

  2. Automated rapid particle investigation using scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Jerod Laurence

    The chemical composition of fly ash particles has been known to vary significantly depending on a number of factors. Current bulk methods of investigation including X-Ray Fluorescence and X-Ray Diffraction are thought to be inadequate in determining the performance of fly ash in concrete. It is the goal of this research to develop a method of Automated Rapid Particle Investigation that will not look at fly ash as a bulk material but as individual particles. By examining each particle individually scientists and engineers will have the ability to study the variation in chemical composition by comparing the chemistry present in each particle. The method of investigation developed by this research provides a practical technique that will allow the automated chemical analysis of hundreds, or even thousands, of fly ash particles in a matter of minutes upon completion of sample preparation and automated scanning electron microscope (ASEM) scanning. This research does not examine the significance of the chemical compounds discovered; rather, only the investigation methodology is discussed. Further research will be done to examine the importance of the chemistry discovered with this automated rapid particle investigation technique.

  3. TARDIS: An Automation Framework for JPL Mission Design and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roundhill, Ian M.; Kelly, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Mission Design and Navigation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has implemented an automation framework tool to assist in orbit determination and maneuver design analysis. This paper describes the lessons learned from previous automation tools and how they have been implemented in this tool. In addition this tool has revealed challenges in software implementation, testing, and user education. This paper describes some of these challenges and invites others to share their experiences.

  4. TARDIS: An Automation Framework for JPL Mission Design and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roundhill, Ian M.; Kelly, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Mission Design and Navigation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has implemented an automation framework tool to assist in orbit determination and maneuver design analysis. This paper describes the lessons learned from previous automation tools and how they have been implemented in this tool. In addition this tool has revealed challenges in software implementation, testing, and user education. This paper describes some of these challenges and invites others to share their experiences.

  5. Advanced characterization of twins using automated electron backscatter diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S. I.; Bingert, J. F.; Mason, T. A.; Larson, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes results obtained using an automated, crystallographically-based technique for twin identification. The technique is based on the automated collection of spatially specific orientation measurements by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The key features of the analysis are identification of potential twin boundaries by their misorientation character, identification of the distinct boundary planes among the symmetrically equivalent candidates, and validation of these boundaries through comparison with the boundary and twin plane traces in the sample cross section. Results on the application of this technique to deformation twins in zirconium are analyzed for the effect of twin type and amount and sense of uniaxial deformation. The accumulation of strain tends to increase the misorientation deviation at least to the degree of the trace deviation compared with recrystallization twins in nickel. In addition to the results on characterizing the twin character, results on extending the twin analysis to automated identification of parent and daughter material for structures exhibiting twin deformation are reported as well.

  6. 21 CFR 111.30 - What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What requirements apply to automated, mechanical... Utensils § 111.30 What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment? For any automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment that you use to manufacture, package, label, or hold a...

  7. Automated determination of electron density from electric field measurements on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelavskaya, Irina; Kurth, William; Spasojevic, Maria; Shprits, Yuri

    2016-07-01

    We present the Neural-network-based Upper-hybrid Resonance Determination (NURD) algorithm for automatic inference of the electron number density from plasma wave measurements made onboard NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. A feedforward neural network is developed to determine the upper hybrid resonance frequency, f_{uhr}, from electric field measurements, which is then used to calculate the electron number density. In previous missions, the plasma resonance bands were manually identified, and there have been few attempts to do robust, routine automated detections. We describe the design and implementation of the algorithm and perform an initial analysis of the resulting electron number density distribution obtained by applying NURD to 2.5 years of data collected with the EMFISIS instrumentation suite of the Van Allen Probes mission. Densities obtained by NURD are compared to those obtained by another recently developed automated technique and also to an existing empirical plasmasphere and trough density model.

  8. Automation of electron diffraction analysis in an analytical electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.J.

    1981-07-01

    This paper outlines the concept of gathering and analyzing electron diffraction patterns in an AEM by using a computer to digitally control the operation of a set of post-projector lens scan coils. By digitally controlling the deflection of a static selected area diffraction pattern either to a fixed reference point or in a reduced raster over the apertured STEM detector, a set of electronic signals may be generated which contain information of the form I = f(x,y). Not only can this signal be rapidly processed to provide real-time analyses of diffracted distances and angles of spots in the pattern, but also the operator maintains control over the scanning coils (via joystick) allowing only selected spots to be gathered and analyzed, thus facilitating the analysis of imperfect of multiple patterns. A description of the hardware and software is given, as well as preliminary results and current limitations.

  9. Automation of the electron-beam welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, E.; Dzharov, V.; Kardjiev, M.; Mladenov, G.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the automatic control is considered of the vacuum and cooling systems of the located in the IE-BAS equipment for electron-beam welding, evaporation and surface modification. A project was elaborated for the control and management based on the development of an engineering support system using existing and additional technical means of automation. Optimization of the indicators, which are critical for the duration of reaching the working regime and stopping the operation of the installation, can be made using experimentally obtained transient characteristics. The automation of the available equipment aimed at improving its efficiency and the repeatability of the obtained results, as well as at stabilizing the process parameters, should be integrated in an Engineering Support System which, besides the operator supervision, consists of several subsystems for equipment control, data acquisition, information analysis, system management and decision-making support.

  10. Stressing Design in Electronics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthbert, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    Advocates a strong emphasis on the teaching of the design of electronic circuits in undergraduate courses. An instructional paradigm involving the design and construction of a single-transistor amplifier is provided. (CP)

  11. Stressing Design in Electronics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthbert, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    Advocates a strong emphasis on the teaching of the design of electronic circuits in undergraduate courses. An instructional paradigm involving the design and construction of a single-transistor amplifier is provided. (CP)

  12. Software design for automated assembly of truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herstrom, Catherine L.; Grantham, Carolyn; Allen, Cheryl L.; Doggett, William R.; Will, Ralph W.

    1992-01-01

    Concern over the limited intravehicular activity time has increased the interest in performing in-space assembly and construction operations with automated robotic systems. A technique being considered at LaRC is a supervised-autonomy approach, which can be monitored by an Earth-based supervisor that intervenes only when the automated system encounters a problem. A test-bed to support evaluation of the hardware and software requirements for supervised-autonomy assembly methods was developed. This report describes the design of the software system necessary to support the assembly process. The software is hierarchical and supports both automated assembly operations and supervisor error-recovery procedures, including the capability to pause and reverse any operation. The software design serves as a model for the development of software for more sophisticated automated systems and as a test-bed for evaluation of new concepts and hardware components.

  13. A Toolset for Supporting Iterative Human Automation: Interaction in Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The addition of automation has greatly extended humans' capability to accomplish tasks, including those that are difficult, complex and safety critical. The majority of Human - Automation Interacton (HAl) results in more efficient and safe operations, ho,,:,ever ertain unpected atomatlon behaviors or "automation surprises" can be frustrating and, In certain safety critical operations (e.g. transporttion, manufacturing control, medicine), may result in injuries or. the loss of life.. (Mellor, 1994; Leveson, 1995; FAA, 1995; BASI, 1998; Sheridan, 2002). This papr describes he development of a design tool that enables on the rapid development and evaluation. of automaton prototypes. The ultimate goal of the work is to provide a design platform upon which automation surprise vulnerability analyses can be integrated.

  14. Automated Dental Epidemiology System. II. Systems Analysis and Functional Design,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    A"D-n134 803 AUTOMATED DENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY SYSTEM II SYSTEMSi/ ANALYSIS AND FUNCTIONAL DE5IGN(U) NAVAnL DENTAL RESERRCH INST GREAT LAKES IL M C DIEHL... DENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY SYSTEM: II. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND FUNCTIONAL DESIGN M. C. DIEHL DTICSELECTEOCT 218 D >- NAVAL 8DENTAL RESEARCH ’INSTITUTE Naval...NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BUILDING I-H GREAT LAKES, ILLINOIS 60088 AUTOMATED DENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY SYSTEM: II. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

  15. Design of the Automated Rendezvous and Capture Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig A.; Lomas, James J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) system that was designed and is being tested at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The AR&C system incorporates some of the latest innovations in Global Positioning System (GPS), laser sensor technologies and automated mission sequencing algorithms as well as the capability for ground and crew monitoring and commanding. This paper summarizes the variety of mission scenarios supported by the AR&C system. It also describes the major components of the AR&C system including the Guidance, Navigation and Control system, GPS receivers, relative navigation filter and the Video Guidance Sensor. A discussion of the safety and reliability issues confronted during the design follows. By designing a safe and robust automated system, space mission operations cost can be reduced by decreasing the number of ground personnel required for the extensive mission design, preflight planning and training typically required for rendezvous and docking missions.

  16. AI and workflow automation: The prototype electronic purchase request system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Michael M.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

    1994-01-01

    Automating 'paper' workflow processes with electronic forms and email can dramatically improve the efficiency of those processes. However, applications that involve complex forms that are used for a variety of purposes or that require numerous and varied approvals often require additional software tools to ensure that (1) the electronic form is correctly and completely filled out, and (2) the form is routed to the proper individuals and organizations for approval. The prototype electronic purchase request (PEPR) system, which has been in pilot use at NASA Ames Research Center since December 1993, seamlessly links a commercial electronics forms package and a CLIPS-based knowledge system that first ensures that electronic forms are correct and complete, and then generates an 'electronic routing slip' that is used to route the form to the people who must sign it. The PEPR validation module is context-sensitive, and can apply different validation rules at each step in the approval process. The PEPR system is form-independent, and has been applied to several different types of forms. The system employs a version of CLIPS that has been extended to support AppleScript, a recently-released scripting language for the Macintosh. This 'scriptability' provides both a transparent, flexible interface between the two programs and a means by which a single copy of the knowledge base can be utilized by numerous remote users.

  17. Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.

  18. Automated IDEF3 and IDEF4 systems design specification document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friel, Patricia Griffith; Blinn, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    The current design is presented for the automated IDEF3 and IDEF4 tools. The philosophy is described behind the tool designs as well as the conceptual view of the interacting components of the two tools. Finally, a detailed description is presented of the existing designs for the tools using IDEF3 process descriptions and IDEF4 diagrams. In the preparation of these designs, the IDEF3 and IDEF4 methodologies were very effective in defining the structure and operation of the tools. The experience in designing systems in this fashion was very valuable and resulted in future systems being designed in this way. However, the number of IDEF3 and IDEF4 diagrams that were produced using a Macintosh for this document attest to the need for an automated tool to simplify this design process.

  19. Automated Assistance for Designing Active Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imlach, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    MagBear12 is a computer code that assists in the design of radial, heteropolar active magnetic bearings (AMBs). MagBear12 was developed to help in designing the system described in "Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System". Beyond this initial application, MagBear12 is expected to be useful for designing AMBs for a variety of rotating machinery. This program incorporates design rules and governing equations that are also implemented in other, proprietary design software used by AMB manufacturers. In addition, this program incorporates an advanced unpublished fringing-magnetic-field model that increases accuracy beyond that offered by the other AMB-design software.

  20. Conceptual design of an aircraft automated coating removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.; Primm, A.H.; Shekhar, S.

    1996-05-01

    Paint stripping of the U.S. Air Force`s large transport aircrafts is currently a labor-intensive, manual process. Significant reductions in costs, personnel and turnaround time can be accomplished by the judicious use of automation in some process tasks. This paper presents the conceptual design of a coating removal systems for the tail surfaces of the C-5 plane. Emphasis is placed on the technology selection to optimize human-automation synergy with respect to overall costs, throughput, quality, safety, and reliability. Trade- offs between field-proven vs. research-requiring technologies, and between expected gain vs. cost and complexity, have led to a conceptual design which is semi-autonomous (relying on the human for task specification and disturbance handling) yet incorporates sensor- based automation (for sweep path generation and tracking, surface following, stripping quality control and tape/breach handling).

  1. Automating the design of scientific computing software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kant, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    SINAPSE is a domain-specific software design system that generates code from specifications of equations and algorithm methods. This paper describes the system's design techniques (planning in a space of knowledge-based refinement and optimization rules), user interaction style (user has option to control decision making), and representation of knowledge (rules and objects). It also summarizes how the system knowledge has evolved over time and suggests some issues in building software design systems to facilitate reuse.

  2. Design flow automation for variable-shaped beam pattern generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloecker, Martin; Ballhorn, Gerd

    2002-07-01

    Raster scan pattern generators have been used in the photomask industry for many years. Methods and software tools for data preparation for these pattern generators are well established and have been integrated into design flows with a high degree of automation. But the growing requirements for pattern fidelity have lead to the introduction of 50 kV variable shaped beam pattern generators. Due to their different writing strategy these tools use proprietary data formats and in turn require an optimized data preparation. As a result the existing design flow has to be adopted to account for these requirements. Due to the fact that cycle times have grown severely over the last years the automation of this adopted design flow will not only enhance the design flow quality by avoiding errors during manual operations but will also help to reduce turn-around times. We developed and implemented an automated design flow for a variable shaped beam pattern generator which had to fulfill two conflicting requirements: Well established automated tools originally developed for raster scan pattern generators had to be retained with only slight modifications to avoid the (re)implementation and the concurrent usage of two systems while on the other hand data generation especially during fracturing had to be optimized for a variable shaped beam pattern generator.

  3. Automating expert role to determine design concept in Kansei Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokman, Anitawati Mohd; Haron, Mohammad Bakri Che; Abidin, Siti Zaleha Zainal; Khalid, Noor Elaiza Abd

    2016-02-01

    Affect has become imperative in product quality. In affective design field, Kansei Engineering (KE) has been recognized as a technology that enables discovery of consumer's emotion and formulation of guide to design products that win consumers in the competitive market. Albeit powerful technology, there is no rule of thumb in its analysis and interpretation process. KE expertise is required to determine sets of related Kansei and the significant concept of emotion. Many research endeavors become handicapped with the limited number of available and accessible KE experts. This work is performed to simulate the role of experts with the use of Natphoric algorithm thus providing sound solution to the complexity and flexibility in KE. The algorithm is designed to learn the process by implementing training datasets taken from previous KE research works. A framework for automated KE is then designed to realize the development of automated KE system. A comparative analysis is performed to determine feasibility of the developed prototype to automate the process. The result shows that the significant Kansei is determined by manual KE implementation and the automated process is highly similar. KE research advocates will benefit this system to automatically determine significant design concepts.

  4. Generative Representations for Computer-Automated Design Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing computational power of Computers, software design systems are progressing from being tools for architects and designers to express their ideas to tools capable of creating designs under human guidance. One of the main limitations for these computer-automated design programs is the representation with which they encode designs. If the representation cannot encode a certain design, then the design program cannot produce it. Similarly, a poor representation makes some types of designs extremely unlikely to be created. Here we define generative representations as those representations which can create and reuse organizational units within a design and argue that reuse is necessary for design systems to scale to more complex and interesting designs. To support our argument we describe GENRE, an evolutionary design program that uses both a generative and a non-generative representation, and compare the results of evolving designs with both types of representations.

  5. A Case Study in CAD Design Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Andrew G.; Hartman, Nathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) software and other product life-cycle management (PLM) tools have become ubiquitous in industry during the past 20 years. Over this time they have continuously evolved, becoming programs with enormous capabilities, but the companies that use them have not evolved their design practices at the same rate. Due to the…

  6. Generative Representations for Computer-Automated Evolutionary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing computational power of computers, software design systems are progressing from being tools for architects and designers to express their ideas to tools capable of creating designs under human guidance. One of the main limitations for these computer-automated design systems is the representation with which they encode designs. If the representation cannot encode a certain design, then the design system cannot produce it. To be able to produce new types of designs, and not just optimize pre-defined parameterizations, evolutionary design systems must use generative representations. Generative representations are assembly procedures, or algorithms, for constructing a design thereby allowing for truly novel design solutions to be encoded. In addition, by enabling modularity, regularity and hierarchy, the level of sophistication that can be evolved is increased. We demonstrate the advantages of generative representations on two different design domains: the evolution of spacecraft antennas and the evolution of 3D objects.

  7. DESIGN OF SMALL AUTOMATION WORK CELL SYSTEM DEMONSTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C. TURNER; J. PEHL; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    The introduction of automation systems into many of the facilities dealing with the production, use and disposition of nuclear materials has been an ongoing objective. Many previous attempts have been made, using a variety of monolithic and, in some cases, modular technologies. Many of these attempts were less than successful, owing to the difficulty of the problem, the lack of maturity of the technology, and over optimism about the capabilities of a particular system. Consequently, it is not surprising that suggestions that automation can reduce worker Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) levels are often met with skepticism and caution. The development of effective demonstrations of these technologies is of vital importance if automation is to become an acceptable option for nuclear material processing environments. The University of Texas Robotics Research Group (UTRRG) has been pursuing the development of technologies to support modular small automation systems (each of less than 5 degrees-of-freedom) and the design of those systems for more than two decades. Properly designed and implemented, these technologies have a potential to reduce the worker ORE associated with work in nuclear materials processing facilities. Successful development of systems for these applications requires the development of technologies that meet the requirements of the applications. These application requirements form a general set of rules that applicable technologies and approaches need to adhere to, but in and of themselves are generally insufficient for the design of a specific automation system. For the design of an appropriate system, the associated task specifications and relationships need to be defined. These task specifications also provide a means by which appropriate technology demonstrations can be defined. Based on the requirements and specifications of the operations of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) pilot line at Los Alamos National

  8. Automated Design of the Europa Orbiter Tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andrew F.; Strange, Nathan J.; Longusaki, James M.; Bonfiglio, Eugene P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we investigate tours of the Jovian satellites Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto for the Europa Orbiter Mission. The principal goal of the tour design is to lower arrival V(sub infinity) for the final Europa encounter while meeting all of the design constraints. Key constraints arise from considering the total time of the tour and the radiation dosage of a tour. These tours may employ 14 or more encounters with the Jovian satellites, hence there is an enormous number of possible sequences of these satellites to investigate. We develop a graphical method that greatly aids the design process.

  9. Automated Design of the Europa Orbiter Tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andrew F.; Strange, Nathan J.; Longuski, James M.; Bonfiglio, Eugene P.; Taylor, Irene (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we investigate tours of the Jovian satellites Europa Ganymede, and Callisto for the Europa Orbiter Mission. The principal goal of the tour design is to lower arrival V_ for the final Europa encounter while meeting all of the design constraints. Key constraints arise from considering the total time of the tour and the radiation dosage of a tour. These tours may employ 14 or more encounters with the Jovian satellites. hence there is an enormous number of possible sequences of these satellites to investigate. We develop a graphical method that greatly aids the design process.

  10. Automated radiation hard ASIC design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mike; Bartholet, Bill; Baze, Mark

    1993-01-01

    A commercial based, foundry independent, compiler design tool (ChipCrafter) with custom radiation hardened library cells is described. A unique analysis approach allows low hardness risk for Application Specific IC's (ASIC's). Accomplishments, radiation test results, and applications are described.

  11. CMOS-array design-automation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, A.; Lombardt, T.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty four page report discusses design of 4,096-bit complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) read-only memory (ROM). CMOSROM is either mask or laser programable. Report is divided into six sections; section one describes background of ROM chips; section two presents design goals for chip; section three discusses chip implementation and chip statistics; conclusions and recommendations are given in sections four thru six.

  12. CMOS-array design-automation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, A.; Lombardt, T.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty four page report discusses design of 4,096-bit complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) read-only memory (ROM). CMOSROM is either mask or laser programable. Report is divided into six sections; section one describes background of ROM chips; section two presents design goals for chip; section three discusses chip implementation and chip statistics; conclusions and recommendations are given in sections four thru six.

  13. Universal electronics for miniature and automated chemical assays.

    PubMed

    Urban, Pawel L

    2015-02-21

    This minireview discusses universal electronic modules (generic programmable units) and their use by analytical chemists to construct inexpensive, miniature or automated devices. Recently, open-source platforms have gained considerable popularity among tech-savvy chemists because their implementation often does not require expert knowledge and investment of funds. Thus, chemistry students and researchers can easily start implementing them after a few hours of reading tutorials and trial-and-error. Single-board microcontrollers and micro-computers such as Arduino, Teensy, Raspberry Pi or BeagleBone enable collecting experimental data with high precision as well as efficient control of electric potentials and actuation of mechanical systems. They are readily programmed using high-level languages, such as C, C++, JavaScript or Python. They can also be coupled with mobile consumer electronics, including smartphones as well as teleinformatic networks. More demanding analytical tasks require fast signal processing. Field-programmable gate arrays enable efficient and inexpensive prototyping of high-performance analytical platforms, thus becoming increasingly popular among analytical chemists. This minireview discusses the advantages and drawbacks of universal electronic modules, considering their application in prototyping and manufacture of intelligent analytical instrumentation.

  14. Implementing and Improving Automated Electronic Tumor Molecular Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Staggs, David B.; Hackett, Lauren; Haberman, Erich; Tod, Mike; Levy, Mia; Warner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Oncology practice increasingly requires the use of molecular profiling of tumors to inform the use of targeted therapeutics. However, many oncologists use third-party laboratories to perform tumor genomic testing, and these laboratories may not have electronic interfaces with the provider’s electronic medical record (EMR) system. The resultant reporting mechanisms, such as plain-paper faxing, can reduce report fidelity, slow down reporting procedures for a physician’s practice, and make reports less accessible. Vanderbilt University Medical Center and its genomic laboratory testing partner have collaborated to create an automated electronic reporting system that incorporates genetic testing results directly into the clinical EMR. This system was iteratively tested, and causes of failure were discovered and addressed. Most errors were attributable to data entry or typographical errors that made reports unable to be linked to the correct patient in the EMR. By providing direct feedback to providers, we were able to significantly decrease the rate of transmission errors (from 6.29% to 3.84%; P < .001). The results and lessons of 1 year of using the system and transmitting 832 tumor genomic testing reports are reported. PMID:26813927

  15. Designing Electronic Collaborative Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Paul; Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Kreijns, Karel; Beers, Pieter Jelle

    2004-01-01

    Electronic collaborative learning environments for learning and working are in vogue. Designers design them according to their own constructivist interpretations of what collaborative learning is and what it should achieve. Educators employ them with different educational approaches and in diverse situations to achieve different ends. Students use…

  16. Towards automated design of quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirčetić, Aleksandra; Indjin, Dragan; Ikonić, Zoran; Harrison, Paul; Milanović, Vitomir; Kelsall, Robert W.

    2005-04-01

    We present an advanced technique for the design and optimization of GaAs /AlGaAs quantum cascade laser structures. It is based on the implementation of the simulated annealing algorithm with the purpose of determining a set of design parameters that satisfy predefined conditions, leading to an enhancement of the device output characteristics. Two important design aspects have been addressed: improved thermal behavior, achieved by the use of higher conduction band offset materials, and a more efficient extraction mechanism, realized via a ladder of three lower laser states, with subsequent pairs separated by the optical phonon energy. A detailed analysis of performance of the obtained structures is carried out within a full self-consistent rate equations model of the carrier dynamics. The latter uses wave functions calculated by the transfer matrix method, and evaluates all relevant carrier-phonon and carrier-carrier scattering rates from each quantized state to all others within the same and neighboring periods of the cascade. These values are then used to form a set of rate equations for the carrier density in each state, enabling further calculation of the current density and gain as a function of the applied field and temperature. This paper addresses the application of the described procedure to the design of λ ˜9μm GaAs-based mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and presents the output characteristics of some of the designed optimized structures.

  17. Automated Electron Microscopy for Evaluating Two-dimensional Crystallization of Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Minghui; Vink, Martin; Kim, Changki; Derr, KD; Koss, John; D'Amico, Kevin; Cheng, Anchi; Pulokas, James; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban; Stokes, David

    2010-01-01

    Membrane proteins fulfill many important roles in the cell and represent the target for a large number of therapeutic drugs. Although structure determination of membrane proteins has become a major priority, it has proven to be technically challenging. Electron microscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals has the advantage of visualizing membrane proteins in their natural lipidic environment, but has been underutilized in recent structural genomics efforts. To improve the general applicability of electron crystallography, high-throughput methods are needed for screening large numbers of conditions for 2D crystallization, thereby increasing the chances of obtaining well ordered crystals and thus achieving atomic resolution. Previous reports describe devices for growing 2D crystals on a 96-well format. The current report describes a system for automated imaging of these screens with an electron microscope. Samples are inserted with a two-part robot: a SCARA robot for loading samples into the microscope holder, and a Cartesian robot for placing the holder into the electron microscope. A standard JEOL 1230 electron microscope was used, though a new tip was designed for the holder and a toggle switch controlling the airlock was rewired to allow robot control. A computer program for controlling the robots was integrated with the Leginon program, which provides a module for automated imaging of individual samples. The resulting images are uploaded into the Sesame laboratory information management system database where they are associated with other data relevant to the crystallization screen. PMID:20197095

  18. Automated database design from natural language input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando; Segami, Carlos; Delaune, Carl

    1995-01-01

    Users and programmers of small systems typically do not have the skills needed to design a database schema from an English description of a problem. This paper describes a system that automatically designs databases for such small applications from English descriptions provided by end-users. Although the system has been motivated by the space applications at Kennedy Space Center, and portions of it have been designed with that idea in mind, it can be applied to different situations. The system consists of two major components: a natural language understander and a problem-solver. The paper describes briefly the knowledge representation structures constructed by the natural language understander, and, then, explains the problem-solver in detail.

  19. Library Automation Design for Visually Impaired People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtay, Nilufer; Bicil, Yucel; Celebi, Sait; Cit, Guluzar; Dural, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Speech synthesis is a technology used in many different areas in computer science. This technology can bring a solution to reading activity of visually impaired people due to its text to speech conversion. Based on this problem, in this study, a system is designed needed for a visually impaired person to make use of all the library facilities in…

  20. Automation of Expert Tutoring System Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeev, Ildar

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the development and introduction of expert tutoring systems (ETS), or intelligent tutoring systems. Explains MONAP-PLUS, an example of an authoring tool for the design of an ETS that includes models of the subject domain, the learner, and the learning process; a user-friendly interface; and techniques for developing algorithmic…

  1. Towards automation of user interface design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gastner, Rainer; Kraetzschmar, Gerhard K.; Lutz, Ernst

    1992-01-01

    This paper suggests an approach to automatic software design in the domain of graphical user interfaces. There are still some drawbacks in existing user interface management systems (UIMS's) which basically offer only quantitative layout specifications via direct manipulation. Our approach suggests a convenient way to get a default graphical user interface which may be customized and redesigned easily in further prototyping cycles.

  2. Automated Work Package: Conceptual Design and Data Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Al Rashdan, Ahmad; Oxstrand, Johanna; Agarwal, Vivek

    2016-05-26

    The automated work package (AWP) is one of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program efforts to enhance the safety and economics of the nuclear power industry. An AWP is an adaptive and interactive work package that intelligently drives the work process according to the plant condition, resources status, and users progress. The AWP aims to automate several manual tasks of the work process to enhance human performance and reduce human errors. Electronic work packages (eWPs), studied by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), are work packages that rely to various extent on electronic data processing and presentation. AWPs are the future of eWPs. They are envisioned to incorporate the advanced technologies of the future, and thus address the unresolved deficiencies associated with the eWPs in a nuclear power plant. In order to define the AWP, it is necessary to develop an ideal envisioned scenario of the future work process without any current technology restriction. The approach followed to develop this scenario is specific to every stage of the work process execution. The scenario development resulted in fifty advanced functionalities that can be part of the AWP. To rank the importance of these functionalities, a survey was conducted involving several U.S. nuclear utilities. The survey aimed at determining the current need of the nuclear industry with respect to the current work process, i.e. what the industry is satisfied with, and where the industry envisions potential for improvement. The survey evaluated the most promising functionalities resulting from the scenario development. The results demonstrated a significant desire to adopt the majority of these functionalities. The results of the survey are expected to drive the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) AWP research and development (R&D). In order to facilitate this mission, a prototype AWP is needed. Since the vast majority of earlier efforts focused on the

  3. A compendium of controlled diffusion blades generated by an automated inverse design procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, Jose M.

    1989-01-01

    A set of sample cases was produced to test an automated design procedure developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for the design of controlled diffusion blades. The range of application of the automated design procedure is documented. The results presented include characteristic compressor and turbine blade sections produced with the automated design code as well as various other airfoils produced with the base design method prior to the incorporation of the automated procedure.

  4. Automated Design of Complex Dynamic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Bienstman, Peter; Dambre, Joni

    2014-01-01

    Several fields of study are concerned with uniting the concept of computation with that of the design of physical systems. For example, a recent trend in robotics is to design robots in such a way that they require a minimal control effort. Another example is found in the domain of photonics, where recent efforts try to benefit directly from the complex nonlinear dynamics to achieve more efficient signal processing. The underlying goal of these and similar research efforts is to internalize a large part of the necessary computations within the physical system itself by exploiting its inherent non-linear dynamics. This, however, often requires the optimization of large numbers of system parameters, related to both the system's structure as well as its material properties. In addition, many of these parameters are subject to fabrication variability or to variations through time. In this paper we apply a machine learning algorithm to optimize physical dynamic systems. We show that such algorithms, which are normally applied on abstract computational entities, can be extended to the field of differential equations and used to optimize an associated set of parameters which determine their behavior. We show that machine learning training methodologies are highly useful in designing robust systems, and we provide a set of both simple and complex examples using models of physical dynamical systems. Interestingly, the derived optimization method is intimately related to direct collocation a method known in the field of optimal control. Our work suggests that the application domains of both machine learning and optimal control have a largely unexplored overlapping area which envelopes a novel design methodology of smart and highly complex physical systems. PMID:24497969

  5. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  6. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-10-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  7. Automated Design Framework for Synthetic Biology Exploiting Pareto Optimality.

    PubMed

    Otero-Muras, Irene; Banga, Julio R

    2017-04-12

    In this work we consider Pareto optimality for automated design in synthetic biology. We present a generalized framework based on a mixed-integer dynamic optimization formulation that, given design specifications, allows the computation of Pareto optimal sets of designs, that is, the set of best trade-offs for the metrics of interest. We show how this framework can be used for (i) forward design, that is, finding the Pareto optimal set of synthetic designs for implementation, and (ii) reverse design, that is, analyzing and inferring motifs and/or design principles of gene regulatory networks from the Pareto set of optimal circuits. Finally, we illustrate the capabilities and performance of this framework considering four case studies. In the first problem we consider the forward design of an oscillator. In the remaining problems, we illustrate how to apply the reverse design approach to find motifs for stripe formation, rapid adaption, and fold-change detection, respectively.

  8. Design and validation of an automated hydrostatic weighing system.

    PubMed

    McClenaghan, B A; Rocchio, L

    1986-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate the validity of an automated technique to assess body density using a computerized hydrostatic weighing system. An existing hydrostatic tank was modified and interfaced with a microcomputer equipped with an analog-to-digital converter. Software was designed to input variables, control the collection of data, calculate selected measurements, and provide a summary of the results of each session. Validity of the data obtained utilizing the automated hydrostatic weighing system was estimated by: evaluating the reliability of the transducer/computer interface to measure objects of known underwater weight; comparing the data against a criterion measure; and determining inter-session subject reliability. Values obtained from the automated system were found to be highly correlated with known underwater weights (r = 0.99, SEE = 0.0060 kg). Data concurrently obtained utilizing the automated system and a manual chart recorder were also found to be highly correlated (r = 0.99, SEE = 0.0606 kg). Inter-session subject reliability was determined utilizing data collected on subjects (N = 16) tested on two occasions approximately 24 h apart. Correlations revealed high relationships between measures of underwater weight (r = 0.99, SEE = 0.1399 kg) and body density (r = 0.98, SEE = 0.00244 g X cm-1). Results indicate that a computerized hydrostatic weighing system is a valid and reliable method for determining underwater weight.

  9. Computer-automated tuning of semiconductor double quantum dots into the single-electron regime

    SciTech Connect

    Baart, T. A.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Eendebak, P. T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.

    2016-05-23

    We report the computer-automated tuning of gate-defined semiconductor double quantum dots in GaAs heterostructures. We benchmark the algorithm by creating three double quantum dots inside a linear array of four quantum dots. The algorithm sets the correct gate voltages for all the gates to tune the double quantum dots into the single-electron regime. The algorithm only requires (1) prior knowledge of the gate design and (2) the pinch-off value of the single gate T that is shared by all the quantum dots. This work significantly alleviates the user effort required to tune multiple quantum dot devices.

  10. Design of automation tools for management of descent traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William

    1988-01-01

    The design of an automated air traffic control system based on a hierarchy of advisory tools for controllers is described. Compatibility of the tools with the human controller, a key objective of the design, is achieved by a judicious selection of tasks to be automated and careful attention to the design of the controller system interface. The design comprises three interconnected subsystems referred to as the Traffic Management Advisor, the Descent Advisor, and the Final Approach Spacing Tool. Each of these subsystems provides a collection of tools for specific controller positions and tasks. This paper focuses primarily on the Descent Advisor which provides automation tools for managing descent traffic. The algorithms, automation modes, and graphical interfaces incorporated in the design are described. Information generated by the Descent Advisor tools is integrated into a plan view traffic display consisting of a high-resolution color monitor. Estimated arrival times of aircraft are presented graphically on a time line, which is also used interactively in combination with a mouse input device to select and schedule arrival times. Other graphical markers indicate the location of the fuel-optimum top-of-descent point and the predicted separation distances of aircraft at a designated time-control point. Computer generated advisories provide speed and descent clearances which the controller can issue to aircraft to help them arrive at the feeder gate at the scheduled times or with specified separation distances. Two types of horizontal guidance modes, selectable by the controller, provide markers for managing the horizontal flightpaths of aircraft under various conditions. The entire system consisting of descent advisor algorithm, a library of aircraft performance models, national airspace system data bases, and interactive display software has been implemented on a workstation made by Sun Microsystems, Inc. It is planned to use this configuration in operational

  11. Automated Processing of ISIS Topside Ionograms into Electron Density Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinisch, bodo W.; Huang, Xueqin; Bilitza, Dieter; Hills, H. Kent

    2004-01-01

    Modeling of the topside ionosphere has for the most part relied on just a few years of data from topside sounder satellites. The widely used Bent et al. (1972) model, for example, is based on only 50,000 Alouette 1 profiles. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) (Bilitza, 1990, 2001) uses an analytical description of the graphs and tables provided by Bent et al. (1972). The Alouette 1, 2 and ISIS 1, 2 topside sounder satellites of the sixties and seventies were ahead of their times in terms of the sheer volume of data obtained and in terms of the computer and software requirements for data analysis. As a result, only a small percentage of the collected topside ionograms was converted into electron density profiles. Recently, a NASA-funded data restoration project has undertaken and is continuing the process of digitizing the Alouette/ISIS ionograms from the analog 7-track tapes. Our project involves the automated processing of these digital ionograms into electron density profiles. The project accomplished a set of important goals that will have a major impact on understanding and modeling of the topside ionosphere: (1) The TOPside Ionogram Scaling and True height inversion (TOPIST) software was developed for the automated scaling and inversion of topside ionograms. (2) The TOPIST software was applied to the over 300,000 ISIS-2 topside ionograms that had been digitized in the fkamework of a separate AISRP project (PI: R.F. Benson). (3) The new TOPIST-produced database of global electron density profiles for the topside ionosphere were made publicly available through NASA s National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) ftp archive at . (4) Earlier Alouette 1,2 and ISIS 1, 2 data sets of electron density profiles from manual scaling of selected sets of ionograms were converted fiom a highly-compressed binary format into a user-friendly ASCII format and made publicly available through nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov. The new database for the topside

  12. An automated methodology development. [software design for combat simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The design methodology employed in testing the applicability of Ada in large-scale combat simulations is described. Ada was considered as a substitute for FORTRAN to lower life cycle costs and ease the program development efforts. An object-oriented approach was taken, which featured definitions of military targets, the capability of manipulating their condition in real-time, and one-to-one correlation between the object states and real world states. The simulation design process was automated by the problem statement language (PSL)/problem statement analyzer (PSA). The PSL/PSA system accessed the problem data base directly to enhance the code efficiency by, e.g., eliminating non-used subroutines, and provided for automated report generation, besides allowing for functional and interface descriptions. The ways in which the methodology satisfied the responsiveness, reliability, transportability, modifiability, timeliness and efficiency goals are discussed.

  13. An automated methodology development. [software design for combat simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The design methodology employed in testing the applicability of Ada in large-scale combat simulations is described. Ada was considered as a substitute for FORTRAN to lower life cycle costs and ease the program development efforts. An object-oriented approach was taken, which featured definitions of military targets, the capability of manipulating their condition in real-time, and one-to-one correlation between the object states and real world states. The simulation design process was automated by the problem statement language (PSL)/problem statement analyzer (PSA). The PSL/PSA system accessed the problem data base directly to enhance the code efficiency by, e.g., eliminating non-used subroutines, and provided for automated report generation, besides allowing for functional and interface descriptions. The ways in which the methodology satisfied the responsiveness, reliability, transportability, modifiability, timeliness and efficiency goals are discussed.

  14. Design methodology of an automated scattering measurement facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, D. G.

    1985-12-01

    This thesis addresses the design methodology surrounding an automated scattering measurement facility. A brief historical survey of radar cross-section (RCS) measurements is presented. The electromagnetic theory associated with a continuous wave (CW) background cancellation technique for measuring RCS is discussed as background. In addition, problems associated with interfacing test equipment, data storage and output are addressed. The facility used as a model for this thesis is located at the Air Force Institute of Technology, WPARB, OH. The design methodology applies to any automated scattering measurement facility. A software package incorporating features that enhance the operation of AFIT's facility by students is presented. Finally, sample output from the software package illustrate formats for displaying RCS data.

  15. Crew aiding and automation: A system concept for terminal area operations, and guidelines for automation design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, John P.

    1994-01-01

    This research and development program comprised two efforts: the development of guidelines for the design of automated systems, with particular emphasis on automation design that takes advantage of contextual information, and the concept-level design of a crew aiding system, the Terminal Area Navigation Decision Aiding Mediator (TANDAM). This concept outlines a system capable of organizing navigation and communication information and assisting the crew in executing the operations required in descent and approach. In service of this endeavor, problem definition activities were conducted that identified terminal area navigation and operational familiarization exercises addressing the terminal area navigation problem. Both airborne and ground-based (ATC) elements of aircraft control were extensively researched. The TANDAM system concept was then specified, and the crew interface and associated systems described. Additionally, three descent and approach scenarios were devised in order to illustrate the principal functions of the TANDAM system concept in relation to the crew, the aircraft, and ATC. A plan for the evaluation of the TANDAM system was established. The guidelines were developed based on reviews of relevant literature, and on experience gained in the design effort.

  16. User-designed software system for electron microprobes - basic premises and the control program

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, W.F.; Doyle, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A systems approach to the automation of electron microprobes is presented. The use of generalized data collection and analysis routines has been encouraged by integrating their calls as system commands. The software has been designed around the most fully automated Cameca and JEOL microprobes now available and includes full spectrometer, stage, and beam control.

  17. Electronic data processing: the pathway to automated quality control of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Newland, R F; Baker, R A; Stanley, R

    2006-06-01

    Electronic data collection during cardiac surgery creates an enormous data source that has many potential applications. After the introduction of the Stockert Data Management System (DMS; Munich, Germany) to our perfusion practice, we recognized that the data could be used for the purpose of quality control (QC). Our aim was to create an automated technique of data analysis and feedback for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures. Using visual basic programming, we created a process by which data from the DMS is analyzed and processed in a Microsoft Access database after a CPB procedure. The processing is designed to transfer the collected data to a research database and create a number of CPB quality indicator (QI) parameters, such as mean arterial pressure being less than 40 mmHg for more than 5 minutes or a venous saturation of less than 60% for more than 5 minutes. In the event of QI parameter detection, a QC report is generated and e-mailed to the senior perfusionist and the perfusionist performing the procedure. The introduction of electronic data collection and subsequent development of electronic data processing techniques has enabled us to transfer the data into a readily accessible database and create a data set of perfusion variables and quality indicators for CPB procedures. This data set may be used for immediate automated QC feedback after CPB procedures and direction of performance improvement initiatives through retrospective or prospective data analysis as part of a continuous quality improvement process.

  18. Semi-Automated Neuron Boundary Detection and Nonbranching Process Segmentation in Electron Microscopy Images

    SciTech Connect

    Jurrus, Elizabeth R.; Watanabe, Shigeki; Giuly, Richard J.; Paiva, Antonio R.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Jorgensen, Erik M.; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientists are developing new imaging techniques and generating large volumes of data in an effort to understand the complex structure of the nervous system. The complexity and size of this data makes human interpretation a labor-intensive task. To aid in the analysis, new segmentation techniques for identifying neurons in these feature rich datasets are required. This paper presents a method for neuron boundary detection and nonbranching process segmentation in electron microscopy images and visualizing them in three dimensions. It combines both automated segmentation techniques with a graphical user interface for correction of mistakes in the automated process. The automated process first uses machine learning and image processing techniques to identify neuron membranes that deliniate the cells in each two-dimensional section. To segment nonbranching processes, the cell regions in each two-dimensional section are connected in 3D using correlation of regions between sections. The combination of this method with a graphical user interface specially designed for this purpose, enables users to quickly segment cellular processes in large volumes.

  19. A new design concept for an automated peanut processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ertas, A.; Tanju, B.T.; Fair, W.T.; Butts, C.

    1996-12-31

    Peanut quality is a major concern in all phases of the peanut industry from production to manufacturing. Postharvest processing of peanuts can have profound effects on the quality and safety of peanut food products. Curing is a key step in postharvest processing. Curing peanuts improperly can significantly reduce quality, and result in significant losses to both farmers and processors. The conventional drying system designed in the 1960`s is still being used in the processing of the peanuts today. The objectives of this paper is to design and develop a new automated peanut drying system for dry climates capable of handling approximately 20 million lbm of peanuts per harvest season.

  20. An automated quality assessor for Ada object-oriented designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailin, Sidney C.

    1988-01-01

    A tool for evaluating object-oriented designs (OODs) for Ada software is described. The tool assumes a design expressed as a hierarchy of object diagrams. A design of this type identifies the objects of a system, an interface to each object, and the usage relationships between objects. When such a design is implemented in Ada, objects become packages, interfaces become package specifications, and usage relationships become Ada `with' clauses and package references. An automated quality assessor has been developed that is based on flagging undesirable design constructs. For convenience, distinctions are made among three levels of severity: questionable, undesirable, and hazardous. A questionable construct is one that may well be appropriate. An undesirable construct is one that should be changed because it is potentially harmful to the reliability, maintainability, or reusability of the software. A hazardous construct is one that is undesirable and that introduces a high level of risk.

  1. Automated platform for designing multiple robot work cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, N. S.; Rahman, M. A. A.; Rahman, A. A. Abdul; Kamsani, S. H.; Bali Mohamad, B. M.; Mohamad, E.; Zaini, Z. A.; Rahman, M. F. Ab; Mohamad Hatta, M. N. H.

    2017-06-01

    Designing the multiple robot work cells is very knowledge-intensive, intricate, and time-consuming process. This paper elaborates the development process of a computer-aided design program for generating the multiple robot work cells which offer a user-friendly interface. The primary purpose of this work is to provide a fast and easy platform for less cost and human involvement with minimum trial and errors adjustments. The automated platform is constructed based on the variant-shaped configuration concept with its mathematical model. A robot work cell layout, system components, and construction procedure of the automated platform are discussed in this paper where integration of these items will be able to automatically provide the optimum robot work cell design according to the information set by the user. This system is implemented on top of CATIA V5 software and utilises its Part Design, Assembly Design, and Macro tool. The current outcomes of this work provide a basis for future investigation in developing a flexible configuration system for the multiple robot work cells.

  2. The CADSS design automation system. [computerized design language for small digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franke, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    This research was designed to implement and extend a previously defined design automation system for the design of small digital structures. A description is included of the higher level language developed to describe systems as a sequence of register transfer operations. The system simulator which is used to determine if the original description is correct is also discussed. The design automation system produces tables describing the state transistions of the system and the operation of all registers. In addition all Boolean equations specifying system operation are minimized and converted to NAND gate structures. Suggestions for further extensions to the system are also given.

  3. Coupling Automated Electron Backscatter Diffraction with Transmission Electron and Atomic Force Microscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A.J.; Kumar, M.; Bedrossian, P.J.; King, W.E.

    2000-01-26

    Grain boundary network engineering is an emerging field that encompasses the concept that modifications to conventional thermomechanical processing can result in improved properties through the disruption of the random grain boundary network. Various researchers have reported a correlation between the grain boundary character distribution (defined as the fractions of special and random grain boundaries) and dramatic improvements in properties such as corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, creep, etc. While much early work in the field emphasized property improvements, the opportunity now exists to elucidate the underlying materials science of grain boundary network engineering. Recent investigations at LLNL have coupled automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to elucidate these fundamental mechanisms. This investigation provides evidence that grain boundary network engineering and the formation of annealing twins disrupt the connectivity of the random grain boundary network and is likely responsible for the experimentally observed improvement in properties. This work illustrates that coupling of automated EBSD with other microstructural probes such as TEM and AFM provides data of greater value than any single technique in isolation. The coupled techniques have been applied to aid in understanding the underlying mechanisms of grain boundary network engineering and the corrosion properties of individual boundaries.

  4. An Innovative Method of Teaching Electronic System Design with PSoC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Zhaohui; Hua, Chengying

    2012-01-01

    Programmable system-on-chip (PSoC), which provides a microprocessor and programmable analog and digital peripheral functions in a single chip, is very convenient for mixed-signal electronic system design. This paper presents the experience of teaching contemporary mixed-signal electronic system design with PSoC in the Department of Automation,…

  5. An Innovative Method of Teaching Electronic System Design with PSoC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Zhaohui; Hua, Chengying

    2012-01-01

    Programmable system-on-chip (PSoC), which provides a microprocessor and programmable analog and digital peripheral functions in a single chip, is very convenient for mixed-signal electronic system design. This paper presents the experience of teaching contemporary mixed-signal electronic system design with PSoC in the Department of Automation,…

  6. Automated design of programmable enzyme-driven DNA circuits.

    PubMed

    van Roekel, Hendrik W H; Meijer, Lenny H H; Masroor, Saeed; Félix Garza, Zandra C; Estévez-Torres, André; Rondelez, Yannick; Zagaris, Antonios; Peletier, Mark A; Hilbers, Peter A J; de Greef, Tom F A

    2015-06-19

    Molecular programming allows for the bottom-up engineering of biochemical reaction networks in a controlled in vitro setting. These engineered biochemical reaction networks yield important insight in the design principles of biological systems and can potentially enrich molecular diagnostic systems. The DNA polymerase-nickase-exonuclease (PEN) toolbox has recently been used to program oscillatory and bistable biochemical networks using a minimal number of components. Previous work has reported the automatic construction of in silico descriptions of biochemical networks derived from the PEN toolbox, paving the way for generating networks of arbitrary size and complexity in vitro. Here, we report an automated approach that further bridges the gap between an in silico description and in vitro realization. A biochemical network of arbitrary complexity can be globally screened for parameter values that display the desired function and combining this approach with robustness analysis further increases the chance of successful in vitro implementation. Moreover, we present an automated design procedure for generating optimal DNA sequences, exhibiting key characteristics deduced from the in silico analysis. Our in silico method has been tested on a previously reported network, the Oligator, and has also been applied to the design of a reaction network capable of displaying adaptation in one of its components. Finally, we experimentally characterize unproductive sequestration of the exonuclease to phosphorothioate protected ssDNA strands. The strong nonlinearities in the degradation of active components caused by this unintended cross-coupling are shown computationally to have a positive effect on adaptation quality.

  7. An automated approach to magnetic divertor configuration design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blommaert, M.; Dekeyser, W.; Baelmans, M.; Gauger, N. R.; Reiter, D.

    2015-01-01

    Automated methods based on optimization can greatly assist computational engineering design in many areas. In this paper an optimization approach to the magnetic design of a nuclear fusion reactor divertor is proposed and applied to a tokamak edge magnetic configuration in a first feasibility study. The approach is based on reduced models for magnetic field and plasma edge, which are integrated with a grid generator into one sensitivity code. The design objective chosen here for demonstrative purposes is to spread the divertor target heat load as much as possible over the entire target area. Constraints on the separatrix position are introduced to eliminate physically irrelevant magnetic field configurations during the optimization cycle. A gradient projection method is used to ensure stable cost function evaluations during optimization. The concept is applied to a configuration with typical Joint European Torus (JET) parameters and it automatically provides plausible configurations with reduced heat load.

  8. Electronic Design Automation (EDA) Roadmap Taskforce Report, Design of Microprocessors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    AMPLE, and Scheme-based extension languages such as the CFI Extension Language (EL). In addition, scripting lan- guages such as PERL (and TK/Tcl) are...well as applica- tion developers • Is accessible from all popular extension languages; today this includes CFI EL (Scheme) and PERL . 4.3.2.2 Standard... PERL has emerged as perhaps a leading contender for the most popular extension language. Additional study to determine which of these candidates (or oth

  9. Advanced manufacturing rules check (MRC) for fully automated assessment of complex reticle designs: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, J. A.; Aguilar, D.; Buck, P. D.; Dawkins, D.; Gladhill, R.; Nolke, S.; Riddick, J.

    2006-10-01

    Advanced electronic design automation (EDA) tools, with their simulation, modeling, design rule checking, and optical proximity correction capabilities, have facilitated the improvement of first pass wafer yields. While the data produced by these tools may have been processed for optimal wafer manufacturing, it is possible for the same data to be far from ideal for photomask manufacturing, particularly at lithography and inspection stages, resulting in production delays and increased costs. The same EDA tools used to produce the data can be used to detect potential problems for photomask manufacturing in the data. In the previous paper, it was shown how photomask MRC is used to uncover data related problems prior to automated defect inspection. It was demonstrated how jobs which are likely to have problems at inspection could be identified and separated from those which are not. The use of photomask MRC in production was shown to reduce time lost to aborted runs and troubleshooting due to data issues. In this paper, the effectiveness of this photomask MRC program in a high volume photomask factory over the course of a year as applied to more than ten thousand jobs will be shown. Statistics on the results of the MRC runs will be presented along with the associated impact to the automated defect inspection process. Common design problems will be shown as well as their impact to mask manufacturing throughput and productivity. Finally, solutions to the most common and most severe problems will be offered and discussed.

  10. Design, Development, and Commissioning of a Substation Automation Laboratory to Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. S.; Kothari, D. P.; Prakash, A.

    2011-01-01

    Automation of power systems is gaining momentum across the world, and there is a need to expose graduate and undergraduate students to the latest developments in hardware, software, and related protocols for power automation. This paper presents the design, development, and commissioning of an automation lab to facilitate the understanding of…

  11. Design, Development, and Commissioning of a Substation Automation Laboratory to Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. S.; Kothari, D. P.; Prakash, A.

    2011-01-01

    Automation of power systems is gaining momentum across the world, and there is a need to expose graduate and undergraduate students to the latest developments in hardware, software, and related protocols for power automation. This paper presents the design, development, and commissioning of an automation lab to facilitate the understanding of…

  12. Iterative User Interface Design for Automated Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score Calculator in Sepsis Detection.

    PubMed

    Aakre, Christopher Ansel; Kitson, Jaben E; Li, Man; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2017-05-18

    The new sepsis definition has increased the need for frequent sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score recalculation and the clerical burden of information retrieval makes this score ideal for automated calculation. The aim of this study was to (1) estimate the clerical workload of manual SOFA score calculation through a time-motion analysis and (2) describe a user-centered design process for an electronic medical record (EMR) integrated, automated SOFA score calculator with subsequent usability evaluation study. First, we performed a time-motion analysis by recording time-to-task-completion for the manual calculation of 35 baseline and 35 current SOFA scores by 14 internal medicine residents over a 2-month period. Next, we used an agile development process to create a user interface for a previously developed automated SOFA score calculator. The final user interface usability was evaluated by clinician end users with the Computer Systems Usability Questionnaire. The overall mean (standard deviation, SD) time-to-complete manual SOFA score calculation time was 61.6 s (33). Among the 24% (12/50) usability survey respondents, our user-centered user interface design process resulted in >75% favorability of survey items in the domains of system usability, information quality, and interface quality. Early stakeholder engagement in our agile design process resulted in a user interface for an automated SOFA score calculator that reduced clinician workload and met clinicians' needs at the point of care. Emerging interoperable platforms may facilitate dissemination of similarly useful clinical score calculators and decision support algorithms as "apps." A user-centered design process and usability evaluation should be considered during creation of these tools.

  13. Reliability-Based Electronics Shielding Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; O'Neill, P. J.; Zang, T. A.; Pandolf, J. E.; Tripathi, R. K.; Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, P.; Reddell, B.; Pankop, C.

    2007-01-01

    Shielding design on large human-rated systems allows minimization of radiation impact on electronic systems. Shielding design tools require adequate methods for evaluation of design layouts, guiding qualification testing, and adequate follow-up on final design evaluation.

  14. Modular implementation of a digital hardware design automation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud, M.

    An automation system based on AHPL (A Hardware Programming Language) was developed. The project may be divided into three distinct phases: (1) Upgrading of AHPL to make it more universally applicable; (2) Implementation of a compiler for the language; and (3) illustration of how the compiler may be used to support several phases of design activities. Several new features were added to AHPL. These include: application-dependent parameters, mutliple clocks, asynchronous results, functional registers and primitive functions. The new language, called Universal AHPL, has been defined rigorously. The compiler design is modular. The parsing is done by an automatic parser generated from the SLR(1)BNF grammar of the language. The compiler produces two data bases from the AHPL description of a circuit. The first one is a tabular representation of the circuit, and the second one is a detailed interconnection linked list. The two data bases provide a means to interface the compiler to application-dependent CAD systems.

  15. FRACSAT: Automated design synthesis for future space architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, R.; Uckun, S.; Do, Minh; Shah, J.

    This paper describes the algorithmic basis and development of FRACSAT (FRACtionated Spacecraft Architecture Toolkit), a new approach to conceptual design, cost-benefit analysis, and detailed trade studies for space systems. It provides an automated capability for exploration of candidate spacecraft architectures, leading users to near-optimal solutions with respect to user-defined requirements, risks, and program uncertainties. FRACSAT utilizes a sophisticated planning algorithm (PlanVisioner) to perform a quasi-exhaustive search for candidate architectures, constructing candidates from an extensible model-based representation of space system components and functions. These candidates are then evaluated with emphasis on the business case, computing the expected design utility and system costs as well as risk, presenting the user with a greatly reduced selection of candidates. The user may further refine the search according to cost or benefit uncertainty, adaptability, or other performance metrics as needed.

  16. The automated strength-aeroelastic design of aerospace structures program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. H.; Venkayya, V. B.

    1984-01-01

    An ongoing program whose goal is to develop an automated procedure that can assist in the preliminary design of aircraft and space structures is described. The approach and capabilities that are to be included in the final procedures are descussed. By using proven engineering software as a basis for the project, a reliable and interdisciplinary procedure is developed. The use of a control language for module sequencing and execution permits efficient development of the procedure and gives the user significant flexibility in altering or enhancing the procedure. The data base system provides reliable and efficient access to the large amounts of interrelated data required in an enterprise of this sort. In addition, the data base allows interfacing with existing pre- and post-processors in an almost trivial manner. Altogether, the procedure promises to be of considerable utility to preliminary structural design teams.

  17. Automated Determination of Electron Density from Electric Field Measurements on the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelavskaya, I. S.; Spasojevic, M.; Shprits, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we present an algorithm for automatic inference of the electron number density from plasma wave measurement made onboard NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. It accomplishes this by using feedforward neural networks to automatically infer the upper hybrid resonance frequency, 𝑓𝑢h𝑟, from plasma wave measurement, which is then used to determine the electron number density. In previous missions, the plasma resonance bands were manually identified, and there have been few attempts to do robust, routine automated detection (Kurth et al. [JGR, 2014]). We describe the design and implementation of the algorithm, as well as the resulting electron number density distribution. Resulting densities are compared with the densities obtained by Kurth et al. [JGR, 2014] and also to the empirical plasmasphere and trough density model of Sheeley et al. [JGR, 2001]. The analysis of the conditions, under which densities obtained by the proposed method differ significantly from the model of Sheeley et al. [JGR, 2001], is presented. Finally, we discuss the dependence of the electron number density on magnetic activity (Kp) and magnetic local time.

  18. Automating the packing heuristic design process with genetic programming.

    PubMed

    Burke, Edmund K; Hyde, Matthew R; Kendall, Graham; Woodward, John

    2012-01-01

    The literature shows that one-, two-, and three-dimensional bin packing and knapsack packing are difficult problems in operational research. Many techniques, including exact, heuristic, and metaheuristic approaches, have been investigated to solve these problems and it is often not clear which method to use when presented with a new instance. This paper presents an approach which is motivated by the goal of building computer systems which can design heuristic methods. The overall aim is to explore the possibilities for automating the heuristic design process. We present a genetic programming system to automatically generate a good quality heuristic for each instance. It is not necessary to change the methodology depending on the problem type (one-, two-, or three-dimensional knapsack and bin packing problems), and it therefore has a level of generality unmatched by other systems in the literature. We carry out an extensive suite of experiments and compare with the best human designed heuristics in the literature. Note that our heuristic design methodology uses the same parameters for all the experiments. The contribution of this paper is to present a more general packing methodology than those currently available, and to show that, by using this methodology, it is possible for a computer system to design heuristics which are competitive with the human designed heuristics from the literature. This represents the first packing algorithm in the literature able to claim human competitive results in such a wide variety of packing domains.

  19. Relocatable, Automated Cost-Benefit Analysis for Marine Sensor Network Design

    PubMed Central

    D’Este, Claire; de Souza, Paulo; Sharman, Chris; Allen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    When designing sensor networks, we need to ensure they produce representative and relevant data, but this must be offset by the financial cost of placing sensors. We describe a novel automated method for generating and combining cost and benefit values to decide on the best sensor locations using information about the specific constraints available in most coastal locations. Costs in maintenance, negotiation, equipment, exposure and communication are estimated using hydrodynamic models and Electronic Navigation Charts. Benefits in maximum coverage and reducing overall error are also determined using model output. This method demonstrates equivalent accuracy at predicting the whole system to expert-chosen locations, whilst significantly reducing the estimated costs. PMID:22736982

  20. Design of an automated powder-handling process for isotope detector fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Knobeloch, D.W.; Ford, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    During the assembly of isotope detectors, operating personnel manipulate many different types of highly radioactive oxides. The energetic radiation from these oxides presents an exposure problem to operating personnel. Because of the routine nature of this process and the need to minimize radiation exposures to operating personnel, automation was recognized as a means to address these issues. A robot arm was selected as the material transfer device to interact with several automated subsystems. The subsystems will perform the necessary manipulations to weigh and transfer the oxides into the target capsules. The equipment used in this project includes a Precision Robot Inc. PRI-1100 robot arm, a custom-designed glovebox for the robot arm, a pneumatically operated, custom end effector, a cutting device used to open the oxide container, an automated powder feeder, and an electronic balance. The entire system is designed to operate via an IBM personal computer. The computer control system also provides data base capabilities to store pertinent data about each batch of oxide that is processed by the system. 1 fig.

  1. The design of an automated electrolytic enrichment apparatus for tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Radiation Analytical Sciences Section at Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory performs analysis of low-level tritium concentrations in various natural water samples from the Tri-Valley Area, DOE Nevada Test Site, Site 300 in Tracy, CA, and other various places around the world. Low levels of tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, which is pre-concentrated in the RAS laboratory using an electrolytic enrichment apparatus. Later these enriched waters are analyzed by liquid scintillation counting to determine the activity of tritium. The enrichment procedure and the subsequent purification process by vacuum distillation are currently undertaken manually, hence being highly labor-intensive. The whole process typically takes about 2 to 3 weeks to complete a batch of 30 samples, with a dedicated personnel operating the process. The goal is to automate the entire process, specifically having the operation PC-LabVIEW{trademark} controlled with real-time monitoring capability. My involvement was in the design and fabrication of a prototypical automated electrolytic enrichment cell. Work will be done on optimizing the electrolytic process by assessing the different parameters of the enrichment procedure. Hardware and software development have also been an integral component of this project.

  2. Automated design of realistic organometallic molecules from fragments.

    PubMed

    Foscato, Marco; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Alsberg, Bjørn K; Jensen, Vidar R

    2014-03-24

    A method for the automated generation of realistic, synthetically accessible transition metal and organometallic complexes is described. Computational tools were designed to generate molecular fragments, preferably harvested from libraries of existing, stable compounds, to be used as building blocks for the construction of new molecules. These fragments are enriched with information about the number and type of possible connections to other fragments and are stored in library files. When connecting fragments in the subsequent building process, compatibility matrices, which define the connection rules between fragments, are used to delineate organometallic fragment spaces from which molecules can be generated in an automated fashion. The approach is flexible and allows ample structural variation at the same time as the combination of known fragments is easily restrained to avoid generation of exotic and unrealistic substructures and molecules. The method was tested in the generation of ruthenium complexes, with a given coordination environment, which can serve as candidates in catalyst development. The results demonstrate that molecules generated with the described method do not contain exotic arrangements of atoms and are by far more realistic than those obtained by the application of valence rules alone.

  3. Expert system approach to design an automated guided vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaraguru, Karthikeyan; Hall, Ernest L.

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an expert system to design the base of an automated guided vehicle. The components of the expert system include: (1) A user-friendly graphic user interface, where the user can enter specifications--like the environment used, application of the robot, etc.; (2) An engine that converts the managerial requirements into technical parameters and designs the robot--initially assuming some parameters and confirming its assumptions during the course of the design; when unable to do so, it iterates with different assumptions until they are met; the code also selects various materials to be used from a corresponding database; (3) A database of various materials from their manufacturers/suppliers; (4) The output data is interfaced with a CAD engine, which generates a 3D solid model of the vehicle; and (5) A `Bill of Materials' file is generated as the output and suggestions for how to assemble them are given. The method has been tested by designing a small mobile robot. The software provides an excellent tool to develop a mobile robot based on performance specifications. Modeling helps the user understand the constraints on the design of the robot and the bill of materials--along with the vendor address, helps the user buy the components needed to assemble the robot.

  4. Automated Design of Restraint Layer of an Inflatable Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spexarth, Gary

    2007-01-01

    A Mathcad computer program largely automates the design and analysis of the restraint layer (the primary load-bearing layer) of an inflatable vessel that consists of one or more sections having cylindrical, toroidal, and/or spherical shape(s). A restraint layer typically comprises webbing in the form of multiple straps. The design task includes choosing indexing locations along the straps, computing the load at every location in each strap, computing the resulting stretch at each location, and computing the amount of undersizing required of each strap so that, once the vessel is inflated and the straps thus stretched, the vessel can be expected to assume the desired shape. Prior to the development of this program, the design task was performed by use of a difficult-to-use spreadsheet program that required manual addition of rows and columns depending on the numbers of strap rows and columns of a given design. In contrast, this program is completely parametric and includes logic that automatically adds or deletes rows and columns as needed. With minimal input from the user, this program automatically computes indexing locations, strap lengths, undersizing requirements, and all design data required to produce detailed drawings and assembly procedures. It also generates textual comments that help the user understand the calculations.

  5. EasyExonPrimer: automated primer design for exon sequences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaolin; Munroe, David J

    2006-01-01

    EasyExonPrimer is a web-based software that automates the design of PCR primers to amplify exon sequences from genomic DNA. EasyExonPrimer is written in Perl and uses Primer3 to design PCR primers based on the genome builds and annotation databases available at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Browser database (http://genome.ucsc.edu/). It masks repeats and known single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the genome and designs standardised primers using optimised conditions. Users can input genes by RefSeq mRNA ID, gene name or keyword. The primer design is optimised for large-scale resequencing of exons. For exons larger than 1 kb, the user has the option of breaking the exon sequence down into overlapping smaller fragments. All primer pairs are then verified using the In-Silico PCR software to test for uniqueness in the genome. We have designed >1000 pairs of primers for 90 genes; 95% of the primer pairs successfully amplified exon sequences under standard PCR conditions without requiring further optimisation. EasyExonPrimer is available from http://129.43.22.27/~primer/. The source code is also available upon request. Xiaolin Wu (forestwu@mail.nih.gov).

  6. Automated optimum design of wing structures. Deterministic and probabilistic approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The automated optimum design of airplane wing structures subjected to multiple behavior constraints is described. The structural mass of the wing is considered the objective function. The maximum stress, wing tip deflection, root angle of attack, and flutter velocity during the pull up maneuver (static load), the natural frequencies of the wing structure, and the stresses induced in the wing structure due to landing and gust loads are suitably constrained. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches are used for finding the stresses induced in the airplane wing structure due to landing and gust loads. A wing design is represented by a uniform beam with a cross section in the form of a hollow symmetric double wedge. The airfoil thickness and chord length are the design variables, and a graphical procedure is used to find the optimum solutions. A supersonic wing design is represented by finite elements. The thicknesses of the skin and the web and the cross sectional areas of the flanges are the design variables, and nonlinear programming techniques are used to find the optimum solution.

  7. The Automated Bicron Tester: Automated electronic instrument diagnostic, testing, and alignment system with records generation

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, G.S.; Maddox, S.R.; Turner, G.W.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1995-11-01

    The Bicron Surveyor MX is a portable radiation monitoring instrument used by the Office of Radiation Protection at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This instrument must be calibrated in order to assure reliable operation. A manual calibration procedure was developed, but it was time consuming and repetitive. Therefore, an automated tester station that would allow the technicians to calibrate the instruments faster and more reliably was developed. With the automated tester station, calibration records and accountability could be generated and maintained automatically. This allows the technicians to concentrate on repairing defective units. The Automated Bicron Tester consists of an operator interface, an analog board, and a digital controller board. The panel is the user interface that allows the technician to communicate with the tester. The analog board has an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that converts the signals from the instrument into digital data that the tester can manipulate. The digital controller board contains the circuitry to perform the test and to communicate the results to the host personal computer (PC). The tester station is connected to the unit under test through a special test harness that attaches to a header on the Bicron. The tester sends pulse trains to the Bicron and measures the resulting meter output. This is done to determine if the unit is functioning properly. The testers are connected to the host PC through an RS-485 serial line. The host PC polls all the tester stations that are connected to it and collects data from those that have completed a calibration. It logs these data and stores the record in a format ready for export to the Maintenance, Accountability, Jobs, and Inventory Control (MAJIC) database. It also prints a report. The programs for the Automated Bicron Tester and the host are written in the C language.

  8. An automated calibration laboratory - Requirements and design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil-Rood, Nora; Glover, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden), operates a diverse fleet of research aircraft which are heavily instrumented to provide both real time data for in-flight monitoring and recorded data for postflight analysis. Ames-Dryden's existing automated calibration (AUTOCAL) laboratory is a computerized facility which tests aircraft sensors to certify accuracy for anticipated harsh flight environments. Recently, a major AUTOCAL lab upgrade was initiated; the goal of this modernization is to enhance productivity and improve configuration management for both software and test data. The new system will have multiple testing stations employing distributed processing linked by a local area network to a centralized database. The baseline requirements for the new AUTOCAL lab and the design approach being taken for its mechanization are described.

  9. Automated design of multiphase space missions using hybrid optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilan, Christian Miguel

    A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving the associated continuous optimal control problem. This strategy, however, will most likely yield a sub-optimal solution, as the problem is sophisticated for several reasons. For example, the number of events in the optimal mission structure is not known a priori and the system equations of motion change depending on what event is current. In this work a framework for the automated design of multiphase space missions is presented using hybrid optimal control (HOC). The method developed uses two nested loops: an outer-loop that handles the discrete dynamics and finds the optimal mission structure in terms of the categorical variables, and an inner-loop that performs the optimization of the corresponding continuous-time dynamical system and obtains the required control history. Genetic algorithms (GA) and direct transcription with nonlinear programming (NLP) are introduced as methods of solution for the outer-loop and inner-loop problems, respectively. Automation of the inner-loop, continuous optimal control problem solver, required two new technologies. The first is a method for the automated construction of the NLP problems resulting from the use of a direct solver for systems with different structures, including different numbers of categorical events. The method assembles modules, consisting of parameters and constraints appropriate to each event, sequentially according to the given mission structure. The other new technology is for a robust initial guess generator required by the inner-loop NLP problem solver. Two new methods were developed for cases including low-thrust trajectories. The first method, based on GA

  10. Ultrafast Electron Microscopes: Design Criteria, Electron Sources, and Column Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Joel A.

    Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy, and its picosecond/femtosecond subclass Ultrafast Electron Microscopy, is an emerging field in instrumentation science. It attempts to combine the nanoscale spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopes with the temporal resolution of modern ultrafast lasers. In this thesis, I present my contributions to this young field. These include a novel model for simulating the dynamics of ultrafast electron pulses in electron microscope systems, design criteria for constructing such a system, and theoretical and experimental groundwork geared towards selecting a useful photocathode for electron pulse generation. I also present the prototype ultrafast electron microscope system being built at UIC.

  11. On the engineering design for systematic integration of agent-orientation in industrial automation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liyong; Schüller, Andreas; Epple, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    In today's automation industry, agent-oriented development of system functionalities appears to have a great potential for increasing autonomy and flexibility of complex operations, while lowering the workload of users. In this paper, we present a reference model for the harmonious and systematical integration of agent-orientation in industrial automation. Considering compatibility with existing automation systems and best practice, this model combines advantages of function block technology, service orientation and native description methods from the automation standard IEC 61131-3. This approach can be applied as a guideline for the engineering design of future agent-oriented automation systems.

  12. An automated flow microfluorometer and cell sorter incorporating nuclear electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1983-02-01

    A computer-automated flow microfluorometer and cell sorter is under development for the Medical Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The device will be capable of analyzing and sorting samples of biological cells based on measurements of laser-induced fluorescence and cell volume. The system incorporates the laser optics and droplet generation mechanics of a standard Becton-Dickinson FACS II cell sorter. The capabilities of the FACS II device are being upgraded, chiefly in the areas of data display and recording and, to a lesser extent, on-line data analysis.

  13. Automated flow microfluorometer and cell sorter incorporating nuclear electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1982-10-01

    A computer-automated flow microfluorometer and cell sorter are under development for the Medical Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The device will be capable of analyzing and sorting samples of biological cells based on measurements of laser-induced fluorescence and cell volume. The system incorporates the laser optics and droplet generation mechanics of a standard Becton-Dickinson FACS II cell sorter. The capabilities of the FACS II device are being upgraded, chiefly in the areas of data display and recording and, to a lesser extent, on-line data analysis.

  14. Electronic aids to conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchard, Eugene E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented in viewgraph form are techniques to improve the conceptual design of complex systems. The paper discusses theory of design, flexible software tools for computer aided design, and methods for enhancing communication among design teams.

  15. Software Would Largely Automate Design of Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Jason C. H.; Negast, William J.

    2005-01-01

    Embedded Navigation Filter Automatic Designer (ENFAD) is a computer program being developed to automate the most difficult tasks in designing embedded software to implement a Kalman filter in a navigation system. The most difficult tasks are selection of error states of the filter and tuning of filter parameters, which are timeconsuming trial-and-error tasks that require expertise and rarely yield optimum results. An optimum selection of error states and filter parameters depends on navigation-sensor and vehicle characteristics, and on filter processing time. ENFAD would include a simulation module that would incorporate all possible error states with respect to a given set of vehicle and sensor characteristics. The first of two iterative optimization loops would vary the selection of error states until the best filter performance was achieved in Monte Carlo simulations. For a fixed selection of error states, the second loop would vary the filter parameter values until an optimal performance value was obtained. Design constraints would be satisfied in the optimization loops. Users would supply vehicle and sensor test data that would be used to refine digital models in ENFAD. Filter processing time and filter accuracy would be computed by ENFAD.

  16. Xyce parallel electronic simulator design.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Mei, Ting; Schiek, Richard Louis; Keiter, Eric Richard; Russo, Thomas V.

    2010-09-01

    This document is the Xyce Circuit Simulator developer guide. Xyce has been designed from the 'ground up' to be a SPICE-compatible, distributed memory parallel circuit simulator. While it is in many respects a research code, Xyce is intended to be a production simulator. As such, having software quality engineering (SQE) procedures in place to insure a high level of code quality and robustness are essential. Version control, issue tracking customer support, C++ style guildlines and the Xyce release process are all described. The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been under development at Sandia since 1999. Historically, Xyce has mostly been funded by ASC, the original focus of Xyce development has primarily been related to circuits for nuclear weapons. However, this has not been the only focus and it is expected that the project will diversify. Like many ASC projects, Xyce is a group development effort, which involves a number of researchers, engineers, scientists, mathmaticians and computer scientists. In addition to diversity of background, it is to be expected on long term projects for there to be a certain amount of staff turnover, as people move on to different projects. As a result, it is very important that the project maintain high software quality standards. The point of this document is to formally document a number of the software quality practices followed by the Xyce team in one place. Also, it is hoped that this document will be a good source of information for new developers.

  17. Design of a new automated multi-step outflow test apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, J.; Gribb, M. M.; McNamara, J. P.

    2006-12-01

    Modeling flow and transport in the vadose zone requires knowledge of the soil hydraulic properties. Laboratories studies involving vadose zone soils typically include use of the multistep outflow method (MSO), which can provide information about wetting and drying soil-moisture and hydraulic conductivity curves from a single test. However, manual MSO testing is time consuming and measurement errors can be easily introduced. A computer-automated system has been designed to allow convenient measurement of soil-water characteristic curves. Computer-controlled solenoid valves are used to regulate the pressure inside Tempe cells to drain soil samples, and outflow volumes are measured with a pressure transducer. The electronic components of the system are controlled using LabVIEW software. This system has been optimized for undisturbed core samples. System performance has been evaluated by comparing results from undisturbed samples subjected first to manual MSO testing and then automated testing. The automated and manual MSO tests yielded similar drying soil-water characteristic curves. These curves are further compared to in-situ measurements and those obtained using pedotransfer functions for a semi-arid watershed.

  18. Design and implementation of an automated email notification system for results of tests pending at discharge.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Anuj K; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Poon, Eric G; Williams, Deborah H; Rossi-Roh, Kathleen; Macleay, Allison; Liang, Catherine L; Nolido, Nyryan; Budris, Jonas; Bates, David W; Roy, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    Physicians are often unaware of the results of tests pending at discharge (TPADs). The authors designed and implemented an automated system to notify the responsible inpatient physician of the finalized results of TPADs using secure, network email. The system coordinates a series of electronic events triggered by the discharge time stamp and sends an email to the identified discharging attending physician once finalized results are available. A carbon copy is sent to the primary care physicians in order to facilitate communication and the subsequent transfer of responsibility. Logic was incorporated to suppress selected tests and to limit notification volume. The system was activated for patients with TPADs discharged by randomly selected inpatient-attending physicians during a 6-month pilot. They received approximately 1.6 email notifications per discharged patient with TPADs. Eighty-four per cent of inpatient-attending physicians receiving automated email notifications stated that they were satisfied with the system in a brief survey (59% survey response rate). Automated email notification is a useful strategy for managing results of TPADs.

  19. Automated telephone reminder messages can assist electronic diabetes care.

    PubMed

    Mollon, Brent; Holbrook, Anne M; Keshavjee, Karim; Troyan, Sue; Gaebel, Kathryn; Thabane, Lehana; Perera, Gihan

    2008-01-01

    Telephone reminder systems have been used to assist in the treatment of many chronic diseases. However, it is unclear if these systems can increase medication and appointment adherence in patients with diabetes without direct patient-provider telephone contact. We tested the feasibility of using an automated telephone reminder system (ATRS) to deliver reminder messages to 253 adults with diabetes enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Eighty-four percent of the patients were able to register using voice recognition and at least one reminder was delivered to 95% of registered patients over a period of 7.5 months. None of the demographic features studied predicted a patient's ability to enroll or to receive reminder calls. At the end of the study, 63% of patients indicated that they wished to continue to receive ATRS calls. The level of system use as determined by the number of received reminder calls was not associated with a change in the number of physician visits or diabetes-related laboratory tests during follow-up. The clinical benefits and sustainability of ATRS remain unproven, but our results indicate that an automated reminder system can be effective for providing messages to a large group of older patients with diabetes.

  20. A Survey of Multimedia Developers Concerning the Use of Automated Instructional Design Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshinskie, James F.

    1998-01-01

    This survey questioned instructional designers about the increasing use of automated instructional design software to develop computer-based training (CBT). While these automated tools compact the complicated production process, educators complain that the resulting software often presents lock-stepped, linear instruction that neglects the…

  1. Designing effective human-automation-plant interfaces: a control-theoretic perspective.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Greg A; Vicente, Kim J

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we propose the application of a control-theoretic framework to human-automation interaction. The framework consists of a set of conceptual distinctions that should be respected in automation research and design. We demonstrate how existing automation interface designs in some nuclear plants fail to recognize these distinctions. We further show the value of the approach by applying it to modes of automation. The design guidelines that have been proposed in the automation literature are evaluated from the perspective of the framework. This comparison shows that the framework reveals insights that are frequently overlooked in this literature. A new set of design guidelines is introduced that builds upon the contributions of previous research and draws complementary insights from the control-theoretic framework. The result is a coherent and systematic approach to the design of human-automation-plant interfaces that will yield more concrete design criteria and a broader set of design tools. Applications of this research include improving the effectiveness of human-automation interaction design and the relevance of human-automation interaction research.

  2. Automated adverse event detection collaborative: electronic adverse event identification, classification, and corrective actions across academic pediatric institutions.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, David C; Kirkendall, Eric; Muething, Stephen E; Kloppenborg, Elizabeth; Vinodrao, Hima; Jacobs, Brian R

    2013-12-01

    Historically, the gold standard for detecting medical errors has been the voluntary incident reporting system. Voluntary reporting rates significantly underestimate the number of actual adverse events in any given organization. The electronic health record (EHR) contains clinical and administrative data that may indicate the occurrence of an adverse event and can be used to detect adverse events that may otherwise remain unrecognized. Automated adverse event detection has been shown to be efficient and cost effective in the hospital setting. The Automated Adverse Event Detection Collaborative (AAEDC) is a group of academic pediatric organizations working to identify optimal electronic methods of adverse event detection. The Collaborative seeks to aggregate and analyze data around adverse events as well as identify and share specific intervention strategies to reduce the rate of such events, ultimately to deliver higher quality and safer care. The objective of this study is to describe the process of automated adverse event detection, report early results from the Collaborative, identify commonalities and notable differences between 2 organizations, and suggest future directions for the Collaborative. In this retrospective observational study, the implementation and use of an automated adverse event detection system was compared between 2 academic children's hospital participants in the AAEDC, Children's National Medical Center, and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Both organizations use the EHR to identify potential adverse events as designated by specific electronic data triggers. After gathering the electronic data, a clinical investigator at each hospital manually examined the patient record to determine whether an adverse event had occurred, whether the event was preventable, and the level of harm involved. The Automated Adverse Event Detection Collaborative data from the 2 organizations between July 2006 and October 2010 were analyzed. Adverse

  3. The automated design of materials far from equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskin, Marc Z.

    Automated design is emerging as a powerful concept in materials science. By combining computer algorithms, simulations, and experimental data, new techniques are being developed that start with high level functional requirements and identify the ideal materials that achieve them. This represents a radically different picture of how materials become functional in which technological demand drives material discovery, rather than the other way around. At the frontiers of this field, materials systems previously considered too complicated can start to be controlled and understood. Particularly promising are materials far from equilibrium. Material robustness, high strength, self-healing and memory are properties displayed by several materials systems that are intrinsically out of equilibrium. These and other properties could be revolutionary, provided they can first be controlled. This thesis conceptualizes and implements a framework for designing materials that are far from equilibrium. We show how, even in the absence of a complete physical theory, design from the top down is possible and lends itself to producing physical insight. As a prototype system, we work with granular materials: collections of athermal, macroscopic identical objects, since these materials function both as an essential component of industrial processes as well as a model system for many non-equilibrium states of matter. We show that by placing granular materials in the context of design, benefits emerge simultaneously for fundamental and applied interests. As first steps, we use our framework to design granular aggregates with extreme properties like high stiffness, and softness. We demonstrate control over nonlinear effects by producing exotic aggregates that stiffen under compression. Expanding on our framework, we conceptualize new ways of thinking about material design when automatic discovery is possible. We show how to build rules that link particle shapes to arbitrary granular packing

  4. Design of a miniaturized solid state laser for automated assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funck, Max C.; Dolkemeyer, Jan; Morasch, Valentin; Loosen, Peter

    2010-05-01

    A miniaturized solid state laser for marking applications has been developed featuring novel assembly strategies to reduce size, cost and assembly effort. Design and setup have been laid out with future automation of the assembly in mind. Using a high precision robot the optical components composing the laser system are directly placed on a planar substrate providing accurate positioning and alignment within a few microns. No adjustable mounts for mirrors and lenses are necessary, greatly simplifying the setup. Consisting of either a ND:YAG or a Nd:YVO4 crystal pumped with a fiber coupled diode laser, a q-switch for pulse generation and a beam expander the entire assembly is confined in a 100ml space and delivers 4 W of continuous output power at 1.064 μm with an efficiency greater than 40%. Pulse lengths of 10-20 ns and repetition rates of up to 150 kHz have been obtained with an acousto-optic modulator. In addition, a custom designed electro-optic modulator with integrated high voltage switch has been realized. A supply unit for the entire system, including scanner and water cooling, is integrated in a 19" industrial chassis and can be operated via a graphical user interface on a standard personal computer.

  5. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  6. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  7. Designing Automated Guidance for Concept Diagrams in Inquiry Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryoo, Kihyun; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in automated scoring technologies have the potential to support student learning during inquiry instruction by providing timely and adaptive guidance on individual students' responses. To identify which forms of automated guidance can be beneficial for inquiry learning, we compared reflective guidance to directive guidance for…

  8. Designing Automated Guidance for Concept Diagrams in Inquiry Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryoo, Kihyun; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in automated scoring technologies have the potential to support student learning during inquiry instruction by providing timely and adaptive guidance on individual students' responses. To identify which forms of automated guidance can be beneficial for inquiry learning, we compared reflective guidance to directive guidance for…

  9. Automated electronic activity measurement for detection of estrus in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Spahr, S L

    1993-10-01

    Two trials were conducted to characterize the performance of an automated electronic activity tag system as an aid for detection of estrus in dairy cattle. In trial 1, activity tags were attached to the rear leg of 24 cows at approximately 35 d postpartum and remained attached until pregnancy. Data collection included 66 periods of predicted estrus (cyclic periods of 18 to 24 d prior to the date of pregnancy). A summary of the data recorded in the activity tags was transmitted telemetrically to a personal computer at each milking via stationary antenna in the milking parlor. An electronic flag used an increased activity ratio to determine the ratio of activity in a test period of the previous 12 h to activity in the same 12 h during the 2 d previous to the test period, thus indicating estrus. Activity patterns were characterized from data recorded on the tags at 2-h intervals. The tag detected 74% of predicted periods of estrus versus 58% reported by herders. An increased activity ratio for at least 4 consecutive h reduced false-positive designations. In trial 2, activity tags were attached to front and rear legs on five cows, and activity patterns from the two sites were compared for 2 mo. Patterns of activity were similar from tags attached at either site, and the sites were not different in their discrimination between periods in which estrus did or did not occur. The activity tag system was an effective practical tool to detect estrus.

  10. Design and implementation of a medication reconciliation kiosk: the Automated Patient History Intake Device (APHID).

    PubMed

    Lesselroth, Blake J; Felder, Robert S; Adams, Shawn M; Cauthers, Phillip D; Dorr, David A; Wong, Gordon J; Douglas, David M

    2009-01-01

    Errors associated with medication documentation account for a substantial fraction of preventable medical errors. Hence, the Joint Commission has called for the adoption of reconciliation strategies at all United States healthcare institutions. Although studies suggest that reconciliation tools can reduce errors, it remains unclear how best to implement systems and processes that are reliable and sensitive to clinical workflow. The authors designed a primary care process that supported reconciliation without compromising clinic efficiency. This manuscript describes the design and implementation of Automated Patient History Intake Device (APHID): ambulatory check-in kiosks that allow patients to review the names, dosage, frequency, and pictures of their medications before their appointment. Medication lists are retrieved from the electronic health record and patient updates are captured and reviewed by providers during the clinic session. Results from the roll-in phase indicate the device is easy for patients to use and integrates well with clinic workflow.

  11. Design and Implementation of a Medication Reconciliation Kiosk: the Automated Patient History Intake Device (APHID)

    PubMed Central

    Lesselroth, Blake J.; Felder, Robert S.; Adams, Shawn M.; Cauthers, Phillip D.; Dorr, David A.; Wong, Gordon J.; Douglas, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Errors associated with medication documentation account for a substantial fraction of preventable medical errors. Hence, the Joint Commission has called for the adoption of reconciliation strategies at all United States healthcare institutions. Although studies suggest that reconciliation tools can reduce errors, it remains unclear how best to implement systems and processes that are reliable and sensitive to clinical workflow. The authors designed a primary care process that supported reconciliation without compromising clinic efficiency. This manuscript describes the design and implementation of Automated Patient History Intake Device (APHID): ambulatory check-in kiosks that allow patients to review the names, dosage, frequency, and pictures of their medications before their appointment. Medication lists are retrieved from the electronic health record and patient updates are captured and reviewed by providers during the clinic session. Results from the roll-in phase indicate the device is easy for patients to use and integrates well with clinic workflow. PMID:19261949

  12. Matters concerned with designing distributed systems for automated control of electrical equipment at power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorozhankin, P. A.; Krasnova, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    Matters concerned with developing the working designs of systems for automated control of electrical equipment are discussed. Basic technical requirements for computerized automation facilities are formulated from the viewpoint of ensuring the required scope of functions and fault tolerance, and proposals for the layout and placement of these facilities are suggested. A special section devoted to protection of automated process control systems from computer viruses is given.

  13. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  14. Characterizing individual particles on tree leaves using computer automated scanning electron microscopy

    Treesearch

    D. L. Johnson; D. J. Nowak; V. A. Jouraeva

    1999-01-01

    Leaves from twenty-three deciduous tree species and five conifer species were collected within a limited geographic range (1 km radius) and evaluated for possible application of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis techniques of individual particle analysis (IPA). The goal was to identify tree species with leaves suitable for the automated...

  15. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  16. A Multidisciplinary PBL Robot Control Project in Automation and Electronic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Houcine; Domínguez, Carlos; Martínez, Juan-Miguel; Perles, Angel; Capella, Juan-Vicente; Albaladejo, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) project consisting of the development of a robot arm prototype and the implementation of its control system. The project is carried out as part of Industrial Informatics (II), a compulsory third-year course in the Automation and Electronic Engineering (AEE) degree program at the…

  17. Which image parameter(s) for the automation of the electron microscope?

    PubMed

    Bonnet, N; Zinzindohoue, P

    1989-03-01

    Experiments on automating the transmission electron microscope rely on the search for minimum variance. This image parameter gives satisfactory results for automatic focusing, astigmatism correction, and beam alignment. We investigate here the different image descriptors that might also be used; we conclude that texture parameters, which are directional, would be better candidates correcting astigmatism and beam tilt.

  18. 21 CFR 111.30 - What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment? 111.30 Section 111.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...

  19. 21 CFR 111.30 - What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment? 111.30 Section 111.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...

  20. Automated Design of Noise-Minimal, Safe Rotorcraft Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert A.; Venable, K. Brent; Lindsay, James

    2012-01-01

    NASA and the international community are investing in the development of a commercial transportation infrastructure that includes the increased use of rotorcraft, specifically helicopters and aircraft such as a 40-passenger civil tilt rotors. Rotorcraft have a number of advantages over fixed wing aircraft, primarily in not requiring direct access to the primary fixed wing runways. As such they can operate at an airport without directly interfering with major air carrier and commuter aircraft operations. However, there is significant concern over the impact of noise on the communities surrounding the transportation facilities. In this paper we propose to address the rotorcraft noise problem by exploiting powerful search techniques coming from artificial intelligence, coupled with simulation and field tests, to design trajectories that are expected to improve on the amount of ground noise generated. This paper investigates the use of simulation based on predictive physical models to facilitate the search for low-noise trajectories using a class of automated search algorithms called local search. A novel feature of this approach is the ability to incorporate constraints into the problem formulation that addresses passenger safety and comfort.

  1. Preface to the special section on human factors and automation in vehicles: designing highly automated vehicles with the driver in mind.

    PubMed

    Merat, Natasha; Lee, John D

    2012-10-01

    This special section brings together diverse research regarding driver interaction with advanced automotive technology to guide design of increasingly automated vehicles. Rapidly evolving vehicle automation will likely change cars and trucks more in the next 5 years than the preceding 50, radically redefining what it means to drive. This special section includes 10 articles from European and North American researchers reporting simulator and naturalistic driving studies. Little research has considered the consequences of fully automated driving, with most focusing on lane-keeping and speed control systems individually. The studies reveal two underlying design philosophies: automate driving versus support driving. Results of several studies, consistent with previous research in other domains, suggest that the automate philosophy can delay driver responses to incidents in which the driver has to intervene and take control from the automation. Understanding how to orchestrate the transfer or sharing of control between the system and the driver, particularly in critical incidents, emerges as a central challenge. Designers should not assume that automation can substitute seamlessly for a human driver, nor can they assume that the driver can safely accommodate the limitations of automation. Designers, policy makers, and researchers must give careful consideration to what role the person should have in highly automated vehicles and how to support the driver if the driver is to be responsible for vehicle control. As in other domains, driving safety increasingly depends on the combined performance of the human and automation, and successful designs will depend on recognizing and supporting the new roles of the driver.

  2. Designing Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip; Banerji, Ashok

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the basic nature of performance support and describes a generic model that can be used to facilitate electronic performance support system (EPSS) development. Performance measures are discussed; performance support guidelines are summarized; and a case study of the use of an EPSS is presented. (LRW)

  3. Electronics Shielding and Reliability Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; ONeill, P. M.; Zang, Thomas A., Jr.; Pandolf, John E.; Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, P.; Reddell, B.; Pankop, C.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that electronics placement in large-scale human-rated systems provides opportunity to optimize electronics shielding through materials choice and geometric arrangement. For example, several hundred single event upsets (SEUs) occur within the Shuttle avionic computers during a typical mission. An order of magnitude larger SEU rate would occur without careful placement in the Shuttle design. These results used basic physics models (linear energy transfer (LET), track structure, Auger recombination) combined with limited SEU cross section measurements allowing accurate evaluation of target fragment contributions to Shuttle avionics memory upsets. Electronics shielding design on human-rated systems provides opportunity to minimize radiation impact on critical and non-critical electronic systems. Implementation of shielding design tools requires adequate methods for evaluation of design layouts, guiding qualification testing, and an adequate follow-up on final design evaluation including results from a systems/device testing program tailored to meet design requirements.

  4. Preparing Electronic Clinical Data for Quality Improvement and Comparative Effectiveness Research: The SCOAP CERTAIN Automation and Validation Project

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Emily Beth; Capurro, Daniel; van Eaton, Erik; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Devlin, Allison; Yanez, N. David; Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha; Flum, David R.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background: The field of clinical research informatics includes creation of clinical data repositories (CDRs) used to conduct quality improvement (QI) activities and comparative effectiveness research (CER). Ideally, CDR data are accurately and directly abstracted from disparate electronic health records (EHRs), across diverse health-systems. Objective: Investigators from Washington State’s Surgical Care Outcomes and Assessment Program (SCOAP) Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN) are creating such a CDR. This manuscript describes the automation and validation methods used to create this digital infrastructure. Methods: SCOAP is a QI benchmarking initiative. Data are manually abstracted from EHRs and entered into a data management system. CERTAIN investigators are now deploying Caradigm’s Amalga™ tool to facilitate automated abstraction of data from multiple, disparate EHRs. Concordance is calculated to compare data automatically to manually abstracted. Performance measures are calculated between Amalga and each parent EHR. Validation takes place in repeated loops, with improvements made over time. When automated abstraction reaches the current benchmark for abstraction accuracy - 95% - itwill ‘go-live’ at each site. Progress to Date: A technical analysis was completed at 14 sites. Five sites are contributing; the remaining sites prioritized meeting Meaningful Use criteria. Participating sites are contributing 15–18 unique data feeds, totaling 13 surgical registry use cases. Common feeds are registration, laboratory, transcription/dictation, radiology, and medications. Approximately 50% of 1,320 designated data elements are being automatically abstracted—25% from structured data; 25% from text mining. Conclusion: In semi-automating data abstraction and conducting a rigorous validation, CERTAIN investigators will semi-automate data collection to conduct QI and CER, while advancing the Learning Healthcare System. PMID:25848565

  5. Preparing Electronic Clinical Data for Quality Improvement and Comparative Effectiveness Research: The SCOAP CERTAIN Automation and Validation Project.

    PubMed

    Devine, Emily Beth; Capurro, Daniel; van Eaton, Erik; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Devlin, Allison; Yanez, N David; Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha; Flum, David R; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The field of clinical research informatics includes creation of clinical data repositories (CDRs) used to conduct quality improvement (QI) activities and comparative effectiveness research (CER). Ideally, CDR data are accurately and directly abstracted from disparate electronic health records (EHRs), across diverse health-systems. Investigators from Washington State's Surgical Care Outcomes and Assessment Program (SCOAP) Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN) are creating such a CDR. This manuscript describes the automation and validation methods used to create this digital infrastructure. SCOAP is a QI benchmarking initiative. Data are manually abstracted from EHRs and entered into a data management system. CERTAIN investigators are now deploying Caradigm's Amalga™ tool to facilitate automated abstraction of data from multiple, disparate EHRs. Concordance is calculated to compare data automatically to manually abstracted. Performance measures are calculated between Amalga and each parent EHR. Validation takes place in repeated loops, with improvements made over time. When automated abstraction reaches the current benchmark for abstraction accuracy - 95% - itwill 'go-live' at each site. A technical analysis was completed at 14 sites. Five sites are contributing; the remaining sites prioritized meeting Meaningful Use criteria. Participating sites are contributing 15-18 unique data feeds, totaling 13 surgical registry use cases. Common feeds are registration, laboratory, transcription/dictation, radiology, and medications. Approximately 50% of 1,320 designated data elements are being automatically abstracted-25% from structured data; 25% from text mining. In semi-automating data abstraction and conducting a rigorous validation, CERTAIN investigators will semi-automate data collection to conduct QI and CER, while advancing the Learning Healthcare System.

  6. Automated design synthesis of robotic/human workcells for improved manufacturing system design in hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Joshua M.

    2012-06-12

    Manufacturing tasks that are deemed too hazardous for workers require the use of automation, robotics, and/or other remote handling tools. The associated hazards may be radiological or nonradiological, and based on the characteristics of the environment and processing, a design may necessitate robotic labor, human labor, or both. There are also other factors such as cost, ergonomics, maintenance, and efficiency that also effect task allocation and other design choices. Handling the tradeoffs of these factors can be complex, and lack of experience can be an issue when trying to determine if and what feasible automation/robotics options exist. To address this problem, we utilize common engineering design approaches adapted more for manufacturing system design in hazardous environments. We limit our scope to the conceptual and embodiment design stages, specifically a computational algorithm for concept generation and early design evaluation. In regard to concept generation, we first develop the functional model or function structure for the process, using the common 'verb-noun' format for describing function. A common language or functional basis for manufacturing was developed and utilized to formalize function descriptions and guide rules for function decomposition. Potential components for embodiment are also grouped in terms of this functional language and are stored in a database. The properties of each component are given as quantitative and qualitative criteria. Operators are also rated for task-relevant criteria which are used to address task compatibility. Through the gathering of process requirements/constraints, construction of the component database, and development of the manufacturing basis and rule set, design knowledge is stored and available for computer use. Thus, once the higher level process functions are defined, the computer can automate the synthesis of new design concepts through alternating steps of embodiment and function structure updates

  7. Automated Detection of Sepsis Using Electronic Medical Record Data: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Despins, Laurel A

    2016-09-13

    Severe sepsis and septic shock are global issues with high mortality rates. Early recognition and intervention are essential to optimize patient outcomes. Automated detection using electronic medical record (EMR) data can assist this process. This review describes automated sepsis detection using EMR data. PubMed retrieved publications between January 1, 2005 and January 31, 2015. Thirteen studies met study criteria: described an automated detection approach with the potential to detect sepsis or sepsis-related deterioration in real or near-real time; focused on emergency department and hospitalized neonatal, pediatric, or adult patients; and provided performance measures or results indicating the impact of automated sepsis detection. Detection algorithms incorporated systemic inflammatory response and organ dysfunction criteria. Systems in nine studies generated study or care team alerts. Care team alerts did not consistently lead to earlier interventions. Earlier interventions did not consistently translate to improved patient outcomes. Performance measures were inconsistent. Automated sepsis detection is potentially a means to enable early sepsis-related therapy but current performance variability highlights the need for further research.

  8. Automated stitching of microtubule centerlines across serial electron tomograms.

    PubMed

    Weber, Britta; Tranfield, Erin M; Höög, Johanna L; Baum, Daniel; Antony, Claude; Hyman, Tony; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Prohaska, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Tracing microtubule centerlines in serial section electron tomography requires microtubules to be stitched across sections, that is lines from different sections need to be aligned, endpoints need to be matched at section boundaries to establish a correspondence between neighboring sections, and corresponding lines need to be connected across multiple sections. We present computational methods for these tasks: 1) An initial alignment is computed using a distance compatibility graph. 2) A fine alignment is then computed with a probabilistic variant of the iterative closest points algorithm, which we extended to handle the orientation of lines by introducing a periodic random variable to the probabilistic formulation. 3) Endpoint correspondence is established by formulating a matching problem in terms of a Markov random field and computing the best matching with belief propagation. Belief propagation is not generally guaranteed to converge to a minimum. We show how convergence can be achieved, nonetheless, with minimal manual input. In addition to stitching microtubule centerlines, the correspondence is also applied to transform and merge the electron tomograms. We applied the proposed methods to samples from the mitotic spindle in C. elegans, the meiotic spindle in X. laevis, and sub-pellicular microtubule arrays in T. brucei. The methods were able to stitch microtubules across section boundaries in good agreement with experts' opinions for the spindle samples. Results, however, were not satisfactory for the microtubule arrays. For certain experiments, such as an analysis of the spindle, the proposed methods can replace manual expert tracing and thus enable the analysis of microtubules over long distances with reasonable manual effort.

  9. Automated Stitching of Microtubule Centerlines across Serial Electron Tomograms

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Britta; Tranfield, Erin M.; Höög, Johanna L.; Baum, Daniel; Antony, Claude; Hyman, Tony; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Prohaska, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Tracing microtubule centerlines in serial section electron tomography requires microtubules to be stitched across sections, that is lines from different sections need to be aligned, endpoints need to be matched at section boundaries to establish a correspondence between neighboring sections, and corresponding lines need to be connected across multiple sections. We present computational methods for these tasks: 1) An initial alignment is computed using a distance compatibility graph. 2) A fine alignment is then computed with a probabilistic variant of the iterative closest points algorithm, which we extended to handle the orientation of lines by introducing a periodic random variable to the probabilistic formulation. 3) Endpoint correspondence is established by formulating a matching problem in terms of a Markov random field and computing the best matching with belief propagation. Belief propagation is not generally guaranteed to converge to a minimum. We show how convergence can be achieved, nonetheless, with minimal manual input. In addition to stitching microtubule centerlines, the correspondence is also applied to transform and merge the electron tomograms. We applied the proposed methods to samples from the mitotic spindle in C. elegans, the meiotic spindle in X. laevis, and sub-pellicular microtubule arrays in T. brucei. The methods were able to stitch microtubules across section boundaries in good agreement with experts' opinions for the spindle samples. Results, however, were not satisfactory for the microtubule arrays. For certain experiments, such as an analysis of the spindle, the proposed methods can replace manual expert tracing and thus enable the analysis of microtubules over long distances with reasonable manual effort. PMID:25438148

  10. Laser Opto-Electronic Correlator for Robotic Vision Automated Pattern Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville

    1995-01-01

    A compact laser opto-electronic correlator for pattern recognition has been designed, fabricated, and tested. Specifically it is a translation sensitivity adjustable compact optical correlator (TSACOC) utilizing convergent laser beams for the holographic filter. Its properties and performance, including the location of the correlation peak and the effects of lateral and longitudinal displacements for both filters and input images, are systematically analyzed based on the nonparaxial approximation for the reference beam. The theoretical analyses have been verified in experiments. In applying the TSACOC to important practical problems including fingerprint identification, we have found that the tolerance of the system to the input lateral displacement can be conveniently increased by changing a geometric factor of the system. The system can be compactly packaged using the miniature laser diode sources and can be used in space by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and ground commercial applications which include robotic vision, and industrial inspection of automated quality control operations. The personnel of Standard International will work closely with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to transfer the technology to the commercial market. Prototype systems will be fabricated to test the market and perfect the product. Large production will follow after successful results are achieved.

  11. Automated systems for creative processes in scientific research, design, and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, V.M.; Stognii, A.A.; Biba, I.G.; Vashchenko, N.D.; Galagan, N.I.; Gladun, V.P.; Rabinovich, Z.L.; Sakunov, I.A.; Khomenko, L.V.

    1981-11-01

    The authors give a general description of software that was developed to automate the creative processes in scientific research, design and robotics. The systems APROS, SSP, Analizator-ES and Analizator are discussed. 12 references.

  12. A Novel Approach for Automated Analysis of Cell Attachment and Spreading Based on Backscattered Electron Imaging by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Peter, Leonora; Zöllner, Susan; Dörge, Thomas; Daffertshofer, Martin; Preckel, Hartwig; Schmitt, Daniel; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    The development of new materials for biological application requires in vitro testing of cell/surface interactions. Cell adhesion and spreading are difficult to quantify as most materials are non-transparent and transmission microscopy cannot be used. Contrast in reflection microscopy is rather poor. We propose an alternative method for the automated screening of cell attachment and spreading using backscattered electron imaging of scanning electron microscopy. The enhanced cell contrast permits study of cell/material interactions by little differences between cells and material.

  13. Design and Implementation of an Open, Interoperable AutomatedDemand Response Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes the concept for and lessons from the development and field-testing of an open, interoperable communications infrastructure to support automating demand response (DR). Automating DR allows greater levels of participation and improved reliability and repeatability of the demand response and customer facilities. Automated DR systems have been deployed for critical peak pricing and demand bidding and are being designed for real time pricing. The system is designed to generate, manage, and track DR signals between utilities and Independent System Operators (ISOs) to aggregators and end-use customers and their control systems.

  14. [Design of an electronic leech].

    PubMed

    Lomelí-Mejía, Pedro Alejandro; Domínguez-Rubio, René; Espinosa-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Lecona-Butrón, Hugo; Rodríguez-Reyna, Reynaldo Manuel

    2014-07-01

    This research presents the development of a continual suction electromechanical device (CSED) which emulates the feeding characteristics of a medicinal leech to drain body fluids. After the research, design and building of the device, its performance in normal conditions with fluids of different viscosity was evaluated. Finally, the device was submitted to a test of blood draining in three adult male rabbits NZW with a weight of three kilograms, obtaining drain.

  15. Author Support for the Design of Automated Medical Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Maccabe, A.B.; Underwood, W.E.; Brunjes, Shannon

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype system that provides interactive author support for an automated medical interviewing system. An on-line users manual enables health care professionals to use the system without prior knowledge or experience. The approach taken was to make the author support programs interviews in the underlying interviewing system.

  16. Design and Development of an Automated Demodulator Calibration Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    demodulator board, and versatility for future modifications and bread -boarding. Several validation tests were conducted to verify the hardware and...calibration station. Important conclusions from such tests help to mold the characteristics of the automated calibration station. By studying the

  17. Economics of automation for the design-to-mask interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erck, Wesley

    2009-04-01

    Mask order automation has increased steadily over the years through a variety of individual mask customer implementations. These have been supported by customer-specific software at the mask suppliers to support the variety of customer output formats. Some customers use the SEMI P10 1 standard, some use supplier-specific formats, and some use customer-specific formats. Some customers use little automation and depend instead on close customer-supplier relationships. Implementations are varied in quality and effectiveness. A major factor which has prolonged the adoption of more advanced and effective solutions has been a lack of understanding of the economic benefits. Some customers think standardized automation mainly benefits the mask supplier in order entry automation, but this ignores a number of other significant benefits which differ dramatically for each party in the supply chain. This paper discusses the nature of those differing advantages and presents simple models suited to four business cases: integrated device manufacturers (IDM), fabless companies, foundries and mask suppliers. Examples and estimates of the financial advantages for these business types will be shown.

  18. Automated Monte Carlo biasing for photon-generated electrons near surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, Brian Claude; Crawford, Martin James; Kensek, Ronald Patrick

    2009-09-01

    This report describes efforts to automate the biasing of coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo particle transport calculations. The approach was based on weight-windows biasing. Weight-window settings were determined using adjoint-flux Monte Carlo calculations. A variety of algorithms were investigated for adaptivity of the Monte Carlo tallies. Tree data structures were used to investigate spatial partitioning. Functional-expansion tallies were used to investigate higher-order spatial representations.

  19. Automated and electronically assisted hand hygiene monitoring systems: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ward, Melissa A; Schweizer, Marin L; Polgreen, Philip M; Gupta, Kalpana; Reisinger, Heather S; Perencevich, Eli N

    2014-05-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the most effective ways to prevent transmission of health care-associated infections. Electronic systems and tools are being developed to enhance hand hygiene compliance monitoring. Our systematic review assesses the existing evidence surrounding the adoption and accuracy of automated systems or electronically enhanced direct observations and also reviews the effectiveness of such systems in health care settings. We systematically reviewed PubMed for articles published between January 1, 2000, and March 31, 2013, containing the terms hand AND hygiene or hand AND disinfection or handwashing. Resulting articles were reviewed to determine if an electronic system was used. We identified 42 articles for inclusion. Four types of systems were identified: electronically assisted/enhanced direct observation, video-monitored direct observation systems, electronic dispenser counters, and automated hand hygiene monitoring networks. Fewer than 20% of articles identified included calculations for efficiency or accuracy. Limited data are currently available to recommend adoption of specific automatic or electronically assisted hand hygiene surveillance systems. Future studies should be undertaken that assess the accuracy, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of such systems. Given the restricted clinical and infection prevention budgets of most facilities, cost-effectiveness analysis of specific systems will be required before these systems are widely adopted. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  20. Tevatron Electron Lenses: Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Bishofberger, Kip; Kamerdzhiev, Vsevolod; Kozub, Sergei; Kufer, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Gennady; Martinez, Alexander; Olson, Marvin; Pfeffer, Howard; Saewert, Greg; Scarpine, Vic; /Fermilab /SLAC /Fermilab /Serpukhov, IHEP /Novosibirsk, IYF /Serpukhov, IHEP /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    The beam-beam effects have been the dominating sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider [1]. Electron lenses were originally proposed for compensation of electromagnetic long-range and head-on beam-beam interactions of proton and antiproton beams [2]. Results of successful employment of two electron lenses built and installed in the Tevatron are reported in [3,4,5]. In this paper we present design features of the Tevatron electron lenses (TELs), discuss the generation of electron beams, describe different modes of operation and outline the technical parameters of various subsystems.

  1. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  2. The Application of a General Purpose Data Base Management System to Design Automation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    unrelated to the computer industry. One instance of a CAD system is the Structured Computer Aided Logic Design (SCALD) system, developed out of Lawrence... Structured Computer Aided Logic Design", 15th Design Automation Conference Proceedings, 1978, Las Vegas, Nevada. 3. Sherlock, Barbara J., User

  3. Engineering Design Handbook: Reliable Military Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-15

    p. 30. CBS-Hytron: "I..ow-o::stPower Trall8istors," E1a::Drnic Design, 1 Nov. 1956, p. 24. Chang, C. M.: "An NPN High-Power Fast Germanium Col:e...34Monovibrator Has Fast Recovery Time," Electronics, Dec. 1957, p. 158. Carlson, A W. : "Junction Transistor Counters," EledronicDesign, 1 March 1957, p. 28...Method Makes Fast Pulses in Transistor Circuits," Electronic Design, 28 May 1958, p. 44. Stassior, R. A : "Pulse Applications cf a Diffused-Meltback

  4. Data base systems in electronic design engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D.

    1980-01-01

    The concepts of an integrated design data base system (DBMS) as it might apply to an electronic design company are discussed. Data elements of documentation, project specifications, project tracking, firmware, software, electronic and mechanical design can be integrated and managed through a single DBMS. Combining the attributes of a DBMS data handler with specialized systems and functional data can provide users with maximum flexibility, reduced redundancy, and increased overall systems performance. Although some system overhead is lost due to redundancy in transitory data, it is believed the combination of the two data types is advisable rather than trying to do all data handling through a single DBMS.

  5. Cryo automated electron tomography: towards high-resolution reconstructions of plastic-embedded structures.

    PubMed

    Braunfeld, M B; Koster, A J; Sedat, J W; Agard, D A

    1994-05-01

    The use of fully automated data collection methods for electron tomography allows a substantial reduction in beam dose. The goal has been to develop new protocols for data collection defining optimal approaches for maintaining data self-consistency and maximizing the useful resolution of the reconstruction. The effects of irradiation and post-cure microwaving were examined for a variety of embedding media (Epon, Epox, Lowicryl) in order to quantify beam damage with the goal of identifying the most beam stable embedding medium. Surprisingly, the substantial dose reduction made possible by automated data collection did not result in a significant decrease in specimen shrinkage even for samples stabilized by pre-irradiation. We believe that the accelerated shrinkage is a direct consequence of the stroboscopic illumination patterns inherent to automated data collection. Furthermore neither the choice of embedding resin nor microwave post-curing greatly affected shrinkage. Finally, cryogenic data collection was investigated as a means to minimize the effects of secondary radiation damage. Minimal pre-irradiation coupled with low-temperature automated data collection greatly reduces shrinkage and should result in high-quality data for three-dimensional reconstructions.

  6. Some Challenges in the Design of Human-Automation Interaction for Safety-Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael S.; Roth, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing amounts of automation are being introduced to safety-critical domains. While the introduction of automation has led to an overall increase in reliability and improved safety, it has also introduced a class of failure modes, and new challenges in risk assessment for the new systems, particularly in the assessment of rare events resulting from complex inter-related factors. Designing successful human-automation systems is challenging, and the challenges go beyond good interface development (e.g., Roth, Malin, & Schreckenghost 1997; Christoffersen & Woods, 2002). Human-automation design is particularly challenging when the underlying automation technology generates behavior that is difficult for the user to anticipate or understand. These challenges have been recognized in several safety-critical domains, and have resulted in increased efforts to develop training, procedures, regulations and guidance material (CAST, 2008, IAEA, 2001, FAA, 2013, ICAO, 2012). This paper points to the continuing need for new methods to describe and characterize the operational environment within which new automation concepts are being presented. We will describe challenges to the successful development and evaluation of human-automation systems in safety-critical domains, and describe some approaches that could be used to address these challenges. We will draw from experience with the aviation, spaceflight and nuclear power domains.

  7. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn

    2016-03-01

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning "on" and "off" of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  8. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn

    2016-03-09

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning “on” and “off” of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  9. Design for the automation of composite wind turbine blade manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcari, M. J.; White, K. D.; Sherwood, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    The majority of large wind turbine blades are manufactured from textile-reinforced resin-infused composites using an open mold. The placement of the textile reinforcements in the mold is traditionally accomplished by a manual process where dozens of workers hand place each dry fabric in the mold. Depending on the level of skill and experience of each worker and the relative complexity of the mold geometry, local areas may exhibit out-of-plane wrinkling and in-plane waviness. Fabric imperfections such as these can adversely impact the strength and stiffness of the blade, thereby compromising its durability in service. In an effort to reduce the variabilities associated with a manual-labor process, an automated piecewise shifting method has been proposed for fabric placement. This automated layup method saves time on the preform process and reduces variability from blade to blade. In the current research the automated shifting layup method is investigated using a robust and easy-to-use finite element modelling approach. User-defined material models utilizing a mesoscopic unit-cell modeling approach are linked with Abaqus to capture the evolution of the fabric shear stiffness and changes in the fiber orientations during the fabric-placement process. The simulation approach is demonstrated for the geometry of the trailing edge of a typical wind turbine blade. The simulation considers the mechanical behavior of the fabric and reliably predicts fabric deformation and failure zones.

  10. Design And Implementation Of A Hierarchical Automated Inspection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbox, Glenn H.; Gerhardt, Lester A.

    1990-02-01

    In order to provide a framework for the evaluation of, and need for, sensor information appropriate to real time manufacturing control, a workcell based on a 5-axis machining center was developed. This workcell defines a problem space within which automated inspection is to be applied. Primarily, we are interested in evaluating the use of machine vision and Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM's) as means to provide information to an automated workcell controller. This controller will use these sensing technologies in a hierarchical fashion exploiting the speed vs. accuracy tradeoff's characteristic of tactile and non-tactile coordinate acquisition. We have implemented an Octree solid modeling system which has the capabilities of model generation from the information provided by the vision system. In addition, the Octree method lends itself to simulating the actual manufacturing process. Our system reads the machine tool G-Codes generated by our CAD system and simulates the material removal operation by successively removing intersections between the tool and workpiece. This machined model is then used for automatic inspection sequence generation. This paper will describe the framework and architecture of our automated inspection system, as well as specifics relating to the Octree modeling system.

  11. Design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenic species in natural waters

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Grady; Fan, Tina K.; Kantor, Melanie; Clark, Keith; Cardenas, Steven; Guillaume, Darrell W.; Khachikian, Crist S.

    2009-01-01

    The design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] in natural waters is described. The instrument incorporates solenoid activated self-priming micropumps and electronic switching valves for controlling the fluidics of the system and a miniature charge-coupled device spectrometer operating in a graphical programming environment. The limits of detection were found to be 0.79 and 0.98 μM for As(III) and As(V), respectively, with linear range of 1–50 μM. Spiked ultrapure water samples were analyzed and recoveries were found to be 97%–101% for As(III) and 95%–99% for As(V), respectively. Future directions in terms of automation, optimization, and field deployment are discussed. PMID:19895074

  12. Real-time Automated Sampling of Electronic Medical Records Predicts Hospital Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Hargobind S.; Groves, Robert H.; Simons, Michael P.; Martin, Mary; Stoffer, Brenda; Kou, Sherri; Gerkin, Richard; Reiman, Eric; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2016-01-01

    Background Real-time automated continuous sampling of electronic medical record data may expeditiously identify patients at risk for death and enable prompt life-saving interventions. We hypothesized that a real-time electronic medical record-based alert could identify hospitalized patients at risk for mortality. Methods An automated alert was developed and implemented to continuously sample electronic medical record data and trigger when at least two of four systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria plus at least one of 14 acute organ dysfunction parameters was detected. The SIRS/OD alert was applied real-time to 312,214 patients in 24 hospitals and analyzed in two phases: training and validation datasets. Results In the training phase, 29,317 (18.8%) triggered the alert and 5.2% of such patients died whereas only 0.2% without the alert died (unadjusted odds ratio 30.1; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 26.1, 34.5; P<0.0001). In the validation phase, the sensitivity, specificity, area under curve (AUC), positive and negative likelihood ratios for predicting mortality were 0.86, 0.82, 0.84, 4.9, and 0.16, respectively. Multivariate Cox-proportional hazard regression model revealed greater hospital mortality when the alert was triggered (adjusted Hazards Ratio 4.0; 95%CI 3.3, 4.9; P<0.0001). Triggering the alert was associated with additional hospitalization days (+3.0 days) and ventilator days (+1.6 days; P<0.0001). Conclusion An automated alert system that continuously samples electronic medical record-data can be implemented, has excellent test characteristics, and can assist in the real-time identification of hospitalized patients at risk for death. PMID:27019043

  13. Design of Stretchable Electronics Against Impact.

    PubMed

    Yuan, J H; Pharr, M; Feng, X; Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-10-01

    Stretchable electronics offer soft, biocompatible mechanical properties; these same properties make them susceptible to device failure associated with physical impact. This paper studies designs for stretchable electronics that resist failure from impacts due to incorporation of a viscoelastic encapsulation layer. Results indicate that the impact resistance depends on the thickness and viscoelastic properties of the encapsulation layer, as well as the duration of impact. An analytic model for the critical thickness of the encapsulation layer is established. It is shown that a commercially available, low modulus silicone material offers viscous properties that make it a good candidate as the encapsulation layer for stretchable electronics.

  14. Design and implementation of Ada programs to facilitate automated testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Jack; Fox, Barry; Oropeza, Michael

    1991-01-01

    An automated method utilized to test the software components of COMPASS, an interactive computer aided scheduling system, is presented. Each package of this system introduces a private type, and works to construct instances of that type, along with read and write routines for that type. Generic procedures that can generate test drivers for these functions are given and show how the test drivers can read from a test data file the functions to call, the arguments for those functions, what the anticipated result should be, and whether an exception should be raised for the function given the arguments.

  15. Designing electron wave functions in assembled nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Christopher Ryan

    We use the scanning tunneling microscope to not only to map electron wave functions but also to engineer them. By assembling nanostructures from individual atoms and molecules, we confine two-dimensional electronic states into closed electron resonators, or "quantum corrals". Precise control over the geometry of these structures allows electronic states to be tailored to suit particular experiments. Specifically, we design wave functions that enable studies of normally inaccessible quantum phases. First, we create pairs of quantum corrals with shapes drawn from contemporary mathematics. Exploiting special topological relationships between these structures, we retrieve internal quantum phase of electron wave functions without using interferometry. Second, we demonstrate that adding a single atom to a quantum corral can cause its electronic states to recombine into coherent superpositions. The real-space position of the additional atom controls abstract superposition phase angles, enabling arbitrary time-independent superpositions to be created. Third, we study geometric phase by creating a series of quantum corrals that traverse a closed path through a parameter space. Tracking the corral wave functions reveals a phase shift depending solely on the path taken, directly visualizing Berry's phase evolution in a quantum system. Finally, we extend beyond closed electron resonators and engineer wave functions in open nanostructures. We show that arbitrary patterns can be encoded into electronic states, creating a new form of holography on the nanoscale. We exhibit letters written in electron density rather than with atomic matter, and show that multiple letters may be simultaneously embedded at different energies in the same region of space. Because the wavelength of the electrons diminishes as energy is increased, this technique allows local information densities that exceed the conventionally assumed limit of 1 bit per atom. Taken together, the results in this thesis

  16. Designs for a quantum electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Kruit, P; Hobbs, R G; Kim, C-S; Yang, Y; Manfrinato, V R; Hammer, J; Thomas, S; Weber, P; Klopfer, B; Kohstall, C; Juffmann, T; Kasevich, M A; Hommelhoff, P; Berggren, K K

    2016-05-01

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This 'quantum weirdness' could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or "quantum electron microscope". A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron beam-splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each electron to interrogate the specimen multiple times, thus supporting high success probabilities for interaction-free detection of the specimen. Different system designs are presented here, which are based on four different choices of two-state-couplers: a thin crystal, a grating mirror, a standing light wave and an electro-dynamical pseudopotential. Challenges for the detailed electron optical design are identified as future directions for development. While it is concluded that it should be possible to build an atomic resolution quantum electron microscope, we have also identified a number of hurdles to the development of such a microscope and further theoretical investigations that will be required to enable a complete interpretation of the images produced by such a microscope.

  17. Microwave Digestion--Vacuum Filtration-Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy as a sensitive method for forensic diatom test.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Liu, Chao; Hu, Sunlin; He, Shuwen; Lu, Siya

    2013-03-01

    Diagnosis of drowning is one of the most difficult issues in forensic practice. A number of methods have been developed over the years to determine whether a person was drowned. Microwave Digestion-Vacuum Filtration-Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy (MD-VF-Auto SEM) method we developed is a new qualitative and quantitative method of diatom test for diagnosis of drowning. The new method is based on microwave digestion technique, vacuum filtration, and automated SEM, which would achieve a maximal recovery of diatoms and identify diatoms easily by SEM with high resolution. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of this method, the recovery of diatom, and loss ratio of centrifugation, which were compared using the MD-VF-Auto SEM method and the conventional acid digestion method. Two groups of samples were designed in the study. Groups A (n = 20) and B (n = 20) were performed by MD-VF-Auto SEM method and the conventional acid digestion method, respectively. In addition, another eight water samples were centrifuged, and the diatoms in the supernatant and precipitate were counted and measured, respectively, in order to find out how many diatoms were lost after centrifugation. The difference between the two groups was statistically highly significant, and about 34 % of diatoms were lost after centrifugation at 4,000 rpm for 15 min. The results showed that the MD-VF-Auto SEM method was more sensitive and specific.

  18. An automated tool for the design and assessment of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalcambre, Lois M. L.; Landry, Steve P.

    1990-01-01

    Space systems can be characterized as both large and complex but they often rely on reusable subcomponents. One problem in the design of such systems is the representation and validation of the system, particularly at the higher levels of management. An automated tool is described for the representation, refinement, and validation of such complex systems based on a formal design theory, the Theory of Plausible Design. In particular, the steps necessary to automate the tool and make it a competent, usable assistant, are described.

  19. Designing automation for complex work environments under different levels of stress.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Nickel, Peter; Wastell, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of different forms of static and adaptable automation under low- and high-stress conditions. Forty participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, comparing three levels of static automation (low, medium and high) and one level of adaptable automation, with the environmental stressor (noise) being varied as a within-subjects variable. Participants were trained for 4 h on a simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS, followed by a 2.5-h testing session. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that operators preferred higher levels of automation under noise than under quiet conditions. A number of parameters indicated negative effects of noise exposure, such as performance impairments, physiological stress reactions and higher mental workload. It also emerged that adaptable automation provided advantages over low and intermediate static automation, with regard to mental workload, effort expenditure and diagnostic performance. The article concludes that for the design of automation a wider range of operational scenarios reflecting adverse as well as ideal working conditions needs to be considered.

  20. Integrative approach to teaching electronics design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Donald G.; Mercer, Ken; O'Driscoll, Bob; Plaw, Colin; Page, Wyatt H.; Nilson, Ross

    2000-10-01

    Students in the introductory electronics papers work together on a group project in parallel with their regularly scheduled lectures and laboratories. Each team of four students has to design and construct a complex electronic system. The staff involved with the project act as consultants to the design teams. The project is integrative in that it combines together a wide range of tools and techniques form across the spectrum of topics covered in lectures. The system to be designed is split into seven modules, with each module defined explicitly through a set of specifications. For each module, students are required to design a suitable circuit to meet the specifications, verify their design through simulation, prototype their design on breadboard, and realize their design on a PCB. By running the design project in parallel with the theory, the project improves the students understanding of the theory at the same time as developing design skills. An important factor to the success of the project is that the students find it fun.

  1. Designing Microcomputer Networks (and) LANS: A New Technology to Improve Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Evan L.; Farr, Rick C.

    1984-01-01

    Two articles address the design of microcomputer networks and the use of local area computer networks (LAN) to improve library automation. Topics discussed include network design criteria, media for local networks, transmission mode, typical communication protocols, user interface, basic local network architectures, and examples of microcomputer…

  2. Reliability-Based Design of a Safety-Critical Automation System: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Carol W.; Dunn, W.; Doty, L.; Frank, M. V.; Hulet, M.; Alvarez, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In 1986, NASA funded a project to modernize the NASA Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels, including the replacement of obsolescent controls with a modern, automated distributed control system (DCS). The project effort on this system included an independent safety analysis (ISA) of the automation system. The purpose of the ISA was to evaluate the completeness of the hazard analyses which had already been performed on the Modernization Project. The ISA approach followed a tailoring of the risk assessment approach widely used on existing nuclear power plants. The tailoring of the nuclear industry oriented risk assessment approach to the automation system and its role in reliability-based design of the automation system is the subject of this paper.

  3. An Electronics Course Emphasizing Circuit Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Haven E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a one-quarter introductory electronics course in which the students use a variety of inexpensive integrated circuits to design and construct a large number of useful circuits. Presents the subject matter of the course in three parts: linear circuits, digital circuits, and more complex circuits. (GS)

  4. Enhancing Creative Thinking through Designing Electronic Slides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokaram, Al-Ali Khaled; Al-Shabatat, Ahmad Mohammad; Fong, Fook Soon; Abdallah, Andaleeb Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    During the shifting of teaching and learning methods using computer technologies, much emphasis was paid on the knowledge content more than the thinking skills. Thus, this study investigated the effects of a computer application, namely, designing electronic slides on the development of creative thinking skills of a sample of undergraduate…

  5. An Electronics Course Emphasizing Circuit Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Haven E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a one-quarter introductory electronics course in which the students use a variety of inexpensive integrated circuits to design and construct a large number of useful circuits. Presents the subject matter of the course in three parts: linear circuits, digital circuits, and more complex circuits. (GS)

  6. [Use of modern technologies and designing means for development of automated information systems for military medicine].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V V; Dubynin, I V; Retunskiĭ, V V

    2002-03-01

    At present time, the intensive activity implementation of automated information systems (AIS) to the military medical establishment are observed. From design quality the successful functioning of the AIS depend on. The effective functioning and the interaction of the automated information technologies by specialists, which computers and telecommunications use for performance of the their purpose, are a goal of the design. Today, there are two classes" technologies for designing of the automated information systems of military medical application: conventional technology and integrated instrumental means technologies. In this article, the conventional technology and integrated instrumental means technologies are considered more detail. CASE-technologies (the functional-oriented and object-oriented approaches) and RAD (Rapid Application Development) are viewed.

  7. Fractal design concepts for stretchable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jonathan A.; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Su, Yewang; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Lee, Woosik; Jung, Sung-Young; Zhang, Yihui; Liu, Zhuangjian; Cheng, Huanyu; Falgout, Leo; Bajema, Mike; Coleman, Todd; Gregoire, Dan; Larsen, Ryan J.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-02-01

    Stretchable electronics provide a foundation for applications that exceed the scope of conventional wafer and circuit board technologies due to their unique capacity to integrate with soft materials and curvilinear surfaces. The range of possibilities is predicated on the development of device architectures that simultaneously offer advanced electronic function and compliant mechanics. Here we report that thin films of hard electronic materials patterned in deterministic fractal motifs and bonded to elastomers enable unusual mechanics with important implications in stretchable device design. In particular, we demonstrate the utility of Peano, Greek cross, Vicsek and other fractal constructs to yield space-filling structures of electronic materials, including monocrystalline silicon, for electrophysiological sensors, precision monitors and actuators, and radio frequency antennas. These devices support conformal mounting on the skin and have unique properties such as invisibility under magnetic resonance imaging. The results suggest that fractal-based layouts represent important strategies for hard-soft materials integration.

  8. Fractal design concepts for stretchable electronics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jonathan A; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Su, Yewang; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Lee, Woosik; Jung, Sung-Young; Zhang, Yihui; Liu, Zhuangjian; Cheng, Huanyu; Falgout, Leo; Bajema, Mike; Coleman, Todd; Gregoire, Dan; Larsen, Ryan J; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-01-01

    Stretchable electronics provide a foundation for applications that exceed the scope of conventional wafer and circuit board technologies due to their unique capacity to integrate with soft materials and curvilinear surfaces. The range of possibilities is predicated on the development of device architectures that simultaneously offer advanced electronic function and compliant mechanics. Here we report that thin films of hard electronic materials patterned in deterministic fractal motifs and bonded to elastomers enable unusual mechanics with important implications in stretchable device design. In particular, we demonstrate the utility of Peano, Greek cross, Vicsek and other fractal constructs to yield space-filling structures of electronic materials, including monocrystalline silicon, for electrophysiological sensors, precision monitors and actuators, and radio frequency antennas. These devices support conformal mounting on the skin and have unique properties such as invisibility under magnetic resonance imaging. The results suggest that fractal-based layouts represent important strategies for hard-soft materials integration.

  9. Automated particle picking for low-contrast macromolecules in cryo-electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Robert; Pallesen, Jesper; Ash, Jordan T.; Ho, Danny Nam; Rubinstein, John L.; Frank, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy is an increasingly popular tool for studying the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules at high resolution. A crucial step in automating single-particle reconstruction of a biological sample is the selection of particle images from a micrograph. We present a novel algorithm for selecting particle images in low-contrast conditions; it proves more effective than the human eye on close-to-focus micrographs, yielding improved or comparable resolution in reconstructions of two macromolecular complexes. PMID:24607413

  10. Automated determination of size and morphology information from soot transmission electron microscope (TEM)-generated images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Chan, Qing N.; Zhang, Renlin; Kook, Sanghoon; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Yeoh, Guan H.; Medwell, Paul R.

    2016-05-01

    The thermophoretic sampling of particulates from hot media, coupled with transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging, is a combined approach that is widely used to derive morphological information. The identification and the measurement of the particulates, however, can be complex when the TEM images are of low contrast, noisy, and have non-uniform background signal level. The image processing method can also be challenging and time consuming, when the samples collected have large variability in shape and size, or have some degree of overlapping. In this work, a three-stage image processing sequence is presented to facilitate time-efficient automated identification and measurement of particulates from the TEM grids. The proposed processing sequence is first applied to soot samples that were thermophoretically sampled from a laminar non-premixed ethylene-air flame. The parameter values that are required to be set to facilitate the automated process are identified, and sensitivity of the results to these parameters is assessed. The same analysis process is also applied to soot samples that were acquired from an externally irradiated laminar non-premixed ethylene-air flame, which have different geometrical characteristics, to assess the morphological dependence of the proposed image processing sequence. Using the optimized parameter values, statistical assessments of the automated results reveal that the largest discrepancies that are associated with the estimated values of primary particle diameter, fractal dimension, and prefactor values of the aggregates for the tested cases, are approximately 3, 1, and 10 %, respectively, when compared with the manual measurements.

  11. Optimizing ELISAs for precision and robustness using laboratory automation and statistical design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Joelsson, Daniel; Moravec, Phil; Troutman, Matthew; Pigeon, Joseph; DePhillips, Pete

    2008-08-20

    Transferring manual ELISAs to automated platforms requires optimizing the assays for each particular robotic platform. These optimization experiments are often time consuming and difficult to perform using a traditional one-factor-at-a-time strategy. In this manuscript we describe the development of an automated process using statistical design of experiments (DOE) to quickly optimize immunoassays for precision and robustness on the Tecan EVO liquid handler. By using fractional factorials and a split-plot design, five incubation time variables and four reagent concentration variables can be optimized in a short period of time.

  12. Automation and Accountability in Decision Support System Interface Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Mary L.

    2006-01-01

    When the human element is introduced into decision support system design, entirely new layers of social and ethical issues emerge but are not always recognized as such. This paper discusses those ethical and social impact issues specific to decision support systems and highlights areas that interface designers should consider during design with an…

  13. SLC polarized beam source electron optics design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppley, K. R.; Lavine, T. L.; Early, R. A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W. B.; Miller, R. H.; Schultz, D. C.; Spencer, C. M.; Yeremian, A. D.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the design of the beam-line from the polarized electron gun to the linac injector in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The polarized electron source is a GaAs photocathode, requiring 10(exp -11)Torr-range pressure for adequate quantum efficiency and longevity. The photocathode is illuminated by 3-nsec-long laser pulses. The quality of the optics for the 160-kV beam is crucial since electron-stimulated gas desorption from beam loss in excess of 0.1 percent of the 20-nC pulses may poison the photocathode. Our design for the transport line consists of a differential pumping region isolated by a pair of valves. Focusing is provided by a pair of Helmholtz coils and by several iron-encased solenoidal lenses. Our optics design is based on beam transport simulations using 2(1/2)-D particle-in-cell codes to model the gun and to solve the fully-relativistic time-dependent equations of motion in three dimensions for electrons in the presence of azimuthally symmetric electromagnetic fields.

  14. SLC polarized beam source electron optics design

    SciTech Connect

    Eppley, K.R.; Lavine, T.L.; Early, R.A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Miller, R.H.; Schultz, D.C.; Spencer, C.M.; Yeremian, A.D.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the design of the beam-line from the polarized electron gun to the linac injector in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The polarized electron source is a GaAs photocathode, requiring 10{sup {minus}11}-Torr-range pressure for adequate quantum efficiency and longevity. The photocathode is illuminated by 3-nsec-long laser pulses. The quality of the optics for the 160-kV beam is crucial since electron-stimulated gas desorption from beam loss in excess of 0.1% of the 20-nC pulses may poison the photocathode. Our design for the transport line consists of a differential pumping region isolated by a pair of valves. Focusing is provided by a pair of Helmholtz coils and by several iron-encased solenoidal lenses. Our optics design is based on beam transport simulations using 2{1/2}-D particle-in-cell codes to model the gun and to solve the fully-relativistic time-dependent equations of motion in three dimensions for electrons in the presence of azimuthally symmetric electromagnetic fields. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) Electron Preprocessor (EPP) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, J. F.; Osborn, J. V.; Christensen, John L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aerospace Corporation developed the Electron PreProcessor (EPP) to support the Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) that is part of the RAPID experiment on the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The purpose of the EPP is to collect raw data from the IES and perform processing and data compression on it before transferring it to the RAPID microprocessor system for formatting and transmission to the CLUSTER satellite data system. The report provides a short history of the RAPID and CLUSTER programs and describes the EPP design. Four EPP units were fabricated, tested, and delivered for the original CLUSTER program. These were destroyed during a launch failure. Four more EPP units were delivered for the CLUSTER II program. These were successfully launched and are operating nominally on orbit.

  16. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera.

    PubMed

    Joshi, M J; Upadhyay, J; Deshpande, P P; Sharma, M L; Navathe, C P

    2010-08-01

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  17. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, M. J.; Upadhyay, J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P.

    2010-08-15

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  18. An automated method of quantifying ferrite microstructures using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sachin L; Breen, Andrew J; Trimby, Patrick; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Ringer, Simon P; Cairney, Julie M

    2014-02-01

    The identification and quantification of the different ferrite microconstituents in steels has long been a major challenge for metallurgists. Manual point counting from images obtained by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is commonly used for this purpose. While classification systems exist, the complexity of steel microstructures means that identifying and quantifying these phases is still a great challenge. Moreover, point counting is extremely tedious, time consuming, and subject to operator bias. This paper presents a new automated identification and quantification technique for the characterisation of complex ferrite microstructures by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). This technique takes advantage of the fact that different classes of ferrite exhibit preferential grain boundary misorientations, aspect ratios and mean misorientation, all of which can be detected using current EBSD software. These characteristics are set as criteria for identification and linked to grain size to determine the area fractions. The results of this method were evaluated by comparing the new automated technique with point counting results. The technique could easily be applied to a range of other steel microstructures. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Fast and Accurate Circuit Design Automation through Hierarchical Model Switching.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Linh; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2015-08-21

    In computer-aided biological design, the trifecta of characterized part libraries, accurate models and optimal design parameters is crucial for producing reliable designs. As the number of parts and model complexity increase, however, it becomes exponentially more difficult for any optimization method to search the solution space, hence creating a trade-off that hampers efficient design. To address this issue, we present a hierarchical computer-aided design architecture that uses a two-step approach for biological design. First, a simple model of low computational complexity is used to predict circuit behavior and assess candidate circuit branches through branch-and-bound methods. Then, a complex, nonlinear circuit model is used for a fine-grained search of the reduced solution space, thus achieving more accurate results. Evaluation with a benchmark of 11 circuits and a library of 102 experimental designs with known characterization parameters demonstrates a speed-up of 3 orders of magnitude when compared to other design methods that provide optimality guarantees.

  20. Electronic health records in rheumatology: emphasis on automated scoring and additional use.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jutta G; Chehab, Gamal; Schneider, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records are increasingly used and frequently required from various regulatory authorities. Apart from their day-to-day use by health care professionals for routine clinical practice and/or the improvement of quality of care processes, patients with chronic inflammatory disease may become increasingly involved in the data retrieval process by self-monitoring and providing patient-reported (outcome) data. Among key features of electronic health records are automated scoring, visualisation of validated measures, and long-term systematic patient-centered data collection in a structured and standardised manner. Data derived from electronic health records are increasingly incorporated into patient-centered research, registries, and other secondary uses. Thus, electronic health records offer opportunities to improve knowledge and to create new process flows in rheumatology health care. The article summarises some of these opportunities in patient care, as well as an overview of secondary use scenarios. In addition, the article focuses on patients' active involvement in the disease management process via health information applications, reports on patients' perspectives, as well as some legal and regulatory matters concerning electronic health records.

  1. Automated drafting and design for the Civil engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, M. V.

    1981-09-01

    This thesis presents the results of a survey of twelve interactive graphics systems manufacturers and develops a simple model for economic decision analysis. The survey information includes costs of the systems, training times, and software available. From the survey information and extensive literature review, an analysis is developed to determine the feasibility of developing guidelines for each design office to determine whether it could justify automatic drafting. The model is based on: (1) the salaries of design engineers authorized in the design section; (2) the salaries of site developers authorized in the site development section; (3) the amount of time spent on design work and drafting; and (4) the cost of the interactive graphics system used to produce the designs and drawings.

  2. PS2-40: Using Automation to Add Electronic Clinical Data to a Research Patient Registry

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sharon; Carrell, David; Green, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Clinical research trials often rely on automated data systems, such as the electronic medical record to create and maintain a patient registry, to determine a participant’s progress through the study, or for analytic purposes. Data might come from a variety of sources and include such elements as procedures, lab results, hospitalization, vital status, enrollment and participant responses from survey software. An automated process for adding outside data to a study tracking database can save significant time over abstraction or manual data import processes, and can allow determination of an individual’s study status in close to real time. Methods There are a number of ways of setting up an automated import process, depending on data needs and availability. Over the course of several clinical trials, we have developed a process with the following steps, all occurring automatically on a scheduled basis: 1. A SAS program performs Extract/Transform/Load (ETL) tasks: 1a. Extract and transform the desired data from each source. 1b. Load new data into a SAS dataset for historical purposes and into a staging table in the tracking database preparatory to actual use. 1c. Generate automated emails when specific milestones occur (e.g., study end date reached or first use of a given lab test code). 2. Another SAS program checks the ETL logs and sends email about any errors occurring in the ETL process. 3. A database job calls stored procedures to insert data from the staging tables into the main study events table and send email detailing how many records were processed. 3a. If manual intervention is needed before the final data is loaded, the user can call the stored procedure once data entry is complete. 3b. A master stored procedure can call individual procedures in order (e.g., importing a positive lab result may trigger randomization). Results The ETL process described above has proven itself to be robust and adaptable in a variety of study contexts

  3. GeNeDA: An Open-Source Workflow for Design Automation of Gene Regulatory Networks Inspired from Microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Madec, Morgan; Pecheux, François; Gendrault, Yves; Rosati, Elise; Lallement, Christophe; Haiech, Jacques

    2016-10-01

    The topic of this article is the development of an open-source automated design framework for synthetic biology, specifically for the design of artificial gene regulatory networks based on a digital approach. In opposition to other tools, GeNeDA is an open-source online software based on existing tools used in microelectronics that have proven their efficiency over the last 30 years. The complete framework is composed of a computation core directly adapted from an Electronic Design Automation tool, input and output interfaces, a library of elementary parts that can be achieved with gene regulatory networks, and an interface with an electrical circuit simulator. Each of these modules is an extension of microelectronics tools and concepts: ODIN II, ABC, the Verilog language, SPICE simulator, and SystemC-AMS. GeNeDA is first validated on a benchmark of several combinatorial circuits. The results highlight the importance of the part library. Then, this framework is used for the design of a sequential circuit including a biological state machine.

  4. Program Calculates Power Demands Of Electronic Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    CURRENT computer program calculates power requirements of electronic designs. For given design, CURRENT reads in applicable parts-list file and file containing current required for each part. Program also calculates power required for circuit at supply potentials of 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5 volts. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. Sun version of program (NPO-19590). PC version of program (NPO-19111).

  5. Program Calculates Power Demands Of Electronic Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    CURRENT computer program calculates power requirements of electronic designs. For given design, CURRENT reads in applicable parts-list file and file containing current required for each part. Program also calculates power required for circuit at supply potentials of 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5 volts. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. Sun version of program (NPO-19590). PC version of program (NPO-19111).

  6. Automated designation of tie-points for image-to-image coregistration.

    Treesearch

    R.E. Kennedy; W.B. Cohen

    2003-01-01

    Image-to-image registration requires identification of common points in both images (image tie-points: ITPs). Here we describe software implementing an automated, area-based technique for identifying ITPs. The ITP software was designed to follow two strategies: ( I ) capitalize on human knowledge and pattern recognition strengths, and (2) favour robustness in many...

  7. Designing an Automated Assessment of Public Speaking Skills Using Multimodal Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lei; Feng, Gary; Leong, Chee Wee; Joe, Jilliam; Kitchen, Christopher; Lee, Chong Min

    2016-01-01

    Traditional assessments of public speaking skills rely on human scoring. We report an initial study on the development of an automated scoring model for public speaking performances using multimodal technologies. Task design, rubric development, and human rating were conducted according to standards in educational assessment. An initial corpus of…

  8. Automated Tetrahedral Mesh Generation for CFD Analysis of Aircraft in Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu; Campbell, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces an automation process of generating a tetrahedral mesh for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of aircraft configurations in early conceptual design. The method was developed for CFD-based sonic boom analysis of supersonic configurations, but can be applied to aerodynamic analysis of aircraft configurations in any flight regime.

  9. Design, development, test, and evaluation of an automated analytical electrophoresis apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, P. A.; Bier, M.

    1977-01-01

    An Automated Analytical Electrophoresis Apparatus (AAEA) was designed, developed, assembled, and preliminarily tested. The AAEA was demonstrated to be a feasible apparatus for automatically acquiring, displaying, and storing (and eventually analyzing) electrophoresis mobility data from living blood cells. The apparatus and the operation of its major assemblies are described in detail.

  10. Automated design of minimum drag light aircraft fuselages and nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Fox, S. R.; Karlin, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    The constrained minimization algorithm of Vanderplaats is applied to the problem of designing minimum drag faired bodies such as fuselages and nacelles. Body drag is computed by a variation of the Hess-Smith code. This variation includes a boundary layer computation. The encased payload provides arbitrary geometric constraints, specified a priori by the designer, below which the fairing cannot shrink. The optimization may include engine cooling air flows entering and exhausting through specific port locations on the body.

  11. Graphic design principles for automated document segmentation and understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Riveros, J. Fernando; Santos Villalobos, Hector J.

    2006-01-01

    When designers develop a document layout their objective is to convey a specific message and provoke a specific response from the audience. Design principles provide the foundation for identifying document components and relations among them to extract implicit knowledge from the layout. Variable Data Printing enables the production of personalized printing jobs for which traditional proofing of all the job instances could result unfeasible. This paper explains a rule-based system that uses design principles to segment and understand document context. The system uses the design principles of repetition, proximity, alignment, similarity, and contrast as the foundation for the strategy in document segmentation and understanding which holds a strong relation with the recognition of artifacts produced by the infringement of the constraints articulated in the document layout. There are two main modules in the tool: the geometric analysis module; and the design rule engine. The geometric analysis module extracts explicit knowledge from the data provided in the document. The design rule module uses the information provided by the geometric analysis to establish logical units inside the document. We used a subset of XSL-FO, sufficient for designing documents with an adequate amount complexity. The system identifies components such as headers, paragraphs, lists, images and determines the relations between them, such as header-paragraph, header-list, etc. The system provides accurate information about the geometric properties of the components, detects the elements of the documents and identifies corresponding components between a proofed instance and the rest of the instances in a Variable Data Printing Job.

  12. A Case Study of Reverse Engineering Integrated in an Automated Design Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescaru, R.; Kyratsis, P.; Oancea, G.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a design methodology which automates the generation of curves extracted from the point clouds that have been obtained by digitizing the physical objects. The methodology is described on a product belonging to the industry of consumables, respectively a footwear type product that has a complex shape with many curves. The final result is the automated generation of wrapping curves, surfaces and solids according to the characteristics of the customer's foot, and to the preferences for the chosen model, which leads to the development of customized products.

  13. Automation for pattern library creation and in-design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Rock; Zou, Elain; Hong, Sid; Wang, Jinyan; Zhang, Yifan; Sweis, Jason; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Ding, Hua; Huang, Jason

    2015-03-01

    Semiconductor manufacturing technologies are becoming increasingly complex with every passing node. Newer technology nodes are pushing the limits of optical lithography and requiring multiple exposures with exotic material stacks for each critical layer. All of this added complexity usually amounts to further restrictions in what can be designed. Furthermore, the designs must be checked against all these restrictions in verification and sign-off stages. Design rules are intended to capture all the manufacturing limitations such that yield can be maximized for any given design adhering to all the rules. Most manufacturing steps employ some sort of model based simulation which characterizes the behavior of each step. The lithography models play a very big part of the overall yield and design restrictions in patterning. However, lithography models are not practical to run during design creation due to their slow and prohibitive run times. Furthermore, the models are not usually given to foundry customers because of the confidential and sensitive nature of every foundry's processes. The design layout locations where a model flags unacceptable simulated results can be used to define pattern rules which can be shared with customers. With advanced technology nodes we see a large growth of pattern based rules. This is due to the fact that pattern matching is very fast and the rules themselves can be very complex to describe in a standard DRC language. Therefore, the patterns are left as either pattern layout clips or abstracted into pattern-like syntax which a pattern matcher can use directly. The patterns themselves can be multi-layered with "fuzzy" designations such that groups of similar patterns can be found using one description. The pattern matcher is often integrated with a DRC tool such that verification and signoff can be done in one step. The patterns can be layout constructs that are "forbidden", "waived", or simply low-yielding in nature. The patterns can also

  14. D-Tailor: automated analysis and design of DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Guimaraes, Joao C.; Rocha, Miguel; Arkin, Adam P.; Cambray, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Current advances in DNA synthesis, cloning and sequencing technologies afford high-throughput implementation of artificial sequences into living cells. However, flexible computational tools for multi-objective sequence design are lacking, limiting the potential of these technologies. Results: We developed DNA-Tailor (D-Tailor), a fully extendable software framework, for property-based design of synthetic DNA sequences. D-Tailor permits the seamless integration of multiple sequence analysis tools into a generic Monte Carlo simulation that evolves sequences toward any combination of rationally defined properties. As proof of principle, we show that D-Tailor is capable of designing sequence libraries comprising all possible combinations among three different sequence properties influencing translation efficiency in Escherichia coli. The capacity to design artificial sequences that systematically sample any given parameter space should support the implementation of more rigorous experimental designs. Availability: Source code is available for download at https://sourceforge.net/projects/dtailor/ Contact: aparkin@lbl.gov or cambray.guillaume@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online (D-Tailor Tutorial). PMID:24398007

  15. Scar-less multi-part DNA assembly design automation

    DOEpatents

    Hillson, Nathan J.

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides a method of a method of designing an implementation of a DNA assembly. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) receiving a list of DNA sequence fragments to be assembled together and an order in which to assemble the DNA sequence fragments, (2) designing DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) for each of the DNA sequence fragments, and (3) creating a plan for adding flanking homology sequences to each of the DNA oligos. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) receiving a list of DNA sequence fragments to be assembled together and an order in which to assemble the DNA sequence fragments, (2) designing DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) for each of the DNA sequence fragments, and (3) creating a plan for adding optimized overhang sequences to each of the DNA oligos.

  16. Automated simulation as part of a design workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Elizabeth; Shenk, T.; Robinson, P.; Upadhye, R.

    1990-01-01

    A development project for a design workstation for advanced life-support systems (called the DAWN Project, for Design Assistant Workstation), incorporating qualitative simulation, required the implementation of a useful qualitative simulation capability and the integration of qualitative and quantitative simulation such that simulation capabilities are maximized without duplication. The reason is that to produce design solutions to a system goal, the behavior of the system in both a steady and perturbed state must be represented. The Qualitative Simulation Tool (QST), on an expert-system-like model building and simulation interface toll called ScratchPad (SP), and on the integration of QST and SP with more conventional, commercially available simulation packages now being applied in the evaluation of life-support system processes and components are discussed.

  17. Automated in-chamber specimen coating for serial block-face electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Titze, B; Denk, W

    2013-05-01

    When imaging insulating specimens in a scanning electron microscope, negative charge accumulates locally ('sample charging'). The resulting electric fields distort signal amplitude, focus and image geometry, which can be avoided by coating the specimen with a conductive film prior to introducing it into the microscope chamber. This, however, is incompatible with serial block-face electron microscopy (SBEM), where imaging and surface removal cycles (by diamond knife or focused ion beam) alternate, with the sample remaining in place. Here we show that coating the sample after each cutting cycle with a 1-2 nm metallic film, using an electron beam evaporator that is integrated into the microscope chamber, eliminates charging effects for both backscattered (BSE) and secondary electron (SE) imaging. The reduction in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) caused by the film is smaller than that caused by the widely used low-vacuum method. Sample surfaces as large as 12 mm across were coated and imaged without charging effects at beam currents as high as 25 nA. The coatings also enabled the use of beam deceleration for non-conducting samples, leading to substantial SNR gains for BSE contrast. We modified and automated the evaporator to enable the acquisition of SBEM stacks, and demonstrated the acquisition of stacks of over 1000 successive cut/coat/image cycles and of stacks using beam deceleration or SE contrast. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. Automated Design and Optimization of Pebble-bed Reactor Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Hans D. Gougar; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; William K. Terry

    2010-07-01

    We present a conceptual design approach for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors using recirculating pebble-bed cores. The design approach employs PEBBED, a reactor physics code specifically designed to solve for and analyze the asymptotic burnup state of pebble-bed reactors, in conjunction with a genetic algorithm to obtain a core that maximizes a fitness value that is a function of user-specified parameters. The uniqueness of the asymptotic core state and the small number of independent parameters that define it suggest that core geometry and fuel cycle can be efficiently optimized toward a specified objective. PEBBED exploits a novel representation of the distribution of pebbles that enables efficient coupling of the burnup and neutron diffusion solvers. With this method, even complex pebble recirculation schemes can be expressed in terms of a few parameters that are amenable to modern optimization techniques. With PEBBED, the user chooses the type and range of core physics parameters that represent the design space. A set of traits, each with acceptable and preferred values expressed by a simple fitness function, is used to evaluate the candidate reactor cores. The stochastic search algorithm automatically drives the generation of core parameters toward the optimal core as defined by the user. The optimized design can then be modeled and analyzed in greater detail using higher resolution and more computationally demanding tools to confirm the desired characteristics. For this study, the design of pebble-bed high temperature reactor concepts subjected to demanding physical constraints demonstrated the efficacy of the PEBBED algorithm.

  19. Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Jonathan; Gasparis, Epameinondas; Eden, Ammon H.; Kazman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Specification and [visual] modelling languages are expected to combine strong abstraction mechanisms with rigour, scalability, and parsimony. LePUS3 is a visual, object-oriented design description language axiomatized in a decidable subset of the first-order predicate logic. We demonstrate how LePUS3 is used to formally specify a structural design pattern and prove ( verify ) whether any JavaTM 1.4 program satisfies that specification. We also show how LePUS3 specifications (charts) are composed and how they are verified fully automatically in the Two-Tier Programming Toolkit.

  20. Genetic design automation: engineering fantasy or scientific renewal?

    PubMed

    Lux, Matthew W; Bramlett, Brian W; Ball, David A; Peccoud, Jean

    2012-02-01

    The aim of synthetic biology is to make genetic systems more amenable to engineering, which has naturally led to the development of computer-aided design (CAD) tools. Experimentalists still primarily rely on project-specific ad hoc workflows instead of domain-specific tools, which suggests that CAD tools are lagging behind the front line of the field. Here, we discuss the scientific hurdles that have limited the productivity gains anticipated from existing tools. We argue that the real value of efforts to develop CAD tools is the formalization of genetic design rules that determine the complex relationships between genotype and phenotype.

  1. Automated Tactical Symbology System (TACSYM): System Design Specifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    138. Personal Demand 39. Microphones 89. CBR 139. Repair Parts 40. Target Designator 90. Chemical 140. Wire 41. Visual Station 91. Combined Arms...allmi for modification of the database. Insertion and removal of data from the database is controlled by DATABsE . C. 2.1.4 Software Suppot t. The

  2. CMOS array design automation techniques. [metal oxide semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramondetta, P.; Feller, A.; Noto, R.; Lombardi, T.

    1975-01-01

    A low cost, quick turnaround technique for generating custom metal oxide semiconductor arrays using the standard cell approach was developed, implemented, tested and validated. Basic cell design topology and guidelines are defined based on an extensive analysis that includes circuit, layout, process, array topology and required performance considerations particularly high circuit speed.

  3. Expert system solutions to Space Shuttle payload integration design automation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Three expert systems being applied to Space Shuttle payload integration problems to provide a previously unrealizable level of design automation are described. These systems are the orbiter payload bay cabling expert system (EXCABL), the technical order selection expert system (EXTOL), and the cable selector expert system (EXSEL). The manner in which these systems resolve payload design problems is discussed, and the way they will be integrated is pointed out.

  4. A randomized trial of automated electronic alerts demonstrating improved reimbursable anesthesia time documentation.

    PubMed

    Freundlich, Robert E; Barnet, Caryn S; Mathis, Michael R; Shanks, Amy M; Tremper, Kevin K; Kheterpal, Sachin

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether alerting providers to errors results in improved documentation of reimbursable anesthesia care. Prospective randomized controlled trial. Operating room (OR) of a university hospital. Anesthesia cases were evaluated to determine whether they met the definition for appropriate anesthesia start time over 4 separate, 45-day calendar cycles: the pre-study period, study period, immediate post-study period, and 3-year follow-up period. During the study period, providers were randomly assigned to either a control or an alert group. Providers in the alert cohort received an automated alphanumeric page if the anesthesia start time occurred concurrently with the patient entering the OR, or more than 30 minutes before entering the OR. Three years after the intervention period, overall compliance was analyzed to assess learned behavior. Baseline compliance was 33% ± 5%. During the intervention period, providers in the alert group showed 87% ± 6% compliance compared with 41% ± 7% compliance in the control group (P < 0.001). Long-term follow-up after cessation of the alerts showed 85% ± 4% compliance. Automated electronic reminders for time-based billing charges are effective and result in improved ongoing reimbursement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Automated simulation as part of a design workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E.; Shenk, T.; Robinson, P.; Upadhye, R.

    1990-01-01

    A development project for a design workstation for advanced life-support systems incorporating qualitative simulation, required the implementation of a useful qualitative simulation capability and the integration of qualitative and quantitative simulations, such that simulation capabilities are maximized without duplication. The reason is that to produce design solutions to a system goal, the behavior of the system in both a steady and perturbed state must be represented. The paper reports on the Qualitative Simulation Tool (QST), on an expert-system-like model building and simulation interface toll called ScratchPad (SP), and on the integration of QST and SP with more conventional, commercially available simulation packages now being applied in the evaluation of life-support system processes and components.

  6. Theory and Design of Adaptive Automation in Aviation Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-17

    and KOALAS programs at the Naval Air Development Center. The latter is an intelligent, man-in-the-loop, architecture that is presently being...7 This approach has been applied as a model in the Knowledgeable Operator Analysis- Unked System ( KOALAS ) for decision aiding and has in turn been...Barrett,C.L. (1988) The Knowledgeable Ooerator Analysis-Linked Advisory System ( KOALAS ) A1oroach to Decision Suooort System Design. Analysis and Synthesis

  7. Automated Interior Lighting Design Software for Base Civil Engineers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Auditoriums 20 9 Cafeterias 25 10 Computer rooms 50 11 Conference rooms 30 12 Corridors 10 13 Drafting rooms 75 14 Elevator mach. rms is 15 EM. Generator...biological rhythms, regulates production of * hormones, and affects metabolism of specific areas in the brain (30: 11 )." Simply stated, "Research...this process in lighting design, Chapter 11 of this thesis will provide a much more detailed explanation of the process, and also works examples to help

  8. Automated design of image operators that detect interest points.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Leonardo; Olague, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    This work describes how evolutionary computation can be used to synthesize low-level image operators that detect interesting points on digital images. Interest point detection is an essential part of many modern computer vision systems that solve tasks such as object recognition, stereo correspondence, and image indexing, to name but a few. The design of the specialized operators is posed as an optimization/search problem that is solved with genetic programming (GP), a strategy still mostly unexplored by the computer vision community. The proposed approach automatically synthesizes operators that are competitive with state-of-the-art designs, taking into account an operator's geometric stability and the global separability of detected points during fitness evaluation. The GP search space is defined using simple primitive operations that are commonly found in point detectors proposed by the vision community. The experiments described in this paper extend previous results (Trujillo and Olague, 2006a,b) by presenting 15 new operators that were synthesized through the GP-based search. Some of the synthesized operators can be regarded as improved manmade designs because they employ well-known image processing techniques and achieve highly competitive performance. On the other hand, since the GP search also generates what can be considered as unconventional operators for point detection, these results provide a new perspective to feature extraction research.

  9. A Multi-Agent Design for Power Distribution Systems Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, M. Jawad

    A new Multi Agent System (MAS) design for fault location, isolation and restoration in power distribution systems is presented. In proposed approach, when there is a fault in the Power Distribution System (PDS), MAS quickly isolates the fault and restores the service to fault-free zones. Hierarchical coordination strategy is introduced to manage the agents which integrate the advantages of both centralized and decentralized coordination strategies. In this framework, Zone Agent (ZA) locate and isolate the fault based on the locally available information and assist the Feeder Agent (FA) for reconfiguration and restoration. FA can solve the restoration problem using the existing algorithms for the 0-1 Knapsack problem. A novel Q-learning mechanism is also introduced to support the FAs in decision making for restoration. Also a distributed MAS-Based Load Shedding (LS) technique has been used to supply as many of higher priority customers as possible, in case there is more demand than generation. The design is illustrated by the use of simulation case studies for fault location, isolation and restoration on West Virginia Super Circuit (WVSC) and hardware implementation for fault location and isolation in a laboratory platform. The results from the case studies indicate the performance of proposed MAS designs.

  10. A New Automated Design Method Based on Machine Learning for CMOS Analog Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Behzad; Mirzaei, Abdolreza

    2016-11-01

    A new simulation based automated CMOS analog circuit design method which applies a multi-objective non-Darwinian-type evolutionary algorithm based on Learnable Evolution Model (LEM) is proposed in this article. The multi-objective property of this automated design of CMOS analog circuits is governed by a modified Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA) incorporated in the LEM algorithm presented here. LEM includes a machine learning method such as the decision trees that makes a distinction between high- and low-fitness areas in the design space. The learning process can detect the right directions of the evolution and lead to high steps in the evolution of the individuals. The learning phase shortens the evolution process and makes remarkable reduction in the number of individual evaluations. The expert designer's knowledge on circuit is applied in the design process in order to reduce the design space as well as the design time. The circuit evaluation is made by HSPICE simulator. In order to improve the design accuracy, bsim3v3 CMOS transistor model is adopted in this proposed design method. This proposed design method is tested on three different operational amplifier circuits. The performance of this proposed design method is verified by comparing it with the evolutionary strategy algorithm and other similar methods.

  11. Accelerating Chart Review Using Automated Methods on Electronic Health Record Data for Postoperative Complications

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhen; Melton, Genevieve B.; Moeller, Nathan D.; Arsoniadis, Elliot G.; Wang, Yan; Kwaan, Mary R.; Jensen, Eric H.; Simon, Gyorgy J.

    2016-01-01

    Manual Chart Review (MCR) is an important but labor-intensive task for clinical research and quality improvement. In this study, aiming to accelerate the process of extracting postoperative outcomes from medical charts, we developed an automated postoperative complications detection application by using structured electronic health record (EHR) data. We applied several machine learning methods to the detection of commonly occurring complications, including three subtypes of surgical site infection, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, sepsis, and septic shock. Particularly, we applied one single-task and five multi-task learning methods and compared their detection performance. The models demonstrated high detection performance, which ensures the feasibility of accelerating MCR. Specifically, one of the multi-task learning methods, propensity weighted observations (PWO) demonstrated the highest detection performance, with single-task learning being a close second. PMID:28269941

  12. Design principles and algorithms for automated air traffic management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents design principles and algorithm for building a real time scheduler. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high altitude airspace far from the airport and low altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time.

  13. Design principles and algorithms for automated air traffic management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents design principles and algorithm for building a real time scheduler. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high altitude airspace far from the airport and low altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time.

  14. Electronic prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopcroft, J.

    1987-01-01

    The potential benefits of automation in space are significant. The science base needed to support this automation not only will help control costs and reduce lead-time in the earth-based design and construction of space stations, but also will advance the nation's capability for computer design, simulation, testing, and debugging of sophisticated objects electronically. Progress in automation will require the ability to electronically represent, reason about, and manipulate objects. Discussed here is the development of representations, languages, editors, and model-driven simulation systems to support electronic prototyping. In particular, it identifies areas where basic research is needed before further progress can be made.

  15. DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY VALIDATION OF A RAPID AUTOMATED BIODOSIMETRY TOOL FOR HIGH THROUGPUT RADIOLOGICAL TRIAGE

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Youhua; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongliang; Garty, Guy; Xu, Yanping; Lyulko, Oleksandra V.; Turner, Helen C.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Simaan, Nabil; Yao, Y. Lawrence; Brenner, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents design, hardware, software, and parameter optimization for a novel robotic automation system. RABiT is a Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool for high throughput radiological triage. The design considerations guiding the hardware and software architecture are presented with focus on methods of communication, ease of implementation, and need for real-time control versus soft time control cycles. The design and parameter determination for a non-contact PVC capillary laser cutting system is presented. A novel approach for lymphocyte concentration estimation based on computer vision is reported. Experimental evaluations of the system components validate the success of our prototype system in achieving a throughput of 6,000 samples in a period of 18 hours. PMID:21258614

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy and Effectiveness of Automated Electronic Sepsis Alert Systems: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Makam, Anil N.; Nguyen, Oanh K.; Auerbach, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although timely treatment of sepsis improves outcomes, delays in administering evidence-based therapies are common. Purpose To determine whether automated real-time electronic sepsis alerts can: 1) accurately identify sepsis, and 2) improve process measures and outcomes. Data Sources We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and CINAHL from database inception through June 27, 2014. Study Selection Included studies that empirically evaluated one or both of the prespecified objectives. Data Extraction Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Diagnostic accuracy of sepsis identification was measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) and likelihood ratios (LR). Effectiveness was assessed by changes in sepsis care process measures and outcomes. Data Synthesis Of 1,293 citations, 8 studies met inclusion criteria, 5 for the identification of sepsis (n=35,423) and 5 for the effectiveness of sepsis alerts (n=6,894). Though definition of sepsis alert thresholds varied, most included systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria ± evidence of shock. Diagnostic accuracy varied greatly, with PPV ranging from 20.5-53.8%, NPV 76.5-99.7%; LR+ 1.2-145.8; and LR- 0.06-0.86. There was modest evidence for improvement in process measures (i.e., antibiotic escalation), but only among patients in non-critical care settings; there were no corresponding improvements in mortality or length of stay. Minimal data were reported on potential harms due to false positive alerts. Conclusions Automated sepsis alerts derived from electronic health data may improve care processes but tend to have poor positive predictive value and do not improve mortality or length of stay. PMID:25758641

  17. Diagnostic accuracy and effectiveness of automated electronic sepsis alert systems: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Makam, Anil N; Nguyen, Oanh K; Auerbach, Andrew D

    2015-06-01

    Although timely treatment of sepsis improves outcomes, delays in administering evidence-based therapies are common. To determine whether automated real-time electronic sepsis alerts can: (1) accurately identify sepsis and (2) improve process measures and outcomes. We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature from database inception through June 27, 2014. Included studies that empirically evaluated 1 or both of the prespecified objectives. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Diagnostic accuracy of sepsis identification was measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and likelihood ratio (LR). Effectiveness was assessed by changes in sepsis care process measures and outcomes. Of 1293 citations, 8 studies met inclusion criteria, 5 for the identification of sepsis (n = 35,423) and 5 for the effectiveness of sepsis alerts (n = 6894). Though definition of sepsis alert thresholds varied, most included systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria ± evidence of shock. Diagnostic accuracy varied greatly, with PPV ranging from 20.5% to 53.8%, NPV 76.5% to 99.7%, LR+ 1.2 to 145.8, and LR- 0.06 to 0.86. There was modest evidence for improvement in process measures (ie, antibiotic escalation), but only among patients in non-critical care settings; there were no corresponding improvements in mortality or length of stay. Minimal data were reported on potential harms due to false positive alerts. Automated sepsis alerts derived from electronic health data may improve care processes but tend to have poor PPV and do not improve mortality or length of stay. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  18. Automated design of two-zero rational Chebychev filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, K. H.

    1981-10-01

    The Rational Chebychev function is used to design elliptic-characteristic filters. The filter has N/2 ripples in the passband but only one ripple in the stopband for all orders. As N increases from three, the result is a substantial saving in number of capacitors in the passive ladder realization of the above function as compared to that of traditional elliptic filters of the same order N. The ladder's element values can be expressed as explicit involving only the coefficients of the transfer function. These expressions can also be used for other types of filters. Numerically, the design can be carried out by a Fortran program or a set of programs on a programmable calculator. The user needs only to give the three specifications: the filter order N, the stopband zeros Z, and the passband ripple amount R sub p. The program automatically selects the starting point for the given case and proceeds. The numerical results of the above programs over a range of specifications relate the above specifications to the minimum stopband attenuation.

  19. Application of δ recycling to electron automated diffraction tomography data from inorganic crystalline nanovolumes.

    PubMed

    Rius, Jordi; Mugnaioli, Enrico; Vallcorba, Oriol; Kolb, Ute

    2013-07-01

    δ Recycling is a simple procedure for directly extracting phase information from Patterson-type functions [Rius (2012). Acta Cryst. A68, 399-400]. This new phasing method has a clear theoretical basis and was developed with ideal single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. On the other hand, introduction of the automated diffraction tomography (ADT) technique has represented a significant advance in electron diffraction data collection [Kolb et al. (2007). Ultramicroscopy, 107, 507-513]. When combined with precession electron diffraction, it delivers quasi-kinematical intensity data even for complex inorganic compounds, so that single-crystal diffraction data of nanometric volumes are now available for structure determination by direct methods. To check the tolerance of δ recycling to missing data-collection corrections and to deviations from kinematical behaviour of ADT intensities, δ recycling has been applied to differently shaped nanocrystals of various inorganic materials. The results confirm that it can phase ADT data very efficiently. In some cases even more complete structure models than those derived from conventional direct methods and least-squares refinement have been found. During this study it has been demonstrated that the Wilson-plot scaling procedure is largely insensitive to sample thickness variations and missing absorption corrections affecting electron ADT intensities.

  20. On the design and implementation of an automated astronomical image analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Sharif, Gabe; Orellana, Sonny; Boussalis, Helen; Liu, Charles; Rad, Khosrow; Dong, Jane

    2006-10-01

    Sponsored by the National Aeronautical Space Association (NASA), the Synergetic Education and Research in Enabling NASA-centered Academic Development of Engineers and Space Scientists (SERENADES) Laboratory was established at California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA). An important on-going research activity in this lab is to develop an easy-to-use image analysis software with the capability of automated object detection to facilitate astronomical research. This paper presents the design and implementation of an automated astronomical image analyzer. The core of this software is the automated object detection algorithm developed in our previous research, which is capable of detecting objects in near galaxy images, including objects located within clouds. In addition to the functionality, human factor is considered in system design and tremendous efforts have been devoted to enhance the user friendliness. Instead of using command line or static menus, graphical methods are enabled in our software system to allow the user to directly manipulate the objects that he/she wants to investigate. Comprehensive tests are conducted by users with and without astronomical backgrounds. Compared to current software tools such as IRAF and Skyview, our developed software has the following advantages: 1) No pre-training is required; 2) The amount of human supervision is significantly reduced by automated object detection; 3) Batch processing capability is supported for fast operation; and 4) A high degree of human computer interaction is realized for better usability.

  1. Engineering Design and Automation in the Applied Engineering Technologies (AET) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Wantuck, P. J.; Hollen, R. M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of some design and automation-related projects ongoing within the Applied Engineering Technologies (AET) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. AET uses a diverse set of technical capabilities to develop and apply processes and technologies to applications for a variety of customers both internal and external to the Laboratory. The Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) represents a new paradigm for the processing of nuclear material from retired weapon systems in an environment that seeks to minimize the radiation dose to workers. To achieve this goal, ARIES relies upon automation-based features to handle and process the nuclear material. Our Chemical Process Development Team specializes in fuzzy logic and intelligent control systems. Neural network technology has been utilized in some advanced control systems developed by team members. Genetic algorithms and neural networks have often been applied for data analysis. Enterprise modeling, or discrete event simulation, as well as chemical process simulation has been employed for chemical process plant design. Fuel cell research and development has historically been an active effort within the AET organization. Under the principal sponsorship of the Department of Energy, the Fuel Cell Team is now focusing on technologies required to produce fuel cell compatible feed gas from reformation of a variety of conventional fuels (e.g., gasoline, natural gas), principally for automotive applications. This effort involves chemical reactor design and analysis, process modeling, catalyst analysis, as well as full scale system characterization and testing. The group's Automation and Robotics team has at its foundation many years of experience delivering automated and robotic systems for nuclear, analytical chemistry, and bioengineering applications. As an integrator of commercial systems and a developer of unique custom-made systems, the team currently supports the automation

  2. Three-dimensional rotation electron diffraction: software RED for automated data collection and data processing.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wei; Sun, Junliang; Su, Jie; Hovmöller, Sven; Zou, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    Implementation of a computer program package for automated collection and processing of rotation electron diffraction (RED) data is described. The software package contains two computer programs: RED data collection and RED data processing. The RED data collection program controls the transmission electron microscope and the camera. Electron beam tilts at a fine step (0.05-0.20°) are combined with goniometer tilts at a coarse step (2.0-3.0°) around a common tilt axis, which allows a fine relative tilt to be achieved between the electron beam and the crystal in a large tilt range. An electron diffraction (ED) frame is collected at each combination of beam tilt and goniometer tilt. The RED data processing program processes three-dimensional ED data generated by the RED data collection program or by other approaches. It includes shift correction of the ED frames, peak hunting for diffraction spots in individual ED frames and identification of these diffraction spots as reflections in three dimensions. Unit-cell parameters are determined from the positions of reflections in three-dimensional reciprocal space. All reflections are indexed, and finally a list with hkl indices and intensities is output. The data processing program also includes a visualizer to view and analyse three-dimensional reciprocal lattices reconstructed from the ED frames. Details of the implementation are described. Data collection and data processing with the software RED are demonstrated using a calcined zeolite sample, silicalite-1. The structure of the calcined silicalite-1, with 72 unique atoms, could be solved from the RED data by routine direct methods.

  3. An Approach to Automated Fusion System Design and Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Fritze, Alexander; Mönks, Uwe; Holst, Christoph-Alexander; Lohweg, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Industrial applications are in transition towards modular and flexible architectures that are capable of self-configuration and -optimisation. This is due to the demand of mass customisation and the increasing complexity of industrial systems. The conversion to modular systems is related to challenges in all disciplines. Consequently, diverse tasks such as information processing, extensive networking, or system monitoring using sensor and information fusion systems need to be reconsidered. The focus of this contribution is on distributed sensor and information fusion systems for system monitoring, which must reflect the increasing flexibility of fusion systems. This contribution thus proposes an approach, which relies on a network of self-descriptive intelligent sensor nodes, for the automatic design and update of sensor and information fusion systems. This article encompasses the fusion system configuration and adaptation as well as communication aspects. Manual interaction with the flexibly changing system is reduced to a minimum. PMID:28300762

  4. Automated recycling of chemistry for virtual screening and library design.

    PubMed

    Vainio, Mikko J; Kogej, Thierry; Raubacher, Florian

    2012-07-23

    An early stage drug discovery project needs to identify a number of chemically diverse and attractive compounds. These hit compounds are typically found through high-throughput screening campaigns. The diversity of the chemical libraries used in screening is therefore important. In this study, we describe a virtual high-throughput screening system called Virtual Library. The system automatically "recycles" validated synthetic protocols and available starting materials to generate a large number of virtual compound libraries, and allows for fast searches in the generated libraries using a 2D fingerprint based screening method. Virtual Library links the returned virtual hit compounds back to experimental protocols to quickly assess the synthetic accessibility of the hits. The system can be used as an idea generator for library design to enrich the screening collection and to explore the structure-activity landscape around a specific active compound.

  5. New hardware and workflows for semi-automated correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy/tomography.

    PubMed

    Schorb, Martin; Gaechter, Leander; Avinoam, Ori; Sieckmann, Frank; Clarke, Mairi; Bebeacua, Cecilia; Bykov, Yury S; Sonnen, Andreas F-P; Lihl, Reinhard; Briggs, John A G

    2017-02-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy allows features of interest defined by fluorescence signals to be located in an electron micrograph of the same sample. Rare dynamic events or specific objects can be identified, targeted and imaged by electron microscopy or tomography. To combine it with structural studies using cryo-electron microscopy or tomography, fluorescence microscopy must be performed while maintaining the specimen vitrified at liquid-nitrogen temperatures and in a dry environment during imaging and transfer. Here we present instrumentation, software and an experimental workflow that improves the ease of use, throughput and performance of correlated cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy. The new cryo-stage incorporates a specially modified high-numerical aperture objective lens and provides a stable and clean imaging environment. It is combined with a transfer shuttle for contamination-free loading of the specimen. Optimized microscope control software allows automated acquisition of the entire specimen area by cryo-fluorescence microscopy. The software also facilitates direct transfer of the fluorescence image and associated coordinates to the cryo-electron microscope for subsequent fluorescence-guided automated imaging. Here we describe these technological developments and present a detailed workflow, which we applied for automated cryo-electron microscopy and tomography of various specimens.

  6. Ergonomics guidelines for designing electronic mail addresses.

    PubMed

    Rau, P L; Salvendy, G

    2001-03-15

    The aim was to design a human-centred electronic mail (e-mail) address system based on networking technology and cognitive ergonomics. Based on the background literature and the results of users' survey, a conceptual model is developed for designing e-mail addresses. This model consists of e-mail address components of formats, domain length, meaningfulness, orientation and information type pertaining to recall, information association and categorization. Five hypotheses were proposed to test the conceptual model, and four experiments were conducted with 85 participants to test the hypotheses. The dependent variables were performance time, error rate and degree of satisfaction, and the independent variables were components of the e-mail addresses. The main results indicate that for a recall task, significantly lower total performance time (26.2%) and error rate (75%) were found for the hybrid formats (digits and letters) than for the letter format, and up to four characters was the best single domain length. For an information association task, embedding both geographical and organizational information significantly decreased the response time (10.9%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. For a categorization task, embedding both geographical information and organizational information significantly decreased response time (40.7%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. This research demonstrates the importance of human-centred design and provides guidelines in effectively designing e-mail addresses.

  7. Electronic Circuit Design Using HEP Computational Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, MÁRio

    CPSPICE is an eletronic circuit statistical simulation program develloped to run in a parallel environment under UNIX operating system and TCP/IP communications protocol, using CPS - Cooperative Processes Software, SPICE program and CERNLIB software package. It is part of a set of tools being devellop, intended to help electronic engineers to design, model and simulate complex systems and circuits for High Energy Physics detectors, based on statistical methods, using the same software and methodology used by HEP physicists for data analysis. CPSPICE simulates electronic circuits by Monte Carlo method, through several different processes running simultaneously SPICE in UNIX paralell computers or workstation farms. Data transfer between CPS processes for a modified version of SPICE2G6 is done by RAM memory, but can also be done through hard disk files if no source files are available for the simulator, and for bigger simulation output files. Simulation results are written in a HBOOK file as a NTUPLE, to be examined by HBOOK in batch model or interactevely by PAW - Physics Analysis Workstation -programs. The results can be visualized through histograms and graphics, and analyzed by statistical procedures available. The HBOOK file can be stored on hard disk for small amount of data, or into Exabyte tape file for large amount of data. HEP tools also helps circuit or component modelling, like MINUIT program from CERNLIB, that implements Nelder & Mead Simplex and Gradient with or without derivatives algorithms, and can be used for design optimization. This paper presents CPSPICE program implementation. The scheme adopted is suitable to make parallel other electronic circuit simulators.

  8. Tevatron Electron Lenses: Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Bishofberger, Kip; Kamerdzhiev, Vsevolod; Kozub, Sergei; Kufer, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Gennady; Martinez, Alexander; Olson, Marvin; Pfeffer, Howard; Saewert, Greg; Scarpine, Vic; Seryi, Andrei; Solyak, Nikolai; Sytnik, Veniamin; Tiunov, Mikhail; Tkachenko, Leonid; Wildman, David; Wolff, Daniel; Zhang, Xiao-Long; /Fermilab

    2011-09-12

    Fermilab's Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy accelerator in which tightly focused beams of 980 GeV protons and antiprotons collide at two dedicated interaction points (IPs). Both beams share the same beam pipe and magnet aperture and, in order to avoid multiple detrimental head-on collisions, the beams are placed on separated orbits everywhere except the main IPs by using high-voltage (HV) electrostatic separators. The electromagnetic beam-beam interaction at the main IPs together with the long-range interactions between separated beams adversely affect the collider performance, reducing the luminosity integral per store (period of continuous collisions) by 10-30%. Tuning the collider operation for optimal performance becomes more and more cumbersome as the beam intensities and luminosity increase. The long-range effects which (besides being nonlinear) vary from bunch to bunch are particularly hard to mitigate. A comprehensive review of the beam-beam effects in the Tevatron Collider Run II can be found in Ref. [1]. The beam-beam effects have been the dominating sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider [1]. Electron lenses were originally proposed for compensation of electromagnetic long-range and head-on beam-beam interactions of proton and antiproton beams [2]. Results of successful employment of two electron lenses built and installed in the Tevatron are reported in [3,4,5]. In this paper we present design features of the Tevatron electron lenses (TELs), discuss the generation of electron beams, describe different modes of operation and outline the technical parameters of various subsystems.

  9. Space Station automated systems testing/verification and the Galileo Orbiter fault protection design/verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landano, M. R.; Easter, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of Space Station automated systems testing and verification are discussed, taking into account several program requirements. It is found that these requirements lead to a number of issues of uncertainties which require study and resolution during the Space Station definition phase. Most, if not all, of the considered uncertainties have implications for the overall testing and verification strategy adopted by the Space Station Program. A description is given of the Galileo Orbiter fault protection design/verification approach. Attention is given to a mission description, an Orbiter description, the design approach and process, the fault protection design verification approach/process, and problems of 'stress' testing.

  10. Automated design optimization of supersonic airplane wing structures under dynamic constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. L.; Miura, H.; Rao, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of the preliminary and first level detail design of supersonic aircraft wings are stated as mathematical programs and solved using automated optimum design techniques. The problem is approached in two phases: the first is a simplified equivalent plate model in which the envelope, planform and structural parameters are varied to produce a design, the second is a finite element model with fixed configuration in which the material distribution is varied. Constraints include flutter, aeroelastically computed stresses and deflections, natural frequency and a variety of geometric limitations.

  11. Automated design optimization of supersonic airplane wing structures under dynamic constraints.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. L.; Miura, H.; Rao, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of the preliminary and first level detail design of supersonic aircraft wings are stated as mathematical programs and solved using automated optimum design techniques. The problem is approached in two phases: the first is a simplified equivalent plate model in which the envelope, plan form and structural parameters are varied to produce a design, the second is a finite element model with fixed configuration in which the material distribution is varied. Constraints include flutter, aeroelastically computed stresses and deflections, natural frequency and a variety of geometric limitations. The Phase I objective is a combination of weight and drag while Phase II is a weight minimization.

  12. Provider acceptance of an automated electronic alert for acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Janice; Bia, Joshua R.; Ubaid-Ullah, Muhamad; Testani, Jeffrey M.; Wilson, Francis Perry

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical decision support systems, including electronic alerts, ideally provide immediate and relevant patient-specific information to improve clinical decision-making. Despite the growing capabilities of such alerts in conjunction with an expanding electronic medical record, there is a paucity of information regarding their perceived usefulness. We surveyed healthcare providers' opinions concerning the practicality and efficacy of a specific text-based automated electronic alert for acute kidney injury (AKI) in a single hospital during a randomized trial of AKI alerts. Methods Providers who had received at least one electronic AKI alert in the previous 6 months, as part of a separate randomized controlled trial (clinicaltrials.gov #01862419), were asked to complete a survey concerning their opinions about this specific AKI alert system. Individual approval of the alert system was defined by a provider's desire to continue receiving the alert after termination of the trial. Results A total of 98 individuals completed the survey, including 62 physicians, 27 pharmacists and 7 non-physician providers. Sixty-nine percent of responders approved the alert, with no significant difference among the various professions (P = 0.28). Alert approval was strongly correlated with the belief that the alerts improved patient care (P < 0.0001), and negatively correlated with the belief that alerts did not provide novel information (P = 0.0001). With each additional 30 days of trial duration, odds of approval decreased by 20% (3–35%) (P = 0.02). Conclusions The alert system was generally well received, although approval waned with time. Approval was correlated with the belief that this type of alert improved patient care. These findings suggest that perceived efficacy is critical to the success of future alert trials. PMID:27478598

  13. Using Tomoauto: A Protocol for High-throughput Automated Cryo-electron Tomography.

    PubMed

    Morado, Dustin R; Hu, Bo; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-30

    Cryo-electron tomography (Cryo-ET) is a powerful three-dimensional (3-D) imaging technique for visualizing macromolecular complexes in their native context at a molecular level. The technique involves initially preserving the sample in its native state by rapidly freezing the specimen in vitreous ice, then collecting a series of micrographs from different angles at high magnification, and finally computationally reconstructing a 3-D density map. The frozen-hydrated specimen is extremely sensitive to the electron beam and so micrographs are collected at very low electron doses to limit the radiation damage. As a result, the raw cryo-tomogram has a very low signal to noise ratio characterized by an intrinsically noisy image. To better visualize subjects of interest, conventional imaging analysis and sub-tomogram averaging in which sub-tomograms of the subject are extracted from the initial tomogram and aligned and averaged are utilized to improve both contrast and resolution. Large datasets of tilt-series are essential to understanding and resolving the complexes at different states, conditions, or mutations as well as obtaining a large enough collection of sub-tomograms for averaging and classification. Collecting and processing this data can be a major obstacle preventing further analysis. Here we describe a high-throughput cryo-ET protocol based on a computer-controlled 300kV cryo-electron microscope, a direct detection device (DDD) camera and a highly effective, semi-automated image-processing pipeline software wrapper library tomoauto developed in-house. This protocol has been effectively utilized to visualize the intact type III secretion system (T3SS) in Shigella flexneri minicells. It can be applicable to any project suitable for cryo-ET.

  14. Electronic bolus design impacts on administration.

    PubMed

    Hentz, F; Umstätter, C; Gilaverte, S; Prado, O R; Silva, C J A; Monteiro, A L G

    2014-06-01

    Electronic identification of animals has become increasingly important worldwide to improve and ensure traceability. In warm and hot climates, such as Brazil, boluses can have advantages over ear tags as the internal devices reduce the risks of ear tag losses, tissue damage, and lesions on the ear. Electronic boluses, however, are often perceived as having negative characteristics, including reported difficulties of administration in small ruminants. This paper describes the factors associated with bolus design that affect the swallowing of a bolus in sheep. Other factors that might influence bolus swallowing time have also been considered. In addition, the effect of bolus design on its performance was evaluated. A total of 56 Suffolk ewes were used to assess the ease of administration and retention of 3 types of electronic ruminal boluses (mini, 11.5 × 58.0 mm and 21.7 g; small, 14.8 × 48.5 mm and 29.5 g; standard, 19.3 × 69.8 mm and 74.4 g) during a whole productive year, including pregnancy and lamb suckling. Ewe age (5.6 ± 2.3 yr) and weight (85.07 ± 8.2 kg BW) were recorded, as well as time for bolus swallowing. The deglutition of the bolus and any resulting blockages in the esophagus were monitored by visual observations. Retention and readability of the boluses were regularly monitored for d 1, wk 1, mo 1, and every mo until 1 yr. Time for bolus swallowing differed substantially with bolus type and was greater (P < 0.05) for the standard bolus (32.8 ± 6.9 s) when compared to small and mini boluses, which did not differ (8.5 ± 2.0 vs. 9.2 ± 2.7 s; P > 0.05). The bolus o.d. and length were positively correlated with swallowing time (P < 0.01). The ewe weight was negatively correlated with swallowing time (P < 0.05). At 6 mo all electronic boluses showed 100% retention rate, and at 12 mo, bolus retention was 100%, 94.5%, and 100% for mini, small, and standard boluses, respectively (P > 0.05). At 12 mo, all boluses showed 100% readability, except for

  15. End-to-end automated microfluidic platform for synthetic biology: from design to functional analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Linshiz, Gregory; Jensen, Erik; Stawski, Nina; ...

    2016-02-02

    Synthetic biology aims to engineer biological systems for desired behaviors. The construction of these systems can be complex, often requiring genetic reprogramming, extensive de novo DNA synthesis, and functional screening. Here, we present a programmable, multipurpose microfluidic platform and associated software and apply the platform to major steps of the synthetic biology research cycle: design, construction, testing, and analysis. We show the platform’s capabilities for multiple automated DNA assembly methods, including a new method for Isothermal Hierarchical DNA Construction, and for Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformation. The platform enables the automated control of cellular growth, gene expression induction, andmore » proteogenic and metabolic output analysis. Finally, taken together, we demonstrate the microfluidic platform’s potential to provide end-to-end solutions for synthetic biology research, from design to functional analysis.« less

  16. End-to-end automated microfluidic platform for synthetic biology: from design to functional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Linshiz, Gregory; Jensen, Erik; Stawski, Nina; Bi, Changhao; Elsbree, Nick; Jiao, Hong; Kim, Jungkyu; Mathies, Richard; Keasling, Jay D.; Hillson, Nathan J.

    2016-02-02

    Synthetic biology aims to engineer biological systems for desired behaviors. The construction of these systems can be complex, often requiring genetic reprogramming, extensive de novo DNA synthesis, and functional screening. Here, we present a programmable, multipurpose microfluidic platform and associated software and apply the platform to major steps of the synthetic biology research cycle: design, construction, testing, and analysis. We show the platform’s capabilities for multiple automated DNA assembly methods, including a new method for Isothermal Hierarchical DNA Construction, and for Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformation. The platform enables the automated control of cellular growth, gene expression induction, and proteogenic and metabolic output analysis. Finally, taken together, we demonstrate the microfluidic platform’s potential to provide end-to-end solutions for synthetic biology research, from design to functional analysis.

  17. On Abstractions and Simplifications in the Design of Human-Automation Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, Michael; Degani, Asaf; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report addresses the design of human-automation interaction from a formal perspective that focuses on the information content of the interface, rather than the design of the graphical user interface. It also addresses the issue of the information provided to the user (e.g., user-manuals, training material, and all other resources). In this report, we propose a formal procedure for generating interfaces and user-manuals. The procedure is guided by two criteria: First, the interface must be correct, that is, with the given interface the user will be able to perform the specified tasks correctly. Second, the interface should be succinct. The report discusses the underlying concepts and the formal methods for this approach. Two examples are used to illustrate the procedure. The algorithm for constructing interfaces can be automated, and a preliminary software system for its implementation has been developed.

  18. On Abstractions and Simplifications in the Design of Human-Automation Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, Michael; Degani, Asaf; Shafto, Michael; Meyer, George; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report addresses the design of human-automation interaction from a formal perspective that focuses on the information content of the interface, rather than the design of the graphical user interface. It also addresses the, issue of the information provided to the user (e.g., user-manuals, training material, and all other resources). In this report, we propose a formal procedure for generating interfaces and user-manuals. The procedure is guided by two criteria: First, the interface must be correct, i.e., that with the given interface the user will be able to perform the specified tasks correctly. Second, the interface should be as succinct as possible. The report discusses the underlying concepts and the formal methods for this approach. Several examples are used to illustrate the procedure. The algorithm for constructing interfaces can be automated, and a preliminary software system for its implementation has been developed.

  19. End-to-end automated microfluidic platform for synthetic biology: from design to functional analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Linshiz, Gregory; Jensen, Erik; Stawski, Nina; ...

    2016-02-02

    Synthetic biology aims to engineer biological systems for desired behaviors. The construction of these systems can be complex, often requiring genetic reprogramming, extensive de novo DNA synthesis, and functional screening. Here, we present a programmable, multipurpose microfluidic platform and associated software and apply the platform to major steps of the synthetic biology research cycle: design, construction, testing, and analysis. We show the platform’s capabilities for multiple automated DNA assembly methods, including a new method for Isothermal Hierarchical DNA Construction, and for Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformation. The platform enables the automated control of cellular growth, gene expression induction, andmore » proteogenic and metabolic output analysis. Finally, taken together, we demonstrate the microfluidic platform’s potential to provide end-to-end solutions for synthetic biology research, from design to functional analysis.« less

  20. End-to-end automated microfluidic platform for synthetic biology: from design to functional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Linshiz, Gregory; Jensen, Erik; Stawski, Nina; Bi, Changhao; Elsbree, Nick; Jiao, Hong; Kim, Jungkyu; Mathies, Richard; Keasling, Jay D.; Hillson, Nathan J.

    2016-02-02

    Synthetic biology aims to engineer biological systems for desired behaviors. The construction of these systems can be complex, often requiring genetic reprogramming, extensive de novo DNA synthesis, and functional screening. Here, we present a programmable, multipurpose microfluidic platform and associated software and apply the platform to major steps of the synthetic biology research cycle: design, construction, testing, and analysis. We show the platform’s capabilities for multiple automated DNA assembly methods, including a new method for Isothermal Hierarchical DNA Construction, and for Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformation. The platform enables the automated control of cellular growth, gene expression induction, and proteogenic and metabolic output analysis. Finally, taken together, we demonstrate the microfluidic platform’s potential to provide end-to-end solutions for synthetic biology research, from design to functional analysis.

  1. The Design of Hospital Information Systems Using the Automated Hospital Information System Catalog

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, J.; Leonard, M.

    1981-01-01

    There are several basic strategies that may be employed in the design of a new or improved automated hospital information system (AHIS). Many of the alternative approaches for the design of an AHIS can be described in terms of a continuum bounded by two design strategies--methods improvement and the IDEALS concept. This paper describes the use of a mixed strategy--the component design strategy--for the design of an AHIS. To implement this strategy, the designer identifies candidate system components that have been tested and proved reliable in environments similar to the one under consideration. An AHIS Component Catalog is described which provides the information needed by the designer. An example application of the use of the Catalog is also presented.

  2. Automated Design of Propellant-Optimal, End-to-End, Low-Thrust Trajectories for Trojan Asteroid Tours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Jeffrey; Howell, Kathleen; Wilson, Roby

    2013-01-01

    The Sun-Jupiter Trojan asteroids are celestial bodies of great scientific interest as well as potential resources offering water and other mineral resources for longterm human exploration of the solar system. Previous investigations under this project have addressed the automated design of tours within the asteroid swarm. This investigation expands the current automation scheme by incorporating options for a complete trajectory design approach to the Trojan asteroids. Computational aspects of the design procedure are automated such that end-to-end trajectories are generated with a minimum of human interaction after key elements and constraints associated with a proposed mission concept are specified.

  3. Automating Quality Metrics in the Era of Electronic Medical Records: Digital Signatures for Ventilator Bundle Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Haitao; Thongprayoon, Charat; Ahmed, Adil; Herasevich, Vitaly; Sampathkumar, Priya; Gajic, Ognjen; O'Horo, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator-associated events (VAEs) are associated with increased risk of poor outcomes, including death. Bundle practices including thromboembolism prophylaxis, stress ulcer prophylaxis, oral care, and daily sedation breaks and spontaneous breathing trials aim to reduce rates of VAEs and are endorsed as quality metrics in the intensive care units. We sought to create electronic search algorithms (digital signatures) to evaluate compliance with ventilator bundle components as the first step in a larger project evaluating the ventilator bundle effect on VAE. We developed digital signatures of bundle compliance using a retrospective cohort of 542 ICU patients from 2010 for derivation and validation and testing of signature accuracy from a cohort of random 100 patients from 2012. Accuracy was evaluated against manual chart review. Overall, digital signatures performed well, with median sensitivity of 100% (range, 94.4%–100%) and median specificity of 100% (range, 100%–99.8%). Automated ascertainment from electronic medical records accurately assesses ventilator bundle compliance and can be used for quality reporting and research in VAE. PMID:26167484

  4. Fast Model Adaptation for Automated Section Classification in Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jian; Delaney, Brian; Florian, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Medical information extraction is the automatic extraction of structured information from electronic medical records, where such information can be used for improving healthcare processes and medical decision making. In this paper, we study one important medical information extraction task called section classification. The objective of section classification is to automatically identify sections in a medical document and classify them into one of the pre-defined section types. Training section classification models typically requires large amounts of human labeled training data to achieve high accuracy. Annotating institution-specific data, however, can be both expensive and time-consuming; which poses a big hurdle for adapting a section classification model to new medical institutions. In this paper, we apply two advanced machine learning techniques, active learning and distant supervision, to reduce annotation cost and achieve fast model adaptation for automated section classification in electronic medical records. Our experiment results show that active learning reduces the annotation cost and time by more than 50%, and distant supervision can achieve good model accuracy using weakly labeled training data only.

  5. Crystallographic Tool Box (CrysTBox): automated tools for transmission electron microscopists and crystallographers

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Miloslav; Jäger, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Three tools for an automated analysis of electron diffraction pattern and crystallographic visualization are presented. Firstly, diffractGUI determines the zone axis from selected area diffraction, convergent beam diffraction or nanodiffraction patterns and allows for indexing of individual reflections. Secondly, ringGUI identifies crystallographic planes corresponding to the depicted rings in the ring diffraction pattern and can select the sample material from a list of candidates. Both diffractGUI and ringGUI employ methods of computer vision for a fast, robust and accurate analysis. Thirdly, cellViewer is an intuitive visualization tool which is also helpful for crystallographic calculations or educational purposes. diffractGUI and cellViewer can be used together during a transmission electron microscopy session to determine the sample holder tilts required to reach a desired zone axis. All the tools offer a graphical user interface. The toolbox is distributed as a standalone application, so it can be installed on the microscope computer and launched directly from DigitalMicrograph (Gatan Inc.). PMID:26664349

  6. Automated Detection and Segmentation of Synaptic Contacts in Nearly Isotropic Serial Electron Microscopy Images

    PubMed Central

    Kreshuk, Anna; Straehle, Christoph N.; Sommer, Christoph; Koethe, Ullrich; Cantoni, Marco; Knott, Graham; Hamprecht, Fred A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a protocol for fully automated detection and segmentation of asymmetric, presumed excitatory, synapses in serial electron microscopy images of the adult mammalian cerebral cortex, taken with the focused ion beam, scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM). The procedure is based on interactive machine learning and only requires a few labeled synapses for training. The statistical learning is performed on geometrical features of 3D neighborhoods of each voxel and can fully exploit the high z-resolution of the data. On a quantitative validation dataset of 111 synapses in 409 images of 1948×1342 pixels with manual annotations by three independent experts the error rate of the algorithm was found to be comparable to that of the experts (0.92 recall at 0.89 precision). Our software offers a convenient interface for labeling the training data and the possibility to visualize and proofread the results in 3D. The source code, the test dataset and the ground truth annotation are freely available on the website http://www.ilastik.org/synapse-detection. PMID:22031814

  7. Determination of aberration center of Ronchigram for automated aberration correctors in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Nakamichi, Tomohiro; Hosokawa, Fumio; Nakamura, Yoshio; Tanishiro, Yasumasa; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2013-12-01

    A generic method to determine the aberration center is established, which can be utilized for aberration calculation and axis alignment for aberration corrected electron microscopes. In this method, decentering induced secondary aberrations from inherent primary aberrations are minimized to find the appropriate axis center. The fitness function to find the optimal decentering vector for the axis was defined as a sum of decentering induced secondary aberrations with properly distributed weight values according to the aberration order. Since the appropriate decentering vector is determined from the aberration values calculated at an arbitrary center axis, only one aberration measurement is in principle required to find the center, resulting in /very fast center search. This approach was tested for the Ronchigram based aberration calculation method for aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Both in simulation and in experiments, the center search was confirmed to work well although the convergence to find the best axis becomes slower with larger primary aberrations. Such aberration center determination is expected to fully automatize the aberration correction procedures, which used to require pre-alignment of experienced users. This approach is also applicable to automated aperture positioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Automated Detection of Synapses in Serial Section Transmission Electron Microscopy Image Stacks

    PubMed Central

    Kreshuk, Anna; Koethe, Ullrich; Pax, Elizabeth; Bock, Davi D.; Hamprecht, Fred A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method for fully automated detection of chemical synapses in serial electron microscopy images with highly anisotropic axial and lateral resolution, such as images taken on transmission electron microscopes. Our pipeline starts from classification of the pixels based on 3D pixel features, which is followed by segmentation with an Ising model MRF and another classification step, based on object-level features. Classifiers are learned on sparse user labels; a fully annotated data subvolume is not required for training. The algorithm was validated on a set of 238 synapses in 20 serial 7197×7351 pixel images (4.5×4.5×45 nm resolution) of mouse visual cortex, manually labeled by three independent human annotators and additionally re-verified by an expert neuroscientist. The error rate of the algorithm (12% false negative, 7% false positive detections) is better than state-of-the-art, even though, unlike the state-of-the-art method, our algorithm does not require a prior segmentation of the image volume into cells. The software is based on the ilastik learning and segmentation toolkit and the vigra image processing library and is freely available on our website, along with the test data and gold standard annotations (http://www.ilastik.org/synapse-detection/sstem). PMID:24516550

  9. Ankle-Foot Orthosis Made by 3D Printing Technique and Automated Design Software.

    PubMed

    Cha, Yong Ho; Lee, Keun Ho; Ryu, Hong Jong; Joo, Il Won; Seo, Anna; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Sang Jun

    2017-01-01

    We described 3D printing technique and automated design software and clinical results after the application of this AFO to a patient with a foot drop. After acquiring a 3D modelling file of a patient's lower leg with peroneal neuropathy by a 3D scanner, we loaded this file on the automated orthosis software and created the "STL" file. The designed AFO was printed using a fused filament fabrication type 3D printer, and a mechanical stress test was performed. The patient alternated between the 3D-printed and conventional AFOs for 2 months. There was no crack or damage, and the shape and stiffness of the AFO did not change after the durability test. The gait speed increased after wearing the conventional AFO (56.5 cm/sec) and 3D-printed AFO (56.5 cm/sec) compared to that without an AFO (42.2 cm/sec). The patient was more satisfied with the 3D-printed AFO than the conventional AFO in terms of the weight and ease of use. The 3D-printed AFO exhibited similar functionality as the conventional AFO and considerably satisfied the patient in terms of the weight and ease of use. We suggest the possibility of the individualized AFO with 3D printing techniques and automated design software.

  10. Ankle-Foot Orthosis Made by 3D Printing Technique and Automated Design Software

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yong Ho; Lee, Keun Ho; Ryu, Hong Jong; Joo, Il Won; Seo, Anna; Kim, Dong-Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    We described 3D printing technique and automated design software and clinical results after the application of this AFO to a patient with a foot drop. After acquiring a 3D modelling file of a patient's lower leg with peroneal neuropathy by a 3D scanner, we loaded this file on the automated orthosis software and created the “STL” file. The designed AFO was printed using a fused filament fabrication type 3D printer, and a mechanical stress test was performed. The patient alternated between the 3D-printed and conventional AFOs for 2 months. There was no crack or damage, and the shape and stiffness of the AFO did not change after the durability test. The gait speed increased after wearing the conventional AFO (56.5 cm/sec) and 3D-printed AFO (56.5 cm/sec) compared to that without an AFO (42.2 cm/sec). The patient was more satisfied with the 3D-printed AFO than the conventional AFO in terms of the weight and ease of use. The 3D-printed AFO exhibited similar functionality as the conventional AFO and considerably satisfied the patient in terms of the weight and ease of use. We suggest the possibility of the individualized AFO with 3D printing techniques and automated design software. PMID:28827977

  11. Lower-Thermal-Conductivity Tapes For Tape Automated Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Erick T.; Scutero, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Foils of manganin substituted for copper foils ordinarily serving as electrical conductors on tapes used in tape automated bonding (TAB) in electronic circuits. Modification makes possible to apply TAB technology to circuits in which substantial gradients of temperature exist under design operating conditions. Other advantages include high reliability, automated assembly, and automated testing.

  12. An automation of design and modelling tasks in NX Siemens environment with original software - generator module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbiciak, M.; Grabowik, C.; Janik, W.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design constructional process is almost exclusively aided with CAD/CAE/CAM systems. It is evaluated that nearly 80% of design activities have a routine nature. These design routine tasks are highly susceptible to automation. Design automation is usually made with API tools which allow building original software responsible for adding different engineering activities. In this paper the original software worked out in order to automate engineering tasks at the stage of a product geometrical shape design is presented. The elaborated software works exclusively in NX Siemens CAD/CAM/CAE environment and was prepared in Microsoft Visual Studio with application of the .NET technology and NX SNAP library. The software functionality allows designing and modelling of spur and helicoidal involute gears. Moreover, it is possible to estimate relative manufacturing costs. With the Generator module it is possible to design and model both standard and non-standard gear wheels. The main advantage of the model generated in such a way is its better representation of an involute curve in comparison to those which are drawn in specialized standard CAD systems tools. It comes from fact that usually in CAD systems an involute curve is drawn by 3 points that respond to points located on the addendum circle, the reference diameter of a gear and the base circle respectively. In the Generator module the involute curve is drawn by 11 involute points which are located on and upper the base and the addendum circles therefore 3D gear wheels models are highly accurate. Application of the Generator module makes the modelling process very rapid so that the gear wheel modelling time is reduced to several seconds. During the conducted research the analysis of differences between standard 3 points and 11 points involutes was made. The results and conclusions drawn upon analysis are shown in details.

  13. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Methods Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Results Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing wide variation in product configuration and component functionality. Common e-cigarette components include an aerosol generator, a flow sensor, a battery and a nicotine-containing solution storage area. e-cigarettes currently include many interchangeable parts, enabling users to modify the character of the delivered aerosol and, therefore, the product's ‘effectiveness’ as a nicotine delivery product. Materials in e-cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics. Some materials may be aerosolised and have adverse health effects. Several studies have described significant performance variability across and within e-cigarette brands. Patent applications include novel product features designed to influence aerosol properties and e-cigarette efficiency at delivering nicotine. Conclusions Although e-cigarettes share a basic design, engineering variations and user modifications result in differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-cigarette aerosols may include harmful and potentially harmful constituents. Battery explosions and the risks of exposure to the e-liquid (especially for children) are also concerns. Additional research will enhance the current understanding of basic e-cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, and functionality. A standardised e-cigarette testing regime should be developed to allow product comparisons. PMID:24732162

  14. Automated pinhole-aperture diagnostic for the current profiling of TWT electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yu-Xiang; Huang, Ming-Guang; Liu, Shu-Qing; Liu, Jin-Yue; Hao, Bao-Liang; Du, Chao-Hai; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2013-02-01

    The measurement system reported here is intended for use in determining the current density distribution of electron beams from Pierce guns for use in TWTs. The system was designed to automatically scan the cross section of the electron beam and collect the high-resolution data with a Faraday cup probe mounted on a multistage manipulator using the LabVIEW program. A 0.06 mm thick molybdenum plate with a pinhole and a Faraday cup mounted as a probe assembly was employed to sample the electron beam current with 0.5 µm space resolution. The thermal analysis of the probe with pulse beam heating was discussed. A 0.45 µP electron gun with the expected minimum beam radius 0.42 mm was measured and the three-dimensional current density distribution, beam envelope and phase space were presented.

  15. Design automation techniques for high-resolution current folding and interpolating CMOS A/D converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevaert, D.

    2007-05-01

    The design and testing of a 12-bit Analog-to-Digital (A/D) converter, in current mode, arranged in an 8-bit LSB and a 4- bit MSB architecture together with the integration of specialized test building blocks on chip allows the set up of a design automation technique for current folding and interpolation CMOS A/D converter architectures. The presented design methodology focuses on the automation for CMOS A/D building blocks in a flexible target current folding and interpolating architecture for a downscaling technology and for different quality specifications. The comprehensive understanding of all sources of mismatching in the crucial building blocks and the use of physical based mismatch modeling in the prediction of mismatch errors, more adequate and realistic sizing of all transistors will result in an overall area reduction of the A/D converter. In this design the folding degree is 16, the number of folders is 64 and the interpolation level is 4. The number of folders is reduced by creating intermediate folding signals with a 4-level interpolator based on current division techniques. Current comparators detect the zero-crossing between the differential folder output currents. The outputs of the comparators deliver a cyclic thermometer code. The digital synthesis part for decoding and error correction building blocks is a standardized digital standard cell design. The basic building blocks in the target architecture were designed in 0.35μ CMOS technology; they are suitable for topological reuse and are in an automated way downscaled into a 0.18μ CMOS technology.

  16. Educational Systems Design Implications of Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romiszowski, Alexander J.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of electronic publishing focuses on the four main purposes of media in general: communication, entertainment, motivation, and education. Highlights include electronic journals and books; hypertext; user control; computer graphics and animation; electronic games; virtual reality; multimedia; electronic performance support;…

  17. Integrating automated structured analysis and design with Ada programming support environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Alan; Simmons, Andy

    1986-01-01

    Ada Programming Support Environments (APSE) include many powerful tools that address the implementation of Ada code. These tools do not address the entire software development process. Structured analysis is a methodology that addresses the creation of complete and accurate system specifications. Structured design takes a specification and derives a plan to decompose the system subcomponents, and provides heuristics to optimize the software design to minimize errors and maintenance. It can also produce the creation of useable modules. Studies have shown that most software errors result from poor system specifications, and that these errors also become more expensive to fix as the development process continues. Structured analysis and design help to uncover error in the early stages of development. The APSE tools help to insure that the code produced is correct, and aid in finding obscure coding errors. However, they do not have the capability to detect errors in specifications or to detect poor designs. An automated system for structured analysis and design TEAMWORK, which can be integrated with an APSE to support software systems development from specification through implementation is described. These tools completement each other to help developers improve quality and productivity, as well as to reduce development and maintenance costs. Complete system documentation and reusable code also resultss from the use of these tools. Integrating an APSE with automated tools for structured analysis and design provide capabilities and advantages beyond those realized with any of these systems used by themselves.

  18. Using tomoauto – a protocol for high-throughput automated cryo-electron tomography

    PubMed Central

    Morado, Dustin R.; Hu, Bo; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We present a protocol on how to utilize high-throughput cryo-electron tomography to determine high resolution in situ structures of molecular machines. The protocol permits large amounts of data to be processed, avoids common bottlenecks and reduces resource downtime, allowing the user to focus on important biological questions. Cryo-electron tomography (Cryo-ET) is a powerful three-dimensional (3-D) imaging technique for visualizing macromolecular complexes in their native context at a molecular level. The technique involves initially preserving the sample in its native state by rapidly freezing the specimen in vitreous ice, then collecting a series of micrographs from different angles at high magnification, and finally computationally reconstructing a 3-D density map. The frozen-hydrated specimen is extremely sensitive to the electron beam and so micrographs are collected at very low electron doses to limit the radiation damage. As a result, the raw cryo-tomogram has a very low signal to noise ratio characterized by an intrinsically noisy image. To better visualize subjects of interest, conventional imaging analysis and sub-tomogram averaging in which sub-tomograms of the subject are extracted from the initial tomogram and aligned and averaged are utilized to improve both contrast and resolution. Large datasets of tilt-series are essential to understanding and resolving the complexes at different states, conditions, or mutations as well as obtaining a large enough collection of sub-tomograms for averaging and classification. Collecting and processing this data can be a major obstacle preventing further analysis. Here we describe a high-throughput cryo-ET protocol based on a computer-controlled 300kV cryo-electron microscope, a direct detection device (DDD) camera and a highly effective, semi-automated image-processing pipeline software wrapper library tomoauto developed in-house. This protocol has been effectively utilized to visualize the intact type III

  19. Improved helium exchange gas cryostat and sample tube designs for automated gas sampling and cryopumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerki, P. R.; Jackson, Brian C.; Schilling, Tim; Rufer, Terry; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    2006-10-01

    In order to eliminate the use of liquid helium for the extraction of atmospheric gases from polar ice cores, two units of a redesigned top load helium exchange gas cryostat were built and tested. The cryostats feature the shortest and largest diameter sample wells built to date, a base temperature below 7 Kelvin, and a sample well without baffles. The cryostats allowed shortening the length and thus increasing the gas pressure inside our sample tubes by 58% and increasing the amount of sample ending up in the mass spectrometer by 4.4%. The cryostats can either be used as mobile stand-alone units for manual gas processing lines or integrated into a fully automated vacuum extraction and gas analysis line. For the latter application the cryostat was equipped with a custom-designed automated changeover system.

  20. Adaptive and Adaptable Automation Design: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kaber, David B.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a review of literature on approaches to adaptive and adaptable task/function allocation and adaptive interface technologies for effective human management of complex systems that are likely to be issues for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, and a focus of research under the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project. Contemporary literature retrieved from an online database search is summarized and integrated. The major topics include the effects of delegation-type, adaptable automation on human performance, workload and situation awareness, the effectiveness of various automation invocation philosophies and strategies to function allocation in adaptive systems, and the role of user modeling in adaptive interface design and the performance implications of adaptive interface technology.

  1. RHIC electron lens beam transport system design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Heimerle, M.; Fischer, W.; Pikin, A.; Beebe, E.; Bruno, D.; Gassner, D.; Gu, X.; Gupta, R. C.; Hock, J.; Jain, A.; Lambiase, R.; Mapes, M.; Meng, W.; Montag, C.; Oerter, B.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Tan, Y.; Than, R.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, W.

    2010-08-03

    To apply head-on beam-beam compensation for RHIC, two electron lenses are designed and will be installed at IP6 and IP8. Each electron lens has several sub-systems, including electron gun, electron collector, superconducting main solenoid (SM), diagnostics system and power supply system. In addition to these systems, beam transport system which can transport electron beam from electron gun side to collector side is also needed.

  2. New Insights into the Composition and Texture of Lunar Regolith Using Ultrafast Automated Electron-Beam Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Wentworth, Susan J.; Schrader, Christian M.; Stoeser, Doug; Botha, Pieter WSK; Butcher, Alan R.; Horsch, Hanna E.; Benedictus, Aukje; Gottlieb, Paul; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Sieved grain mounts of Apollo 16 drive tube samples have been examined using QEMSCAN - an innovative electron beam technology. By combining multiple energy-dispersive X-ray detectors, fully automated control, and off-line image processing, to produce digital mineral maps of particles exposed on polished surfaces, the result is an unprecedented quantity of mineralogical and petrographic data, on a particle-by-particle basis. Experimental analysis of four size fractions (500-250 microns, 150-90 microns, 75-45 microns and < 20 microns), prepared from two samples (64002,374 and 64002,262), has produced a robust and uniform dataset which allows for the quantification of mineralogy; texture; particle shape, size and density; and the digital classification of distinct particle types in each measured sample. These preliminary data show that there is a decrease in plagioclase modal content and an opposing increase in glass modal content, with decreasing particle size. These findings, together with data on trace phases (metals, sulphides, phosphates, and oxides), provide not only new insights into the make-up of lunar regolith at the Apollo 16 landing site, but also key physical parameters which can be used to design lunar simulants, and compute Figures of Merit for each material produced.

  3. Applying shot boundary detection for automated crystal growth analysis during in situ transmission electron microscope experiments.

    PubMed

    Moeglein, W A; Griswold, R; Mehdi, B L; Browning, N D; Teuton, J

    2017-01-01

    In situ scanning transmission electron microscopy is being developed for numerous applications in the study of nucleation and growth under electrochemical driving forces. For this type of experiment, one of the key parameters is to identify when nucleation initiates. Typically, the process of identifying the moment that crystals begin to form is a manual process requiring the user to perform an observation and respond accordingly (adjust focus, magnification, translate the stage, etc.). However, as the speed of the cameras being used to perform these observations increases, the ability of a user to "catch" the important initial stage of nucleation decreases (there is more information that is available in the first few milliseconds of the process). Here, we show that video shot boundary detection can automatically detect frames where a change in the image occurs. We show that this method can be applied to quickly and accurately identify points of change during crystal growth. This technique allows for automated segmentation of a digital stream for further analysis and the assignment of arbitrary time stamps for the initiation of processes that are independent of the user's ability to observe and react.

  4. Automated determination of parameters describing power spectra of micrograph images in electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhong; Baldwin, Philip R; Mullapudi, Srinivas; Penczek, Pawel A

    2003-01-01

    The current theory of image formation in electron microscopy has been semi-quantitatively successful in describing data. The theory involves parameters due to the transfer function of the microscope (defocus, spherical aberration constant, and amplitude constant ratio) as well as parameters used to describe the background and attenuation of the signal. We present empirical evidence that at least one of the features of this model has not been well characterized. Namely the spectrum of the noise background is not accurately described by a Gaussian and associated "B-factor;" this becomes apparent when one studies high-quality far-from focus data. In order to have both our analysis and conclusions free from any innate bias, we have approached the questions by developing an automated fitting algorithm. The most important features of this routine, not currently found in the literature, are (i). a process for determining the cutoff for those frequencies below which observations and the currently adopted model are not in accord, (ii). a method for determining the resolution at which no more signal is expected to exist, and (iii). a parameter-with units of spatial frequency-that characterizes which frequencies mainly contribute to the signal. Whereas no general relation is seen to exist between either of these two quantities and the defocus, a simple empirical relationship approximately relates all three.

  5. ConfMatch: automating electron-density map interpretation by matching conformations.

    PubMed

    Wang, C E

    2000-12-01

    Building a protein model from the initial three-dimensional electron-density distribution (density map) is an important task in X-ray crystallography. This problem is computationally challenging because proteins are extremely flexible. The algorithm ConfMatch is a global real-space fitting procedure in torsion-angle space. It solves this 'map-interpretation' problem by matching a detailed conformation of the molecule to the density map (conformational matching). This 'best-match' structure is defined as one which maximizes the sum of the density at atom positions. ConfMatch is a practical systematic algorithm based on a branch-and-bound search. The most important idea of ConfMatch is an efficient method for computing accurate bounds. ConfMatch relaxes the conformational matching problem, a problem which can only be solved in exponential time, into one which can be solved in polynomial time. The solution to the relaxed problem is a guaranteed upper bound for the conformational matching problem. In most empirical cases, these bounds are accurate enough to prune the search space dramatically, enabling ConfMatch to solve structures with more than 100 free dihedral angles. Experiments have shown that ConfMatch may be able to automate the interpretation of density maps of small proteins.

  6. Automated insulin granule segmentation from electron photomicrographs of rat pancreatic β-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Straub, Susanne G.; Sharp, Geoffrey W. G.; Loew, Murray

    2005-04-01

    Increased blood glucose stimulates pancreatic β-cells and induces an exocytotic release of insulin. The β-cell, which contains ~10^4 insulin-containing granules, releases only a few percent of the granules during a given stimulus such as a meal. The temporal response function to a square wave increase in the concentration of glucose is characteristically biphasic. It is not known whether the granules exhibit random or directed migration patterns as a function of phase. Directed migration would suggest the development of an intracellular gradient directing the path and velocity of insulin granule movement. Our ongoing research investigates this process using manual morphometric analysis of electron micrographs of rat pancreatic β-cells. This is a tedious and time-consuming stereological process. Consequently, we have developed an automated algorithm for accurately segmenting and deriving granule counts, areas, and measuring distance to the plasma membrane. The method is a data-driven image processing approach that implements Mahalanobis classifiers to hierarchically classify pixel candidates and subsequently pixel aggregates as insulin granules. Granule cores and halos are classified independently and fused by intersecting the convex difference of granule halos with core candidates. Once fused, total and individual granule areas and distance metrics to the β-cell plasma membrane are obtained. This algorithm provides a rapid and accurate method for the determination of granule numbers, location, and potential gradients in the pancreatic β-cell under different experimental conditions.

  7. Space Electronics: A Challenging World for Designers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poivey, Christian; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of: 1) The Space Radiation Environment; 2) The Effects on Electronics; 3) The Environment in Action; 4) Hardening Approaches to Commercial CMOS Electronics (including device vulnerabilities).

  8. EMC in power electronics and PCB design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chentian

    This dissertation consists of two parts. Part I is about Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) in power electronics and part II is about the Maximum Radiated Electromagnetic Emissions Calculator (MREMC), which is a software tool for EMC in printed circuit board (PCB) design. Switched-mode power converters can be significant sources of electromagnetic fields that interfere with the proper operation of nearby circuits or distant radio receivers. Part I of this dissertation provides comprehensive and organized information on the latest EMC developments in power converters. It describes and evaluates different technologies to ensure that power converters meet electromagnetic compatibility requirements. Chapters 2 and 3 describe EMC noise sources and coupling mechanisms in power converters. Chapter 4 reviews the measurements used to characterize and troubleshoot EMC problems. Chapters 5 -- 8 cover passive filter solutions, active filter solutions, noise cancellation methods and reduced-noise driving schemes. Part II describes the methods used, calculations made, and implementation details of the MREMC, which is a software tool that allows the user to calculate the maximum possible radiated emissions that could occur due to specific source geometries on a PCB. Chapters 9 -- 13 covers the I/O coupling EMI algorithm, Common-mode EMI algorithm, Power Bus EMI algorithm and Differential-Mode EMI algorithm used in the MREMC.

  9. Evidence Report, Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis; Billman, Dorrit; Feary, Mike; Green, Collin

    2011-01-01

    The success of future exploration missions depends, even more than today, on effective integration of humans and technology (automation and robotics). This will not emerge by chance, but by design. Both crew and ground personnel will need to do more demanding tasks in more difficult conditions, amplifying the costs of poor design and the benefits of good design. This report has looked at the importance of good design and the risks from poor design from several perspectives: 1) If the relevant functions needed for a mission are not identified, then designs of technology and its use by humans are unlikely to be effective: critical functions will be missing and irrelevant functions will mislead or drain attention. 2) If functions are not distributed effectively among the (multiple) participating humans and automation/robotic systems, later design choices can do little to repair this: additional unnecessary coordination work may be introduced, workload may be redistributed to create problems, limited human attentional resources may be wasted, and the capabilities of both humans and technology underused. 3) If the design does not promote accurate understanding of the capabilities of the technology, the operators will not use the technology effectively: the system may be switched off in conditions where it would be effective, or used for tasks or in contexts where its effectiveness may be very limited. 4) If an ineffective interaction design is implemented and put into use, a wide range of problems can ensue. Many involve lack of transparency into the system: operators may be unable or find it very difficult to determine a) the current state and changes of state of the automation or robot, b) the current state and changes in state of the system being controlled or acted on, and c) what actions by human or by system had what effects. 5) If the human interfaces for operation and control of robotic agents are not designed to accommodate the unique points of view and

  10. Effects of an Advanced Reactor’s Design, Use of Automation, and Mission on Human Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    The roles, functions, and tasks of the human operator in existing light water nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on sound nuclear and human factors engineering (HFE) principles, are well defined by the plant’s conduct of operations, and have been validated by years of operating experience. However, advanced NPPs whose engineering designs differ from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) will impose changes on the roles, functions, and tasks of the human operators. The plans to increase the use of automation, reduce staffing levels, and add to the mission of these advanced NPPs will also affect the operator’s roles, functions, and tasks. We assert that these factors, which do not appear to have received a lot of attention by the design engineers of advanced NPPs relative to the attention given to conceptual design of these reactors, can have significant risk implications for the operators and overall plant safety if not mitigated appropriately. This paper presents a high-level analysis of a specific advanced NPP and how its engineered design, its plan to use greater levels of automation, and its expanded mission have risk significant implications on operator performance and overall plant safety.

  11. Modeling biology with HDL languages: a first step toward a genetic design automation tool inspired from microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Gendrault, Yves; Madec, Morgan; Lallement, Christophe; Haiech, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, synthetic biology is a hot research topic. Each day, progresses are made to improve the complexity of artificial biological functions in order to tend to complex biodevices and biosystems. Up to now, these systems are handmade by bioengineers, which require strong technical skills and leads to nonreusable development. Besides, scientific fields that share the same design approach, such as microelectronics, have already overcome several issues and designers succeed in building extremely complex systems with many evolved functions. On the other hand, in systems engineering and more specifically in microelectronics, the development of the domain has been promoted by both the improvement of technological processes and electronic design automation tools. The work presented in this paper paves the way for the adaptation of microelectronics design tools to synthetic biology. Considering the similarities and differences between the synthetic biology and microelectronics, the milestones of this adaptation are described. The first one concerns the modeling of biological mechanisms. To do so, a new formalism is proposed, based on an extension of the generalized Kirchhoff laws to biology. This way, a description of all biological mechanisms can be made with languages widely used in microelectronics. Our approach is therefore successfully validated on specific examples drawn from the literature.

  12. Automated Generation of Finite-Element Meshes for Aircraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Robinson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for automated generation of fully connected finite-element meshes for all internal structural components and skins of a given wing-body geometry model, controlled by a few conceptual-level structural layout parameters. Internal structural components include spars, ribs, frames, and bulkheads. Structural layout parameters include spar/rib locations in wing chordwise/spanwise direction and frame/bulkhead locations in longitudinal direction. A simple shell thickness optimization problem with two load conditions is used to verify versatility and robustness of the automated meshing process. The automation process is implemented in ModelCenter starting from an OpenVSP geometry and ending with a NASTRAN 200 solution. One subsonic configuration and one supersonic configuration are used for numerical verification. Two different structural layouts are constructed for each configuration and five finite-element meshes of different sizes are generated for each layout. The paper includes various comparisons of solutions of 20 thickness optimization problems, as well as discussions on how the optimal solutions are affected by the stress constraint bound and the initial guess of design variables.

  13. Rapid and Semi-Automated Extraction of Neuronal Cell Bodies and Nuclei from Electron Microscopy Image Stacks

    PubMed Central

    Holcomb, Paul S.; Morehead, Michael; Doretto, Gianfranco; Chen, Peter; Berg, Stuart; Plaza, Stephen; Spirou, George

    2016-01-01

    Connectomics—the study of how neurons wire together in the brain—is at the forefront of modern neuroscience research. However, many connectomics studies are limited by the time and precision needed to correctly segment large volumes of electron microscopy (EM) image data. We present here a semi-automated segmentation pipeline using freely available software that can significantly decrease segmentation time for extracting both nuclei and cell bodies from EM image volumes. PMID:27259933

  14. Rapid and Semi-automated Extraction of Neuronal Cell Bodies and Nuclei from Electron Microscopy Image Stacks.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, Paul S; Morehead, Michael; Doretto, Gianfranco; Chen, Peter; Berg, Stuart; Plaza, Stephen; Spirou, George

    2016-01-01

    Connectomics-the study of how neurons wire together in the brain-is at the forefront of modern neuroscience research. However, many connectomics studies are limited by the time and precision needed to correctly segment large volumes of electron microscopy (EM) image data. We present here a semi-automated segmentation pipeline using freely available software that can significantly decrease segmentation time for extracting both nuclei and cell bodies from EM image volumes.

  15. Automated identification of postoperative complications within an electronic medical record using natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Murff, Harvey J; FitzHenry, Fern; Matheny, Michael E; Gentry, Nancy; Kotter, Kristen L; Crimin, Kimberly; Dittus, Robert S; Rosen, Amy K; Elkin, Peter L; Brown, Steven H; Speroff, Theodore

    2011-08-24

    Currently most automated methods to identify patient safety occurrences rely on administrative data codes; however, free-text searches of electronic medical records could represent an additional surveillance approach. To evaluate a natural language processing search-approach to identify postoperative surgical complications within a comprehensive electronic medical record. Cross-sectional study involving 2974 patients undergoing inpatient surgical procedures at 6 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical centers from 1999 to 2006. Postoperative occurrences of acute renal failure requiring dialysis, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, pneumonia, or myocardial infarction identified through medical record review as part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of the natural language processing approach to identify these complications and compared its performance with patient safety indicators that use discharge coding information. The proportion of postoperative events for each sample was 2% (39 of 1924) for acute renal failure requiring dialysis, 0.7% (18 of 2327) for pulmonary embolism, 1% (29 of 2327) for deep vein thrombosis, 7% (61 of 866) for sepsis, 16% (222 of 1405) for pneumonia, and 2% (35 of 1822) for myocardial infarction. Natural language processing correctly identified 82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-91%) of acute renal failure cases compared with 38% (95% CI, 25%-54%) for patient safety indicators. Similar results were obtained for venous thromboembolism (59%, 95% CI, 44%-72% vs 46%, 95% CI, 32%-60%), pneumonia (64%, 95% CI, 58%-70% vs 5%, 95% CI, 3%-9%), sepsis (89%, 95% CI, 78%-94% vs 34%, 95% CI, 24%-47%), and postoperative myocardial infarction (91%, 95% CI, 78%-97%) vs 89%, 95% CI, 74%-96%). Both natural language processing and patient safety indicators were highly specific for these diagnoses. Among patients undergoing inpatient surgical procedures at VA medical centers

  16. Espina: A Tool for the Automated Segmentation and Counting of Synapses in Large Stacks of Electron Microscopy Images

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juan; Alonso-Nanclares, Lidia; Rodríguez, José-Rodrigo; DeFelipe, Javier; Rodríguez, Ángel; Merchán-Pérez, Ángel

    2011-01-01

    The synapses in the cerebral cortex can be classified into two main types, Gray's type I and type II, which correspond to asymmetric (mostly glutamatergic excitatory) and symmetric (inhibitory GABAergic) synapses, respectively. Hence, the quantification and identification of their different types and the proportions in which they are found, is extraordinarily important in terms of brain function. The ideal approach to calculate the number of synapses per unit volume is to analyze 3D samples reconstructed from serial sections. However, obtaining serial sections by transmission electron microscopy is an extremely time consuming and technically demanding task. Using focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope microscopy, we recently showed that virtually all synapses can be accurately identified as asymmetric or symmetric synapses when they are visualized, reconstructed, and quantified from large 3D tissue samples obtained in an automated manner. Nevertheless, the analysis, segmentation, and quantification of synapses is still a labor intensive procedure. Thus, novel solutions are currently necessary to deal with the large volume of data that is being generated by automated 3D electron microscopy. Accordingly, we have developed ESPINA, a software tool that performs the automated segmentation and counting of synapses in a reconstructed 3D volume of the cerebral cortex, and that greatly facilitates and accelerates these processes. PMID:21633491

  17. Bedside electronic capture of clinical observations and automated clinical alerts to improve compliance with an Early Warning Score protocol.

    PubMed

    Jones, Steve; Mullally, Miki; Ingleby, Sarah; Buist, Michael; Bailey, Michael; Eddleston, Jane M

    2011-06-01

    Failure to comply with clinical protocols and failure of communication to ensure delivery of the most appropriate timely clinical responses to patients whose conditions are acutely deteriorating have been shown to be significant causative factors associated with inhospital adverse events. To determine whether automated clinical alerts increase compliance with an Early Warning Score (EWS) protocol and improve patient outcomes. We performed a historically controlled study of bedside electronic capture of observations and automated clinical alerts. The primary outcome measure was hospital length of stay (LOS); secondary outcome measures were compliance with the EWS protocol, cardiac arrest incidence, critical care utilisation and hospital mortality. Between baseline and intervention, 1481 consecutive patients were recruited generating 13 668 observation sets. There was a reduction in hospital LOS between the baseline and alert phase (9.7 days v 6.9 days, P < 0.001). EWS accuracy improved from 81% to 100% with electronic calculation. Clinical attendance to patients with EWS 3, 4 or 5 increased from 29% at baseline to 78% with automated alerts (P < 0.001). For patients with an EWS > 5, clinical attendance increased from 67% at baseline to 96% with automatic alerts (P < 0.001). Electronic recording of patient observations linked to a computer system that calculates patient risk and then issues automatic graded alerts can improve clinical attendance to unstable general medical ward patients.

  18. Electronic-Power-Transformer Design Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, G. E.; Lagadinos, J. C.; Ahearn, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Compilation of information on design procedures, electrical properties, and fabrication. Guide provides information on design procedures; magnetic and insulating material electrical properties; impregnating, encapsulating and processing techniques.

  19. Automated design and optimization of flexible booster autopilots via linear programming, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, F. D.

    1972-01-01

    A nonlinear programming technique was developed for the automated design and optimization of autopilots for large flexible launch vehicles. This technique, which resulted in the COEBRA program, uses the iterative application of linear programming. The method deals directly with the three main requirements of booster autopilot design: to provide (1) good response to guidance commands; (2) response to external disturbances (e.g. wind) to minimize structural bending moment loads and trajectory dispersions; and (3) stability with specified tolerances on the vehicle and flight control system parameters. The method is applicable to very high order systems (30th and greater per flight condition). Examples are provided that demonstrate the successful application of the employed algorithm to the design of autopilots for both single and multiple flight conditions.

  20. FireProt: web server for automated design of thermostable proteins

    PubMed Central

    Musil, Milos; Stourac, Jan; Brezovsky, Jan; Prokop, Zbynek; Zendulka, Jaroslav; Martinek, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is a continuous interest in increasing proteins stability to enhance their usability in numerous biomedical and biotechnological applications. A number of in silico tools for the prediction of the effect of mutations on protein stability have been developed recently. However, only single-point mutations with a small effect on protein stability are typically predicted with the existing tools and have to be followed by laborious protein expression, purification, and characterization. Here, we present FireProt, a web server for the automated design of multiple-point thermostable mutant proteins that combines structural and evolutionary information in its calculation core. FireProt utilizes sixteen tools and three protein engineering strategies for making reliable protein designs. The server is complemented with interactive, easy-to-use interface that allows users to directly analyze and optionally modify designed thermostable mutants. FireProt is freely available at http://loschmidt.chemi.muni.cz/fireprot. PMID:28449074

  1. Simplifying multiobjective optimization: An automated design methodology for the nondominated sorted genetic algorithm-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Patrick; Minsker, Barbara S.; Goldberg, David E.

    2003-07-01

    Many water resources problems require careful balancing of fiscal, technical, and social objectives. Informed negotiation and balancing of objectives can be greatly aided through the use of evolutionary multiobjective optimization (EMO) algorithms, which can evolve entire tradeoff (or Pareto) surfaces within a single run. The primary difficulty in using these methods lies in the large number of parameters that must be specified to ensure that these algorithms effectively quantify design tradeoffs. This technical note addresses this difficulty by introducing a multipopulation design methodology that automates parameter specification for the nondominated sorted genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The NSGA-II design methodology is successfully demonstrated on a multiobjective long-term groundwater monitoring application. Using this methodology, multiobjective optimization problems can now be solved automatically with only a few simple user inputs.

  2. Automated Extraction of VTE Events From Narrative Radiology Reports in Electronic Health Records: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhe; Sun, Simon; Eguale, Tewodros; Rochefort, Christian M

    2017-10-01

    Surveillance of venous thromboembolisms (VTEs) is necessary for improving patient safety in acute care hospitals, but current detection methods are inaccurate and inefficient. With the growing availability of clinical narratives in an electronic format, automated surveillance using natural language processing (NLP) techniques may represent a better method. We assessed the accuracy of using symbolic NLP for identifying the 2 clinical manifestations of VTE, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), from narrative radiology reports. A random sample of 4000 narrative reports was selected among imaging studies that could diagnose DVT or PE, and that were performed between 2008 and 2012 in a university health network of 5 adult-care hospitals in Montreal (Canada). The reports were coded by clinical experts to identify positive and negative cases of DVT and PE, which served as the reference standard. Using data from the largest hospital (n=2788), 2 symbolic NLP classifiers were trained; one for DVT, the other for PE. The accuracy of these classifiers was tested on data from the other 4 hospitals (n=1212). On manual review, 663 DVT-positive and 272 PE-positive reports were identified. In the testing dataset, the DVT classifier achieved 94% sensitivity (95% CI, 88%-97%), 96% specificity (95% CI, 94%-97%), and 73% positive predictive value (95% CI, 65%-80%), whereas the PE classifier achieved 94% sensitivity (95% CI, 89%-97%), 96% specificity (95% CI, 95%-97%), and 80% positive predictive value (95% CI, 73%-85%). Symbolic NLP can accurately identify VTEs from narrative radiology reports. This method could facilitate VTE surveillance and the evaluation of preventive measures.

  3. Using the Electronic Medical Record to Identify Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Toward a Replicable Automated Strategy

    PubMed Central

    DeLisle, Sylvain; Kim, Bernard; Deepak, Janaki; Siddiqui, Tariq; Gundlapalli, Adi; Samore, Matthew; D'Avolio, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Background Timely information about disease severity can be central to the detection and management of outbreaks of acute respiratory infections (ARI), including influenza. We asked if two resources: 1) free text, and 2) structured data from an electronic medical record (EMR) could complement each other to identify patients with pneumonia, an ARI severity landmark. Methods A manual EMR review of 2747 outpatient ARI visits with associated chest imaging identified x-ray reports that could support the diagnosis of pneumonia (kappa score  = 0.88 (95% CI 0.82∶0.93)), along with attendant cases with Possible Pneumonia (adds either cough, sputum, fever/chills/night sweats, dyspnea or pleuritic chest pain) or with Pneumonia-in-Plan (adds pneumonia stated as a likely diagnosis by the provider). The x-ray reports served as a reference to develop a text classifier using machine-learning software that did not require custom coding. To identify pneumonia cases, the classifier was combined with EMR-based structured data and with text analyses aimed at ARI symptoms in clinical notes. Results 370 reference cases with Possible Pneumonia and 250 with Pneumonia-in-Plan were identified. The x-ray report text classifier increased the positive predictive value of otherwise identical EMR-based case-detection algorithms by 20–70%, while retaining sensitivities of 58–75%. These performance gains were independent of the case definitions and of whether patients were admitted to the hospital or sent home. Text analyses seeking ARI symptoms in clinical notes did not add further value. Conclusion Specialized software development is not required for automated text analyses to help identify pneumonia patients. These results begin to map an efficient, replicable strategy through which EMR data can be used to stratify ARI severity. PMID:23967138

  4. Working Notes from the 1992 AAAI Workshop on Automating Software Design. Theme: Domain Specific Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M. (Editor); Barstow, David; Lowry, Michael R.; Tong, Christopher H.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this workshop is to identify different architectural approaches to building domain-specific software design systems and to explore issues unique to domain-specific (vs. general-purpose) software design. Some general issues that cut across the particular software design domain include: (1) knowledge representation, acquisition, and maintenance; (2) specialized software design techniques; and (3) user interaction and user interface.

  5. Optimizing RF gun cavity geometry within an automated injector design system

    SciTech Connect

    Alicia Hofler ,Pavel Evtushenko

    2011-03-28

    RF guns play an integral role in the success of several light sources around the world, and properly designed and optimized cw superconducting RF (SRF) guns can provide a path to higher average brightness. As the need for these guns grows, it is important to have automated optimization software tools that vary the geometry of the gun cavity as part of the injector design process. This will allow designers to improve existing designs for present installations, extend the utility of these guns to other applications, and develop new designs. An evolutionary algorithm (EA) based system can provide this capability because EAs can search in parallel a large parameter space (often non-linear) and in a relatively short time identify promising regions of the space for more careful consideration. The injector designer can then evaluate more cavity design parameters during the injector optimization process against the beam performance requirements of the injector. This paper will describe an extension to the APISA software that allows the cavity geometry to be modified as part of the injector optimization and provide examples of its application to existing RF and SRF gun designs.

  6. SP-100 shield design automation process using expert system and heuristic search techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Marcille, T.F.; Protsik, R.; Deane, N.A.; Hoover, D.G. )

    1993-01-15

    The SP-100 shield subsystem design process has been modified to utilize the GE Corporate Reserch and Development program, ENGINEOUS (Tong 1990). ENGINEOUS is a software system that automates the use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis programs in the engineering design process. The shield subsystem design process incorporates a nuclear subsystems design and performance code, a two-dimensional neutral particle transport code, several input processors and two general purpose neutronic output processors. Coupling these programs within ENGINEOUS provides automatic transition paths between applications, with no source code modifications. ENGINEOUS captures human design knowledge, as well as information about the specific CAE applications and stores this information in knowledge base files. The knowledge base information is used by the ENGINEOUS expert system to drive knowledge directed and knowledge supplemented search modules to find an optimum shield design for a given reactor definition, ensuring that specified constraints are satisfied. Alternate designs, not accommodated in the optimization design rules, can readily be explored through the use of a parametric study capability.

  7. SP-100 shield design automation process using expert system and heuristic search techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcille, Thomas F.; Protsik, Robert; Deane, Nelson A.; Hoover, Darryl G.

    1993-01-01

    The SP-100 shield subsystem design process has been modified to utilize the GE Corporate Reserch and Development program, ENGINEOUS (Tong 1990). ENGINEOUS is a software system that automates the use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis programs in the engineering design process. The shield subsystem design process incorporates a nuclear subsystems design and performance code, a two-dimensional neutral particle transport code, several input processors and two general purpose neutronic output processors. Coupling these programs within ENGINEOUS provides automatic transition paths between applications, with no source code modifications. ENGINEOUS captures human design knowledge, as well as information about the specific CAE applications and stores this information in knowledge base files. The knowledge base information is used by the ENGINEOUS expert system to drive knowledge directed and knowledge supplemented search modules to find an optimum shield design for a given reactor definition, ensuring that specified constraints are satisfied. Alternate designs, not accommodated in the optimization design rules, can readily be explored through the use of a parametric study capability.

  8. Design and Demonstration of Automated Data Analysis Algorithms for Ultrasonic Inspection of Complex Composite Panels with Bonds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0194 DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF AUTOMATED DATA ANALYSIS ALGORITHMS FOR ULTRASONIC INSPECTION OF COMPLEX COMPOSITE PANELS...INSPECTION OF COMPLEX COMPOSITE PANELS WITH BONDS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...data review burden and improve the reliability of the ultrasonic inspection of large composite structures, automated data analysis (ADA) algorithms

  9. Automated inter-rater reliability assessment and electronic data collection in a multi-center breast cancer study

    PubMed Central

    Thwin, Soe Soe; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M; McCarty, Maribet C; Lash, Timothy L; Alford, Sharon H; Buist, Diana SM; Enger, Shelley M; Field, Terry S; Frost, Floyd; Wei, Feifei; Silliman, Rebecca A

    2007-01-01

    Background The choice between paper data collection methods and electronic data collection (EDC) methods has become a key question for clinical researchers. There remains a need to examine potential benefits, efficiencies, and innovations associated with an EDC system in a multi-center medical record review study. Methods A computer-based automated menu-driven system with 658 data fields was developed for a cohort study of women aged 65 years or older, diagnosed with invasive histologically confirmed primary breast cancer (N = 1859), at 6 Cancer Research Network sites. Medical record review with direct data entry into the EDC system was implemented. An inter-rater and intra-rater reliability (IRR) system was developed using a modified version of the EDC. Results Automation of EDC accelerated the flow of study information and resulted in an efficient data collection process. Data collection time was reduced by approximately four months compared to the project schedule and funded time available for manuscript preparation increased by 12 months. In addition, an innovative modified version of the EDC permitted an automated evaluation of inter-rater and intra-rater reliability across six data collection sites. Conclusion Automated EDC is a powerful tool for research efficiency and innovation, especially when multiple data collection sites are involved. PMID:17577410

  10. Structure and design of the electron lens for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, A.; Fischer, W.; Alessi, J.; Anerella, M.; Beebe, E. Gassner, D.; Gu, X.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Jain, A.; Lambiase, R.; Luo, Y.; Montag, C.; Okamura, M.; Tan, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.; Thieberger, P.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    Two electron lenses for a head-on beam-beam compensation are being planned for RHIC; one for each circulating proton beam. The transverse profile of the electron beam will be Gaussian up to a maximum radius of r{sub e} = 3{sigma}. Simulations and design of the electron gun with Gaussian radial emission current density profile and of the electron collector are presented. Ions of the residual gas generated in the interaction region by electron and proton beams will be removed by an axial gradient of the electric field towards the electron collector. A method for the optical observation of the transverse profile of the electron beam is described.

  11. Designing a beam transport system for RHIC's electron lens

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X.; Pikin, A.; Okamura, M.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Raparia, D.

    2011-03-28

    We designed two electron lenses to apply head-on beam-beam compensation for RHIC; they will be installed near IP10. The electron-beam transport system is an important subsystem of the entire electron-lens system. Electrons are transported from the electron gun to the main solenoid and further to the collector. The system must allow for changes of the electron beam size inside the superconducting magnet, and for changes of the electron position by 5 mm in the horizontal- and vertical-planes.

  12. The accuracy of a designed software for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on CBCT images.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Shoaleh; Bahrampour, Ehsan; Soltanimehr, Elham; Zamani, Ali; Oshagh, Morteza; Moattari, Marzieh; Mehdizadeh, Alireza

    2014-09-16

    Two-dimensional projection radiographs have been traditionally considered the modality of choice for cephalometric analysis. To overcome the shortcomings of two-dimensional images, three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) has been used to evaluate craniofacial structures. However, manual landmark detection depends on medical expertise, and the process is time-consuming. The present study was designed to produce software capable of automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on cone beam (CB) CT images based on image registration and to evaluate its accuracy. The software was designed using MATLAB programming language. The technique was a combination of feature-based (principal axes registration) and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration. A total of 8 CBCT images were selected as our reference images for creating a head atlas. Then, 20 CBCT images were randomly selected as the test images for evaluating the method. Three experts twice located 14 landmarks in all 28 CBCT images during two examinations set 6 weeks apart. The differences in the distances of coordinates of each landmark on each image between manual and automated detection methods were calculated and reported as mean errors. The combined intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability was 0.89 and for interobserver reliability 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.93). The mean errors of all 14 landmarks were <4 mm. Additionally, 63.57% of landmarks had a mean error of <3 mm compared with manual detection (gold standard method). The accuracy of our approach for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks, which was based on combining feature-based and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration, was acceptable. Nevertheless we recommend repetition of this study using other techniques, such as intensity-based methods.

  13. Human-Automation Interaction Design for Adaptive Cruise Control Systems of Ground Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Hwisoo; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    A majority of recently developed advanced vehicles have been equipped with various automated driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assistance systems. ACC systems have several operational modes, and drivers can be unaware of the mode in which they are operating. Because mode confusion is a significant human error factor that contributes to traffic accidents, it is necessary to develop user interfaces for ACC systems that can reduce mode confusion. To meet this requirement, this paper presents a new human-automation interaction design methodology in which the compatibility of the machine and interface models is determined using the proposed criteria, and if the models are incompatible, one or both of the models is/are modified to make them compatible. To investigate the effectiveness of our methodology, we designed two new interfaces by separately modifying the machine model and the interface model and then performed driver-in-the-loop experiments. The results showed that modifying the machine model provides a more compact, acceptable, effective, and safe interface than modifying the interface model. PMID:26076406

  14. Human-Automation Interaction Design for Adaptive Cruise Control Systems of Ground Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hwisoo; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-06-12

    A majority of recently developed advanced vehicles have been equipped with various automated driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assistance systems. ACC systems have several operational modes, and drivers can be unaware of the mode in which they are operating. Because mode confusion is a significant human error factor that contributes to traffic accidents, it is necessary to develop user interfaces for ACC systems that can reduce mode confusion. To meet this requirement, this paper presents a new human-automation interaction design methodology in which the compatibility of the machine and interface models is determined using the proposed criteria, and if the models are incompatible, one or both of the models is/are modified to make them compatible. To investigate the effectiveness of our methodology, we designed two new interfaces by separately modifying the machine model and the interface model and then performed driver-in-the-loop experiments. The results showed that modifying the machine model provides a more compact, acceptable, effective, and safe interface than modifying the interface model.

  15. SYNBADm: a tool for optimization-based automated design of synthetic gene circuits.

    PubMed

    Otero-Muras, Irene; Henriques, David; Banga, Julio R

    2016-11-01

    The design of de novo circuits with predefined performance specifications is a challenging problem in Synthetic Biology. Computational models and tools have proved to be crucial for a successful wet lab implementation. Natural gene circuits are complex, subject to evolutionary tradeoffs and playing multiple roles. However, most synthetic designs implemented to date are simple and perform a single task. As the field progresses, advanced computational tools are needed in order to handle greater levels of circuit complexity in a more flexible way and considering multiple design criteria. This works presents SYNBADm (SYNthetic Biology Automated optimal Design in Matlab), a software toolbox for the automatic optimal design of gene circuits with targeted functions from libraries of components. This tool makes use of global optimization to simultaneously search the space of structures and kinetic parameters. SYNBADm can efficiently handle high levels of circuit complexity and can consider multiple design criteria through multiobjective optimization. Further, it provides flexible design capabilities, i.e. the user can define the modeling framework, library of components and target performance function(s). SYNBADm runs under the popular MATLAB computational environment, and is available under GPLv3 license at https://sites.google.com/site/synbadm CONTACT: ireneotero@iim.csic.es or julio@iim.csic.es. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Using standards to automate electronic health records (EHRs) and to create integrated healthcare enterprises.

    PubMed

    Sloane, Elliot B; Carey, Carole C

    2007-01-01

    President Bush's 2004 Executive Order mandated the creation within the Secretary of Health and Human Services' staff of a new Office of the National Coordinator for Healthcare Information Technology (ONCHIT) that was tasked with creating the United States National Healthcare Information Network (NHIN). The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) and the 2004 and a subsequent 2006 Executive Orders have finally set the stage to design, and require, the use of standardized, electronic data interchange-enabled information systems as quickly as possible.

  17. Electronic Computer Aided Design. Its Application in FE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    A study was conducted at the Electronics Industrial Unit at the Dorset Institute of Higher Education to investigate the feasibility of incorporating computer-aided design (CAD) in electrical and electronic courses. The aim was to investigate the application of CAD to electrical and electronic systems; the extent to which industrial developments…

  18. Simulation of the sea of electrons in metals using three-dimensional cell-by-cell automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesnel, David J.; Zhang, Yingrui

    2012-01-01

    A 3D cellular automation discretely moves electrons in a metal according to combined thermal and electrical driving forces by including all of the metal cations and all of the loosely bound electrons comprising the sea of electrons to compute the local electric fields. This cell-by-cell automation is asynchronous, acting on individual species sequentially with immediate neighborhood updates, thereby capturing the outcomes of temporally sparse thermally activated events. Calculations are carried out in a personal computer using the graphics processing unit to efficiently update the electric fields. A population of electron and missing-electron pairs is created to allow the metal to generate a dynamic equilibrium distribution of moving charge at each electron site that is then responsible for creating appropriate fields and potentials while simultaneously maintaining local charge neutrality. Examples are given to show that the simulation produces the expected zero fields inside conductors, the expected localization of excess charge of either sign on the surface of a conductor, and the expected equipotential inside a metal. Exterior fields caused by excess charge are consistent with Gauss's law and excess charge accumulates at sharp corners. Surface relaxation of the lattice of cation and electron sites thought to occur at free surfaces appears to be required to enable a zero equipotential in a zero net charge system. The possibility that these relaxations create an electric double layer within the metal that is needed to terminate the effect of the periodic array of cations is under consideration. The approach is useful to examine interactions between electrons in metals and ions in solution expected during interfacial electrochemistry, but may have deeper implications on the origin of the equations governing electrostatics by linking them to localized 1/r2 Coulomb interactions.

  19. SBROME: a scalable optimization and module matching framework for automated biosystems design.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Linh; Tsoukalas, Athanasios; Köppe, Matthias; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2013-05-17

    The development of a scalable framework for biodesign automation is a formidable challenge given the expected increase in part availability and the ever-growing complexity of synthetic circuits. To allow for (a) the use of previously constructed and characterized circuits or modules and (b) the implementation of designs that can scale up to hundreds of nodes, we here propose a divide-and-conquer Synthetic Biology Reusable Optimization Methodology (SBROME). An abstract user-defined circuit is first transformed and matched against a module database that incorporates circuits that have previously been experimentally characterized. Then the resulting circuit is decomposed to subcircuits that are populated with the set of parts that best approximate the desired function. Finally, all subcircuits are subsequently characterized and deposited back to the module database for future reuse. We successfully applied SBROME toward two alternative designs of a modular 3-input multiplexer that utilize pre-existing logic gates and characterized biological parts.

  20. Rapid prototyping of an automated video surveillance system: a hardware-software co-design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Hau T.; Rakvic, Ryan N.; Broussard, Randy P.; Ives, Robert W.

    2011-06-01

    FPGA devices with embedded DSP and memory blocks, and high-speed interfaces are ideal for real-time video processing applications. In this work, a hardware-software co-design approach is proposed to effectively utilize FPGA features for a prototype of an automated video surveillance system. Time-critical steps of the video surveillance algorithm are designed and implemented in the FPGAs logic elements to maximize parallel processing. Other non timecritical tasks are achieved by executing a high level language program on an embedded Nios-II processor. Pre-tested and verified video and interface functions from a standard video framework are utilized to significantly reduce development and verification time. Custom and parallel processing modules are integrated into the video processing chain by Altera's Avalon Streaming video protocol. Other data control interfaces are achieved by connecting hardware controllers to a Nios-II processor using Altera's Avalon Memory Mapped protocol.

  1. ADS: A FORTRAN program for automated design synthesis: Version 1.10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1985-01-01

    A new general-purpose optimization program for engineering design is described. ADS (Automated Design Synthesis - Version 1.10) is a FORTRAN program for solution of nonlinear constrained optimization problems. The program is segmented into three levels: strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search. At each level, several options are available so that a total of over 100 possible combinations can be created. Examples of available strategies are sequential unconstrained minimization, the Augmented Lagrange Multiplier method, and Sequential Linear Programming. Available optimizers include variable metric methods and the Method of Feasible Directions as examples, and one-dimensional search options include polynomial interpolation and the Golden Section method as examples. Emphasis is placed on ease of use of the program. All information is transferred via a single parameter list. Default values are provided for all internal program parameters such as convergence criteria, and the user is given a simple means to over-ride these, if desired.

  2. Automated design of gravity-assist trajectories to Mars and the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longuski, James M.; Williams, Steve N.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach to planetary mission design is described which automates the search for gravity-assist trajectories. This method finds all conic solutions given a range of launch dates, a range of launch energies and a set of target planets. The new design tool is applied to the problems of finding multiple encounter trajectories to the outer planets and Venus gravity-assist trajectories to Mars. The last four-planet grand tour opportunity (until the year 2153) is identified. It requires an earth launch in 1996 and encounters Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Venus gravity-assist trajectories to Mars for the 30 year period 1995-2024 are examined. It is shown that in many cases these trajectories require less launch energy to reach Mars than direct ballistic trajectories.

  3. The Future of Product Design Utilising Printed Electronics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Nicola; Southee, Darren; Evans, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the teaching of emerging technologies to design students, using "printed electronics" as an example as it recently became viable to mass manufacture and is ready for use in designs. Printed electronics is introduced as a disruptive technology, and approaches employed in knowledge transfer to industrial/product…

  4. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2013-01-08

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  5. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-04-29

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre -defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  6. E-learning platform for automated testing of electronic circuits using signature analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherghina, Cǎtǎlina; Bacivarov, Angelica; Bacivarov, Ioan C.; Petricǎ, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    Dependability of electronic circuits can be ensured only through testing of circuit modules. This is done by generating test vectors and their application to the circuit. Testability should be viewed as a concerted effort to ensure maximum efficiency throughout the product life cycle, from conception and design stage, through production to repairs during products operating. In this paper, is presented the platform developed by authors for training for testability in electronics, in general and in using signature analysis method, in particular. The platform allows highlighting the two approaches in the field namely analog and digital signature of circuits. As a part of this e-learning platform, it has been developed a database for signatures of different electronic components meant to put into the spotlight different techniques implying fault detection, and from this there were also self-repairing techniques of the systems with this kind of components. An approach for realizing self-testing circuits based on MATLAB environment and using signature analysis method is proposed. This paper analyses the benefits of signature analysis method and simulates signature analyzer performance based on the use of pseudo-random sequences, too.

  7. D{O} upgrade muon electronics design

    SciTech Connect

    Baldin, B.; Green, D.; Haggerty, H.; Hansen, S.

    1994-11-01

    The planned luminosity for the upgrade is ten times higher than at present (L {approximately} 10{sup 32}cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}) and involves a time between collisions as small as 132 ns. To operate in this environment, completely new electronics is required for the 17,500 proportional drift tubes of the system. These electronics include a deadtimeless readout, a digital TDC with about 1 ns binning for the wire signals, fast charge integrators and pipelined ADCs for digitizing the pad electrode signals, a new wire signal triggering scheme and its associated trigger logic, and high level DSP processing. Some test results of measurements performed on prototype channels and a comparison with the existing electronics are presented.

  8. Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, K.

    1997-01-01

    Logic design errors have been observed in space flight missions and the final stages of ground test. The technologies used by designers and their design/analysis methodologies will be analyzed. This will give insight to the root causes of the failures. These technologies include discrete integrated circuit based systems, systems based on field and mask programmable logic, and the use computer aided engineering (CAE) systems. State-of-the-art (SOTA) design tools and methodologies will be analyzed with respect to high-reliability spacecraft design and potential pitfalls are discussed. Case studies of faults from large expensive programs to "smaller, faster, cheaper" missions will be used to explore the fundamental reasons for logic design problems.

  9. Automated Text Markup for Information Retrieval from an Electronic Textbook of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Kehler, Andrew; Kim, David K.; Yu, Victor L.; Fagan, Lawrence M.

    1998-01-01

    The information needs of practicing clinicians frequently require textbook or journal searches. Making these sources available in electronic form improves the speed of these searches, but precision (i.e., the fraction of relevant to total documents retrieved) remains low. Improving the traditional keyword search by transforming search terms into canonical concepts does not improve search precision greatly. Kim et al. have designed and built a prototype system (MYCIN II) for computer-based information retrieval from a forthcoming electronic textbook of infectious disease. The system requires manual indexing by experts in the form of complex text markup. However, this mark-up process is time consuming (about 3 person-hours to generate, review, and transcribe the index for each of 218 chapters). We have designed and implemented a system to semiautomate the markup process. The system, information extraction for semiautomated indexing of documents (ISAID), uses query models and existing information-extraction tools to provide support for any user, including the author of the source material, to mark up tertiary information sources quickly and accurately.

  10. A conceptual design for an electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M

    1999-02-15

    This report is a brief description of a model electron beam, which is meant to serve as a pulsed heat source that vaporizes a metal fleck into an ''under-dense'' cloud. See Reference 1. The envelope of the electron beam is calculated from the paraxial ray equation, as stated in Reference 2. The examples shown here are for 5 A, 200 keV beams that focus to waists of under 0.4 mm diameter, within a cylindrical volume of 10 cm radius and length. The magnetic fields assumed in the examples are moderate, 0.11 T and 0.35 T, and can probably be created by permanent magnets.

  11. Models of an Integrated Design Data Base in Support of a Design Automation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Glossary of Terms....................161 C. Questionnaire.......................163 D. Software Engineering Tools ad Tecniques 16 Vita...independence is to clearly differentiate between the logical and physical aspects of data base management . These differ- ences include data base design...applications so that the complexity of the design and verification tasks is reduced to a manageable level. Large amounts of data and a variety of design

  12. Application of the H-Mode, a Design and Interaction Concept for Highly Automated Vehicles, to Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Flemisch, Frank O.; Schutte, Paul C.; Williams, Ralph A.

    2006-01-01

    Driven by increased safety, efficiency, and airspace capacity, automation is playing an increasing role in aircraft operations. As aircraft become increasingly able to autonomously respond to a range of situations with performance surpassing human operators, we are compelled to look for new methods that help us understand their use and guide their design using new forms of automation and interaction. We propose a novel design metaphor to aid the conceptualization, design, and operation of highly-automated aircraft. Design metaphors transfer meaning from common experiences to less familiar applications or functions. A notable example is the "Desktop metaphor" for manipulating files on a computer. This paper describes a metaphor for highly automated vehicles known as the H-metaphor and a specific embodiment of the metaphor known as the H-mode as applied to aircraft. The fundamentals of the H-metaphor are reviewed followed by an overview of an exploratory usability study investigating human-automation interaction issues for a simple H-mode implementation. The envisioned application of the H-mode concept to aircraft is then described as are two planned evaluations.

  13. Designing Flexible Software for the "Electronic Board."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira

    1984-01-01

    Argues that software for electronic boards should address a variety of teaching styles, student abilities and ages, class textbooks, teaching objectives, and learning environments for flexibility of use. The software features that contribute to flexibility include frequent stops, options for going backwards, inter- and intra-unit jumps, and…

  14. Democratic Designs for Electronic Town Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jeffrey B.

    The 1992 presidential campaign put the idea of the electronic town meeting firmly on the political scene, and each of the presidential debates during that campaign experimented with the town meeting format. This paper reviews the tradition of town meeting democracy in the United States and proposes ways to carry that tradition on with the help of…

  15. Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, Ken

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a look at logic design from early in the US Space Program and examines faults in recent logic designs. Most examples are based on flight hardware failures and analysis of new tools and techniques. The paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  16. Designs and Concept-Reliance of a Fully Automated High Content Screening Platform

    PubMed Central

    Radu, Constantin; Adrar, Hosna Sana; Alamir, Ab; Hatherley, Ian; Trinh, Trung; Djaballah, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    High content screening (HCS) is becoming an accepted platform in academic and industry screening labs and does require slightly different logistics for execution. To automate our stand alone HCS microscopes, namely an alpha IN Cell Analyzer 3000 (INCA3000) originally a Praelux unit hooked to a Hudson Plate Crane with a maximum capacity of 50 plates per run; and the IN Cell Analyzer 2000 (INCA2000) where up to 320 plates could be fed per run using the Thermo Fisher Scientific Orbitor, we opted for a 4 meter linear track system harboring both microscopes, plate washer, bulk dispensers, and a high capacity incubator allowing us to perform both live and fixed cell based assays while accessing both microscopes on deck. Considerations in design were given to the integration of the alpha INCA3000, a new gripper concept to access the onboard nest, and peripheral locations on deck to ensure a self reliant system capable of achieving higher throughput. The resulting system, referred to as Hestia, has been fully operational since the New Year, has an onboard capacity of 504 plates, and harbors the only fully automated alpha INCA3000 unit in the World. PMID:22797489

  17. Design and implementation of an automated compound management system in support of lead optimization.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Catherine; Kariv, Ilona

    2009-06-01

    To meet the needs of the increasingly rapid and parallelized lead optimization process, a fully integrated local compound storage and liquid handling system was designed and implemented to automate the generation of assay-ready plates directly from newly submitted and cherry-picked compounds. A key feature of the system is the ability to create project- or assay-specific compound-handling methods, which provide flexibility for any combination of plate types, layouts, and plate bar-codes. Project-specific workflows can be created by linking methods for processing new and cherry-picked compounds and control additions to produce a complete compound set for both biological testing and local storage in one uninterrupted workflow. A flexible cherry-pick approach allows for multiple, user-defined strategies to select the most appropriate replicate of a compound for retesting. Examples of custom selection parameters include available volume, compound batch, and number of freeze/thaw cycles. This adaptable and integrated combination of software and hardware provides a basis for reducing cycle time, fully automating compound processing, and ultimately increasing the rate at which accurate, biologically relevant results can be produced for compounds of interest in the lead optimization process.

  18. Algorithm design for automated transportation photo enforcement camera image and video quality diagnostic check modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Ajay; Saha, Bhaskar

    2013-03-01

    Photo enforcement devices for traffic rules such as red lights, toll, stops, and speed limits are increasingly being deployed in cities and counties around the world to ensure smooth traffic flow and public safety. These are typically unattended fielded systems, and so it is important to periodically check them for potential image/video quality problems that might interfere with their intended functionality. There is interest in automating such checks to reduce the operational overhead and human error involved in manually checking large camera device fleets. Examples of problems affecting such camera devices include exposure issues, focus drifts, obstructions, misalignment, download errors, and motion blur. Furthermore, in some cases, in addition to the sub-algorithms for individual problems, one also has to carefully design the overall algorithm and logic to check for and accurately classifying these individual problems. Some of these issues can occur in tandem or have the potential to be confused for each other by automated algorithms. Examples include camera misalignment that can cause some scene elements to go out of focus for wide-area scenes or download errors that can be misinterpreted as an obstruction. Therefore, the sequence in which the sub-algorithms are utilized is also important. This paper presents an overview of these problems along with no-reference and reduced reference image and video quality solutions to detect and classify such faults.

  19. An Automated Tool for Developing Experimental Designs: The Computer-Aided Design Reference for Experiments (CADRE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    survey procedures, and cognitive task analysis), system design methods (e.g., focus groups , design guidelines, specifications, and requirements), and...LABORATORY - HRED ATTN AMSRD ARL HR MZ A DAVISON 199 E 4TH ST STE C TECH PARK BLG 2 FT LEONARD WOOD MO 65473-1949 1 ARMY RSCH LABORATORY

  20. Design of a novel automated methanol feed system for pilot-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hamaker, Kent H; Johnson, Daniel C; Bellucci, Joseph J; Apgar, Kristie R; Soslow, Sherry; Gercke, John C; Menzo, Darrin J; Ton, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris requires a large volume of methanol feed during the induction phase. However, a large volume of methanol feed is difficult to use in the processing suite because of the inconvenience of constant monitoring, manual manipulation steps, and fire and explosion hazards. To optimize and improve safety of the methanol feed process, a novel automated methanol feed system has been designed and implemented for industrial fermentation of P. pastoris. Details of the design of the methanol feed system are described. The main goals of the design were to automate the methanol feed process and to minimize the hazardous risks associated with storing and handling large quantities of methanol in the processing area. The methanol feed system is composed of two main components: a bulk feed (BF) system and up to three portable process feed (PF) systems. The BF system automatically delivers methanol from a central location to the portable PF system. The PF system provides precise flow control of linear, step, or exponential feed of methanol to the fermenter. Pilot-scale fermentations with linear and exponential methanol feeds were conducted using two Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) strains, one expressing a recombinant therapeutic protein and the other a monoclonal antibody. Results show that the methanol feed system is accurate, safe, and efficient. The feed rates for both linear and exponential feed methods were within ± 5% of the set points, and the total amount of methanol fed was within 1% of the targeted volume. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  1. Three-dimensional structure of lipid vesicles embedded in vitreous ice and investigated by automated electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Dierksen, K; Typke, D; Hegerl, R; Walz, J; Sackmann, E; Baumeister, W

    1995-04-01

    Automated electron tomography is shown to be a suitable means to visualize the shape of phospholipid vesicles embedded in vitrified ice. With a slow-scan charge-coupled device camera as a recording device, the cumulative electron dose needed to record a data set of 60 projections at a magnification of 20,000X can be kept as low as 15 e-/A2 (or 1500 electrons/nm2). The membrane of the three-dimensionally reconstructed vesicles is clearly visible in two-dimensional sections through the three-dimensionally reconstructed volume. Some edges indicating a polygonal shape of the vesicles, frozen from the gel phase, are also clearly recognized. Because of the presently limited tilt angle range (+/- 60 degrees), the upper and lower "caps" of the vesicles (representing about 35% of the surface of the ellipsoidal particles) remain invisible in the three-dimensional reconstruction.

  2. An Automated Electronic Tongue for In-Situ Quick Monitoring of Trace Heavy Metals in Water Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Gao, Xiaoming; Guo, Hongsun; Zhao, Huixin; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    An automated electronic tongue instrumentation has been developed for in-situ concentration determination of trace heavy metals in water environment. The electronic tongue contains two main parts. The sensor part consists of a silicon-based Hg-coated Au microelectrodes array (MEA) for the detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) and a multiple light-addressable potentiometric sensor (MLAPS) for the detection of Fe(III) and Cr(VI). The control part employs pumps, valves and tubes to enable the pick-up and pretreatment of aqueous sample. The electronic tongue realized detection of the six metals mentioned above at part-per-billion (ppb) level without manual operation. This instrumentation will have wide application in quick monitoring and prediction the heavy metal pollution in lakes and oceans.

  3. Automated sub-5 nm image registration in integrated correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy using cathodoluminescence pointers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haring, Martijn T.; Liv, Nalan; Zonnevylle, A. Christiaan; Narvaez, Angela C.; Voortman, Lenard M.; Kruit, Pieter; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.

    2017-03-01

    In the biological sciences, data from fluorescence and electron microscopy is correlated to allow fluorescence biomolecule identification within the cellular ultrastructure and/or ultrastructural analysis following live-cell imaging. High-accuracy (sub-100 nm) image overlay requires the addition of fiducial markers, which makes overlay accuracy dependent on the number of fiducials present in the region of interest. Here, we report an automated method for light-electron image overlay at high accuracy, i.e. below 5 nm. Our method relies on direct visualization of the electron beam position in the fluorescence detection channel using cathodoluminescence pointers. We show that image overlay using cathodoluminescence pointers corrects for image distortions, is independent of user interpretation, and does not require fiducials, allowing image correlation with molecular precision anywhere on a sample.

  4. Automated sub-5 nm image registration in integrated correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy using cathodoluminescence pointers

    PubMed Central

    Haring, Martijn T.; Liv, Nalan; Zonnevylle, A. Christiaan; Narvaez, Angela C.; Voortman, Lenard M.; Kruit, Pieter; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.

    2017-01-01

    In the biological sciences, data from fluorescence and electron microscopy is correlated to allow fluorescence biomolecule identification within the cellular ultrastructure and/or ultrastructural analysis following live-cell imaging. High-accuracy (sub-100 nm) image overlay requires the addition of fiducial markers, which makes overlay accuracy dependent on the number of fiducials present in the region of interest. Here, we report an automated method for light-electron image overlay at high accuracy, i.e. below 5 nm. Our method relies on direct visualization of the electron beam position in the fluorescence detection channel using cathodoluminescence pointers. We show that image overlay using cathodoluminescence pointers corrects for image distortions, is independent of user interpretation, and does not require fiducials, allowing image correlation with molecular precision anywhere on a sample. PMID:28252673

  5. Update on the MEIC electron collider ring design

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Fangei; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Harwood, Leigh; Hutton, Andrew; Morozov, Vasiliy; Pilat, Fulvia; Zhang, Yuhong; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y. M.; Sullivan, Michael; Wang, M.-H; Wienands, Uli

    2015-09-01

    The electron collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab is designed to accumulate and store a high-current polarized electron beam for collisions with an ion beam. We consider a design of the electron collider ring based on reusing PEP-II components, such as magnets, power supplies, vacuum system, etc. This has the potential to significantly reduce the cost and engineering effort needed to bring the project to fruition. This paper reports on an electron ring optics design considering the balance of PEP-II hardware parameters (such as dipole sagitta, magnet field strengths and acceptable synchrotron radiation power) and electron beam quality in terms of equilibrium emittances.

  6. Update on the MEIC electron collider ring design

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, F.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Harwood, L.; Hutton, A.; Morozov, V. S.; Pilat, F.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y. M.; Sullivan, M.; Wang, M-H; Wienands, U.

    2015-07-14

    The electron collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab is designed to accumulate and store a high-current polarized electron beam for collisions with an ion beam. We consider a design of the electron collider ring based on reusing PEPII components, such as magnets, power supplies, vacuum system, etc. This has the potential to significantly reduce the cost and engineering effort needed to bring the project to fruition. This paper reports on an electron ring optics design considering the balance of PEP-II hardware parameters (such as dipole sagitta, magnet field strengths and acceptable synchrotron radiation power) and electron beam quality in terms of equilibrium emittances.

  7. An introduction to the BANNING design automation system for shuttle microelectronic hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrady, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The BANNING MOS design system is presented. It complements rather than supplant the normal design activities associated with the design and fabrication of low-power digital electronic equipment. BANNING is user-oriented and requires no programming experience to use effectively. It provides the user a simulation capability to aid in his circuit design and it eliminates most of the manual operations involved in the layout and artwork generation of integrated circuits. An example of its operation is given and some additional background reading is provided.

  8. The integrated development of tools and environments for electronic design

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, F.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the relationships between the development of design tools and design environments for electronic circuits and systems. It is shown that the development of both the tools and the environment must be performed on an integrated way and depend on a design process to be supported. A methodology for the development of integrated and open design environments is shown. It considers different tool integration approaches and the selection of either environment-independent or dependent design tools.

  9. Using Dynamic Simulations and Automated Decision Tools to Design Lunar Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Scott; Rodriguez, Luis; Kortenkamp, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the role of transient simulations, heuristic techniques, and closed loop integrated control in designing and sizing habitat life support systems. The integration of these three elements allows for more accurate requirements to be derived in advance of hardware choices. As a test case, we used a typical lunar surface habitat. Large numbers of habitat configurations were rapidly tested and evaluated using automated decision support tools. Through this process, preliminary sizing for habitat life support systems were derived. Our preliminary results show that by using transient simulations and closed loop control , we substantially reduced the system mass required to meet mission goals. This has greater implications for general systems analyses and for life support systems. It is likely that transient models, realtime integrated control, and other analyses capable of capturing the uncertainties of systems can be useful for systems analyses much earlier in the system development life cycle than has previously been considered.

  10. Direct delivery of automated spacecraft using the Shuttle - Thoughts for the designer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Following an outline of the main functions of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and the Astrophysics Transient Explorer (ATREX), the design options of the delivery into orbit of automated spacecraft, ATREX in particular, on board the Shuttle are discussed. The proportional counters used as detectors in ATREX need protection from humidity, so the spacecraft will be shipped in a sealed container filled with dry nitrogen and not opened until it is safely in the clean room at the launch site. The spacecraft and its booster will be loaded into a canister maintaining low humidity, to protect them all the way through the payload changeout room and into the Shuttle itself. After launching the Shuttle into orbit, the spacecraft will be tested on board the Shuttle just before releasing it. The future applications of this technique in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and Gamma Ray Astronomy Observatories are discussed.

  11. Design and implementation of an automated secondary cooling system for the continuous casting of billets.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Patwari, Kuntal; Majumdar, Susanta; Ray, Asim Kumar; Singh, Arun Kumar Prasad; Neogi, Nirbhar

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a heat transfer model based automatic secondary cooling system for a billet caster. The model aims to minimize the variation in surface temperature and excessive reheating of the billet strands. It is also used to avoid the low ductility trough of the solidifying steel, which aggravates the tendency of steel to crack. The system has been designed and implemented in an integrated steel plant. A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based automation system has been developed to control the water flow in the secondary cooling zones of the strand. The results obtained through field trials have shown complete elimination of internal and off-corner cracks for the fifty billet samples that were monitored.

  12. An automated calibration laboratory for flight research instrumentation: Requirements and a proposed design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill-Rood, Nora; Glover, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden), operates a diverse fleet of research aircraft which are heavily instrumented to provide both real time data for in-flight monitoring and recorded data for postflight analysis. Ames-Dryden's existing automated calibration (AUTOCAL) laboratory is a computerized facility which tests aircraft sensors to certify accuracy for anticipated harsh flight environments. Recently, a major AUTOCAL lab upgrade was initiated; the goal of this modernization is to enhance productivity and improve configuration management for both software and test data. The new system will have multiple testing stations employing distributed processing linked by a local area network to a centralized database. The baseline requirements for the new AUTOCAL lab and the design approach being taken for its mechanization are described.

  13. Crystallographic analysis of the solid-state dewetting of polycrystalline gold film using automated indexing in a transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, S. A.; Lee, H. J.; Oh, Y. J.; Thompson, C. V.; Ross, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the effect of crystallographic anisotropy on the morphological evolution of a 12-nm-thick gold film during solid-state dewetting at high temperatures using automated indexing tool in a transmission electron microscopy. Dewetting initiated at grain-boundary triple junctions adjacent to large grains resulting from abnormal grain growth driven by (111) texture development. Voids at the junctions developed shapes with faceted edges bounded by low-index crystal planes. The kinetic mobility of the edges varied with the crystal orientation normal to the edges, with a predominance of specific edges with the slowest retraction rates as the annealing time was increased.

  14. Pilot opinions on high level flight deck automation issues: Toward the development of a design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, Yvette J.; Rogers, William H.; Pew, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    There has been much concern in recent years about the rapid increase in automation on commercial flight decks. The survey was composed of three major sections. The first section asked pilots to rate different automation components that exist on the latest commercial aircraft regarding their obtrusiveness and the attention and effort required in using them. The second section addressed general 'automation philosophy' issues. The third section focused on issues related to levels and amount of automation. The results indicate that pilots of advanced aircraft like their automation, use it, and would welcome more automation. However, they also believe that automation has many disadvantages, especially fully autonomous automation. They want their automation to be simple and reliable and to produce predictable results. The biggest needs for higher levels of automation were in pre-flight, communication, systems management, and task management functions, planning as well as response tasks, and high workload situations. There is an irony and a challenge in the implications of these findings. On the one hand pilots would like new automation to be simple and reliable, but they need it to support the most complex part of the job--managing and planning tasks in high workload situations.

  15. Automated amplicon design suitable for analysis of DNA variants by melting techniques.

    PubMed

    Ekstrøm, Per Olaf; Nakken, Sigve; Johansen, Morten; Hovig, Eivind

    2015-11-11

    The technological development of DNA analysis has had tremendous development in recent years, and the present deep sequencing techniques present unprecedented opportunities for detailed and high-throughput DNA variant detection. Although DNA sequencing has had an exponential decrease in cost per base pair analyzed, focused and target-specific methods are however still much in use for analysis of DNA variants. With increasing capacity in the analytical procedures, an equal demand in automated amplicon and primer design has emerged. We have constructed a web-based tool that is able to batch design DNA variant assay suitable for analysis by denaturing gel/capillary electrophoresis and high resolution melting. The tool is developed as a computational workflow that implements one of the most widely used primer design tools, followed by validation of primer specificity, as well as calculation and visualization of the melting properties of the resulting amplicon, with or without an artificial high melting domain attached. The tool will be useful for scientists applying DNA melting techniques in analysis of DNA variations. The tool is freely available at http://meltprimer.ous-research.no/ . Herein, we demonstrate a novel tool with respect to covering the whole amplicon design workflow necessary for groups that use melting equilibrium techniques to separate DNA variants.

  16. Research Initiatives and Preliminary Results In Automation Design In Airspace Management in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA and the FAA have entered into a joint venture to explore, define, design and implement a new airspace management operating concept. The fundamental premise of that concept is that technologies and procedures need to be developed for flight deck and ground operations to improve the efficiency, the predictability, the flexibility and the safety of airspace management and operations. To that end NASA Ames has undertaken an initial development and exploration of "key concepts" in the free flight airspace management technology development. Human Factors issues in automation aiding design, coupled aiding systems between air and ground, communication protocols in distributed decision making, and analytic techniques for definition of concepts of airspace density and operator cognitive load have been undertaken. This paper reports the progress of these efforts, which are not intended to definitively solve the many evolving issues of design for future ATM systems, but to provide preliminary results to chart the parameters of performance and the topology of the analytic effort required. The preliminary research in provision of cockpit display of traffic information, dynamic density definition, distributed decision making, situation awareness models and human performance models is discussed as they focus on the theme of "design requirements".

  17. Research Initiatives and Preliminary Results In Automation Design In Airspace Management in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA and the FAA have entered into a joint venture to explore, define, design and implement a new airspace management operating concept. The fundamental premise of that concept is that technologies and procedures need to be developed for flight deck and ground operations to improve the efficiency, the predictability, the flexibility and the safety of airspace management and operations. To that end NASA Ames has undertaken an initial development and exploration of "key concepts" in the free flight airspace management technology development. Human Factors issues in automation aiding design, coupled aiding systems between air and ground, communication protocols in distributed decision making, and analytic techniques for definition of concepts of airspace density and operator cognitive load have been undertaken. This paper reports the progress of these efforts, which are not intended to definitively solve the many evolving issues of design for future ATM systems, but to provide preliminary results to chart the parameters of performance and the topology of the analytic effort required. The preliminary research in provision of cockpit display of traffic information, dynamic density definition, distributed decision making, situation awareness models and human performance models is discussed as they focus on the theme of "design requirements".

  18. Automated fit quantification of tibial nail designs during the insertion using computer three-dimensional modelling.

    PubMed

    Amarathunga, Jayani P; Schuetz, Michael A; Yarlagadda, Prasad Kvd; Schmutz, Beat

    2014-12-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the standard fixation method for displaced diaphyseal fractures of the tibia. An optimal nail design should both facilitate insertion and anatomically fit the bone geometry at its final position in order to reduce the risk of stress fractures and malalignments. Due to the nonexistence of suitable commercial software, we developed a software tool for the automated fit assessment of nail designs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that an optimised nail, which fits better at the final position, is also easier to insert. Three-dimensional models of two nail designs and 20 tibiae were used. The fitting was quantified in terms of surface area, maximum distance, sum of surface areas and sum of maximum distances by which the nail was protruding into the cortex. The software was programmed to insert the nail into the bone model and to quantify the fit at defined increment levels. On average, the misfit during the insertion in terms of the four fitting parameters was smaller for the Expert Tibial Nail Proximal bend (476.3 mm(2), 1.5 mm, 2029.8 mm(2), 6.5 mm) than the Expert Tibial Nail (736.7 mm(2), 2.2 mm, 2491.4 mm(2), 8.0 mm). The differences were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The software could be used by nail implant manufacturers for the purpose of implant design validation.

  19. Binding the Electronic Book: Design Features for Bibliophiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruecker, Stan; Uszkalo, Kirsten C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a design for the electronic book based on discussions with frequent book readers. We adopted a conceptual framework for this project consisting of a spectrum of possible designs, with the conventional bound book at one difference pole, and the laptop computer at the other; the design activity then consisted of appropriately…

  20. Binding the Electronic Book: Design Features for Bibliophiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruecker, Stan; Uszkalo, Kirsten C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a design for the electronic book based on discussions with frequent book readers. We adopted a conceptual framework for this project consisting of a spectrum of possible designs, with the conventional bound book at one difference pole, and the laptop computer at the other; the design activity then consisted of appropriately…

  1. Automated Work Package: Initial Wireless Communication Platform Design, Development, and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Al Rashdan, Ahmad Yahya Mohammad; Agarwal, Vivek

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is developing the scientific basis to ensure long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security of the nuclear power industry in the United States. The Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) pathway of the program aims to increase the role of advanced II&C technologies to achieve this objective. One of the pathway efforts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to improve the work packages execution process by replacing the expensive, inefficient, bulky, complex, and error-prone paper-based work orders with automated work packages (AWPs). An AWP is an automated and dynamic presentation of the work package designed to guide the user through the work process. It is loaded on a mobile device, such as a tablet, and is capable of communicating with plant equipment and systems to acquire plant and procedure states. The AWP replaces those functions where a computer is more efficient and reliable than a human. To enable the automatic acquisition of plant data, it is necessary to design and develop a prototype platform for data exchange between the field instruments and the AWP mobile devices. The development of the platform aims to reveal issues and solutions generalizable to large-scale implementation of a similar system. Topics such as bandwidth, robustness, response time, interference, and security are usually associated with wireless communication. These concerns, along with other requirements, are listed in an earlier INL report. Specifically, the targeted issues and performance aspects in this work are relevant to the communication infrastructure from the perspective of promptness, robustness, expandability, and interoperability with different technologies.

  2. Free electron laser designs for laser amplification

    DOEpatents

    Prosnitz, Donald; Szoke, Abraham

    1985-01-01

    Method for laser beam amplification by means of free electron laser techniques. With wiggler magnetic field strength B.sub.w and wavelength .lambda..sub.w =2.pi./k.sub.w regarded as variable parameters, the method(s) impose conditions such as substantial constancy of B.sub.w /k.sub.w or k.sub.w or B.sub.w and k.sub.w (alternating), coupled with a choice of either constant resonant phase angle or programmed phase space "bucket" area.

  3. Automated fast extraction of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil by focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction prior to gas chromatography--electron-capture detection.

    PubMed

    Priego-Capote, F; Luque-García, J L; Luque de Castro, M D

    2003-04-25

    An approach for the automated fast extraction of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitroPAHs) from soil, using a focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extractor, is proposed. The main factors affecting the extraction efficiency (namely: irradiation power, irradiation time, number of cycles and extractant volume) were optimised by using experimental design methodology. The reduction of the nitro-PAHs to amino-PAHs and the derivatisation of the reduced analytes with heptafluorobutyric anhydride was mandatory prior to the separation-determination step by gas chromatography--electron-capture detection. The proposed approach has allowed the extraction of these pollutants from spiked and "real" contaminated soils with extraction efficiencies similar to those provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency methods 3540-8091, but with a drastic reduction in both the extraction time and sample handling, and using less organic solvent, as 75-85% of it was recycled.

  4. Scanning Electron Microscope Analysis of Stromal Surface Regularity in DSAEK Using Manual or Automated Microkeratomes or DMEK.

    PubMed

    Villarrubia, Alberto; García, Enrique; Cano-Ortiz, Antonio; Membrillo, Alberto; Sabala, Antoni; Celis, Javier; Salvador, Antoni; Solana, Jorge; Arango, Alexandra; Sassot, Irene

    2017-05-01

    To analyze differences in the stromal bed according to the method used to obtain the disc for endothelial transplant with 1) an automated microkeratome for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK), 2) homogeneous dissection of Descemet membrane (Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty [DMEK]), or 3) a manual microkeratome used for DSAEK. We analyzed the stromal bed of 25 consecutive corneas used for endothelial transplantation, divided into 3 groups: 1) 11 samples cut with an automated microkeratome, 2) 5 samples used for DMEK, 3) 9 samples cut with a manual microkeratome. A scanning electron microscope was used to obtain an image of the center of the stromal bed. The irregularity index of the surface complementary to the stromal surface of the disc obtained for grafting was calculated with the Canny algorithm (0: completely smooth; 1: completely irregular). At all thresholds studied (20, 30, 50, and 70), the mean irregularity index for group C (35.2, 24.4, 13.7, and 8.8, respectively) was higher than that of group A (26.2, 14.8, 6.7, and 4.0, respectively), which in turn was higher than that of group B (7.0, 4.2, 2.4, and 1.8, respectively). Differences were statistically significant among all groups and for all thresholds. Irregularity of the stromal bed after any dissection can be quantified using the Canny method. The use of an automated microkeratome for DSAEK reduces irregularity and helps obtain a surface more similar to that obtained with DMEK than with a manual microkeratome.

  5. Retrospective Derivation and Validation of an Automated Electronic Search Algorithm to Identify Post Operative Cardiovascular and Thromboembolic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Tien, M.; Kashyap, R.; Wilson, G. A.; Hernandez-Torres, V.; Jacob, A. K.; Schroeder, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background With increasing numbers of hospitals adopting electronic medical records, electronic search algorithms for identifying postoperative complications can be invaluable tools to expedite data abstraction and clinical research to improve patient outcomes. Objectives To derive and validate an electronic search algorithm to identify postoperative thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications such as deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or myocardial infarction within 30 days of total hip or knee arthroplasty. Methods A total of 34 517 patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2013 were identified. Using a derivation cohort of 418 patients, several iterations of a free-text electronic search were developed and refined for each complication. Subsequently, the automated search algorithm was validated on an independent cohort of 2 857 patients, and the sensitivity and specificities were compared to the results of manual chart review. Results In the final derivation subset, the automated search algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 85% for deep vein thrombosis, a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% for pulmonary embolism, and a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 95% for myocardial infarction. When applied to the validation cohort, the search algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 99% for deep vein thrombosis, a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 100% for pulmonary embolism, and a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99% for myocardial infarction. Conclusions The derivation and validation of an electronic search strategy can accelerate the data abstraction process for research, quality improvement, and enhancement of patient care, while maintaining superb reliability compared to manual review. PMID:26448798

  6. Retrospective Derivation and Validation of an Automated Electronic Search Algorithm to Identify Post Operative Cardiovascular and Thromboembolic Complications.

    PubMed

    Tien, M; Kashyap, R; Wilson, G A; Hernandez-Torres, V; Jacob, A K; Schroeder, D R; Mantilla, C B

    2015-01-01

    With increasing numbers of hospitals adopting electronic medical records, electronic search algorithms for identifying postoperative complications can be invaluable tools to expedite data abstraction and clinical research to improve patient outcomes. To derive and validate an electronic search algorithm to identify postoperative thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications such as deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or myocardial infarction within 30 days of total hip or knee arthroplasty. A total of 34 517 patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2013 were identified. Using a derivation cohort of 418 patients, several iterations of a free-text electronic search were developed and refined for each complication. Subsequently, the automated search algorithm was validated on an independent cohort of 2 857 patients, and the sensitivity and specificities were compared to the results of manual chart review. In the final derivation subset, the automated search algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 85% for deep vein thrombosis, a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% for pulmonary embolism, and a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 95% for myocardial infarction. When applied to the validation cohort, the search algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 99% for deep vein thrombosis, a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 100% for pulmonary embolism, and a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99% for myocardial infarction. The derivation and validation of an electronic search strategy can accelerate the data abstraction process for research, quality improvement, and enhancement of patient care, while maintaining superb reliability compared to manual review.

  7. ADS: A FORTRAN program for automated design synthesis, version 1.00

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1984-01-01

    A new general-purpose optimization program for engineering design is described. ADS-1 (Automated Design Synthesis - Version 1) is a FORTRAN program for solution of nonlinear constrained optimization problems. The program is segmented into three levels, being strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search. At each level, several options are available so that a total of over 100 possible combinations can be created. Examples of available strategies are sequential unconstrained minimization, the Augmented Lagrange Multiplier method, and Sequential Linear Programming. Available optimizers include variable metric methods and the Method of Feasible Directions as examples and one-dimensional search options include polynomial interpolation and the Golden Section method as examples. Emphasis is placed on ease of use of the program. All information is transferred via a single parameter list. Default values are provided for all internal program parameters such as convergence criteria, and the user is given a simple means to over-ride these, if desired. The program is demonstrated with a simple structural design example.

  8. An optimization design proposal of automated guided vehicles for mixed type transportation in hospital environments

    PubMed Central

    González, Domingo; Espinosa, María del Mar; Domínguez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of this paper is to present an optimization proposal in the automated guided vehicles design used in hospital logistics, as well as to analyze the impact of its implementation in a real environment. Method This proposal is based on the design of those elements that would allow the vehicles to deliver an extra cart by the towing method. So, the proposal intention is to improve the productivity and the performance of the current vehicles by using a transportation method of combined carts. Results The study has been developed following concurrent engineering premises from three different viewpoints. First, the sequence of operations has been described, and second, a proposal of design of the equipment has been undertaken. Finally, the impact of the proposal has been analyzed according to real data from the Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega in Valladolid (Spain). In this particular case, by the implementation of the analyzed proposal in the hospital a reduction of over 35% of the current time of use can be achieved. This result may allow adding new tasks to the vehicles, and according to this, both a new kind of vehicle and a specific module can be developed in order to get a better performance. PMID:28562681

  9. FireProt: web server for automated design of thermostable proteins.

    PubMed

    Musil, Milos; Stourac, Jan; Bendl, Jaroslav; Brezovsky, Jan; Prokop, Zbynek; Zendulka, Jaroslav; Martinek, Tomas; Bednar, David; Damborsky, Jiri

    2017-04-26

    There is a continuous interest in increasing proteins stability to enhance their usability in numerous biomedical and biotechnological applications. A number of in silico tools for the prediction of the effect of mutations on protein stability have been developed recently. However, only single-point mutations with a small effect on protein stability are typically predicted with the existing tools and have to be followed by laborious protein expression, purification, and characterization. Here, we present FireProt, a web server for the automated design of multiple-point thermostable mutant proteins that combines structural and evolutionary information in its calculation core. FireProt utilizes sixteen tools and three protein engineering strategies for making reliable protein designs. The server is complemented with interactive, easy-to-use interface that allows users to directly analyze and optionally modify designed thermostable mutants. FireProt is freely available at http://loschmidt.chemi.muni.cz/fireprot. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. De novo automated design of small RNA circuits for engineering synthetic riboregulation in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Guillermo; Landrain, Thomas E.; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    A grand challenge in synthetic biology is to use our current knowledge of RNA science to perform the automatic engineering of completely synthetic sequences encoding functional RNAs in living cells. We report here a fully automated design methodology and experimental validation of synthetic RNA interaction circuits working in a cellular environment. The computational algorithm, based on a physicochemical model, produces novel RNA sequences by exploring the space of possible sequences compatible with predefined structures. We tested our methodology in Escherichia coli by designing several positive riboregulators with diverse structures and interaction models, suggesting that only the energy of formation and the activation energy (free energy barrier to overcome for initiating the hybridization reaction) are sufficient criteria to engineer RNA interaction and regulation in bacteria. The designed sequences exhibit nonsignificant similarity to any known noncoding RNA sequence. Our riboregulatory devices work independently and in combination with transcription regulation to create complex logic circuits. Our results demonstrate that a computational methodology based on first-principles can be used to engineer interacting RNAs with allosteric behavior in living cells. PMID:22949707

  11. Aircraft wing structural design optimization based on automated finite element modelling and ground structure approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weizhu; Yue, Zhufeng; Li, Lei; Wang, Peiyan

    2016-01-01

    An optimization procedure combining an automated finite element modelling (AFEM) technique with a ground structure approach (GSA) is proposed for structural layout and sizing design of aircraft wings. The AFEM technique, based on CATIA VBA scripting and PCL programming, is used to generate models automatically considering the arrangement of inner systems. GSA is used for local structural topology optimization. The design procedure is applied to a high-aspect-ratio wing. The arrangement of the integral fuel tank, landing gear and control surfaces is considered. For the landing gear region, a non-conventional initial structural layout is adopted. The positions of components, the number of ribs and local topology in the wing box and landing gear region are optimized to obtain a minimum structural weight. Constraints include tank volume, strength, buckling and aeroelastic parameters. The results show that the combined approach leads to a greater weight saving, i.e. 26.5%, compared with three additional optimizations based on individual design approaches.

  12. Spreader Design for FERMI@Elettra Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zholents, A.; Bacescu, D.; Chow, K.; Diviacco, B.; Ferianis, M.; Di Mitri, S.; Wells, R.

    2007-01-18

    In this note we describe a conceptual design of a part ofthe electron beam delivery system for FERMI@Elettra free electron laser(FEL) located between the end of the linac and the entrance to the FEL.This part includes the emittance diagnostic section, the electron beamswitchyard for two FELs called spreader and matching sections. The designmeets various constrains imposed by the existing and planned buildingboundaries, desire for utilization of existing equipment and demands forvarious diagnostic instruments.

  13. Design study for electronic system for Jupiter Orbit Probe (JOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elero, B. P., Jr.; Carignan, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The conceptual design of the Jupiter probe spectrometer is presented. Block and circuit diagrams are presented along with tabulated parts lists. Problem areas are considered to be (1) the schedule, (2) weight limitations for the electronic systems, and (3) radiation hardness of the electronic devices.

  14. Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs

    DOEpatents

    Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.

    1982-05-04

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  15. Two-dimensional optimization of free electron laser designs

    DOEpatents

    Prosnitz, Donald; Haas, Roger A.

    1985-01-01

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a "synchronous electron" at an optimal transverse radius r>0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  16. Design Alternatives for a Free Electron Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, K; Bosch, R A; Eisert, D; Fisher, M V; Green, M A; Keil, R G; Kleman, K J; Kulpin, J G; Rogers, G C; Wehlitz, R; Chiang, T; Miller, T J; Lawler, J E; Yavuz, D; Legg, R A; York, R C

    2012-07-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison is continuing design efforts for a vacuum ultraviolet/X-ray Free Electron Laser facility. The design incorporates seeding the FEL to provide fully coherent photon output at energies up to {approx}1 keV. The focus of the present work is to minimize the cost of the facility while preserving its performance. To achieve this we are exploring variations in the electron beam driver for the FEL, in undulator design, and in the seeding mechanism. Design optimizations and trade-offs between the various technologies and how they affect the FEL scientific program will be presented.

  17. Designing Electronic Components and Devices from Inorganic Molecular Scaffolds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-04

    REPORT Designing Electronic Components and Devices from Inorganic Molecular Scaffolds 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The synthesis of new...photo and electrical materials for molecular devices was completed comprising a signaling moiety (fluorophore), a spacer group and a guest-binding...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - 7-Mar-2012 Designing Electronic Components and Devices from Inorganic Molecular Scaffolds Report Title

  18. Beyond the Design of Automated Writing Evaluation: Pedagogical Practices and Perceived Learning Effectiveness in EFL Writing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chi-Fen Emily; Cheng, Wei-Yuan Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Automated writing evaluation (AWE) software is designed to provide instant computer-generated scores for a submitted essay along with diagnostic feedback. Most studies on AWE have been conducted on psychometric evaluations of its validity; however, studies on how effectively AWE is used in writing classes as a pedagogical tool are limited. This…

  19. Using Formal Modeling With an Automated Analysis Tool to Design and Parametrically Analyze a Multirobot Coordination Protocol: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    mode with predictable performance. However, requiring stable equilibria to lie in the given regions is difficult in all, but the simplest topological ... spaces . A game- theoretic approach to designing controllers for hybrid systems with a hierarchical structure is shown to be applicable to automated

  20. Design study report. Volume 2: Electronic unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The recording system discussed is required to record and reproduce wideband data from either of the two primary Earth Resources Technology Satellite sensors: Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera or Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS). The camera input is an analog signal with a bandwidth from dc to 3.5 MHz; this signal is accommodated through FM recording techniques which provide a recorder signal-to-noise ratio in excess of 39 db, black-to-white signal/rms noise, over the specified bandwidth. The MSS provides, as initial output, 26 narrowband channels. These channels are multiplexed prior to transmission, or recording, into a single 15 Megabit/second digital data stream. Within the recorder, the 15 Megabit/second NRZL signal is processed through the same FM electronics as the RBV signal, but the basic FM standards are modified to provide an internal, 10.5 MHz baseland response with signal-to-noise ratio of about 25 db. Following FM demodulation, however, the MSS signal is digitally re-shaped and re-clocked so that good bit stability and signal-to-noise exist at the recorder output.

  1. Automated degenerate PCR primer design for high-throughput sequencing improves efficiency of viral sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Kelvin; Shrivastava, Susmita; Brownley, Anushka; Katzel, Dan; Bera, Jayati; Nguyen, Anh Thu; Thovarai, Vishal; Halpin, Rebecca; Stockwell, Timothy B

    2012-11-06

    In a high-throughput environment, to PCR amplify and sequence a large set of viral isolates from populations that are potentially heterogeneous and continuously evolving, the use of degenerate PCR primers is an important strategy. Degenerate primers allow for the PCR amplification of a wider range of viral isolates with only one set of pre-mixed primers, thus increasing amplification success rates and minimizing the necessity for genome finishing activities. To successfully select a large set of degenerate PCR primers necessary to tile across an entire viral genome and maximize their success, this process is best performed computationally. We have developed a fully automated degenerate PCR primer design system that plays a key role in the J. Craig Venter Institute's (JCVI) high-throughput viral sequencing pipeline. A consensus viral genome, or a set of consensus segment sequences in the case of a segmented virus, is specified using IUPAC ambiguity codes in the consensus template sequence to represent the allelic diversity of the target population. PCR primer pairs are then selected computationally to produce a minimal amplicon set capable of tiling across the full length of the specified target region. As part of the tiling process, primer pairs are computationally screened to meet the criteria for successful PCR with one of two described amplification protocols. The actual sequencing success rates for designed primers for measles virus, mumps virus, human parainfluenza virus 1 and 3, human respiratory syncytial virus A and B and human metapneumovirus are described, where >90% of designed primer pairs were able to consistently successfully amplify >75% of the isolates. Augmenting our previously developed and published JCVI Primer Design Pipeline, we achieved similarly high sequencing success rates with only minor software modifications. The recommended methodology for the construction of the consensus sequence that encapsulates the allelic variation of the targeted

  2. Design of wormlike automated robotic endoscope: dynamic interaction between endoscopic balloon and surrounding tissues.

    PubMed

    Poon, Carmen C Y; Leung, Billy; Chan, Cecilia K W; Lau, James Y W; Chiu, Philip W Y

    2016-02-01

    The current design of capsule endoscope is limited by the inability to control the motion within gastrointestinal tract. The rising incidence of gastrointestinal cancers urged improvement in the method of screening endoscopy. This preclinical study aimed to design and develop a novel locomotive module for capsule endoscope. We investigated the feasibility and physical properties of this newly designed caterpillar-like capsule endoscope with a view to enhancing screening endoscopy. This study consisted of preclinical design and experimental testing on the feasibility of automated locomotion for a prototype caterpillar endoscope. The movement was examined first in the PVC tube and then in porcine intestine. The image captured was transmitted to handheld device to confirm the control of movement. The balloon pressure and volume as well as the contact force between the balloon and surroundings were measured when the balloon was inflated inside (1) a hard PVC tube, (2) a soft PVC tube, (3) muscular sites of porcine colons and (4) less muscular sites of porcine colons. The prototype caterpillar endoscope was able to move inward and backward within the PVC tubing and porcine intestine. Images were able to be captured from the capsule endoscope attached and being observed with a handheld device. Using the onset of a contact force as indication of the buildup of the gripping force between the balloon and the lumen walls, it is concluded from the results of this study that the rate of change in balloon pressure and volume is two good estimators to optimize the inflation of the balloon. The results of this study will facilitate further refinement in the design of caterpillar robotic endoscope to move inside the GI tract.

  3. The design of electronic map displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1991-02-01

    This paper presents a cognitive analysis of a pilot's navigation task and describes an experiment comparing a new map display that employs the principle of visual momentum with the two traditional approaches, track-up and north-up. The data show that the advantage of a track-up alignment is its congruence with the egocentered forward view; however, the inconsistency of the rotating display hinders development of a cognitive map. The stability of a north-up alignment aids the acquisition of a cognitive map, but there is a cost associated with the mental rotation of the display to a track-up alignment for tasks involving the ego-centered forward view. The data also show that the visual momentum design captures the benefits and reduces the costs associated with the two traditional approaches.

  4. The design of electronic map displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive analysis of a pilot's navigation task and describes an experiment comparing a new map display that employs the principle of visual momentum with the two traditional approaches, track-up and north-up. The data show that the advantage of a track-up alignment is its congruence with the egocentered forward view; however, the inconsistency of the rotating display hinders development of a cognitive map. The stability of a north-up alignment aids the acquisition of a cognitive map, but there is a cost associated with the mental rotation of the display to a track-up alignment for tasks involving the ego-centered forward view. The data also show that the visual momentum design captures the benefits and reduces the costs associated with the two traditional approaches.

  5. The design of electronic map displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive analysis of a pilot's navigation task and describes an experiment comparing a new map display that employs the principle of visual momentum with the two traditional approaches, track-up and north-up. The data show that the advantage of a track-up alignment is its congruence with the egocentered forward view; however, the inconsistency of the rotating display hinders development of a cognitive map. The stability of a north-up alignment aids the acquisition of a cognitive map, but there is a cost associated with the mental rotation of the display to a track-up alignment for tasks involving the ego-centered forward view. The data also show that the visual momentum design captures the benefits and reduces the costs associated with the two traditional approaches.

  6. System Design and Development of a Robotic Device for Automated Venipuncture and Diagnostic Blood Cell Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Balter, Max L.; Chen, Alvin I.; Fromholtz, Alex; Gorshkov, Alex; Maguire, Tim J.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic blood testing is the most prevalent medical procedure performed in the world and forms the cornerstone of modern health care delivery. Yet blood tests are still predominantly carried out in centralized labs using large-volume samples acquired by manual venipuncture, and no end-to-end solution from blood draw to sample analysis exists today. Our group is developing a platform device that merges robotic phlebotomy with automated diagnostics to rapidly deliver patient information at the site of the blood draw. The system couples an image-guided venipuncture robot, designed to address the challenges of routine venous access, with a centrifuge-based blood analyzer to obtain quantitative measurements of hematology. In this paper, we first present the system design and architecture of the integrated device. We then perform a series of in vitro experiments to evaluate the cannulation accuracy of the system on blood vessel phantoms. Next, we assess the effects of vessel diameter, needle gauge, flow rate, and viscosity on the rate of sample collection. Finally, we demonstrate proof-of-concept of a white cell assay on the blood analyzer using in vitro human samples spiked with fluorescently labeled microbeads. PMID:28239509

  7. System Design and Development of a Robotic Device for Automated Venipuncture and Diagnostic Blood Cell Analysis.

    PubMed

    Balter, Max L; Chen, Alvin I; Fromholtz, Alex; Gorshkov, Alex; Maguire, Tim J; Yarmush, Martin L

    2016-10-01

    Diagnostic blood testing is the most prevalent medical procedure performed in the world and forms the cornerstone of modern health care delivery. Yet blood tests are still predominantly carried out in centralized labs using large-volume samples acquired by manual venipuncture, and no end-to-end solution from blood draw to sample analysis exists today. Our group is developing a platform device that merges robotic phlebotomy with automated diagnostics to rapidly deliver patient information at the site of the blood draw. The system couples an image-guided venipuncture robot, designed to address the challenges of routine venous access, with a centrifuge-based blood analyzer to obtain quantitative measurements of hematology. In this paper, we first present the system design and architecture of the integrated device. We then perform a series of in vitro experiments to evaluate the cannulation accuracy of the system on blood vessel phantoms. Next, we assess the effects of vessel diameter, needle gauge, flow rate, and viscosity on the rate of sample collection. Finally, we demonstrate proof-of-concept of a white cell assay on the blood analyzer using in vitro human samples spiked with fluorescently labeled microbeads.

  8. Automated culture system experiments hardware: developing test results and design solutions.

    PubMed

    Freddi, M; Covini, M; Tenconi, C; Ricci, C; Caprioli, M; Cotronei, V

    2002-07-01

    The experiment proposed by Prof. Ricci University of Milan is funded by ASI with Laben as industrial Prime Contractor. ACS-EH (Automated Culture System-Experiment Hardware) will support the multigenerational experiment on weightlessness with rotifers and nematodes within four Experiment Containers (ECs) located inside the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) facility..Actually the Phase B is in progress and a concept design solution has been defined. The most challenging aspects for the design of such hardware are, from biological point of view the provision of an environment which permits animal's survival and to maintain desiccated generations separated and from the technical point of view, the miniaturisation of the hardware itself due to the reduce EC provided volume (160mmx60mmx60mm). The miniaturisation will allow a better use of the available EMCS Facility resources (e.g. volume. power etc.) and to fulfil the experiment requirements. ACS-EH, will be ready to fly in the year 2005 on boar the ISS.

  9. Design of a Tool Integrating Force Sensing With Automated Insertion in Cochlear Implantation.

    PubMed

    Schurzig, Daniel; Labadie, Robert F; Hussong, Andreas; Rau, Thomas S; Webster, Robert J

    2012-04-01

    The quality of hearing restored to a deaf patient by a cochlear implant in hearing preservation cochlear implant surgery (and possibly also in routine cochlear implant surgery) is believed to depend on preserving delicate cochlear membranes while accurately inserting an electrode array deep into the spiral cochlea. Membrane rupture forces, and possibly, other indicators of suboptimal placement, are below the threshold detectable by human hands, motivating a force sensing insertion tool. Furthermore, recent studies have shown significant variability in manual insertion forces and velocities that may explain some instances of imperfect placement. Toward addressing this, an automated insertion tool was recently developed by Hussong et al. By following the same insertion tool concept, in this paper, we present mechanical enhancements that improve the surgeon's interface with the device and make it smaller and lighter. We also present electomechanical design of new components enabling integrated force sensing. The tool is designed to be sufficiently compact and light that it can be mounted to a microstereotactic frame for accurate image-guided preinsertion positioning. The new integrated force sensing system is capable of resolving forces as small as 0.005 N, and we provide experimental illustration of using forces to detect errors in electrode insertion.

  10. Laboratory design for high-performance electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, Michael A.; Turner, John H.; Hetherington, Crispin J.D.; Cullis, A.G.; Carragher, Bridget; Jenkins, Ron; Milgrim, Julie; Milligan,Ronald A.; Potter, Clinton S.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Blom, Douglas A.; Degenhardt, Lynn; Sides, William H.

    2004-04-23

    Proliferation of electron microscopes with field emission guns, imaging filters and hardware spherical aberration correctors (giving higher spatial and energy resolution) has resulted in the need to construct special laboratories. As resolutions improve, transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEMs) become more sensitive to ambient conditions. State-of-the-art electron microscopes require state-of-the-art environments, and this means careful design and implementation of microscope sites, from the microscope room to the building that surrounds it. Laboratories have been constructed to house high-sensitive instruments with resolutions ranging down to sub-Angstrom levels; we present the various design philosophies used for some of these laboratories and our experiences with them. Four facilities are described: the National Center for Electron Microscopy OAM Laboratory at LBNL; the FEGTEM Facility at the University of Sheffield; the Center for Integrative Molecular Biosciences at TSRI; and the Advanced Microscopy Laboratory at ORNL.

  11. Design and Development of a Robot-Based Automation System for Cryogenic Crystal Sample Mounting at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Preissner, C.; Nocher, D.; Han, Y.; Barraza, J.; Lee, P.; Lee, W.-K.; Cai, Z.; Ginell, S.; Alkire, R.; Lazarski, K.; Schuessler, R.; Joachimiak, A.

    2004-05-12

    X-ray crystallography is the primary method to determine the 3D structures of complex macromolecules at high resolution. In the years to come, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and similar 3rd-generation synchrotron sources elsewhere will become the most powerful tools for studying atomic structures of biological molecules. One of the major bottlenecks in the x-ray data collection process is the constant need to change and realign the crystal sample. This is a very time- and manpower-consuming task. An automated sample mounting system will help to solve this bottleneck problem. We have developed a novel robot-based automation system for cryogenic crystal sample mounting at the APS. Design of the robot-based automation system, as well as its on-line test results at the Argonne Structural Biology Center (SBC) 19-BM experimental station, are presented in this paper.

  12. A Practical Approach for Integrating Automatically Designed Fixtures with Automated Assembly Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, Terri L.; Peters, Ralph R.

    1999-07-20

    This paper presents a practical approach for integrating automatically designed fixtures with automated assembly planning. Product assembly problems vary widely; here the focus is on assemblies that are characterized by a single base part to which a number of smaller parts and subassemblies are attached. This method starts with three-dimension at CAD descriptions of an assembly whose assembly tasks require a fixture to hold the base part. It then combines algorithms that automatically design assembly pallets to hold the base part with algorithms that automatically generate assembly sequences. The designed fixtures rigidly constrain and locate the part, obey task constraints, are robust to part shape variations, are easy to load, and are economical to produce. The algorithm is guaranteed to find the global optimum solution that satisfies these and other pragmatic conditions. The assembly planner consists of four main elements: a user interface, a constraint system, a search engine, and an animation module. The planner expresses all constraints at a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constrain discovery and documentation. The combined algorithms guarantee that the fixture will hold the base part without interfering with any of the assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of the planners, the integration approach, and the results of the integrated algorithms applied to several practical manufacturing problems. For these problems initial high-quality fixture designs and assembly sequences are generated in a matter of minutes with global optimum solutions identified in just over an hour.

  13. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  14. RHIC electron lens beam transport system design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X.; Pikin, A.; Okamura, M.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Jain, A.; Raparia, D.

    2010-10-01

    To apply head-on beam-beam compensation for RHIC, two electron lenses are designed and will be installed at IP10. Electron beam transport system is one of important subsystem, which is used to transport electron beam from electron gun side to collector side. This system should be able to change beam size inside superconducting magnet and control beam position with 5 mm in horizontal and vertical plane. Some other design considerations for this beam transport system are also reported in this paper. The head-on beam-beam effect is one of important nonlinear source in storage ring and linear colliders, which have limited the luminosity improvement of many colliders, such as SppS, Tevatron and RHIC. In order to enhance the performance of colliders, beam-beam effects can be compensated with direct space charge compensation, indirect space charge compensation or betatron phase cancellation scheme. Like other colliders, indirect space charge compensation scheme (Electron Lens) was also proposed for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam-beam compensation at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The two similar electron lenses are located in IR10 between the DX magnets. One RHIC electron lens consists of one DC electron gun, one superconducting magnet, one electron collector and beam transport system.

  15. Designing Electronic Text: The Role of Print-Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    1987-01-01

    Examination of how far research work on the design of printed text can inform research on the design of electronic text centers on three areas: the layout of instructional text, the role of typographic cueing, and the presentation of graphic materials. Future research needs are discussed, and 101 references are provided. (LRW)

  16. Resonator design for a visible wavelength free-electron laser (*)

    SciTech Connect

    Bhowmik, A.; Lordi, N. . Rocketdyne Div.); Ben-Zvi, I.; Gallardo, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Design requirements for a visible wavelength free-electron laser being developed at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented along with predictions of laser performance from 3-D numerical simulations. The design and construction of the optical resonator, its alignment and control systems are also described. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Feasibility of fully automated detection of fiducial markers implanted into the prostate using electronic portal imaging: A comparison of methods

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Emma J. . E-mail: eharris@icr.ac.uk; McNair, Helen A.; Evans, Phillip M.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of fully automated detection of fiducial markers implanted into the prostate using portal images acquired with an electronic portal imaging device. Methods and Materials: We have made a direct comparison of 4 different methods (2 template matching-based methods, a method incorporating attenuation and constellation analyses and a cross correlation method) that have been published in the literature for the automatic detection of fiducial markers. The cross-correlation technique requires a-priory information from the portal images, therefore the technique is not fully automated for the first treatment fraction. Images of 7 patients implanted with gold fiducial markers (8 mm in length and 1 mm in diameter) were acquired before treatment (set-up images) and during treatment (movie images) using 1MU and 15MU per image respectively. Images included: 75 anterior (AP) and 69 lateral (LAT) set-up images and 51 AP and 83 LAT movie images. Using the different methods described in the literature, marker positions were automatically identified. Results: The method based upon cross correlation techniques gave the highest percentage detection success rate of 99% (AP) and 83% (LAT) set-up (1MU) images. The methods gave detection success rates of less than 91% (AP) and 42% (LAT) set-up images. The amount of a-priory information used and how it affects the way the techniques are implemented, is discussed. Conclusions: Fully automated marker detection in set-up images for the first treatment fraction is unachievable using these methods and that using cross-correlation is the best technique for automatic detection on subsequent radiotherapy treatment fractions.

  18. Design for low-power and reliable flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tsung-Ching (Jim)

    Flexible electronics are emerging as an alternative to conventional Si electronics for large-area low-cost applications such as e-paper, smart sensors, and disposable RFID tags. By utilizing inexpensive manufacturing methods such as ink-jet printing and roll-to-roll imprinting, flexible electronics can be made on low-cost plastics just like printing a newspaper. However, the key elements of exible electronics, thin-film transistors (TFTs), have slower operating speeds and less reliability than their Si electronics counterparts. Furthermore, depending on the material property, TFTs are usually mono-type -- either p- or n-type -- devices. Making air-stable complementary TFT circuits is very challenging and not applicable to most TFT technologies. Existing design methodologies for Si electronics, therefore, cannot be directly applied to exible electronics. Other inhibiting factors such as high supply voltage, large process variation, and lack of trustworthy device modeling also make designing larger-scale and robust TFT circuits a significant challenge. The major goal of this dissertation is to provide a viable solution for robust circuit design in exible electronics. I will first introduce a reliability simulation framework that can predict the degraded TFT circuits' performance under bias-stress. This framework has been validated using the amorphous-silicon (a-Si) TFT scan driver for TFT-LCD displays. To reuse the existing CMOS design ow for exible electronics, I propose a Pseudo-CMOS cell library that can make TFT circuits operable under low supply voltage and which has post-fabrication tunability for reliability and performance enhancement. This cell library has been validated using 2V self-assembly-monolayer (SAM) organic TFTs with a low-cost shadow-mask deposition process. I will also demonstrate a 3-bit 1.25KS/s Flash ADC in a-Si TFTs, which is based on the proposed Pseudo-CMOS cell library, and explore more possibilities in display, energy, and sensing

  19. Program user's manual for optimizing the design of a liquid or gaseous propellant rocket engine with the automated combustor design code AUTOCOM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichel, R. H.; Hague, D. S.; Jones, R. T.; Glatt, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    This computer program manual describes in two parts the automated combustor design optimization code AUTOCOM. The program code is written in the FORTRAN 4 language. The input data setup and the program outputs are described, and a sample engine case is discussed. The program structure and programming techniques are also described, along with AUTOCOM program analysis.

  20. Recent Developments of the IAU Task Group on Designations as a Resource for Electronic Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickel, H. R.; Iau Tg On Designations

    In an effort to promote clear and unambiguous identification of all astronomical objects outside the solar system, the IAU Task Group on Designations attempts to clarify existing astronomical designations and the TG reviews, updates, and advertises the IAU Recommendations for Nomenclature (http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/iau-spec.html). Recently, as part of the "Second Reference Dictionary ... of acronyms", the TG has undertaken an experimental, voluntary "Registry of new acronyms" (http://astro.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/DicForm). Registry of an acronym is especially advantageous for large, on-going surveys where images and source lists may be produced in stages and/or may be published in electronic form before the final printed catalogue. Registering the acronym insures the availability of a suitable, unique acronym for the survey and that the proposed designation conforms to the IAU recommendations. The Task Group in collaboration with several editors of astronomical journals and managers of large data archives is now studying the feasibility of an automated system to detect nonconforming designations when an article and/or survey data are submitted for publication and/or to an electronic archive.

  1. Cloud-Based Automated Design and Additive Manufacturing: A Usage Data-Enabled Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Lehmhus, Dirk; Wuest, Thorsten; Wellsandt, Stefan; Bosse, Stefan; Kaihara, Toshiya; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter; Busse, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Integration of sensors into various kinds of products and machines provides access to in-depth usage information as basis for product optimization. Presently, this large potential for more user-friendly and efficient products is not being realized because (a) sensor integration and thus usage information is not available on a large scale and (b) product optimization requires considerable efforts in terms of manpower and adaptation of production equipment. However, with the advent of cloud-based services and highly flexible additive manufacturing techniques, these obstacles are currently crumbling away at rapid pace. The present study explores the state of the art in gathering and evaluating product usage and life cycle data, additive manufacturing and sensor integration, automated design and cloud-based services in manufacturing. By joining and extrapolating development trends in these areas, it delimits the foundations of a manufacturing concept that will allow continuous and economically viable product optimization on a general, user group or individual user level. This projection is checked against three different application scenarios, each of which stresses different aspects of the underlying holistic concept. The following discussion identifies critical issues and research needs by adopting the relevant stakeholder perspectives. PMID:26703606

  2. A novel automated instrument designed to determine photosensitivity thresholds (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Mariela C.; Gonzalez, Alex; Rowaan, Cornelis; De Freitas, Carolina; Rosa, Potyra R.; Alawa, Karam; Lam, Byron L.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    2016-03-01

    As there is no clinically available instrument to systematically and reliably determine the photosensitivity thresholds of patients with dry eyes, blepharospasms, migraines, traumatic brain injuries, and genetic disorders such as Achromatopsia, retinitis pigmentosa and other retinal dysfunctions, a computer-controlled optoelectronics system was designed. The BPEI Photosensitivity System provides a light stimuli emitted from a bi-cupola concave, 210 white LED array with varying intensity ranging from 1 to 32,000 lux. The system can either utilize a normal or an enhanced testing mode for subjects with low light tolerance. The automated instrument adjusts the intensity of each light stimulus. The subject is instructed to indicate discomfort by pressing a hand-held button. Reliability of the responses is tracked during the test. The photosensitivity threshold is then calculated after 10 response reversals. In a preliminary study, we demonstrated that subjects suffering from Achromatopsia experienced lower photosensitivity thresholds than normal subjects. Hence, the system can safely and reliably determine the photosensitivity thresholds of healthy and light sensitive subjects by detecting and quantifying the individual differences. Future studies will be performed with this system to determine the photosensitivity threshold differences between normal subjects and subjects suffering from other conditions that affect light sensitivity.

  3. Cloud-Based Automated Design and Additive Manufacturing: A Usage Data-Enabled Paradigm Shift.

    PubMed

    Lehmhus, Dirk; Wuest, Thorsten; Wellsandt, Stefan; Bosse, Stefan; Kaihara, Toshiya; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter; Busse, Matthias

    2015-12-19

    Integration of sensors into various kinds of products and machines provides access to in-depth usage information as basis for product optimization. Presently, this large potential for more user-friendly and efficient products is not being realized because (a) sensor integration and thus usage information is not available on a large scale and (b) product optimization requires considerable efforts in terms of manpower and adaptation of production equipment. However, with the advent of cloud-based services and highly flexible additive manufacturing techniques, these obstacles are currently crumbling away at rapid pace. The present study explores the state of the art in gathering and evaluating product usage and life cycle data, additive manufacturing and sensor integration, automated design and cloud-based services in manufacturing. By joining and extrapolating development trends in these areas, it delimits the foundations of a manufacturing concept that will allow continuous and economically viable product optimization on a general, user group or individual user level. This projection is checked against three different application scenarios, each of which stresses different aspects of the underlying holistic concept. The following discussion identifies critical issues and research needs by adopting the relevant stakeholder perspectives.

  4. Automated physics-based design of synthetic riboswitches from diverse RNA aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Espah Borujeni, Amin; Mishler, Dennis M.; Wang, Jingzhi; Huso, Walker; Salis, Howard M.

    2016-01-01

    Riboswitches are shape-changing regulatory RNAs that bind chemicals and regulate gene expression, directly coupling sensing to cellular actuation. However, it remains unclear how their sequence controls the physics of riboswitch switching and activation, particularly when changing the ligand-binding aptamer domain. We report the development of a statistical thermodynamic model that predicts the sequence-structure-function relationship for translation-regulating riboswitches that activate gene expression, characterized inside cells and within cell-free transcription–translation assays. Using the model, we carried out automated computational design of 62 synthetic riboswitches that used six different RNA aptamers to sense diverse chemicals (theophylline, tetramethylrosamine, fluoride, dopamine, thyroxine, 2,4-dinitrotoluene) and activated gene expression by up to 383-fold. The model explains how aptamer structure, ligand affinity, switching free energy and macromolecular crowding collectively control riboswitch activation. Our model-based approach for engineering riboswitches quantitatively confirms several physical mechanisms governing ligand-induced RNA shape-change and enables the development of cell-free and bacterial sensors for diverse applications. PMID:26621913

  5. Design and implementation of a highly integrated and automated in situ bioremediation system for petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, J.C.; Rosenwinkel, P.; Norris, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    The proposed sale of an industrial property required that an environmental investigation be conducted as part of the property transfer agreement. The investigation revealed petroleum hydrocarbon compounds (PHCs) in the subsurface. Light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) varsol (a gasoline like solvent), gasoline, and fuel oil were found across a three (3) acre area and were present as liquid phase PHCs, as dissolved phase PHCs, and as adsorbed phase PHCs in both saturated and unsaturated soils. Fuel oil was largely present in the unsaturated soils. Fuel oil was largely present in the unsaturated soils. Varsol represented the majority of the PHCs present. The presence of liquid phase PHCs suggested that any remedial action incorporate free phase recovery. The volatility of varsol and gasoline and the biodegradability of the PHCs present in the subsurface suggested that bioremediation, air sparging, and soil vapor extraction/bioventing were appropriate technologies for incorporation in a remedy. The imminent conversion of the impacted area to a retail facility required that any long term remedy be unobtrusive and require minimum activity across much of the impacted area. In the following sections the site investigation, selection and testing of remedial technologies, and design and implementation of an integrated and automated remedial system is discussed.

  6. Automated physics-based design of synthetic riboswitches from diverse RNA aptamers.

    PubMed

    Espah Borujeni, Amin; Mishler, Dennis M; Wang, Jingzhi; Huso, Walker; Salis, Howard M

    2016-01-08

    Riboswitches are shape-changing regulatory RNAs that bind chemicals and regulate gene expression, directly coupling sensing to cellular actuation. However, it remains unclear how their sequence controls the physics of riboswitch switching and activation, particularly when changing the ligand-binding aptamer domain. We report the development of a statistical thermodynamic model that predicts the sequence-structure-function relationship for translation-regulating riboswitches that activate gene expression, characterized inside cells and within cell-free transcription-translation assays. Using the model, we carried out automated computational design of 62 synthetic riboswitches that used six different RNA aptamers to sense diverse chemicals (theophylline, tetramethylrosamine, fluoride, dopamine, thyroxine, 2,4-dinitrotoluene) and activated gene expression by up to 383-fold. The model explains how aptamer structure, ligand affinity, switching free energy and macromolecular crowding collectively control riboswitch activation. Our model-based approach for engineering riboswitches quantitatively confirms several physical mechanisms governing ligand-induced RNA shape-change and enables the development of cell-free and bacterial sensors for diverse applications.

  7. Wearable design issues for electronic vision enhancement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Joe

    2006-09-01

    As the baby boomer generation ages, visual impairment will overtake a significant portion of the US population. At the same time, more and more of our world is becoming digital. These two trends, coupled with the continuing advances in digital electronics, argue for a rethinking in the design of aids for the visually impaired. This paper discusses design issues for electronic vision enhancement systems (EVES) [R.C. Peterson, J.S. Wolffsohn, M. Rubinstein, et al., Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136 1129 (2003)] that will facilitate their wearability and continuous use. We briefly discuss the factors affecting a person's acceptance of wearable devices. We define the concept of operational inertia which plays an important role in our design of wearable devices and systems. We then discuss how design principles based upon operational inertia can be applied to the design of EVES.

  8. ILC Polarized Electron Source Design and R&D Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brachmann, A.; Sheppard, J.; Zhou, F.; Poelker, M.; /SLAC

    2012-04-06

    The R and D program for the ILC electron focuses on three areas. These are the source drive laser system, the electron gun and photo cathodes necessary to produce a highly polarized electron beam. Currently, the laser system and photo cathode development take place at SLAC's 'ILC Injector Test facility', which is an integrated lab (laser and gun) that allows the production of the electron beam and is equipped with a set of diagnostics, necessary to characterize the source performance. Development of the ILC electron gun takes place at Jefferson Lab, where advanced concepts and technologies for HV DC electron guns for polarized beams are being developed. The goal is to combine both efforts at one facility to demonstrate an electron beam with ILC specifications, which are electron beam charge and polarization as well as the cathode's lifetime. The source parameters are summarized in Table 1. The current schematic design of the ILC central complex is depicted in Figure 1. The electron and positron sources are located and laid out approximately symmetric on either side of the damping rings.

  9. Design studies for the next generation electron ion colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal; Bogacz, S. A.; Krafft, G.

    2014-04-01

    The next generation Electron Ion Collider (EIC) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) utilizes a figure-8 shaped ion and electron rings. EIC has the ability to preserve the ion polarization during acceleration, where the electron ring matches in footprint with a figure-8 ion ring. The electron ring is designed to deliver a highly polarized high luminous electron beam at interaction point (IP). The main challenges of the electron ring design are the chromaticity compensation and maintaining high beam polarization of 70% at all energies 3-11 GeV without introducing transverse orbital coupling before the IP. The very demanding detector design limits the minimum distance between the final focus quadrupole and the interaction point to 3.5 m which results in a large β function inside the final focus quadrupoles leading to increased beam chromaticity. In this paper, we present a novel chromaticity compensation scheme that mitigates IP chromaticity by a compact chromaticity compensation section with multipole magnet components. In addition, a set of spin rotators are utilized to manipulate the polarization vector of the electron beam in order to preserve the beam polarization. The spin rotator solenoids introduce undesired coupling between the horizontal and vertical betatron motion of the beam. We introduce a compact and modular orbit decoupling insert that can fit in the limited space of the straight section in the figure-8 ring. We show a numerical study of the figure-8 ring design with the compact straight section, which includes the interaction region, chromaticity compensation section, and the spin rotators, the figure-8 design performance is evaluated with particle tracking.

  10. Design studies for the next generation electron ion colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal; Bogacz, Slawomir A.; Krafft, Geoffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    The next generation Electron Ion Collider (EIC) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) utilizes a figure-8 shaped ion and electron rings. EIC has the ability to preserve the ion polarization during acceleration, where the electron ring matches in footprint with a figure-8 ion ring. The electron ring is designed to deliver a highly polarized high luminous electron beam at interaction point (IP). The main challenges of the electron ring design are the chromaticity compensation and maintaining high beam polarization of 70% at all energies 3–11 GeV without introducing transverse orbital coupling before the IP. The very demanding detector design limits the minimum distance between the final focus quadrupole and the interaction point to 3.5 m which results in a large β function inside the final focus quadrupoles leading to increased beam chromaticity. In this paper, we present a novel chromaticity compensation scheme that mitigates IP chromaticity by a compact chromaticity compensation section with multipole magnet components. In addition, a set of spin rotators are utilized to manipulate the polarization vector of the electron beam in order to preserve the beam polarization. The spin rotator solenoids introduce undesired coupling between the horizontal and vertical betatron motion of the beam. We introduce a compact and modular orbit decoupling insert that can fit in the limited space of the straight section in the figure-8 ring. We show a numerical study of the figure-8 ring design with the compact straight section, which includes the interaction region, chromaticity compensation section, and the spin rotators, the figure-8 design performance is evaluated with particle tracking.

  11. Designs for surge immunity in critical electronic facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Edward F., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) embarked on a program replacing older tube type electronic equipment with newer solid state equipment. This replacement program dramatically increased the susceptibility of the FAA's facilities to lightning related damages. The proposal is presented of techniques which may be employed to lessen the susceptibility of new FAA electronic facility designs to failures resulting from lightning related surges and transients as well as direct strikes. The general concept espoused is one of a consistent system approach employing both perimeter and internal protection. It compares the technique presently employed to reduce electronic noise with other techniques which reduce noise while lowering susceptibility to lightning related damage. It is anticipated that these techniques will be employed in the design of an Air Traffic Control Tower in a high isokeraunic area. This facility would be subjected to rigorous monitoring over a multi-year period to provide quantitative data hopefully supporting the advantage of this design.

  12. Lattice design for the ERL electron ion collider in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Trbojevic, D.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Tsoupas, N.; Chang, X.; Kayran, D.; Ptitsyn, V.; Litvinenko, V.; Hao, Y.; Parker, B.; Pozdeyev, E.

    2010-05-23

    We present electron ion collider lattice design for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (eRHIC) where the electrons have multi-passes through recirculating linacs (ERL) and arcs placed in the existing RHIC tunnel. The present RHIC interaction regions (IR's), where the electron ion collisions will occur, are modified to allow for the large luminosity. Staging of eRHIC will bring the electron energy from 4 up to 20 (30) GeV as the superconducting cavities are built and installed sequentially. The synchrotron radiation from electrons at the IR is reduced as they arrive straight to the collision while ions and protons come with 10 mrad crossing angle using the crab cavities.

  13. Strategies for handling missing clinical data for automated surgical site infection detection from the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Melton, Genevieve B; Arsoniadis, Elliot G; Wang, Yan; Kwaan, Mary R; Simon, Gyorgy J

    2017-03-16

    Proper handling of missing data is important for many secondary uses of electronic health record (EHR) data. Data imputation methods can be used to handle missing data, but their use for analyzing EHR data is limited and specific efficacy for postoperative complication detection is unclear. Several data imputation methods were used to develop data models for automated detection of three types (i.e., superficial, deep, and organ space) of surgical site infection (SSI) and overall SSI using American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (NSQIP) Registry 30-day SSI occurrence data as a reference standard. Overall, models with missing data imputation almost always outperformed reference models without imputation that included only cases with complete data for detection of SSI overall achieving very good average area under the curve values. Missing data imputation appears to be an effective means for improving postoperative SSI detection using EHR clinical data.

  14. Design of an ultra-portable field transfer radiometer supporting automated vicarious calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Nikolaus; Thome, Kurtis; Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Biggar, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    The University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group (RSG) began outfitting the radiometric calibration test site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley Nevada in 2004 for automated vicarious calibration of Earth-observing sensors. RadCaTS was upgraded to use RSG custom 8-band ground viewing radiometers (GVRs) beginning in 2011 and currently four GVRs are deployed providing an average reflectance for the test site. This measurement of ground reflectance is the most critical component of vicarious calibration using the reflectance-based method. In order to ensure the quality of these measurements, RSG has been exploring more efficient and accurate methods of on-site calibration evaluation. This work describes the design of, and initial results from, a small portable transfer radiometer for the purpose of GVR calibration validation on site. Prior to deployment, RSG uses high accuracy laboratory calibration methods in order to provide radiance calibrations with low uncertainties for each GVR. After deployment, a solar radiation based calibration has typically been used. The method is highly dependent on a clear, stable atmosphere, requires at least two people to perform, is time consuming in post processing, and is dependent on several large pieces of equipment. In order to provide more regular and more accurate calibration monitoring, the small portable transfer radiometer is designed for quick, one-person operation and on-site field calibration comparison results. The radiometer is also suited for laboratory calibration use and thus could be used as a transfer radiometer calibration standard for ground viewing radiometers of a RadCalNet site.

  15. The Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) Web service Design-Pattern, API and Reference Implementation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Mark D; Vandervalk, Benjamin; McCarthy, Luke

    2011-10-24

    The complexity and inter-related nature of biological data poses a difficult challenge for data and tool integration. There has been a proliferation of interoperability standards and projects over the past decade, none of which has been widely adopted by the bioinformatics community. Recent attempts have focused on the use of semantics to assist integration, and Semantic Web technologies are being welcomed by this community. SADI - Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration - is a lightweight set of fully standards-compliant Semantic Web service design patterns that simplify the publication of services of the type commonly found in bioinformatics and other scientific domains. Using Semantic Web technologies at every level of the Web services "stack", SADI services consume and produce instances of OWL Classes following a small number of very straightforward best-practices. In addition, we provide codebases that support these best-practices, and plug-in tools to popular developer and client software that dramatically simplify deployment of services by providers, and the discovery and utilization of those services by their consumers. SADI Services are fully compliant with, and utilize only foundational Web standards; are simple to create and maintain for service providers; and can be discovered and utilized in a very intuitive way by biologist end-users. In addition, the SADI design patterns significantly improve the ability of software to automatically discover appropriate services based on user-needs, and automatically chain these into complex analytical workflows. We show that, when resources are exposed through SADI, data compliant with a given ontological model can be automatically gathered, or generated, from these distributed, non-coordinating resources - a behaviour we have not observed in any other Semantic system. Finally, we show that, using SADI, data dynamically generated from Web services can be explored in a manner very similar to data housed in

  16. The Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) Web service Design-Pattern, API and Reference Implementation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The complexity and inter-related nature of biological data poses a difficult challenge for data and tool integration. There has been a proliferation of interoperability standards and projects over the past decade, none of which has been widely adopted by the bioinformatics community. Recent attempts have focused on the use of semantics to assist integration, and Semantic Web technologies are being welcomed by this community. Description SADI - Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration - is a lightweight set of fully standards-compliant Semantic Web service design patterns that simplify the publication of services of the type commonly found in bioinformatics and other scientific domains. Using Semantic Web technologies at every level of the Web services "stack", SADI services consume and produce instances of OWL Classes following a small number of very straightforward best-practices. In addition, we provide codebases that support these best-practices, and plug-in tools to popular developer and client software that dramatically simplify deployment of services by providers, and the discovery and utilization of those services by their consumers. Conclusions SADI Services are fully compliant with, and utilize only foundational Web standards; are simple to create and maintain for service providers; and can be discovered and utilized in a very intuitive way by biologist end-users. In addition, the SADI design patterns significantly improve the ability of software to automatically discover appropriate services based on user-needs, and automatically chain these into complex analytical workflows. We show that, when resources are exposed through SADI, data compliant with a given ontological model can be automatically gathered, or generated, from these distributed, non-coordinating resources - a behaviour we have not observed in any other Semantic system. Finally, we show that, using SADI, data dynamically generated from Web services can be explored in a manner

  17. Changing an automated drug inventory control system to a data base design.

    PubMed

    Bradish, R A

    1982-09-01

    A pharmacy department's change from indexed sequential access files to a data base management system (DBMS) for purposes of automated inventory control is described. The DBMS has three main functional areas: (1) inventory ordering and accountability, (2) charging of interdepartmental and intradepartmental orders, and (3) data manipulation with report design for management control. There are seven files directly related to the inventory ordering and accountability area. Each record can be accessed directly or through another file. Information on the quantity of a drug on hand, drug(s) supplied by a specific vendor, status of a purchase order, or calculation of an estimated order quantity can be retrieved quickly. In the drug master file, two records contain a reorder point and safety-stock level that are determined by searching the entries in the order history file and vendor master file. The intradepartmental and interdepartmental orders section contains five files assigned to record and store information on drug distribution. All items removed from the stockroom and distributed are recorded, and reports can be generated for itemized bills, total cost by area, and as formatted files for the accounts payable department. The design, development, and implementation of the DBMS took approximately a year using a part-time pharmacist and minimal outside help, while the previous system required constant expensive help of a programmer/analyst. The DBMS has given the pharmacy department a flexible inventory management system with increased drug control, decreased operating expenses, increased use of department personnel, and the ability to develop and enhance other systems.

  18. Note: Design of transverse electron gun for electron beam based reactive evaporation system.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Namita; Barve, U D; Bhatia, M S; Das, A K

    2011-05-01

    In this paper design of a 10 kV, 10 kW transverse electron gun, suitable for reactive evaporation, supported by simulation and modeling, is presented. Simulation of the electron beam trajectory helps in locating the emergence aperture after 90° bend and also in designing the crucible on which the beam is finally incident after 270° bend. The dimension of emergence aperture plays a vital role in designing the differential pumping system between the gun chamber and the substrate chamber. Experimental validation is done for beam trajectory by piercing a stainless steel plate at 90° position which is kept above the crucible.

  19. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  20. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.