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Sample records for electronic drug monitor

  1. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.; Savage, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  2. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  3. Therapeutic drug monitoring for antidepressant drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Ostad Haji, Elnaz; Hiemke, Christoph; Pfuhlmann, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The aim of antidepressant drug treatment is to produce remission without causing adverse effects during the acute phase of the illness and to prevent relapses or recurrences during continuation or maintenance therapy. To achieve these goals, drug choice and dosage must be optimized for each patient individually. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), which is based on the assumption that clinical effects correlate better with blood levels than doses, can be helpful. When using tricyclic antidepressant drugs TDM enhances safety and efficacy. For newer antidepressant drugs, however, it is a matter of debate to which extend TDM can have beneficial effects. For many antidepressants there exist carefully designed studies concerning the relationship between plasma concentration and clinical effects that allow the definition of recommended therapeutic ranges of the plasma concentration. In some drugs however, concentration-effect studies are lacking so far, but target ranges resulting from clinically relevant plasma concentrations or from pharmacokinetic studies could be provided. During the last years, knowledge on therapeutic references ranges in blood towards TDM guided treatment has markedly improved for new antidepressant drugs, and many specific indications have been defined for useful TDM. Recently published guidelines describe the best practice of TDM for neuropsychiatric drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the current status of TDM for antidepressant drugs and discuss the literature with regard to response optimization, pharmacovigilance and economic benefits and with regard to needs for further research.

  4. A Synthesis of Current Surveillance Planning Methods for the Sequential Monitoring of Drug and Vaccine Adverse Effects Using Electronic Health Care Data

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jennifer C.; Wellman, Robert; Yu, Onchee; Cook, Andrea J.; Maro, Judith C.; Ouellet-Hellstrom, Rita; Boudreau, Denise; Floyd, James S.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Pinheiro, Simone; Reichman, Marsha; Shoaibi, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The large-scale assembly of electronic health care data combined with the use of sequential monitoring has made proactive postmarket drug- and vaccine-safety surveillance possible. Although sequential designs have been used extensively in randomized trials, less attention has been given to methods for applying them in observational electronic health care database settings. Existing Methods: We review current sequential-surveillance planning methods from randomized trials, and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) and Mini-Sentinel Pilot projects—two national observational electronic health care database safety monitoring programs. Future Surveillance Planning: Based on this examination, we suggest three steps for future surveillance planning in health care databases: (1) prespecify the sequential design and analysis plan, using available feasibility data to reduce assumptions and minimize later changes to initial plans; (2) assess existing drug or vaccine uptake, to determine if there is adequate information to proceed with surveillance, before conducting more resource-intensive planning; and (3) statistically evaluate and clearly communicate the sequential design with all those designing and interpreting the safety-surveillance results prior to implementation. Plans should also be flexible enough to accommodate dynamic and often unpredictable changes to the database information made by the health plans for administrative purposes. Conclusions: This paper is intended to encourage dialogue about establishing a more systematic, scalable, and transparent sequential design-planning process for medical-product safety-surveillance systems utilizing observational electronic health care databases. Creating such a framework could yield improvements over existing practices, such as designs with increased power to assess serious adverse events. PMID:27713904

  5. When drugs don't work: economic assessment of enhancing compliance with interventions supported by electronic monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Dyfrig

    2007-01-01

    Non-compliance with prescribed regimens poses a significant problem in clinical therapeutics - patients who do not take their medications according to the labelling instructions are at higher risk of treatment failure, and this may have adverse effects on health outcome and healthcare costs. There is increasing evidence on strategies aimed at improving compliance, but most studies do not implement an unbiased technique for measuring compliance. Patients and clinicians alike are notoriously unreliable in assessing compliance; the use of electronic compliance-monitoring devices (ECMDs) is one of the most robust ways to identify non-compliance and assess the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting compliance. ECMDs may also form a part of the intervention, by allowing the health professional to provide feedback to the patient on his/her dosing history. This approach has been referred to as a 'measurement-guided medication management (MGMM) programme'.This article reviews the evidence on the effectiveness of MGMM programmes based on ECMDs, and sets out a framework for assessing their economic value. Existing studies focus primarily on the impact of MGMM programmes on compliance. However, to generalise to other settings, including routine practice, further evidence is required on their clinical and cost effectiveness. Specifically, more studies are required to assess whether the observed improvements in compliance translate to improvements in health outcomes, and whether these may be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

  6. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of gabapentin].

    PubMed

    Tribut, Olivier; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Verdier, Marie-Clémence

    2010-01-01

    Gabapentin is a structural analogue of GABA used in the treatment of the partial epilepsies of adult and child of more than 12 years, in monotherapy or in association with other anticonvulsant drugs. In association, gabapentin presents the advantage of not interfering with the other anticonvulsant drugs. The interindividual pharmacokinetic variability and the saturable absorption are, with the adaptation in case of renal insufficiency, the only arguments in favor of TDM. During clinical studies, the plasma concentrations of gabapentin were generally included between 2 and 20 mg/L. For this molecule, the level of proof of the interest of therapeutic drug monitoring was estimated in: possibly useful.

  7. [Cardiovascular monitoring of psychotropic drugs].

    PubMed

    Momomura, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that a variety of cardiovascular side effects are induced by drugs, including psychotropic drugs. Among them, myocarditis/cardiomyopathy and long QT syndrome are addressed in this article. Myocarditis is due to inflammation of the myocardium, and the pericardium is also often involved. In that case, it is called myopericarditis. Myocarditis is caused by a variety of etiologies, including viruses, bacteria, inflammatory diseases, and drugs. Psychotropic drugs such as clozapine have been reported to induce myocarditis. In critical cases, the hemodynamics deteriorate due to cardiac insufficiency, which can be fatal. The principal of treatment of drug-induced myocarditis is, of course, cessation of the causative drug. Cardio-circulatory support including inotropes and, in severe cases, mechanical support, are also necessary. Cardiomyopathy can also be induced by drugs. Drug-induced cardiomyopathy usually presents as dilated cardiomyopathy, characterized by left ventricular dilatation and reduced contraction. Anthracyclin is well-known as a cause of drug-induced cardiomyopathy. The treatment of drug-induced cardiomyopathy is in accordance with chronic heart failure. Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is also a relatively common manifestation of the cardiovascular side effects of drugs. Especially, many psychotropic drugs can induce LQTS. LQTS does not simply mean prolongation of the QT interval in electrocardiography, but it includes life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia derived from QT prolongation. Torsade de Pointes is a common ventricular arrhythmia accompanying LQTS. To avoid or detect the occurrence of these serious cardiovascular side effects in time, careful monitoring based on ECG, symptoms, and blood tests is recommended when a drug reported to induce such side effects must be used. ECG must be routinely taken before the drug is initiated. In 2 to 4 weeks after initiation, ECG may be taken regardless of the cardiovascular symptoms. If any ECG

  8. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of levetiracetam].

    PubMed

    Dailly, Eric; Bouquié, Régis; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle

    2010-01-01

    Levetiracetam is an anticonvulsant drug used to treat partial seizures, myoclonic seizures of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A review of the literature with an evidence-based medicine method highlighted parameters (age, renal failure, pregnancy, combination with other anticonvulsant drugs) which affect levetiracetam pharmacokinetics but no significant relationship between plasma concentration of levetiracetam and efficacy or toxicity. Concentrations usually observed in therapeutics is from 6 to 18 mg/L. However, the determination of an individual therapeutic concentration, associated with an effective and well tolerated therapy, could be recommended particularly before pregnancy. Consequently, therapeutic drug monitoring of levetiracetam which is not currently recommended could be possibly useful in specific clinical situations.

  9. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of clobazam].

    PubMed

    Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Tribut, Olivier; Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Debruyne, Danièle

    2010-01-01

    Clobazam is a 1,5 benzodiazepine available in France since 1975, used in add-on with the other anticonvulsant drugs in the treatment of refractory epilepsies of child and adult and for the treatment of anxiety of adult. It is mainly metabolized in desmethylclobazam, or norclobazam, active metabolite, present in a concentration approximately eight times superior to that of the parent drug, but with an activity of the order of 20 to 40% of that of clobazam. Elimination half-life of clobazam is of 18 h while that of norclobazam is from 40 to 50 h. There is a large interindividual variability in the plasma concentrations. Furthermore, clobazam being prescribed in add-on with the other anticonvulsant drugs in resistant epilepsies, concentration-effect relationship is difficult to bring to light, since, in many studies, the patients who did not answer received the highest doses. Adverse reactions are moderated, appearing more often for the highest concentrations; also the phenomenon of tolerance seems more frequent in high concentrations. However, because of the kinetic interactions, a dosage of clobazam and norclobazam can be useful in certain cases. There is no validated therapeutic range, but the usual concentrations are in the range of 100-300 microg/L for the parent drug and about ten times more for the metabolite. The level of proof of the interest of the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for this molecule is estimated in: rather useless.

  10. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of valproate].

    PubMed

    Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Tribut, Olivier; Verdier, Marie-Clémence

    2010-01-01

    Valproic acid is an anticonvulsant drug available in France since 1967. It is a broad spectrum molecule indicated in various forms of epilepsy of the adult and the child, but it is also prescribed in the treatment of different other pathologies of nervous system. The divalproate sodium is indicated in the treatment of bipolar disorders. The valproic acid is marketed under various pharmaceutical forms, with different corresponding tmax values. But, whatever the administered preparation, the circulating active molecule is the ion valproate. Elimination half-life is from 11 to 20 h. Metabolization of valproate is important and represents its main route of elimination. Valpromide is comparable to a prodrug which metabolizes in valproate. The inter and intraindividual variability of the plasma concentrations are important. Several studies show a concentration-effect relationship, but two interventional trials ended in the lack of interest of the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM), although it is of current practice. However, numerous drug interactions may modify the plasma concentrations of valproate. The therapeutic range is from 50 to 100 mg/L (346-693 micromol/L). The level of proof of the interest of the TDM for this molecule was estimated in: recommended.

  11. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of zonisamide].

    PubMed

    Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Tribut, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Zonisamide is a second generation antiepileptic drug available in France since 2005. It provides a mechanism of action similar to those of phenytoin or carbamazepine. It is indicated in association in the treatment of partial epilepsy with or without secondary generalization. Zonisamide is well absorbed with maximum concentration achieved in 2 to 5 h. It is partly metabolized by the CYP3A4. Its elimination half-life is very long, around 60 h. Studies in adults and children show low concentration-efficacy and concentration-toxicity correlations, but a therapeutic range has been determined between 10 and 40 mg/L. Zonisamide is sensitive to the inductive molecules of CYP which will increase its clearance and decrease its half-life. A specific monitoring of patient is recommended in renal impairment. For this molecule, the interest of TDM has been evaluated: possibly useful.

  12. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of clonazepam].

    PubMed

    Debruyne, Danièle; Pailliet-Loilier, Magalie; Lelong-Boulouard, Véronique; Coquerel, Antoine; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle

    2010-01-01

    Clonazepam is a 1-4 benzodiazepine mainly used to treat epilepsy and epileptiform convulsion state. Rapidly absorbed after oral administration, it is widely distributed in the organism and is extensively converted in metabolites, poorly or not active, eliminated mainly in urine (70%) and feces. Elimination half-life is long, around 40 h. In adult and child, several studies showed a concentration-effect relation. Meanwhile, a large inter-individual variability in the dose-concentration relation was observed. A 15-50 microg/L range of clonazepam blood concentrations appears to be retained as an acceptable target to control a majority of epileptic seizures. The Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of clonazepam can be considered as possibly useful in case of association with CYP450 inducers or inhibitors, suspicion of poor observance, or toxicity signs.

  13. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of oxcarbazepine].

    PubMed

    Bouquié, Régis; Dailly, Eric; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle

    2010-01-01

    Oxcarbazepine is an analogue of carbamazepine, used for the treatment of partial seizure with or without secondary generalization. The two forms R and S of the mono-hydroxylated derivatives (MHD) are responsible for most of the anti-convulsant activity and it is the concentrations of MHD that are relevant in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Analysis of currently literature provides no well-established relationship between plasma concentration of MHD and efficiency or toxicity. Although there is not a validated therapeutic range, the residual concentrations of usually observed therapeutic MHD are situated between 12 and 30 mg/L. In certain pathological or physiological circumstances, the pharmacokinetic variability of the oxcarbazepine can be considerable, but this strong unpredictability does not nevertheless justify the TDM of the MHD. Based on the available evidence, TDM of MHD is not routinely warranted but may be possibly useful in specific situations such as pregnancy or renal insufficiency.

  14. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of clozapine].

    PubMed

    Djerada, Zoubir; Daviet, Françoise; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Eschalier, Alain; Saint-Marcoux, Franck; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Libert, Fréderic

    2016-08-24

    Clozapine is a prototypical atypical antipsychotic used to treat severe schizophrenia and for which a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is quite commonly proposed. Clozapine is rapidly absorbed (maximum concentration reached within 1 to 4hours), and is extensively metabolized in the liver by CYP1A2 to an active metabolite (and to a lesser extent, to inactive metabolites via other enzymes). Its half-life is 8 to 16h. A therapeutic range has been proposed for clozapine as some studies have reported both a relationship between low plasmatic concentrations and resistance to treatment (threshold level is likely between 250 and 400μg/L), and a relationship between high plasmatic concentrations and an increase in the occurrence of toxicity (alert level=1000μg/L). Given the data obtained in different studies, the TDM was evaluated for this molecule, to recommended.

  15. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of quinine].

    PubMed

    Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Tribut, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Quinine is an antimalarial agent whose main mechanism of action on Plasmodium is to inhibit the transformation of toxic haem to polymeric non-toxic haemozoin. After oral and intramuscular administration, quinine is well absorbed, with peak plasma concentration reached in 1 to 3 hours. The pharmacokinetic of quinine differs depending on the severity of the disease: the volume of distribution and the clearance decrease proportionally to the infection, while the half-life increases. Plasma concentrations are approximately 50% higher in patients in the acute phase than in convalescence. Quinine is metabolized primarily by CYP3A4, implying changing the dosage when combined with inhibitors or inducers of CYP. The efficacy of quinine has been proved for residual concentrations above 5 mg/L (15 μmol/L) throughout the duration of treatment. Some side effects are concentration-dependent and a concentration of 20 mg/L (60 μmol/L) is considered as the threshold for toxicity. The 2007 consensus conference of the French Language Infectious Diseases Society calls for daily monitoring of plasma concentrations during the first 3 days of treatment targeting a trough concentration between 10 and 12 mg/L (30-36 μmol/L). For this compound, the level of evidence of the interest of therapeutic drug monitoring has been evaluated and the latter is recommended.

  16. Using Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs to Address Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Melissa

    2015-03-01

    (1) Forty-nine states have established prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) to address misuse and abuse of controlled substances. (2) Pilot programs have shown that connecting prescribers' PDMPs using health information technology results in improved patient care. (3) Legislators can access up-to-date information about their state PDMP at the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Training and Technical Assistance Center.

  17. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of olanzapine].

    PubMed

    Djerada, Zoubir; Brousse, Georges; Niel, Philippe; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Eschalier, Alain; Bentue-Ferrer, Danièle; Libert, Fréderic

    2016-10-25

    Olanzapine, atypical antipsychotic, is used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Its therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is quite commonly done. Olanzapine is well absorbed orally (bioavailability: 85 %), with peak plasma occurring between 4 and 6hours after oral administration. It is extensively metabolized by different hepatic enzymes (including CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 isoforms) to a large number of inactive metabolites, and its half-life is between 30 and 60hours. No specific therapeutic range, or threshold concentration could not be a consensus, but the higher intra- and interindividual variability, as well as the existence of studies suggesting a correlation between circulating concentrations of olanzapine and occurrence of therapeutic relapse or toxic phenomena appear to justify the STP for this molecule. Given these data, the interest of the STP was evaluated for this molecule to: recommended with therapeutic window of 20μg/L to 80μg/L.

  18. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used...

  19. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used...

  20. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used...

  1. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used...

  2. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used...

  3. Monitoring drug markets in the Internet age and the evolution of drug monitoring systems in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lucy; Roxburgh, Amanda; Bruno, Raimondo; Van Buskirk, Joe

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, drug monitoring systems have been in place for more than a decade allowing for the measurement of ongoing trends in drug use and the detection of new drugs. The Drug Trends Unit at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre monitors drugs through four separate systems. The Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) measures the price, purity, and availability of drugs that are primarily injected. The Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) monitors psychostimulants that are used recreationally. The National Illicit Drugs Indicator Project (NIDIP) analyzes indicator data including drug-related hospitalizations and deaths. Finally, the Drugs and Emerging Technologies Project (DNeT) analyzes the role of the Internet in the procurement and use of novel psychoactive substances. This paper provides an overview of each component of the system, demonstrating how the system has evolved over time.

  4. Monitoring drug promiscuity over time

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Drug promiscuity and polypharmacology are much discussed topics in pharmaceutical research. Experimentally, promiscuity can be studied by profiling of compounds on arrays of targets. Computationally, promiscuity rates can be estimated by mining of compound activity data. In this study, we have assessed drug promiscuity over time by systematically collecting activity records for approved drugs. For 518 diverse drugs, promiscuity rates were determined over different time intervals. Significant differences between the number of reported drug targets and the promiscuity rates derived from activity records were frequently observed. On the basis of high-confidence activity data, an increase in average promiscuity rates from 1.5 to 3.2 targets per drug was detected between 2000 and 2014. These promiscuity rates are lower than often assumed. When the stringency of data selection criteria was reduced in subsequent steps, non-realistic increases in promiscuity rates from ~6 targets per drug in 2000 to more than 28 targets were obtained. Hence, estimates of drug promiscuity significantly differ depending on the stringency with which target annotations and activity data are considered. PMID:25352982

  5. Annual Report 2000: Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Justice Programs.

    This annual report reflects changes to the National Institute of Justice's Drug Use Forecasting program. After several years of development and testing, the restructured program was fully implemented in 2000 as Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM). Probability-based sampling was adopted, the interview instrument (questionnaire) was enhanced to…

  6. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of tiagabine].

    PubMed

    Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Tribut, Olivier; Verdier, Marie-Clémence

    2010-01-01

    Tiagabine, a second-generation anticonvulsant drug, is marketed in France since 1997. It is also prescribed outside marketing authorization in the treatment of anxiety. They are few studies allowing arguing a relation exposure efficiency or toxicity, but intra and inter individual important variations in serum concentrations are described. Hepatic insufficiency requires a dose adaptation. In patients treated with therapeutic dose, serum levels are between 20 and 100 microg/L (50-250 nmol/L). For this molecule, the level of proof of the interest of TDM was estimated in: remaining to estimate.

  7. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of lamotrigine].

    PubMed

    Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Tribut, Olivier; Verdier, Marie-Clémence

    2010-01-01

    Lamotrigine is a second generation anticonvulsant drug available in France since 1996. As other anticonvulsant drugs, lamotrigine is also used in type I bipolar disorders and except legal notices, in the treatment of neuropathic pains. It is mainly metabolized by the UDP-glucuronyltransferase in inactive metabolites. Its average half-life of elimination is of the order of 22 h, but it is reduced approximately at 14 h if it is associated with enzymatic inductors and increased at 70 h if lamotrigine is administered with sodium valproate. The pharmacokinetic parameters are modified at the young child's, but not in the old population. During the pregnancy, the plasmatic concentrations are lowered and re-increase strongly after the delivery, if dosages were adapted. The renal insufficiency does not require adaptation of dosage, on the other hand in case of severe hepatic insufficiency a decrease of the dose is to be considered. The correlation concentration-efficiency does not seem demonstrated, but there are not enough published studies and they included few patients. Furthermore, they were led with a methodology more pragmatic than rigorous. The correlation concentration-toxicity is better argued. The recommended therapeutic range is from 2.5 to 15 mg/L. For this molecule, the level of proof of the interest of the TDM was estimated in: possibly useful.

  8. Multifunctional inverse opal particles for drug delivery and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Huan; Ye, Baofen; Shang, Luoran; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-06-01

    Particle-based delivery systems have a demonstrated value for drug discovery and development. Here, we report a new type of particle-based delivery system that has controllable release and is self-monitoring. The particles were composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) hydrogel with an inverse opal structure. The presence of macropores in the particles provides channels for active drug loading and release from the materials.Particle-based delivery systems have a demonstrated value for drug discovery and development. Here, we report a new type of particle-based delivery system that has controllable release and is self-monitoring. The particles were composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) hydrogel with an inverse opal structure. The presence of macropores in the particles provides channels for active drug loading and release from the materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02324f

  9. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of vigabatrin].

    PubMed

    Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Tribut, Olivier; Verdier, Marie-Clémence

    2010-01-01

    Vigabatrin is a second generation anticonvulsant drug available in France since 1995. It is an amino acid analogue of the GABA, marketed under the racemic form [R(-)/S(+)50/50], but only the S(+)-enantiomer is active. Neither the mechanism of action of vigabatrin, an irreversible enzymatic inhibition, nor its pharmacokinetic characteristics (no binding to plasma proteins, low metabolism, no interaction with CYP), are in favour of TDM. There is no validated therapeutic range, but to the recommended dosage of 1 to 3 g a day correspond plasma concentrations ranging from 0,8 to 36 mg/L (6 - 279 micromol/L). For this molecule, the level of proof of the interest of the TDM was estimated in: to be useless.

  10. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of topiramate].

    PubMed

    Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Tribut, Olivier; Verdier, Marie-Clémence

    2010-01-01

    Topiramate, a second generation anticonvulsant drug, is marketed in France since 1997. It is also indicated in the prophylaxis of headache and is used, except legal notices, in the treatment of neuropathic pains and bipolar disorders. The efficiency and the risk of adverse reactions are dose dependent. However, the good correlation between the dosage and the plasmatic concentrations, and the relatively low interindividual variability, when we take into account the age and the association with an enzyme inducer, are not in favour of the interest of a dosage. Furthermore, there is a covering range between the effective and not effective concentrations, and levels susceptible or not to facilitate the appearance of an adverse event. There is no validated therapeutic range, but to the usual dosages the plasma concentrations are included between 5 and 20 mg/L (15-60 micromol/L), mostly in the low part of this interval. For this molecule, the level of proof of the interest of the TDM was estimated in: possibly useful.

  11. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of the Newer Anti-Epilepsy Medications

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    In the past twenty years, 14 new antiepileptic drugs have been approved for use in the United States and/or Europe. These drugs are eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin and zonisamide. In general, the clinical utility of therapeutic drug monitoring has not been established in clinical trials for these new anticonvulsants, and clear guidelines for drug monitoring have yet to be defined. The antiepileptic drugs with the strongest justifications for drug monitoring are lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, stiripentol, and zonisamide. Stiripentol and tiagabine are strongly protein bound and are candidates for free drug monitoring. Therapeutic drug monitoring has lower utility for gabapentin, pregabalin, and vigabatrin. Measurement of salivary drug concentrations has potential utility for therapeutic drug monitoring of lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and topiramate. Therapeutic drug monitoring of the new antiepileptic drugs will be discussed in managing patients with epilepsy. PMID:20640233

  12. Therapeutic drug monitoring and tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Herviou, Pauline; Thivat, Emilie; Richard, Damien; Roche, Lucie; Dohou, Joyce; Pouget, Mélanie; Eschalier, Alain; Durando, Xavier; Authier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic activity of drugs can be optimized by establishing an individualized dosage, based on the measurement of the drug concentration in the serum, particularly if the drugs are characterized by an inter-individual variation in pharmacokinetics that results in an under- or overexposure to treatment. In recent years, several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed to block intracellular signaling pathways in tumor cells. These oral drugs are candidates for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) due to their high inter-individual variability for therapeutic and toxic effects. Following a literature search on PubMed, studies on TKIs and their pharmacokinetic characteristics, plasma quantification and inter-individual variability was studied. TDM is commonly used in various medical fields, including cardiology and psychiatry, but is not often applied in oncology. Plasma concentration monitoring has been thoroughly studied for imatinib, in order to evaluate the usefulness of TDM. The measurement of plasma concentration can be performed by various analytical techniques, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry being the reference method. This method is currently used to monitor the efficacy and tolerability of imatinib treatments. Although TDM is already being used for imatinib, additional studies are required in order to improve this practice with the inclusion of other TKIs. PMID:27446421

  13. Plasma level monitoring of antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, T B

    1978-01-01

    Psychotic patients treated with identical doses of antipsychotic drugs have been shown to have great interindividual differences in their steady state plasma concentration. Therefore, monitoring treatment by dosage adjustment alone is of little value. If antipsychotic blood levels can be related to clinical response then their routine measurement may well result in well defined guidelines to individualised optimal dosage. Despite the considerable effort expended in this field and the many interesting testable hypotheses generated, little substantive evidence for an acceptable plasma level monitoring guide has been reported to date. Work on metabolite level profiles, intra- and extracellular drug concentration differences, more detailed clinical rating scales, and improved experimental design, all show great promise for the future. Investigation of the pharmacokinetics and the elucidation of the often complex metabolic pathways of individual antipsychotic drugs are generating the data base required for the rational pharmacotherapy of these most severely ill patients. Until more data are available, routine monitoring of antipsychotic drug plasma levels remains of research interest.

  14. Monitoring occupational exposure to cancer chemotherapy drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, E. S.; Connor, T. H.

    1996-01-01

    Reports of the health effects of handling cytotoxic drugs and compliance with guidelines for handling these agents are briefly reviewed, and studies using analytical and biological methods of detecting exposure are evaluated. There is little conclusive evidence of detrimental health effects from occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Work practices have improved since the issuance of guidelines for handling these drugs, but compliance with the recommended practices is still inadequate. Of 64 reports published since 1979 on studies of workers' exposure to these drugs, 53 involved studies of changes in cellular or molecular endpoints (biological markers) and 12 described chemical analyses of drugs or their metabolites in urine (2 involved both, and 2 reported the same study). The primary biological markers used were urine mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange, and chromosomal aberrations; other studies involved formation of micronuclei and measurements of urinary thioethers. The studies had small sample sizes, and the methods were qualitative, nonspecific, subject to many confounders, and possibly not sensitive enough to detect most occupational exposures. Since none of the currently available biological and analytical methods is sufficiently reliable or reproducible for routine monitoring of exposure in the workplace, further studies using these methods are not recommended; efforts should focus instead on wide-spread implementation of improved practices for handling cytotoxic drugs.

  15. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring By Reverse Iontophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Anroop B; Goel, Ankit; Prakash, Shashi; Kumar, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic molecules possessing distinct pharmacokinetic variation, narrow therapeutic index and concentration dependent therapeutic/adverse effects demand constant monitoring. The current methods for blood sampling are invasive and possess low patient compliance. Human skin, selective and effective membrane to chemical permeation, offers an alternative route for the extraction of endogenous molecules in the body. Significant attention has been received in the application of reverse iontophoresis in extracting drugs/biomaterials from the subdermal region. This technique involves transiting of a low electric current across the skin usually with couple of skin electrodes to extract charged as well as neutral molecules. Electromigration and electroosmosis are the two basic mechanisms involved in transport of molecules. Several in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated the potential of reverse iontophoresis as a noninvasive tool in clinical chemistry and therapeutic drug monitoring. This technology is currently being used in device such as Glucowatch Biogrpaher which allows blood glucose detection across skin layers. Advances in technology and rapid progress in research has widely improved the opportunity of this system, and the recent trend indicates that several products are likely to be developed very soon. This review provides an overview about the recent developments in reverse iontophoresis for therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:24826025

  16. Genotoxic Monitoring of Nurses Handling Cytotoxic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Tompa, Anna; Biró, Anna; Jakab, Mátyás

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Several biomarkers may be used to detect harmful exposure and individual susceptibility to cancer. Monitoring of biomarkers related to exposure may have a significant effect on early detection of cell transformation, thereby aiding the primary prevention of various chronic and malignant diseases. Nurses who handle cytotoxic drugs are exposed to carcinogenic agents, which have the potential to interrupt the cell cycle and to induce chromosomal aberrations. The presence of high chromosomal aberrations indicates the need for intervention even when exposure to these carcinogens is low. Methods: Nationally representative samples of 552 nurses were investigated by a follow-up monitoring system. The measured biomarkers were clinical laboratory routine tests, completed with genotoxicological (chromosome aberrations [CAs] and sister chromatid exchanges [SCEs]) and immunotoxicological monitoring (ratio of lymphocyte subpopulations and lymphocyte activation markers) measured on peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results were compared to the data of 140 healthy, age-matched controls. Results: In nurses exposed to cytostatics, we observed a significantly increased frequency of CAs and SCEs compared with those in the controls. Cytostatic drug exposure also manifested itself in an increased frequency of helper T lymphocytes. Genotoxicological and immunotoxicological changes, as well as negative health effects (i.e., iron deficiency, anemia, and thyroid diseases), increased among cytostatic exposed subjects. Conclusions: These results raised concerns about the protection of nursing staff from chemical carcinogens in the working environment. PMID:28083554

  17. When not to trust therapeutic drug monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Westergreen-Thorne, Mathew; Lee, Sook Yan; Shah, Nilesh; Dodd, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the measurement of serum or plasma drug concentration to allow the individualization of dosing. We describe the case of a patient who was prescribed inappropriately large doses of vancomycin due to inaccurate TDM. Specifically, our laboratory reported progressively lower vancomycin concentrations despite dose increases. Eventually, when duplicate samples were sent to a different laboratory vancomycin concentrations were found to be in the toxic range. We hypothesize this was due to the patient generating immunoglobulin antibodies against her infection that interfered with the original TDM immunoassay. Immunogenic TDM interference has been known to rarely occur in patients with immune related comorbidities; however, if we are correct, this is a unique case as this patient did not have such a background. This case illustrates the importance of using clinical judgement when interpreting TDM as, in this case, substantial harm to the patient was likely only narrowly avoided. PMID:27606069

  18. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, N.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D. P.; Stifter, K.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few nanosecond resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is read out via IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providing online feedback on the beam quality. A dedicated calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate short triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the system. The electronics has been in operation since the first LHC beams of Run II and has served as the first demonstration of the new QIE10, Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA and high-speed 5 Gbps link with LHC data.

  19. Electron beam emittance monitor for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E.; Meinke, R.; Nexsen, W.; Kauffmann, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Taratin, A.

    1993-05-01

    A nondestructive beam profile monitor for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is presented using as a probe a low-energy electron beam interacting with the proton bunch charge. Results using a full Monte Carlo simulation code look promising for the transverse and longitudinal beam profile measurements.

  20. [Level of evidence for therapeutic drug monitoring for docetaxel].

    PubMed

    Gerritsen-van Schieveen, Pauline; Royer, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic properties of docetaxel, an anticancer drug, are though to be interesting for therapeutic drug monitoring: high inter- and intra-variability, relationship between exposure and efficacy and especially toxicity. Moreover, the 3-weekly administration, which is the more effective scheme, is also the more toxic. However, neutropenia can be modeled and be efficiently predicted without needing plasma drug concentrations. The level evidence of therapeutic drug monitoring is thus weak regarding the possibility to adapt dose regimen without drug concentrations.

  1. Scanning electron image analysis to monitor of implant degradation and host healing following implantation of a drug-eluting bone graft void filler - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Davidoff, Sherry N; Lawson, Scott T; Grainger, David W; Brooks, Amanda E

    2013-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and often sourced during orthopedic surgical intervention. Successful treatment or prevention of this bone penetrating infection requires antibiotics be delivered in excess of the minimal inhibitory concentration to prohibit the growth of the causative organism for sufficient duration. Unfortunately, current standard-of-care antibiotic therapies, administered via intravenous or oral delivery, suffer not only from systemic toxicity and low patient compliance but also provide insufficient local concentrations for therapy. To overcome these clinical inadequacies, a synthetic bone graft material was coated with an antibiotic (tobramycin)-releasing polymer (polycaprolactone) matrix to create a polymer-controlled antibiotic- releasing combination therapy for use as a bone void filler in orthopedic surgeries. Even though this local delivery strategy allows antibiotic delivery over a clinically relevant time frame to prevent infection, complete healing requires the host bone to infiltrate and reabsorb the bone void filler, ultimately replacing the defect with healthy tissue. Unfortunately, the same polymer matrix that allows for controlled local antibiotic delivery may also discourage host bone healing. Efficient orthopedic healing requires the rate of polymer degradation to match the rate of host-bone infiltration. Current imaging techniques, such as histological staining and x-ray imaging, are insufficient to simultaneously assess polymer degradation and host bone integration. Alternative techniques relying on backscatter electron detection during scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging may allow a visual differentiation between host bone, synthetic bone, and polymer. Analysis of backscattered SEM images was automated using a custom MATLAB program to determine the ratio of bone to polymer based upon the contrast between the bone (white) and polymer (dark grey). By collecting images of the implant over time

  2. Electronic monitoring of offenders: an ethical review.

    PubMed

    Bülow, William

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers electronic monitoring (EM) a promising alternative to imprisonment as a criminal sanction for a series of criminal offenses. However, little has been said about EM from an ethical perspective. To evaluate EM from an ethical perspective, six initial ethical challenges are addressed and discussed. It is argued that since EM is developing as a technology and a punitive means, it is urgent to discuss its ethical implications and incorporate moral values into its design and development.

  3. RADAI-5 and electronic monitoring tools.

    PubMed

    Leeb, Burkhard F; Brezinschek, Hans-Peter; Rintelen, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Tighter monitoring of patients is regarded one of the key approaches to improve management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It could be demonstrated that the patient relevant disease course is not simply the linear link between two observation points, but fluctuates significantly in up to 80% of patients surveyed three times over two months, which understandably compromises quality of life. Patient self-report questionnaires such as the Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index-Five (RADAI-5) have been shown to provide reliable information about disease activity, functionality, and other important aspects of daily life. The internal consistency of such questionnaires was shown to be significantly higher than the one of the DAS28 or the CDAI. Innovative electronic tools can be easily foreseen to constitute the media to enhance the dialogue between healthcare professionals and patients to improve disease care. These tools collect patient-recorded outcomes (PROs) data, through which physicians can monitor the course of the individual disease. Electronic versions can enable patients to receive additional medical attention between visits and provide a more detailed record of disease course over time. Applying the RADAI-5 or other questionnaires in electronic assessment tools will allow for the individual assessment of health levels, well-being, joint pain and the quality of life. Such tools will enable more frequent patient monitoring, with the potential to improve the patient's situation as well as to enhance physicians' time management, and to prioritise patients who may need further attention.

  4. RFID Tag Helix Antenna Sensors for Wireless Drug Dosage Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiyu; Zhao, Peisen; Chen, Pai-Yen; Ren, Yong; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Hu, Ye; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturized helix antennas are integrated with drug reservoirs to function as RFID wireless tag sensors for real-time drug dosage monitoring. The general design procedure of this type of biomedical antenna sensors is proposed based on electromagnetic theory and finite element simulation. A cost effective fabrication process is utilized to encapsulate the antenna sensor within a biocompatible package layer using PDMS material, and at the same time form a drug storage or drug delivery unit inside the sensor. The in vitro experiment on two prototypes of antenna sensor-drug reservoir assembly have shown the ability to monitor the drug dosage by tracking antenna resonant frequency shift from 2.4-2.5-GHz ISM band with realized sensitivity of 1.27 [Formula: see text] for transdermal drug delivery monitoring and 2.76-[Formula: see text] sensitivity for implanted drug delivery monitoring.

  5. Biomarkers to monitor drug-induced phospholipidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Baronas, Elizabeth Tengstrand; Lee, Ju-Whei; Alden, Carl; Hsieh, Frank Y. . E-mail: frank.hsieh@nextcea.com

    2007-01-01

    Di-docosahexaenoyl (C22:6)-bis(monoacylglycerol) phosphate (BMP) was identified as a promising phospholipidosis (PL) biomarker in rats treated with either amiodarone, gentamicin, or azithromycin. Sprague-Dawley rats received either amiodarone (150 mg/kg), gentamicin (100 mg/kg) or azithromycin (30 mg/kg) once daily for ten consecutive days. Histopathological examination of tissues by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated different degrees of accumulation of phospholipidosis in liver, lung, mesenteric lymph node, and kidney of drug-treated rats but not controls. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used to identify levels of endogenous biochemical profiles in rat urine. Urinary levels of di-docosahexaenoyl (C22:6)-bis(monoacylglycerol) phosphate (BMP) correlated with induction of phospholipidosis for amiodarone, gentamicin and azithromycin. Rats treated with gentamicin also had increased urinary levels of several phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) species.

  6. Electronic Noses for Environmental Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Rosso, Renato Del

    2014-01-01

    Electronic nose applications in environmental monitoring are nowadays of great interest, because of the instruments' proven capability of recognizing and discriminating between a variety of different gases and odors using just a small number of sensors. Such applications in the environmental field include analysis of parameters relating to environmental quality, process control, and verification of efficiency of odor control systems. This article reviews the findings of recent scientific studies in this field, with particular focus on the abovementioned applications. In general, these studies prove that electronic noses are mostly suitable for the different applications reported, especially if the instruments are specifically developed and fine-tuned. As a general rule, literature studies also discuss the critical aspects connected with the different possible uses, as well as research regarding the development of effective solutions. However, currently the main limit to the diffusion of electronic noses as environmental monitoring tools is their complexity and the lack of specific regulation for their standardization, as their use entails a large number of degrees of freedom, regarding for instance the training and the data processing procedures. PMID:25347583

  7. Biosensors and nanobiosensors for therapeutic drug and response monitoring.

    PubMed

    McKeating, Kristy S; Aubé, Alexandra; Masson, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-21

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is required for pharmaceutical drugs with dosage limitations or toxicity issues where patients undergoing treatment with these drugs require frequent monitoring. This allows for the concentration of such pharmaceutical drugs in a patient's biofluid to be closely monitored in order to assess the pharmacokinetics, which could result in an adjustment of dosage or in medical intervention if the situation becomes urgent. Biosensors are a class of analytical techniques competent in the rapid quantification of therapeutic drugs and recent developments in instrumental platforms and in sensing schemes, as well as the emergence of nanobiosensors, have greatly contributed to the principal examples of these sensors for therapeutic drug monitoring. Based on initial success stories, it is clear that (nano)biosensors could pave the way for therapeutic drug monitoring of many commonly administered drugs and for new drugs that will be introduced to the market allowing for safe and optimal dosing across a wide range of pharmaceuticals. In this review, we report on the recent developments in biosensing and nanobiosensing techniques and, focussing mainly on anti-cancer agents and antibiotics, we discuss the different classes of molecules upon which therapeutic drug monitoring has already been successfully applied. The potential contributions of (nano)biosensors are also reviewed for the emerging areas of therapeutic response monitoring, where markers are monitored to ensure compliance of a patient to a treatment and in the area of cellular response to therapeutic drugs in order to identify cytotoxic effects of drugs on cells or to identify patients responding to a drug.

  8. Automated monitoring to reduce electron microscope downtime.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Matthias J; Resch, Guenter P

    2009-10-01

    High-end transmission electron microscopes are complex and sensitive instruments. Failure of one of the external supplies, malfunction of the microscope hardware or maloperation are typical reasons for subsystems to fail. Especially if undiscovered for a longer period of time, this can cause unnecessary downtime, compromising user access and increasing operating costs. Utilizing the software introduced in this article ("MoniTEM"), we have succeeded to reduce downtime of an FEI Tecnai Polara by coupling constant monitoring of critical subsystems with automatic, remote feedback to the system supervisor, ensuring immediate problem solving. The software described here is freely available from http://www.imba.oeaw.ac.at/monitem/ and can be readily adapted for use with other FEI transmission electron microscopes.

  9. [Level of evidence for therapeutic drug monitoring for paclitaxel].

    PubMed

    Gerritsen-van Schieveen, Pauline; Royer, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Paclitaxel is an anticancer drug which displays pharmacokinetic properties which can lead to therapeutic drug monitoring requirement. The most effective pharmacokinetic parameter seems to be the time during which the plasma concentration is over 0.05 micromol/L. However, this target needs to be validated with new weekly schedules of administration. These reasons lead to consider the level of evidence of therapeutic drug monitoring of paclitaxel as potentially useful.

  10. Compact noninvasive electron bunch-length monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Brock; Poelker, Matt; Mammei, Russell R.; McCarter, James L.

    2012-12-01

    A compact RF cavity was constructed that simultaneously resonates at many harmonic modes when excited by a bunched electron beam passing through its bore. The excitation of these modes provides a Fourier description of the temporal characteristics of the bunchtrain. The cavity was used to non-invasively characterize electron bunches produced from thin and thick GaAs photocathodes inside a DC high voltage photogun illuminated with 37 ps (FWHM) laser pulses at repetition rates near 500 and 1500 MHz, at average beam current from 5 uA to 500 uA and at beam energy from 75 keV to 195 keV. The cavity bunchlength monitor could detect electron bunches as short as 57 ps (FWHM) when connected directly to a sampling oscilloscope, and could clearly distinguish bunches with varying degrees of space-charge induced growth and with different tail signatures. Efforts are underway to detect shorter bunches, by designing cavities with increased bandwidth and improved coupling uniformity. This demonstration lends credibility to the idea that these cavities could also be used for other applications, including bunching and shaping, when driven with external RF.

  11. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.159 Electronic prescription drug program. (a)...

  12. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.159 Electronic prescription drug program. (a) Definitions. For purposes of...

  13. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.159 Electronic prescription drug program. (a)...

  14. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.159 Electronic prescription drug program. (a)...

  15. [Dynamic monitoring risk of anti-hepatoma new drug development].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Fan, Wei; Li, Hong-Fa; Man, Shu-Li; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wen-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Risk monitoring of new Chinese patent anti-hepatoma drugs is tracking recognized risks and residual risks, identifying emerging risk and ensure the implementation of the plan, estimating the process of reducing effectiveness. The paper is mainly through understanding the status of Chinese patent anti-hepatoma drugs, the content, characteristic and analysis method of dynamic risk monitoring, and then select the risk control indicators, collect risk information. Finally, puts forward the thought of anti-hepatoma drugs listed evaluation in our country, and try to establish the model of dynamic risk management of anti-hepatoma drugs.

  16. Therapeutic drug monitoring of psychotropic drugs. TDM "nouveau".

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Finn

    2004-04-01

    TDM applied in psychiatry dates back several decades. The reason for this is that, after the advent of modern clinical psychopharmacology around the middle of the past century, an insight came to common knowledge about the existence of (1) a large interindividual pharmacokinetic (PK) variability for virtually all psychoactive drugs and (2) a worse clinical efficacy not only in inadequate drug concentrations but also in excessively high concentrations. From this concept, the definition of a therapeutic concentration "window" was evidenced for a substantial number of, primarily, antidepressant drugs. However, with the further extensive development of the clinically available pharmacopoeia of psychoactive drugs from the later 1980s until today, the concept of less toxic compounds than before has commonly been launched in the marketing strategies for these newer drugs. This concept also led to the idea that TDM was no longer necessary for the newer types of psychoactive drugs, a position backed up by difficulties in unraveling concentration-effect relationships generally for these drugs in clinical trials. The present survey summarizes the background history for TDM in psychiatry and makes a critical appraisal of why a "lack" of definition of concentration-effect relationships for newer psychoactive drugs is now common. This survey also provides the reader with a novel concept challenging ambient TDM strategies (referred to as TDM "traditionelle") in psychiatry by forwarding a theoretical model called TDM "nouveau." In this model both inter- and intraindividual (over time) PK variation is suggested to be used for dose optimization by TDM in a naturalistic clinical setting. The previous concept of a simple, common concentration "window" existing for all such drugs is questioned by promotion of the use of available PK data merely as "guiding principles" rather than as "reference values" when interpreting the TDM outcome in individual cases.

  17. Positron emission tomography in CNS drug discovery and drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Piel, Markus; Vernaleken, Ingo; Rösch, Frank

    2014-11-26

    Molecular imaging methods such as positron emission tomography (PET) are increasingly involved in the development of new drugs. Using radioactive tracers as imaging probes, PET allows the determination of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a drug candidate, via recording target engagement, the pattern of distribution, and metabolism. Because of the noninvasive nature and quantitative end point obtainable by molecular imaging, it seems inherently suited for the examination of a pharmaceutical's behavior in the brain. Molecular imaging, most especially PET, can therefore be a valuable tool in CNS drug research. In this Perspective, we present the basic principles of PET, the importance of appropriate tracer selection, the impact of improved radiopharmaceutical chemistry in radiotracer development, and the different roles that PET can fulfill in CNS drug research.

  18. Adapting electronic adherence monitors to standard packages of topical medications.

    PubMed

    Tusa, Mark G; Ladd, Mitchell; Kaur, Mandeep; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Feldman, Steven R

    2006-11-01

    Adherence to topical medications is poorly characterized. Electronic monitors can provide objective adherence data, but these monitors are not designed to work with tubes of medications. We sought to adapt standard electronic monitors to commonly used medication tubes. An adapter was created to fit over standard medication tubes. Screw threads on the adapter were designed to fit standard electronic monitors. Adapters and monitors were tested with tubes of gel, ointment, and cream over an 8-week test period during which the adapters were opened and closed twice daily. The adapters were easily mated to both plastic and aluminum topical medication tubes. The bond between the adapter and the tube was maintained throughout the study. Electronic monitors were 100% accurate at identifying medication events over the study period. We conclude that adapting existing electronic monitors to medication tubes should facilitate a much better understanding of adherence to topical treatment.

  19. Prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Sausan El Burai; Mack, Karin

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the late 1990s, the number of opioid analgesic overdose deaths has quadrupled in the United States of America (from 4 030 deaths in 1999 to 16 651 in 2010). The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the problem of prescription drug overdose in the United States and to discuss actions that could help reduce the problem, with particular attention to the characteristics of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). These programs consist of state-level databases that monitor controlled substances. The information compiled in the databases is at the disposal of authorized persons (e.g., physicians, pharmacists, and other health-care providers) and may be used only for professional purposes. Suppliers can use such information to prevent interaction with other drugs or therapeutic duplication, or to identify drug-search behavior. Law enforcement agencies can use these programs to identify improper drug prescription or dispensing patterns, or drug diversion. PMID:25563153

  20. RFID Tag Helix Antenna Sensors for Wireless Drug Dosage Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyu; Zhao, Peisen; Chen, Pai-Yen; Ren, Yong; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Hu, Ye; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturized helix antennas are integrated with drug reservoirs to function as RFID wireless tag sensors for real-time drug dosage monitoring. The general design procedure of this type of biomedical antenna sensors is proposed based on electromagnetic theory and finite element simulation. A cost effective fabrication process is utilized to encapsulate the antenna sensor within a biocompatible package layer using PDMS material, and at the same time form a drug storage or drug delivery unit inside the sensor. The in vitro experiment on two prototypes of antenna sensor-drug reservoir assembly have shown the ability to monitor the drug dosage by tracking antenna resonant frequency shift from 2.4–2.5-GHz ISM band with realized sensitivity of 1.27 \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mu~{\\rm l}/{\\rm MHz}$\\end{document} for transdermal drug delivery monitoring and 2.76-\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mu~{\\rm l}/{\\rm MHz}$\\end{document} sensitivity for implanted drug delivery monitoring. PMID:27170865

  1. Drug delivery systems: polymers and drugs monitored by capillary electromigration methods.

    PubMed

    Simó, Carolina; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Gallardo, Alberto

    2003-11-25

    In this paper, different electromigration methods used to monitor drugs and polymers released from drug delivery systems are reviewed. First, an introduction to the most typical arrangements used as drug delivery systems (e.g., polymer-drug covalent conjugates, membrane or matrix-based devices) is presented. Next, the principles of different capillary electromigration procedures are discussed, followed by a revision on the different procedures employed to monitor the release of drugs and the degradation or solubilization of the polymeric matrices from drug delivery systems during both in vitro and in vivo assays. A critical comparison between these capillary electrophoretic methods and the more common chromatographic methods employed to analyze drugs and polymers from drug delivery systems is presented. Finally, future outlooks of these electromigration procedures in the controlled release field are discussed.

  2. Bioanalytical procedures for monitoring in utero drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Gray, Teresa; Huestis, Marilyn

    2007-08-01

    Drug use by pregnant women has been extensively associated with adverse mental, physical, and psychological outcomes in their exposed children. This manuscript reviews bioanalytical methods for in utero drug exposure monitoring for common drugs of abuse in urine, hair, oral fluid, blood, sweat, meconium, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord tissue, nails, and vernix caseosa; neonatal matrices are particularly emphasized. Advantages and limitations of testing different maternal and neonatal biological specimens including ease and invasiveness of collection, and detection time frames, sensitivities, and specificities are described, and specific references for available analytical methods included. Future research involves identifying metabolites unique to fetal drug metabolism to improve detection rates of in utero drug exposure and determining relationships between the amount, frequency, and timing of drug exposure and drug concentrations in infant biological fluids and tissues. Accurate bioanalytical procedures are vital to defining the scope of and resolving this important public health problem.

  3. Examining Big Brother's Purpose for Using Electronic Performance Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Lynn K.; Nordstrom, Cynthia R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether the reason offered for electronic performance monitoring (EPM) influenced participants' performance, stress, motivation, and satisfaction. Participants performed a data-entry task in one of five experimental conditions. In one condition, participants were not electronically monitored. In the remaining conditions, participants…

  4. Wire Position Monitoring with FPGA based Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, N.; Lysenko, O.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    This fall the first Tesla-style cryomodule cooldown test is being performed at Fermilab. Instrumentation department is preparing the electronics to handle the data from a set of wire position monitors (WPMs). For simulation purposes a prototype pipe with a WMP has been developed and built. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by 320 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPM. The wire is stretched along the pipe with a tensioning load of 9.07 kg. The WPM consists of four 50 {Omega} striplines spaced 90{sup o} apart. FPGA based digitizer scans the WPM and transmits the data to a PC via VME interface. The data acquisition is based on the PC running LabView. In order to increase the accuracy and convenience of the measurements some modifications were required. The first is implementation of an average and decimation filter algorithm in the integrator operation in the FPGA. The second is the development of alternative tool for WPM measurements in the PC. The paper describes how these modifications were performed and test results of a new design. The last cryomodule generation has a single chain of seven WPMs (placed in critical positions: at each end, at the three posts and between the posts) to monitor a cold mass displacement during cooldown. The system was developed in Italy in collaboration with DESY. Similar developments have taken place at Fermilab in the frame of cryomodules construction for SCRF research. This fall preliminary cryomodule cooldown test is being performed. In order to prepare an appropriate electronic system for the test a prototype pipe with a WMP has been developed and built, figure 1. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by 320 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPM. The 0.5 mm diameter Cu wire is stretched along the pipe with a tensioning load of 9.07 kg and has a length of 1.1 m. The WPM consists of four 50 {Omega} striplines spaced 90{sup o} apart. An FPGA based

  5. A Study on Drug Safety Monitoring Program in India

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, A.; Patel, Isha; Sanyal, Sudeepa; Balkrishnan, R.; Mohanta, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is useful in assuring the safety of medicines and protecting the consumers from their harmful effects. A number of single drugs as well as fixed dose combinations have been banned from manufacturing, marketing and distribution in India. An important issue about the availability of banned drugs over the counter in India is that sufficient adverse drug reactions data about these drugs have not been reported. The most common categories of drugs withdrawn in the last decade were nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (28%), antidiabetics (14.28%), antiobesity (14.28%), antihistamines (14.28%), gastroprokinetic drugs (7.14%), breast cancer and infertility drugs (7.14%), irritable bowel syndrome and constipation drugs (7.14%) and antibiotics (7.14%). Drug withdrawals from market were made mainly due to safety issues involving cardiovascular events (57.14%) and liver damage (14.28%). Majority of drugs have been banned since 3-5 years in other countries but are still available for sale in India. The present study compares the drug safety monitoring systems in the developed countries such as the USA and UK and provides implications for developing a system that can ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in India. Absence of a gold standard for a drug safety surveillance system, variations in culture and clinical practice across countries makes it difficult for India to completely adopt another country's practices. There should be a multidisciplinary approach towards drug safety that should be implemented throughout the entire duration spanning from drug discovery to usage by consumers. PMID:25425751

  6. Medication monitoring and drug testing ethics project.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard; Moe, Jeffrey L; Sevier, Catherine Harvey; Sevier, David; Waitzkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Duke University initiated a research project, funded by an unrestricted research grant from Millennium Laboratories, a drug testing company. The project focused on assessing the frequency and nature of questionable, unethical, and illegal business practices in the clinical drug testing industry and assessing the potential for establishing a business code of ethics. Laboratory leaders, clinicians, industry attorneys, ethicists, and consultants participated in the survey, were interviewed, and attended two face-to-face meetings to discuss a way forward. The study demonstrated broad acknowledgment of variations in the legal and regulatory environment, resulting in inconsistent enforcement of industry practices. Study participants expressed agreement that overtly illegal practices sometimes exist, particularly when laboratory representatives and clinicians discuss reimbursement, extent of testing, and potential business incentives with medical practitioners. Most respondents reported directly observing probable violations involving marketing materials, contracts, or, in the case of some individuals, directly soliciting people with offers of clinical supplies and other "freebies." While many study respondents were skeptical that voluntary standards alone would eliminate questionable business practices, most viewed ethics codes and credentialing as an important first step that could potentially mitigate uneven enforcement, while improving quality of care and facilitating preferred payment options for credentialed parties. Many were willing to participate in future discussions and industry-wide initiatives to improve the environment.

  7. Bosnian and American students' attitudes toward electronic monitoring: is it about what we know or where we come from?

    PubMed

    Muftić, Lisa R; Payne, Brian K; Maljević, Almir

    2015-06-01

    The use of community corrections continues to grow across the globe as alternatives to incarceration are sought. Little research attention, however, has been directed at correctional alternatives from a global orientation. The purpose of this research study is to compare the way that a sample of criminal justice students from the United States (n = 118) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (n = 133) perceive electronic monitoring. Because electronic monitoring is a newer sentencing alternative and it is used differently in Bosnia and Herzegovina than it is in the United States, it is predicted that Bosnian students will view electronic monitoring differently than will students from the United States. This study finds that while students are largely supportive of electronic monitoring sentences, support is affected by offender type and student nationality. For example, Bosnian students are more supportive of electronic monitoring sentences for drug offenders while American students are more supportive of electronic monitoring sentences for juvenile offenders. Differences were also found across student groups when attitudes toward electronic monitoring and the costs and pains associated with electronic monitoring were assessed. Specifically, American students were less likely to view electronic monitoring as meeting the goals of rehabilitation and more likely to view the conditions and restrictions associated with electronic monitoring as being punitive than Bosnian students were. Implications from these findings, as well as limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  8. [Level of evidence for therapeutic drug monitoring of itraconazole].

    PubMed

    Charles, Marie; Le Guellec, Chantal; Richard, Damien; Libert, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Itraconazole is a triazole antifungal agent that is active against Aspergillus, histoplasmosis, and rare fungal infections. Itraconazole exhibit marked variability in drug concentration as a result of inconsistent absorption, metabolism, or interaction with concomitant medications. Preclinical and clinical data have exhibited a relationship between serum concentrations and treatment efficacy or toxicity, thus therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of itraconazole is largely used to optimise therapy. The analysis of bibliographic data demonstrate that, even if the utility of itraconazole's TDM has not been proved by randomized controlled trial or pharmaco-economics studies, it could be useful for managing an absence of response or a drug-drug interactions, or interpreting an adverse effect. However, the interest of this monitoring was proved only in some populations of patients (neutropenics or AIDS patients) so its level of proof varies between levels "potentially useful" and "recommended".

  9. Drug-induced falls in older persons: is there a role for therapeutic drug monitoring?

    PubMed Central

    Hartholt, Klaas A.; Becker, Matthijs L.; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Falls are the leading cause of injuries among older persons. Because of ageing societies worldwide, falls are expected to become a prominent public health problem. The usage of several types of drugs has been associated with an increased fall and fracture risk. In order to reduce future falls, preventative measures are needed. Therapeutic drug monitoring may help to identify persons who are at risk for falls due to drug use. The aim was to demonstrate how drugs can contribute to falls and the role of therapeutic drug monitoring. Methods: We present a descriptive case series of four patients. Results: All patients were referred to the geriatric outpatient clinic of a university medical center. The presented cases contained different underlying mechanisms contributing to an increased fall risk in older adults, including renal failure, genetic variation, overdose and ageing. Conclusion/discussion: Older adults are more prone to the side effects of drug use, including falls. Therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful to identify the patients who have an increased drug-related fall risk and to prevent future falls by individualizing the drug regime. PMID:27034772

  10. [Evidence-based therapeutic drug monitoring of lopinavir].

    PubMed

    Barrail-Tran, Aurélie; Taburet, Anne-Marie; Poirier, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    The HIV protease inhibitor lopinavir presents a wide inter-individual variability related to liver and intestinal metabolism involving CYP3A. Published studies were analyzed to establish whether there is evidence that therapeutic drug monitoring of lopinavir could improve patient care. In naïve or pretreated HIV-infected patients, no relationship could be evidenced between virological efficacy and trough lopinavir concentration, most likely because concentrations are above inhibitory concentrations. Although data are limited, patients with elevated triglycerides and cholesterol had trough lopinavir concentrations >8 000 ng/mL. These data suggest that the level of evidence of interest of lopinavir therapeutic drug monitoring is may be recommended in some situations such as children, pregnant women, pretreated patients if the number of mutations is <5, when coadministration with drug with metabolizing enzyme inducing properties is warranted and toxicity.

  11. Current practice of therapeutic drug monitoring of biopharmaceuticals in spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Medina, Frédéric; Placensia, Chamaida; Goupille, Philippe; Paintaud, Gilles; Balsa, Alejandro; Mulleman, Denis

    2017-04-04

    Treatment of spondyloarthritis (SpA) has greatly improved in the biopharmaceutical era. These compounds, primarily tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, are effective, but some patients may show poor response, sometimes due to the presence of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs). In some instances, clinicians may increase or taper the dose, depending on the clinical response. Besides the current clinical practice, a tailored strategy based on drug monitoring is emerging as a way to improve the use of these drugs. However, the relevance of this therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of biopharmaceuticals for SpA is still unknown. In this literature review, we examined the most relevant articles dealing with the concentration-response relation, ADA detection, and pharmacokinetics in SpA treated with biopharmaceuticals. ADAs were associated with low or undetectable concentration of monoclonal antibodies. The relation between drug concentration and clinical response in SpA is debated, some studies showing an association and others not. Therefore, TDM of biopharmaceuticals for SpA requires a better understanding of the association among the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and immunogenicity of these drugs.

  12. Novel Atypical Antipsychotics: Metabolism and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM).

    PubMed

    Mandrioli, Roberto; Protti, Michele; Mercolini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry is continually developing and testing new drugs and drug candidates to satisfactorily address the needs of patients suffering from schizophrenia. In the last few years, some significant additions have been made to the list of widely available atypical antipsychotics. In particular, iloperidone, asenapine and lurasidone have been approved by the USA's Food and Drug Administration in 2009-10. In this paper, the most notable metabolic characteristics of these new drugs are addressed, with particular attention to their potential for pharmacokinetic interactions, and to the respective advantages and disadvantages in this regard. Moreover, current perspectives on the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of the considered drugs are discussed. Since TDM is most valuable when it allows the personalisation and optimisation of therapeutic practices, it is even more interesting in the case of novel drugs, such as those discussed here, whose real impact in terms of side and toxic effects on very large populations is still unknown. Some analytical notes, related to TDM application, are included for each drug.

  13. Therapeutic drug monitoring for imatinib: Current status and Indian experience

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Brijesh; Gota, Vikram; Menon, Hari; Sengar, Manju; Nair, Reena; Patial, Pankaj; Banavali, S. D.

    2013-01-01

    Imatinib is the current gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recent pharmacokinetic studies have shown considerable variability in trough concentrations of imatinib due to variations in its metabolism, poor compliance, or drug-drug interactions and highlighted its impact on clinical response. A trough level close to 1000 ng/mL, appears to be correlated with better cytogenetic and molecular responses. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) for imatinib may provide useful added information on efficacy, safety and compliance than clinical assessment alone and help in clinical decision making. It may be particularly helpful in patients with suboptimal response to treatment or treatment failure, severe or rare adverse events, possible drug interactions, or suspected nonadherence. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm relationship between imatinib plasma concentrations with response, and to define effective plasma concentrations in different patient populations. PMID:24516317

  14. Therapeutic drug monitoring for imatinib: Current status and Indian experience.

    PubMed

    Arora, Brijesh; Gota, Vikram; Menon, Hari; Sengar, Manju; Nair, Reena; Patial, Pankaj; Banavali, S D

    2013-07-01

    Imatinib is the current gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recent pharmacokinetic studies have shown considerable variability in trough concentrations of imatinib due to variations in its metabolism, poor compliance, or drug-drug interactions and highlighted its impact on clinical response. A trough level close to 1000 ng/mL, appears to be correlated with better cytogenetic and molecular responses. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) for imatinib may provide useful added information on efficacy, safety and compliance than clinical assessment alone and help in clinical decision making. It may be particularly helpful in patients with suboptimal response to treatment or treatment failure, severe or rare adverse events, possible drug interactions, or suspected nonadherence. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm relationship between imatinib plasma concentrations with response, and to define effective plasma concentrations in different patient populations.

  15. Analytical interference in the therapeutic drug monitoring of methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Oudart, Jean-Baptiste; Marquet, Benjamin; Feliu, Catherine; Gozalo, Claire; Djerada, Zoubir; Millart, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    High-dose of methotrexate chemotherapy is used in the treatment of some tumors. It presents several side effects that required therapeutic drug monitoring, which is commonly performed on 24, 48 and 72h after the beginning of the methotrexate infusion. Treatment of overexposure to methotrexate is based on injection of carboxypeptidase G2, which specifically degrades methotrexate into inactive metabolite: DAMPA. FPIA immunoassay on TDx automated analyzer (Abbott™) was used for therapeutic drug monitoring of methotrexate. This immunoassay presented a significant cross-reactivity between methotrexate and DAMPA, which widely overestimate the residual concentration compared to the gold standard HPLC/MS. TDx automated analyzer was substituted by a new immunoassay on Architect automated analyzer (Abbott™). However, this immunoassay has the same cross-reactivity, which needs to be careful when monitoring methotrexate after an injection of carboxypeptidase G2. In order to determine the most suitable assay for the therapeutic drug monitoring of methotrexate, the knowledge of injection of carboxypeptidase G2 remains essential.

  16. An Electron-Beam Profile Monitor Using Fresnel Zone Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Norio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Iida, Kensuke; Shinoe, Kenji; Takaki, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masami; Hayano, Hitoshi; Muto, Toshiya; Nomura, Masaharu; Kamiya, Yukihide; Koseki, Tadashi; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Nobutada; Nakayama, Koichi

    2004-05-12

    We have developed a beam profile monitor using two Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) at the KEK-ATF (Accelerator Test Facility) damping ring to measure small electron-beam sizes for low-emittance synchrotron radiation sources. The monitor has a structure of an X-ray microscope, where two FZPs constitute an X-ray imaging optics. In the monitor system, the synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized to 3.235-keV X-rays by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron-beam image is twenty-times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. This monitor has the following advantages: (1) high spatial resolution, (2) non-destructive measurement, (3) real-time monitoring, and (4) direct electron-beam imaging. With the beam profile monitor, we have succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 {mu}m. The measured magnification of the imaging optics was in good agreement with the design value.

  17. Dynamic optical tweezers based assay for monitoring early drug resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yuquan; Min, Changjun; Zhu, Siwei; Feng, Jie; Yuan, X.-C.

    2013-06-01

    In this letter, a dynamic optical tweezers based assay is proposed and investigated for monitoring early drug resistance with Pemetrexed-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The validity and stability of the method are verified experimentally in terms of the physical parameters of the optical tweezers system. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique is more convenient and faster than traditional techniques when the capability of detecting small variations of the response of cells to a drug is maintained.

  18. [Level of evidence for therapeutic drug monitoring of everolimus].

    PubMed

    Goirand, Françoise; Royer, Bernard; Hulin, Anne; Saint-Marcoux, Franck

    2011-01-01

    Everolimus has proven efficacy for prevention of rejection in adult de novo renal and cardiac transplant recipient in combination with ciclosporine and corticosteroids. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) with target trough concentration (C0) value from 3 to 8 µg/L has been proposed. Through a systematic review of the literature, this work explored a level of recommendation for this TDM. Everolimus exhibits both wide interindividual pharmacokinetic variability and poor relationship between dose and exposure. A good relationship has been reported between C0 values and global exposure to the drug (i.e. AUC). Although C0 > 3 µg/L has been associated with a decreased incidence of rejection, the upper limit of 8 µg/L has never been formally validated. No clinical trial testing other exposure indices or comparing efficacy and/or toxicity of everolimus therapy with and without TDM has been published so far. Consequently the level of recommendation for everolimus monitoring is "recommended".

  19. Novel statistical tools for monitoring the safety of marketed drugs.

    PubMed

    Almenoff, J S; Pattishall, E N; Gibbs, T G; DuMouchel, W; Evans, S J W; Yuen, N

    2007-08-01

    Robust tools for monitoring the safety of marketed therapeutic products are of paramount importance to public health. In recent years, innovative statistical approaches have been developed to screen large post-marketing safety databases for adverse events (AEs) that occur with disproportionate frequency. These methods, known variously as quantitative signal detection, disproportionality analysis, or safety data mining, facilitate the identification of new safety issues or possible harmful effects of a product. In this article, we describe the statistical concepts behind these methods, as well as their practical application to monitoring the safety of pharmaceutical products using spontaneous AE reports. We also provide examples of how these tools can be used to identify novel drug interactions and demographic risk factors for adverse drug reactions. Challenges, controversies, and frontiers for future research are discussed.

  20. Is there a role for therapeutic drug monitoring with codeine?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Lauren E; Madadi, Parvaz

    2012-06-01

    Codeine is an old and commonly used analgesic agent for mild to moderate pain. It is the prototypical "prodrug" in that its analgesic effect is almost wholly dependent on its biotransformation to morphine, a process that is mediated by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme. As such, interindividual variability in codeine metabolism and response is a clinical reality, and there has been much progress in characterizing the genetic causes of this variability in diverse populations. Yet despite the potential for both life-threatening adverse reactions and lack of therapeutic effect, codeine is not commonly indicated for therapeutic drug monitoring. This review will discuss the relative role of pharmacogenetics and therapeutic drug monitoring in predicting and/or maintaining adequate and safe analgesia with codeine. The review will end on a discussion of how the marriage of these 2 fields may provide new insights into the mechanisms of codeine-induced toxicity and analgesia.

  1. Injectable electronic identification, monitoring, and stimulation systems.

    PubMed

    Troyk, P R

    1999-01-01

    Historically, electronic devices such as pacemakers and neuromuscular stimulators have been surgically implanted into animals and humans. A new class of implants made possible by advances in monolithic electronic design and implant packaging is small enough to be implanted by percutaneous injection through large-gauge hypodermic needles and does not require surgical implantation. Among these, commercially available implants, known as radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, are used for livestock, pet, laboratory animal, and endangered-species identification. The RFID tag is a subminiature glass capsule containing a solenoidal coil and an integrated circuit. Acting as the implanted half of a transcutaneous magnetic link, the RFID tag is powered by and communicates with an extracorporeal magnetic reader. The tag transmits a unique identification code that serves the function of identifying the animal. Millions of RFID tags have been sold since the early 1980s. Based on the success of the RFID tags, research laboratories have developed injectable medical implants, known as micromodules. One type of micromodule, the microstimulator, is designed for use in functional-neuromuscular stimulation. Each microstimulator is uniquely addressable and could comprise one channel of a multichannel functional-neuromuscular stimulation system. Using bidirectional telemetry and commands, from a single extracorporeal transmitter, as many as 256 microstimulators could form the hardware basis for a complex functional-neuromuscular stimulation feedback-control system. Uses include stimulation of paralyzed muscle, therapeutic functional-neuromuscular stimulation, and neuromodulatory functions such as laryngeal stimulation and sleep apnea.

  2. [Evidence-based therapeutic drug monitoring for saquinavir].

    PubMed

    Muret, Patrice; Solas, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor saquinavir displays a large inter-individual variability in its pharmacokinetic parameters, related to a low absorption rate and an important hepatic metabolism. Based on literature, is the saquinavir therapeutic drug monitoring relevant? In naïve HIV-infected patients, the probability of achieving an undetectable HIV viral load at W48 was significantly associated with a saquinavir plasma trough concentration >100 ng/mL. Two studies in HIV-infected pre-treated patients reported that the genotypic inhibitory quotient was a predictive factor of virologic response with a threshold value around 40 ng/mL/mutation. Concerning the exposure-toxicity relationship, the risk of occurrence of grade 3-4 abdominal pains was more frequently associated with high concentrations of saquinavir, but without threshold value determination. Several studies, one of which was randomized, have reported the interest of saquinavir therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize the virologic response. Therefore, the level of evidence of the interest of saquinavir therapeutic drug monitoring is "recommended".

  3. [Evidence-based therapeutic drug monitoring for nevirapine].

    PubMed

    Muret, Patrice; Piedoux, Sarah; Solas, Caroline; Quaranta, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Nevirapine, a HIV non nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitor, displays an inter-individual variability in its pharmacokinetics parameters, related to its hepatic metabolism. Based on literature, is the nevirapine therapeutic drug monitoring relevant? In naïve and pre-treated HIV infected patients, the probability of achieving and maintaining an undetectable HIV viral load was significantly associated with a nevirapine plasma trough concentration (C(trough)) > 4 000 ng/mL. The probability of virologic failure was significantly associated with a C(trough) < 3 000 ng/mL. Concerning the exposure-toxicity relationship, the emergence of hepatotoxicity was more frequently associated with high C(trough), especially in case of HCV coinfection. Non-randomized studies have reported the interest of nevirapine therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize the virologic response and, to a lesser extent, to prevent hepatotoxicity. Therefore, the level of evidence of the interest of nevirapine therapeutic drug monitoring is "recommended".

  4. [Evidence-based therapeutic drug monitoring of atazanavir].

    PubMed

    Solas, Caroline; Muret, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    The HIV protease inhibitor atazanavir presents a wide inter-individual variability related to an intense hepatic metabolism. Dose-dependent elevations of bilirubin have been frequently reported with atazanavir. Relative to literature, the atazanavir therapeutic drug monitoring can it be proposed? In naïve HIV-infected patients, the probability of achieving an undetectable HIV viral load at W48 was significantly associated with a plasma trough concentration (C(min)) of atazanavir >200 ng/mL. Studies in HIV-infected pre-treated patients reported that the genotypic inhibitory quotient was a predictive factor of the virologic response with a threshold value around 200 ng/mL/mutation. Concerning the exposure-toxicity relationship, the risk of occurrence of grade 3-4 hyperbilirubinemia was more frequently associated with C(min) > 750-800 ng/mL. Non-randomized studies have reported the interest of atazanavir therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize the virologic response and prevent severe bilirubin elevations. Therefore, the level of evidence of the interest of atazanavir therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended.

  5. Electronic solutions for combating counterfeit drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hemalatha, R.; Rao, A. Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The problem of counterfeiting of drugs is assuming alarming proportions and is getting difficult to combat due to its trans-national character. It is undermining the faith of people on health care system. Therefore, there is a need to adopt zero tolerance approach to combat the problem. The Way Forward: There are many solutions available which are being adopted in piece meal manner by individual manufacturers. However, for wholesalers and resellers it is getting difficult to maintain multiple solutions. Therefore, there is a need to adopt a unified solution preferably with the help of the government. Conclusions: This paper discusses the available solutions, their shortcomings and proposes a comprehensive solution where at each level in the supply chain the authenticity is verified preferable linking it with Unique identification. PMID:26229359

  6. Adverse-drug-event surveillance using narrative nursing records in electronic nursing records.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hee-Jung; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the frequency of adverse drug events can be extracted by analyzing narrative nursing statements documented in standardized terminology-based electronic nursing records. For this study, we reviewed the narrative nursing documentations of 487 admissions of 355 cancer patients who were treated with cisplatin at a tertiary-care hospital in Korea. Narrative nursing statements with the terms "adverse drug reaction," "allergy," "hypersensitivity," and other adverse drug events listed in the safety information were analyzed. In addition, nausea, one of the most frequent adverse drug events, was further examined. Narrative statements documenting the presence or absence of an "adverse drug reaction," "allergy," and "hypersensitivity" were found in 162 admissions (33.3%). The presence or absence of adverse drug events due to cisplatin was documented in 476 admissions (97.7%). At least one adverse drug event was noted in 258 admissions (53.0%). The presence of nausea was documented in 214 admissions (43.9%), and the mean duration of nausea was 5.2 days. The results of this study suggest that adverse drug events can be monitored using narrative nursing statements documented in standardized terminology-based electronic nursing records.

  7. The role of electronic healthcare record databases in paediatric drug safety surveillance: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    de Bie, Sandra; Coloma, Preciosa M; Ferrajolo, Carmen; Verhamme, Katia M C; Trifirò, Gianluca; Schuemie, Martijn J; Straus, Sabine M J M; Gini, Rosa; Herings, Ron; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Picelli, Gino; Ghirardi, Arianna; Pedersen, Lars; Stricker, Bruno H C; van der Lei, Johan; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

    2015-01-01

    Aim Electronic healthcare record (EHR)-based surveillance systems are increasingly being developed to support early detection of safety signals. It is unknown what the power of such a system is for surveillance among children and adolescents. In this paper we provide estimates of the number and classes of drugs, and incidence rates (IRs) of events, that can be monitored in children and adolescents (0–18 years). Methods Data were obtained from seven population-based EHR databases in Denmark, Italy, and the Netherlands during the period 1996–2010. We estimated the number of drugs for which specific adverse events can be monitored as a function of actual drug use, minimally detectable relative risk (RR) and IRs for 10 events. Results The population comprised 4 838 146 individuals (25 575 132 person years (PYs)), who were prescribed 2170 drugs (1 610 631 PYs drug-exposure). Half of the total drug-exposure in PYs was covered by only 18 drugs (0.8%). For a relatively frequent event like upper gastrointestinal bleeding there were 39 drugs for which an association with a RR ≥4, if present, could be investigated. The corresponding number of drugs was eight for a rare event like anaphylactic shock. Conclusion Drug use in children is rare and shows little variation. The number of drugs with enough exposure to detect rare adverse events in children and adolescents within an EHR-based surveillance system such as EU-ADR is limited. Use of additional sources of paediatric drug exposure information and global collaboration are imperative in order to optimize EHR data for paediatric safety surveillance. PMID:25683723

  8. Therapeutic drug monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Egberts, K M; Mehler-Wex, C; Gerlach, M

    2011-09-01

    Psychopharmacotherapy in children and adolescents is characterized by an increased susceptibility for adverse events and an increased risk of ineffective treatment due to specific age-dependent and developmental characteristics in comparison to adults. Dosing in paediatric psychiatric patients requires careful handling, since the dose recommendations for adults can not simply be extrapolated to minors because of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences. In addition, psychopharmacotherapy in children and adolescents is hampered by lack of high quality evidence on efficacy and safety in many indications and subsequently a high degree of off-label use. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is an established and useful tool in psychiatry to individualize and optimize the outcomes (efficacy/safety balance) of psychopharmacological drug treatment in the individual patient by dose adjustments based upon measured serum concentrations. In children and adolescents the administration of psychotropic drugs is a general indication for performing TDM. However, TDM studies specific in these age groups are necessary to identify age and indication specific therapeutic ranges of serum concentrations. Systematic collection of data on drug exposure, serum concentrations and clinical characteristics as well as outcomes can generate such practice-based evidence. A German-Swiss-Austrian competence network for TDM in child and adolescent psychiatry using a multi-centre internet-based data infrastructure was founded to document and collect demographic, safety and efficacy data as well as blood concentrations of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents (further information: www.tdm-kjp.com).

  9. Using linked data for mining drug-drug interactions in electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Kiefer, Richard C; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    By nature, healthcare data is highly complex and voluminous. While on one hand, it provides unprecedented opportunities to identify hidden and unknown relationships between patients and treatment outcomes, or drugs and allergic reactions for given individuals, representing and querying large network datasets poses significant technical challenges. In this research, we study the use of Semantic Web and Linked Data technologies for identifying drug-drug interaction (DDI) information from publicly available resources, and determining if such interactions were observed using real patient data. Specifically, we apply Linked Data principles and technologies for representing patient data from electronic health records (EHRs) at Mayo Clinic as Resource Description Framework (RDF), and identify potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) for widely prescribed cardiovascular and gastroenterology drugs. Our results from the proof-of-concept study demonstrate the potential of applying such a methodology to study patient health outcomes as well as enabling genome-guided drug therapies and treatment interventions.

  10. Using Linked Data for Mining Drug-Drug Interactions in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Kiefer, Richard C.; Chute, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    By nature, healthcare data is highly complex and voluminous. While on one hand, it provides unprecedented opportunities to identify hidden and unknown relationships between patients and treatment outcomes, or drugs and allergic reactions for given individuals, representing and querying large network datasets poses significant technical challenges. In this research, we study the use of Semantic Web and Linked Data technologies for identifying drug-drug interaction (DDI) information from publicly available resources, and determining if such interactions were observed using real patient data. Specifically, we apply Linked Data principles and technologies for representing patient data from electronic health records (EHRs) at Mayo Clinic as Resource Description Framework (RDF), and identify potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) for widely prescribed cardiovascular and gastroenterology drugs. Our results from the proof-of-concept study demonstrate the potential of applying such a methodology to study patient health outcomes as well as enabling genome-guided drug therapies and treatment interventions. PMID:23920643

  11. How Parents of Teens Store and Monitor Prescription Drugs in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Moore, Roland S.; Grube, Joel W.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with parents of teens to explore how parents store and monitor prescription drugs in the home. Most parents had prescription drugs in the house, but took few precautions against teens accessing these drugs. Strategies for monitoring included moving the drugs to different locations, remembering how many pills…

  12. [Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of psychotropic drugs: a consensus guideline of the AGNP-TDM group].

    PubMed

    Baumann, P; Hiemke, C; Ulrich, S; Eckermann, G; Kuss, H L; Laux, G; Müller-Oerlingenhausen, B; Rao, M L; Riederer, P; Zernig, G

    2006-05-24

    In psychiatry, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is an established procedure for most psychotropic drugs. However, as its use in everyday clinical practice is far from optimal, the AGNP-TDM group has worked out consensus guidelines to assist psychiatrists and laboratories involved in drug analysis. Based on a thorough analysis of available literature, 5 levels of recommendation were defined with regard to TDM of psychoactive drugs, from 1) (strongly recommended) to 5) (not recommended). A list of indications for TDM, alone or in combination with pharmacogenetic tests is presented. Instructions are given with regard to preparation of TDM, analytical procedures, reporting and interpretation of results and the use of information for patient treatment. Using the consensus guideline will help to ensure optimal clinical benefit of TDM.

  13. Effects of House Arrest with Electronic Monitoring on DUI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtright, Kevin E.; Berg, Bruce L.; Mutchick, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the first 57 offenders who participated in an electronic monitoring (EM) program and compared them to offenders who went to jail. Analysis revealed no difference between the groups with respect to rearrest, revocations, and detainers filed. The overwhelming majority of EM offenders completed their period of supervision without incident.…

  14. Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Identifying Unanticipated Consequences and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demichele, Matthew; Payne, Brian K.; Button, Deeanna M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, increased legislative attention has been given to strategies to supervise sex offenders in the community. Among other policies, several states have passed laws calling for the use of electronic monitoring technologies to supervise sex offenders in the community. When initially developed, this community-based sanction was designed…

  15. Offenders' Perceptions of House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jamie S.; Hanrahan, Kate; Bowers, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence. Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a)…

  16. 29. View of typical radio frequency monitor group electronic tubetype ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. View of typical radio frequency monitor group electronic tube-type cabinet. System is water-cooled with antenna assist. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  17. Feasibility demonstration of a second-generation electronic monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, John H.

    1997-02-01

    First generation electronic monitoring systems are being used by the criminal justice system to effect behavioral modifications of persons in pre-trial release programs, on parole, and on probation. Current systems are merely radio frequency proximity detection systems that operate over limited ranges, on the order of 45 to 70 meters. One major defect with proximity detection systems is that when the offenders leave the area being monitored, there is no way to ensure that the offenders travel where they should. As a result, the first generation electronic monitoring systems are only applied to a restricted number of low risk cases. There is a growing need for a second generation electronic monitoring system which utilizes community-wide tracking and location technologies to increase the public safety and to expand the number of offenders monitored by these systems. Even though GPS (Global Positioning System) is rapidly becoming the technology of choice for vehicle tracking and location, GPS is not an ideal candidate for the second generation electronic monitoring system. Urban environments prevent GPS systems from providing continuous and accurate location service due to satellite occlusion by obstacles such as: hills, mountains, vehicles, buildings, and trees. An inverse-GPS approach which overcomes these urban environment related limitations has been evaluated by Northrop Grumman as a means to track people. This paper presents the results of a National Institute of Justice funded program to demonstrate in downtown Pittsburgh the feasibility of spread spectrum based time-of-arrival location systems for intelligently tracking people on probation and parole.

  18. Electronic noses and their applications in environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Compact, portable systems capable of quickly identifying contaminants in the field are of great importance when monitoring the environment. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of using artificial neural networks for real-time data analysis of a sensor array. Analyzing the sensor data in parallel may allow for rapid identification of contaminants in the field without requiring highly selective component sensors. A sensor array combined with a data analysis module is referred to as an electronic nose. In this paper, we investigate the trade off between sensor sensitivity and selectivity relating to the applications of neural network based-electronic noses in environmental monitoring. We use a prototype electronic nose which consists of nine tin-oxide Taguchi-type sensors, a temperature sensor, and a humidity sensor. We illustrate that by using neural network based analysis of a sensor data, the selectivity of a sensor array may be significantly improved, especially when some (or all) sensors are not highly selective.

  19. Smartphone-Based Electrocardiographic and Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Suneet

    The field of arrhythmia monitoring is changing rapidly. The rapid advent of technology in combination with marked improvements in cellular communication and an increased desire by patients to be actively engaged in their care has ushered in a new era of clinical care. Today, physicians need to think about their patients outside the traditional in-office setting. Two technologies that embody this changing landscape are smartphone-based electrocardiographic (ECG) monitors and remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Smartphone-based ECG monitors allow the patient to assume a greater stake in their own care. They purchase the monitor, couple it to their smartphone, own it forever, and can capture a representative ECG whenever they want to assess symptoms. The physician needs to accept that this approach is vastly different from the use of standard ambulatory external ECG monitors that have been used for years in clinical practice. A similar paradigm shift is underway with respect to the care of the CIED patient. Remote follow-up was once considered an acceptable alternative to in-office calendar-based follow-up of CIEDs. Today, guidelines recommend remote monitoring to be the preferred method for device follow-up. Remote monitoring is tailor-made for the current evolution to a value-based healthcare system, having been demonstrated to reduce scheduled office visits, hospital admissions, and mortality. It is now time to educate patients and physicians on the value of remote monitoring and to ensure that clinical practices develop the infrastructure needed to enroll, monitor, and manage their patients.

  20. A Fibrous Localized Drug Delivery Platform with NIR-Triggered and Optically Monitored Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Liu, Heng; Fu, Yike; Li, Yangyang; Ren, Zhaohui; Li, Xiang; Han, Gaorong; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-09-06

    Implantable localized drug delivery systems (LDDSs) with intelligent functionalities have emerged as a powerful chemotherapeutic platform in curing cancer. Developing LDDSs with rationally controlled drug release and real-time monitoring functionalities holds promise for personalized therapeutic protocols but suffers daunting challenges. To overcome such challenges, a series of porous Yb(3+)/Er(3+) codoped CaTiO3 (CTO:Yb,Er) nanofibers, with specifically designed surface functionalization, were synthesized for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. The content of DOX released could be optically monitored by increase in the intensity ratio of green to red emission (I550/I660) of upconversion photoluminescent nanofibers under 980 nm near-infrared (NIR) excitation owing to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) effect between DOX molecules and the nanofibers. More importantly, the 808 nm NIR irradiation enabled markedly accelerated DOX release, confirming representative NIR-triggered drug release properties. In consequence, such CTO:Yb,Er nanofibers presented significantly enhanced in vitro anticancer efficacy under NIR irradiation. This study has thus inspired another promising fibrous LDDS platform with NIR-triggered and optics-monitored DOX releasing for personalized tumor chemotherapy.

  1. A Fibrous Localized Drug Delivery Platform with NIR-Triggered and Optically Monitored Drug Release

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Heng; Fu, Yike; Li, Yangyang; Ren, Zhaohui; Li, Xiang; Han, Gaorong; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-01-01

    Implantable localized drug delivery systems (LDDSs) with intelligent functionalities have emerged as a powerful chemotherapeutic platform in curing cancer. Developing LDDSs with rationally controlled drug release and real-time monitoring functionalities holds promise for personalized therapeutic protocols but suffers daunting challenges. To overcome such challenges, a series of porous Yb3+/Er3+ codoped CaTiO3 (CTO:Yb,Er) nanofibers, with specifically designed surface functionalization, were synthesized for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. The content of DOX released could be optically monitored by increase in the intensity ratio of green to red emission (I550/I660) of upconversion photoluminescent nanofibers under 980 nm near-infrared (NIR) excitation owing to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) effect between DOX molecules and the nanofibers. More importantly, the 808 nm NIR irradiation enabled markedly accelerated DOX release, confirming representative NIR-triggered drug release properties. In consequence, such CTO:Yb,Er nanofibers presented significantly enhanced in vitro anticancer efficacy under NIR irradiation. This study has thus inspired another promising fibrous LDDS platform with NIR-triggered and optics-monitored DOX releasing for personalized tumor chemotherapy. PMID:27557281

  2. [Evidence-based therapeutic drug monitoring for efavirenz].

    PubMed

    Solas, Caroline; Gagnieu, Marie-Claude

    2011-01-01

    The efavirenz, a non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of HIV-1, presents a marked pharmacokinetics variability related to an intense hepatic metabolism. Efavirenz is also a potent inducer. Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity associated with efavirenz therapy is a major cause of non adherence and therefore treatment failure. The literature has been analyzed to evaluate the level of evidence of the interest of a therapeutic drug monitoring for efavirenz. Several studies have reported that an efavirenz plasma concentration >1 000 ng/mL is a predictive factor of the viral response. Efavirenz plasma concentrations >4 000 ng/mL were associated to an increase frequency of CNS side effects. CNS toxicity was also more frequent in patients carrying the 516G > T mutation (CYP2B6*6 allele), associated with a significantly greater efavirenz plasma exposure. Non-randomized studies have reported the interest of efavirenz therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize viral response and prevent CNS toxicity, allowing to suggest a level of evidence "recommended" for efavirenz.

  3. Microchip system for monitoring microbial physiological behaviour under drug influences.

    PubMed

    Arora, S; Lim, C S; Foo, J Y; Sakharkar, M K; Dixit, P; Liu, A Q; Miao, J M

    2009-08-01

    Single-step real-time high-throughput monitoring of drug influences on bacterial cell behaviour has become important with growing interests in personalized therapy and medication. Conventional microchip assemblies to perform similar work do exist. However, most of these devices have complex set-ups incorporating micromixers, separators, pumps, or valves. These microcomponents can sometimes damage the entities being monitored because of the creation of unfavourable biological environments. This paper presents a microchip-based system that enables single-step mixing of two solutions in various ratios, without the need for additional microcomponents such as mixers and pumps, in order to screen effectively their combinatory effects on cell outcomes. In this work, in-vitro experiments were carried out using ampicillin at various concentrations to investigate their effects on Escherichia coli (E. coli). Results showed that the microchip provided effective screening, which yielded useful results such as effective dosages, ineffective dosages, and other possible outcomes; for instance, in this case, the occurrence of adaptive mutation of the bacteria at certain drug concentrations. Comparative microbiological laboratory tests were carried out as standard for confirmation of the results.

  4. Proton-Electron Discrimination Detector (PEDD) for space weather monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Chad M.; Johnson, Erik B.; Chen, Xiao Jie; Stapels, Christopher; Vogel, Sam; Christian, James

    2015-09-01

    Electronics used for space applications (e.g. communication satellites) are susceptible to space weather, primarily consisting of electrons and protons. As more critical equipment is used in space, a comprehensive monitoring network is needed to mitigate risks associated with radiation damage. Compact detectors suited for this requirement have been too complicated or do not provide sufficient information. As the damage from electrons (e.g. total ionizing dose effects) is significantly different compared to protons (e.g. displacement damage effects), monitors that can provide unique measurements of the dose and/or spectral information for electrons and protons separately are necessary for mission assessment to determine strategies for maintaining function. Previously, we demonstrated that the Proton-Electron Discrimination Detector (PEDD) is space-compatible and can discriminate fast electrons from protons using a diphenylanthrecene (DPA) scintillator coupled to a CMOS silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The SiPM has a temperature dependence, and a circuit has been developed to provide a stable response as a function of temperature. The PEDD detector is scheduled to participate on the RHEME experiment to be flown on the ISS, scheduled for launch in 2016.

  5. Quantitative EEG Brain Mapping In Psychotropic Drug Development, Drug Treatment Selection, and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Itil, Turan M.; Itil, Kurt Z.

    1995-05-01

    Quantification of standard electroencephalogram (EEG) by digital computers [computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG)] has transformed the subjective analog EEG into an objective scientific method. Until a few years ago, CEEG was only used to assist in the development of psychotropic drugs by means of the quantitative pharmaco EEG. Thanks to the computer revolution and the accompanying reductions in cost of quantification, CEEG can now also be applied in psychiatric practice. CEEG can assist the physician in confirming clinical diagnoses, selecting psychotropic drugs for treatment, and drug treatment monitoring. Advancements in communications technology allow physicians and researchers to reduce the costs of acquiring a high-technology CEEG brain mapping system by utilizing the more economical telephonic services.

  6. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Everolimus: A Consensus Report.

    PubMed

    Shipkova, Maria; Hesselink, Dennis A; Holt, David W; Billaud, Eliane M; van Gelder, Teun; Kunicki, Paweł K; Brunet, Mercè; Budde, Klemens; Barten, Markus J; De Simone, Paolo; Wieland, Eberhard; López, Olga Millán; Masuda, Satohiro; Seger, Christoph; Picard, Nicolas; Oellerich, Michael; Langman, Loralie J; Wallemacq, Pierre; Morris, Raymond G; Thompson, Carol; Marquet, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    In 2014, the Immunosuppressive Drugs Scientific Committee of the International Association of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Toxicology called a meeting of international experts to provide recommendations to guide therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of everolimus (EVR) and its optimal use in clinical practice. EVR is a potent inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, approved for the prevention of organ transplant rejection and for the treatment of various types of cancer and tuberous sclerosis complex. EVR fulfills the prerequisites for TDM, having a narrow therapeutic range, high interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, and established drug exposure-response relationships. EVR trough concentrations (C0) demonstrate a good relationship with overall exposure, providing a simple and reliable index for TDM. Whole-blood samples should be used for measurement of EVR C0, and sampling times should be standardized to occur within 1 hour before the next dose, which should be taken at the same time everyday and preferably without food. In transplantation settings, EVR should be generally targeted to a C0 of 3-8 ng/mL when used in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs (calcineurin inhibitors and glucocorticoids); in calcineurin inhibitor-free regimens, the EVR target C0 range should be 6-10 ng/mL. Further studies are required to determine the clinical utility of TDM in nontransplantation settings. The choice of analytical method and differences between methods should be carefully considered when determining EVR concentrations, and when comparing and interpreting clinical trial outcomes. At present, a fully validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay is the preferred method for determination of EVR C0, with a lower limit of quantification close to 1 ng/mL. Use of certified commercially available whole-blood calibrators to avoid calibration bias and participation in external proficiency-testing programs to allow continuous cross

  7. Raman spectroscopy towards clinical application: drug monitoring and pathogen identification.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Ute; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a label-free method that measures quickly and contactlessly, providing detailed information from the sample, and has proved to be an ideal tool for medical and life science research. In this review, recent advances of the technique towards drug monitoring and pathogen identification by the Jena Research Groups are reviewed. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy in hollow-core optical fibres enable the detection of drugs at low concentrations as shown for the metabolites of the immunosuppressive drug 6-mercaptopurine as well as antimalarial agents. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy can be used to characterise pathogenic bacteria in infectious diseases directly from body fluids, making time-consuming cultivation processes dispensable. Using the example of urinary tract infection, it is shown how bacteria can be identified from patients' urine samples within <1 h. The methods cover both single-cell analysis and dielectrophoretic capturing of bacteria in suspension. The latter method could also be used for fast (<3.5 h) identification of antibiotic resistance as shown exemplarily for vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

  8. Evaporation rate and composition monitoring of electron beam PVD processes

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; Meier, T.; McClelland, M.A.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing sensor and control technology to improve the quality and range of applicability of electron beam PVD. The approach being developed uses tunable lasers to measure, the density and composition of the vapor plume. This paper reviews the principles of operation of laser based sensors and discusses data from experiments in which titanium and niobium are co-vaporized. Laser data agreed well with deposited film compositions and spatial variations in deposited film cross sections. Laser based vapor monitoring appears to have broad applicability and has the potential to extend the use of high rate electron beam PVD.

  9. New fast beam profile monitor for electron-positron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomyagkov, A. V.; Gurko, V. F.; Zhuravlev, A. N.; Zubarev, P. V.; Kiselev, V. A.; Meshkov, O. I.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Selivanov, A. N.; Smaluk, V. V.; Khilchenko, A. D.

    2007-04-15

    A new fast beam profile monitor has been developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. This monitor is based on the Hamamatsu multianode photomultiplier with 16 anode strips and provides turn-by-turn measurement of the transverse beam profile. The device is equipped with an internal memory, which has enough capacity to store 131 072 samples of the beam profile. The dynamic range of the beam profile monitor allows us to study turn-by-turn beam dynamics within the bunch charge range from 1 pC up to 10 nC. Using this instrument, we have investigated at the VEPP-4M electron-positron collider a number of beam dynamics effects which cannot be observed by other beam diagnostics tools.

  10. Intelligent Janus nanoparticles for intracellular real-time monitoring of dual drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Han; Yang, Yuhong; Chen, Xin; Shao, Zhengzhong

    2016-03-01

    fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The FRET acceptor Dox is attached to CMR (as a FRET donor) conjugated MS with a pH-responsive linker hydrazone, and 6MP is conjugated to the Au surface through the gold-thiol interaction. As the Janus nanoparticle enters into tumor cells, the breakage of the hydrazone bond in an acidic environment and the substitution of glutathione (GSH) overexpressed in cancer cells give rise to the release of Dox and 6MP, respectively. Thus, the change of the CMR fluorescence signal and the SERS decrease of 6MP can be used to monitor the dual-drug release within living cells in real time. In addition, this work demonstrates the enhanced anticancer effect of the designed dual-drug loaded nanosystem. Therefore, the current study may provide new perspectives for the real-time study of intelligent multi-drug delivery and release, as well as cellular responses to drug treatment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00987e

  11. Biological monitoring of hospital pharmacy personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs: urinary excretion and cytogenetics studies.

    PubMed

    Ensslin, A S; Huber, R; Pethran, A; Römmelt, H; Schierl, R; Kulka, U; Fruhmann, G

    1997-01-01

    For evaluation of the risk borne by hospital pharmacy personnel exposed to antineoplastic agents, the incorporation of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and platinum-containing drugs was quantified by the determination of urinary concentrations. In addition, the induction of micronuclei (MN) and sister-chromatid-exchange (SCE) rates in peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied for correlation with the urinary excretion of cytostatic drugs. Cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide were determined in 24-h urine samples using gas chromatography with electron capture (detection limit 2.5 micrograms/l). Voltammetric analysis enabled the determination of platinum concentrations of 4 ng/l. Heparinized blood (20 ml) was drawn and lymphocytes were cultured for MN and SCE studies. In all, 13 hospital pharmacists and pharmacy technicians regularly involved in the preparation of cytostatic drugs participated in this investigation (7 persons represent a follow-up group). All subjects applied standard safety precautions, including the use of a vertical laminar air-flow hood, protective gowns, and latex gloves. On the day of urine sampling an average of 4,870 mg cyclophosphamide, 5,580 mg ifosfamide, and 504 mg platinum-containing drugs were handled. The excretion of 5 and 9 micrograms cyclophosphamide/l urine was measured in two samples, respectively. An elevated level of urinary platinum was found in one pharmacist (22.3 ng/g creatinine) in comparison with a nonexposed control group. Mean frequencies of MN and SCE did not differ significantly between the drug exposed group and control group. The employees who had incorporated chemotherapeutic agents were part of the follow-up group and, thus, particularly cautious and sensitive to a possible hazard. The results emphasize the necessity of improving personal protection of hospital pharmacy personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs and support the importance of biological monitoring. In an ongoing project in our department the

  12. Materials for Stretchable Electronics: Electronic Eyeballs, Brain Monitors, and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John A.

    2009-02-04

    Electronic circuits that involve transistors and related components on thin plastic sheets or rubber slabs offer mechanical properties (e.g. bendability, stretchability) and other features (e.g. lightweight, rugged construction) which cannot be easily achieved with technologies that use rigid, fragile semiconductor wafer or glass substrates. Device examples include personal or structural health monitors and electronic eye imagers, in which the electronics must conform to complex curvilinear shapes or flex/stretch during use. Our recent work accomplishes these technology outcomes by use of single crystal inorganic nanomaterials in 'wavy' buckled configurations on elastomeric supports. This talk will describe key fundamental materials and mechanics aspects of these approaches, as well as engineering features of their use in individual transistors, photodiodes and integrated circuits. Cardiac and brain monitoring devices provide examples of application in biomedicine; hemispherical electronic eye cameras illustrate new capacities for bio-inspired device design.

  13. Materials for Stretchable Electronics - Electronic Eyeballs, Brain Monitors and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John A.

    2009-02-04

    Electronic circuits that involve transistors and related components on thin plastic sheets or rubber slabs offer mechanical properties (e.g. bendability, stretchability) and other features (e.g. lightweight, rugged construction) which cannot be easily achieved with technologies that use rigid, fragile semiconductor wafer or glass substrates.  Device examples include personal or structural health monitors and electronic eye imagers, in which the electronics must conform to complex curvilinear shapes or flex/stretch during use.  Our recent work accomplishes these technology outcomes by use of single crystal inorganic nanomaterials in ‘wavy’ buckled configurations on elastomeric supports.  This talk will describe key fundamental materials and mechanics aspects of these approaches, as well as engineering features of their use in individual transistors, photodiodes and integrated circuits.  Cardiac and brain monitoring devices provide examples of application in biomedicine; hemispherical electronic eye cameras illustrate new capacities for bio-inspired device design.

  14. Asparaginase pharmacokinetics and implications of therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Asselin, Barbara; Rizzari, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Asparaginase is widely used in chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and has led to a substantial improvement in cure rates, especially in children. Optimal therapeutic effects depend on a complete and sustained depletion of serum asparagine. However, pronounced interpatient variability, differences in pharmacokinetic properties between asparaginases and the formation of asparaginase antibodies make it difficult to predict the degree of asparagine depletion that will result from a given dose of asparaginase. The pharmacological principles underlying asparaginase therapy in the treatment of ALL are summarized in this article. A better understanding of the many factors that influence asparaginase activity and subsequent asparagine depletion may allow physicians to tailor treatment to the individual, maximizing therapeutic effect and minimizing treatment-related toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring provides a means of assessing a patient's current depletion status and can be used to better evaluate the potential benefit of treatment adjustments.

  15. An intensive drug monitoring study suggesting possible clinical irrelevance of impaired drug disposition in liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, C A; Busto, U; Janecek, E; Ruiz, I; Roach, C A; Kaplan, K

    1983-01-01

    1 Liver disease can alter the disposition and clinical effects of drugs. However, even though altered drug disposition occurs, there is no clinical evidence relating it to an increased susceptibility to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). 2 An intensive prospective drug monitoring study of 2,582 hospitalized patients was conducted. The adverse drug reactions probability scale (APS) was used to assess ADRs. Only non-mild, definite or probable ADRs (APS greater than or equal to 5) were included. Severity of liver dysfunction was assessed by a composite clinical and laboratory index (CCLI). 3 The frequency of ADRs was higher in 402 patients with cirrhosis (27.4%) than in 661 with renal dysfunction (22.8%) and in 249 with other parenchymatous liver diseases (13.7%) or in 1,270 patients with neither liver diseases nor renal dysfunction (10.9%) (chi 2 3 = 85.53, P less than 0.001). The frequency of ADRs in cirrhotics was highly correlated with the severity of the liver dysfunction measured by CCLI (r = 0.82, P less than 0.001). 4 Drugs predominantly eliminated by liver metabolism were not among those most commonly inducing ADRs or those causing severe reactions in cirrhotics. Thus, frusemide caused the most common and the most severe ADRs, whereas reactions induced by sedatives were uncommon. Drug-induced hepatic encephalopathy was more common in cirrhotics receiving diuretics (13.3%) than in those receiving sedatives (1.8%) (chi 2 y.c. = 5.29, P less than 0.025). Patients with alcoholic liver disease had more drug-induced hepatic encephalopathy (7.7%) than those with non-alcoholic liver disease (1.2%) (chi 2 y.c. = 11.86, P less than 0.001). 5 These results indicate that susceptibility to ADRs is increased only in severe cirrhosis and that the most common and severe ADRs seem more likely related to enhanced pharmacodynamic action than to impaired drug disposition. PMID:6849781

  16. 38 CFR 1.483 - Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.483 Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring...

  17. 38 CFR 1.483 - Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.483 Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring...

  18. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-06-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, freestanding electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function.

  19. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, free-standing electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on-demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function. PMID:26974408

  20. Single Crystal Diamond Beam Position Monitors with Radiofrequency Electronic Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, B.; Graafsma, H.; Potdevin, G.; Trunk, U.; Morse, J.; Salome, M.

    2010-06-23

    Over the energy range 5{approx}30 keV a suitably contacted, thin ({approx}100 {mu}m) diamond plate can be operated in situ as a continuous monitor of X-ray beam intensity and position as the diamond absorbs only a small percentage of the incident beam. Single crystal diamond is a completely homogeneous material showing fast (ns), spatially uniform signal response and negligible (monitors of simple quadrant electrode designs with metal contacts, operated using wideband electronic readout corresponding to the RF accelerator frequency. The instrumentation for these monitors must cover a large range of operating conditions: different beam sizes, fluxes, energies and time structure corresponding to the synchrotron fill patterns. Sophisticated new RF sampling electronics can satisfy most requirements: using a modified Libera Brilliance readout system, we measured the center of gravity position of a 25 {mu}m beam at the DORIS III F4 beam line at a rate of 130 Msample/s with narrowband filtering of a few MHz bandwidth. Digitally averaging the signal further provided a spatial resolution {approx}20 nm.

  1. FERMILAB SWITCHYARD RESONANT BEAM POSITION MONITOR ELECTRONICS UPGRADE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, T.; Diamond, J.; Liu, N.; Prieto, P. S.; Slimmer, D.; Watts, A.

    2016-10-12

    The readout electronics for the resonant beam position monitors (BPMs) in the Fermilab Switchyard (SY) have been upgraded, utilizing a low noise amplifier transition board and Fermilab designed digitizer boards. The stripline BPMs are estimated to have an average signal output of between -110 dBm and -80 dBm, with an estimated peak output of -70 dBm. The external resonant circuit is tuned to the SY machine frequency of 53.10348 MHz. Both the digitizer and transition boards have variable gain in order to accommodate the large dynamic range and irregularity of the resonant extraction spill. These BPMs will aid in auto-tuning of the SY beamline as well as enabling operators to monitor beam position through the spill.

  2. A cellular viability assay to monitor drug toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jakob; Bross, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A central part of the research in protein misfolding and its associated disorders is the development of treatment strategies based on ensuring cellular protein homeostasis. This often includes testing chemical substances or drugs for their ability to counteract protein misfolding processes and to promote correct folding. Such investigations also include assessment of how the tested chemical substances affect cellular viability, that is, their cytotoxic effect. Investigations of cytotoxicity often require testing several different concentrations and drug exposure times using cells in culture. It is therefore attractive to use a viability test that permits the analysis of many samples with little handling time. This protocol describes a simple and fast methodology to analyze viability of lymphoblastoid cells and to test putative cytotoxic effects associated with exposure to a chemical substance, here exemplified by celastrol. The natural substance celastrol has been used for many years in traditional Chinese medicine and has subsequently been shown to induce transcription of genes encoding molecular chaperones (heat shock proteins) that are involved in promoting folding of cellular proteins. The well-described colorimetric tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay, which monitors metabolic activity of cultured cells, was adapted to analyze the viability of cells exposed to celastrol. After having established a suitable cell seeding density, the dose-dependence and time-course of viability reduction of lymphoblastoid cells treated with celastrol were determined. It was found that 4- and 24-h exposure to 0.8 microM celastrol reduced the viability of lymphoblastoid cells, with the most severe effect observed at 24 h with MTT reductions approaching 30% of non-exposed cells. For a series of incubations for 24 h, it was found that concentrations as low as 0.2 microM were sufficient to affect the viability, and celastrol concentrations of 0.5 microM reduced the MTT reduction rate to

  3. A knowledge-based information system for monitoring drug levels.

    PubMed

    Wiener, F; Groth, T; Mortimer, O; Hallquist, I; Rane, A

    1989-06-01

    The expert system shell SMR has been enhanced to include information system routines for designing data screens and providing facilities for data entry, storage, retrieval, queries and descriptive statistics. The data for inference making is abstracted from the data base record and inserted into a data array to which the knowledge base is applied to derive the appropriate advice and comments. The enhanced system has been used to develop an intelligent information system for monitoring serum drug levels which includes evaluation of temporal changes and production of specialized printed reports. The module for digoxin has been fully developed and validated. To demonstrate the extension to other drugs a module for phenytoin was constructed with only a rudimentary knowledge base. Data from the request forms together with the S-digoxin results are entered into the data base by the department secretary. The day's results are then reviewed by the clinical pharmacologist. For each case, previous results may be displayed and are taken into account by the system in the decision process. The knowledge base is applied to the data to formulate an evaluative comment on the report returned to the requestor. The report includes a semi-graphic presentation of the current and previous results and either the system's interpretation or one entered by the pharmacologist if he does not agree with it. The pharmacologist's comment is also recorded in the data base for future retrieval, analysis and possible updating of the knowledge base. The system is now undergoing testing and evaluation under routine operations in the clinical pharmacology service. It is a prototype for other applications in both laboratory and clinical medicine currently under development at Uppsala University Hospital. This system may thus provide a vehicle for a more intensive penetration of knowledge-based systems in practical medical applications.

  4. DRUG-DRUG INTERACTION PROFILES OF MEDICATION REGIMENS EXTRACTED FROM A DE-IDENTIFIED ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORDS SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Butkiewicz, Mariusz; Restrepo, Nicole A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Crawford, Dana C.

    2016-01-01

    With age, the number of prescribed medications increases and subsequently raises the risk for adverse drug-drug interactions. These adverse effects lower quality of life and increase health care costs. Quantifying the potential burden of adverse effects before prescribing medications can be a valuable contribution to health care. This study evaluated medication lists extracted from a subset of the Vanderbilt de-identified electronic medical record system. Reported drugs were cross-referenced with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes DRUG database to identify known drug-drug interactions. On average, a medication regimen contained 6.58 medications and 2.68 drug-drug interactions. Here, we quantify the burden of potential adverse events from drug-drug interactions through drug-drug interaction profiles and include a number of alternative medications as provided by the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. PMID:27570646

  5. The LUCID detector ATLAS luminosity monitor and its electronic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manghi, F. Lasagni

    2016-07-01

    In 2015 LHC is starting a new run, at higher center of mass energy (13 TeV) and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. The ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID has been completely rebuilt, both the detector and the electronics, in order to cope with the new running conditions. The new detector electronics features a new read-out board (LUCROD) for signal acquisition and digitization, PMT-charge integration and single-side luminosity measurements, and a revisited LUMAT board for combination of signals from the two detectors. This note describes the new board design, the firmware and software developments, the implementation of luminosity algorithms, the optical communication between boards and the integration into the ATLAS TDAQ system.

  6. Transmission Electron Microscopy Of Lipid Vesicles For Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, Valentina; Mattei, Giovanni; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Vivenza, Nicoletta; Gasco, Paolo; Idee, Jean Marc; Robic, Caroline; Borsella, Elisabetta

    2010-10-01

    Iron oxides nanocrystals are largely used for biomedical applications due to their high magnetization. Furthermore for in vivo applications these nanoparticles must be covered with a non-toxic material. Inside the numerous nano-systems for drug delivery, lipid structures, such as Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs), have been largely developed for various administration routes. In this work SLNs and iron-oxide nanocrystals covered with a lipid shell are characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy. This technique has revealed to be essential to investigate the ultrafine compositional and morphological properties of these systems.

  7. Drug Monitoring Techniques for the Biological Chemistry Laboratory: Determination of Drug Concentrations by Chromatographic and Immunochemical Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Jeffrey A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a series of experiments that integrate analytical techniques in order that students are able to compare, based on their laboratory results, the relative reliabilities of the most common therapeutic drug monitoring methods. Discusses materials, procedures, and results of three experiments on the determination of drug concentration by…

  8. Single-Molecule Electronic Monitoring of DNA Polymerase Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marushchak, Denys O.; Pugliese, Kaitlin M.; Turvey, Mackenzie W.; Choi, Yongki; Gul, O. Tolga; Olsen, Tivoli J.; Rajapakse, Arith J.; Weiss, Gregory A.; Collins, Philip G.

    Single-molecule techniques can reveal new spatial and kinetic details of the conformational changes occurring during enzymatic catalysis. Here, we investigate the activity of DNA polymerases using an electronic single-molecule technique based on carbon nanotube transistors. Single molecules of the Klenow fragment (KF) of polymerase I were conjugated to the transistors and then monitored via fluctuations in electrical conductance. Continuous, long-term monitoring recorded single KF molecules incorporating up to 10,000 new bases into single-stranded DNA templates. The duration of individual incorporation events was invariant across all analog and native nucleotides, indicating that the precise structure of different base pairs has no impact on the timing of incorporation. Despite similar timings, however, the signal magnitudes generated by certain analogs reveal alternate conformational states that do not occur with native nucleotides. The differences induced by these analogs suggest that the electronic technique is sensing KF's O-helix as it tests the stability of nascent base pairs.

  9. Optical properties of the chemotherapy drugs used in the central nervous system lymphoma therapy: monitoring drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myllylä, T.; Popov, A.; Surazyński, L.; Oinas, J.; Bibikova, O.; Bykov, A.; Wróbel, M. S.; Gnyba, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.; Meglinski, I.; Kuittinen, O.

    2015-07-01

    Our aim is to optically monitor the delivery of the chemotherapy drugs for brain tumours, particularly used in the central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma therapy. In vivo monitoring would help to optimize the treatment and avoiding unnecessary medications. Moreover, it would be beneficial to be able to measure which of the multi-regimen drugs actually do penetrate and how well into the brain tissue. There exist several potential optical measurement techniques to be utilised for the purpose. The most desired method would allow the detection of the drugs without using optical biomarkers as a contrast agent. In this case, for non-invasive sensing of the drug in the brain cortex, the drug should have a reasonably strong optical absorption band somewhere in the range between 600 nm and 1700 nm, and not directly coincident with the strong bands of haemoglobin or water. Alternatively, mid-infrared (MIR) range has the potential for invasive drug monitoring techniques. In this paper, we report the optical properties of several chemotherapy drugs used in CNS lymphoma therapy, such as rituximabi, cyclophosphamide and etoposide. We measured their transmittance and reflectance spectra in near-infrared (NIR) range, particularly 900 nm - 2500 nm, to be considered when choosing the in vivo monitoring method to be developed. The absorption and scattering coefficients were retrieved from the measurements and applying Beer's law. For the measurement of the sum of total transmission and reflection in NIR range we used integrating sphere with spektralo to enable calculation of the scattering coefficient.

  10. Controlled release of drugs from cellulose acetate matrices produced from sugarcane bagasse: monitoring by square-wave voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Guimes; Almeida, Flávia; Ribeiro, Sabrina D; Tormin, Thiago F; Muñoz, Rodrigo A A; Assunção, Rosana M N; Barud, Hernane

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, cellulose triacetate (CTA) was produced from sugarcane bagasse and used as matrices for controlled release of paracetamol. Symmetric and asymmetric membranes were obtained by formulations of CTA/dichloromethane/drug and CTA/dichloromethane/water/drug, respectively, and they were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Different morphologies of membranes were observed by SEM, and the incorporation of paracetamol was confirmed by lowering of the glass transition temperature (Tg) in the DSC curves. This indicates the existence of interactions between the matrix and the drug. The evaluation of drug release was based on the electrochemical monitoring of paracetamol through its oxidation at a glassy carbon electrode surface using square-wave voltammetry (SWV), which provides fast, precise and accurate in situ measurements. The studies showed a content release of 27% and 45% by the symmetric and asymmetric membranes, respectively, during 8 h.

  11. Antiretroviral Drug Interactions: Overview of Interactions Involving New and Investigational Agents and the Role of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Management

    PubMed Central

    Rathbun, R. Chris; Liedtke, Michelle D.

    2011-01-01

    Antiretrovirals are prone to drug-drug and drug-food interactions that can result in subtherapeutic or supratherapeutic concentrations. Interactions between antiretrovirals and medications for other diseases are common due to shared metabolism through cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes and transport by membrane proteins (e.g., p-glycoprotein, organic anion-transporting polypeptide). The clinical significance of antiretroviral drug interactions is reviewed, with a focus on new and investigational agents. An overview of the mechanistic basis for drug interactions and the effect of individual antiretrovirals on CYP450 and UGT isoforms are provided. Interactions between antiretrovirals and medications for other co-morbidities are summarized. The role of therapeutic drug monitoring in the detection and management of antiretroviral drug interactions is also briefly discussed. PMID:24309307

  12. Materials for Stretchable Electronics - Electronic Eyeballs, Brain Monitors and Other Applications

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, John A. [University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, Illinois, United States

    2016-07-12

    Electronic circuits that involve transistors and related components on thin plastic sheets or rubber slabs offer mechanical properties (e.g. bendability, stretchability) and other features (e.g. lightweight, rugged construction) which cannot be easily achieved with technologies that use rigid, fragile semiconductor wafer or glass substrates.  Device examples include personal or structural health monitors and electronic eye imagers, in which the electronics must conform to complex curvilinear shapes or flex/stretch during use.  Our recent work accomplishes these technology outcomes by use of single crystal inorganic nanomaterials in ‘wavy’ buckled configurations on elastomeric supports.  This talk will describe key fundamental materials and mechanics aspects of these approaches, as well as engineering features of their use in individual transistors, photodiodes and integrated circuits.  Cardiac and brain monitoring devices provide examples of application in biomedicine; hemispherical electronic eye cameras illustrate new capacities for bio-inspired device design.

  13. Effects of Shared Electronic Health Record Systems on Drug-Drug Interaction and Duplication Warning Detection.

    PubMed

    Rinner, Christoph; Grossmann, Wilfried; Sauter, Simone Katja; Wolzt, Michael; Gall, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Shared electronic health records (EHRs) systems can offer a complete medication overview of the prescriptions of different health care providers. We use health claims data of more than 1 million Austrians in 2006 and 2007 with 27 million prescriptions to estimate the effect of shared EHR systems on drug-drug interaction (DDI) and duplication warnings detection and prevention. The Austria Codex and the ATC/DDD information were used as a knowledge base to detect possible DDIs. DDIs are categorized as severe, moderate, and minor interactions. In comparison to the current situation where only DDIs between drugs issued by a single health care provider can be checked, the number of warnings increases significantly if all drugs of a patient are checked: severe DDI warnings would be detected for 20% more persons, and the number of severe DDI warnings and duplication warnings would increase by 17%. We show that not only do shared EHR systems help to detect more patients with warnings but DDIs are also detected more frequently. Patient safety can be increased using shared EHR systems.

  14. Monitoring of beer fermentation based on hybrid electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Zaborowski, Michał; Prokaryn, Piotr; Ciosek, Patrycja

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of biotechnological processes, including fermentation is extremely important because of the rapidly occurring changes in the composition of the samples during the production. In the case of beer, the analysis of physicochemical parameters allows for the determination of the stage of fermentation process and the control of its possible perturbations. As a tool to control the beer production process a sensor array can be used, composed of potentiometric and voltammetric sensors (so-called hybrid Electronic Tongue, h-ET). The aim of this study is to apply electronic tongue system to distinguish samples obtained during alcoholic fermentation. The samples originate from batch of homemade beer fermentation and from two stages of the process: fermentation reaction and maturation of beer. The applied sensor array consists of 10 miniaturized ion-selective electrodes (potentiometric ET) and silicon based 3-electrode voltammetric transducers (voltammetric ET). The obtained results were processed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). For potentiometric data, voltammetric data, and combined potentiometric and voltammetric data, comparison of the classification ability was conducted based on Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), sensitivity, specificity, and coefficient F calculation. It is shown, that in the contrast to the separately used techniques, the developed hybrid system allowed for a better characterization of the beer samples. Data fusion in hybrid ET enables to obtain better results both in qualitative analysis (RMSE, specificity, sensitivity) and in quantitative analysis (RMSE, R(2), a, b).

  15. Cyclosporin Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - an Established Service Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Raymond G

    2003-01-01

    Despite the routine application of therapeutic drug monitoring of cyclosporin (CsA) for two decades, there remain significant analytical issues. In addition, new developments have arisen in the delivery of this laboratory service as well as alternative clinical strategies for delivering optimal benefit to organ transplant recipients. Sample collection strategies are evolving away from the traditional pre-dose/trough (C0) sample in favour of estimates of the absorption phase in the first 4–6 hours after the oral dose of CsA. This is based on the recognition of the relatively poor relationship between C0 and CsA exposure indices, such as area under the blood CsA concentration versus time curve (AUC), especially in the first few hours after the dose. By collecting serial blood samples over this limited period (4hr after the dose) and estimating the AUC0-4, one can gain insight into how well CsA has been absorbed for each transplant recipient, and individualise CsA dosage. However, a recent survey of Australasian CsA laboratories revealed that such AUC0-4 sampling strategies in the early post-dose period were poorly accepted in clinics across Australasia. The alternative that has proven to be more clinically acceptable is the use of a single sample 2-hours after the dose (C2). The C2 concentration has been demonstrated (particularly in kidney and liver transplant recipients) as correlating well with AUC0-4, allowing it to be used as a surrogate index of CsA absorption and exposure. The laboratory survey also showed several areas of concern in the analytical sphere. The major one is that the majority of laboratories employ the two immunoassays that deliver the least specific result on C0 samples within the range of monoclonal methods, leading to high variability and clinically significant errors with patient samples. Laboratories have also adopted a range of dilution protocols for the significantly higher C2 concentrations, and this has proved a source of significant

  16. Optical absorption properties of electron bubbles and experiments on monitoring individual electron bubbles in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei

    When a free electron is injected into liquid helium, it forms a microscopic bubble essentially free of helium atoms, which is referred to as an electron bubble. It represents a fine example of a quantum-mechanical particle confined in a potential well. In this dissertation, we describe our studies on bubble properties, especially the optical absorption properties of ground state electron bubbles and experiments on imaging individual electron bubbles in liquid helium. We studied the effect of zero-point and thermal fluctuations on the shape of ground state electron bubbles in liquid helium. The results are used to determine the line shape for the 1S to 1P optical transition. The calculated line shape is in very good agreement with the experimental measurements of Grimes and Adams. For 1S to 2P transition, the obtained transition line width agrees well with the measured data of Zipfel over a range of pressure up to 15 bars. Fluctuations in the bubble shape also make other "unallowed" transitions possible. The transition cross-sections from the 1S state to the 1D and 2D states are calculated with magnitude approximately two orders smaller than that of the 1S to 1P and 2P transitions. In our electron bubble imaging experiments, a planar ultrasonic transducer was used to generate strong sound wave pulse in liquid helium. The sound pulse passed through the liquid so as to produce a transient negative pressure over a large volume (˜ 1 cm3). An electron bubble that was passed by the sound pulse exploded for a fraction of a microsecond and grew to have a radius of around 10 microns. While the bubble had this large size it was illuminated with a flash lamp and its position was recorded. In this way, we can determine its position. Through the application of a series of sound pulses, we can then take images along the track of individual electrons. The motion of individual electron bubbles has been successfully monitored. Interesting bubble tracks that may relate to electrons

  17. Comparative analysis of pharmacovigilance methods in the detection of adverse drug reactions using electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei; McPeek Hinz, Eugenia Renne; Matheny, Michael Edwin; Denny, Joshua C; Schildcrout, Jonathan Scott; Miller, Randolph A; Xu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objective Medication  safety requires that each drug be monitored throughout its market life as early detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can lead to alerts that prevent patient harm. Recently, electronic medical records (EMRs) have emerged as a valuable resource for pharmacovigilance. This study examines the use of retrospective medication orders and inpatient laboratory results documented in the EMR to identify ADRs. Methods Using 12 years of EMR data from Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC), we designed a study to correlate abnormal laboratory results with specific drug administrations by comparing the outcomes of a drug-exposed group and a matched unexposed group. We assessed the relative merits of six pharmacovigilance measures used in spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs): proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting OR (ROR), Yule's Q (YULE), the χ2 test (CHI), Bayesian confidence propagation neural networks (BCPNN), and a gamma Poisson shrinker (GPS). Results We systematically evaluated the methods on two independently constructed reference standard datasets of drug–event pairs. The dataset of Yoon et al contained 470 drug–event pairs (10 drugs and 47 laboratory abnormalities). Using VUMC's EMR, we created another dataset of 378 drug–event pairs (nine drugs and 42 laboratory abnormalities). Evaluation on our reference standard showed that CHI, ROR, PRR, and YULE all had the same F score (62%). When the reference standard of Yoon et al was used, ROR had the best F score of 68%, with 77% precision and 61% recall. Conclusions Results suggest that EMR-derived laboratory measurements and medication orders can help to validate previously reported ADRs, and detect new ADRs. PMID:23161894

  18. [Pharmacovigilance idea should be introduced sufficiently into the safety monitoring and evaluation process of Chinese drugs].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Xiao-Hui

    2009-09-01

    Along with the general improving of public consciousness on drugs' safety and the increasing of new Chinese drugs' manufacture and application, the safety of Chinese drugs has become a more prominent concern and a focus of attention. The scientific identification, analysis and evaluation of this affairs greatly impacts the scientific decision-making for ensuring the public use of drugs in security, also influences the healthy development of Chinese medicine industry. In this paper, the different meanings of "adverse reaction" and "adverse events" of Chinese drugs were introduced from pharmacovigilance idealistic view, and the influencing factors on safety of Chinese drugs were analyzed from the perspective of pharmacovigilance. The authors proposed that "Chinese medicine safety monitoring and evaluation" is a much more practical concept in consistency with the current situation. They pointed out that introducing sufficiently the concept of pharmaco vigilance idea into the safety monitoring and evaluation process is the basis for overall evaluation and effective risk controlling of Chinese drugs.

  19. [Development and application of six-channel fiber optic sensing drug dissolution monitor].

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Shen, Jing; Li, Li; Li, Xin-Xia; Chen, Jian

    2014-09-01

    The drug dissolution test is an important examination of drug testing, which plays a very important role in the drug quality assessment. Automation and proceduring monitoring of drug dissolution can be implemented by the optical fiber sensing technology. Two modes of detection of UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence quenching were established by software implementation, with xenon lamp, deuterium lamp or halogen tungsten lamp as fluorescence, UV and visible light source, branch Y type optical fiber as light path transmission medium, UV-Vis probe and fluorescence molecular probe as light response devices, and CCD as detector. Optical fiber sensing drug dissolution monitor not only solves the current problems of time-consuming, and sampling of off-line analysis, but also provides real-time information of drug dissolution process. Thus, our study may provide a better evaluation method for the drug quality control.

  20. Simultaneous monitoring of the drug release and antitumor effect of a novel drug delivery system-MWCNTs/DOX/TC.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xia; Sun, Zhiting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Dunwan; Liu, Lanxia; Leng, Xigang

    2017-11-01

    Monitoring drug release and therapeutic efficacy is crucial for developing drug delivery systems. Our preliminary study demonstrated that, as compared with pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), transactivator of transcription (TAT)-chitosan functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-TC) were a more promising candidate for drug delivery in cancer therapy. In the present study, a MWCNTs/TC-based drug delivery system was developed for an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). The drug loading and in vitro release profiles, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity were assessed. More importantly, the in vivo drug release and antitumor effect of MWCNTs/DOX/TC were evaluated by noninvasive fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging. It was demonstrated that MWCNTs/DOX/TC can be efficiently taken up by BEL-7402 hepatoma cells. The release of DOX from MWCNTs/DOX/TC was faster under lower pH condition, which was beneficial for intrcellular drug release. The in vivo release process of DOX and antitumor effect in animal model were monitored simultaneously by noninvasive fluorescence and luminescence imaging, which demonstrated the application potential of MWCNTs/DOX/TC for cancer therapy.

  1. Ethical Considerations in Electronic Monitoring of the Cognitively Impaired.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Tony; Kels, Charles G

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment afflicts an estimated 16 million people in the United States. Wandering is a concerning behavior associated with cognitive impairment, as it may threaten patient safety. The risks posed by wandering place severe burdens on both professional and informal caregivers, as well as law enforcement institutions throughout the United States. As such, location trackers that could reduce this burden have become increasingly prevalent. As with many assistive technologies, the substantial promise of location trackers is counterbalanced by potential pitfalls with respect to loss of privacy and autonomy. This article reviews the ethical issues raised by electronic monitoring of cognitively impaired persons, with the goal of transcending a narrow focus on decisional capacity in favor of a patient-centered framework that is applicable and adjustable at different stages of cognitive decline. Balancing the ethical principles of beneficence and respect in treating cognitively impaired persons goes beyond the necessary step of evaluating decision-making capacity to include partnering with families, caretakers, and cognitively impaired individuals who wander in a collaborative coalition of care. An approach emphasizing the individual needs of patients and caretakers is best suited to finding solutions that implement tracking technologies in ways that both protect and empower the cognitively impaired.

  2. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2001 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

  3. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Inst. for Social Research.

    This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2002 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

  4. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This booklet presents an overview of the findings pertaining to eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students from the 1999 Monitoring the Future Study. This overview focuses on recent trends in the use of various licit and illicit drugs. It also examines trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug, which…

  5. A quality monitor and monitoring technique employing optically stimulated electron emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Welch, Christopher S. (Inventor); Joe, Edmond J. (Inventor); Hefner, Bill Bryan, Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A light source directs ultraviolet light onto a test surface and a detector detects a current of photoelectrons generated by the light. The detector includes a collector which is positively biased with respect to the test surface. Quality is indicated based on the photoelectron current. The collector is then negatively biased to replace charges removed by the measurement of a nonconducting substrate to permit subsequent measurements. Also, the intensity of the ultraviolet light at a particular wavelength is monitored and the voltage of the light source varied to maintain the light a constant desired intensity. The light source is also cooled via a gas circulation system. If the test surface is an insulator, the surface is bombarded with ultraviolet light in the presence of an electron field to remove the majority of negative charges from the surface. The test surface is then exposed to an ion field until it possesses no net charge. The technique described above is then performed to assess quality.

  6. Assuring the Proper Analytical Performance of Measurement Procedures for Immunosuppressive Drug Concentrations in Clinical Practice: Recommendations of the International Association of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Toxicology Immunosuppressive Drug Scientific Committee.

    PubMed

    Seger, Christoph; Shipkova, Maria; Christians, Uwe; Billaud, Elaine M; Wang, Ping; Holt, David W; Brunet, Mercè; Kunicki, Paweł K; Pawiński, Thomasz; Langman, Loralie J; Marquet, Pierre; Oellerich, Michael; Wieland, Eberhard; Wallemacq, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs) in blood or plasma is still a key therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) application in clinical settings. Narrow target ranges and severe side effects at drug underexposure or overexposure make accurate and precise measurements a must. This overview prepared by the Immunosuppressive Drugs Scientific Committee of the International Association of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Toxicology is intended to serve as a summary and guidance document describing the current state-of-the-art in the TDM of ISDs.

  7. Advances in sickle cell disease treatment: from drug discovery until the patient monitoring.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Jean Leandro; Lanaro, Carolina; Chin, Chung Man

    2011-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most prevalent hematological diseases in the world. Despite the immense progress in molecular knowledge about SCD in last years few therapeutical sources are currently available. Nowadays the treatment is performed mainly with drugs such as hydroxyurea or other fetal hemoglobin inducers and chelating agents. This review summarizes current knowledge about the treatment and the advancements in drug design in order to discover more effective and safe drugs. Patient monitoring methods in SCD are also discussed.

  8. Monitoring electron donor metabolism under variable electron acceptor conditions using 13C-labeled lactate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.; Yang, L.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Three sets of flow-through columns constructed with aquifer sediment from Hanford (WA) were used to study reduction of Cr(VI) to poorly soluble Cr(III) under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing/fermentative, and iron-reducing conditions with lactate as the electron donor. In order to understand the relationship between electron donors and biomarkers, and to determine the differences in carbon isotope fractionation resulting from different microbial metabolic processes, we monitored the variation in carbon isotopes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in total organic carbon (TOC), and in lactate, acetate and propionate. The greatest enrichment in 13C in columns was observed under denitrifying conditions. The δ13C of DIC increased by ~1750 to ~2000‰ fifteen days after supplementation of natural abundance lactate with a 13C-labeled lactate tracer (for an influent δ13C of ~2250‰ for the lactate) indicating almost complete oxidation of the electron donor. The denitrifying columns were among the most active columns and had the highest cell counts and the denitrification rate was highly correlated with Cr(VI) reduction rate. δ13C values of DIC ranged from ~540 to ~1170‰ for iron-reducing conditions. The lower enrichment in iron columns was related to the lower biological activity observed with lower yields of RNA and cell numbers in the column effluents. The carbon isotope shift in the sulfate-reducing ~198 to ~1960‰ for sulfate-reducing conditions reflecting the lower levels of the lactate in these columns. Additionally, in two of the sulfate columns, almost complete fermentation of the lactate occurred, producing acetate and propionate with the labeled carbon signature, but relatively smaller amounts of inorganic carbon. For all electron-accepting conditions, TOC yielded similar δ13C values as lactate stock solutions. Differences in C use efficiency, metabolic rate or metabolic pathway contributed to the differing TOC δ13C to DIC δ13C ratios between treatments

  9. Photonic monitoring of chitosan nanostructured alginate microcapsules for drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajuria, Deepak Kumar; Konnur, Manish C.; Vasireddi, Ramakrishna; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2015-02-01

    By using a novel microfluidic set-up for drug screening applications, this study examines delivery of a novel risedronate based drug formulation for treatment of osteoporosis that was developed to overcome the usual shortcomings of risedronate, such as its low bioavailability and adverse gastric effects. Risedronate nanoparticles were prepared using muco-adhesive polymers such as chitosan as matrix for improving the intestinal cellular absorption of risedronate and also using a gastric-resistant polymer such as sodium alginate for reducing the gastric inflammation of risedronate. The in-vitro characteristics of the alginate encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles are investigated, including their stability, muco-adhesiveness, and Caco-2 cell permeability. Fluorescent markers are tagged with the polymers and their morphology within the microcapsules is imaged at various stages of drug release.

  10. Drug testing in Europe: monitoring results of the Trans European Drug Information (TEDI) project.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Tibor M; Nagy, Constanze; Bücheli, Alexander; Martins, Daniel; Ugarte, Miren; Beduwe, Cécile; Ventura Vilamala, Mireia

    2017-02-01

    Drug testing is a harm reduction strategy that has been adopted by certain countries in Europe. Drug users are able to hand in their drugs voluntarily for chemical analysis of composition and dose. Drug users will be alerted about dangerous test results by the drug testing systems directly and through warning campaigns. An international collaborative effort was launched to combine data of drug testing systems, called the Trans European Drug Information (TEDI) project. Drug testing systems of Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, Austria, Portugal, and the Netherlands participated in this project. This study presents results of some of the main illicit drugs encountered: cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamine and also comments on new psychoactive substances (NPS) detected between 2008 and 2013. A total of 45 859 different drug samples were analyzed by TEDI. The drug markets of the distinct European areas showed similarities, but also some interesting differences. For instance, purity of cocaine and amphetamine powders was generally low in Austria, whilst high in Spain and the Netherlands. And the market for ecstasy showed a contrast: whereas in the Netherlands and Switzerland there was predominantly a market for ecstasy tablets, in Portugal and Spain MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) crystals were much more prevalent. Also, some NPS appearing in ecstasy seemed more specific for one country than another. In general, prevalence of NPS clearly increased between 2008 and 2013. Drug testing can be used to generate a global picture of drug markets and provides information about the pharmacological contents of drugs for the population at risk. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Watching the monitors: "PAID" prescriptions, fiscal intermediaries and drug-utilization review.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J P

    1977-02-03

    Prescription monitoring evolved from the need of drug firms to obtain marketing information. Today, extensive monitoring is also done by fiscal intermediaries who administer prepaid drug benefit plans, both private and governmental, particularly Medicaid. The most important such agent is PAID Prescriptions. Under various contracts, PAID monitors physician, pharmacy, and patient behavior related to prescriptions and uses review processes that evaluate certain kinds of behavior for appropriateness. The criteria of appropriateness are essentially those that save money. PAID negotiates a program fee with the insurer (public or private) and applies constraints so that prescription and administrative costs do not overrun that fee. PAID and other monitors have contemplated expansion into the realm of defining and encouraging appropriate prescribing under the concept of "drugutilization review." The actual practices of PAID, particularly the background of fiscal enforcement, may impede the development of an actual drug-utilization review process.

  12. "Not just eliminating the mosquito but draining the swamp": A critical geopolitics of Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction and Turkey's approach to illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Evered, Kyle T; Evered, Emine Ö

    2016-07-01

    In the 1970s, Turkey ceased to be a significant producer state of illicit drugs, but it continued to serve as a key route for the trade of drugs between East and West. Over the past decade, however, authorities identified two concerns beyond its continued transit state status. These reported problems entail both new modes of production and a rising incidence of drug abuse within the nation-state - particularly among its youth. Amid these developments, new law enforcement institutions emerged and acquired European sponsorship, leading to the establishment of TUBİM (the Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction). Coordinating with and reporting to the European Union agency EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction), TUBİM's primary assigned duties entail the collection and analysis of data on drug abuse, trafficking, and prevention, the geographic identification of sites of concern (e.g. consumption, drug-related crimes, and peoples undergoing treatment), and the production of annual national reports. In this article, we examine the geopolitical origins of TUBİM as Turkey's central apparatus for confronting drug problems and its role as a vehicle for policy development, interpretation, and enforcement. In doing so, we emphasize the political and spatial dimensions inherent to the country's institutional and policy-driven approaches to contend with drug-related problems, and we assess how this line of attack reveals particular ambiguities in mission when evaluated from scales at world regional, national, and local levels. In sum, we assess how Turkey's new institutional and legislative landscapes condition the state's engagements with drug use, matters of user's health, and policy implementation at local scales and amid ongoing political developments.

  13. 78 FR 42084 - Electronic Study Data Submission; Data Standard Support; Availability of the Center for Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Electronic Study Data Submission; Data Standard Support; Availability of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Data Standards Program Documents AGENCY: Food and...) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the CDER Data...

  14. Monitoring emerging diseases of fish and shellfish using electronic sources.

    PubMed

    Thrush, M A; Dunn, P L; Peeler, E J

    2012-10-01

    New and emerging fish and shellfish diseases represent an important constraint to the growth and sustainability of many aquaculture sectors and have also caused substantial economic and environmental impacts in wild stocks. This paper details the results of 8 years of a monitoring programme for emerging aquatic animal diseases reported around the world. The objectives were to track global occurrences and, more specifically, to identify and provide advanced warning of disease threats that may affect wild and farmed fish stocks in the UK. A range of electronic information sources, including Internet newsletters, alerting services and news agency releases, was systematically searched for reports of new diseases, new presentations of known pathogens and known diseases occurring in new geographic locations or new host species. A database was established to log the details of key findings, and 250 emerging disease events in 52 countries were recorded during the period of study. These included 14 new diseases and a further 16 known diseases in new species. Viruses and parasites accounted for the majority of reports (55% and 24%, respectively), and known diseases occurring in new locations were the most important emerging disease category (in which viruses were dominant). Emerging diseases were reported disproportionally in salmonid species (33%), in farmed populations (62%) and in Europe and North America (80%). The lack of reports from some regions with significant aquaculture or fishery production may indicate that emerging diseases are not being recognized in these areas owing to insufficient surveillance or testing or that these events are being under-reported. The results are discussed in relation to processes underpinning disease emergence in the aquatic environment.

  15. Conceptual design of non-destructive, time profile monitor for femtosecond-long electron bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplev, I. V.; Harrison, H.; Lancaster, A. J.; Taheri, F. Bakkali; Doucas, G.; Aryshev, A.; Lekomtsev, K.; Shevelev, M.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of the project is to build a high resolution time-profile monitor for femtosecond electron beams, based on the spectral analysis of coherent Smith-Purcell radiation (cSPr). The monitor will be capable of determining the electron bunch time profile non-destructively and on a shot-by-shot basis. The results of recent experimental and theoretical studies are presented, and the conceptual design of the monitor is discussed.

  16. Adverse Drug Reactions and quality deviations monitored by spontaneous reports

    PubMed Central

    Visacri, Marília Berlofa; de Souza, Cinthia Madeira; Sato, Catarina Miyako Shibata; Granja, Silvia; de Marialva, Mécia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Moriel, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and profile of spontaneous reports of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) and quality deviations in a Brazilian teaching hospital and propose a consistent classification to study quality deviations. Methods This is a descriptive and retrospective study involving the analysis of spontaneous reports of ADRs and quality deviations in 2010. ADRs were classified according to the reaction mechanism, severity, and causality. The drugs were classified according to their therapeutic classes and symptoms according to the affected organ. The quality deviations were classified according to the type of deviation and type of medicine available in the Brazilian market. Results A total of 68 forms were examined; ADRs accounted for 39.7% of the notifications, while quality deviations accounted for 60.3%. ADRs occurred more frequently in men (51.9%) and adults (63.0%). The skin (28.0%) was the most affected organ, while anti-infectives (40.7%) were the therapeutic class that caused the most ADRs. The most common ADRs were type B (74.0%), moderates (37.0%), and probables (55.6%). In relation to quality deviations, the most frequent notifications were breaks, splits and leaks (20.9%) and related to generic drugs (43.9%). Conclusion The classification system to study quality deviations was clear and consistent. This study demonstrated that practices and public policies related to more effective pharmacovigilance need to be implemented so that the number of spontaneous reports increases. PMID:25972731

  17. Herbal supplements and therapeutic drug monitoring: focus on digoxin immunoassays and interactions with St. John's wort.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava

    2008-04-01

    Herbal supplements can affect concentrations of therapeutic drugs measured in biological fluids by different mechanisms. Herbal products can either directly interfere with the methodology used in the measurement of drugs or indirectly interfere by altering the pharmacokinetics of coadministered drugs. The active components of Chan Su, Lu-Shen-Wan, Dan Shen, Asian and Siberian ginseng, oleander containing supplements, and Ashwagandha interfere with digoxin measurements by immunoassays, especially the polyclonal antibody-based immunoassays. Herbal supplements are sometimes contaminated with Western drugs causing drug toxicity. A therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service is very helpful for diagnosis of drug toxicity in such patients. Herbal products such as St. John's wort, a popular herbal antidepressant, increase the clearance of certain drugs either by increasing the activity of liver or intestinal cytochrome P-450 mixed-function oxidase or through modulation of the P-glycoprotein efflux pump. Significantly reduced concentrations of various therapeutic drugs such as digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, tricyclic antidepressants, warfarin, and protease inhibitors can be observed due to interaction of these drugs with St. John's wort, causing treatment failure. On the other hand, a few drugs such as carbamazepine, mycophenolic acid, and procainamide do not show any interaction with St. John's wort. Understanding the effect of herbal products on TDM methodologies and identification of interactions between herbal products and drugs by TDM are very important clinically.

  18. DrugFacts: Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Naloxone Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post-Award Concerns General Information Grant & Contract Application ...

  19. On the Slow Diffusion of Point-of-Care Systems in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Sanavio, Barbara; Krol, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in point-of-care (PoC) technologies show great transformative promises for personalized preventative and predictive medicine. However, fields like therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), that first allowed for personalized treatment of patients’ disease, still lag behind in the widespread application of PoC devices for monitoring of patients. Surprisingly, very few applications in commonly monitored drugs, such as anti-epileptics, are paving the way for a PoC approach to patient therapy monitoring compared to other fields like intensive care cardiac markers monitoring, glycemic controls in diabetes, or bench-top hematological parameters analysis at the local drug store. Such delay in the development of portable fast clinically effective drug monitoring devices is in our opinion due more to an inertial drag on the pervasiveness of these new devices into the clinical field than a lack of technical capability. At the same time, some very promising technologies failed in the clinical practice for inadequate understanding of the outcome parameters necessary for a relevant technological breakthrough that has superior clinical performance. We hope, by over-viewing both TDM practice and its yet unmet needs and latest advancement in micro- and nanotechnology applications to PoC clinical devices, to help bridging the two communities, the one exploiting analytical technologies and the one mastering the most advanced techniques, into translating existing and forthcoming technologies in effective devices. PMID:25767794

  20. Quasi Real Time Data Analysis for Air Quality Monitoring with an Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Hanying; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Pelletier, Christine C.; Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, M. Amy

    2006-01-01

    Cabin Air Quality Monitoring: A) Functions; 1) Incident monitor for targeted contaminants exceeding targeted concentrations. Identify and quantify. 2) Monitor for presence of compounds associated with fires or overheating electronics. 3) Monitor clean-up process. B) Characteristics; 1) Low mass, low power device. 2) Requires little crew time for maintenance and calibration. 3) Detects, identifies and quantifies selected chemical species at or below 24 hour SMAC.

  1. [Level of evidence for therapeutic drug monitoring of MPA in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Gerritsen-van Schieveen, Pauline; Royer, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is more and more used to prevent GVHD (Graft Versus Host Disease) during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with reduce-intensity conditioning. If several facts argue in favor of therapeutic drug monitoring, the used pharmacokinetic parameter is to be defined. Especially, the choice between total or ultrafilterable MPA is still under debate even if therapeutic drug monitoring seems to be more practicable with total MPA. The role of other factors implied in GVHD occurrence are also to be assessed in studies which aim at assessing therapeutic drug monitoring of MPA in such situation. For theses reasons, the level evidence of MPA as GVHD prophylaxis during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with reduce-intensity conditioning is potentially useful.

  2. Drug-Encoded Biomarkers for Monitoring Biological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bedenk, Kristina; Zhang, Qian; Frentzen, Alexa; Cappello, Joseph; Fischer, Utz; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2015-01-01

    Blood tests are necessary, easy-to-perform and low-cost alternatives for monitoring of oncolytic virotherapy and other biological therapies in translational research. Here we assessed three candidate proteins with the potential to be used as biomarkers in biological fluids: two glucuronidases from E. coli (GusA) and Staphylococcus sp. RLH1 (GusPlus), and the luciferase from Gaussia princeps (GLuc). The three genes encoding these proteins were inserted individually into vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 genome under the control of an identical promoter. The three resulting recombinant viruses were used to infect tumor cells in cultures and human tumor xenografts in nude mice. In contrast to the actively secreted GLuc, the cytoplasmic glucuronidases GusA and GusPlus were released into the supernatants only as a result of virus-mediated oncolysis. GusPlus resulted in the most sensitive detection of enzyme activity under controlled assay conditions in samples containing as little as 1 pg/ml of GusPlus, followed by GusA (25 pg/ml) and GLuc (≥375 pg/ml). Unexpectedly, even though GusA had a lower specific activity compared to GusPlus, the substrate conversion in the serum of tumor-bearing mice injected with the GusA-encoding virus strains was substantially higher than that of GusPlus. This was attributed to a 3.2 fold and 16.2 fold longer half-life of GusA in the blood stream compared to GusPlus and GLuc respectively, thus a more sensitive monitor of virus replication than the other two enzymes. Due to the good correlation between enzymatic activity of expressed marker gene and virus titer, we conclude that the amount of the biomarker protein in the body fluid semiquantitatively represents the amount of virus in the infected tumors which was confirmed by low light imaging. We found GusA to be the most reliable biomarker for monitoring oncolytic virotherapy among the three tested markers. PMID:26348361

  3. [Level of evidence for therapeutic drug monitoring for etoposide after oral administration].

    PubMed

    Schieveen, Pauline Gerritsen-van; Hulin, Anne; Muret, Patrice; Royer, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Oral etoposide displays high inter- and intra-variability. Convincing relationships were observed between hematological toxicities and exposure of which total etoposide area under the curve seems the more relevant in routine practice. Linear pharmacokinetics, limited sampling strategies and reduction of variability during concentration-controlled studies argue in favor of therapeutic drug monitoring. For these reasons, such practice can be considered as recommended or potentially useful. Further studies using Bayesian approach are nevertheless needed to definitely state regarding the level of evidence therapeutic drug monitoring of oral etoposide.

  4. Behavior Change Techniques Implemented in Electronic Lifestyle Activity Monitors: A Systematic Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Mayrsohn, Brian G; Rowland, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Methods Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. Results All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Conclusions Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which

  5. 78 FR 38058 - Guidance for Industry on Heparin for Drug and Medical Device Use: Monitoring Crude Heparin for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Heparin for Drug and Medical Device Use: Monitoring Crude Heparin for Quality; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of...

  6. Recommendations for Optimizing Tuberculosis Treatment: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Pharmacogenetics, and Nutritional Status Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Rihwa; Jeong, Byeong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Although tuberculosis is largely a curable disease, it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the standard 6-month treatment regimen is highly effective for drug-susceptible tuberculosis, the use of multiple drugs over long periods of time can cause frequent adverse drug reactions. In addition, some patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis do not respond adequately to treatment and develop treatment failure and drug resistance. Response to tuberculosis treatment could be affected by multiple factors associated with the host-pathogen interaction including genetic factors and the nutritional status of the host. These factors should be considered for effective tuberculosis control. Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), which is individualized drug dosing guided by serum drug concentrations during treatment, and pharmacogenetics-based personalized dosing guidelines of anti-tuberculosis drugs could reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions and increase the likelihood of successful treatment outcomes. Moreover, assessment and management of comorbid conditions including nutritional status could improve anti-tuberculosis treatment response. PMID:28028995

  7. Recommendations for Optimizing Tuberculosis Treatment: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Pharmacogenetics, and Nutritional Status Considerations.

    PubMed

    Choi, Rihwa; Jeong, Byeong Ho; Koh, Won Jung; Lee, Soo Youn

    2017-03-01

    Although tuberculosis is largely a curable disease, it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the standard 6-month treatment regimen is highly effective for drug-susceptible tuberculosis, the use of multiple drugs over long periods of time can cause frequent adverse drug reactions. In addition, some patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis do not respond adequately to treatment and develop treatment failure and drug resistance. Response to tuberculosis treatment could be affected by multiple factors associated with the host-pathogen interaction including genetic factors and the nutritional status of the host. These factors should be considered for effective tuberculosis control. Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), which is individualized drug dosing guided by serum drug concentrations during treatment, and pharmacogenetics-based personalized dosing guidelines of anti-tuberculosis drugs could reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions and increase the likelihood of successful treatment outcomes. Moreover, assessment and management of comorbid conditions including nutritional status could improve anti-tuberculosis treatment response.

  8. The Analytical Chemistry of Drug Monitoring in Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Larry D.

    2009-07-01

    The detection and deterrence of the abuse of performance-enhancing drugs in sport are important to maintaining a level playing field among athletes and to decreasing the risk to athletes’ health. The World Anti-Doping Program consists of six documents, three of which play a role in analytical development: The World Anti-Doping Code, The List of Prohibited Substances and Methods, and The International Standard for Laboratories. Among the classes of prohibited substances, three have given rise to the most recent analytical developments in the field: anabolic agents; peptide and protein hormones; and methods to increase oxygen delivery to the tissues, including recombinant erythropoietin. Methods for anabolic agents, including designer steroids, have been enhanced through the use of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/combustion/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Protein and peptide identification and quantification have benefited from advances in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Incorporation of techniques such as flow cytometry and isoelectric focusing have supported the detection of blood doping.

  9. The analytical chemistry of drug monitoring in athletes.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Larry D

    2009-01-01

    The detection and deterrence of the abuse of performance-enhancing drugs in sport are important to maintaining a level playing field among athletes and to decreasing the risk to athletes' health. The World Anti-Doping Program consists of six documents, three of which play a role in analytical development: The World Anti-Doping Code, The List of Prohibited Substances and Methods, and The International Standard for Laboratories. Among the classes of prohibited substances, three have given rise to the most recent analytical developments in the field: anabolic agents; peptide and protein hormones; and methods to increase oxygen delivery to the tissues, including recombinant erythropoietin. Methods for anabolic agents, including designer steroids, have been enhanced through the use of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/combustion/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Protein and peptide identification and quantification have benefited from advances in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Incorporation of techniques such as flow cytometry and isoelectric focusing have supported the detection of blood doping.

  10. Dried blood spot analysis for therapeutic drug monitoring of pazopanib.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Djoeke; den Hartigh, Jan; Gelderblom, Hans; Qian, Yanwen; den Hollander, Margret; Verheul, Henk; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; van Erp, Nielka P

    2015-12-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is potentially a more patient-friendly and flexible alternative to venous sampling of pazopanib. This study determined the agreement between pazopanib DBS and plasma concentrations to facilitate implementation of pazopanib DBS sampling into clinical practice. Paired DBS and plasma samples were collected in 12 patients. Pazopanib plasma concentrations were calculated from DBS concentrations using the formula: plasma concentration = DBSconcentration /(1 - hematocrit). Passing-Bablok and Bland-Altman analyses were used to determine the agreement between calculated and measured plasma concentrations. We predefined a clinical acceptance limit of 25% for the Bland-Altman analysis. Passing-Bablok analysis showed a small constant (intercept estimate, -8.53 [95%CI, -12.22 to -4.41]) and slightly proportional (slope estimate, 1.15 [95%CI, 1.04-1.24]) bias between calculated and measured concentrations. This bias was clinically nonrelevant, as shown by Bland-Altman analysis; the mean ratio of calculated to measured concentrations was 0.94 (95%CI, 0.65-1.23). The clinical acceptance limits were well within these 95% limits of agreement. More specifically, 92.6% of the data points were within the predefined acceptance limits. Pazopanib plasma concentrations can be accurately calculated from DBS concentrations. Although validation of DBS cards prepared by patients themselves is required, these results show that DBS sampling can be used to monitor pazopanib therapy in clinical practice.

  11. Benchmarking of Electro-Optic Monitors for Femtosecond Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Berden, G.; Meer, A. F. G. van der; Gillespie, W. A.; Phillips, P. J.; Jamison, S. P.; Knabbe, E.-A.; Schlarb, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schmueser, P.; Steffen, B.; MacLeod, A. M.

    2007-10-19

    The longitudinal profiles of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH have been investigated using two single-shot detection schemes: an electro-optic (EO) detector measuring the Coulomb field of the bunch and a radio-frequency structure transforming the charge distribution into a transverse streak. A comparison permits an absolute calibration of the EO technique. EO signals as short as 60 fs (rms) have been observed, which is a new record in the EO detection of single electron bunches and close to the limit given by the EO material properties.

  12. Benchmarking of electro-optic monitors for femtosecond electron bunches.

    PubMed

    Berden, G; Gillespie, W A; Jamison, S P; Knabbe, E-A; MacLeod, A M; van der Meer, A F G; Phillips, P J; Schlarb, H; Schmidt, B; Schmüser, P; Steffen, B

    2007-10-19

    The longitudinal profiles of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH have been investigated using two single-shot detection schemes: an electro-optic (EO) detector measuring the Coulomb field of the bunch and a radio-frequency structure transforming the charge distribution into a transverse streak. A comparison permits an absolute calibration of the EO technique. EO signals as short as 60 fs (rms) have been observed, which is a new record in the EO detection of single electron bunches and close to the limit given by the EO material properties.

  13. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antifungal agents: guidelines from the British Society for Medical Mycology.

    PubMed

    Ashbee, H Ruth; Barnes, Rosemary A; Johnson, Elizabeth M; Richardson, Malcolm D; Gorton, Rebecca; Hope, William W

    2014-05-01

    The burden of human disease related to medically important fungal pathogens is substantial. An improved understanding of antifungal pharmacology and antifungal pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics has resulted in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) becoming a valuable adjunct to the routine administration of some antifungal agents. TDM may increase the probability of a successful outcome, prevent drug-related toxicity and potentially prevent the emergence of antifungal drug resistance. Much of the evidence that supports TDM is circumstantial. This document reviews the available literature and provides a series of recommendations for TDM of antifungal agents.

  14. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antifungal agents: guidelines from the British Society for Medical Mycology

    PubMed Central

    Ashbee, H. Ruth; Barnes, Rosemary A.; Johnson, Elizabeth M.; Richardson, Malcolm D.; Gorton, Rebecca; Hope, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The burden of human disease related to medically important fungal pathogens is substantial. An improved understanding of antifungal pharmacology and antifungal pharmacokinetics–pharmacodynamics has resulted in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) becoming a valuable adjunct to the routine administration of some antifungal agents. TDM may increase the probability of a successful outcome, prevent drug-related toxicity and potentially prevent the emergence of antifungal drug resistance. Much of the evidence that supports TDM is circumstantial. This document reviews the available literature and provides a series of recommendations for TDM of antifungal agents. PMID:24379304

  15. Therapeutic drug monitoring for triazoles: A needs assessment review and recommendations from a Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Laverdiere, Michel; Bow, Eric J; Rotstein, Coleman; Autmizguine, Julie; Broady, Raewyn; Garber, Gary; Haider, Shariq; Hussaini, Trana; Husain, Shahid; Ovetchkine, Philippe; Seki, Jack T; Théorêt, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with concomitant underlying immunosuppressive diseases. The recent addition of new triazoles to the antifungal armamentarium has allowed for extended-spectrum activity and flexibility of administration. Over the years, clinical use has raised concerns about the degree of drug exposure following standard approved drug dosing, questioning the need for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Accordingly, the present guidelines focus on TDM of triazole antifungal agents. A review of the rationale for triazole TDM, the targeted patient populations and available laboratory methods, as well as practical recommendations based on current evidence from an extended literature review are provided in the present document. PMID:25587296

  16. Drug Enforcement Administration Western Lab wins EPA Federal Green Challenge award for electronics recycling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regional Administrator Jared Blumenfeld presented the Federal Green Challenge award to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Western Laboratory for increasing its electronics recycling mor

  17. Nanoscale monitoring of drug actions on cell membrane using atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mi; Liu, Lian-qing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yue-chao

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the nanoscale changes that take place in individual cells in response to a drug is useful for understanding the drug action. However, due to the lack of adequate techniques, such knowledge was scarce until the advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM), which is a multifunctional tool for investigating cellular behavior with nanometer resolution under near-physiological conditions. In the past decade, researchers have applied AFM to monitor the morphological and mechanical dynamics of individual cells following drug stimulation, yielding considerable novel insight into how the drug molecules affect an individual cell at the nanoscale. In this article we summarize the representative applications of AFM in characterization of drug actions on cell membrane, including topographic imaging, elasticity measurements, molecular interaction quantification, native membrane protein imaging and manipulation, etc. The challenges that are hampering the further development of AFM for studies of cellular activities are aslo discussed. PMID:26027658

  18. The AGNP-TDM expert group consensus guidelines: therapeutic drug monitoring in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Baumann, P; Hiemke, C; Ulrich, S; Eckermann, G; Gaertner, I; Gerlach, M; Kuss, H-J; Laux, G; Müller-Oerlinghausen, B; Rao, M L; Riederer, P; Zernig, G

    2004-11-01

    Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is a valid tool to optimise pharmacotherapy. It enables the clinician to adjust the dosage of drugs according to the characteristics of the individual patient. In psychiatry, TDM is an established procedure for lithium, some antidepressants and antipsychotics. In spite of its obvious advantages, however, the use of TDM in everyday clinical practice is far from optimal. The interdisciplinary TDM group of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie (AGNP) has therefore worked out consensus guidelines to assist psychiatrists and laboratories involved in psychotropic drug analysis to optimise the use of TDM of psychotropic drugs. Five research-based levels of recommendation were defined with regard to routine monitoring of plasma concentrations for dose titration of 65 psychoactive drugs: (1) strongly recommended, (2) recommended, (3) useful, (4) probably useful and (5) not recommended. A second approach defined indications to use TDM, e. g. control of compliance, lack of clinical response or adverse effects at recommended doses, drug interactions, pharmacovigilance programs, presence of a genetic particularity concerning the drug metabolism, children, adolescents and elderly patients. Indications for TDM are relevant for all drugs either with or without validated therapeutic ranges. When studies on therapeutic ranges are lacking, target ranges should be plasma concentrations that are normally observed at therapeutic doses of the drug. Therapeutic ranges of plasma concentrations that are considered to be optimal for treatment are proposed for those drugs, for which the evaluation of the literature demonstrated strong evidence. Moreover, situations are defined when pharmacogenetic (phenotyping or genotyping) tests are informative in addition to TDM. Finally, practical instructions are given how to use TDM. They consider preparation of TDM, analytical procedures, reporting and interpretation of results

  19. Thermographic Microstructure Monitoring in Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Raplee, J; Plotkowski, A; Kirka, M M; Dinwiddie, R; Okello, A; Dehoff, R R; Babu, S S

    2017-03-03

    To reduce the uncertainty of build performance in metal additive manufacturing, robust process monitoring systems that can detect imperfections and improve repeatability are desired. One of the most promising methods for in situ monitoring is thermographic imaging. However, there is a challenge in using this technology due to the difference in surface emittance between the metal powder and solidified part being observed that affects the accuracy of the temperature data collected. The purpose of the present study was to develop a method for properly calibrating temperature profiles from thermographic data to account for this emittance change and to determine important characteristics of the build through additional processing. The thermographic data was analyzed to identify the transition of material from metal powder to a solid as-printed part. A corrected temperature profile was then assembled for each point using calibrations for these surface conditions. Using this data, the thermal gradient and solid-liquid interface velocity were approximated and correlated to experimentally observed microstructural variation within the part. This work shows that by using a method of process monitoring, repeatability of a build could be monitored specifically in relation to microstructure control.

  20. Thermographic Microstructure Monitoring in Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raplee, J.; Plotkowski, A.; Kirka, M. M.; Dinwiddie, R.; Okello, A.; Dehoff, R. R.; Babu, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    To reduce the uncertainty of build performance in metal additive manufacturing, robust process monitoring systems that can detect imperfections and improve repeatability are desired. One of the most promising methods for in situ monitoring is thermographic imaging. However, there is a challenge in using this technology due to the difference in surface emittance between the metal powder and solidified part being observed that affects the accuracy of the temperature data collected. The purpose of the present study was to develop a method for properly calibrating temperature profiles from thermographic data to account for this emittance change and to determine important characteristics of the build through additional processing. The thermographic data was analyzed to identify the transition of material from metal powder to a solid as-printed part. A corrected temperature profile was then assembled for each point using calibrations for these surface conditions. Using this data, the thermal gradient and solid-liquid interface velocity were approximated and correlated to experimentally observed microstructural variation within the part. This work shows that by using a method of process monitoring, repeatability of a build could be monitored specifically in relation to microstructure control.

  1. Thermographic Microstructure Monitoring in Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Raplee, J.; Plotkowski, A.; Kirka, M. M.; Dinwiddie, R.; Okello, A.; Dehoff, R. R.; Babu, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the uncertainty of build performance in metal additive manufacturing, robust process monitoring systems that can detect imperfections and improve repeatability are desired. One of the most promising methods for in situ monitoring is thermographic imaging. However, there is a challenge in using this technology due to the difference in surface emittance between the metal powder and solidified part being observed that affects the accuracy of the temperature data collected. The purpose of the present study was to develop a method for properly calibrating temperature profiles from thermographic data to account for this emittance change and to determine important characteristics of the build through additional processing. The thermographic data was analyzed to identify the transition of material from metal powder to a solid as-printed part. A corrected temperature profile was then assembled for each point using calibrations for these surface conditions. Using this data, the thermal gradient and solid-liquid interface velocity were approximated and correlated to experimentally observed microstructural variation within the part. This work shows that by using a method of process monitoring, repeatability of a build could be monitored specifically in relation to microstructure control. PMID:28256595

  2. Thermographic Microstructure Monitoring in Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Raplee, Jake B.; Plotkowski, Alex J.; Kirka, Michael M.; ...

    2017-03-03

    To reduce the uncertainty of build performance in metal additive manufacturing, robust process monitoring systems that can detect imperfections and improve repeatability are desired. One of the most promising methods for in-situ monitoring is thermographic imaging. However, there is a challenge in using this technology due to the difference in surface emittance between the metal powder and solidified part being observed that affects the accuracy of the temperature data collected. This developed a method for properly calibrating temperature profiles from thermographic data and then determining important characteristics of the build through additional processing. The thermographic data was analyzed to determinemore » the transition of material from metal powder to a solid as-printed part. A corrected temperature profile was then assembled for each point using calibrations for these surface conditions. Using this data, we calculated the thermal gradient and solid-liquid interface velocity and correlated it to microstructural variation within the part experimentally. This work shows that by using a method of process monitoring, repeatability of a build could be monitored specifically in relation to microstructure control.« less

  3. A sustained intravitreal drug delivery system with remote real time monitoring capability

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Huiyuan; Nieto, Alejandra; Belghith, Akram; Nan, Kaihui; Li, Yangyang; Freeman, William R.; Sailor, Michael J.; Cheng, Lingyun

    2015-01-01

    Many chorioretinal diseases are chronic and need sustained drug delivery systems to keep therapeutic drug level at the disease site. Many intravitreal drug delivery systems under developing do not have mechanism incorporated for a non-invasive monitoring of drug release. Current study prepared rugate porous silicon (pSi) particles by electrochemical etching with the currents frequency (K value) of 2.17 and 2.45. Two model drugs (Rapmycin and Dexamethasone) and two drug-loading strategies were tested for the feasibility to monitor drug release from the pSi particles through a color fundus camera. The pSi particles (k=2.45) with infiltration loading of rapamycin demonstrated progressively more violet color reflection which was negatively associated with the rapamycin released into the vitreous (r=−0.4, p<0.001, pairwise). In contrast, pSi with K value of 2.17 demonstrated progressive color change towards green and a weak association between rapmycin released into vitreous and green color abundance was identified (r=−0.23, p=0.002, pairwise). Dexamethasone was covalently loaded on to the fully oxidized pSi particles that appeared in vitreous as yellow color and fading over time. The yellow color decrease over time was strongly associated with the dexamethasone detected from the vitreous samples (r=0.7, p<0.0001, pairwise). These results suggest that engineered porous silicon particles may be used as a self-reporting drug delivery system for a non-invasive real time remote monitoring. PMID:26087110

  4. Monitoring of Nonsteroidal Immunosuppressive Drugs in Patients With Lung Disease and Lung Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Keith C; Nathanson, Ian; Angel, Luis; Bhorade, Sangeeta M; Chan, Kevin M; Culver, Daniel; Harrod, Christopher G; Hayney, Mary S; Highland, Kristen B; Limper, Andrew H; Patrick, Herbert; Strange, Charlie; Whelan, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Immunosuppressive pharmacologic agents prescribed to patients with diffuse interstitial and inflammatory lung disease and lung transplant recipients are associated with potential risks for adverse reactions. Strategies for minimizing such risks include administering these drugs according to established, safe protocols; monitoring to detect manifestations of toxicity; and patient education. Hence, an evidence-based guideline for physicians can improve safety and optimize the likelihood of a successful outcome. To maximize the likelihood that these agents will be used safely, the American College of Chest Physicians established a committee to examine the clinical evidence for the administration and monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs (with the exception of corticosteroids) to identify associated toxicities associated with each drug and appropriate protocols for monitoring these agents. Methods: Committee members developed and refined a series of questions about toxicities of immunosuppressives and current approaches to administration and monitoring. A systematic review was carried out by the American College of Chest Physicians. Committee members were supplied with this information and created this evidence-based guideline. Conclusions: It is hoped that these guidelines will improve patient safety when immunosuppressive drugs are given to lung transplant recipients and to patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease. PMID:23131960

  5. Psychotropic Drug Use among College Students: Patterns of Use, Misuse, and Medical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberleitner, Lindsay M. S.; Tzilos, Golfo K.; Zumberg, Kathryn M.; Grekin, Emily R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether college students who use psychotropic drugs are (1) aware of potential side effects, (2) appropriately monitored by prescribing physicians, and (3) taking medications as prescribed. Participants: Fifty-five college students, currently taking psychotropic medications, were recruited between Summer 2008 and Fall 2009.…

  6. Behavioral-Progress Monitoring Using the Electronic Daily Behavioral Report Card (e-DBRC) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mack D.; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an overview of a Web-based electronic system for behavioral-progress monitoring. Behavioral-progress monitoring is necessary to evaluate responsiveness to behavioral interventions, the effects of positive behavioral support, and the attainment of individualized education program goals and objectives. The…

  7. The Impact of the Perceived Purpose of Electronic Performance Monitoring on an Array of Attitudinal Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Deborah L.; Moorman, Robert H.; Werner, Jon M.

    2007-01-01

    As a form of performance monitoring, electronic performance monitoring (EPM) offers the opportunity for unobtrusive and continuous performance data gathering. These strengths can also make EPM stressful and threatening. Many features of performance evaluation systems, including the organizational purposes for which they are used, can affect…

  8. Potential of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM). A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Aleksandra; Fornasaro, Stefano; Sergo, Valter; Bonifacio, Alois

    2016-09-19

    Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a label-free technique that enables quick monitoring of substances at low concentrations in biological matrices. These advantages make it an attractive tool for the development of point-of-care tests suitable for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of drugs with a narrow therapeutic window, such as chemotherapeutic drugs, immunosuppressants, and various anticonvulsants. In this article, the current applications of SERS in the field of TDM for cancer therapy are discussed in detail and illustrated according to the different strategies and substrates. In particular, future perspectives are provided and special concerns regarding the standardization of self-assembly methods and nanofabrication procedures, quality assurance, and technology readiness are critically evaluated.

  9. Optically monitored drug delivery patch based on porous silicon and polymer microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Dardano, Principia; Caliò, Alessandro; Politi, Jane; Rea, Ilaria; Rendina, Ivo; De Stefano, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication and characterization of an optically monitored hybrid patch for local administration of drugs, based on polymeric micro-needles and a porous silicon free-standing membrane, are reported. The micro-needles are realized by an innovative photolithographic approach that allows fine tuning of geometrical parameters, using polyethylene glycol and a commercial photo-catalyzer. The porous silicon multilayer not only increases the storage of a relevant amount of the drug, but also offers a continuous, naked-eye monitoring of the drug delivery process. As a proof-of-concept experiment, we report our results on the release of a dye molecule (fluorescein, 332 Da) in a phosphate saline buffer. PMID:27231611

  10. Drug Efficacy Monitoring in Pharmacotherapy of Multiple Sclerosis with Biological Agents.

    PubMed

    Caldano, M; Raoul, W; Rispens, T; Bertolotto, A

    2017-03-22

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease. Although several EMA approved Disease Modifying Treatments including biopharmaceuticals are available, their efficacy is limited and a certain percentage of patients are always non-responsive. Drug Efficacy Monitoring is an important tool to identify these non-responsive patients early on. Currently, Detection of Anti-Drug Antibodies and quantification of Biological Activity are used as methods of efficacy monitoring for Interferon beta (IFNβ) and Natalizumab (NAT) therapies. For NAT and Alemtuzumab treatments, drug level quantification could be an essential component of the overall disease management. Thus, utilization and development of strategies to determine treatment response are vital aspects of MS management given the tremendous clinical and economic promise of this tool.

  11. Potential of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM). A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Aleksandra; Fornasaro, Stefano; Sergo, Valter; Bonifacio, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a label-free technique that enables quick monitoring of substances at low concentrations in biological matrices. These advantages make it an attractive tool for the development of point-of-care tests suitable for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of drugs with a narrow therapeutic window, such as chemotherapeutic drugs, immunosuppressants, and various anticonvulsants. In this article, the current applications of SERS in the field of TDM for cancer therapy are discussed in detail and illustrated according to the different strategies and substrates. In particular, future perspectives are provided and special concerns regarding the standardization of self-assembly methods and nanofabrication procedures, quality assurance, and technology readiness are critically evaluated. PMID:27657146

  12. OVERSEER: a prototype expert system for monitoring drug treatment in the psychiatric clinic.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Morelli, R A; Goethe, J W

    1989-05-01

    This paper describes the development of OVERSEER: a prototype knowledge-based system that monitors the drug treatment of psychiatric patients in real time. Using treatment protocols developed by the expert clinician, OVERSEER monitors the drug treatment process and issues alerts when standard clinical practices are not followed or when laboratory results are abnormal. Written in Prolog, OVERSEER is designed to interface directly with the hospital's database, and, thereby, utilizes all available pharmacy and laboratory data. Moreover, unlike the interactive expert systems developed for the psychiatric clinic, OVERSEER does not require extensive data entry by the clinician. Consequently, the chief benefit of OVERSEER's monitoring approach is the unobtrusive manner in which it evaluates psychopharmacological treatment and provides information regarding patient management to the hospital.

  13. Improving inflammatory arthritis management through tighter monitoring of patients and the use of innovative electronic tools

    PubMed Central

    van Riel, Piet; Combe, Bernard; Abdulganieva, Diana; Bousquet, Paola; Courtenay, Molly; Curiale, Cinzia; Gómez-Centeno, Antonio; Haugeberg, Glenn; Leeb, Burkhard; Puolakka, Kari; Ravelli, Angelo; Rintelen, Bernhard; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2016-01-01

    Treating to target by monitoring disease activity and adjusting therapy to attain remission or low disease activity has been shown to lead to improved outcomes in chronic rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. Patient-reported outcomes, used in conjunction with clinical measures, add an important perspective of disease activity as perceived by the patient. Several validated PROs are available for inflammatory arthritis, and advances in electronic patient monitoring tools are helping patients with chronic diseases to self-monitor and assess their symptoms and health. Frequent patient monitoring could potentially lead to the early identification of disease flares or adverse events, early intervention for patients who may require treatment adaptation, and possibly reduced appointment frequency for those with stable disease. A literature search was conducted to evaluate the potential role of patient self-monitoring and innovative monitoring of tools in optimising disease control in inflammatory arthritis. Experience from the treatment of congestive heart failure, diabetes and hypertension shows improved outcomes with remote electronic self-monitoring by patients. In inflammatory arthritis, electronic self-monitoring has been shown to be feasible in patients despite manual disability and to be acceptable to older patients. Patients' self-assessment of disease activity using such methods correlates well with disease activity assessed by rheumatologists. This review also describes several remote monitoring tools that are being developed and used in inflammatory arthritis, offering the potential to improve disease management and reduce pressure on specialists. PMID:27933206

  14. Improving inflammatory arthritis management through tighter monitoring of patients and the use of innovative electronic tools.

    PubMed

    van Riel, Piet; Alten, Rieke; Combe, Bernard; Abdulganieva, Diana; Bousquet, Paola; Courtenay, Molly; Curiale, Cinzia; Gómez-Centeno, Antonio; Haugeberg, Glenn; Leeb, Burkhard; Puolakka, Kari; Ravelli, Angelo; Rintelen, Bernhard; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2016-01-01

    Treating to target by monitoring disease activity and adjusting therapy to attain remission or low disease activity has been shown to lead to improved outcomes in chronic rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. Patient-reported outcomes, used in conjunction with clinical measures, add an important perspective of disease activity as perceived by the patient. Several validated PROs are available for inflammatory arthritis, and advances in electronic patient monitoring tools are helping patients with chronic diseases to self-monitor and assess their symptoms and health. Frequent patient monitoring could potentially lead to the early identification of disease flares or adverse events, early intervention for patients who may require treatment adaptation, and possibly reduced appointment frequency for those with stable disease. A literature search was conducted to evaluate the potential role of patient self-monitoring and innovative monitoring of tools in optimising disease control in inflammatory arthritis. Experience from the treatment of congestive heart failure, diabetes and hypertension shows improved outcomes with remote electronic self-monitoring by patients. In inflammatory arthritis, electronic self-monitoring has been shown to be feasible in patients despite manual disability and to be acceptable to older patients. Patients' self-assessment of disease activity using such methods correlates well with disease activity assessed by rheumatologists. This review also describes several remote monitoring tools that are being developed and used in inflammatory arthritis, offering the potential to improve disease management and reduce pressure on specialists.

  15. Monitoring a Nuclear Factor-κB Signature of Drug Resistance in Multiple Myeloma*

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yun; Remily-Wood, Elizabeth R.; Oliveira, Vasco; Yarde, Danielle; He, Lili; Cheng, Jin Q.; Mathews, Linda; Boucher, Kelly; Cubitt, Christopher; Perez, Lia; Gauthier, Ted J.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Shain, Kenneth H.; Dalton, William S.; Hazlehurst, Lori; Koomen, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of acquired drug resistance results from multiple compensatory mechanisms acting to prevent cell death. Simultaneous monitoring of proteins involved in drug resistance is a major challenge for both elucidation of the underlying biology and development of candidate biomarkers for assessment of personalized cancer therapy. Here, we have utilized an integrated analytical platform based on SDS-PAGE protein fractionation prior to liquid chromatography coupled to multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry, a versatile and powerful tool for targeted quantification of proteins in complex matrices, to evaluate a well-characterized model system of melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). Quantitative assays were developed to measure protein expression related to signaling events and biological processes relevant to melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma, specifically: nuclear factor-κB subunits, members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis-regulating proteins, and Fanconi Anemia DNA repair components. SDS-PAGE protein fractionation prior to liquid chromatography coupled to multiple reaction monitoring methods were developed for quantification of these selected target proteins in amounts of material compatible with direct translation to clinical specimens (i.e. less than 50,000 cells). As proof of principle, both relative and absolute quantification were performed on cell line models of MM to compare protein expression before and after drug treatment in naïve cells and in drug resistant cells; these liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring results are compared with existing literature and Western blots. The initial stage of a systems biology platform for examining drug resistance in MM has been implemented in cell line models and has been translated to MM cells isolated from a patient. The ultimate application of this platform could assist in clinical decision-making for individualized patient treatment. Although these specific assays have

  16. Electronic Master Monitor and Advisory Display System, Data Transmission Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Master Monitor and Advisory Display system (EMMADS). By contrac- tual requirement the EMMADS demonstration hardware will use a dual redundant MIL- STD -1553B...data multiplexing bus, the minimum requirement for EMMADS data transmission rate is 74.2 Kilobits per second. The MIL- STD -1553 Bus is specified to...as the French military standard, the counterpart of US MIL- STD -1553. DSDBS is developed for the sole purpose of minimizing the hardware with

  17. Organic electronics based pressure sensor towards intracranial pressure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Pratyush; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2010-04-01

    The intra-cranial space, which houses the brain, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that acts as a fluid suspension medium for the brain. The CSF is always in circulation, is secreted in the cranium and is drained out through ducts called epidural veins. The venous drainage system has inherent resistance to the flow. Pressure is developed inside the cranium, which is similar to a rigid compartment. Normally a pressure of 5-15 mm Hg, in excess of atmospheric pressure, is observed at different locations inside the cranium. Increase in Intra-Cranial Pressure (ICP) can be caused by change in CSF volume caused by cerebral tumors, meningitis, by edema of a head injury or diseases related to cerebral atrophy. Hence, efficient ways of monitoring ICP need to be developed. A sensor system and monitoring scheme has been discussed here. The system architecture consists of a membrane less piezoelectric pressure sensitive element, organic thin film transistor (OTFT) based signal transduction, and signal telemetry. The components were fabricated on flexible substrate and have been assembled using flip-chip packaging technology. Material science and fabrication processes, subjective to the device performance, have been discussed. Capability of the device in detecting pressure variation, within the ICP pressure range, is investigated and applicability of measurement scheme to medical conditions has been argued for. Also, applications of such a sensor-OTFT assembly for logic sensor switching and patient specific-secure monitoring system have been discussed.

  18. High-throughput electronic biology: mining information for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Loging, William; Harland, Lee; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2007-03-01

    The vast range of in silico resources that are available in life sciences research hold much promise towards aiding the drug discovery process. To fully realize this opportunity, computational scientists must consider the practical issues of data integration and identify how best to apply these resources scientifically. In this article we describe in silico approaches that are driven towards the identification of testable laboratory hypotheses; we also address common challenges in the field. We focus on flexible, high-throughput techniques, which may be initiated independently of 'wet-lab' experimentation, and which may be applied to multiple disease areas. The utility of these approaches in drug discovery highlights the contribution that in silico techniques can make and emphasizes the need for collaboration between the areas of disease research and computational science.

  19. Electronic simulation of a barometric pressure sensor for the meteorological monitor assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiar, C. N.; Duff, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the electronic simulation of barometric pressure used to self-test the counter electronics of the digital barometer is presented. The barometer is part of the Meteorological Monitor Assembly that supports navigation in deep space communication. The theory of operation of the digital barometer, the design details, and the verification procedure used with the barometric pressure simulator are presented.

  20. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2009. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Series. Paper 73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This occasional paper serves as a supplement to one of four annual monographs from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, written by the study's investigators and published by the study's sponsor, the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The full 2009 survey results are reported in "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use,…

  1. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing means the transmission... prescribing by MA-PD plans. An MA organization offering an MA-PD plan may provide for a separate...

  2. Ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers: a scanning electron microscopic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Kasirga, Ugur Baran; Celik, Hakan Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    As drug abuse carries a societal stigma, patients do not often report their history of drug abuse to the healthcare providers. However, drug abuse is highly co-morbid with a host of other health problems such as psychiatric disorders and skin diseases, and majority of individuals with drug use disorders seek treatment in the first place for other problems. Therefore, it is very important for physicians to be aware of clinical signs and symptoms of drug use. Recently diagnostic value of dermatologic tissue alterations associated with drug abuse has become a very particular interest because skin changes were reported to be the earliest noticeable consequence of drug abuse prompting earlier intervention and treatment. Although hair is an annex of skin, alterations on hair structure due to drug use have not been demonstrated. This study represents the first report on ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers. We have investigated ultra-structure of the hair samples obtained from 6 cocaine, 6 heroin, 7 cannabis and 4 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) abusers by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis of hair samples gave us drug-specific discriminating alterations. We suggest that results of this study will make a noteworthy contribution to cutaneous alterations associated with drug abuse which are regarded as the earliest clinical manifestations, and this SEM approach is a very specific and effective tool in the detection of abuse of respective drugs, leading early treatment. PMID:26309532

  3. Alternative matrices for therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressive agents using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, Mwlod; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs used in solid organ transplants typically have narrow therapeutic windows and high intra- and intersubject variability. To ensure satisfactory exposure, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) plays a pivotal role in any successful posttransplant maintenance therapy. Currently, recommendations for optimum immunosuppressant concentrations are based on blood/plasma measurements. However, they introduce many disadvantages, including poor prediction of allograft survival and toxicity, a weak correlation with drug concentrations at the site of action and the invasive nature of the sample collection. Thus, alternative matrices have been investigated. This paper reviews tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods used for the quantification of immunosuppressant drugs utilizing nonconventional matrices, namely oral fluids, fingerprick blood and intracellular and intratissue sampling. The advantages, disadvantages and clinical application of such alternative mediums are discussed. Additionally, sample extraction techniques and basic chromatography information regarding these methods are presented in tabulated form.

  4. Self-carried curcumin nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo cancer therapy with real-time monitoring of drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Li, Shengliang; An, Fei-Fei; Liu, Juan; Jin, Shubin; Zhang, Jin-Chao; Wang, Paul C.; Zhang, Xiaohong; Lee, Chun-Sing; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2015-08-01

    stability in physiological environments with drug loading capacities >78 wt%. Both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed the cellular fluorescence ``OFF-ON'' activation and real-time monitoring of the Cur molecule release. In vitro and in vivo experiments clearly show that the therapeutic efficacy of the PEGylated Cur NPs is considerably better than that of free Cur. This self-carried strategy with real-time monitoring of drug release may open a new way for simultaneous cancer therapy and monitoring. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03259h

  5. Optical drug monitoring: photoacoustic imaging of nanosensors to monitor therapeutic lithium in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cash, Kevin J; Li, Chiye; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V; Clark, Heather A

    2015-02-24

    Personalized medicine could revolutionize how primary care physicians treat chronic disease and how researchers study fundamental biological questions. To realize this goal, we need to develop more robust, modular tools and imaging approaches for in vivo monitoring of analytes. In this report, we demonstrate that synthetic nanosensors can measure physiologic parameters with photoacoustic contrast, and we apply that platform to continuously track lithium levels in vivo. Photoacoustic imaging achieves imaging depths that are unattainable with fluorescence or multiphoton microscopy. We validated the photoacoustic results that illustrate the superior imaging depth and quality of photoacoustic imaging with optical measurements. This powerful combination of techniques will unlock the ability to measure analyte changes in deep tissue and will open up photoacoustic imaging as a diagnostic tool for continuous physiological tracking of a wide range of analytes.

  6. Optical Drug Monitoring: Photoacoustic Imaging of Nanosensors to Monitor Therapeutic Lithium In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Kevin J.; Li, Chiye; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.; Clark, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine could revolutionize how primary care physicians treat chronic disease and how researchers study fundamental biological questions. To realize this goal we need to develop more robust, modular tools and imaging approaches for in vivo monitoring of analytes. In this report, we demonstrate that synthetic nanosensors can measure physiologic parameters with photoacoustic contrast, and we apply that platform to continuously track lithium levels in vivo. Photoacoustic imaging achieves imaging depths that are unattainable with fluorescence or multiphoton microscopy. We validated the photoacoustic results that illustrate the superior imaging depth and quality of photoacoustic imaging with optical measurements. This powerful combination of techniques will unlock the ability to measure analyte changes in deep tissue and will open up photoacoustic imaging as a diagnostic tool for continuous physiological tracking of a wide range of analytes. PMID:25588028

  7. Hydroxychloroquine in polymorphic light eruption: a controlled trial with drug and visual sensitivity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G M; Hawk, J L; Magnus, I A

    1987-03-01

    A double-blind controlled trial of oral hydroxychloroquine (HC) treatment in polymorphic light eruption (PLE) was completed in 13 patients on active treatment and 15 on placebo during June, July and August 1982. HC dose was 400 mg daily for the first month and 200 mg daily thereafter. Exposure to ambient solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) was monitored throughout the trial by polysulphone film lapel badges. Patients scored their symptoms on a visual analogue scale. Drug concentration was monitored in plasma and hair, and oculotoxicity was assessed by visual contrast sensitivity. Moderate clinical improvement occurred, associated with a statistically significant improvement in skin rash (P less than 0.01).

  8. Retrospective analysis of the associations and effectiveness of performing therapeutic drug monitoring in pregnant HIV-positive women in two large centres in Manchester.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Thomas; Dessain, Amabel; Taylor, Kelly; McQuillan, Orla; Kingston, Margaret; Ajdukiewicz, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    There is no proven benefit for the routine use of therapeutic drug monitoring in HIV-positive pregnant women either for improving viral control or preventing mother-to-child transmission. This analysis reviewed a cohort of 171 HIV-positive pregnant women delivering between 1 January 2008 and 28 May 2013 to first establish which baseline characteristics are associated with having therapeutic drug monitoring performed, and whether therapeutic drug monitoring was associated with improved HIV control during pregnancy or mother-to-child transmission. Therapeutic drug monitoring was performed in 39% ( n = 66) of patients; it was associated with baseline characteristics of poor adherence to therapy (therapeutic drug monitoring 23% versus non-therapeutic drug monitoring 10%, p = 0.025) and the use of protease inhibitors (therapeutic drug monitoring 94% versus non-therapeutic drug monitoring 77%, p = 0.005). By multivariate analysis therapeutic drug monitoring was associated with medication alterations during pregnancy (therapeutic drug monitoring 68% versus non-therapeutic drug monitoring 12%, p = < 0.001), but not associated with any difference in viral load breakthrough during pregnancy (therapeutic drug monitoring 12% versus non-therapeutic drug monitoring 7%, p = 0.456) and viral load detectable at birth (therapeutic drug monitoring 14% versus non-therapeutic drug monitoring 9%, p = 0.503). There were no instances of mother-to-child transmission. Therapeutic drug monitoring's association with medication changes is postulated as partially causal in this cohort. There was no evidence of any association with improved control or reduced transmission of HIV to advocate routine therapeutic drug monitoring use.

  9. Value of therapeutic drug monitoring of MMF therapy in pediatric transplantation.

    PubMed

    Filler, G

    2006-09-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is desirable whenever the desired drug effect cannot be predicted from a given dose, or when it is necessary to find a balance between the efficacy and toxicity of the drug. Children and adolescents particularly benefit from TDM, because dosing requirements are often not studied in the same detail as in adults. Also, drug-drug interactions are frequent. The gold standard for assessment of drug exposure is the area-under-the-curve (AUC) for a full pharmacokinetic profile. TDM for mycophenolic acid (MPA) is less well established. Monitoring of trough levels does not suffice because of enterohepatic recirculation of MPA after formation of its main metabolite, a glucoronide termed MPA-G. However, abbreviated sampling schemes specific to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) correlate well with the AUC for MPA. Cyclosporine interacts with MPA by inhibiting the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). Higher MPA concentrations result in a decreased two h concentration of cyclosporine, while higher cyclosporine exposure results in a lower MPA exposure. There are no drug interactions between tacrolimus and MPA, and lower doses of MMF are required in combination with tacrolimus. Steroids may induce the clearance of MPA, which could account in part for the increasing MPA exposure following transplantation. TDM has allowed for dosing recommendations of MMF in children, which could lead to improved efficacy and minimization of toxicities. It is important that these provisional target levels are validated in prospective studies. The above points clearly indicate that there is a role for TDM of MPA in pediatric transplant recipients.

  10. Relativistic electron precipitation at International Space Station: Space weather monitoring by Calorimetric Electron Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Asaoka, Yoichi; Torii, Shoji; Terasawa, Toshio; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Tamura, Tadahisa; Shimizu, Yuki; Akaike, Yosui; Mori, Masaki

    2016-05-01

    The charge detector (CHD) of the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) on board the International Space Station (ISS) has a huge geometric factor for detecting MeV electrons and is sensitive to relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events. During the first 4 months, CALET CHD observed REP events mainly at the dusk to midnight sector near the plasmapause, where the trapped radiation belt electrons can be efficiently scattered by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Here we show that interesting 5-20 s periodicity regularly exists during the REP events at ISS, which is useful to diagnose the wave-particle interactions associated with the nonlinear wave growth of EMIC-triggered emissions.

  11. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES.

    PubMed

    Correia, Rion Brattig; Li, Lang; Rocha, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this "Bibliome", the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products-including cannabis-which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015.We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that Instagram

  12. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES

    PubMed Central

    CORREIA, RION BRATTIG; LI, LANG; ROCHA, LUIS M.

    2015-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this “Bibliome”, the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products—including cannabis—which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015. We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that

  13. [Evaluation of electronic drug prescriptions at a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Cassiani, Sílvia Helena; Gimenes, Fernanda Raphael; Freire, Cláudia Câmara

    2002-01-01

    The medical orders have an important role in the prevention of medication errors. The objective of this study is to identify and to analyse the causal factors of error in the medication related to electronic prescription in two different clinics of a university hospital of the interior of the state of São Paulo. A questionnaire related to the advantages and disadvantages of electronic prescription was applied to the professionals of these clinics. The data collected was grouped in accordance with the similarity of the answers. These professionals identified causal factors of errors in the medical orders, but they also mentioned the advantages of it when compared to the manual order, such as bigger readability, rapidity and organization of the first one. As we can see, the computerized system of medical order represents a great advance considering strategies to minimize errors from orders badly formulated. However, it does not eliminate the possibility of occurrence of causal factors of errors in the medication, which asks for some modifications in the system.

  14. Optically Stimulated Electron Emission Contamination Monitor and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Christopher S. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus and method for performing quality inspections on a test surface based on optically stimulated emission of electrons. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a device for producing optical radiation having a plurality of different spectrum lines, selecting at least one of the spectrum lines, and directing the selected spectrum line to the test surface, and circuitry for detecting a current of photoelectrons emitted from the test surface, generating a signal indicative of photoelectron current, and for indicating a condition of quality based on the generated signal indicative of the photoelectron current. In one embodiment, the method comprises producing optical radiation having a plurality of different spectrum lines, selecting at least one of the spectrum lines and directing the selected spectrum line to the test surface, detecting a current of photoelectrons emitted from the test surface and generating a signal indicative of photoelectron current, and indicating a condition of quality based on the generated signal indicative of the photoelectron current.

  15. Fast and Inexpensive Detection of Bacterial Viability and Drug Effectiveness through Metabolic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ayyash, Sondos; Wu, Wen-I; Selvaganapathy, Ponnambalam Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Conventional methods for the detection of bacterial infection such as DNA or immunoassays are expensive, time consuming, or not definitive and thus may not provide all the information sought by medical professionals. In particular, it is difficult to obtain information about viability or drug effectiveness, which is crucial to formulate a treatment. Bacterial culture tests are the “gold standard” because they are inexpensive and do not require extensive sample preparation, and most importantly, provide all the necessary information sought by healthcare professionals, such as bacterial presence, viability and drug effectiveness. These conventional culture methods, however, have a long turnaround time, anywhere between 1 day and 4 weeks. Here, we solve this problem by monitoring the growth of bacteria in thousands of nanowells simultaneously to more quickly identify their presence in the sample and their viability. The segmentation of a sample with low bacterial concentration into thousands of nanoliter wells digitizes the samples and increases the effective concentration in those wells that contain bacteria. We monitor the metabolism of aerobic bacteria by using an oxygen-sensitive fluorophore, ruthenium tris (2,2’-diprydl) dichloride hexahydrate (RTDP), which allows us to monitor the dissolved oxygen concentration in the nanowells. Using E. coli K12 as a model pathogen, we demonstrate that the detection time of E. coli can be as fast as 35–60 min with sample concentrations varying from 104 (62 min for detection), 106 (42 min) and 108 cells/mL (38 min). More importantly, we also demonstrate that reducing the well size can reduce the detection time. Finally we show that drug effectiveness information can be obtained in this format by loading the wells with the drug and monitoring the metabolism of the bacteria. The method that we have developed is low cost, simple, requires minimal sample preparation and can potentially be used with a wide variety of samples

  16. [Chemical analysis of wastewater as a new way of monitoring drugs and medicines consumption at workplace].

    PubMed

    Wiergowski, Marek; Sołtyszewski, Ireneusz; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The available information on the quality and frequency of illegal psychoactive substances used or medicines misused by workers, are often out of date at the time of its publication. This is due to the dynamic introduction of new synthetic drugs on the black market, changes in trends in the recreational use of medicines and the lack of readily available and reliable tests for fast identification. Strategy for detection of narcotic and non-medical psychoactive drugs use at workplace should embrace all possible sources of information. Classical sources of information on the use of psychoactive substances at the workplace include: statistical data (general information on trends and magnitude of drug and medicine addiction collected by the Polish National Police, the National Bureau for Drug Prevention and emergency medical services), surveys, psychomotor tests and qualitative and quantitative analyses of biological material. Of the new and promising methods, used throughout the world in recent years, chemical-toxicological analysis of surface water and wastewater deserve special mention. An increasing interest in the study of urban waste water can significantly complement the source of knowledge about drug and medicine addiction using obtainable conventional methods. In recent years, a municipal wastewater analysis has become a new and very promising way of collecting updated information on the use of psychoactive substances and medicines. It seems that this kind of study may play an important role in the ongoing monitoring of drug and/or medicines use by selected groups of population (e.g., students, military, firemen, policemen, etc.).

  17. Safety monitoring of herb-drug interactions: a component of pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Souad; Soulaymani Bencheikh, Rachida

    2012-10-01

    Adverse drug reactions, including those resulting from interactions between herbal medicines and conventional drugs, are a public health problem worldwide. The need for pharmacovigilance for herb-drug interactions (HDIs) is essential for the identification and assessment of risks of using herbal products (questionable safety, efficacy and quality), which are not always tested with rigor, or often not subject to approval by regulatory agencies. Spontaneous and active surveillance conducted by national pharmacovigilance centres permits a rapid detection of potentially harmful combinations of products. The incidence and prevalence of HDIs are difficult to predict because of the underreporting of adverse effects. It is important for health professionals, consumers, regulatory authorities and suppliers of herbal medicines to be aware of the possible adverse effects and drug interactions caused when herbal medicines are co-administered with conventional drugs. National pharmacovigilance centres continue to play a significant role in increasing awareness of drug safety, in this case with HDIs. The authors' objective for this paper is to provide awareness among policy makers responsible for the design of appropriate pharmacovigilance practices and therefore to highlight the importance of pharmacovigilance in the safety monitoring of HDIs.

  18. Consensus document: Hawk's Cay meeting on therapeutic drug monitoring of cyclosporine.

    PubMed

    Kahan, B D; Shaw, L M; Holt, D; Grevel, J; Johnston, A

    1990-08-01

    The optimal measurement method and clinical application of the therapeutic drug monitoring of cyclosporine remain uncertain. At a workshop held at Hawk's Cay, FL, from January 14 to January 17, 1990, 57 scientists presented their latest research findings, either in formal papers or as discussants. Lively debate and discussion followed presentation of extant and new methodologies for drug measurements as well as multicenter validation studies: applications of trough-concentration monitoring in renal, hepatic, and bone-marrow transplants as well as in autoimmune disease; and alternative pharmacokinetic approaches to guide cyclosporine therapy. The process of inducing and maintaining optimal immunosuppression to facilitate graft success is a complex and often challenging task, requiring the combined expertise of multiple disciplines. Thus, the assembly of four of the groups essential to the transplant process--clinicians, laboratory scientists, the pharmaceutical company, and the manufacturers of cyclosporine measurement kits--provided a unique opportunity to evaluate therapeutic drug monitoring issues facing the transplant field. Here we present the major conclusions reached at the meeting, brief discussions of the study data on which they are based, and a summary of unresolved problems that will require further rigorous investigations. The Consensus Document was reviewed by all the workshop participants before we submitted this final manuscript.

  19. All electronic approach for high-throughput cell trapping and lysis with electrical impedance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ameri, Shideh Kabiri; Singh, Pramod K; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Khademhosseini, Ali; Xu, Qiaobing; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2014-04-15

    We present a portable lab-on-chip device for high-throughput trapping and lysis of single cells with in-situ impedance monitoring in an all-electronic approach. The lab-on-chip device consists of microwell arrays between transparent conducting electrodes within a microfluidic channel to deliver and extract cells using alternating current (AC) dielectrophoresis. Cells are lysed with high efficiency using direct current (DC) electric fields between the electrodes. Results are presented for trapping and lysis of human red blood cells. Impedance spectroscopy is used to estimate the percentage of filled wells with cells and to monitor lysis. The results show impedance between electrodes decreases with increase in the percentage of filled wells with cells and drops to a minimum after lysis. Impedance monitoring provides a reasonably accurate measurement of cell trapping and lysis. Utilizing an all-electronic approach eliminates the need for bulky optical components and cameras for monitoring.

  20. A review of surface wipe sampling compared to biologic monitoring for occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Kibby, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The potential for adverse health effects from occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AD) is well known. Control measures recommended by the NIOSH Alert ([3]) include medical and biologic monitoring, and environmental monitoring where available. At present no guidelines or published best practices exist to guide EHS managers on how to carry out this biologic or environmental monitoring. Studies investigating surface wipe sampling for AD have been numerous in the past decade, but very limited research exists to correlate surface contamination with actual absorption by pharmacists and nurses. This article reviews the studies with concurrent surface wipe sampling and urine monitoring for the same AD, and tests their correlation. Methodologic limitations are reviewed. Twenty-one studies were identified that concurrently measured surface contamination by AD by wipe sampling and AD absorption by urine monitoring. Two studies directly evaluated the AD by wipe sampling and urine levels and neither found a statistically significant correlation. Six studies reported a decrease in both surface and urine levels following interventions to reduce contamination or exposure. Only one study directly evaluated the personal protective equipment and handling techniques employed by the studied workers, which can be viewed as a major confounder of absorption. While no statistically significant correlation was found between wipe sampling and urine monitoring for AD, decreases in urine and wipe levels following interventions to reduce exposure were noted. Limitations in the data and recommendations for future research are reviewed.

  1. A monitoring test for the liability of neuroleptic drugs to induce tardive dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Gunne, L M; Bárány, S

    1979-06-21

    Two Cebus apella monkeys with haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia have been studied. Substitution of chlorpromazine, thioridazine, clozapine, melperone, or fluphenazine for the daily haloperidol administration temporarily reduced the signs of tardive dyskinesia. In a monkey with low-grade symptoms, persisting for more than 100 days after withdrawal of haloperidol, neuroleptic drugs induced a typical sequence of events: first the dyskinetic movements were abolished, but 1--3 days after administration of a single dose of a neuroleptic drug there was a rebound worsening of symptoms. It was noticed that this aggravation of symptoms corresponded in magnitude and duration to the approximate liability of each compound to induce tardive dyskinesia in man. It is therefore suggested that this animal model could be used to monitor neurological side effects in neuroleptic drugs.

  2. Vertical-flow paper SERS system for therapeutic drug monitoring of flucytosine in serum.

    PubMed

    Berger, Adam G; Restaino, Stephen M; White, Ian M

    2017-01-01

    A number of life-saving drugs require therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for safe and effective use. Currently, however, TDM is performed using sophisticated analytical techniques relegated to central labs, increasing the cost per test and time to answer. Here, using a novel vertical flow membrane system with inkjet-printed surface enhanced Raman sensors, along with a portable spectrometer, we demonstrate a low cost and easy to use device to quantify levels of flucytosine, an antifungal that requires TDM for effective patient care, from undiluted human serum. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of a passive vertical flow sample cleanup method with surface enhanced Raman detection. We first investigated and optimized the parameters of the vertical flow system for the detection of flucytosine in spiked serum samples. Then, using an optimized vertical-flow system utilizing nitrocellulose membranes and a paper SERS sensor, we achieved detection of down to 10 μg mL(-1) flucytosine in undiluted serum, with quantitative detection across the entire therapeutic range. This system reduces the assay time to about 15 min, far quicker than the current gold standards. We anticipate that this novel system will enable near-patient therapeutic drug monitoring, leading to the safe and effective administration of a number of life-saving drugs. Furthermore, it will spawn the development of SERS detection systems capable of separating target analytes from real-world biological matrices.

  3. How to test electronic adherence monitoring devices for use in daily life: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    DE Bleser, Leentje; DE Geest, Sabina; Vincke, Birgit; Ruppar, Todd; Vanhaecke, Johan; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2011-09-01

    Electronic monitoring devices are increasingly used in healthcare to monitor health behaviors on a day-to-day basis. As a prerequisite to their application in clinical studies or daily practice, the performance of those electronic monitoring devices should be tested. Such testing includes a demonstration of technically correct function and of correspondence between the recorded data and the actual patient behavior, that is, objective testing of reliability and validity. Furthermore, from the patient's perspective, the operation of these devices should be easy to learn and to perform, and their use should be acceptable. These aspects of usability need to be tested from a user's subjective point of view. We propose a conceptual framework that builds on existing literature, for example, the framework on "obtrusiveness" of Hensel et al [J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2006;13(4):428-431], the assumptions regarding valid electronic monitoring of Denhaerynck et al [BMC Med Res Methodol. 2008;8:5], and empirical evidence. The framework integrates an objective and a subjective dimension. The objective dimension encompasses both reliability (accuracy and precision) and internal and external validity. The subjective dimension describes the user's perspective on usability along subdimensions of user performance, satisfaction, and acceptability. This framework can be used as a road map to test existing and future electronic monitoring devices before their widespread application in clinical studies or daily practice.

  4. Dealing with electronic waste: modeling the costs and environmental benefits of computer monitor disposal.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Molly; Palmer, Karen; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2003-05-01

    The importance of information technology to the world economy has brought about a surge in demand for electronic equipment. With rapid technological change, a growing fraction of the increasing stock of many types of electronics becomes obsolete each year. We model the costs and benefits of policies to manage 'e-waste' by focusing on a large component of the electronic waste stream-computer monitors-and the environmental concerns associated with disposal of the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors. We find that the benefits of avoiding health effects associated with CRT disposal appear far outweighed by the costs for a wide range of policies. For the stock of monitors disposed of in the United States in 1998, we find that policies restricting or banning some popular disposal options would increase disposal costs from about US dollar 1 per monitor to between US dollars 3 and US dollars 20 per monitor. Policies to promote a modest amount of recycling of monitor parts, including lead, can be less expensive. In all cases, however, the costs of the policies exceed the value of the avoided health effects of CRT disposal.

  5. [Therapeutic drug monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry--practical recommendations].

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Manfred; Rothenhöfer, Silke; Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Fegert, Joerg M; Schulz, Eberhard; Wewetzer, Christoph; Warnke, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The therapy of children and adolescents with psychotropic drugs differs from that of adults. Due to the differences in the pharmacokinetic behaviour of the drugs used that are dependent on a child's, respectively an adolescent's stage of development, the same dosages as recommended for adults cannot be used. Moreover, many of the drugs used have not been approved for use in children and adolescents. Thus the criteria which guarantee their efficacy and safety for use in adults do not apply for their use in children and adolescents. Therefore therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a general indication for the administration of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents. TDM enables the clinician to adjust the dosage of a drug according to the characteristics of the individual patient. It is also a valid tool to increase the safety of therapy and optimise therapy with psychotropic drugs. However, standardized studies are also needed to find therapeutic ranges of plasma concentrations for children and adolescents. Such studies will deliver new insights into the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behaviour of drugs used in child and adolescent psychiatry. The present contribution begins with a brief description of the strategy of TDM in psychiatry, followed by a discussion of the characteristics of pharmacotherapy in child and adolescent psychiatry and the reasons for the general indication of TDM in children and adolescents. Finally, recommendations are given for the routine performance of TDM. For a detailed treatment of TDM in psychiatry, the interested reader is referred to the AG-NP-TDM Expert Group Consensus Guidelines published earlier (Baumann et al., 2004).

  6. Recent advances in electronic nose techniques for monitoring of fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Quansheng; Mei, Congli; Liu, Guohai

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fermentation process is often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, the monitoring of the process is critical for discovering unfavorable deviations as early as possible and taking the appropriate measures. However, the use of traditional analytical techniques is often time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this sense, the most effective way of developing rapid, accurate and relatively economical method for quality assurance in microbial fermentation process is the use of novel chemical sensor systems. Electronic nose techniques have particular advantages in non-invasive monitoring of microbial fermentation process. Therefore, in this review, we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the quality control in microbial fermentation process using the electronic nose techniques. After a brief description of the fundamentals of the sensor techniques, some examples of potential applications of electronic nose techniques monitoring are provided, including the implementation of control strategies and the combination with other monitoring tools (i.e. sensor fusion). Finally, on the basis of the review, the electronic nose techniques are critically commented, and its strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. In addition, on the basis of the observed trends, we also propose the technical challenges and future outlook for the electronic nose techniques.

  7. Photothermal monitoring of interaction of carcinoma cells with cytostatic drugs in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotko, Dmitri; Hanna, Ehab; Cannon, Martin

    2003-06-01

    Background/problem. Monitoring of tumor response to cancer chemotherapy and dose optimization for specific patients are the key factors for successful application of anti-tumor drugs. Using patient's tumor cells for preliminary in vitro drug screening may allow optimal selection of drug type and dose. Method. Single cell state was studied with photothermal microscope. Carcinoma cells were irradiated at 427 nm with 8 ns laser pulse with energy 30 - 40 μJ. Cell photothermal (PT) response amplitude and shape from each cell were analyzed and amount of cells that produced specific PT response was used as PT parameter. Parallel experiment included cell viability control. Results were obtained for two cytotoxic chemotherapy agents -- Platinol-aq and Adrucil. Incubation of cell suspensions for 90 min at 20 and 37°C caused changes in cell PT parameters. Reaction of carcinoma cells to the drug was very similar to reaction of hepatocytes to respiratory chain inhibition and reaction of RBC to osmotic pressure decrease. PT effect was found to be dose-dependent. PT method allows detecting drug-induced changes before cell death or morphological changes and therefore can be fast and sensitive modality for control of chemotherapy.

  8. [Therapeutic drug monitoring and individual dosing of antibiotics during sepsis : Modern or just "trendy"?

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, A; Röhr, A C; Köberer, A; Fuchs, T; Preisenberger, J; Krüger, W A; Frey, O R

    2016-09-13

    Pharmacokinetic variability of anti-infective drugs due to pathophysiological changes by severe sepsis and septic shock is a well-known problem for critically ill patients resulting in suboptimal serum and most likely tissue concentrations of these agents.To cover a wide range of potential pathogens, high concentrations of broad spectrum anti-infectives have to reach the site of infection. Microbiological susceptibility testing (susceptible, intermediate, resistant) don't take the pharmacokinetic variability into account and are based on data generated by non-critically ill patients. But inter-patient variability in distribution and elimination of anti-infective drugs in ICU patients is extremely high and also highly unpredictable. Drug clearance of mainly renally eliminated drugs and thus the required dose can differ up to 10-fold due to the variability in renal function in patients with severe infections. To assure a timely and adequate anti-infective regime, individual dosing and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) seem to be appropriate tools in the setting of pathophysiological changes in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmakodynamics (PD) due to severe sepsis. In the case of known minimal inhibitory concentration, PK/PD indices (time or peak concentration dependent activity) and measured serum level can provide an optimal target concentration for the individual drug and patient.Modern anti-infective management for ICU patients includes more than the choice of drug and prompt application. Individual dosing, optimized prolonged infusion time and TDM give way to new and promising opportunities in infection control.

  9. Smart interactive electronic system for monitoring the electromagnetic activities of biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Sorin G.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2001-08-01

    A novel electronic device capable of sensing and monitoring the myoelectric, polarization wave and electromagnetic activities of the biological systems and in particular the human body is presented. It is known that all the physical and chemical processes within biological systems are associated with polarization, depolarization waves from the brain, neural signals and myoelectric processes that manifest themselves in ionic and dipole motion. The technology developed in our laboratory is based on certain charge motion sensitive electronics. The electronic system developed is capable of sensing the electromagnetic activities of biological systems. The information obtained is then processed by specialized software in order to interpret it from physical and chemical point of view.

  10. Monitoring Nonadiabatic Electron-Nuclear Dynamics in Molecules by Attosecond Streaking of Photoelectrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Bennett, Kochise; Rouxel, Jérémy R.; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-07-01

    Streaking of photoelectrons has long been used for the temporal characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses. When the time-resolved photoelectrons originate from a coherent superposition of electronic states, they carry additional phase information, which can be retrieved by the streaking technique. In this contribution we extend the streaking formalism to include coupled electron and nuclear dynamics in molecules as well as initial coherences. We demonstrate how streaked photoelectrons offer a novel tool for monitoring nonadiabatic dynamics as it occurs in the vicinity of conical intersections and avoided crossings. Streaking can provide high time resolution direct signatures of electronic coherences, which affect many primary photochemical and biological events.

  11. Using Cytochome c to Monitor Electron Transport and Inhibition in Beef Heart Submitochondrial Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Amanda D.; Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a two-part undergraduate laboratory exercise. In the first part, electron transport in bovine heart submitochondrial particles causing reduction of cytochrome c is monitored at 550 nm. Redox-active dyes have historically been used in most previous undergraduate laboratory exercises of this sort but do not demonstrate respiratory…

  12. Delphi: an algorithm for continuous monitoring of changes in work function using an electron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, M.; Connolly, S.; McCabe, T.; Lloyd, D. R.

    1999-03-01

    A new method for driving the D/A controlling an electron spectrometer is described. It is shown that this allows the use of the spectrometer for continuously recording changes in work function, with a precision approaching that of a Kelvin probe, and also provides a monitoring method for highly reproducible dosing of a surface to a constant condition.

  13. Wearable/disposable sweat-based glucose monitoring device with multistage transdermal drug delivery module

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunjae; Song, Changyeong; Hong, Yong Seok; Kim, Min Sung; Cho, Hye Rim; Kang, Taegyu; Shin, Kwangsoo; Choi, Seung Hong; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical analysis of sweat using soft bioelectronics on human skin provides a new route for noninvasive glucose monitoring without painful blood collection. However, sweat-based glucose sensing still faces many challenges, such as difficulty in sweat collection, activity variation of glucose oxidase due to lactic acid secretion and ambient temperature changes, and delamination of the enzyme when exposed to mechanical friction and skin deformation. Precise point-of-care therapy in response to the measured glucose levels is still very challenging. We present a wearable/disposable sweat-based glucose monitoring device integrated with a feedback transdermal drug delivery module. Careful multilayer patch design and miniaturization of sensors increase the efficiency of the sweat collection and sensing process. Multimodal glucose sensing, as well as its real-time correction based on pH, temperature, and humidity measurements, maximizes the accuracy of the sensing. The minimal layout design of the same sensors also enables a strip-type disposable device. Drugs for the feedback transdermal therapy are loaded on two different temperature-responsive phase change nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are embedded in hyaluronic acid hydrogel microneedles, which are additionally coated with phase change materials. This enables multistage, spatially patterned, and precisely controlled drug release in response to the patient’s glucose level. The system provides a novel closed-loop solution for the noninvasive sweat-based management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:28345030

  14. Optical sensors for therapeutic drug monitoring of antidepressants for a better medication adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieg, Anne K.; Hess, Stefan; Gauglitz, Günter

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring provides the attending physicians with detailed information on a patient's individual serum level especially during long-term medication. Due to the fact that each patient tolerates drugs or their metabolites differently a medication adjustment can reduce the number and intensity of noticeable side-effects. In particular, psychotropic drugs can cause unpleasant side-effects that affect a patient's life almost as much as the mental disease itself. The tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline is commonly used for treatment of depressions and was selected for the development of an immunoassay using the direct optical sensor technique Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy (RIfS). RIfS is a simple, robust and label-free method for direct monitoring of binding events on glass surfaces. Binding to the surface causes a shift of the interference spectrum by a change of the refractive index or physical thickness. This technique can be used for time-resolved observation of association and dissociation of amitriptyline (antigen) and a specific antibody using the binding inhibition test format. An amitriptyline derivative is immobilized on the sensor surface and a specific amount of antibodies can bind to the surface unless the binding is inhibited by free amitriptyline in a sample. No fluorescent label is needed making the whole assay less expensive than label-based methods. With this recently developed immunoassay amitriptyline concentrations in buffer (PBS) can easily be detected down to 500 ng/L.

  15. Online fast Biospeckle monitoring of drug action in Trypanosoma cruzi parasites by motion history image.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Zaheer; Grassi, Hilda C; Cabrera, Humberto; Velásquez, Ana; Andrades, Efrén D J

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports on the application of the motion history image (MHI) method on dynamic laser speckle processing as a result of a specific drug action on Trypanosoma cruzi parasites. The MHI procedure is based on human action recognition, and unlike other methods which use a sequence consisting of several frames for recognition, this method uses only an MHI per action sequence for recognition. MHI method avoids the complexity as well as the large computation in sequence matching-based methods and detects a change in the speckle pattern. Experimental results of MHI on real-time monitoring of activity (motility) under the influence of the drug demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The MHI showed an online result without loss of resolution and definition if we compare with routine LASCA method. The obtained results highlight the advantage of the MHI analysis over traditional qualitative image intensity-based methods and demonstrate the potential of measuring the activity of parasites via dynamic laser speckle analysis. The data was further numerically analyzed in the time domain, and the results presented the ability of the technique to monitor the action of the drug, particularly Epirubicin (100 μg/ml).

  16. Cytochrome P450 and therapeutic drug monitoring with respect to clozapine.

    PubMed

    Buur-Rasmussen, B; Brøsen, K

    1999-12-01

    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is mainly used for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. Clozapine is eliminated by oxidation in the liver, predominantly by cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2). Due to the influence of inhibitors, inducers and genetic factors on CYP1A2-activity, several studies have reported a very large interindividual variability in clozapine plasma concentrations at a fixed dose. A number of methods have been published for the measurement of clozapine and metabolites in plasma. Plasma concentrations are most frequently measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Most methods measure clozapine and the main metabolite, norclozapine, whereas two methods measure clozapine and two metabolites. Several studies suggest that a minimum effective clozapine plasma concentration of >350 microg/l must be achieved in order to ensure acceptable clinical response, whereas the upper limit of the therapeutic interval not yet has been clearly defined. The occurrence of agranulocytosis, the most serious side-effect of clozapine treatment does not seem to be dose-related and it is not possible to predict which patients are at risk of developing agranulocytosis. The risk of central nervous system side-effects seems to increase with concentrations above 1300 microg/l. Monitoring of clozapine plasma concentrations is recommended during concomitant use of other drugs that are known to interact with the oxidation of clozapine, such as carbamazepine (inducer) or fluvoxamine (inhibitor). Overall, it is concluded that therapeutic drug monitoring may be of value in the clinical management of clozapine.

  17. Fluorodeoxyglucose-based positron emission tomography imaging to monitor drug responses in hematological tumors.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Andrea; Martin, Ben P; Cullinane, Carleen; Bots, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to monitor the uptake of the labeled glucose analog fluorodeoxyglucose (¹⁸F-FDG), a process that is generally believed to reflect viable tumor cell mass. The use of ¹⁸F-FDG PET can be helpful in documenting over time the reduction in tumor mass volume in response to anticancer drug therapy in vivo. In this protocol, we describe how to monitor the response of murine B-cell lymphomas to an inducer of apoptosis, the anticancer drug vorinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor). B-cell lymphoma cells are injected into recipient mice and, on tumor formation, the mice are treated with vorinostat. The tracer ¹⁸F-FDG is then injected into the mice at several time points, and its uptake is monitored using PET. Because the uptake of ¹⁸F-FDG is not a direct measure of apoptosis, an additional direct method proving that apoptotic cells are present should also be performed.

  18. Determination of Voriconazole Serum Concentration by Bioassay, a Valid Method for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Clinical Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Cendejas-Bueno, Emilio; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a simple, fast, and reliable bioassay method for therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole. Fifty-eight clinical and external quality control samples were evaluated with this microbiological assay, and results were compared with those obtained with a previously validated chromatographic method. A good correlation between both assays was observed. This particular microbiological method was demonstrated to be simple and offers enough precision and accuracy to perform voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring in laboratories without specialized equipment. PMID:23650161

  19. Electron line shape and transmission function of the KATRIN monitor spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Slezák, M.

    2013-12-30

    Knowledge of the neutrino mass is of particular interest in modern neutrino physics. Besides the neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmological observation information about the neutrino mass is obtained from single beta decay by observing the shape of the electron spectrum near the endpoint. The KATRIN β decay experiment aims to push the limit on the effective electron antineutrino mass down to 0.2 eV/c{sup 2}. To reach this sensitivity several systematic effects have to be under control. One of them is the fluctuations of the absolute energy scale, which therefore has to be continuously monitored at very high precision. This paper shortly describes KATRIN, the technique for continuous monitoring of the absolute energy scale and recent improvements in analysis of the monitoring data.

  20. When big brother is watching: goal orientation shapes reactions to electronic monitoring during online training.

    PubMed

    Watson, Aaron M; Foster Thompson, Lori; Rudolph, Jane V; Whelan, Thomas J; Behrend, Tara S; Gissel, Amanda L

    2013-07-01

    Web-based training is frequently used by organizations as a convenient and low-cost way to teach employees new knowledge and skills. As web-based training is typically unproctored, employees may be held accountable to the organization by computer software that monitors their behaviors. The current study examines how the introduction of electronic performance monitoring may provoke negative emotional reactions and decrease learning among certain types of e-learners. Through motivated action theory and trait activation theory, we examine the role of performance goal orientation when e-learners are exposed to asynchronous and synchronous monitoring. We show that some e-learners are more susceptible than others to evaluation apprehension when they perceive their activities are being monitored electronically. Specifically, e-learners higher in avoid performance goal orientation exhibited increased evaluation apprehension if they believed asynchronous monitoring was present, and they showed decreased skill attainment as a result. E-learners higher on prove performance goal orientation showed greater evaluation apprehension if they believed real-time monitoring was occurring, resulting in decreased skill attainment.

  1. Low-power wireless electronic capsule for long-term gastrointestinal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Yan, Guozheng; Lu, Li; Xu, Fei

    2015-02-01

    Combining ASIC and multiple microsensors low-power wireless electronic capsule was developed for the long-term monitoring of the entire human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. To meet the system requirements, several low-power designs were used in the wireless electronic capsule. The capsule measured 11 × 22 mm including batteries (45mAh). The capsule system's lifetime was 233 h, and it could meet the requirements of almost all clinical applications. A wireless electronic capsule, portable data recorder, and workstation comprised the human GI physiological parameters monitoring system. In this paper, this system was used in a clinical trial to compare colon peristaltic pressure between patients with constipation and healthy people.

  2. Relationship between electronic properties and drug activity of seven quinoxaline compounds: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzadi, Hadi; Roonasi, Payman; Assle taghipour, Khatoon; van der Spoel, David; Manzetti, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    The quantum chemical calculations at the DFT/B3LYP level of theory were carried out on seven quinoxaline compounds, which have been synthesized as anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis agents. Three conformers were optimized for each compound and the lowest energy structure was found and used in further calculations. The electronic properties including EHOMO, ELUMO and related parameters as well as electron density around oxygen and nitrogen atoms were calculated for each compound. The relationship between the calculated electronic parameters and biological activity of the studied compounds were investigated. Six similar quinoxaline derivatives with possible more drug activity were suggested based on the calculated electronic descriptors. A mechanism was proposed and discussed based on the calculated electronic parameters and bond dissociation energies.

  3. Mass Spectrometry in Clinical Laboratory: Applications in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Garg, Uttam; Zhang, Yan Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been used in research and specialized clinical laboratories for decades as a very powerful technology to identify and quantify compounds. In recent years, application of MS in routine clinical laboratories has increased significantly. This is mainly due to the ability of MS to provide very specific identification, high sensitivity, and simultaneous analysis of multiple analytes (>100). The coupling of tandem mass spectrometry with gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) has enabled the rapid expansion of this technology. While applications of MS are used in many clinical areas, therapeutic drug monitoring, drugs of abuse, and clinical toxicology are still the primary focuses of the field. It is not uncommon to see mass spectrometry being used in routine clinical practices for those applications.

  4. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2006. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This occasional paper is intended to serve as a supplement to the larger annual volume, "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2006: Volume I: Secondary School Students." This supplement contains the graphic presentation of the trends in drug use for various demographic subgroups, namely those defined by gender, college…

  5. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2010. Volume I, Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The Monitoring the Future (MTF) study involves an ongoing series of national surveys of American adolescents and adults that has provided the nation with a vital window into the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illegal drug use, alcohol use, tobacco use, anabolic steroid use, and psychotherapeutic drug use. For more than a third…

  6. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Meropenem in Neonate with Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Borrey, Daniëlle; Decaluwe, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) continues to be a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. We describe the added value of therapeutic drug monitoring by presenting the case of a preterm infant with severe NEC treated with meropenem. Dosing strategy will achieve adequate patient outcome when treating pathogens with elevated MIC. As safe as meropenem is, there are not enough data for 40 mg/kg, every 8 h infused over 4 h; accordingly, strict monitoring of blood levels is mandatory. Based on our findings, a 4 h prolonged infusion of 40 mg/kg meropenem, every 8 h, will achieve an adequate patient outcome. PMID:27703820

  7. Pharmacogenetics, enzyme probes and therapeutic drug monitoring as potential tools for individualizing taxane therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Stefanie D; McLeod, Howard L; Hertz, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    The taxanes are a class of chemotherapeutic agents that are widely used in the treatment of various solid tumors. Although taxanes are highly effective in cancer treatment, their use is associated with serious complications attributable to large interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics and a narrow therapeutic window. Unpredictable toxicity occurrence necessitates close patient monitoring while on therapy and adverse effects frequently require decreasing, delaying or even discontinuing taxane treatment. Currently, taxane dosing is based primarily on body surface area, ignoring other factors that are known to dictate variability in pharmacokinetics or outcome. This article discusses three potential strategies for individualizing taxane treatment based on patient information that can be collected before or during care. The clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics, enzyme probes or therapeutic drug monitoring could enable clinicians to personalize taxane treatment to enhance efficacy and/or limit toxicity. PMID:23556452

  8. Affordable HIV drug-resistance testing for monitoring of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Inzaule, Seth C; Ondoa, Pascale; Peter, Trevor; Mugyenyi, Peter N; Stevens, Wendy S; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke; Hamers, Raph L

    2016-11-01

    Increased provision of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa has led to a growing number of patients with therapy failure and acquired drug-resistant HIV, driving the demand for more costly further lines of antiretroviral therapy. In conjunction with accelerated access to viral load monitoring, feasible and affordable technologies to detect drug-resistant HIV could help maximise the durability and rational use of available drug regimens. Potential low-cost technologies include in-house Sanger and next-generation sequencing in centralised laboratories, and point mutation assays and genotype-free systems that predict response to antiretroviral therapy at point-of-care. Strengthening of centralised high-throughput laboratories, including efficient systems for sample referral and results delivery, will increase economies-of-scale while reducing costs. Access barriers can be mitigated by standardisation of in-house assays into commercial kits, use of polyvalent instruments, and adopting price-reducing strategies. A stepwise rollout approach should improve feasibility, prioritising WHO-recommended population-based surveillance and management of complex patient categories, such as patients failing protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. Implementation research, adaptations of existing WHO guidance, and political commitment, will be key to support the appropriate investments and policy changes. In this Personal View, we discuss the potential role of HIV drug resistance testing for population-based surveillance and individual patient management in sub-Saharan Africa. We review the strengths and challenges of promising low-cost technologies and how they can be implemented.

  9. Integrated hollow microneedle-optofluidic biosensor for therapeutic drug monitoring in sub-nanoliter volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, Sahan A.; Padeste, Celestino; Dübner, Matthias; Häfeli, Urs O.; Stoeber, Boris; Cadarso, Victor J.

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) typically requires painful blood drawn from patients. We propose a painless and minimally-invasive alternative for TDM using hollow microneedles suitable to extract extremely small volumes (<1 nL) of interstitial fluid to measure drug concentrations. The inner lumen of a microneedle is functionalized to be used as a micro-reactor during sample collection to trap and bind target drug candidates during extraction, without requirements of sample transfer. An optofluidic device is integrated with this microneedle to rapidly quantify drug analytes with high sensitivity using a straightforward absorbance scheme. Vancomycin is currently detected by using volumes ranging between 50–100 μL with a limit of detection (LoD) of 1.35 μM. The proposed microneedle-optofluidic biosensor can detect vancomycin with a sample volume of 0.6 nL and a LoD of <100 nM, validating this painless point of care system with significant potential to reduce healthcare costs and patients suffering.

  10. Integrated hollow microneedle-optofluidic biosensor for therapeutic drug monitoring in sub-nanoliter volumes

    PubMed Central

    Ranamukhaarachchi, Sahan A.; Padeste, Celestino; Dübner, Matthias; Häfeli, Urs O.; Stoeber, Boris; Cadarso, Victor J.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) typically requires painful blood drawn from patients. We propose a painless and minimally-invasive alternative for TDM using hollow microneedles suitable to extract extremely small volumes (<1 nL) of interstitial fluid to measure drug concentrations. The inner lumen of a microneedle is functionalized to be used as a micro-reactor during sample collection to trap and bind target drug candidates during extraction, without requirements of sample transfer. An optofluidic device is integrated with this microneedle to rapidly quantify drug analytes with high sensitivity using a straightforward absorbance scheme. Vancomycin is currently detected by using volumes ranging between 50–100 μL with a limit of detection (LoD) of 1.35 μM. The proposed microneedle-optofluidic biosensor can detect vancomycin with a sample volume of 0.6 nL and a LoD of <100 nM, validating this painless point of care system with significant potential to reduce healthcare costs and patients suffering. PMID:27380889

  11. Drug delivery monitoring by photoacoustic tomography with an ICG encapsulated double emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueding; Rajian, Justin R.; Fabiilli, Mario L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.

    2012-02-01

    We successfully encapsulated ICG in an ultrasound-triggerable perfluorocarbon double emulsion that prevents ICG from binding with plasma proteins. Photoacoustic spectral measurements on point target as well as 2-D photoacoustic images of blood vessels revealed that the photoacoustic spectrum changes significantly in blood when the ICG-loaded emulsion undergoes acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), which is the conversion of liquid droplets into gas bubbles using ultrasound. Other than providing a new photoacoustic contrast agent, the ICG encapsulated double emulsion, when imaged with photoacoustic tomography, could facilitate spatial and quantitative monitoring of ultrasound initiated drug delivery.

  12. The role of therapeutic drug monitoring in pediatric HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Burger, David M

    2010-06-01

    International guidelines do not recommend therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of HIV-infected children as a routine measurement as part of medical management. There are, however, several clinical scenarios in which TDM may be indicated. Underdosing may be one of the major risks, especially in younger children. No randomized controlled clinical trials have been conducted to assess the added value of TDM in HIV-infected children, making recommendations for TDM in children with HIV/AIDS merely based on expert opinion. There is a need for more descriptive studies on the usefulness of TDM in HIV-infected children to convince pediatricians worldwide to let more children benefit from TDM.

  13. Interaction of valproic acid and amitriptyline: analysis of therapeutic drug monitoring data under naturalistic conditions.

    PubMed

    Unterecker, Stefan; Burger, Rainer; Hohage, Amelie; Deckert, Jürgen; Pfuhlmann, Bruno

    2013-08-01

    Amitriptyline (AMI) and valproic acid (VPA) are common psychotropic drugs which are frequently used in psychiatry and also administered in neurology or anesthesia in the absence of a psychiatric indication. On the basis of the case of a 73-year-old man with therapy-resistant major depressive episode who experienced anticholinergic delirium after adding VPA to AMI, we retrospectively analyzed therapeutic drug monitoring data of the years 2008 to 2010. We assessed cases receiving a combination of AMI and VPA, and obtained a control sample of AMI patients without VPA which were matched for sex, age, daily dose, and comedication. Both samples were compared regarding the serum levels of AMI and nortriptyline (NOR) as well as the ratio of NOR and AMI with the Mann-Whitney U test. The combination of AMI and VPA led to a remarkable increase of AMI and NOR serum levels. When comparing 33 patients who received comedication with VPA versus 33 matched controls, the total concentration by combining mean AMI and NOR serum levels (237.1 [119.9] vs 126.4 [52.8] ng/mL) and NOR/AMI ratio (1.300 [0.905] vs 0.865 [0.455]) was significantly higher. Both AMI and VPA are widely prescribed drugs. A combination of both is common for psychiatric or neurologic patients. A cautious dosing of AMI with VPA comedication is advisable, and therapeutic drug monitoring should be performed because this combination may lead to a remarkable increase of AMI and NOR serum levels.

  14. Isothermal Diagnostic Assays for Monitoring Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Necator americanus Associated with Benzimidazole Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rashwan, Nour; Bourguinat, Catherine; Keller, Kathy; Gunawardena, Nipul Kithsiri; de Silva, Nilanthi; Prichard, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are the most prevalent intestinal helminths of humans, and a major cause of morbidity in tropical and subtropical countries. The benzimidazole (BZ) drugs albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) are used for treatment of human STH infections and this use is increasing dramatically with massive drug donations. Frequent and prolonged use of these drugs could lead to the emergence of anthelmintic resistance as has occurred in nematodes of livestock. Previous molecular assays for putative resistance mutations have been based mainly on PCR amplification and sequencing. However, these techniques are complicated and time consuming and not suitable for resource-constrained situations. A simple, rapid and sensitive genotyping method is required to monitor for possible developing resistance to BZ drugs. Methods To address this problem, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection assays were developed based on the Smart amplification method (SmartAmp2) to target codons 167, 198, and 200 in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene for the hookworm Necator americanus. Findings Diagnostic assays were developed and applied to analyze hookworm samples by both SmartAmp2 and conventional sequencing methods and the results showed high concordance. Additionally, fecal samples spiked with N. americanus larvae were assessed and the results showed that the Aac polymerase used has high tolerance to inhibitors in fecal samples. Conclusion The N. americanus SmartAmp2 SNP detection assay is a new genotyping tool that is rapid, sensitive, highly specific and efficient with the potential to be used as a field tool for monitoring SNPs associated with BZ resistance. However, further validation on large numbers of field samples is required. PMID:27930648

  15. Monitoring dissolved orthophosphate in a struvite precipitation reactor with a voltammetric electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Daniel; Barat, Ramón; Soto, Juan; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón

    2016-10-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a voltammetric electronic tongue to monitor effluent dissolved orthophosphate concentration in a struvite precipitation reactor. The electrochemical response of the electronic tongue to the presence of orthophosphate in samples collected from the effluent of the precipitation reactor is used to predict orthophosphate concentration via a statistical model based on Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression. PLS predictions were suitable for this monitoring application in which precipitation efficiencies higher than 80% (i.e., effluent dissolved orthophosphate concentrations lower than 40mg P-PO4(3-) L(-1)) could be considered as indicator of good process performance. The electronic tongue consisted of a set of metallic (noble and non-noble) electrodes housed inside a stainless steel cylinder which was used as the body of the electronic tongue system. Fouling problems were prevented via a simple mechanical polishing of the electrodes. The measurement of each sample with the electronic tongue was done in less than 3s. Conductivity of the samples only affected the electronic tongue marginally, being the main electrochemical response due to the orthophosphate concentration in the samples. Copper, silver, iridium and rhodium were the electrodes that exhibited noticeable response correlated with the dissolved orthophosphate concentration variations, while gold, platinum and especially cobalt and nickel were the less useful electrodes for this application.

  16. Interaction of valproic acid and the antidepressant drugs doxepin and venlafaxine: analysis of therapeutic drug monitoring data under naturalistic conditions.

    PubMed

    Unterecker, Stefan; Reif, Andreas; Hempel, Susanne; Proft, Florian; Riederer, Peter; Deckert, Jürgen; Pfuhlmann, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Valproic acid and the antidepressants doxepin and venlafaxine are frequently used psychotropic drugs. In the literature, an influence of valproic acid on serum levels of antidepressants has been described, although studies have focused on amitriptyline. The authors assessed their therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) database for patients receiving a combination of doxepin or venlafaxine and valproic acid and compared these samples with matched controls without valproic acid comedication in terms of the serum concentration of antidepressants. The mean dose-corrected serum concentration of doxepin+N-doxepin in 16 patients who received valproic acid comedication was higher (2.171±1.482 ng/ml/mg) than that in the matched controls (0.971±0.857 ng/ml/mg, P<0.003). We also found a significant correlation between valproic acid serum level and dose-corrected doxepin+N-doxepin serum level (Spearman's ρ r=0.602, P<0.014). The mean dose-corrected serum level of venlafaxine+O-desmethylvenlafaxine in 41 patients who received valproic acid comedication did not differ significantly from that of the matched controls (P<0.089), but there was a significant difference between both groups in the dose-corrected serum level of O-desmethylvenlafaxine (1.403±0.665 vs. 1.102±0.444, P<0.017). As a consequence, if a combination of valproic acid with doxepin or venlafaxine is administered, cautious dosing is advisable and TDM should be performed.

  17. Effectiveness of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of tear fluid with soft substrate for point-of-care therapeutic drug monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, K.; Endo, T.; Imai, H.; Kido, M.; Jeong, H.; Ohno, Y.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed the point-of-care therapeutic drug monitoring kit based on Raman Spectroscopy of tear fluid. In this study, we were examined a soft substrate for an optimal lattice based on nanoimprint lithography using cyclo-olefin polymer to improve the sensitivity for measuring drug concentration in tear fluid. This is photonics crystal which is one of the nano-photonics based device was fabricated. Target is Sodium Phenobarbital which is an anticonvulsant agent. We show the effectiveness of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of tear fluid with soft substrate for point-of-care therapeutic drug monitoring.

  18. Performance Studies of the Vibration Wire Monitor on the Test Stand with Low Energy Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Kota; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

    In the high intensity proton accelerator as the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) accelerators, serious radiation and residual dose is induced by a small beam loss such a beam halo. Therefore, diagnostics of the beam halo formation is one of the most important issues to control the beam loss. For the beam halo monitor, the vibration wire monitor (VWM) has a potential for investigating the beam halo and weak beam scanning. The VWM has a wide dynamic range, high resolution and the VWM is not susceptible to secondary electrons and electric noises. We have studied the VWM features as a new beam-halo monitor on the test stand with low energy electron gun. The frequency shift of the irradiated vibration wire was confirmed about wire material and the electron beam profile measured by using the VWM was consistent with the results of the Faraday cup measurement. Also we calculated a temperature distribution on the vibration wire which is irradiated by the electron beam with the numerical simulation. The simulations have been fairly successful in reproducing the transient of the irradiated vibration wire frequency measured by test stand experiments. In this paper, we will report a result of performance evaluation for the VWM on the test stands and discuss the VWM for beam halo diagnostic

  19. Application of electronic nose for industrial odors and gaseous emissions measurement and monitoring--An overview.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sharvari; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Pandey, R A; Jana, Arun

    2015-11-01

    The present review evaluates the key modules of the electronic nose, a biomimetic system, with specific examples of applications to industrial emissions monitoring and measurement. Regulations concerning the odor control are becoming very strict, due to ever mounting environmental pollution and its subsequent consequences and it is advantageous to employ real time measurement system. In this perspective, systems like the electronic nose are an improved substitute for assessing the complex industrial emissions over other analytical techniques (odorant concentration measurement) and olfactometry (odor concentration measurement). Compared to tools like gas chromatography, electronic nose systems are easy to develop, are non-destructive and useful for both laboratory and on field purposes. Although there has been immense development of more sensitive and selective sensor arrays and advanced data mining techniques, there have been limited reports on the application of electronic nose for the measurement of industrial emissions. The current study sheds light on the practical applicability of electronic nose for the effective industrial odor and gaseous emissions measurement. The applications categorization is based on gaseous pollutants released from the industries. Calibration and calibration transfer methodologies have been discussed to enhance the applicability of electronic nose system. Further, industrial gas grab sampling technique is reviewed. Lastly, the electronic mucosa system, which has the ability to overcome the flaws of electronic nose system, has been examined. The review ends with the concluding remarks describing the pros and cons of artificial olfaction technique for the industrial applications.

  20. A survey of electronic drug information resources and identification of problems associated with the differing vocabularies used to key them.

    PubMed Central

    Gnassi, J. A.; Barnett, G. O.

    1993-01-01

    Drug information resources are increasingly becoming electronically available. They differ in scope, granularity, and purpose. These considerations have shaped the selection of dissimilar drug name keys, complicating access. An abbreviated and simplified historical context of the development of official controlled vocabularies and their relationships is followed by a review of the kinds of information available in several electronic drug information resources. The key vocabularies used are discussed with examples. Problems using the differing terms of the resource vocabularies are identified. PMID:8130551

  1. A Case Report of Clonazepam Dependence: Utilization of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring During Withdrawal Period.

    PubMed

    Kacirova, Ivana; Grundmann, Milan; Silhan, Petr; Brozmanova, Hana

    2016-03-01

    Clonazepam is long-acting benzodiazepine agonist used in short-acting benzodiazepine withdrawal; however, recent observations suggest the existence of its abuse. We demonstrate a 40-year-old man with a 20-year history of psychiatric care with recently benzodiazepine dependence (daily intake of ∼60 mg of clonazepam and 10 mg of alprazolam). High serum levels of both drugs were analyzed 3 weeks before admission to hospitalization (clonazepam 543.9 ng/mL, alprazolam 110 ng/mL) and at the time of admission (clonazepam 286.2 ng/mL, alprazolam 140 ng/mL) without any signs of benzodiazepine intoxication. Gradual withdrawal of clonazepam with monitoring of its serum levels and increase of gabapentin dose were used to minimize physical signs and symptoms of clonazepam withdrawal. Alprazolam was discontinued promptly. Clinical consequences of the treatment were controllable tension, intermittent headache, and rarely insomia. It is the first case report showing utilization of therapeutic drug monitoring during withdrawal period in the patient with extreme toleration to severe benzodiazepine dependence.

  2. Near infrared spectroscopy to monitor drug release in-situ during dissolution tests.

    PubMed

    Sarraguça, Mafalda Cruz; Matias, Rita; Figueiredo, Raquel; Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto S; Martins, Ana Teixeira; Lopes, João Almeida

    2016-11-20

    Dissolution tests can be used to demonstrate suitable in vivo drug release through in vivo/in vitro correlations. This work explores the possibility of using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to monitor in-situ dissolution tests. It aims at expanding surrogate methods in quality control of drug products. Laboratory designed tablets of an immediate-release formulation containing folic acid and four excipients were used as case study. The dissolution tests were performed on a 1L vessel filled with 500ml of Milli-Q water with a rotating paddle apparatus (apparatus 2, Ph. Eur.) at 50rpm and 37±0.5°C. Near infrared (NIR) spectra were acquired in-situ with a transflectance probe connected to a Fourier-transform near infrared spectrometer. NIR spectra were regressed against folic acid concentration by partial least squares (PLS) regression. Folic acid concentrations during dissolution tests were obtained by periodically sampling the dissolution vessel and resourcing to an UV method. The proposed real-time NIR method was tested on a validation run yielding a root mean squared error of 0.25μgml(-1) (0.16μgml(-1) for the calibration runs) and a R(2) of 0.93 (0.95 for the calibration runs). The results suggest that NIRS is a suitable analytical technique for monitoring in-situ dissolution tests.

  3. The role of nanotechnology and nano and micro-electronics in monitoring and control of cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.

    2007-04-01

    Nanotechnology has been broadly defined as the one for not only the creation of functional materials and devices as well as systems through control of matter at the scale of 1-100 nm, but also the exploitation of novel properties and phenomena at the same scale. Growing needs in the point-of-care (POC) that is an increasing market for improving patient's quality of life, are driving the development of nanotechnologies for diagnosis and treatment of various life threatening diseases. This paper addresses the recent development of nanodiagnostic sensors and nanotherapeutic devices with functionalized carbon nanotube and/or nanowire on a flexible organic thin film electronics to monitor and control of the three leading diseases namely 1) neurodegenerative diseases, 2) cardiovascular diseases, and 3) diabetes and metabolic diseases. The sensors developed include implantable and biocompatible devices, light weight wearable devices in wrist-watches, hats, shoes and clothes. The nanotherapeutics devices include nanobased drug delivery system. Many of these sensors are integrated with the wireless systems for the remote physiological monitoring. The author's research team has also developed a wireless neural probe using nanowires and nanotubes for monitoring and control of Parkinson's disease. Light weight and compact EEG, EOG and EMG monitoring system in a hat developed is capable of monitoring real time epileptic patients and patients with neurological and movement disorders using the Internet and cellular network. Physicians could be able to monitor these signals in realtime using portable computers or cell phones and will give early warning signal if these signals cross a pre-determined threshold level. In addition the potential impact of nanotechnology for applications in medicine is that, the devices can be designed to interact with cells and tissues at the molecular level, which allows high degree of functionality. Devices engineered at nanometer scale imply a

  4. Feasibility and acceptance of salivary monitoring of antiepileptic drugs via the US Postal Service.

    PubMed

    Tennison, Michael; Ali, Imran; Miles, Michael V; D'Cruz, O'Neill; Vaughn, Bradley; Greenwood, Robert

    2004-06-01

    Salivary and serum levels of phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and phenytoin are closely correlated. Salivary monitoring of antiepileptic drugs has a number of advantages including the potential for home collection if measured levels are unaffected by transit in the mail. Saliva was collected from 60 adult and 42 pediatric patients in the clinic. A control aliquot was immediately frozen, and a second aliquot was packaged and mailed to the laboratory. Patients were also asked to collect another sample at the same time on the following day and mail it to the laboratory. On receipt, all samples were held frozen and analyzed as a single batch by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The effects of mailing, the duration in transit, and the season were assessed by multivariable, repeated-measures analysis of variance. One hundred two saliva samples were collected in a mean of 2.6 minutes, and the mailed aliquot was received in a mean of 6.4 days. Two children and 3 adults (4.9% of total) preferred blood collection, but the rest preferred saliva collection or had no preference. There was no significant difference between the control sample and the clinic mailed samples for any of the 3 medications. There were no significant effects of the duration in transit or the season on reliability. Transit of saliva samples in the mail does not adversely affect accuracy of antiepileptic drug measurement. Patients prefer and can successful collect saliva samples at home. Home monitoring of salivary antiepileptic drug levels is a cost-effective technique that deserves additional study.

  5. Multicenter study of posaconazole therapeutic drug monitoring: exposure-response relationship and factors affecting concentration.

    PubMed

    Dolton, Michael J; Ray, John E; Chen, Sharon C-A; Ng, Kingsley; Pont, Lisa; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2012-11-01

    Posaconazole has an important role in the prophylaxis and salvage treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), although poor and variable bioavailability remains an important clinical concern. Therapeutic drug monitoring of posaconazole concentrations has remained contentious, with the use of relatively small patient cohorts in previous studies hindering the assessment of exposure-response relationships. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to investigate relationships between posaconazole concentration and clinical outcomes and adverse events and to assess clinical factors and drug interactions that may affect posaconazole concentrations. Medical records were reviewed for patients who received posaconazole and had ≥1 concentration measured at six hospitals in Australia. Data from 86 patients with 541 posaconazole concentrations were included in the study. Among 72 patients taking posaconazole for prophylaxis against IFIs, 12 patients (17%) developed a breakthrough fungal infection; median posaconazole concentrations were significantly lower than in those who did not develop fungal infection (median [range], 289 [50 to 471] ng/ml versus 485 [0 to 2,035] ng/ml; P < 0.01). The median posaconazole concentration was a significant predictor of breakthrough fungal infection via binary logistic regression (P < 0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis identified a number of significant drug interactions associated with reduced posaconazole exposure, including coadministration with proton pump inhibitors, metoclopramide, phenytoin or rifampin, and the H(2) antagonist ranitidine (P < 0.01). Clinical factors such as mucositis, diarrhea, and the early posttransplant period in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients were also associated with reduced posaconazole exposure (P < 0.01). Low posaconazole concentrations are common and are associated with breakthrough fungal infection, supporting the utility of monitoring posaconazole concentrations to ensure

  6. Hierarchical zwitterionic modification of a SERS substrate enables real-time drug monitoring in blood plasma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fang; Hung, Hsiang-Chieh; Sinclair, Andrew; Zhang, Peng; Bai, Tao; Galvan, Daniel David; Jain, Priyesh; Li, Bowen; Jiang, Shaoyi; Yu, Qiuming

    2016-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an ultrasensitive analytical technique with molecular specificity, making it an ideal candidate for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). However, in critical diagnostic media including blood, nonspecific protein adsorption coupled with weak surface affinities and small Raman activities of many analytes hinder the TDM application of SERS. Here we report a hierarchical surface modification strategy, first by coating a gold surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) designed to attract or probe for analytes and then by grafting a non-fouling zwitterionic polymer brush layer to effectively repel protein fouling. We demonstrate how this modification can enable TDM applications by quantitatively and dynamically measuring the concentrations of several analytes—including an anticancer drug (doxorubicin), several TDM-requiring antidepressant and anti-seizure drugs, fructose and blood pH—in undiluted plasma. This hierarchical surface chemistry is widely applicable to many analytes and provides a generalized platform for SERS-based biosensing in complex real-world media. PMID:27834380

  7. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    PubMed

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain.

  8. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of 6-thioguanine nucleotides in inflammatory bowel disease: interest and limits].

    PubMed

    Jourdil, Nicole; Fonrose, Xavier; Boulieu, Roselyne; Stanke-Labesque, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, and 6-thioguanine are immunosuppressive drugs indicated in the prevention of graft rejection, and treatment of auto-immune disease or inflammatory bowel disease. Their anti-nucleotidic properties are also used for the treatment of acute leukaemia. Their metabolism involves thiopurine methyl transferase, which activity varies according to genetic polymorphisms. In inflammatory bowel disease patients, there is no recommended therapeutic range of intra-erythrocyte 6-thioguanine nucleotide concentration, the active metabolite. Therapeutic drug monitoring of 6-thioguanine nucleotide concentrations is however proposed in the following clinical situations: to check the observance, to try to explain therapeutic failure, to manage patients with limited thiopurine methyl transferase activity or patients treated with associated drugs that can modify thiopurine methyl transferase activity. The literature review shows that high concentrations of 6-thioguanine nucleotides and methylated metabolites are associated with an increased risk of bone marrow toxicity. In addition, high concentrations of methylated metabolite might increase the risk of hepatic toxicity. These major side-effects can be prevented by the use of pre-treatment screening for thiopurine methyl transferase activity or genotype in inflammatory bowel disease patients in order to propose an adapted dosing.

  9. Drug transport mechanism of P-glycoprotein monitored by single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, S.; Verhalen, B.; Zarrabi, N.; Wilkens, S.; Börsch, M.

    2011-03-01

    In this work we monitor the catalytic mechanism of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Pgp, a member of the ATP binding cassette family of transport proteins, is found in the plasma membrane of animal cells where it is involved in the ATP hydrolysis driven export of hydrophobic molecules. When expressed in the plasma membrane of cancer cells, the transport activity of Pgp can lead to the failure of chemotherapy by excluding the mostly hydrophobic drugs from the interior of the cell. Despite ongoing effort, the catalytic mechanism by which Pgp couples MgATP binding and hydrolysis to translocation of drug molecules across the lipid bilayer is poorly understood. Using site directed mutagenesis, we have introduced cysteine residues for fluorescence labeling into different regions of the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of Pgp. Double-labeled single Pgp molecules showed fluctuating FRET efficiencies during drug stimulated ATP hydrolysis suggesting that the NBDs undergo significant movements during catalysis. Duty cycle-optimized alternating laser excitation (DCO-ALEX) is applied to minimize FRET artifacts and to select the appropriate molecules. The data show that Pgp is a highly dynamic enzyme that appears to fluctuate between at least two major conformations during steady state turnover.

  10. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists

    PubMed Central

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain. PMID:26274819

  11. Hierarchical zwitterionic modification of a SERS substrate enables real-time drug monitoring in blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fang; Hung, Hsiang-Chieh; Sinclair, Andrew; Zhang, Peng; Bai, Tao; Galvan, Daniel David; Jain, Priyesh; Li, Bowen; Jiang, Shaoyi; Yu, Qiuming

    2016-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an ultrasensitive analytical technique with molecular specificity, making it an ideal candidate for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). However, in critical diagnostic media including blood, nonspecific protein adsorption coupled with weak surface affinities and small Raman activities of many analytes hinder the TDM application of SERS. Here we report a hierarchical surface modification strategy, first by coating a gold surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) designed to attract or probe for analytes and then by grafting a non-fouling zwitterionic polymer brush layer to effectively repel protein fouling. We demonstrate how this modification can enable TDM applications by quantitatively and dynamically measuring the concentrations of several analytes--including an anticancer drug (doxorubicin), several TDM-requiring antidepressant and anti-seizure drugs, fructose and blood pH--in undiluted plasma. This hierarchical surface chemistry is widely applicable to many analytes and provides a generalized platform for SERS-based biosensing in complex real-world media.

  12. Mobile health platform for pressure ulcer monitoring with electronic health record integration.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Pedro, Luís M C C; Vardasca, Tomé; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Martins, Henrique M G

    2013-12-01

    Pressure ulcers frequently occur in patients with limited mobility, for example, people with advanced age and patients wearing casts or prostheses. Mobile information communication technologies can help implement ulcer care protocols and the monitoring of patients with high risk, thus preventing or improving these conditions. This article presents a mobile pressure ulcer monitoring platform (mULCER), which helps control a patient's ulcer status during all stages of treatment. Beside its stand-alone version, it can be integrated with electronic health record systems as mULCER synchronizes ulcer data with any electronic health record system using HL7 standards. It serves as a tool to integrate nursing care among hospital departments and institutions. mULCER was experimented with in different mobile devices such as LG Optimus One P500, Samsung Galaxy Tab, HTC Magic, Samsung Galaxy S, and Samsung Galaxy i5700, taking into account the user's experience of different screen sizes and processing characteristics.

  13. Postmarketing safety reports for human drug and biological products; electronic submission requirements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending its postmarketing safety reporting regulations for human drug and biological products to require that persons subject to mandatory reporting requirements submit safety reports in an electronic format that FDA can process, review, and archive. FDA is taking this action to improve the Agency's systems for collecting and analyzing postmarketing safety reports. The change will help the Agency to more rapidly review postmarketing safety reports, identify emerging safety problems, and disseminate safety information in support of FDA's public health mission. In addition, the amendments will be a key element in harmonizing FDA's postmarketing safety reporting regulations with international standards for the electronic submission of safety information.

  14. Point-of-care detection and real-time monitoring of intravenously delivered drugs via tubing with an integrated SERS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsin-Yu; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2014-04-01

    pharmaceutical compounds (hydrocodone, levorphanol, morphine, oxycodone, methadone, phenobarbital, dopamine, diltiazem, promethazine, and mitoxantrone). We demonstrate dose-dependent SERS signal magnitude, resulting in detection limits (ng ml-1) well below typical administered dosages (mg ml-1). Further, we show that the detected drugs are not permanently attached to the PNA surface, and thus our approach is capable of performing continuous monitoring of drug delivery as materials flow through IV tubing that is connected in series with the sensor. Finally, we demonstrate the potential co-detection of multiple drugs when they are mixed together, and show excellent reproducibility and stability of SERS measurements for periods extending at least five days. The capabilities reported here demonstrate the potential to use PNA SERS surfaces for enhancing the safety of IV drug delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fabrication of PNA substrates, fabrication details of the flow cell, details of FDTD simulation, characterization of the scattering volume, and detection of diltiazem diluted in DI water and PBS. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00027g

  15. Therapeutic drug monitoring of racemic venlafaxine and its main metabolites in an everyday clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Reis, Margareta; Lundmark, Jöns; Björk, Henrik; Bengtsson, Finn

    2002-08-01

    When Efexor (venlafaxine) became available in Sweden, a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service was developed in the authors' laboratory. This analytical service was available to all physicians in the country. From March 1996, to November 1997, 797 serum concentration analyses of venlafaxine (VEN) and its main metabolites, O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV), N-desmethylvenlafaxine (NDV), and N,O-didesmethylvenlafaxine (DDV) were requested. These samples, each of which was accompanied by clinical information on a specially designed request form, represented 635 inpatients or outpatients, comprising all ages, treated in a naturalistic setting. The first sample per patient, drawn as a trough value in steady state and with documented concomitant medication, was further evaluated pharmacokinetically (n = 187). The doses prescribed were from 37.5 mg/d to 412.5 mg/d. There was a wide interindividual variability of serum concentrations on each dose level, and the mean coefficient of variation of the dose-corrected concentrations (C/D) was 166% for C/D VEN, 60% for C/D ODV, 151% for C/D NDV, and 59% for C/D DDV. The corresponding CV for the ratio ODV/VEN was 110%. However, within patients over time, the C/D VEN and ODV/VEN variation was low, indicating stability in individual metabolizing capacity. Patients over 65 years of age had significantly higher concentrations of C/D VEN and C/D ODV than the younger patients. Women had higher C/D NDV and C/D DDV, and a higher NDV/VEN ratio than men, and smokers showed lower C/D ODV and C/D DDV than nonsmokers. A number of polycombinations of drugs were assessed for interaction screening, and a trend for lowered ODV/VEN ratio was found, predominantly with concomitant medication with CNS-active drug(s) known to inhibit CYP2D6.

  16. Assessment of the use of oral fluid as a matrix for drug monitoring in patients undergoing treatment for opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Frank; Fey, Elizabeth; Borg, Damon; Stripp, Richard; Getto, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Drug testing is an important clinical tool that is available to physicians who are assessing the effectiveness of drug treatment as well as patient compliance to the administered program. While urine has traditionally been the matrix of choice for drug monitoring, oral fluid, a filtrate of the blood, has shown great promise as an alternative matrix for such applications. Oral fluid collection can be accomplished without the need for highly trained medical staff through the use of a simple, noninvasive oral fluid collection device, which obtains an adequate sample in only a few minutes. There has been a significant amount of research performed on the use of oral fluid for forensic toxicology application; however, more studies assessing the use of oral fluid drug testing are required to validate its ability to achieve clinical drug monitoring goals. Testing for various drugs in oral fluid may yield a different result when compared to the same drugs in urine, requiring an assessment of the utility of oral fluid for such practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the application of oral fluid drug testing in patients undergoing buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence. A retrospective analysis of drug testing results obtained from 6,928 patients (4,560 unobserved urine collections and 2,368 observed oral fluid collections) monitored for heroin metabolite, amphetamine, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, codeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, and oxymorphone was completed. Results of this statistical exercise indicated that patients undergoing observed oral fluid collection tested positive more frequently than those unobserved urine collections for several illicit drugs and prescription medications targeted. Oral fluid was shown to detect illicit drug use as well as noncompliance in this patient population under the studied conditions more often than the urine specimens.

  17. Effects of passive computer use time and non-computer work time on the performance of electronic activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Chen, Yen-Ting; Yeh, Jao-Yu; Liang, Huey-Wen

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of passive and non-computer work time on the estimation of computer use times by electronic activity monitoring. A total of 20 subjects with computers were monitored for 3 h. Average relative error for total computer use time estimation was about 4%, given that non-computer work time was 20% of the 3-h monitored period. No significant impact of passive computer use time was found in this study. Non-computer work time of 40% or less is suggested as criteria for the application of electronic activity monitoring to ensure reliability in the physical work loading assessment. Statement of Relevance: This research studied the criteria of non-computer work time for the appropriate use of electronic activity monitoring to ensure reliability in the assessment of physical work loading. It is suggested that it should be set to 40% or less of the 3-h monitoring period.

  18. A graphene quantum dot-based FRET system for nuclear-targeted and real-time monitoring of drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Zhuyuan; Zong, Shenfei; Chen, Peng; Zhu, Dan; Wu, Lei; Cui, Yiping

    2015-10-07

    A graphene quantum dot-based FRET system is demonstrated for nuclear-targeted drug delivery, which allows for real-time monitoring of the drug release process through FRET signals. In such a system, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) simultaneously serve as the carriers of drugs and donors of FRET pairs. Additionally, a peptide TAT as the nuclear localization signal is conjugated to GQDs, which facilitates the transportation of the delivery system to the nucleus. We have demonstrated that: (a) both the conjugated TAT and small size of GQDs contribute to targeting the nucleus, which results in a significantly enhanced intranuclear accumulation of drugs; (b) FRET signals being extremely sensitive to the distance between donors and acceptors are capable of real-time monitoring of the separation process of drugs and GQDs, which is more versatile in tracking the drug release dynamics. Our strategy for the assembly of a FRET-based drug delivery system may be unique and universal for monitoring the dynamic release process. This study may give more exciting new opportunities for improving the therapeutic efficacy and tracking precision.

  19. Rugged and breathable forms of stretchable electronics with adherent composite substrates for transcutaneous monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Han, Sang Youn; Xu, Sheng; Mathewson, Kyle E.; Zhang, Yihui; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Webb, R. Chad; Lee, Jung Woo; Dawidczyk, Thomas J.; Kim, Rak Hwan; Song, Young Min; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Kim, Stanley; Cheng, Huanyu; Rhee, Sang Il; Chung, Jeahoon; Kim, Byunggik; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dongjun; Yang, Yiyuan; Cho, Moongee; Gaspar, John G.; Carbonari, Ronald; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-09-01

    Research in stretchable electronics involves fundamental scientific topics relevant to applications with importance in human healthcare. Despite significant progress in active components, routes to mechanically robust construction are lacking. Here, we introduce materials and composite designs for thin, breathable, soft electronics that can adhere strongly to the skin, with the ability to be applied and removed hundreds of times without damaging the devices or the skin, even in regions with substantial topography and coverage of hair. The approach combines thin, ultralow modulus, cellular silicone materials with elastic, strain-limiting fabrics, to yield a compliant but rugged platform for stretchable electronics. Theoretical and experimental studies highlight the mechanics of adhesion and elastic deformation. Demonstrations include cutaneous optical, electrical and radio frequency sensors for measuring hydration state, electrophysiological activity, pulse and cerebral oximetry. Multipoint monitoring of a subject in an advanced driving simulator provides a practical example.

  20. Rugged and breathable forms of stretchable electronics with adherent composite substrates for transcutaneous monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kyung-In; Han, Sang Youn; Xu, Sheng; Mathewson, Kyle E; Zhang, Yihui; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Webb, R Chad; Lee, Jung Woo; Dawidczyk, Thomas J; Kim, Rak Hwan; Song, Young Min; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Kim, Stanley; Cheng, Huanyu; Rhee, Sang Il; Chung, Jeahoon; Kim, Byunggik; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dongjun; Yang, Yiyuan; Cho, Moongee; Gaspar, John G; Carbonari, Ronald; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-09-03

    Research in stretchable electronics involves fundamental scientific topics relevant to applications with importance in human healthcare. Despite significant progress in active components, routes to mechanically robust construction are lacking. Here, we introduce materials and composite designs for thin, breathable, soft electronics that can adhere strongly to the skin, with the ability to be applied and removed hundreds of times without damaging the devices or the skin, even in regions with substantial topography and coverage of hair. The approach combines thin, ultralow modulus, cellular silicone materials with elastic, strain-limiting fabrics, to yield a compliant but rugged platform for stretchable electronics. Theoretical and experimental studies highlight the mechanics of adhesion and elastic deformation. Demonstrations include cutaneous optical, electrical and radio frequency sensors for measuring hydration state, electrophysiological activity, pulse and cerebral oximetry. Multipoint monitoring of a subject in an advanced driving simulator provides a practical example.

  1. An Electronic Daily Diary Study of Anal Intercourse in Drug-Using Women

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Women (N = 138) with histories of illicit drug use were recruited into an electronic diary study that used Android smartphones for data collection. The diary was to be completed each day for 12 weeks using an “app” created in HTML5 and accessed over the Internet via smartphone. Data collection included information on sexual behaviors with up to 10 partners per day and contextual factors surrounding sexual behavior such as drug use before/after, type of sexual behavior (oral, vaginal, anal), and other activities such as using condoms for vaginal and anal intercourse and use of sexual lubricants. The sample was predominantly African American (58 %); 20 % Latina, 20 % White and 2 % reported as Other. Most women reported either less than a high school education (33 %) or having a high school diploma (33 %). The mean age was 39 years (SD = 11.78). Anal intercourse occurred on days when women also reported using illicit drugs, specifically methamphetamine and cocaine. Anal intercourse was not an isolated sexual activity, but took place on days when vaginal intercourse and giving and receiving oral sex also occurred along with illicit drug use. Anal intercourse also occurred on days when women reported they wanted sex. HIV prevention interventions must address the risks of anal intercourse for women, taking into account concurrent drug use and sexual pleasure that may reduce individual harm-reduction behaviors. PMID:25835461

  2. An Electronic Daily Diary Study of Anal Intercourse in Drug-Using Women.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Women (N = 138) with histories of illicit drug use were recruited into an electronic diary study that used Android smartphones for data collection. The diary was to be completed each day for 12 weeks using an "app" created in HTML5 and accessed over the Internet via smartphone. Data collection included information on sexual behaviors with up to 10 partners per day and contextual factors surrounding sexual behavior such as drug use before/after, type of sexual behavior (oral, vaginal, anal), and other activities such as using condoms for vaginal and anal intercourse and use of sexual lubricants. The sample was predominantly African American (58 %); 20 % Latina, 20 % White and 2 % reported as Other. Most women reported either less than a high school education (33 %) or having a high school diploma (33 %). The mean age was 39 years (SD = 11.78). Anal intercourse occurred on days when women also reported using illicit drugs, specifically methamphetamine and cocaine. Anal intercourse was not an isolated sexual activity, but took place on days when vaginal intercourse and giving and receiving oral sex also occurred along with illicit drug use. Anal intercourse also occurred on days when women reported they wanted sex. HIV prevention interventions must address the risks of anal intercourse for women, taking into account concurrent drug use and sexual pleasure that may reduce individual harm-reduction behaviors.

  3. Combined approach with therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacogenomics in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Manvizhi, S; Mathew, B S; Fleming, D H; Basu, G; John, G T

    2013-01-01

    In patients undergoing renal transplantation, dose individualization for tacrolimus is routinely achieved with therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The patient started on 5.5 mg/day of tacrolimus had a significantly elevated tacrolimus trough concentration. The tacrolimus dose was regularly reduced following TDM at many time periods in the post transplant period but the tacrolimus concentration was consistently elevated. Genomic analysis done after four years revealed mutations in the genes encoding for CYP3A5 and MDR1 (2677G > T). Pharmacogenomics alongside TDM, will soon emerge as the backbone of dose individualization. But for genomics to be beneficial, it should be advocated in the pre-transplant or early post transplant period.

  4. Impact of speciation on the electron charge transfer properties of nanodiamond drug carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baichuan; Barnard, Amanda S.

    2016-07-01

    Unpassivated diamond nanoparticles (bucky-diamonds) exhibit a unique surface reconstruction involving graphitization of certain crystal facets, giving rise to hybrid core-shell particles containing both aromatic and aliphatic carbon. Considerable effort is directed toward eliminating the aromatic shell, but persistent graphitization of subsequent subsurface-layers makes perdurable purification a challenge. In this study we use some simple statistical methods, in combination with electronic structure simulations, to predict the impact of different fractions of aromatic and aliphatic carbon on the charge transfer properties of the ensembles of bucky-diamonds. By predicting quality factors for a variety of cases, we find that perfect purification is not necessary to preserve selectivity, and there is a clear motivation for purifying samples to improve the sensitivity of charge transfer reactions. This may prove useful in designing drug delivery systems where the release of (selected) drugs needs to be sensitive to specific conditions at the point of delivery.Unpassivated diamond nanoparticles (bucky-diamonds) exhibit a unique surface reconstruction involving graphitization of certain crystal facets, giving rise to hybrid core-shell particles containing both aromatic and aliphatic carbon. Considerable effort is directed toward eliminating the aromatic shell, but persistent graphitization of subsequent subsurface-layers makes perdurable purification a challenge. In this study we use some simple statistical methods, in combination with electronic structure simulations, to predict the impact of different fractions of aromatic and aliphatic carbon on the charge transfer properties of the ensembles of bucky-diamonds. By predicting quality factors for a variety of cases, we find that perfect purification is not necessary to preserve selectivity, and there is a clear motivation for purifying samples to improve the sensitivity of charge transfer reactions. This may prove

  5. Nanoemulsion drug delivery by ketene based polyester synthesized using electron rich carbon/silica composite surface.

    PubMed

    Swarnalatha, S; Selvi, P K; Ganesh Kumar, A; Sekaran, G

    2008-09-01

    A new carrier matrix for nanoemulsion drug delivery was synthesized from glycine as the raw material, using mesoporous/microporous electron rich carbon-silica composite surface (MAC(800)). MAC(800) was prepared from rice husk in two-stage carbonization. The surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution of MAC(800) were measured, using nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77K. The unpaired electron density of MAC(800) was measured in electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), using TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine-1-oxyl) as the reference spin probe. Glycine was converted into ketene at the surface of MAC(800), which further underwent radical polymerization to form a low molecular weight ketene polymer (LMKP) of ester structure. The structure and the properties of LMKP were confirmed through (13)C, (1)H and DEPT nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The two hydrophilic drugs namely ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPH) and gentamicin sulphate (GS) were chosen for the nanoemulsion preparation and characterization. They were characterized for morphology, interaction of drugs with the polymer and their crystallinity, using HR-TEM, DSC and XRD, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of the LMKP towards the drugs ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and gentamicin sulphate were 26% and 12%, respectively. The dissolution studies of the nanoemulsion were carried out for the pH 6.5, 7.4 and 8.0. The cytocompatibility studies were done for LMKP as well as nanoemulsion using Hep2 epithelial cells.

  6. Electrochemical microfluidic chip based on molecular imprinting technique applied for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Min; Tian, Liping; Sun, Shiguo; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Feilang; Li, Yingchun

    2017-05-15

    In this work, a novel electrochemical detection platform was established by integrating molecularly imprinting technique with microfluidic chip and applied for trace measurement of three therapeutic drugs. The chip foundation is acrylic panel with designed grooves. In the detection cell of the chip, a Pt wire is used as the counter electrode and reference electrode, and a Au-Ag alloy microwire (NPAMW) with 3D nanoporous surface modified with electro-polymerized molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film as the working electrode. Detailed characterization of the chip and the working electrode was performed, and the properties were explored by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Two methods, respectively based on electrochemical catalysis and MIP/gate effect were employed for detecting warfarin sodium by using the prepared chip. The linearity of electrochemical catalysis method was in the range of 5×10(-6)-4×10(-4)M, which fails to meet clinical testing demand. By contrast, the linearity of gate effect was 2×10(-11)-4×10(-9)M with remarkably low detection limit of 8×10(-12)M (S/N=3), which is able to satisfy clinical assay. Then the system was applied for 24-h monitoring of drug concentration in plasma after administration of warfarin sodium in rabbit, and the corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. In addition, the microfluidic chip was successfully adopted to analyze cyclophosphamide and carbamazepine, implying its good versatile ability. It is expected that this novel electrochemical microfluidic chip can act as a promising format for point-of-care testing via monitoring different analytes sensitively and conveniently.

  7. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) in psychiatry (part I): why studies attempting to correlate drug concentration and antidepressant response don't work.

    PubMed

    Preskorn, Sheldon H

    2014-03-01

    In this column, the first in a series discussing why therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a seriously underutilized tool in psychiatry, the author explains why standard antidepressant registration trials are not able to establish a correlation between antidepressant response and the plasma concentration of biogenic amine antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. The problem is that such studies have a poor signal-to- noise ratio. In such studies, approximately one third of participants receiving drug respond specifically because of the drug, one third of participants receiving drug respond not because of the drug but rather because of the "placebo" effect inherent in participating in such a study, and one third of participants on drug do not respond sufficiently to be counted as responders. In analyzing the results of such studies, the data from these last two groups make it impossible to identify whether there is any relationship between drug concentration and antidepressant response. The next column in this series will discuss how TDM can be used as a "personalized medicine" tool to evaluate patients who are at risk for less than optimum response either because they may have much more rapid or much slower clearance of a drug than is usual as well as to identify adherence problems.

  8. In vivo gastrointestinal drug-release monitoring through second near-infrared window fluorescent bioimaging with orally delivered microcarriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Wenxing; Li, Xiaomin; Zhang, Fan

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive monitoring of gastrointestinal drug release in vivo is extremely challenging because of the limited spatial resolution and long scanning time of existing bioimaging modalities, such as X-ray radiation and magnetic resonance. Here, we report a novel microcarrier that can retain drugs and withstand the harsh conditions of gastrointestinal tract. Significantly, we can track the microcarrier fate and semi-quantitatively monitor the content of drug released in vivo in real time by measuring the fluorescence signals in the second near-infrared window of lanthanide-based downconversion nanoparticles with an absorption competition-induced emission bioimaging system. The microcarriers show a prolonged residence time of up to 72 h in the gastrointestinal tract, releasing up to 62% of their content. Moreover, minimal deposition of the microcarriers is found in non-target organs, such as the liver, spleen and kidney. These findings provide novel insights for the development of therapeutic and bioimaging strategies of orally administered drugs.

  9. Adverse drug reaction monitoring: support for pharmacovigilance at a tertiary care hospital in Northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are recognised as a common cause of hospital admissions, and they constitute a significant economic burden for hospitals. Hospital-based ADR monitoring and reporting programmes aim to identify and quantify the risks associated with the use of drugs provided in a hospital setting. This information may be useful for identifying and minimising preventable ADRs and may enhance the ability of prescribers to manage ADRs more effectively. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate ADRs that occurred during inpatient stays at the Hospital Geral de Palmas (HGP) in Tocantins, Brazil, and to facilitate the development of a pharmacovigilance service. Methods A prospective study was conducted at HGP over a period of 8 months, from January 2009 to August 2009. This observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study was based on an analysis of medical records. Several parameters were utilised in the data evaluation, including patient demographics, drug and reaction characteristics, and reaction outcomes. The reaction severity and predisposing factors were also assessed. Results The overall incidence of ADRs in the patient population was 3.1%, and gender was not found to be a risk factor. The highest ADR rate (75.8%) was found in the adult age group 15 to 50 years, and the lowest ADR rate was found in children aged 3 to 13 years (7.4%). Because of the high frequency of ADRs in orthopaedic (25%), general medicine (22%), and oncology (16%) patients, improved control of the drugs used in these specialties is required. Additionally, the nurse team (52.7%) registered the most ADRs in medical records, most likely due to the job responsibilities of nurses. As expected, the most noticeable ADRs occurred in skin tissues, with such ADRs are more obvious to medical staff, with rashes being the most common reactions. Metamizole, tramadol, and vancomycin were responsible for 21, 11.6, and 8.4% of ADRs, respectively. The majority of ADRs had

  10. HPLC Determination of Fexofenadine in Human Plasma For Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Pharmacokinetic Studies.

    PubMed

    Helmy, S A; El Bedaiwy, H M

    2016-07-01

    A simple and sensitive method was developed for fexofenadine determination in human plasma by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Satisfactory separation was achieved on a Hypersil® BDS C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5μm) using a mobile phase comprising 20 mm sodium dihydrogen phosphate-2 hydrate (pH adjusted to 3 with phosphoric acid)-acetonitrile at a ratio of 52:48, v/v. The elution was isocratic at ambient temperature with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The UV detector was set at 215 nm for the drug and 330 nm for the internal standared (tinidazole). The total time for a chromatographic separation was ~6.5 min. Linearity was demonstrated over the concentration range 0.01-4 μg/mL. The observed within- and between-day assay precision ranged from 0.346 to 13.6%; accuracy varied between 100.4 and 111.2%. This method was successfully applied for therapeutic drug monitoring in patients treated with clinical doses of fexofenadine and for pharmacokinetic studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Fluorescent and cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrid nanoshells for monitoring drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijuan; Liu, Tianhui; Li, Hua; Yang, Liang; Meng, Lingjie; Lu, Qinghua; Long, Jiangang

    2015-03-04

    Functionalized and monodisperse nanoshells have attracted significant attention owing to their well-defined structure, unique properties, and wide range of potential applications. Here, the synthesis of cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrid nanoshells with strong fluorescence properties was reported via a facile precipitation polymerization of hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) and fluorescein on silica particles used as templates. The resulting poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-fluorescein) (PCTPF) nanoshells were firm cross-linked shells with ∼2.2 nm mesopores that facilitated the transport of drug molecules. The fluorescent nanoshells also exhibited excellent water dispersibility and biocompatibility; thus, they can be considered as ideal drug vehicles with high doxorubicin storage capacity (26.2 wt %) and excellent sustained release (up to 14 days). Compared to doxorubicin (DOX) alone, the PCTPF nanoshells more efficiently delivered DOX into and killed cancer cells. Moreover, the PCTPF nanoshells also exhibited remarkable fluorescent emission properties and improved photobleaching stability in both suspension and solid state owing to the covalent immobilization of fluorescein in the highly cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrids. The exceptional fluorescent properties enabled the release of DOX as well as the distribution of nanoshells and DOX to be monitored.

  12. Molecular surveillance as monitoring tool for drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Adhin, Malti R; Labadie-Bracho, Mergiory; Bretas, Gustavo

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this translational study was to show the use of molecular surveillance for polymorphisms and copy number as a monitoring tool to track the emergence and dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. A molecular baseline for Suriname was established in 2005, with P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance (pfmdr1) markers and copy number in 40 samples. The baseline results revealed the existence of a uniformly distributed mutated genotype corresponding with the fully mefloquine-sensitive 7G8-like genotype (Y184F, S1034C, N1042D, and D1246Y) and a fixed pfmdr1 N86 haplotype. All samples harbored the pivotal pfcrtK76T mutation, showing that chloroquine reintroduction should not yet be contemplated in Suriname. After 5 years, 40 samples were assessed to trace temporal changes in the status of pfmdr1 polymorphisms and copy number and showed minor genetic alterations in the pfmdr1 gene and no significant changes in copy number, thus providing scientific support for prolongation of the current drug policy in Suriname.

  13. Optical tomographic monitoring of vascular responses to anti-angiogenic drugs in preclinical tumor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flexman, Molly L.; Kim, Hyun K.; Hernandez, Sonia L.; Huang, Jianzhong; Johung, Tessa J.; Lee, Jonghwan; Yamashiro, Darrell J.; Kandel, Jessica J.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2011-02-01

    It is well acknowledged that treatment efficacy could be increased and unnecessary toxicities reduced if a rapid assessment strategy were available to allow individual tailoring of cancer therapy. In this work we focus on using optical tomographic imaging to detect tumor response to anti-angiogenic treatment within the first 5 days of therapy. For this study we used two models with well-characterized and divergent responses to inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). SK-NEP and NGP cells were implanted intrarenally into NCR nude mice and the resulting tumors were monitored until a threshold of 1-2 g was reached. Optical tomographic imaging with a dual-wavelength (λ = 765nm and 830nm) continuous wave system, was performed prior to the first treatment with the anti-VEGF bevacizumab (BV), as well as 1, 3, and 5 days later. We found that the SK-NEP tumor model, known to be responsive to BV treatment, shows a decrease in hemoglobin levels over the 5 days. Mice implanted with the NGP tumor model, known to be less responsive to treatment, do not show such decreases. These results were further validated with histopathological findings that showed a decrease in tumor vascularization in treated SK-NEP mice. These results suggest that optical tomography is a promising tool for monitoring early tumor response to drug therapy.

  14. Wireless connection of continuous glucose monitoring system to the electronic patient record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Alexandre; Gutierrez, Marco A.; Lage, Silvia G.; Rebelo, Marina S.; Granja, Luiz A. R.; Ramires, Jose A. F.

    2005-04-01

    The control of blood sugar level (BSL) at near-normal levels has been documented to reduce both acute and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. Recent studies suggested, the reduction of mortality in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU), when the BSL are maintained at normal levels. Despite of the benefits appointed by these and others clinical studies, the strict BSL control in critically ill patients suffers from some difficulties: a) medical staff need to measure and control the patient"s BSL using blood sample at least every hour. This is a complex and time consuming task; b) the inaccuracy of standard capillary glucose monitoring (fingerstick) in hypotensive patients and, if frequently used to sample arterial or venous blood, may lead to excess phlebotomy; c) there is no validated procedure for continuously monitoring of BSL levels. This study used the MiniMed CGMS in ill patients at ICU to send, in real-time, BSL values to a Web-Based Electronic Patient Record. The BSL values are parsed and delivered through a wireless network as an HL7 message. The HL7 messages with BSL values are collected, stored into the Electronic Patient Record and presented into a bed-side monitor at the ICU together with other relevant patient information.

  15. Consensus Guideline Based Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) in Psychiatry and Neurology.

    PubMed

    Hiemke, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a valuable tool for tailoring the dosage of the prescribed medication(s) to the individual pharmacokinetic characteristics of a patient. In psychiatry and neurology, however, proven evidence that TDM should be used for treatment with the multiple neuropsychiatric medications is restricted to few compounds. Well-designed clinical trials on medical and economic benefits of TDM are rare. The use of TDM is limited in most countries to few antiepileptics, especially carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin, some mood stabilizers, especially lithium and valproic acid, some antidepressants, especially tricyclic antidepressants and some antipsychotics, primarily clozapine because these drugs have a narrow therapeutic index. On the other hand, specific indications and distinct problems can make TDM most useful for individualized pharmacotherapy with almost any neuropsychiatric drug. Potential benefits of TDM can, however, only be reaped if the method is adequately integrated into the clinical treatment process. The TDM expert group of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie (AGNP) issued consensus guidelines for the best practice of TDM in psychiatry and neurology. A first version was published in 2004. These guidelines were extended in 2011 and are actually updated (see: www.agnp.de). Exemplified by single cases it is shown here how to use TDM consensus guidelines for problem solving in psychiatry and neurology. Studies on depressed patients give evidence for tricyclic antidepressants, venlafaxine and citalopram that TDM could become a standard of care in psychiatry and neurology. There is potential to accelerate improvement. Reducing phases of suffering will not only have medical benefits for the patients but also an impact on costs for the health system which needs to be clarified by controlled studies.

  16. Voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring: results of a prematurely discontinued randomized multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    Neofytos, D.; Ostrander, D.; Shoham, S.; Laverdiere, M.; Hiemenz, J.; Nguyen, H.; Clark, W.; Brass, L.; Lu, N.; Marr, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Voriconazole (VOR) levels are highly variable, with potential implications to both efficacy and safety. We hypothesized that VOR therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) will decrease the incidence of treatment failures and adverse events (AEs). Methods We initiated a prospective, randomized, non-blinded multicenter study to compare clinical outcomes in adult patients randomized to standard dosing (clinician-driven) vs. TDM (doses adjusted based on levels). VOR trough levels were obtained on day 5, 14, 28, and 42 (or at completion of drug; ± 3 days). Real-time dose adjustments were made to maintain a range between 1–5 μg/mL on the TDM-arm, while levels were assessed retrospectively in the standard arm. Patient questionnaires were administered to assess subjective AEs. Results The study was discontinued prematurely, after 29 patients were enrolled. Seventeen (58.6%) patients experienced 38 AEs: visual changes (22/38, 57.9%), neurological symptoms (13/38, 34.2%), and liver abnormalities (3/38, 7.9%). VOR was discontinued in 7 (25%) patients because of an AE (4 standard-arm, 3 TDM-arm). VOR levels were frequently out of range in the standard-arm (8 tests >5 μg/mL; 9 tests < 1 μg/mL). Three dose changes occurred in the TDM-arm for VOR levels <1 μg/mL. Levels decreased over time in the standard-arm, with mean VOR levels lower at end of therapy compared to TDM (1.3 vs. 4.6 μg/mL, P = 0.008). Conclusions VOR TDM has become widespread clinical practice, based on known variability in drug levels, which impaired accrual in this study. Although comparative conclusions are limited, observations of variability and waning levels over time support TDM. PMID:26346408

  17. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-01-01

    Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy), it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable. PMID:27657086

  18. Potentiometric electronic tongue-flow injection analysis system for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; del Valle, M; Alegret, S; Valderrama, C; Florido, A

    2012-05-15

    An automated flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system with electronic tongue detection (ET) is used for the monitoring of biosorption processes of heavy metals on vegetable wastes. Grape stalk wastes are used as biosorbent to remove Cu(2+) ions in a fixed-bed column configuration. The ET is formed by a 5-sensor array with Cu(2+) and Ca(2+)-selective electrodes and electrodes with generic response to heavy-metals, plus an artificial neural network response model of the sensor's cross-response. The real-time monitoring of both the Cu(2+) and the cation exchanged and released (Ca(2+)) in the effluent solution is performed by using flow-injection potentiometric electronic tongue system. The coupling of the electronic tongue with automation features of the flow-injection system allows us to accurately characterize the Cu(2+) ion-biosorption process, through obtaining its breakthrough curves, and the profile of the Ca(2+) ion release. In parallel, fractions of the extract solution are analysed by spectroscopic techniques in order to validate the results obtained with the reported methodology. The sorption performance of grape stalks is also evaluated by means of well-established sorption models.

  19. Electronic structure of an anticancer drug DC81 and its interaction with DNA base pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Gargi; Sharma, Dipendra; Dwivedi, K. K.; Dwivedi, M. K.

    2016-05-01

    The drug, 8-Hydroxy-7-methoxy-pyrrolo-[2,1-c][1,4] benzodiazepine-5-one, commonly christened as DC81 belongs to the pyrrolo-[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBDs) family. It is a member of the group of naturally occurring antitumour antibiotics produced by various Streptomyces species. The antitumour activity of DC81 is attributed to its sequence specific interaction with G-C rich DNA region in particular, for Pu-G-Pu motifs. In the present paper, physico-chemical properties DC81 have been carried out using an ab-initio method, HF/6-31G(d,p) with GAMESS program. MEP, HOMO and LUMO surfaces have been scanned. Ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, global hardness and softness of the drug have been calculated. Further, drug-DNA interactions have been examined using modified second order perturbation theory along with multicentred-multipole expansion technique. Results have been discussed in the light of other theoretical and experimental observations. Efforts have been made to elucidate the binding patterns and thereby biological properties of the drug.

  20. Medication adherence and older renal transplant patients' perceptions of electronic medication monitoring.

    PubMed

    Russell, Cynthia L; Owens, Sarah; Hamburger, Karen Q; Thompson, Denise A; Leach, Rebecca R; Cetingok, Muammer; Hathaway, Donna; Conn, Vicki S; Ashbaugh, Catherine; Peace, Leanne; Madsen, Richard; Winsett, Rebecca P; Wakefield, Mark R

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated older renal transplant recipients' perceptions of electronic medication monitoring and the influence of these perceptions on medication adherence. A sample of 73 older adult renal transplant recipients who used the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS(®)) TrackCaps for 12 months provided their perceptions of device use. Participants perceived that the MEMS had a neutral effect on their medication-taking routine (65%), believed the MEMS was practical (56%), and could not describe any instances in which using the MEMS was difficult (56%). No significant difference in medication adherence was found between those who perceived the MEMS's influence negatively/neutrally and those who perceived the MEMS positively (p = 0.22). Medication adherence data from older adult renal transplant recipients can be used regardless of their perceptions of the MEMS's influence on their medication taking without biasing medication adherence data.

  1. Single-shot beam-position monitor for x-ray free electron laser.

    PubMed

    Tono, Kensuke; Kudo, Togo; Yabashi, Makina; Tachibana, Takeshi; Feng, Yiping; Fritz, David; Hastings, Jerome; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2011-02-01

    We have developed an x-ray beam-position monitor for detecting the radiation properties of an x-ray free electron laser (FEL). It is composed of four PIN photodiodes that detect backscattered x-rays from a semitransparent diamond film placed in the beam path. The signal intensities from the photodiodes are used to compute the beam intensity and position. A proof-of-principle experiment at a synchrotron light source revealed that the error in the beam position is reduced to below 7 μm by using a nanocrystal diamond film prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Owing to high dose tolerance and transparency of the diamond film, the monitor is suitable for routine diagnostics of extremely intense x-ray pulses from the FEL.

  2. Characterization of electron-beam weld processes in uranium by acoustic emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, J.W.; Murphy, J.L.

    1989-08-19

    Work was begun to characterize electron-beam (EB) welding of uranium by use of acoustic emission (AE) monitoring at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. One specific objective was to determine if a correlation existed between weld penetration and an AE parameter(s). AE monitoring techniques were developed which allowed detection and recording of AE information during welding. Initial results from bead-on-plate welds of uranium imply that the AE signal varies during different processes: weld initiation, process stabilization, steady-state weld formation, weld cessation, and material cool-down. A correlation was developed between the AE ''average signal level'' (ASL) parameter and weld penetration which implies that penetration can be predicted from a given measured ASL level. 1 ref., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Determination of Drugs in Plasma Samples by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Pinto, Mônia Aparecida Lemos; de Souza, Israel Donizeti; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecilio; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the development of a simple, sensitive and selective method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to determine antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine, clozapine, haloperidol and chlorpromazine) along with antidepressants (mirtazapine, paroxetine, citalopram, sertraline, imipramine, clomipramine and fluoxetine), anticonvulsants (carbamazepine and lamotrigine) and anxiolytics (diazepam and clonazepam) in plasma samples obtained from schizophrenic patients. The samples were prepared by protein precipitation. The target drugs were separated on an XSelect SCH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm × 2.5 µm) within 8.0 min by means of gradient elution. The drugs were then detected on a quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source, operating in the multiple reactions monitoring mode and in the positive ionization mode. The LC-MS-MS method was linear range from subtherapeutic to toxic concentrations with lower limit of quantification values ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 ng mL(-1), precision with coefficient of variation values lower than 12%, and accuracy ranged from 90 to 108%. The developed method enabled successful analysis of the target drugs in plasma samples obtained from 51 schizophrenic patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring revealed that many of the evaluated schizophrenic patients presented altered plasma concentrations of the analyzed drugs. These altered concentrations resulted from pharmacokinetic interactions among the medications prescribed to treat schizophrenia.

  4. In-situ monitoring by reflective high energy electron diffraction during pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Dave H. A.; Rijnders, Guus J. H. M.; Koster, Gertjan; Rogalla, Horst

    1999-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has developed during the past decade from a fast but limited preparation tool towards a competitive thin film deposition technique. One of the advantages above other techniques is the possibility of growth at relative high background pressure. There is a large freedom in choosing which kind of gas. Moreover, in a number of applications, the gaseous species in the background pressure are part of the elements to be grown, e.g., oxygen in the case of high Tc superconductors. However, the advantage of relative high pressures leads to restrictions of using standard diagnostics and monitoring of the film growth, e.g., reflective high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Here, a PLD chamber including an in-situ RHEED system is presented, which makes it possible to monitor and study the growth at standard PLD parameters. Using a two-stages differential pumped, magnetically shielded, extension tube mounted at the electron gun side and a special designed phosphor screen including CCD camera, real time monitoring by observation of RHEED oscillations could be established at pressures up to 50 Pa. In this paper the latest results on applying this technique on SrTiO 3 and YBa 2Cu 3O 7 will be presented. Additional to the usual diagnostics performed with RHEED, another phenomena can be observed. The pulsed way of deposition, characteristic for PLD, leads to relaxations in the intensity of the diffracted pattern due to the mobility of the deposited material. These relaxation times give extra information about relaxation, crystallization, and nucleation of the deposited material. The presented technique leads to a better understanding of the growth during pulsed laser deposition and, because of the possibility to monitor the growth, will make PLD competitive with other deposition techniques.

  5. Prevalence of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Antidepressants and Antipsychotics in Stockholm, Sweden: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lindh, Jonatan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is considered an underused tool in psychiatric care, the prevalence of TDM is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of TDM for antidepressants and antipsychotics during 2006–2013. Methods: The study population consisted of individuals ≥5 years of age residing in Stockholm County. The prevalence of TDM for each study year was calculated with the number of individuals in whom TDM had been performed as nominator (extracted from the TDM database at Karolinska University Laboratory) and the number of treated individuals as denominator (extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register). All data were obtained at the third and the fifth level of the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system (pharmacological subgroup and chemical substance, respectively). The prevalence of TDM was compared between substances according to the level of TDM recommendation by guidelines. Results: For antidepressants, the prevalence of TDM decreased from 0.48% (95% confidence interval, 0.45%–0.52%) in 2006 to 0.36% (0.33%–0.39%) in 2013 (among 133,275 and 162,998 treated individuals, respectively). For antipsychotics, the prevalence of TDM increased from 2.3% (2.2%–2.5%) to 4.1% (3.9%–4.3%) (31,463 and 32,534 treated individuals). For both drug groups, TDM was more common in men than in women. The most frequently analyzed drugs were clozapine, perphenazine, zuclopenthixol, nortriptyline, and flupentixol. Although not reaching statistical significance, the TDM prevalence was greater for substances strongly recommended for TDM than for substances with a lower level of recommendation, median (interquartile range): 5.6% (2.8%–22%) versus 1.1% (0.2%–2.2%), P = 0.063. Conclusions: The prevalence of TDM is generally low, more frequent, and increasing for antipsychotics, and more frequent for men and substances where TDM is strongly recommended. PMID:25533882

  6. Using the Global GPS Network and Other Satellite Data to Monitor Ionospheric Total Electron Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannucci, Anthony J.; Wilson, Brian D.; Yuan, Dah-Ning; Lindqwister, Ulf

    1994-01-01

    A globally distributed network of dual-frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers is the primary source of data used to measure ionospheric total electron content (TEC) on global scales. Maps of TEC useful for calibrating propagation delays, or monitoring the solar-terrestrial environment, can be produced using this continuously operating network. The maps can also form the basis of a TEC calibration service for users around the world. Potential users may include single-frequency satellite altimetry missions, satellite tracking stations, and astronomical observatories.

  7. Group velocity delay spectroscopy technique for industrial monitoring of electron-beam-induced vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benterou, Jerry J.; Berzins, Leon V.; Sharma, Manish N.

    1999-01-01

    Spectroscopic techniques are ideal for characterization and process control of electron beam generated beam generated vapor plumes. Absorption based techniques work well for a wide variety of applications, but are difficult to apply to optically dense or opaque vapor plumes. We describe an approach for monitoring optically dense vapor plumes that is based on measuring the group velocity delay of a laser beam near an optical transition to determine the vapor density. This technique has a larger dynamic range than absorption environment. Aluminum as chosen because of its prevalence in high performance aircraft alloys. In these applications, composition control of the alloy constituents is critical to the deposition process. Data is presented demonstrating the superior dynamic range of the measurement. In addition, preliminary data demonstrating aluminum vapor rate control in an electron beam evaporator is presented. Alternative applications where this technique could be useful are discussed.

  8. From B. F. Skinner to Spiderman to Martha Stewart: The Past, Present and Future of Electronic Monitoring of Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, William D.; Gable, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic monitoring was originally designed as a system to facilitate the rehabilitation of young adult offenders. The concept was not well-received, and the first judicially sanctioned program was not initiated until 20 years later. Adoption of the technology then spread rapidly. The primary use of monitoring has evolved from being an adjunct…

  9. Preparation and spectroscopic studies on charge-transfer complexes of famciclovir drug with different electron acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballa, Akmal S.; Teleb, Said M.; Nour, El-Metwally

    2012-09-01

    The CT-interaction of electron acceptors such as chloranilic acid (H2CA), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ) and and 7,7',8,8'-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TCNQ) with the antiviral drug famciclovir (FCV) have been investigated spectrophotometrically in the defined solvent. The data indicate the formation of CT-complexes with the general formula [(FCV)(acceptor)]. The 1:1 stoichiometry of the (FCV)-acceptors were based on elemental analysis, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis of the solid CT-complexes along with the photometric titration measurements for the reactions. The formation constants (KCT) for the CT-complexes are shown to be strongly dependent on the type and structure of the electron acceptor. Factors affecting the CT-processes such as redox potentials and steric hinderance of reactants are discussed.

  10. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2005. Volume I. Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the Monitoring the Future study marked its 31st year of conducting national surveys of substance use among American young people. Beginning with the first survey of high school seniors in 1975, the study has provided the nation with a window through which to view the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illicit drug use,…

  11. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2004. Volume I: Secondary School Students, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 the Monitoring the Future study marked its 30th year of conducting national surveys of substance use among American young people. Beginning with the first survey of high school seniors in 1975, the study has provided the nation with a window through which to view the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illicit drug use,…

  12. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-1999. Volume I: Secondary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    Over the past quarter of a century, the Monitoring the Future study has tracked young American's use of psychoactive substances, both illicit and licit. In this volume, findings are presented on the prevalence and trends of drug use and related factors for secondary school students (eight, tenth, and twelfth graders). Distinctions are made among…

  13. Drug Use among American College Students and Their Noncollege Age Peers. Monitoring the Future. Occasional Paper Series, Paper 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    Monitoring the Future is an ongoing research program which annually surveys high school seniors and also performs followup surveys of previous high school classes. This study used five different questionnaire forms to examine illicit and licit (alcohol and nicotine) drug use among U.S. college students and their age-peers not in college. The…

  14. Relation Between Witnessing Violence and Drug Use Initiation Among Rural Adolescents: Parental Monitoring and Family Support as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Kung, Eva M.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relation between witnessing violence and drug use initiation among 6th graders attending middle schools in 5 rural counties and investigated the extent to which family support and parental monitoring moderated this relation. Data were obtained from 1,282 adolescents at 2 time points during the 6th grade. Witnessing violence…

  15. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2010. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Series. Paper 74

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The full 2010 survey results are reported in "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975;2010: Volume I, Secondary School Students". That monograph contains a description of MTF's design and purposes, as well as extended reporting on substance use of all kinds, licit and illicit, and a number of related factors such as…

  16. Pharmacovigilance in children: detecting adverse drug reactions in routine electronic healthcare records. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Black, Corri; Tagiyeva-Milne, Nara; Helms, Peter; Moir, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Aims A systematic review of the literature published in English over 10 years was undertaken in order to describe the use of electronic healthcare data in the identification of potential adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using MESH headings and text words. Titles, keywords and abstracts were checked for age <18 years, potential ADRs and electronic healthcare data. Information extracted included age, data source, pharmacovigilance method, medicines and ADRs. Studies were quality assessed. Results From 14 804 titles, 314 had a full text review and 71 were included in the final review. Fifty were published in North America, 10 in Scandinavia. Study size ranged from less than 1000 children to more than 10 million. Sixty per cent of studies used data from one source. Comparative observational studies were most commonly reported (66.2%) with 15% using passive surveillance. Electronic healthcare data set linkage and the quality of the data source were poorly reported. ADRs were classified using the International Classification of Disease (ICD10). Multi-system reactions were most commonly studied, followed by central nervous system and mental and behavioural disorders. Vaccines were most frequently prescribed followed by corticosteroids, general anaesthetics and antidepressants. Conclusions Routine electronic healthcare records were increasingly reported to be used for pharmacovigilance in children. This growing and important health protection activity could be enhanced by consistent reporting of studies to improve the identification, interpretation and generalizability of the evidence base. PMID:25819310

  17. Electron-density descriptors as predictors in quantitative structure--activity/property relationships and drug design.

    PubMed

    Matta, Chérif F; Arabi, Alya A

    2011-06-01

    The use of electron density-based molecular descriptors in drug research, particularly in quantitative structure--activity relationships/quantitative structure--property relationships studies, is reviewed. The exposition starts by a discussion of molecular similarity and transferability in terms of the underlying electron density, which leads to a qualitative introduction to the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). The starting point of QTAIM is the topological analysis of the molecular electron-density distributions to extract atomic and bond properties that characterize every atom and bond in the molecule. These atomic and bond properties have considerable potential as bases for the construction of robust quantitative structure--activity/property relationships models as shown by selected examples in this review. QTAIM is applicable to the electron density calculated from quantum-chemical calculations and/or that obtained from ultra-high resolution x-ray diffraction experiments followed by nonspherical refinement. Atomic and bond properties are introduced followed by examples of application of each of these two families of descriptors. The review ends with a study whereby the molecular electrostatic potential, uniquely determined by the density, is used in conjunction with atomic properties to elucidate the reasons for the biological similarity of bioisosteres.

  18. Posaconazole exposure-response relationship: evaluating the utility of therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Dolton, Michael J; Ray, John E; Marriott, Deborah; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Posaconazole has become an important part of the antifungal armamentarium in the prophylaxis and salvage treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Structurally related to itraconazole, posaconazole displays low oral bioavailability due to poor solubility, with significant drug interactions and gastrointestinal disease also contributing to the generally low posaconazole plasma concentrations observed in patients. While therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of plasma concentrations is widely accepted for other triazole antifungal agents such as voriconazole, the utility of TDM for posaconazole is controversial due to debate over the relationship between posaconazole exposure in plasma and clinical response to therapy. This review examines the available evidence for a relationship between plasma concentration and clinical efficacy for posaconazole, as well as evaluating the utility of TDM and providing provisional target concentrations for posaconazole therapy. Increasing evidence supports an exposure-response relationship for plasma posaconazole concentrations for prophylaxis and treatment of IFIs; a clear relationship has not been identified between posaconazole concentration and toxicity. Intracellular and intrapulmonary concentrations have been studied for posaconazole but have not been correlated to clinical outcomes. In view of the high mortality and cost associated with the treatment of IFIs, increasing evidence of an exposure-response relationship for posaconazole efficacy in the prevention and treatment of IFIs, and the common finding of low posaconazole concentrations in patients, TDM for posaconazole is likely to be of significant clinical utility. In patients with subtherapeutic posaconazole concentrations, increased dose frequency, administration with high-fat meals, and withdrawal of interacting medications from therapy are useful strategies to improve systemic absorption.

  19. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Continuous Infusion Doripenem in a Pediatric Patient on Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Wayne S.; Conley, Susan B.; Shea, Paul; Enache, Adela; Chopra, Arun

    2017-01-01

    An 11-year-old African American male with severe combined immunodeficiency variant, non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, pancreatic insufficiency, chronic mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection, chronic sinusitis, and malnutrition presented with a 1-week history of fevers. He subsequently developed respiratory decompensation and cefepime was discontinued and doripenem was initiated. Doripenem was the carbapenem used due to a national shortage of meropenem. By day 7 the patient (24.7 kg) had a positive fluid balance of 6925 mL (28% FO), and on days 7 into 8 developed acute kidney injury evidenced by an elevated serum creatinine of 0.68 mg/dL, an increase from the baseline of 0.28 mg/dL. On day 9, the patient was initiated on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and the doripenem dosing was changed to a continuous infusion of 2.5 mg/kg/hr (60 mg/kg/day). Approximately 12.5 hours after the start of the doripenem a serum concentration was obtained, which was 4.01 mg/L corresponding to a clearance of 10.5 mL/min/kg. The pediatric dosing and pharmacokinetic data available for doripenem suggest a clearance estimate of 4.4 to 4.8 mL/min/kg, and the adult clearance estimate is 2.4 to 3.78 mL/min/kg. The calculated clearance in our patient of 10.5 mL/min/kg is over double the highest clearance estimate in the pediatric literature. This case demonstrates that doripenem clearance is significantly increased with CRRT in comparison with the published pediatric and adult data. An appropriate pharmacodynamic outcome (time that free drug concentration > minimum inhibitory concentration) can be achieved by continuous infusion doripenem with concurrent therapeutic drug monitoring.

  20. Propidium iodide-based methods for monitoring drug action in the kinetoplastidae: comparison with the Alamar Blue assay.

    PubMed

    Gould, Matthew K; Vu, Xuan Lan; Seebeck, Thomas; de Koning, Harry P

    2008-11-15

    The urgent need for new drug development for African trypanosomiasis is widely recognized. This requires reliable and informative high-throughput assays. Currently, drug action is determined with a fluorimetric/colorimetric assay based on the metabolism of the dye Alamar Blue (resazurin) by live cells. However, this assay does not easily distinguish between cell death and growth arrest, or supply information about the rate at which test compounds affect these parameters. We report here an alternative fluorimetric assay, based on the interaction of propidium iodide with DNA, that allows either real-time monitoring of cell viability or the generation of EC(50) values at a predetermined time-point. The assay is highly sensitive and fluorescence readings easily correlate to numbers of parasites or DNA content. The EC(50) values were highly similar to those obtained with the standard Alamar Blue assay. The procedure lends itself readily to applications in drug development or resistance monitoring.

  1. Real-timely monitoring the interaction between bovine serum albumin and drugs in aqueous with terahertz metamaterial biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fangrong; Guo, Enze; Xu, Xin; Li, Peng; Xu, Xinlong; Yin, Shan; Wang, Yuee; Chen, Tao; Yin, Xianhua; Zhang, Wentao

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a metamaterial (MM) resonator used as a sensitive biosensor is designed and fabricated for monitoring the interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and four kinds of drug solutions in real time. The transmission spectra of the resonator are simulated and measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system where the distinct resonance frequency shifts are observed. The experimental results indicate that the interactions between BSA and every kind of solution are violent before the reaction reaches equilibrium, and the reaction solutions manifest varying permittivity. Moreover, different reaction solutions show different frequency shifts and reaction times. The MM resonator worked as an effective biosensor achieves to monitor the interaction between BSA and drug solutions in real time, which is very useful for the development of novel drugs and other biomedical applications.

  2. Cell culture monitoring for drug screening and cancer research: a transparent, microfluidic, multi-sensor microsystem.

    PubMed

    Weltin, Andreas; Slotwinski, Kinga; Kieninger, Jochen; Moser, Isabella; Jobst, Gerhard; Wego, Marcus; Ehret, Ralf; Urban, Gerald A

    2014-01-07

    We present a novel, multiparametric microphysiometry system for the dynamic online monitoring of human cancer cell metabolism. The optically transparent, modular, hybrid microsystem is based on a glass chip and combines a cell cultivation chamber, microfluidics and metabolic monitoring with fully integrated chemo- and biosensors. pH and oxygen are measured in the cell culture area, and biosensors for lactate and glucose are connected downstream by microfluidics. The wafer-level fabrication features thin-film platinum and iridium oxide microelectrodes on a glass chip, microfluidics in an epoxy resist, a hybrid assembly and an on-chip reference electrode. The reliable analytical performance of the sensors in cell culture medium was demonstrated. The pH sensors exhibit a long-term stable, linear response. The oxygen sensors show a linear behaviour, which is also observed for low oxygen concentrations. Glucose and lactate measurements show a linear, long-term stable, selective and reversible behaviour in the desired range. T98G human brain cancer cells were cultivated and cell culture metabolism was measured on-chip. Stop/flow cycles were applied and extracellular acidification, respiration, glucose consumption and lactate production were quantified. Long-term metabolic rates were determined and all parameters could be measured in the outlet channel. A placement downstream of the cell cultivation area for biosensors was realised. A highly effective medium exchange and undiluted sampling from the cell culture chamber with low flow rates (2 μl min(-1)) and low volumes (15 μl per cycle) were achieved. The drug screening application was demonstrated by detecting alteration and recovery effects of cellular metabolism induced by the addition of substances to the medium.

  3. Bayesian estimation of cyclosporin exposure for routine therapeutic drug monitoring in kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Bourgoin, Hélène; Paintaud, Gilles; Büchler, Matthias; Lebranchu, Yvon; Autret-Leca, Elisabeth; Mentré, France; Guellec, Chantal Le

    2005-01-01

    Aims AUC-based monitoring of cyclosporin A (CsA) is useful to optimize dose adaptation in difficult cases. We developed a population pharmacokinetic model to describe dose-exposure relationships for CsA in renal transplant patients and applied it to the Bayesian estimation of AUCs using three blood concentrations. Methods A total of 84 renal graft recipients treated with CsA microemulsion were included in this study. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using NONMEM. A two-compartment model with zero-order absorption and a lag time best described the data. Bayesian estimation was based on CsA blood concentrations measured before dosing and 1 h and 2 h post dose. Predictive performance was evaluated using a cross-validation approach. Estimated AUCs were compared with AUCs calculated by the trapezoidal method. The Bayesian approach was also applied to an independent group of eight patients exhibiting unusual pharmacokinetic profiles. Results Mean population pharmacokinetic parameters were apparent clearance 30 l h−1, apparent volume of distribution 79.8 l, duration of absorption 52 min, absorption lag time 7 min. No significant relationships were found between any of the pharmacokinetic parameters and individual characteristics. A good correlation was obtained between Bayesian-estimated and experimental AUCs, with a mean prediction error of 2.8% (95% CI [−0.6, 6.2]) and an accuracy of 13.1% (95% CI [7.5, 17.2]). A good correlation was also obtained in the eight patients with unusual pharmacokinetic profiles (r2 = 0.96, P < 0.01). Conclusions Our Bayesian approach enabled a good estimation of CsA exposure in a population of patients with variable pharmacokinetic profiles, showing its usefulness for routine AUC-based therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:15606436

  4. Business process improvement: an electronic system to monitor compliance with medical resident work hours.

    PubMed

    Landesman, Linda Young; Markowitz, Forest; Conde, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    The limitation of medical intern and resident work hours, known as the Bell 405 regulations, was initiated in New York State in 1989 with a modification to the state hospital code. The Bell 405 regulations were strengthened in 2000, and facilities would now be fined for noncompliance. Monitoring systems in place at that time were insufficient to provide an adequate level of review for the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) with more than 7,000 medical residents whose training is based at or who rotate through these public hospitals. A "simple to use," yet comprehensive, method of monitoring compliance needed to be developed to ensure that residents and interns complied with laws regulating working hours. The subsequent development of national accreditation standards increased the stakes for reliable scrutiny. HHC developed and implemented a Web-based Structured Query Language (SQL) application that facilitated easy access to work hour surveys captured through electronic time sheets. The time sheet data automatically entered a database that provided instant analysis of conformance to state law. The development of an electronic on-line application accessible from anywhere allowed HHC to efficiently identify nonconformance and pinpoint corrective action. Since the inception of the application and its expansion allowing access through the intranet, 26,000 individual time sheets have been submitted for evaluation. With the national movement regulating work hours, other hospitals still at the pencil and manual computation stage would greatly benefit by developing a similar application.

  5. A Portable Surface Contamination Monitor Based on the Principle of Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perey, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    Many industrial and aerospace processes involving the joining of materials, require sufficient surface cleanliness to insure proper bonding. Processes as diverse as painting, welding, or the soldering of electronic circuits will be compromised if prior inspection and removal of surface contaminants is inadequate. As process requirements become more stringent and the number of different materials and identified contaminants increases, various instruments and techniques have been developed for improved inspection. One such technique, based on the principle of Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE), has been explored for a number of years as a tool for surface contamination monitoring. Some of the benefits of OSEE are: it is non-contacting; requires little operator training; and has very high contamination sensitivity. This paper describes the development of a portable OSEE based surface contamination monitor. The instrument is suitable for both hand-held and robotic inspections with either manual or automated control of instrument operation. In addition, instrument output data is visually displayed to the operator and may be sent to an external computer for archiving or analysis.

  6. Fluorescence and Electron Microscopy to Visualize the Intracellular Fate of Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo, M.; Carton, F.; Marengo, A.; Berlier, G.; Stella, B.; Arpicco, S.; Malatesta, M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to design valid protocols for drug release via nanocarriers, it is essential to know the mechanisms of cell internalization, the interactions with organelles, and the intra-cellular permanence and degradation of nanoparticles (NPs) as well as the possible cell alteration or damage induced. In the present study, the intracellular fate of liposomes, polymeric NPs and mesoporous silica NPs (MSN) has been investigated in an in vitro cell system by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. The tested nanocarriers proved to be characterized by specific interactions with the cell: liposomes enter the cells probably by fusion with the plasma membrane and undergo rapid cytoplasmic degradation; polymeric NPs are internalized by endocytosis, occur in the cytoplasm both enclosed in endosomes and free in the cytosol, and then undergo massive degradation by lysosome action; MSN are internalized by both endocytosis and phagocytosis, and persist in the cytoplasm enclosed in vacuoles. No one of the tested nanocarriers was found to enter the nucleus. The exposure to the different nanocarriers did not increase cell death; only liposomes induced a reduction of cell population after long incubation times, probably due to cell overloading. No subcellular damage was observed to be induced by polymeric NPs and MSN, whereas transmission electron microscopy revealed cytoplasm alterations in liposome-treated cells. This important information on the structural and functional relationships between nanocarriers designed for drug delivery and cultured cells further proves the crucial role of microscopy techniques in nanotechnology. PMID:27349319

  7. Benchmarking therapeutic drug monitoring software: a review of available computer tools.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Aline; Csajka, Chantal; Thoma, Yann; Buclin, Thierry; Widmer, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) aims to optimize treatments by individualizing dosage regimens based on the measurement of blood concentrations. Dosage individualization to maintain concentrations within a target range requires pharmacokinetic and clinical capabilities. Bayesian calculations currently represent the gold standard TDM approach but require computation assistance. In recent decades computer programs have been developed to assist clinicians in this assignment. The aim of this survey was to assess and compare computer tools designed to support TDM clinical activities. The literature and the Internet were searched to identify software. All programs were tested on personal computers. Each program was scored against a standardized grid covering pharmacokinetic relevance, user friendliness, computing aspects, interfacing and storage. A weighting factor was applied to each criterion of the grid to account for its relative importance. To assess the robustness of the software, six representative clinical vignettes were processed through each of them. Altogether, 12 software tools were identified, tested and ranked, representing a comprehensive review of the available software. Numbers of drugs handled by the software vary widely (from two to 180), and eight programs offer users the possibility of adding new drug models based on population pharmacokinetic analyses. Bayesian computation to predict dosage adaptation from blood concentration (a posteriori adjustment) is performed by ten tools, while nine are also able to propose a priori dosage regimens, based only on individual patient covariates such as age, sex and bodyweight. Among those applying Bayesian calculation, MM-USC*PACK© uses the non-parametric approach. The top two programs emerging from this benchmark were MwPharm© and TCIWorks. Most other programs evaluated had good potential while being less sophisticated or less user friendly. Programs vary in complexity and might not fit all healthcare

  8. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  9. Monitoring system including an electronic sensor platform and an interrogation transceiver

    DOEpatents

    Kinzel, Robert L.; Sheets, Larry R.

    2003-09-23

    A wireless monitoring system suitable for a wide range of remote data collection applications. The system includes at least one Electronic Sensor Platform (ESP), an Interrogator Transceiver (IT) and a general purpose host computer. The ESP functions as a remote data collector from a number of digital and analog sensors located therein. The host computer provides for data logging, testing, demonstration, installation checkout, and troubleshooting of the system. The IT transmits signals from one or more ESP's to the host computer to the ESP's. The IT host computer may be powered by a common power supply, and each ESP is individually powered by a battery. This monitoring system has an extremely low power consumption which allows remote operation of the ESP for long periods; provides authenticated message traffic over a wireless network; utilizes state-of-health and tamper sensors to ensure that the ESP is secure and undamaged; has robust housing of the ESP suitable for use in radiation environments; and is low in cost. With one base station (host computer and interrogator transceiver), multiple ESP's may be controlled at a single monitoring site.

  10. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  11. [Therapeutic drug monitoring in psychiatry. A brief summary of the new consensus paper by the task force on TDM of the AGNP].

    PubMed

    Gründer, G; Baumann, P; Conca, A; Zernig, G; Hiemke, C

    2014-07-01

    In October 2011 the Task Force Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of the Association for Neuropsychopharmacology and Pharmacopsychiatry (AGNP) published an update (Pharmacopsychiatry 2011, 44: 195-235) of the first version of the consensus paper on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) published in 2004. This article summarizes the essential statements to make them accessible to a wider readership in German speaking countries.

  12. Impact of antiepileptic drugs on bone health: Need for monitoring, treatment, and prevention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ekta; Singh, Harmanjit; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. In India, overall prevalence of epilepsy is reported to be 5.59/1000 population. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) constitute the main-stay of treatment with a large number of AEDs available in the market. High incidence of adverse effects is a major limitation with AEDs. One of the major concerns is significant metabolic effects on the bone. However, little attention has been paid to this issue because most of the bone effects remain subclinical for a long time and may take years to manifest clinically. The main effects include hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, reduced serum levels of Vitamin D, increase in parathormone (PTH) levels, and alterations in bone turnover markers. The CYP450 enzyme-inducing AEDs such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and primidone are the most common AEDs associated with bone disorders while the data regarding the effect of valproate and newer AEDs such as lamotrigine, gabapentin, vigabatrin, levetiracetam, and topiramate on bone metabolism and bone density are scanty and controversial. Deficiency of Vitamin D is commonly described as a cause for the bone loss in epileptic patients while others being decreased absorption of calcium, increased PTH levels, and inhibition of calcitonin secretion, etc. However, there are no formal practical guidelines for the management of bone disease among those taking AEDs. Evidence-based strategies regarding monitoring, prevention, and treatment of bone diseases in patients on AED therapy are needed. PMID:27843822

  13. Drug delivery monitoring by photoacoustic tomography with an ICG encapsulated double emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Fabiilli, Mario L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding

    2011-07-01

    The absorption spectrum of indocyanine green (ICG), a nontoxic dye used for medical diagnostics, depends upon its concentration as well as the nature of its environment, i.e., the solvent medium into which it is dissolved. In blood, ICG binds with plasma proteins, thus causing changes in its photoacoustic spectrum. We successfully encapsulated ICG in an ultrasound-triggerable perfluorocarbon double emulsion that prevents ICG from binding with plasma proteins. Photoacoustic spectral measurements on point target as well as 2-D photoacoustic images of blood vessels revealed that the photoacoustic spectrum changes significantly in blood when the ICG-loaded emulsion undergoes acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), which is the conversion of liquid droplets into gas bubbles using ultrasound. We propose that these changes in the photoacoustic spectrum of the ICG emulsion in blood, coupled with photoacoustic tomography, could be used to spatially and quantitatively monitor ultrasound initiated drug delivery. In addition, we suggest that the photoacoustic spectral change induced by ultrasound exposure could also be used as contrast in photoacoustic imaging to obtain a background free image.

  14. Drug delivery monitoring by photoacoustic tomography with an ICG encapsulated double emulsion.

    PubMed

    Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Fabiilli, Mario L; Fowlkes, J Brian; Carson, Paul L; Wang, Xueding

    2011-07-18

    The absorption spectrum of indocyanine green (ICG), a nontoxic dye used for medical diagnostics, depends upon its concentration as well as the nature of its environment, i.e., the solvent medium into which it is dissolved. In blood, ICG binds with plasma proteins, thus causing changes in its photoacoustic spectrum. We successfully encapsulated ICG in an ultrasound-triggerable perfluorocarbon double emulsion that prevents ICG from binding with plasma proteins. Photoacoustic spectral measurements on point target as well as 2-D photoacoustic images of blood vessels revealed that the photoacoustic spectrum changes significantly in blood when the ICG-loaded emulsion undergoes acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), which is the conversion of liquid droplets into gas bubbles using ultrasound. We propose that these changes in the photoacoustic spectrum of the ICG emulsion in blood, coupled with photoacoustic tomography, could be used to spatially and quantitatively monitor ultrasound initiated drug delivery. In addition, we suggest that the photoacoustic spectral change induced by ultrasound exposure could also be used as contrast in photoacoustic imaging to obtain a background free image.

  15. Monitoring the osmotic response of single yeast cells through force measurement in the environmental scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Anna; Nafari, Alexandra; Hedfalk, Kristina; Olsson, Eva; Svensson, Krister; Sanz-Velasco, Anke

    2014-02-01

    We present a measurement system that combines an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). This combination enables studies of static and dynamic mechanical properties of hydrated specimens, such as individual living cells. The integrated AFM sensor provides direct and continuous force measurement based on piezoresistive force transduction, allowing the recording of events in the millisecond range. The in situ ESEM-AFM setup was used to study Pichia pastoris wild-type yeast cells. For the first time, a quantified measure of the osmotic response of an individual yeast cell inside an ESEM is presented. With this technique, cell size changes due to humidity variations can be monitored with nanometre accuracy. In addition, mechanical properties were extracted from load-displacement curves. A Young's modulus of 13-15 MPa was obtained for the P. pastoris yeast cells. The developed method is highly interesting as a complementary tool for the screening of drugs directed towards cellular water transport activity and provides new possibilities of studying mechanosensitive regulation of aquaporins.

  16. First principles calculation on the structure and electronic properties of BNNTs functionalized with isoniazid drug molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Nabanita; Pati, Swapan K.; Deka, Ramesh C.

    2012-09-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires and nanotubes are stimulating tremendous research interest due to their structural, electronic and magnetic properties. We perform first principles calculation using density functional theory on the structural, and electronics properties of BNNTs adsorbed with isoniazid (INH) drug via noncovalent functionalization using the GGA/PBE functional and DZP basis set implemented in SIESTA program. The band structure, density of states and projected density of states (PDOS) plots suggest that isoniazid prefers to get adsorbed at the hollow site in case of (5,5) BNNT, whereas in (10,0) BNNT it favours the bridge site. The adsorption energy of INH onto (5,5) BNNT is smaller than in (10,0) BNNT which proposes that (10,0) BNNT with a larger radius compared to (5,5) BNNT is more favourable for INH adsorption as the corresponding distortion energy will also be quite lower. Functionalization of (5,5) and (10,0) BNNTs with isoniazid displays the presence of new impurity states (dispersionless bands) within the HOMO-LUMO energy gap of pristine BNNT leading to an increase in reactivity of the INH/BNNT system and lowering of the energy gap of the BNNTs. The PDOS plots show the major contribution towards the dispersionless impurity states is from INH molecule itself rather than from BNNT near the Fermi energy region. To summarize, noncovalent functionalization of BNNTs with isoniazid drug modulates the electronic properties of the pristine BNNT by lowering its energy gap with respect to the Fermi level, as well as demonstrating the preferential site selectivity for adsorption of isoniazid onto the nanotube sidewalls of varying chirality.

  17. A vision for the systematic monitoring and improvement of the quality of electronic health data.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Brian E; Rosenman, Marc; Xia, Yuni; Grannis, Shaun J

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with the implementation of information and communications systems, health care organizations are beginning to amass large-scale repositories of clinical and administrative data. Many nations seek to leverage so-called Big Data repositories to support improvements in health outcomes, drug safety, health surveillance, and care delivery processes. An unsupported assumption is that electronic health care data are of sufficient quality to enable the varied use cases envisioned by health ministries. The reality is that many electronic health data sources are of suboptimal quality and unfit for particular uses. To more systematically define, characterize and improve electronic health data quality, we propose a novel framework for health data stewardship. The framework is adapted from prior data quality research outside of health, but it has been reshaped to apply a systems approach to data quality with an emphasis on health outcomes. The proposed framework is a beginning, not an end. We invite the biomedical informatics community to use and adapt the framework to improve health data quality and outcomes for populations in nations around the world.

  18. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... phonocardiographic monitor is a device designed to detect, measure, and record fetal heart sounds electronically,...

  19. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... phonocardiographic monitor is a device designed to detect, measure, and record fetal heart sounds electronically,...

  20. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... phonocardiographic monitor is a device designed to detect, measure, and record fetal heart sounds electronically,...

  1. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... phonocardiographic monitor is a device designed to detect, measure, and record fetal heart sounds electronically,...

  2. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging for real-time monitoring of Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sathiya, M; Leriche, J-B; Salager, E; Gourier, D; Tarascon, J-M; Vezin, H

    2015-02-09

    Batteries for electrical storage are central to any future alternative energy paradigm. The ability to probe the redox mechanisms occurring at electrodes during their operation is essential to improve battery performances. Here we present the first report on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance operando spectroscopy and in situ imaging of a Li-ion battery using Li2Ru0.75Sn0.25O3, a high-capacity (>270 mAh g(-1)) Li-rich layered oxide, as positive electrode. By monitoring operando the electron paramagnetic resonance signals of Ru(5+) and paramagnetic oxygen species, we unambiguously prove the formation of reversible (O2)(n-) species that contribute to their high capacity. In addition, we visualize by imaging with micrometric resolution the plating/stripping of Li at the negative electrode and highlight the zones of nucleation and growth of Ru(5+)/oxygen species at the positive electrode. This efficient way to locate 'electron'-related phenomena opens a new area in the field of battery characterization that should enable future breakthroughs in battery research.

  3. Unifying mechanism for toxicity and addiction by abused drugs: electron transfer and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter; Cooksy, Andrew L

    2005-01-01

    Abused drugs are of grave concern throughout the world for a variety of reasons. Although impressive advances have been made, there are many unknown mechanistic aspects. This report presents a novel hypothesis based on a unifying theme for action of the major classes of abused drugs, in addition to commonly abused therapeutic drugs. The approach is based on electron transfer (ET), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and oxidative stress (OS). It is significant that physiologically active substances generally incorporate ET functionalities, either per se, or more usually in their metabolites. In order to achieve ET in vivo, the reduction potential must be more positive than -0.5 V, which is the case for metabolites of abused drugs, except for special cases. Since the ET process is catalytic, only small quantities of agent are needed for generation of large amounts of ROS during redox cycyling. Bioaction with cellular materials could entail ET alone or participation of ROS. In the abused category, among the main classes of ET functionalities are quinones and iminiums, with alpha-dicarbonyl and nitroxyl radical being rarer. Nicotine yields nicotine iminium, myosmine iminium, and DNA base iminium via alkylation by a metabolic nitrosamine. In the case of alcohol, diacetyl (an alpha-dicarbonyl) is formed, which can lead to conjugated imine (or iminium) by condensation with pri-amine of protein. Phencyclidine is unusual since the iminium product is non-conjugated. However, data indicate that the conformation present at the binding site can accommodate delocalization of the derived radical. For cocaine, various metabolites may play a role: iminium, nitroxyl radical, nitrosonium and formaldehyde. Dealkylation of the ether moiety of ecstasy provides a catechol function capable of redox cycling with the o-quinone partner. Amphetamine and methamphetamine also appear to function by way of the catechol route, as well as morphine and heroin. Tetrahydrocannabinol produces an epoxide, a

  4. Quantum-dot-conjugated graphene as a probe for simultaneous cancer-targeted fluorescent imaging, tracking, and monitoring drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Ling; He, Ye-Ju; Chen, Xu-Wei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2013-03-20

    We report a novel quantum-dot-conjugated graphene, i.e., hybrid SiO2-coated quantum dots (HQDs)-conjugated graphene, for targeted cancer fluorescent imaging, tracking, and monitoring drug delivery, as well as cancer therapy. The hybrid SiO2 shells on the surface of QDs not only mitigate its toxicity, but also protect its fluorescence from being quenched by graphene. By functionalizing the surface of HQDs-conjugated graphene (graphene-HQDs) with transferrin (Trf), we developed a targeted imaging system capable of differential uptake and imaging of cancer cells that express the Trf receptor. The widely used fluorescent antineoplastic anthracycline drug, doxorubicin (DOX), is adsorbed on the surface of graphene and results in a large loading capacity of 1.4 mg mg(-1). It is advantageous that the new delivery system exhibits different fluorescence color in between graphene-HQDs and DOX in the aqueous core upon excitation at a same wavelength for the purpose of tracking and monitoring drug delivery. This simple multifunctional nanoparticle system can deliver DOX to the targeted cancer cells and enable us to localize the graphene-HQDs and monitor intracellular DOX release. The specificity and safety of the nanoparticle conjugate for cancer imaging, monitoring, and therapy has been demonstrated in vitro.

  5. pH-Triggered SrTiO3:Er Nanofibers with Optically Monitored and Controlled Drug Delivery Functionality.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yike; Li, Xiang; Sun, Chuanbin; Ren, Zhaohui; Weng, Wenjian; Mao, Chuanbin; Han, Gaorong

    2015-11-18

    The design of multifunctional localized drug delivery systems (LDDSs) has been endeavored in the past decades worldwide. The matrix material of LDDSs is known as a crucial factor for the success of its transformation from the laboratory to clinical practices. Herein, a biocompatible ceramic, strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO), was utilized as the matrix. A variety of fine Er doped SrTiO3 (STO:Er) nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning. After the surface functionalization with amino groups, the drug loading capacity of STO:Er nanofibers is dramatically increased. The nanofibers present a rather sustained drug releasing behavior in the media with pH of 7.4, and the release kinetics is significantly accelerated with the decreased pH value from 7.4 to 4.7. Furthermore, the intensity of the spectrum emitted from the STO:Er nanofibers corresponds well with the drug releasing progress under the excitation of near-infrared spectrum (∼980 nm). Fast drug release behavior (in an acid environment) induces a rapid intensity enhancing effect of photoluminescence emission and vice versa. The main mechanism is attributed to the quenching effect induced by the C-Hx groups of IBU molecules with vibration frequencies from 2850 to 3000 cm(-1). Such new STO:Er nanofibers with pH-triggered and optically monitored drug delivery functionalities have therefore been considered as another new localized drug delivery platform for modern tumor diagnosis and therapy.

  6. Sentinel network for monitoring in vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs in Colombia: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Aponte, Samanda L; Díaz, Gustavo; Pava, Zuleima; Echeverry, Diego F; Ibarguen, Darío; Rios, Melissa; Murcia, Luz M; Quelal, Claudia; Murillo, Claribel; Gil, Pedro; Björkman, Anders; Osorio, Lyda

    2011-08-01

    Drug resistance is one of the principal obstacles blocking worldwide malaria control. In Colombia, malaria remains a major public health concern and drug-resistant parasites have been reported. In vitro drug susceptibility assays are a useful tool for monitoring the emergence and spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. The present study was conducted as a proof of concept for an antimalarial drug resistance surveillance network based on in vitro susceptibility testing in Colombia. Sentinel laboratories were set up in three malaria endemic areas. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay-histidine rich protein 2 and schizont maturation methods were used to assess the susceptibility of fresh P. falciparum isolates to six antimalarial drugs. This study demonstrates that an antimalarial drug resistance surveillance network based on in vitro methods is feasible in the field with the participation of a research institute, local health institutions and universities. It could also serve as a model for a regional surveillance network. Preliminary susceptibility results showed widespread chloroquine resistance, which was consistent with previous reports for the Pacific region. However, high susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin and lumefantrine compounds, currently used for treatment in the country, was also reported. The implementation process identified critical points and opportunities for the improvement of network sustainability strategies.

  7. A Novel High Throughput Assay for Anthelmintic Drug Screening and Resistance Diagnosis by Real-Time Monitoring of Parasite Motility

    PubMed Central

    Smout, Michael J.; Kotze, Andrew C.; McCarthy, James S.; Loukas, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Background Helminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed by observing motility or development of parasites using laborious, subjective, low-throughput methods. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a novel application for a real-time cell monitoring device (xCELLigence) that can simply and objectively assess anthelmintic effects by measuring parasite motility in real time in a fully automated high-throughput fashion. We quantitatively assessed motility and determined real time IC50 values of different anthelmintic drugs against several developmental stages of major helminth pathogens of humans and livestock, including larval Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides ratti, and adult hookworms and blood flukes. The assay enabled quantification of the onset of egg hatching in real time, and the impact of drugs on hatch rate, as well as discriminating between the effects of drugs on motility of drug-susceptible and –resistant isolates of H. contortus. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that this technique will be suitable for discovery and development of new anthelmintic drugs as well as for detection of phenotypic resistance to existing drugs for the majority of helminths and other pathogens where motility is a measure of pathogen viability. The method is also amenable to use for other purposes where motility is assessed, such as gene silencing or antibody-mediated killing. PMID:21103363

  8. A single subexcitation-energy electron can induce a double-strand break in DNA modified by platinum chemotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Elahe; Cloutier, Pierre; Hunting, Darel J; Sanche, Léon

    2014-06-01

    The sensitization of malignant cells to ionizing radiation is the clinical rationale for the use of platinum-drug-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for cancer treatment; however, the specific mechanisms of radiosensitization and their respective contributions still remain unknown. Biological mechanisms such as inhibition of DNA repair may contribute to the efficacy of CCRT; nevertheless, there is a dearth of information on the possible contribution of nanoscopic mechanisms to the generation of lethal DNA lesions, such as double-strand breaks (DSB). The present study demonstrates that the abundant near zero-eV (0.5 eV) electrons, created by ionizing radiation during radiotherapy, induce DSB in supercoiled plasmid DNA modified by platinum-containing anticancer drugs (Pt drugs), but not in unmodified DNA. They do so more efficiently than other types of radiation, including soft X-rays and 10 eV electrons. The formation of DSB by 0.5 eV electrons is found to be a single-hit process. These findings reveal insights into the radiosensitization mechanism of Pt drugs that can have implications for the development of optimal clinical protocols for platinum-based CCRT and the deployment of in situ sources of subexcitation-energy electrons (e.g., Auger electron-emitting radionuclides) to efficiently enhance DSB formation in DNA modified by Pt drugs in malignant cells.

  9. Student Drug Use, Attitudes, and Beliefs in the Department of Defense Dependent Schools Class of 1982. Monitoring the Future. Occasional Paper Series, Paper 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    This paper compared findings from a drug use and related attitudes survey with those from the Monitoring the Future study. The comparison group consisted of high school seniors who attended the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS) in 1982. The current prevalence of drug use among high school seniors in DoDDS and comparisons of drug use…

  10. Motion Compensated Ultrasound Imaging Allows Thermometry and Image Guided Drug Delivery Monitoring from Echogenic Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ektate, Kalyani; Kapoor, Ankur; Maples, Danny; Tuysuzoglu, Ahmet; VanOsdol, Joshua; Ramasami, Selvarani; Ranjan, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is widely used both for cancer diagnosis and to assess therapeutic success, but due to its weak tissue contrast and the short half-life of commercially available contrast agents, it is currently not practical for assessing motion compensated contrast-enhanced tumor imaging, or for determining time-resolved absolute tumor temperature while simultaneously reporting on drug delivery. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop echogenic heat sensitive liposomes (E-LTSL) and non-thermosensitive liposomes (E-NTSL) to enhance half-life of contrast agents, and 2) measure motion compensated temperature induced state changes in acoustic impedance and Laplace pressure of liposomes to monitor temperature and doxorubicin (Dox) delivery to tumors. LTSL and NTSL containing Dox were co-loaded with an US contrast agent (perfluoropentane, PFP) using a one-step sonoporation method to create E-LTSL and E-NTSL. To determine temperature induced intensity variation with respect to the state change of E-LTSL and E-NTSL in mouse colon tumors, cine acquisition of 20 frames/second for about 20 min (or until wash out) at temperatures of 42°C, 39.5°C, and 37°C was performed. A rigid rotation and translation was applied to each of the “key frames” to adjust for any gross motion that arose due to motion of the animal or the transducer. To evaluate the correlation between ultrasound (US) intensity variation and Dox release at various temperatures, treatment (5 mg Dox/kg) was administered via a tail vein once tumors reached a size of 300-400 mm3, and mean intensity within regions of interest (ROIs) defined for each sample was computed over the collected frames and normalized in the range of [0,1]. When the motion compensation technique was applied, a > 2-fold drop in standard deviation in mean image intensity of tumor was observed, enabling a more robust estimation of temporal variations in tumor temperatures for 15-20 min. due to state change of E-LTSL and E

  11. Clobazam Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature with Proposals to Improve Future Studies

    PubMed Central

    de Leon, Jose; Spina, Edoardo; Diaz, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clobazam was recently approved for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in the US. There is no published review article focused on clobazam therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in English. Methods More than two hundred clobazam articles identified by a PubMed search were carefully reviewed for information on clobazam pharmacokinetics. Clobazam is mainly metabolized by a cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme, CYP3A4, to its active metabolite, N-desmethylclobazam. Then, N-desmethylclobazam is mainly metabolized by CYP2C19 unless the individual has no CYP2C19 activity (poor metabolizer, PM). Results Using a mechanistic approach to reinterpret the published findings of steady-state TDM and single-dosing pharmacokinetic studies, four different serum clobazam concentration ratios were studied. The available limited steady-state TDM data suggest that the serum N-desmethylclobazam/clobazam ratio can be useful for clinicians, including identifying CYP2C19 PMs (ratio >25 in the absence of inhibitors). There are three possible concentration/dose (C/D) ratios. The clobazam C/D ratio has the potential to measure the contribution of CYP3A4 activity to the clearance of clobazam from the body. The N-desmethylclobazam C/D ratio does not appear to be a good measure of clobazam clearance and should be substituted with the total (clobazam+N-desmethylclobazam) C/D ratio. Conclusions Future clobazam TDM studies need to use trough concentrations after steady-state has been reached (>3 weeks in normal individuals and several months in CYP2C19 PMs). These future studies need to explore the potential of clobazam and total C/D ratios. Better studies on the relative potency of N-desmethylclobazam compared to the parent compound are needed to provide weighted total serum concentrations that correct for the possible lower N-desmethylclobazam pharmacodynamic activity. Standardization and more studies of C/D ratios from clobazam and other drugs can be helpful to move TDM forward. PMID:23318278

  12. Microfabricated Reciprocating Micropump for Intracochlear Drug Delivery with Integrated Drug/Fluid Storage and Electronically Controlled Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Vishal; Kang, Woo Seok; Robbins, Tremaan A.; Spencer, Abigail J.; Kim, Ernest S.; McKenna, Michael J.; Kujawa, Sharon G.; Fiering, Jason; Pararas, Erin E.L.; Mescher, Mark J.; Sewell, William F.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    The anatomical and pharmacological inaccessibility of the inner ear is a major challenge in drug-based treatment of auditory disorders. This also makes pharmacokinetic characterization of new drugs with systemic delivery challenging, because efficacy is coupled with how efficiently a drug can reach its target. Direct delivery of drugs to cochlear fluids bypasses pharmacokinetic barriers and helps to minimize systemic toxicity, but anatomical barriers make administration of multiple doses difficult without an automated delivery system. Such a system may be required for hair-cell regeneration treatments, which will likely require timed delivery of several drugs. To address these challenges, we have developed a micropump for controlled, automated inner-ear drug delivery with the ultimate goal of producing a long-term implantable/wearable delivery system. The current pump is designed to be used with a head mount for guinea pigs in preclinical drug characterization experiments. In this system, we have addressed several microfluidic challenges, including maintaining controlled delivery at safe, low flow rates and delivering drug without increasing the volume of fluid in the cochlea. By integrating a drug reservoir and all fluidic components into the microfluidic structure of the pump, we have made the drug delivery system robust compared to previous systems that utilized separate, tubing-connected components. In this study, we characterized the pump’s unique infuse-withdraw and on-demand dosing capabilities on the bench and in guinea pig animal models. For the animal experiments, we used DNQX, a glutamate receptor antagonist, as a physiological indicator of drug delivery. DNQX suppresses compound action potentials (CAPs), so we were able to infer the distribution and spreading of the DNQX over time by measuring the changes in CAPs in response to stimuli at several characteristic frequencies. PMID:26778829

  13. Microfabricated reciprocating micropump for intracochlear drug delivery with integrated drug/fluid storage and electronically controlled dosing.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Vishal; Kang, Woo Seok; Robbins, Tremaan A; Spencer, Abigail J; Kim, Ernest S; McKenna, Michael J; Kujawa, Sharon G; Fiering, Jason; Pararas, Erin E L; Mescher, Mark J; Sewell, William F; Borenstein, Jeffrey T

    2016-03-07

    The anatomical and pharmacological inaccessibility of the inner ear is a major challenge in drug-based treatment of auditory disorders. This also makes pharmacokinetic characterization of new drugs with systemic delivery challenging, because efficacy is coupled with how efficiently a drug can reach its target. Direct delivery of drugs to cochlear fluids bypasses pharmacokinetic barriers and helps to minimize systemic toxicity, but anatomical barriers make administration of multiple doses difficult without an automated delivery system. Such a system may be required for hair-cell regeneration treatments, which will likely require timed delivery of several drugs. To address these challenges, we have developed a micropump for controlled, automated inner-ear drug delivery with the ultimate goal of producing a long-term implantable/wearable delivery system. The current pump is designed to be used with a head mount for guinea pigs in preclinical drug characterization experiments. In this system, we have addressed several microfluidic challenges, including maintaining controlled delivery at safe, low flow rates and delivering drug without increasing the volume of fluid in the cochlea. By integrating a drug reservoir and all fluidic components into the microfluidic structure of the pump, we have made the drug delivery system robust compared to previous systems that utilized separate, tubing-connected components. In this study, we characterized the pump's unique infuse-withdraw and on-demand dosing capabilities on the bench and in guinea pig animal models. For the animal experiments, we used DNQX, a glutamate receptor antagonist, as a physiological indicator of drug delivery. DNQX suppresses compound action potentials (CAPs), so we were able to infer the distribution and spreading of the DNQX over time by measuring the changes in CAPs in response to stimuli at several characteristic frequencies.

  14. Noncovalent chirality sensing ensembles for the detection and reaction monitoring of amino acids, peptides, proteins, and aromatic drugs.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Frank; Nau, Werner M

    2014-05-26

    Ternary complexes between the macrocyclic host cucurbit[8]uril, dicationic dyes, and chiral aromatic analytes afford strong induced circular dichroism (ICD) signals in the near-UV and visible regions. This allows for chirality sensing and peptide-sequence recognition in water at low micromolar analyte concentrations. The reversible and noncovalent mode of binding ensures an immediate response to concentration changes, which allows the real-time monitoring of chemical reactions. The introduced supramolecular method is likely to find applications in bioanalytical chemistry, especially enzyme assays, for drug-related analytical applications, and for continuous monitoring of enantioselective reactions, particularly asymmetric catalysis.

  15. Monitoring coherent electron wave packet excitation dynamics by two-color attosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a method to monitor coherent electron wave packet (CEWP) excitation dynamics with two-color attosecond laser pulses. Simulations are performed on aligned H2+ by numerically solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation with combinations of a resonant linearly polarized λl= 100/70 nm pump pulse and a circularly polarized λc=5 nm attosecond probe pulse. It is found that time dependent diffraction patterns in molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions (MFPADs) produced by the circular probe pulse exhibit sensitivity to the molecular alignments and time-dependent geometry of the CEWPs during and after the coherent excitation between the ground and excited states induced by the linear pump pulse. The time dependent MFPADs are described by an ultrafast diffraction model for the ionization of the bound CEWPs.

  16. Molecular modeling of interactions in electronic nose sensors for environmental monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Yen, S. -P. S.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding analyte interactions with sensors made from polymer-carbon black composite films. The sensors are used in an Electronic Nose (ENose) which is used for monitoring the breathing air quality in human habitats. The model mimics the experimental conditions of the composite film deposition and formation and was developed using molecular modeling and simulation tools. The Dreiding 2.21 Force Field was used for the polymer and analyte molecules while graphite parameters were assigned to the carbon black atoms. The polymer considered for this work is methyl vinyl ether / maleic acid copolymer. The target analytes include both inorganic (NH3) and organic (methanol) types of compound. Results indicate different composite-analyte interaction behavior.

  17. Real-time measurement of electron beam weld penetration in uranium by acoustic emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, J.W.; Murphy, J.L.

    1991-07-01

    High quality electron beam (EB) welds are required in uranium test articles. Acoustic emission (AE) techniques are under development with the goal of measuring weld penetration in real-time. One technique, based on Average Signal Level (ASL) measurement was used to record weld AE signatures. Characteristic AE signatures were recorded for bead-on-plate (BOP) and butt joint (BJ) welds made under varied welding conditions. AE waveforms were sampled to determine what microscopic AE behavior led to the observed macroscopic signature features. Deformation twinning and weld expulsion are two of the main sources of emission. AE behavior was correlated with weld penetration as measured by standard metallographic techniques. The ASL value was found to increase approximately linearly with weld penetration in BJ welds. These results form the basis for a real-time monitoring technique for weld penetration. 5 refs.

  18. An electronic device for monitoring escape behaviour in Musca and Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Snowball, M F; Holmqvist, M H

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an effective device for detecting the presence of a fly or small insect on a specially constructed detector pad. It was used successfully with Musca domestica (house fly) and Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). The detector works by utilising the detector pad as a variable capacitor which forms part of an RC oscillator. Its capacitance changes as the fly comes in contact with it and this change in capacitance is detected by the circuit. The detector uses cheap and readily available components and can be constructed without expert knowledge in electronics. It can be used to detect and determine the timing of the jump of a fly escaping in response to, say, a visual stimulus. It can also be used for screening of mutants of Drosophila which show altered escape responses and for monitoring locomotion of small animals.

  19. Fractal evaluation of drug amorphicity from optical and scanning electron microscope images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavriloaia, Bogdan-Mihai G.; Vizireanu, Radu C.; Neamtu, Catalin I.; Gavriloaia, Gheorghe V.

    2013-09-01

    Amorphous materials are metastable, more reactive than the crystalline ones, and have to be evaluated before pharmaceutical compound formulation. Amorphicity is interpreted as a spatial chaos, and patterns of molecular aggregates of dexamethasone, D, were investigated in this paper by using fractal dimension, FD. Images having three magnifications of D were taken from an optical microscope, OM, and with eight magnifications, from a scanning electron microscope, SEM, were analyzed. The average FD for pattern irregularities of OM images was 1.538, and about 1.692 for SEM images. The FDs of the two kinds of images are less sensitive of threshold level. 3D images were shown to illustrate dependence of FD of threshold and magnification level. As a result, optical image of single scale is enough to characterize the drug amorphicity. As a result, the OM image at a single scale is enough to characterize the amorphicity of D.

  20. Changes in drug disposition of lithium during pregnancy: a retrospective observational study of patient data from two routine therapeutic drug monitoring services in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Brekke, Malin; Molden, Espen; Skogvoll, Eirik; Aadal, Marianne; Spigset, Olav

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Pregnancy may cause changes in drug disposition, dose requirements and clinical response. For lithium, changes in disposition during pregnancy have so far been explored in a single-dose study on 4 participants only. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pregnancy on serum levels of lithium in a larger patient material in a naturalistic setting. Design A retrospective observational study of patient data from 2 routine therapeutic drug monitoring services in Norway, linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Setting Norway, October 1999 to December 2011. Measurements Dose-adjusted drug concentrations of lithium during pregnancy were compared with the women's own baseline (non-pregnant) values, using a linear mixed model. Results Overall, coupling 196 726 serum concentration measurements from 54 393 women to the national birth registry identified 25 serum lithium concentration analyses obtained from a total of 14 pregnancies in 13 women, and 63 baseline analyses from the same women. Dose-adjusted serum concentrations in the third trimester were significantly lower than baseline (−34%; CI −44% to −23%, p<0.001). Conclusions Pregnancy causes a clinically relevant decline in maternal lithium serum concentrations. In order to maintain stable lithium concentrations during the third trimester of pregnancy, doses generally need to be increased by 50%. Individual variability in decline implies that lithium levels should be even more closely monitored throughout pregnancy and in the puerperium than in non-pregnant women to ensure adequate dosing. PMID:28249852

  1. Drug companies monitor prescriptions and sales to fine-tune their marketing strategies.

    PubMed

    2010-06-01

    Market research companies analyse drug prescriptions and sales in community and hospital pharmacies, thus enabling drug companies to refine their marketing strategies. Some information of interest to drug companies is provided directly by healthcare professionals, sometimes unwittingly, and sometimes in return for small "favours".

  2. Incorporating electronic monitoring feedback into clinical care: a novel and promising adherence promotion approach.

    PubMed

    Herzer, Michele; Ramey, Christina; Rohan, Jennifer; Cortina, Sandra

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents case examples that document the preliminary clinical utility of using electronic monitoring (EM) feedback to tailor empirically validated adherence-promoting interventions, delivered in standard clinical practice. Challenges of utilizing EM in standard clinical practice as well as future directions are also discussed. Two adolescents referred for behavioral adherence promotion intervention are described. Each youth was provided a MEMS® bottle and one oral medication was chosen jointly by the therapist, family, and medical provider for adherence monitoring. Graphical MEMS® feedback was provided to families during intervention visits and subsequently used to tailor adherence interventions to target each family's unique needs. EM feedback was a feasible and clinically rich supplement to adherence-promoting interventions. EM facilitated identification of adherence barriers and successes, and open and non-adversarial discussions regarding adherence between patients, families, and clinicians, and provided real-time representations of patients' medication administration. These case presentations suggest that EM feedback can be a clinically useful tool when used as a supplement to an empirically supported intervention delivered in standard psychological practice aimed at adherence promotion among chronically ill youth.

  3. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L.; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa-1, a fast response time of <10 ms, high stability over >15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of <1 mW. The combination of a microstructured polydimethylsiloxane dielectric and the high-mobility semiconducting polyisoindigobithiophene-siloxane in a monolithic transistor design enabled us to operate the devices in the subthreshold regime, where the capacitance change upon compression of the dielectric is strongly amplified. We demonstrate that our sensors can be used for non-invasive, high fidelity, continuous radial artery pulse wave monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  4. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-01-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa(-1), a fast response time of <10 ms, high stability over >15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of <1 mW. The combination of a microstructured polydimethylsiloxane dielectric and the high-mobility semiconducting polyisoindigobithiophene-siloxane in a monolithic transistor design enabled us to operate the devices in the subthreshold regime, where the capacitance change upon compression of the dielectric is strongly amplified. We demonstrate that our sensors can be used for non-invasive, high fidelity, continuous radial artery pulse wave monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  5. On the ability of consumer electronics microphones for environmental noise monitoring.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, Timothy; Thomas, Pieter; Dominguez, Frederico; Dauwe, Samuel; Touhafi, Abdellah; Dhoedt, Bart; Botteldooren, Dick

    2011-03-01

    The massive production of microphones for consumer electronics, and the shift from dedicated processing hardware to PC-based systems, opens the way to build affordable, extensive noise measurement networks. Applications include e.g. noise limit and urban soundscape monitoring, and validation of calculated noise maps. Microphones are the critical components of such a network. Therefore, in a first step, some basic characteristics of 8 microphones, distributed over a wide range of price classes, were measured in a standardized way in an anechoic chamber. In a next step, a thorough evaluation was made of the ability of these microphones to be used for environmental noise monitoring. This was done during a continuous, half-year lasting outdoor experiment, characterized by a wide variety of meteorological conditions. While some microphones failed during the course of this test, it was shown that it is possible to identify cheap microphones that highly correlate to the reference microphone during the full test period. When the deviations are expressed in total A-weighted (road traffic) noise levels, values of less than 1 dBA are obtained, in excess to the deviation amongst reference microphones themselves.

  6. Thermographic In-Situ Process Monitoring of the Electron Beam Melting Technology used in Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Dehoff, Ryan R; Lloyd, Peter D; Lowe, Larry E; Ulrich, Joseph B

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been utilizing the ARCAM electron beam melting technology to additively manufacture complex geometric structures directly from powder. Although the technology has demonstrated the ability to decrease costs, decrease manufacturing lead-time and fabricate complex structures that are impossible to fabricate through conventional processing techniques, certification of the component quality can be challenging. Because the process involves the continuous deposition of successive layers of material, each layer can be examined without destructively testing the component. However, in-situ process monitoring is difficult due to metallization on inside surfaces caused by evaporation and condensation of metal from the melt pool. This work describes a solution to one of the challenges to continuously imaging inside of the chamber during the EBM process. Here, the utilization of a continuously moving Mylar film canister is described. Results will be presented related to in-situ process monitoring and how this technique results in improved mechanical properties and reliability of the process.

  7. ELECTRONIC MONITORING REVEALS HIGHLY VARIABLE ADHERENCE PATTERNS IN PATIENTS PRESCRIBED IVACAFTOR

    PubMed Central

    Siracusa, Christopher M.; Ryan, Jamie; Burns, Lisa; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Nanhua; Clancy, John P.; Drotar, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of CF treatments have shown suboptimal adherence, though little has been reported regarding adherence patterns to ivacaftor. Electronic monitoring (EM) of adherence is considered a gold standard of measurement. Methods Adherence rates by EM were prospectively obtained and patterns over time were analyzed. EM-derived adherence rates were compared to pharmacy refill history and self-report. Results 12 subjects (age 6-48 years; CFTR-G551D mutation) previously prescribed ivacaftor were monitored for a mean of 118 days. Overall adherence by EM was 61%(SD=28%) and decreased over time. Median duration between doses was 16.9 hours (IQR 13.9-24.1 hours) and increased over time. There was no correlation between EM-derived adherence and either refill history (84%, r=0.26, p=0.42) or self-report (100%, r=0.40, p=0.22). Conclusions Despite the promising nature of ivacaftor, our data suggest adherence rates are suboptimal and comparable to other prescribed CF therapies, and more commonly used assessments of adherence may be unreliable. PMID:26074007

  8. Spontaneous monitoring of adverse reactions to drugs by Italian dermatologists: a pilot study. Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    During 1988, the Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia (GISED) coordinated a pilot study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of a system for spontaneous monitoring of adverse drug reactions in dermatological practice in Italy. Approximately 400 dermatologists were asked to collaborate, and 141 agreed to the study. Procedures similar to those well established in other surveillance programs (including the use of standard forms and standardized assessment procedure) were adopted. In a 2-month period 775 reports were collected, of which 711 were maintained after careful evaluation. The general profile of the adverse reactions reported was in accordance with the experience derived by other spontaneous surveillance programs. The main purpose of spontaneous reporting systems is the identification of new reactions, and a model analysis was proposed, in our study, with reference to skin reactions to bamifylline. The demonstration of the feasibility of a drug-monitoring program in Italy, where little tradition exists in the area, is the most important result of our study.

  9. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging for real-time monitoring of Li-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Sathiya, M.; Leriche, J.-B.; Salager, E.; Gourier, D.; Tarascon, J.-M.; Vezin, H.

    2015-01-01

    Batteries for electrical storage are central to any future alternative energy paradigm. The ability to probe the redox mechanisms occurring at electrodes during their operation is essential to improve battery performances. Here we present the first report on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance operando spectroscopy and in situ imaging of a Li-ion battery using Li2Ru0.75Sn0.25O3, a high-capacity (>270 mAh g−1) Li-rich layered oxide, as positive electrode. By monitoring operando the electron paramagnetic resonance signals of Ru5+ and paramagnetic oxygen species, we unambiguously prove the formation of reversible (O2)n− species that contribute to their high capacity. In addition, we visualize by imaging with micrometric resolution the plating/stripping of Li at the negative electrode and highlight the zones of nucleation and growth of Ru5+/oxygen species at the positive electrode. This efficient way to locate ‘electron’-related phenomena opens a new area in the field of battery characterization that should enable future breakthroughs in battery research. PMID:25662295

  10. Monitoring Chemical and Biological Electron Transfer Reactions with a Fluorogenic Vitamin K Analogue Probe.

    PubMed

    Belzile, Mei-Ni; Godin, Robert; Durantini, Andrés M; Cosa, Gonzalo

    2016-12-21

    We report herein the design, synthesis, and characterization of a two-segment fluorogenic analogue of vitamin K, B-VKQ, prepared by coupling vitamin K3, also known as menadione (a quinone redox center), to a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorophore (a lipophilic reporter segment). Oxidation-reduction reactions, spectroelectrochemical studies, and enzymatic assays conducted in the presence of DT-diaphorase illustrate that the new probe shows reversible redox behavior on par with that of vitamin K, provides a high-sensitivity fluorescence signal, and is compatible with biological conditions, opening the door to monitor remotely (i.e., via imaging) redox processes in real time. In its oxidized form, B-VKQ is non-emissive, while upon reduction to the hydroquinone form, B-VKQH2, BODIPY fluorescence is restored, with emission quantum yield values of ca. 0.54 in toluene. Density functional theory studies validate a photoinduced electron transfer intramolecular switching mechanism, active in the non-emissive quinone form and deactivated upon reduction to the emissive dihydroquinone form. Our results highlight the potential of B-VKQ as a fluorogenic probe to study electron transfer and transport in model systems and biological structures with optimal sensitivity and desirable chemical specificity. Use of such a probe may enable a better understanding of the role that vitamin K plays in biological redox reactions ubiquitous in key cellular processes, and help elucidate the mechanism and pathological significance of these reactions in biological systems.

  11. Validation of a quick modeling program generating clearance estimates at steady state for routine therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    el Battah, A; Beglia, S; Alric, R

    1995-08-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of chronic treatments is justified for several reasons, including relative over- or underdosage due to variable individual elimination, pharmacokinetic interactions in drug combinations, and noncompliance. In all these circumstances, the prescribing physician is interested in having an estimation of the patient's clearance of the drug, even from one measurement. We compare a validated bayesian program, USC*Pack of Jelliffe, found difficult to use in daily routine, with a "home-made" program. The latter, which is capable of taking data from a clinical database, will generate a graphic simulation of daily plasma drug concentrations together with an estimation of steady-state clearance more rapidly than does USC*Pack. Both programs were run with only one measured plasma level. The patients were 83 children or young adults treated with phenobarbital (PB), carbamazepine (CBZ), and/or Valproic acid (VPA) who were resistant to monotherapy and who were to be sampled two to four times between doses. Drugs were routinely assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Despite the rough character of Phacile (numeric integration and adjustment of only two of three parameters, without an acknowledged minimization algorithm), the results are comparable to those obtained with USC*Pack for estimating clearance and predicting plasma drug concentrations. Phacile algorithm, although simple, has proven of interest in routine TDM and as an introduction for medical students to the bayesian approach of population pharmacokinetics.

  12. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A.; Kovács, A.; Mehta, K.; Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S.

    2010-03-01

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  13. High resolution parallel reaction monitoring with electron transfer dissociation for middle-down proteomics.

    PubMed

    Sweredoski, Michael J; Moradian, Annie; Raedle, Matthias; Franco, Catarina; Hess, Sonja

    2015-08-18

    In recent years, middle-down proteomics has emerged as a popular technique for the characterization and quantification of proteins not readily amenable to typical bottom-up approaches. So far, all high resolution middle-down approaches are done in data-dependent acquisition mode, using both collision-induced dissociation or electron capture/transfer dissociation techniques. Here, we explore middle-down proteomics with electron transfer dissociation using a targeted acquisition mode, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), on an Orbitrap Fusion. As an example of a highly modified protein, we used histone H3 fractions from untreated and DMSO-treated Murine ErythroLeukemia (MEL) cells. We first determined optimized instrument parameters to obtain high sequence coverage using a synthetic standard peptide. We then setup a combined method of both MS1 scans and PRM scans of the 20 most abundant combinations of methylation and acetylation of the +10 charge state of the N-terminal tail of H3. Weak cation exchange hydrophilic interaction chromatography was used to separate the N-terminal H3 tail, primarily, by its acetylation and, to a secondary degree, by its methylation status, which aided in the interpretation of the results. After deconvolution of the highly charged ions, peaks were annotated to a minimum set of 254 H3 proteoforms in the untreated and treated samples. Upon DMSO treatment, global quantitation changes from the MS1 level show a relative decrease of 2, 3, 4, and 5 acetylations and an increase of 0 and 1 acetylations. A fragment ion map was developed to visualize specific differences between treated and untreated samples. Taken together, the data presented here show that middle-down proteomics with electron transfer dissociation using PRM is a novel, attractive method for the effective analysis and quantification of large and highly modified peptides.

  14. Emerging Technologies for Monitoring Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis at the Point-of-Care

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Vigneshwaran; Wang, ShuQi; Inci, Fatih; De Libero, Gennaro; Singhal, Amit; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Among them, tuberculosis (TB) remains a major threat to public health, exacerbated by the emergence of multiple drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). MDR-Mtb strains are resistant to first-line anti-TB drugs such as isoniazid and rifampicin; whereas XDR-Mtb strains are resistant to additional drugs including at least to any fluoroquinolone and at least one of the second-line anti-TB injectable drugs such as kanamycin, capreomycin, or amikacin. Clinically, these strains have significantly impacted the management of TB in high-incidence developing countries, where systemic surveillance of TB drug resistance is lacking. For effective management of TB on-site, early detection of drug resistance is critical to initiate treatment, to reduce mortality, and to thwart drug-resistant TB transmission. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic challenges to detect drug-resistant TB at the point-of-care (POC). Moreover, we present the latest advances in nano/microscale technologies that can potentially detect TB drug resistance to improve on-site patient care. PMID:24882226

  15. In vivo gastrointestinal drug-release monitoring through second near-infrared window fluorescent bioimaging with orally delivered microcarriers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Wenxing; Li, Xiaomin; Zhang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive monitoring of gastrointestinal drug release in vivo is extremely challenging because of the limited spatial resolution and long scanning time of existing bioimaging modalities, such as X-ray radiation and magnetic resonance. Here, we report a novel microcarrier that can retain drugs and withstand the harsh conditions of gastrointestinal tract. Significantly, we can track the microcarrier fate and semi-quantitatively monitor the content of drug released in vivo in real time by measuring the fluorescence signals in the second near-infrared window of lanthanide-based downconversion nanoparticles with an absorption competition-induced emission bioimaging system. The microcarriers show a prolonged residence time of up to 72 h in the gastrointestinal tract, releasing up to 62% of their content. Moreover, minimal deposition of the microcarriers is found in non-target organs, such as the liver, spleen and kidney. These findings provide novel insights for the development of therapeutic and bioimaging strategies of orally administered drugs. PMID:28281530

  16. Development of an On-animal Separation-based Sensor for Monitoring Drug Metabolism in Freely Roaming Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David E.; Willis, Sean D.; Gabbert, Seth; Johnson, Dave A.; Naylor, Erik; Janle, Elsa M.; Krichevsky, Janice E.; Lunte, Craig E.; Lunte, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of an on-animal separation-based sensor that can be employed for monitoring drug metabolism in a freely roaming sheep is described. The system consists of microdialysis sampling coupled directly to microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection (MD-ME-EC). Separations were accomplished using an all-glass chip with integrated platinum working and reference electrodes. Discrete samples from the microdialysis flow were introduced into the electrophoresis chip using a flow-gated injection approach. Electrochemical detection was accomplished in-channel using a two-electrode isolated potentiostat. Nitrite was separated by microchip electrophoresis using reverse polarity and a run buffer consisting of 50 mM phosphate at pH 7.4. The entire system was under telemetry control. The system was first tested with rats to monitor the production of nitrite following introduction of nitroglycerin into the subdermal tissue using a linear probe. The data acquired using the on-line MD-ME-EC system was compared to that obtained off-line analysis by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (LC-EC), using a second microdialysis probe implanted parallel to the first probe in the same animal. The MD-ME-EC device was then used on-animal to monitor the subdermal metabolism of nitroglycerin in sheep. The ultimate goal is to use this device to simultaneously monitor drug metabolism and behavior in a freely roaming animal. PMID:25697221

  17. Human cytomegalovirus resistance to antiviral drugs: diagnosis, monitoring and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Baldanti, Fausto; Gerna, Giuseppe

    2003-09-01

    The incidence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) disease in AIDS patients decreased dramatically after the introduction, a few years ago, of highly active antiretroviral combination therapy. As a consequence, the emergence of drug-resistant HCMV strains is no longer a major problem in HIV-infected individuals. However, HCMV resistance to antiviral drugs is presently recognized as an emerging problem in transplantation settings. The mechanisms of HCMV drug resistance will be analysed along with the clinical features relevant to the emergence of drug-resistant HCMV strains during antiviral treatment of patients receiving either solid organ or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  18. Benefits of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Vancomycin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhi-Kang; Tang, Hui-Lin; Zhai, Suo-Di

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective The necessity of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for vancomycin is controversial. The objective of the current review was to evaluate the available evidence for the necessity of TDM in patients given vancomycin to treat Gram-positive infections. Methods Medline, Embase, Web of Sciences, the Cochrane Library and two Chinese literature databases (CNKI, CBM) were searched. Randomized controlled studies and observational studies that compared the clinical outcomes of TDM groups vs. non-TDM groups were included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. The primary outcome was clinical efficacy of therapy. Secondary outcomes included vancomycin associated nephrotoxicity, duration of vancomycin therapy, length of hospital stay, and mortality. Meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed effect method (FEM). Odds ratios (ORs) or weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated for categorical and continuous outcomes, respectively. Results One randomized controlled trial (RCT) and five cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with non-TDM groups, TDM groups had significantly higher rates of clinical efficacy (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.34–5.11 P = 0.005) and decreased rates of nephrotoxicity (OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.13–0.48 P<0.0001). Subgroup analyses showed that TDM group had significantly higher rates of clinical efficacy in both cohort studies subgroup (OR = 3.04, 95%CI 1.34–6.90) and in Asian population subgroup (OR = 3.04, 95%CI 1.34–6.90). TDM group had significantly decreased rates of nephrotoxicity in all subgroup. There was no significant difference in duration of vancomycin therapy (WMD = −0.40, 95%CI −2.83–2.02 P = 0.74) or length of stay (WMD = −1.01, 95%CI −7.51-5.49 P = 0.76) between TDM and non-TDM groups. Subgroup analyses showed there were no differences in duration of vancomycin therapy. Only one study reported

  19. Posaconazole Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Pediatrics and Young Adults with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Valeria A.; Cross, Shane J.; Crews, Kristine R.; Flynn, Patricia M.; Hoffman, James M.; Knapp, Katherine M.; Pauley, Jennifer L.; Molinelli, Alejandro R.; Greene, William L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited information exists regarding the use of posaconazole for treating systemic fungal infections in children, adolescent, and young adult patients with cancer. At St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, the recommended posaconazole dose in patients less than 34 kg is 18–24 mg/kg daily given in 4 divided doses. For patients 13 years and older or those weighing 34 kg or more, the recommended dose is 800 mg daily given orally in four divided doses. OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to determine if the current posaconazole dosing guidelines achieved target posaconazole plasma concentrations of ≥ 0.7 μg/mL. METHODS We examined data from patients who received treatment-dose posaconazole with at least one posaconazole plasma concentration measurement. RESULTS Data from 33 patients who received posaconazole for the treatment of fungal infections were analyzed. The median age of patients was 11.5 years (range 0.5–23.2 years). Twenty-one patients out of 33 (63.6%) had posaconazole concentrations of ≥ 0.7 μg/mL (median 1.4 μg/mL; range 0.7–2.98 μg/mL) at the first measurement. The median posaconazole dosage referenced to total body weight in these patients was 20 mg/kg per day. Patients with concentrations < 0.7 μg/mL (median 0.4 μg/mL; range 0.025–0.69 μg/mL) received lower posaconazole dosages when referenced to body weight (median 12.9 mg/kg per day; p = 0.02). Of the 12 patients with concentrations < 0.7 μg/mL, seven (58.3%) were 13 years of age or older. CONCLUSIONS The current dosing approach for posaconazole yielded therapeutic plasma concentrations more frequently in patients < 13 than those > 13 years of age. This difference may be related to the practice of capping adolescent and young adult doses at the suggested maximum adult daily dose. Therefore, we recommend weight-based dosing in all pediatric, adolescent and young adult cancer patients with routine therapeutic drug monitoring in all patients to ensure adequate

  20. Clinical outcomes of the inclusion of the therapeutic drug monitoring report in the electronic clinical record.

    PubMed

    Sáez Belló, Marina; Moya Gil, Ana; López Montenegro Soria, M Ángeles; Sánchez Sancho, Pablo; Frias Ruiz, Pau; Climente Martí, Mónica

    2016-09-01

    Objetivos: Valorar la integración del informe de monitorización farmacocinética (IMFC) en la historia clínica electrónica (HCE). Método: Estudio observacional ambispectivo de cohortes de 149 días de duración: PRE (retrospectiva, 49 días) con emisión del IMFC en papel y POST (prospectiva, 100 días) con emisión del IMFC integrado en HCE. Criterios de exclusión: Pacientes no ingresados, solicitudes de monitorización farmacocinética de unidades de críticos y neonatos, así como monitorizaciones cuyo objetivo no era el ajuste posológico.

  1. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides a summary of drug use trends from a survey of nearly 50,000 eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth- grade students nationwide. It also includes perceived risk, personal disapproval, and perceived availability of each drug by this group. A synopsis of the methods used in the study and an overview of the key results from the 2006 survey…

  2. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This publication presents an overview of the 2000 survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students, with a particular emphasis on recent trends in the use of various licit and illicit drugs. It also shows trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug, which this study has shown to be particularly important…

  3. Monitoring model drug microencapsulation in PLGA scaffolds using X-ray powder diffraction.

    PubMed

    Aina, Adeyinka; Gupta, Manish; Boukari, Yamina; Morris, Andrew; Billa, Nashiru; Doughty, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    The microencapsulation of three model drugs; metronidazole, paracetamol and sulphapyridine into Poly (dl-Lactide-Co-Glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds were probed using X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD). Changes in the diffraction patterns of the PLGA scaffolds after encapsulation was suggestive of a chemical interaction between the pure drugs and the scaffolds and not a physical intermixture.

  4. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid-1960s, when illicit drug use burgeoned in the normal youth population, substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly changing phenomenon. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How vigorously the nation responds to…

  5. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1960s, when illicit drug use burgeoned in the normal youth population, substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly changing phenomenon. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How vigorously the nation responds to…

  6. Monitoring model drug microencapsulation in PLGA scaffolds using X-ray powder diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Aina, Adeyinka; Gupta, Manish; Boukari, Yamina; Morris, Andrew; Billa, Nashiru; Doughty, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The microencapsulation of three model drugs; metronidazole, paracetamol and sulphapyridine into Poly (dl-Lactide-Co-Glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds were probed using X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD). Changes in the diffraction patterns of the PLGA scaffolds after encapsulation was suggestive of a chemical interaction between the pure drugs and the scaffolds and not a physical intermixture. PMID:27013917

  7. Distinguishing hazards and harms, adverse drug effects and adverse drug reactions : implications for drug development, clinical trials, pharmacovigilance, biomarkers, and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2013-03-01

    The terms 'adverse drug effects' and 'adverse drug reactions' are commonly used interchangeably, but they have different implications. Adverse drug reactions arise when a compound (e.g. a drug or metabolite, a contaminant or adulterant) is distributed in the same place as a body tissue (e.g. a receptor, enzyme, or ion channel), and the encounter results in an adverse effect (a physiological or pathological change), which results in a clinically appreciable adverse reaction. Both the adverse effect and the adverse reaction have manifestations by which they can be recognized: adverse effects are usually detected by laboratory tests (e.g. biochemical, haematological, immunological, radiological, pathological) or by clinical investigations (e.g. endoscopy, cardiac catheterization), and adverse reactions by their clinical manifestations (symptoms and/or signs). This distinction suggests five scenarios: (i) adverse reactions can result directly from adverse effects; (ii) adverse effects may not lead to appreciable adverse reactions; (iii) adverse reactions can occur without preceding adverse effects; (iv) adverse effects and reactions may be dissociated; and (v) adverse effects and reactions can together constitute syndromes. Defining an adverse drug reaction as "an appreciably harmful or unpleasant reaction, resulting from an intervention related to the use of a medicinal product" suggests a definition of an adverse drug effect: "a potentially harmful effect resulting from an intervention related to the use of a medicinal product, which constitutes a hazard and may or may not be associated with a clinically appreciable adverse reaction and/or an abnormal laboratory test or clinical investigation, as a marker of an adverse reaction."

  8. Paper-basd surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of pnenobarbital sodium for point-of-care therapeutic drug monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Moe; Yamada, Kenji; Nishimura, Takahiro; Kido, Michiko; Jeong, Hieyong; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) contributes to safe and effective pharmacotherapy in clinical fields. A simple, rapid, low-cost, and minimally-invasive drug measurement method attracts much interest for point-of-care TDM. Tear fluids can be collected minimally-invasively compared to blood sampling and there is a correlation between a drug concentration in tears and that in bloods. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with paper-based substrate is useful for point-of-care TDM owing to inexpensiveness and high-sensitivity. Paper is also a safe tear collection tool. Then we are studying on a paper-based SERS of tear specimen for point-of-care TDM. In this paper, to improve sensitivity in measuring drug concentration in tear fluids, we fabricated a SERS substrate by coating gold nano-rods on a paper substrate and evaluated whether the fabricated substrate can enhance Raman scattering. Sodium phenobarbital (PB), an anti-convulsant agent, was used as a target. In experiment, the fabricated substrate indicated the lower detection limit of PB in a solution than a plain paper substrate. This result showed the potential of the paper based SERS substrate to measure drug concentration in tears simply and inexpensively.

  9. Powering embedded electronics for wind turbine monitoring using multi-source energy harvesting techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, S. R.; Taylor, S. G.; Raby, E. Y.; Farinholt, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    With a global interest in the development of clean, renewable energy, wind energy has seen steady growth over the past several years. Advances in wind turbine technology bring larger, more complex turbines and wind farms. An important issue in the development of these complex systems is the ability to monitor the state of each turbine in an effort to improve the efficiency and power generation. Wireless sensor nodes can be used to interrogate the current state and health of wind turbine structures; however, a drawback of most current wireless sensor technology is their reliance on batteries for power. Energy harvesting solutions present the ability to create autonomous power sources for small, low-power electronics through the scavenging of ambient energy; however, most conventional energy harvesting systems employ a single mode of energy conversion, and thus are highly susceptible to variations in the ambient energy. In this work, a multi-source energy harvesting system is developed to power embedded electronics for wind turbine applications in which energy can be scavenged simultaneously from several ambient energy sources. Field testing is performed on a full-size, residential scale wind turbine where both vibration and solar energy harvesting systems are utilized to power wireless sensing systems. Two wireless sensors are investigated, including the wireless impedance device (WID) sensor node, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and an ultra-low power RF system-on-chip board that is the basis for an embedded wireless accelerometer node currently under development at LANL. Results indicate the ability of the multi-source harvester to successfully power both sensors.

  10. Remote monitoring as a key innovation in the management of cardiac patients including those with implantable electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Richard

    2013-06-01

    This Introduction to the Supplement provides a brief history of remote monitoring, discusses its current status, and indicates the bright future that it possesses with a broad application in many branches of cardiology, at least including arrhythmias, heart failure, and ischaemic heart disease in addition to the management of implantable electronic devices.

  11. Impact of membrane-induced particle immobilization on seeded growth monitored by in situ liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Weiner, Rebecca G.; Chen, Dennis P.; Unocic, Raymond R.; ...

    2016-04-01

    In situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy probes seeded growth in real time. The growth of Pd on Au nanocubes is monitored as a model system to compare growth within a liquid cell and traditional colloidal synthesis. Furthermore, different growth patterns are observed due to seed immobilization and the highly reducing environment within the liquid cell.

  12. Impact of Membrane-Induced Particle Immobilization on Seeded Growth Monitored by In Situ Liquid Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Rebecca G; Chen, Dennis P; Unocic, Raymond R; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2016-05-01

    In situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy probes seeded growth in real time. The growth of Pd on Au nanocubes is monitored as a model system to compare growth within a liquid cell and traditional colloidal synthesis. Different growth patterns are observed due to seed immobilization and the highly reducing environment within the liquid cell.

  13. Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

  14. Evaluation of the Clinton Electronics DS2100HB-ST 4 X 3 Aspect Ratio, 21-Inch Diagonal Monochrome Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    The Clinton Electronics DS2100HB-ST Monochrome CRT Monitor (2 1-inch CRT size, 19.0" viewable area; the selling price is 1995) is a relatively low cost, 1600 x 1280 pixel, monochrome gray scale monitor. It has good image quality and features that make it an attractive candidate display device for NIMA Imagery Exploitation Capability workstations. Based on results of our evaluation, NIDL certifies the Clinton Electronics DS2100HB-ST monochrome monitor as being suitable only for monoscopic, and not for stereo, operation in IEC workstations. NIDL rates this monochrome monitor as a 'B' for monoscopic mode and 'F' for stereo mode for the Image Analyst and Cartographer applications. In stereo, this monitor can produce a 1024 x 1024 stereo image at 59 Hz per eye, but it has only 47% of the maximum luminance and only 44% of the stereo extinction ratio required by the IEC Specifications. Clinton states that the primary market for this lower cost monitor is for clinical tasks and for training purposes. It is not intended for primary diagnoses of x-ray images.

  15. Historical controversy in health technology assessment: the case of electronic fetal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Banta, D H; Thacker, S B

    2001-11-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) was introduced in the late 1950s as an alternative to traditional auscultation by stethoscope or fetoscope in the management of labor and delivery. The new technology was seen as a valuable tool in the prevention of cerebral palsy and other adverse fetal outcomes and diffused rapidly into clinical practice. In the late 1970s, some scepticism began to be voiced about the evidence for the effectiveness of EFM. The authors published a systematic review of the evidence in 1979 that concluded that there was insufficient evidence for the effectiveness of the routine use of EFM and a clear rise in the cesarean delivery rate associated with its use. The analysis was based on a thorough review of approximately 600 books and articles, but focused heavily on the evidence of four randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that had been published. An economic analysis further underscored the importance of this issue. The report was met with harsh ad hominem criticism from clinicians both in public venues and in the medical literature. Subsequently, additional RCTs were conducted and other analyzes were published, and in 1987 the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended that auscultation was an acceptable alternative to EFM in routine labor and delivery. Yet, today EFM continues to be the standard of practice, used in 80% of labors in this country. The most important conclusion drawn from this experience is the need to evaluate new technologies before their widespread diffusion into clinical practice.

  16. Social and professional influences of the technology of electronic fetal monitoring on obstetrical nursing.

    PubMed

    Hoerst, B J; Fairman, J

    2000-06-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is one example of a biomedical technology that rapidly diffused from an experimental innovation into a standard medical practice. First developed in the 1950s, EFM became commercially available in the early 1970s and quickly transformed intrapartum obstetrical practice. Assessments and interventions, which practitioners had previously based primarily on laboring women's subjective reports of bodily sensations, were now being based on quantifiable objective data from uterine activity and fetal heart rate transducers. Despite concerns of over-medicalization of the natural event of birth, iatrogenesis related to the increased incidence of operative deliveries, and escalating costs, EFM became widely accepted as routine and necessary by both practitioners and patients. By presenting the confident expectations and cautious reservations of various practitioners and patients to EFM, this article explores the rapid diffusion of EFM within the social context of the 1970s. A special focus is given to the perspective of intrapartum obstetrical nurses, because they have been the primary users of this perinatal technology since its introduction.

  17. Monitoring deformations of industrial objects using optical-electronic autoreflection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyakhin, Igor A.; Kleshchenok, Maksim A.

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, optical-electronics measuring instruments for control the linear deformations in the monitoring industrial constructions (turbines, dams, booms, bases plates, walls, etc) are used effectively. Autocollimating and auto-reflecting schemes are two main basic of such systems. The autocollimating system has larger sensitive than auto reflecting ones. However, the auto reflecting system is more effective for using IR LED as a source and using CCD matrix as a photo-receiver. In addition, the auto-reflecting system has larger working distance than autocollimating system. The experimental test-bed of auto-reflecting system for alignment control was realized. Parameters of a system are the following: IR LED L2656-03 with power 9 mW as sources of radiation; the focal length of autocollimators objective is 250 mm, the matrix change couple devise as photo-receiver with dimension of pixel 2.2μm. The experimental error of this system is 0,007 mm on a working distance of 0.5 m and 0.06 mm on a distance of 8 m.

  18. Enhancing battery efficiency for pervasive health-monitoring systems based on electronic textiles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nenggan; Wu, Zhaohui; Lin, Man; Yang, Laurence Tianruo

    2010-03-01

    Electronic textiles are regarded as one of the most important computation platforms for future computer-assisted health-monitoring applications. In these novel systems, multiple batteries are used in order to prolong their operational lifetime, which is a significant metric for system usability. However, due to the nonlinear features of batteries, computing systems with multiple batteries cannot achieve the same battery efficiency as those powered by a monolithic battery of equal capacity. In this paper, we propose an algorithm aiming to maximize battery efficiency globally for the computer-assisted health-care systems with multiple batteries. Based on an accurate analytical battery model, the concept of weighted battery fatigue degree is introduced and the novel battery-scheduling algorithm called predicted weighted fatigue degree least first (PWFDLF) is developed. Besides, we also discuss our attempts during search PWFDLF: a weighted round-robin (WRR) and a greedy algorithm achieving highest local battery efficiency, which reduces to the sequential discharging policy. Evaluation results show that a considerable improvement in battery efficiency can be obtained by PWFDLF under various battery configurations and current profiles compared to conventional sequential and WRR discharging policies.

  19. What are the pros and cons of electronically monitoring inhaler use in asthma? A multistakeholder perspective

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sam; Lang, Alexandra; Sharples, Sarah; Shaw, Dominick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) are the optimal method for collecting objective data on inhaler use in asthma. Recent research has investigated the attitudes of patients with asthma towards these devices. However, no research to date has formally considered the opinions of stakeholders and decision-makers in asthma care. These individuals have important clinical requirements that need to be taken into account if EMDs are to be successfully provisioned, making collecting their opinions on the key barriers facing these devices a valuable process. Methods Three rounds of surveys in a Delphi format were used to assess the most important pros and cons of EMDs for asthma care in a sample of 31 stakeholders which included healthcare professionals and members of clinical commissioning groups. Results The respondents identified 29 pros and 32 cons. Pros that were rated as most important included new visual evidence to aid clinical discussions with a patient and an increase in patient involvement and motivation. The cons that were rated as most important included a need for more clinical evidence of the effectiveness of EMDs, as well as better clarity over who has responsibilities in managing, interpreting and discussing data with a patient. Conclusions The research provides a guide for EMD developers by highlighting where these devices may provide the most benefit as well as prioritising the key issues that need addressing if they are to be used effectively in everyday asthma care. PMID:27933181

  20. Sociolegal characteristics and parole infractions among Israeli released prisoners during electronic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Efrat; Yehosha-Stern, Shirley; Efodi, Rotem

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the part played by sociolegal characteristics such as ethnic background, family status, or criminal past in the rate of infractions among ex-prisoners in Electronic Monitoring (EM) Programs. In addition, it focuses on the nature of the formal decisions made by community supervision agents regarding such infractions and their correlation with the sociolegal characteristics of the participants. The research population included all prisoners on license (i.e., prisoners who have been granted conditional early release) who took part in the EM project from mid-2007 until mid-2009 (24 months), altogether 155 participants. The data show no significant correlation between the number of infractions and the participant's sociolegal background. In spite of the fact that the EM coordinators have extensive discretionary power, which is likely to lead to discrimination attributable to variables such as ethnicity, this research shows that the most efficacious variable for explaining formal responses is an objective one-the number of infractions.

  1. Using electronic monitoring devices to measure inhaler adherence: a practical guide for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chan, Amy Hai Yan; Harrison, Jeff; Black, Peter N; Mitchell, Edwin A; Foster, Juliet M

    2015-01-01

    Use of electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) for inhalers is growing rapidly because of their ability to provide objective and detailed adherence data to support clinical decision making. There is increasing potential for the use of EMDs in clinical settings, especially as cost-effectiveness is realized and device costs reduce. However, it is important for clinicians to know about the attributes of different EMDs so that they can select the right device for their patients and understand the factors that affect the reliability and accuracy of the data EMDs record. This article gives information on where to obtain EMDs, describes device specifications, and highlights useful features for the clinician and the patient, including user feedback data. We discuss the benefits and potential drawbacks of data collected by EMDs and provide device users with a set of tools to optimize the use of EMDs in clinical settings, such as advice on how to carry out brief EMD checks to ensure data quality and device reliability. New EMDs on the market require pretesting before use by patients. We provide information on how to carry out EMD pretesting in the clinic and patients' homes, which can be carried out by health professionals or in collaboration with researchers or manufacturers. Strategies for interpreting and managing common device malfunctions are also discussed.

  2. Nanoparticle Induced Cell Magneto-Rotation: Monitoring Morphology, Stress and Drug Sensitivity of a Suspended Single Cancer Cell

    PubMed Central

    Elbez, Remy; McNaughton, Brandon H.; Patel, Lalit; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Kopelman, Raoul

    2011-01-01

    Single cell analysis has allowed critical discoveries in drug testing, immunobiology and stem cell research. In addition, a change from two to three dimensional growth conditions radically affects cell behavior. This already resulted in new observations on gene expression and communication networks and in better predictions of cell responses to their environment. However, it is still difficult to study the size and shape of single cells that are freely suspended, where morphological changes are highly significant. Described here is a new method for quantitative real time monitoring of cell size and morphology, on single live suspended cancer cells, unconfined in three dimensions. The precision is comparable to that of the best optical microscopes, but, in contrast, there is no need for confining the cell to the imaging plane. The here first introduced cell magnetorotation (CM) method is made possible by nanoparticle induced cell magnetization. By using a rotating magnetic field, the magnetically labeled cell is actively rotated, and the rotational period is measured in real-time. A change in morphology induces a change in the rotational period of the suspended cell (e.g. when the cell gets bigger it rotates slower). The ability to monitor, in real time, cell swelling or death, at the single cell level, is demonstrated. This method could thus be used for multiplexed real time single cell morphology analysis, with implications for drug testing, drug discovery, genomics and three-dimensional culturing. PMID:22180784

  3. NIR Fluorogenic Dye as a Modular Platform for Prodrug Assembly: Real-Time in vivo Monitoring of Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Redy-Keisar, Orit; Ferber, Shiran; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit; Shabat, Doron

    2015-06-01

    The ability to monitor drug release in vivo provides essential pharmacological information. We developed a new modular approach for the preparation of theranostic prodrugs with a turn-ON near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence mode of action. The prodrugs release their chemotherapeutic cargo and an active cyanine fluorophore upon reaction with a specific analyte. The prodrug platform is based on the fluorogenic dye QCy7; upon removal of a triggering substrate, the dye fluoresces, and the free drug is released. The evaluated camptothecin prodrug was activated by endogenous hydrogen peroxide produced in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Drug release and in vitro cytotoxicity were correlated with the emitted fluorescence. The prodrug activation was effectively imaged in real time in mice bearing tumors. The modular design of the QCy7 fluorogenic platform should allow the preparation of numerous other prodrugs with various triggering substrates and chemotherapeutic agents. We anticipate that the development of real-time in vivo monitoring tools such as that described herein will pave the way for personalized therapy.

  4. Design of a proton-electron beam overlap monitor for the new RHIC electron lens, based on detecting energetic backscattered electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Thieberger T.; Beebe, E.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D.; Gu, X.; Hamdi, K.; Hock, J.; Minty, M.; Miller, T.; Montag, C.; Pikin, A.

    2012-04-15

    The optimal performance of the two electron lenses that are being implemented for high intensity polarized proton operation of RHIC requires excellent collinearity of the {approx}0.3 mm RMS wide electron beams with the proton bunch trajectories over the {approx}2m interaction lengths. The main beam overlap diagnostic tool will make use of electrons backscattered in close encounters with the relativistic protons. These electrons will spiral along the electron guiding magnetic field and will be detected in a plastic scintillator located close to the electron gun. A fraction of these electrons will have energies high enough to emerge from the vacuum chamber through a thin window thus simplifying the design and operation of the detector. The intensity of the detected electrons provides a measure of the overlap between the e- and the opposing proton beams. Joint electron arrival time and energy discrimination may be used additionally to gain some longitudinal position information with a single detector per lens.

  5. [Practical information for therapeutic drug monitoring of the most common compounds].

    PubMed

    Saint-Marcoux, Franck; Libert, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    This article reports the main information for the interpretation of blood concentrations of most common drugs measured in pharmacology-toxicology departments: acetaminophen, amikacin, carbamazepine, digoxin, gentamicin, lithium, methotrexate, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproic acid.

  6. Outliers on the dose-response curve: how to minimize this problem using therapeutic drug monitoring, an underutilized tool in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Preskorn, Sheldon H

    2010-05-01

    This column continues the discussion of outliers on the dose-response curve begun in earlier columns. It focuses on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) as an underutilized tool in psychiatry to minimize this problem. The scientific rationale for dose adjustment based on TDM is presented and its efficiency is contrasted with dose adjustment based on clinical assessment of response. In current practice, the use of TDM with psychiatric drugs is generally restricted to drugs with narrow therapeutic windows or drugs imported into psychiatry from neurology where TDM is more commonly used. Examples of each of these types of drugs are cited.

  7. Parental Monitoring, Religious Involvement and Drug Use Among Latino and Non-Latino Youth in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Parsai, Monica; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2009-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to examine parental monitoring practices and religious involvement (protective factors) and substance use among Mexican American and Non-Latino adolescents in the Southwest of the United States. Framework We also relied on social control theories to guide our investigation of why adolescents may choose not to use drugs. Participants The sample was N=1087 adolescents, the age ranged from 13 to 15 years, and the gender distribution was approximately equal. There were 71% Mexican Americans and 29% non-Latinos in the sample. Methods a number of measures were used including recent substance use, religiosity, religious affiliation, parental monitoring, parental permissiveness, parental norms, and acculturation. Linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between the variables of interest and the outcomes. Results Although the effect sizes of the significant relationships were modest, the findings are of interest because they reinforce the importance of the role of parents in the lives of their adolescents and supports previous studies that find that parents have great influence on children’s behaviors including substance use. The results suggest that acculturating adolescents benefit from having clear rules from their parents concerning substance use, and from believing that there is some kind of consequence attached to their behavior. Parental monitoring, by itself, did not explain lower levels of drug use among these adolescents; but it was a predictor of adolescent strong anti-drug personal norms. This study is useful to social workers and other professionals working with parents and adolescents as it provides concrete evidence of possible parents pathway of influence on their children’s health status. PMID:20046816

  8. Simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection for therapeutic drug monitoring of topiramate.

    PubMed

    Milosheska, Daniela; Vovk, Tomaž; Grabnar, Iztok; Roškar, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and inexpensive HPLC method with fluorescence detection, suitable for routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of an antiepileptic drug topiramate, was developed and validated. The determination of plasma topiramate concentration was carried out after precolumn derivatization, using 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as a fluorescent labeling agent and bendroflumethiazide as an internal standard. The standard calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 0.01-24 μg/mL (r² > 0.9998). The intra- and inter-day accuracies expressed as bias were from 1.4 to 9.9% and from 1.9 to 10.2%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were below 7.9% and 2.7%, respectively. The validated method was applied for the measurement of plasma topiramate concentrations in patients with epilepsy. The reported method is appropriate for TDM of topiramate as well as for pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies.

  9. Continuing the Epidemiological Function of the Addicts Index--Evidence from Matching the Home Office Addicts Index with the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Matthew; Griffin, Maria; Mott, Joy; Corkery, John; Madden, Peter; Sondhi, Arun; Stimson, Gerry

    2004-01-01

    Aims: We discuss the Addicts Index (AI) and examine whether the epidemiological trends of the AI can be continued by the regional drug misuse databases (DMDs, now known as National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS). Methods: (i) Matching individuals recorded as addicted to opiates and/or cocaine in the AI with those reported to the North…

  10. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume I: Secondary School Students. NIH Publication No. 10-7584

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    The Monitoring the Future (MTF) study is an ongoing series of national surveys of American adolescents and adults that has provided the nation with a vital window into the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illegal drug use, alcohol use, tobacco use, anabolic steroid use, and psychotherapeutic drug use. For more than a third of…

  11. Monitoring the Future. National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume I, Secondary School Students. NIH Publication Number 10-7584

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    The Monitoring the Future (MTF) study is an ongoing series of national surveys of American adolescents and adults that has provided the nation with a vital window into the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illegal drug use, alcohol use, tobacco use, anabolic steroid use, and psychotherapeutic drug use. For more than a third of a…

  12. Analytical quality assurance in veterinary drug residue analysis methods: matrix effects determination and monitoring for sulfonamides analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Rübensam, Gabriel; Jank, Louise; Barreto, Fabiano; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara; Silvia Díaz-Cruz, M; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    In residue analysis of veterinary drugs in foodstuff, matrix effects are one of the most critical points. This work present a discuss considering approaches used to estimate, minimize and monitoring matrix effects in bioanalytical methods. Qualitative and quantitative methods for estimation of matrix effects such as post-column infusion, slopes ratios analysis, calibration curves (mathematical and statistical analysis) and control chart monitoring are discussed using real data. Matrix effects varying in a wide range depending of the analyte and the sample preparation method: pressurized liquid extraction for liver samples show matrix effects from 15.5 to 59.2% while a ultrasound-assisted extraction provide values from 21.7 to 64.3%. The matrix influence was also evaluated: for sulfamethazine analysis, losses of signal were varying from -37 to -96% for fish and eggs, respectively. Advantages and drawbacks are also discussed considering a workflow for matrix effects assessment proposed and applied to real data from sulfonamides residues analysis.

  13. Raman endoscopy for real time monitoring of anticancer drug treatment in colorectal tumors of live model mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taketani, Akinori; Ishigaki, Mika; Andriana, Bibin Bintan; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the capability of a miniaturized Raman endoscope (mRE) system to monitor the advancement of colorectal tumors in live model mice. The endoscope is narrow enough to observe the inside of the mouse colon under anesthesia. The mRE system allows to observe the tissues and to apply a miniaturized Raman probe for the measurement at any targeted point within the colon. Raman spectroscopy allows obtaining information about molecular composition without damaging the tissue (i.e., noninvasively). Continuous monitoring of the same tumor is carried out to study molecular alterations along with its advancement. The Raman spectra measured before and after the anticancer drug (5-FU) treatment indicated spectral changes in the tumor tissue. It suggests that the tumor is not cured but supposedly transformed to another tumor type after the treatment.

  14. Limited sampling strategies for therapeutic drug monitoring of amikacin and kanamycin in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, J A; van Altena, R; Akkerman, O W; de Lange, W C M; Proost, J H; van der Werf, T S; Kosterink, J G W; Alffenaar, J W C

    2015-09-01

    Amikacin and kanamycin are considered important and effective drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Unfortunately, the incidence of toxicity is high and is related to elevated drug exposure. In order to achieve a balance between efficacy and toxicity, a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model may help to optimise drug exposure. Patients with MDR-TB who had received amikacin or kanamycin as part of their treatment and who had routinely received therapeutic drug monitoring were evaluated. A PPK model was developed and subsequently validated. Using this model, a limited sampling model was developed. Eleven patients receiving amikacin and nine patients receiving kanamycin were included in this study. The median observed 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-24h) was 77.2 mg h/L [interquartile range (IQR) 64.7-96.2 mg h/L] for amikacin and 64.1 mg h/L (IQR 55.6-92.1 mg h/L) for kanamycin. The PPK model was developed and validated using n-1 cross-validation. A robust population model was developed that is suitable for predicting the AUC0-24h of amikacin and kanamycin. This model, in combination with the limited sampling strategy developed, can be used in daily routine to guide dosing but also to assess AUC0-24h in phase 3 studies.

  15. Inertial cavitation to non-invasively trigger and monitor intratumoral release of drug from intravenously delivered liposomes.

    PubMed

    Graham, Susan M; Carlisle, Robert; Choi, James J; Stevenson, Mark; Shah, Apurva R; Myers, Rachel S; Fisher, Kerry; Peregrino, Miriam-Bazan; Seymour, Len; Coussios, Constantin C

    2014-03-28

    The encapsulation of cytotoxic drugs within liposomes enhances pharmacokinetics and allows passive accumulation within tumors. However, liposomes designed to achieve good stability during the delivery phase often have compromised activity at the target site. This problem of inefficient and unpredictable drug release is compounded by the present lack of low-cost, non-invasive methods to measure such release. Here we show that focused ultrasound, used at pressures similar to those applied during diagnostic ultrasound scanning, can be utilised to both trigger and monitor release of payload from liposomes. Notably, drug release was influenced by liposome composition and the presence of SonoVue® microbubbles, which provided the nuclei for the initiation of an event known as inertial cavitation. In vitro studies demonstrated that liposomes formulated with a high proportion of 1,2 distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DSPE) released up to 30% of payload following ultrasound exposure in the presence of SonoVue®, provided that the exposure created sufficient inertial cavitation events, as characterised by violent bubble collapse and the generation of broadband acoustic emissions. In contrast a 'Doxil'-like liposome formulation gave no such triggered release. In pre-clinical studies, ultrasound was used as a non-invasive, targeted stimulus to trigger a 16-fold increase in the level of payload release within tumors following intravenous delivery. The inertial cavitation events driving this release could be measured remotely in real-time and were a reliable predictor of drug release.

  16. Completeness and accuracy of electronic recording of paediatric drug-resistant tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schaaf, H. S.; du Preez, K.; Seddon, J. A.; Garcia-Prats, A. J.; Zimri, K.; Dunbar, R.; Hesseling, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Setting: Cape Town, South Africa. Objective: To assess the completeness and accuracy of electronic recording of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in children. Design: Retrospective cohort study. All children aged <15 years treated for DR-TB during 2012 were included, with clinical data collected from routine health services. Matching was performed between clinical data and an extracted data set from an electronic register for DR-TB (EDR.web), and data sources were compared. Results: Seventy-seven children were identified clinically, of whom only 49 (64%) were found in EDR.web. Most data in EDR.web were complete and accurate, but there were some internal inconsistencies for confirmed TB. Only 4.4% of all EDR.web entries were children. Conclusion: Only two thirds of children clinically treated for DR-TB were recorded in the electronic reporting system, suggesting under-reporting. We also found a lower than expected prevalence of childhood DR-TB, probably suggesting both under-diagnosis and under-recording of DR-TB in children. Clinicians at facility level should be able to access the electronic reporting system, and data transfer between clinical paper-based and electronic sources should be simplified. Cross-linking between electronic registers for drug-susceptible and DR-TB or consolidation of registers could improve the accuracy of recording. Improved recording and reporting of DR-TB in children is needed. PMID:26393032

  17. Encapsulation of aggregated gold nanoclusters in a metal-organic framework for real-time monitoring of drug release.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fangfang; Ju, Enguo; Liu, Chaoqun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Dong, Kai; Liu, Zhen; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2017-03-10

    Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs), which have stable luminescence and negligible biotoxicity, are a promising candidate in biological fields. However, their low photoluminescence (PL) efficiency is unsatisfactory. Herein, aggregated gold nanoclusters (aAuNCs) were confined in a metal-organic framework (MOF) to maintain their aggregation, restrict the rotation of their ligands, and further improve their quantum yield (QY) to 7.74%. The aAuNCs-MOF exhibited high luminescence and good biocompatibility. More importantly, in addition to its pH-dependent luminescence and external porosity, the complex was applied for the first time in real-time monitoring of drug release.

  18. Therapeutic drug monitoring of monoclonal antibodies in inflammatory and malignant disease: Translating TNF-α experience to oncology.

    PubMed

    Oude Munnink, T H; Henstra, M J; Segerink, L I; Movig, K L L; Brummelhuis-Visser, P

    2016-04-01

    Lack of response to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been associated with inadequate mAb serum concentrations. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of mAbs has the potential to guide to more effective dosing in individual patients. This review discusses the mechanisms responsible for interpatient variability of mAb pharmacokinetics, summarizes exposure-response data of mAbs used in inflammatory and malignant disease, presents current evidence of mAb-TDM in inflammatory disease, and provides hurdles and required future steps for further implementing mAb-TDM.

  19. Is there a role for therapeutic drug monitoring of vitamin D level as a surrogate marker for fracture risk?

    PubMed

    Isenor, Jennifer E; Ensom, Mary H H

    2010-03-01

    Clinical studies have suggested a possible association of low serum vitamin D levels in patients with bone fractures. This, coupled with a high prevalence of fractures and increases in associated disability and mortality, begs the question, is there evidence to support a role for therapeutic drug monitoring of vitamin D levels to prevent bone fractures? We use a previously published nine-step decision-making algorithm to answer this question. Optimal dosages of vitamin D have not been determined, although daily intake guidelines are suggested. Current vitamin D assays yield varying results, making it challenging for clinicians to interpret results from clinical trials and apply them directly to patients and their specific serum level data. Fracture risk is not easily assessable clinically, with no clear relationship between vitamin D concentrations and bone mineral density. The existing primary literature shows no clear relationship between vitamin D concentrations and fracture risk; target concentrations are not well established. Although the pharmacokinetic parameters of vitamin D are unpredictable and vitamin D supplementation is frequently lifelong, results of a vitamin D assay are unlikely to make a significant difference in the clinical decision-making process (i.e., provide more information than clinical judgment alone). Most published studies on vitamin D levels and fracture risk did not control for other potential reasons to monitor levels, multifactorial risks for fractures, and other confounders. Given limited data to support a direct relation between vitamin D levels and clinical outcome of fracture, inconsistent between-assay results, and no consensus on optimal levels, there is insufficient evidence to recommend routine therapeutic drug monitoring of vitamin D for fracture prevention; however, other reasons for monitoring might exist that are beyond the scope of this review. Recent availability of vitamin D assay standards may lead to future

  20. Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-Sang; Park, Su-Jeong; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kang, Myung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea. PMID:27433102

  1. Application of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Oximetry to Monitor Oxygen in Wounds in Diabetic Models

    PubMed Central

    Desmet, Céline M.; Lafosse, Aurore; Vériter, Sophie; Porporato, Paolo E.; Sonveaux, Pierre; Dufrane, Denis; Levêque, Philippe; Gallez, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    A lack of oxygen is classically described as a major cause of impaired wound healing in diabetic patients. Even if the role of oxygen in the wound healing process is well recognized, measurement of oxygen levels in a wound remains challenging. The purpose of the present study was to assess the value of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry to monitor pO2 in wounds during the healing process in diabetic mouse models. Kinetics of wound closure were carried out in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated and db/db mice. The pO2 was followed repeatedly during the healing process by 1 GHz EPR spectroscopy with lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) crystals used as oxygen sensor in two different wound models: a full-thickness excisional skin wound and a pedicled skin flap. Wound closure kinetics were dramatically slower in 12-week-old db/db compared to control (db/+) mice, whereas kinetics were not statistically different in STZ-treated compared to control mice. At the center of excisional wounds, measurements were highly influenced by atmospheric oxygen early in the healing process. In pedicled flaps, hypoxia was observed early after wounding. While reoxygenation occurred over time in db/+ mice, hypoxia was prolonged in the diabetic db/db model. This observation was consistent with impaired healing and microangiopathies observed using intravital microscopy. In conclusion, EPR oximetry using LiPc crystals as the oxygen sensor is an appropriate technique to follow wound oxygenation in acute and chronic wounds, in normal and diabetic animals. Nevertheless, the technique is limited for measurements in pedicled skin flaps and cannot be applied to excisional wounds in which diffusion of atmospheric oxygen significantly affects the measurements. PMID:26659378

  2. Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  3. On the possibility of low cost, adherent therapeutic drug monitoring in oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Marta, Silvia; Fornasaro, Stefano; Jaworska, Aleksandra; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Bonifacio, Alois; Sergo, Valter

    2016-05-01

    A frequent quantification of drugs concentrations in plasma of patients subject to chemotherapy is seldom performed, mostly because the standard methods (Gas or Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectroscopy) are expensive and time consuming. In this paper we report the approach pursued in one of the research units of the EU project RAMAN4CLINICS to tackle the problem of a low cost, time adherent quantification of drugs used for oncological patients using a Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. More specifically, the issues concerning the repeatability of the nanostructured substrates will be presented and some promising results to increase the selectivity of the measures toward specific drugs will be discussed, with examples concerning one cytotoxic agent, Irinotecan and one kinase inhibitor, Sunitinib.

  4. Fast quantification of ten psychotropic drugs and metabolites in human plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ansermot, Nicolas; Brawand-Amey, Marlyse; Kottelat, Astrid; Eap, Chin B

    2013-05-31

    A sensitive and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed for the fast quantification of ten psychotropic drugs and metabolites in human plasma for the needs of our laboratory (amisulpride, asenapine, desmethyl-mirtazapine, iloperidone, mirtazapine, norquetiapine, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine and risperidone). Stable isotope-labeled internal standards were used for all analytes, to compensate for the global method variability, including extraction and ionization variations. Sample preparation was performed by generic protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved in less than 3.0min on an Acquity UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column (2.1mm×50mm; 1.7μm), using a gradient elution of 10mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3.0 and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The compounds were quantified on a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization mode, using multiple reaction monitoring. The method was fully validated according to the latest recommendations of international guidelines. Eight point calibration curves were used to cover a large concentration range 0.5-200ng/ml for asenapine, desmethyl-mirtazapine, iloperidone, mirtazapine, olanzapine, paliperidone and risperidone, and 1-1500ng/ml for amisulpride, norquetiapine and quetiapine. Good quantitative performances were achieved in terms of trueness (93.1-111.2%), repeatability (1.3-8.6%) and intermediate precision (1.8-11.5%). Internal standard-normalized matrix effects ranged between 95 and 105%, with a variability never exceeding 6%. The accuracy profiles (total error) were included in the acceptance limits of ±30% for biological samples. This method is therefore suitable for both therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies.

  5. Label-free cardiac contractility monitoring for drug screening applications based on compact high-speed lens-free imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauwelyn, Thomas; Reumers, Veerle; Vanmeerbeeck, Geert; Stahl, Richard; Janssens, Stefan; Lagae, Liesbet; Braeken, Dries; Lambrechts, Andy

    2015-03-01

    Cardiotoxicity is the major cause of drug withdrawal from the market, despite rigorous toxicity testing during the drug development process. Existing safety screening techniques, some of which are based on simplified cellular assays, others on electrical (impedance) or optical (fluorescent microscopy) measurements, are either too limited in throughput or offer too poor predictability of toxicity to be applied on large numbers of compounds in the early stage of drug development. We present a compact optical system for direct (label-free) monitoring of fast cellular movements that enable low cost and high throughput drug screening. Our system is based on a high-speed lens-free in-line holographic microscope. When compared to a conventional microscope, the system can combine adequate imaging resolution (5.5 μm pixel pitch) with a large field-of-view (63.4 mm2) and high speed (170 fps) to capture physical cell motion in real-time. This combination enables registration of cardiac contractility parameters such as cell contraction frequency, total duration, and rate and duration of both contraction and relaxation. The system also quantifies conduction velocity, which is challenging in existing techniques. Additionally, to complement the imaging hardware we have developed image processing software that extracts all the contractility parameters directly from the raw interference images. The system was tested with varying concentration of the drug verapamil and at 100 nM, showed a decrease in: contraction frequency (-23.3% +/- 13%), total duration (-21% +/- 5%), contraction duration (-19% +/- 6%) and relaxation duration (-21% +/- 8%). Moreover, contraction displacement ceased at higher concentrations.

  6. [Cooperation with the electronic medical record and accounting system of an actual dose of drug given by a radiology information system].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hideo; Yoneda, Tarou; Satou, Shuji; Ishikawa, Toru; Hara, Misako

    2009-12-20

    By input of the actual dose of a drug given into a radiology information system, the system converting with an accounting system into a cost of the drug from the actual dose in the electronic medical record was built. In the drug master, the first unit was set as the cost of the drug, and we set the second unit as the actual dose. The second unit in the radiology information system was received by the accounting system through electronic medical record. In the accounting system, the actual dose was changed into the cost of the drug using the dose of conversion to the first unit. The actual dose was recorded on a radiology information system and electronic medical record. The actual dose was indicated on the accounting system, and the cost for the drug was calculated. About the actual dose of drug, cooperation of the information in a radiology information system and electronic medical record were completed. It was possible to decide the volume of drug from the correct dose of drug at the previous inspection. If it is necessary for the patient to have another treatment of medicine, it is important to know the actual dose of drug given. Moreover, authenticity of electronic medical record based on a statute has also improved.

  7. Outward electron transfer by Saccharomyces cerevisiae monitored with a bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell-type activity sensor.

    PubMed

    Ducommun, Raphaël; Favre, Marie-France; Carrard, Delphine; Fischer, Fabian

    2010-03-01

    A Janus head-like bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell was constructed to monitor the electron transfer from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to a woven carbon anode. The experiments were conducted during an ethanol cultivation of 170 g/l glucose in the presence and absence of yeast-peptone medium. First, using a basic fuel-cell type activity sensor, it was shown that yeast-peptone medium contains electroactive compounds. For this purpose, 1% solutions of soy peptone and yeast extract were subjected to oxidative conditions, using a microbial fuel cell set-up corresponding to a typical galvanic cell, consisting of culture medium in the anodic half-cell and 0.5 M K(3)Fe(CN)(6) in the cathodic half-cell. Second, using a bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell, it was shown that electrons were transferred from yeast cells to the carbon anode. The participation of electroactive compounds in the electron transport was separated as background current. This result was verified by applying medium-free conditions, where only glucose was fed, confirming that electrons are transferred from yeast cells to the woven carbon anode. Knowledge about the electron transfer through the cell membrane is of importance in amperometric online monitoring of yeast fermentations and for electricity production with microbial fuel cells.

  8. 78 FR 9589 - Disclosures To Participate in State Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...-risk individuals and trends that will assist in the prevention of the accidental or intentional misuse... misuse of prescription drugs and assist in avoiding negative health outcomes for VA patients, including... veteran population such as increased rates of homelessness, suicide attempts, and alcohol and...

  9. 38 CFR 1.515 - Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... program, including a program approved by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under section 399O of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 280g-3). (c) Participation in PDMPs. VA may disclose to PDMPs.... Examples include the identification of the substance by a national drug code number, quantity...

  10. 38 CFR 1.515 - Disclosure of information to participate in state prescription drug monitoring programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... program, including a program approved by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under section 399O of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 280g-3). (c) Participation in PDMPs. VA may disclose to PDMPs.... Examples include the identification of the substance by a national drug code number, quantity...

  11. Dried Blood Spot sampling in psychiatry: Perspectives for improving therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Martial, Lisa C; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Mulder, Martina; Schellekens, Arnt; Brüggemann, Roger J M; Burger, David M; Schene, Aart H; Batalla, Albert

    2017-03-01

    Assessment of drug concentrations is indicated to guide dosing of a selected number of drugs used in psychiatry. Conventionally this is done by vena puncture. Novel sampling strategies such as dried blood spot (DBS) sampling have been developed for various drugs, including antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood-stabilizers. DBS sampling is typically performed by means of a finger prick. This method allows for remote sampling, which means that patients are not required to travel to a health care facility. The number of DBS assays for drugs used in psychiatry has increased over the last decade and includes antidepressants (tricyclic and serotonin and/or norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), mood stabilizers and first- and second-generation antipsychotics. Available assays often comply with analytical validation criteria but are seldom used in routine clinical care. Little attention has been paid to the clinical validation and implementation processes of home sampling. Ideally, not only medicines but also clinical chemistry parameters should be measured within the same sample. This article reflects on the position of DBS remote sampling in psychiatry and provides insight in the requisites of making such a sampling tool successful.

  12. Heroin Use among Southern Arrestees: Regional Findings from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Ross, Michael W.; Johnson, Regina J.

    2002-01-01

    To be effective with rehabilitation counseling, counselors need to be aware of cultural patterns of drug use. This study analyzed trends in heroin use between 1990 and 1997 among the arrestee population in some parts of the South. Findings suggest geographic, ethnic, and age-related variables for heroin use. (JDM)

  13. Introduction of an electronic monitoring system for monitoring compliance with Moments 1 and 4 of the WHO "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background MedSense is an electronic hand hygiene compliance monitoring system that provides Infection Control Practitioners with continuous access to hand hygiene compliance information by monitoring Moments 1 and 4 of the WHO "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" guidelines. Unlike previous electronic monitoring systems, MedSense operates in open cubicles with multiple beds and does not disrupt existing workflows. Methods This study was conducted in a 6-bed neurosurgical intensive care unit with technical development and evaluation phases. Healthcare workers (HCWs) wore an electronic device in the style of an identity badge to detect hand hygiene opportunities and compliance. We compared the compliance determined by the system and an infection control nurse. At the same time, the system assessed compliance by time of day, day of week, work shift, professional category of HCWs, and individual subject, while the workload of HCWs was monitored by measuring the amount of time they spent in patient zones. Results During the three-month evaluation phase, the system identified 13,694 hand hygiene opportunities from 17 nurses, 3 physiotherapists, and 1 healthcare assistant, resulting in an overall compliance of 35.1% for the unit. The per-indication compliance for Moment 1, 4, and simultaneous 1 and 4 were 21.3% (95%CI: 19.0, 23.6), 39.6% (95%CI: 37.3, 41.9), and 49.2% (95%CI: 46.6, 51.8), respectively, and were all statistically significantly different (p < 0.001). In the four 20-minute sessions when hand hygiene was monitored concurrently by the system and infection control nurse, the compliance were 88.9% and 95.6% respectively (p = 0.34), and the activity indices were 11.1 and 12.9 opportunities per hour, respectively. The hours from 12:00 to 14:00 had a notably lower compliance (21.3%, 95%CI: 17.2, 25.3) than nearly three quarters of the other periods of the day (p < 0.001). Nurses who used shared badges had significantly (p < 0.01) lower compliance (23.7%, 95%CI: 17

  14. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975 and is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  15. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975 and is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  16. Assessment of global reporting of adverse drug reactions for anti-malarials, including artemisinin-based combination therapy, to the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In spite of enhanced control efforts, malaria remains a major public health problem causing close to a million deaths annually. With support from several donors, large amounts of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) are being deployed in endemic countries raising safety concerns as little is known about the use of ACT in several of the settings where they are deployed. This project was undertaken to profile the provenance of the pharmacovigilance reporting of all anti-malarials, including ACT to the WHO adverse drug reaction (ADR) database (Vigibase™) over the past 40 years. Methods The WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring, the Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) provided anonymized extracts of Vigibase™ covering the period 1968-2008. All countries in the programme were clustered according to their malaria control phase and income status. The number of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) of anti-malarials was analyzed according to those clusters. Results From 1968 to 2008, 21,312 ICSRs suspecting anti-malarials were received from 64 countries. Low-income countries, that are also malaria-endemic (categorized as priority 1 countries) submitted only 1.2% of the ICSRs. Only 60 out of 21,312 ICSRs were related to ACT, 51 of which were coming from four sub-Saharan African countries. Although very few ICSRs involved artemisinin-based compounds, many of the adverse events reported were potentially serious. Conclusions This paper illustrates the low reporting of ADRs to anti-malarials in general and ACT in particular. Most reports were submitted by non-endemic and/or high-income countries. Given the current mix of large donor funding, the insufficient information on safety of these drugs, increasing availability of ACT and artemisinin-based monotherapies in public and private sector channels, associated potential for inappropriate use and finally a pipeline of more than 10 new novel anti-malarials in various stages of development, the

  17. 76 FR 36919 - Proof of Concept Demonstration for Electronic Reporting of Clean Water Act Compliance Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... regulatory agency. To fully realize the transformation of reporting and data management into the 21st century... Data: Announcement of Meeting and Demonstration AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) compliance monitoring data. This webinar will be held...

  18. An optofluidic constriction chip for monitoring metastatic potential and drug response of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez Vazquez, R; Nava, G; Veglione, M; Yang, T; Bragheri, F; Minzioni, P; Bianchi, E; Di Tano, M; Chiodi, I; Osellame, R; Mondello, C; Cristiani, I

    2015-04-01

    Cellular mechanical properties constitute good markers to characterize tumor cells, to study cell population heterogeneity and to highlight the effect of drug treatments. In this work, we describe the fabrication and validation of an integrated optofluidic chip capable of analyzing cellular deformability on the basis of the pressure gradient needed to push a cell through a narrow constriction. We demonstrate the ability of the chip to discriminate between tumorigenic and metastatic breast cancer cells (MCF7 and MDA-MB231) and between human melanoma cells with different metastatic potential (A375P and A375MC2). Moreover, we show that this chip allows highlighting the effect of drugs interfering with microtubule organization (paclitaxel, combretastatin A-4 and nocodazole) on cancer cells, which leads to changes in the pressure-gradient required to push cells through the constriction. Our single-cell microfluidic device for mechanical evaluation is compact and easy to use, allowing for an extensive use in different laboratory environments.

  19. Predicting Drug Use at Electronic Music Dance Events: Self-Reports and Biological Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert A.; Miller, Brenda A.; Holder, Harold D.

    2009-01-01

    Most information on the prevalence of drug use comes from self-report surveys. The sensitivity of such information is cause for concern about the accuracy of self-report measures. In this study, self-reported drug use in the last 48 hr is compared to results from biological assays of saliva samples from 371 young adults entering clubs. The…

  20. Development of a Computerized Adverse Drug Event (ADE) Monitor in the Outpatient Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    attack) related to beta - blockers . The monitor was programmed to ignore symptom terms appearing within six words after a negation term (“not,” “no...as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, beta - blockers , and hypoglycemic medications (both oral and injected insulin). It was determined that...bupropion) AND anorexia Benzodiazepines AND confusion Beta Blockers AND bradycardia Calcium channel blockers AND peripheral edema Diuretics AND

  1. Wireless transmission of ultrasonic waveforms for monitoring drug tablet properties and defects.

    PubMed

    Stephens, J D; Lakshmaiah, M V; Kowalczyk, B R; Hancock, B C; Cetinkaya, C

    2013-02-14

    The geometric and mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials are crucial to their structural, functional and therapeutic effectiveness. The implementation of automated and convenient quality monitoring procedures is an attempt to balance control of quality against the level of testing; within acceptable levels of probability and costs. The capability of rapid/extensive inspections with minimal time and manufacturing interruption make non-contact quality monitoring systems a desirable approach to optimize this balance. In the current study, a wireless transceiver proof of concept system developed for the real-time quality monitoring of tablets during compaction is presented and demonstrated. The effectiveness of ultrasonic wave transmission through the punch-tablet interface is the boundary condition that dictates the viability of the acoustic in-die compaction monitoring approach. These measurements in the current experimental set-up can be used in determining various mechanical and geometric properties of a compact, such as the tablet thickness, mass density, elasticity and/or integrity of the tablet core, and bonding quality between layers depending on the given parameters, as it is compacted. In the current study, it is demonstrated that the reflection of an ultrasonic pulse generated by a transducer embedded in an upper punch from the lower punch-tablet interface can be acquired by the same transducer in the upper punch and the analog waveform can be transmitted to a computer by means of wireless communications for further signal processing and property extraction. The evolution of apparent Young's moduli of a powder bed during a full-compaction cycle is derived from the ultrasonic time of flight of an acoustic waveform acquired during compaction in-die.

  2. Fluorodeoxyglucose-based positron emission tomography imaging to monitor drug responses in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Andrea; Martin, Ben P; Cullinane, Carleen; Bots, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is used to monitor the uptake of the labeled glucose analogue fluorodeoxyglucose (¹⁸F-FDG) by solid tumor cells, a process generally believed to reflect viable tumor cell mass. The use of ¹⁸F-FDG exploits the high demand for glucose in tumor cells, and serves to document over time the response of a solid tumor to an inducer of apoptosis. The apoptosis inducer crizotinib is a small-molecule inhibitor of c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase that is often dysregulated in human tumors. In this protocol, we describe how to monitor the response of a solid tumor to crizotinib. Human gastric tumor cells (GTL-16 cells) are injected into recipient mice and, on tumor formation, the mice are treated with crizotinib. The tracer ¹⁸F-FDG is then injected into the mice at several time points, and its uptake is monitored using PET. Because ¹⁸F-FDG uptake varies widely among different tumor models, preliminary experiments should be performed with each new model to determine its basal level of ¹⁸F-FDG uptake. Verifying that the basal level of uptake is sufficiently above background levels will assure accurate quantitation. Because ¹⁸F-FDG uptake is not a direct measure of apoptosis, it is advisable to carry out an additional direct method to show the presence of apoptotic cells.

  3. Highly sensitive LC-MS/MS methods for urinary biological monitoring of occupational exposure to cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate antineoplastic drugs and routine application.

    PubMed

    Canal-Raffin, Mireille; Khennoufa, Karim; Martinez, Béatrice; Goujon, Yves; Folch, Celia; Ducint, Dominique; Titier, Karine; Brochard, Patrick; Verdun-Esquer, Catherine; Molimard, Mathieu

    2016-10-21

    Highly sensitive ESI-LC-MS/MS methods were developed for urinary biological monitoring of occupational exposure to cyclophosphamide (CP), ifosfamide (IF), and methotrexate (MTX), which are hazardous antineoplastic drugs frequently handled by healthcare professionals. Extraction methods consisted of liquid/liquid extraction for simultaneous urinary CP and IF assays, and of solid phase extraction for the urinary MTX assay. A good linearity (r2>0.997), precision (CV<14.6%), and accuracy (bias<9.9%) were achieved for all compounds. The limit of detection (LOD) was 10pg/ml and the lower limit of quantification (LOQ) was 20pg/ml for all three drugs. Applying these methods in routine, more than 116 healthcare professionals occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs were monitored and 635 urines were analysed. Eleven healthcare professionals (9.5%) were found to be contaminated to at least one of the three antineoplastic drugs. Among analysed urines, 22 samples were found positives. The measured concentrations ranged from 20.1 to 1850pg/ml and, for six samples, concentrations were at CP trace level, between the LOD and LOQ values (10-20pg/ml). Such efficient analytical tools combining high specificity with high sensitivity are essential for reliable detection and routine biological monitoring of healthcare professionals occupationally exposed to these widely used antineoplastic drugs. These methods allow to monitor the healthcare professionals exposure to antineoplastic drugs in the aim to assess the effectiveness of collective and individual protective measures.

  4. Monitoring the transformation of aliphatic and fullerene molecules by high-energy electrons using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mojarad, Nassir; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; Beyer, Hannes; Dong, Hao; Reissner, Patrick A; Fedoryshyn, Yuriy; Stemmer, Andreas

    2017-04-21

    We report on using 100 keV electrons to obtain amorphous carbon from aliphatic and fullerene molecules, and study this process by monitoring their Raman signal. In this regard, we use self-assembled monolayers of gold nanoparticles to provide high electromagnetic field enhancement, which allows the detection of the Raman signal from even nanometer-thick layers of analyte. Our results show different dynamics in the amorphization process of the two molecules, although both show suppression of their original vibrational resonances even at low exposure doses. We have also used atomic-force microscopy to evaluate the sensitivity of the C60 molecules to electron beams in forming networks of amorphized molecules that are less soluble in the development process. This method allows precise patterning possibilities as well as in situ functionalization of carbonaceous thin films in the perspective of using in electronic device applications.

  5. An Automated Electronic Tongue for In-Situ Quick Monitoring of Trace Heavy Metals in Water Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Gao, Xiaoming; Guo, Hongsun; Zhao, Huixin; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    An automated electronic tongue instrumentation has been developed for in-situ concentration determination of trace heavy metals in water environment. The electronic tongue contains two main parts. The sensor part consists of a silicon-based Hg-coated Au microelectrodes array (MEA) for the detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) and a multiple light-addressable potentiometric sensor (MLAPS) for the detection of Fe(III) and Cr(VI). The control part employs pumps, valves and tubes to enable the pick-up and pretreatment of aqueous sample. The electronic tongue realized detection of the six metals mentioned above at part-per-billion (ppb) level without manual operation. This instrumentation will have wide application in quick monitoring and prediction the heavy metal pollution in lakes and oceans.

  6. Monitoring the transformation of aliphatic and fullerene molecules by high-energy electrons using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojarad, Nassir; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; Beyer, Hannes; Dong, Hao; Reissner, Patrick A.; Fedoryshyn, Yuriy; Stemmer, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    We report on using 100 keV electrons to obtain amorphous carbon from aliphatic and fullerene molecules, and study this process by monitoring their Raman signal. In this regard, we use self-assembled monolayers of gold nanoparticles to provide high electromagnetic field enhancement, which allows the detection of the Raman signal from even nanometer-thick layers of analyte. Our results show different dynamics in the amorphization process of the two molecules, although both show suppression of their original vibrational resonances even at low exposure doses. We have also used atomic-force microscopy to evaluate the sensitivity of the C60 molecules to electron beams in forming networks of amorphized molecules that are less soluble in the development process. This method allows precise patterning possibilities as well as in situ functionalization of carbonaceous thin films in the perspective of using in electronic device applications.

  7. Dynamic Data-Driven Prognostics and Condition Monitoring of On-board Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-27

    a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. a...W911NF-08-C-0065 665502 Form Approved OMB NO. 0704-0188 54937-MA-ST2.2 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8...To) 12-Sep-2008 Standard Form 298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - 11-Sep-2010 Dynamic Data-Driven Prognostics and Condition Monitoring

  8. Monitoring outcomes of pregnancy following drug exposure: a company-based pregnancy registry program.

    PubMed

    Shields, Kristine E; Wiholm, Bengt-Erik; Hostelley, Linda S; Striano, Linda F; Arena, Sam R; Sharrar, Robert G

    2004-01-01

    Women who discover they are pregnant after exposure to a drug and pregnant women who have a condition that requires continued treatment during pregnancy are told to balance the benefits and risks of the exposure to justify continuation of treatment, discontinuation of treatment or, possibly, pregnancy termination. However, there are limited data available to inform decision-making. The Merck Pregnancy Registry Program is a company-run pregnancy registry whose objective is to acquire and analyse information on drug exposures and pregnancy outcomes to better describe the safety profile of Merck products used during pregnancy. Information is collected from women and healthcare providers who call to report drug exposure during pregnancy. Prospective pregnancies are followed up to outcome and data are collected via questionnaires, telephone calls and a review of medical records. Reports are classified as prospective (information received prior to knowledge of pregnancy outcome) or retrospective (received after the outcome is known). Congenital anomaly reports are assessed for timing of exposure, maternal age and medical history, biological plausibility and concomitant medication exposures. Rates of pregnancy outcomes and birth defects in the prospective cohort are computed and confidence intervals are calculated to reflect the strength of the finding based on the sample size. Rates of pregnancy outcomes in the Pregnancy Registry are compared with the rates of pregnancy outcomes in the general US population and, if available, in subpopulations with the relevant disease states. The limitations of post-marketing surveillance are well known as voluntary reporting of individuals and healthcare professionals is known to be subject to various types of bias. Small sample size is another major limitation. However, the strength of the registry lies in its ability to gather pregnancy outcome reports early in the life of a product and to recognise and analyse unusual birth defects

  9. Flexible and waterproof micro-sensors to uncover zebrafish circadian rhythms: The next generation of cardiac monitoring for drug screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Beebe, Tyler; Jen, Nelson; Lee, Chia-An; Tai, Yuchong; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2015-09-15

    Flexible electronics are the next generation of sensors for mobile health and implantation. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emergent strategy for pre-clinical drug development and toxicity testing. To address the confounding effects from sedation of fish and removal from the aquatic habitat for micro-electrocardiogram (µECG) measurements, we developed waterproof and wearable sensors to uncover the circadian variation in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) (Massin et al., 2000). The parylene-C based ECG sensor consisted of an ultra-soft silicone integrated jacket designed to wrap around the fish during swimming. The Young's modulus of this silicone jacket matched with the fish surface, and an extended parylene cable connected the underwater chest electrodes with the out-of water electronics. In addition, embedded micro-glass spheres in the silicone effectively reduced the effective density of the jacket to ~1 g cm(-3). These innovations enabled physiological ECG telemetry in the fish's natural habitat without the need for sedation. Furthermore, a set of non-linear signal processing techniques filtered out the breathing and electromagnetic artifacts from the recorded signals. We observed a reduction in mean HR and an increase in HRV over 24h at 10 dpa, accompanied by QT prolongation as well as diurnal variations, followed by normalization in mean HR and QT intervals at 26 days post ventricular amputation (dpa). We revealed Amiodarone-mediated QTc prolongation, HR reduction and HRV increase otherwise masked by sedation. The novel features of the flexible silicon jacket for µECG telemetry unraveled the biological clock and normalization of QT intervals at 26 dpa, providing the first evidence of new physiological phenomena during cardiac injury and repair as well as cardiac drug-mediated aberrant rhythms. Thus, the light weight and waterproof design holds promise to advance the next generation of mobile health and drug discovery.

  10. Flexible and Waterproof Micro-Sensors to Uncover Zebrafish Circadian Rhythms: The Next Generation of Cardiac Monitoring for Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-An; Tai, Yuchong; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics are the next generation of sensors for mobile health and implantation. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emergent strategy for pre-clinical drug development and toxicity testing. To address the confounding effects from sedation of fish and removal from the aquatic habitat for micro-electrocardiogram (μECG) measurements, we developed waterproof and wearable sensors to uncover the circadian variation in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV)[1]. The parylene-C based ECG sensor consisted of an ultra-soft silicone integrated jacket designed to wrap around the fish during swimming. The Young’s modulus of this silicone jacket matched with the fish surface, and an extended parylene cable connected the underwater chest electrodes with the out-of water electronics. In addition, embedded micro-glass spheres in the silicone effectively reduced the effective density of the jacket to ~ 1 g·cm−3. These innovations enabled physiological ECG telemetry in the fish’s natural habitat without the need for sedation. Furthermore, a set of non-linear signal processing techniques filtered out the breathing and electromagnetic artifacts from the recorded signals. We observed a reduction in mean HR and an increase in HRV over 24 hours at 10 dpa, accompanied by QT prolongation as well as diurnal variations, followed by normalization in mean HR and QT intervals at 26 days post ventricular amputation (dpa). We revealed Amiodarone-mediated QTc prolongation, HR reduction and HRV increase otherwise masked by sedation. The novel features of the flexible silicon jacket for μECG telemetry unraveled the biological clock and normalization of QT intervals at 26 dpa, providing the first evidence of new physiological phenomena during cardiac injury and repair as well as cardiac drug-mediated aberrant rhythms. Thus, the light weight and waterproof design holds promise to advance the next generation of mobile health and drug discovery. PMID:25909335

  11. Biological lipid membranes for on-demand, wireless drug delivery from thin, bioresorbable electronic implants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Hojun; Harburg, Daniel V; Park, Gayoung; Ma, Yinji; Pan, Taisong; Kim, Jae Soon; Lee, Na Yeon; Kim, Bong Hoon; Jang, Kyung-In; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Huang, Yonggang; Kim, Jeongmin; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Leal, Cecilia; Rogers, John A

    2016-01-01

    On-demand, localized release of drugs in precisely controlled, patient-specific time sequences represents an ideal scenario for pharmacological treatment of various forms of hormone imbalances, malignant cancers, osteoporosis, diabetic conditions and others. We present a wirelessly operated, implantable drug delivery system that offers such capabilities in a form that undergoes complete bioresorption after an engineered functional period, thereby obviating the need for surgical extraction. The device architecture combines thermally actuated lipid membranes embedded with multiple types of drugs, configured in spatial arrays and co-located with individually addressable, wireless elements for Joule heating. The result provides the ability for externally triggered, precision dosage of drugs with high levels of control and negligible unwanted leakage, all without the need for surgical removal. In vitro and in vivo investigations reveal all of the underlying operational and materials aspects, as well as the basic efficacy and biocompatibility of these systems. PMID:27175221

  12. Monitoring drug-serum protein interactions for early ADME prediction through Surface Plasmon Resonance technology.

    PubMed

    Fabini, Edoardo; Danielson, U Helena

    2017-03-28

    Many molecules fail to reach the market due to poor pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, rendering the potential drug virtually unavailable for the primary target despite efficient administration to the body. PK properties of endogenous and exogenous compounds in mammals are dependent, among other factors, on their ability to interact with serum proteins. The extent of binding can greatly influence their ADME (adsorption, distribution, metabolism and execration) profile. Reliable and cost-effective bioavailability studies, early in the drug discovery process, can lead to an improvement of the success rate for compounds entering clinical trials. Optical biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection emerged as an efficient approach to obtain large amounts of information about the binding of small molecules to serum proteins. Simple, automated and fast assays provide a good throughput, versatility and highly informative data output, rendering the methodology particularly suited for early screening. The ability to provide basic information on PK can be easily coupled to structure-activity relationship analysis. In this review, features of the technology and its employment for the study of serum protein-small molecule interactions are presented and discussed.

  13. Monitoring early tumor response to drug therapy with diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Flexman, Molly L; Vlachos, Fotios; Kim, Hyun Keol; Sirsi, Shashank R; Huang, Jianzhong; Hernandez, Sonia L; Johung, Tessa B; Gander, Jeffrey W; Reichstein, Ari R; Lampl, Brooke S; Wang, Antai; Borden, Mark A; Yamashiro, Darrell J; Kandel, Jessica J; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2012-01-01

    Although anti-angiogenic agents have shown promise as cancer therapeutics, their efficacy varies between tumor types and individual patients. Providing patient-specific metrics through rapid noninvasive imaging can help tailor drug treatment by optimizing dosages, timing of drug cycles, and duration of therapy-thereby reducing toxicity and cost and improving patient outcome. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive three-dimensional imaging modality that has been shown to capture physiologic changes in tumors through visualization of oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentrations, using non-ionizing radiation with near-infrared light. We employed a small animal model to ascertain if tumor response to bevacizumab (BV), an anti-angiogenic agent that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), could be detected at early time points using DOT. We detected a significant decrease in total hemoglobin levels as soon as one day after BV treatment in responder xenograft tumors (SK-NEP-1), but not in SK-NEP-1 control tumors or in non-responder control or BV-treated NGP tumors. These results are confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxometry and lectin perfusion studies. Noninvasive DOT imaging may allow for earlier and more effective control of anti-angiogenic therapy.

  14. Monitoring early tumor response to drug therapy with diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flexman, Molly L.; Vlachos, Fotios; Kim, Hyun Keol; Sirsi, Shashank R.; Huang, Jianzhong; Hernandez, Sonia L.; Johung, Tessa B.; Gander, Jeffrey W.; Reichstein, Ari R.; Lampl, Brooke S.; Wang, Antai; Borden, Mark A.; Yamashiro, Darrell J.; Kandel, Jessica J.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    Although anti-angiogenic agents have shown promise as cancer therapeutics, their efficacy varies between tumor types and individual patients. Providing patient-specific metrics through rapid noninvasive imaging can help tailor drug treatment by optimizing dosages, timing of drug cycles, and duration of therapy--thereby reducing toxicity and cost and improving patient outcome. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive three-dimensional imaging modality that has been shown to capture physiologic changes in tumors through visualization of oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentrations, using non-ionizing radiation with near-infrared light. We employed a small animal model to ascertain if tumor response to bevacizumab (BV), an anti-angiogenic agent that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), could be detected at early time points using DOT. We detected a significant decrease in total hemoglobin levels as soon as one day after BV treatment in responder xenograft tumors (SK-NEP-1), but not in SK-NEP-1 control tumors or in non-responder control or BV-treated NGP tumors. These results are confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxometry and lectin perfusion studies. Noninvasive DOT imaging may allow for earlier and more effective control of anti-angiogenic therapy.

  15. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting and to determine compliance with hand hygiene protocols by direct observation. Methods A one-year observational study was conducted at a 27 bed level III NICU at a university hospital. All healthcare workers employed at the NICU participated in the study. The use of bedside dispensers was continuously monitored and compliance with hand hygiene was determined by random direct observations. Results A total of 258,436 hand disinfection events were recorded; i.e. a median (interquartile range) of 697 (559–840) per day. The median (interquartile range) number of hand disinfection events performed per healthcare worker during the day, evening, and night shifts was 13.5 (10.8 - 16.7), 19.8 (16.3 - 24.1), and 16.6 (14.2 - 19.3), respectively. In 65.8% of the 1,168 observations of patient contacts requiring hand hygiene, healthcare workers fully complied with the protocol. Conclusions We conclude that the electronic devices provide useful information on frequency, time, and location of its use, and also reveal trends in hand disinfection events over time. Direct observations offer essential data on compliance with the hand hygiene protocol. In future research, data generated by the electronic devices can be supplementary used to evaluate the effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion campaigns. PMID:23043639

  16. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Vancomycin in Dermal Interstitial Fluid Using Dissolving Microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yukako; Inagaki, Yuto; Kobuchi, Shinji; Takada, Kanji; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To design an alternative painless method for vancomycin (VCM) monitoring by withdrawing interstitial fluid (ISF) the skin using dissolving microneedles (DMNs) and possibly replace the conventional clinical blood sampling method. Methods: Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with 50 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital. Vancomycin at 5 mg/mL in saline was intravenously administered via the jugular vein. ISF was collected from a formed pore at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 120 min after the DMNs was removed from the skin. In addition, 0.3 mL blood samples were collected from the left femoral vein. Results: The correlation between the plasma and ISF VCM concentrations was significantly strong (r = 0.676, p < 0.05). Microscopic observation of the skin after application of the DMNs demonstrated their safety as a device for sampling ISF. Conclusion: A novel monitoring method for VCM was developed to painlessly determine concentrations in the ISF as opposed to blood sampling. PMID:27076783

  17. Plasma Charge Current for Controlling and Monitoring Electron Beam Welding with Beam Oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Belenkiy, Vladimir; Shchavlev, Valeriy; Piskunov, Anatoliy; Abdullin, Aleksandr; Mladenov, Georgy

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process. PMID:23242276

  18. Plasma charge current for controlling and monitoring electron beam welding with beam oscillation.

    PubMed

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Belenkiy, Vladimir; Shchavlev, Valeriy; Piskunov, Anatoliy; Abdullin, Aleksandr; Mladenov, Georgy

    2012-12-14

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process.

  19. Bioinspired fluorescent dipeptide nanoparticles for targeted cancer cell imaging and real-time monitoring of drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhen; Sun, Leming; Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-04-01

    Peptide nanostructures are biodegradable and are suitable for many biomedical applications. However, to be useful imaging probes, the limited intrinsic optical properties of peptides must be overcome. Here we show the formation of tryptophan-phenylalanine dipeptide nanoparticles (DNPs) that can shift the peptide's intrinsic fluorescent signal from the ultraviolet to the visible range. The visible emission signal allows the DNPs to act as imaging and sensing probes. The peptide design is inspired by the red shift seen in the yellow fluorescent protein that results from π-π stacking and by the enhanced fluorescence intensity seen in the green fluorescent protein mutant, BFPms1, which results from the structure rigidification by Zn(II). We show that DNPs are photostable, biocompatible and have a narrow emission bandwidth and visible fluorescence properties. DNPs functionalized with the MUC1 aptamer and doxorubicin can target cancer cells and can be used to image and monitor drug release in real time.

  20. Cost Evaluation of Dried Blood Spot Home Sampling as Compared to Conventional Sampling for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Children

    PubMed Central

    Martial, Lisa C.; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; Schreuder, Michiel F.; Henriet, Stefanie S.; Brüggemann, Roger J. M.; Joore, Manuela A.

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling for the purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring can be an attractive alternative for conventional blood sampling, especially in children. This study aimed to compare all costs involved in conventional sampling versus DBS home sampling in two pediatric populations: renal transplant patients and hemato-oncology patients. Total costs were computed from a societal perspective by adding up healthcare cost, patient related costs and costs related to loss of productivity of the caregiver. Switching to DBS home sampling was associated with a cost reduction of 43% for hemato-oncology patients (€277 to €158) and 61% for nephrology patients (€259 to €102) from a societal perspective (total costs) per blood draw. From a healthcare perspective, costs reduced with 7% for hemato-oncology patients and with 21% for nephrology patients. Total savings depend on the number of hospital visits that can be avoided by using home sampling instead of conventional sampling. PMID:27941974

  1. Cost Evaluation of Dried Blood Spot Home Sampling as Compared to Conventional Sampling for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Children.

    PubMed

    Martial, Lisa C; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Schreuder, Michiel F; Henriet, Stefanie S; Brüggemann, Roger J M; Joore, Manuela A

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling for the purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring can be an attractive alternative for conventional blood sampling, especially in children. This study aimed to compare all costs involved in conventional sampling versus DBS home sampling in two pediatric populations: renal transplant patients and hemato-oncology patients. Total costs were computed from a societal perspective by adding up healthcare cost, patient related costs and costs related to loss of productivity of the caregiver. Switching to DBS home sampling was associated with a cost reduction of 43% for hemato-oncology patients (€277 to €158) and 61% for nephrology patients (€259 to €102) from a societal perspective (total costs) per blood draw. From a healthcare perspective, costs reduced with 7% for hemato-oncology patients and with 21% for nephrology patients. Total savings depend on the number of hospital visits that can be avoided by using home sampling instead of conventional sampling.

  2. Attosecond electronic and nuclear quantum photodynamics of ozone monitored with time and angle resolved photoelectron spectra

    PubMed Central

    Decleva, Piero; Quadri, Nicola; Perveaux, Aurelie; Lauvergnat, David; Gatti, Fabien; Lasorne, Benjamin; Halász, Gábor J.; Vibók, Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    Recently we reported a series of numerical simulations proving that it is possible in principle to create an electronic wave packet and subsequent electronic motion in a neutral molecule photoexcited by a UV pump pulse within a few femtoseconds. We considered the ozone molecule: for this system the electronic wave packet leads to a dissociation process. In the present work, we investigate more specifically the time-resolved photoelectron angular distribution of the ozone molecule that provides a much more detailed description of the evolution of the electronic wave packet. We thus show that this experimental technique should be able to give access to observing in real time the creation of an electronic wave packet in a neutral molecule and its impact on a chemical process. PMID:27819356

  3. Monitoring of adverse drug reactions in psychiatry outpatient department of a Secondary Care Hospital of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Al-Thamer, Sura Saad Faris; Jabbar, Riadh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, resulting in increased healthcare cost. Association of psychotropic medications with ADRs is common. Pharmacovigilance can play a vital role in alerting the healthcare providers from the possible ADRs and thus protecting the patients receiving psychotropic medications. Aim: To monitor and report the incidence and nature of ADRs in psychiatry outpatient department (OPD). Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out in the psychiatry OPD. All the patients attending psychiatry outpatient and satisfying the inclusion criteria were monitored for ADRs. The causality, severity and preventability assessment of documented ADRs was done. Chi-square test was done to identify the association between ADRs and sociodemographic, disease and treatment-related variables. Paired Student's t-test was carried out to compare the significance difference in the weight of the patients who reported weight gain to psychotropic medications. Results: The incidence rate of ADR was found to be 10.2%. A total of 112 ADRs were documented. Weight gain 18 (16.07%) followed by somnolence 8 (7.14%) was the most commonly reported ADR. Atypical antipsychotics 37 (33.0%) were the most common class of psychotropic drugs implicated in ADRs. Escitalopram 16 (14.28%) followed by quetiapine 14 (12.5%) were associated with a maximum number of ADRs. No significant association (P > 0.05) documented between demographic and treatment-related variables with number of ADRs. Conclusion: Study revealed a moderate incidence of ADRs in patients attending the psychiatry OPD. Majority of the ADRs reported during the study were mild in nature and not preventable type. PMID:27330260

  4. Tolerability and Plasma Drug Level Monitoring of Prolonged Subcutaneous Teicoplanin Treatment for Bone and Joint Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bennis, Youssef; Diouf, Momar; Saroufim, Carlo; Brunschweiler, Benoit; Rousseau, Florence; Joseph, Cédric; Hamdad, Farida; Ait Amer Meziane, Mohamed; Routier, Simon; Schmit, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Teicoplanin is a key drug for the treatment of multiresistant staphylococcal bone and joint infections (BJI), yet can only be administered via a parenteral route. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of subcutaneous (s.c.) teicoplanin for that indication over 42 days. Thirty patients with Gram-positive cocci BJI were included. Once the target of 25 to 40 mg/liter trough serum concentration was achieved, treatment was switched from an intravenous to an s.c. route. No discontinuation of teicoplanin related to injection site reaction and no severe local adverse event were observed. On multivariate analysis, better tolerability was observed at the beginning of treatment, in patients over 70 years old, and for dosages less than 600 mg. In conclusion, we recommend s.c. administration of teicoplanin when needed. PMID:27458228

  5. Is there potential for therapeutic drug monitoring of biologic agents in rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Bastida, Carla; Ruíz, Virginia; Pascal, Mariona; Yagüe, Jordi; Sanmartí, Raimon; Soy, Dolors

    2016-12-19

    The use of biologics has significantly changed the management of rheumatoid arthritis over the last decade, becoming the cornerstone treatment for many patients. The current therapeutic arsenal consists of just under 10 biologic agents, with four different mechanisms of action. Several studies have demonstrated a large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which translates to unpredictability in clinical response among individuals. The present review focuses on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biologic agents approved for rheumatoid arthritis. The literature relating to their concentration-effect relationship and the use of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling to optimize drug regimens is analysed. Due to the scarcity and complexity of these studies, the current dosing strategy is based on clinical indexes/aspects. In general, dose individualization for biologics should be implemented increasingly in clinical practice as there is a direct benefit for treated rheumatoid arthritis patients. Moreover, there is an indirect benefit in terms of cost-effectiveness.

  6. Antineoplastic drugs determination by HPLC-HRMS(n) to monitor occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Dal Bello, Federica; Santoro, Valentina; Scarpino, Valentina; Martano, Chiara; Aigotti, Riccardo; Chiappa, Alberta; Davoli, Enrico; Medana, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, direct, multiresidue highly specific procedure to evaluate the possible surface contamination of selected antineoplastic drugs in several hospital environment sites by using wipe test sampling. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), carboplatin (C-Pt), cyclophosphamide (CYC), cytarabine (CYT), doxorubicin (DOX), gemcitabine (GEM), ifosfamide (IFO), methotrexate (MET), and mitomycin C (MIT) belong to very different chemical classes but show good ionization properties under electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions (negative ion mode for 5-FU and positive ion mode in all other cases). HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) coupled with HRMS (high resolution mass spectrometry) appears to be the best technique for direct analysis of these analytes, because neither derivatization nor complex extraction procedure for polar compounds in samples is requested prior the analysis. Sample preparation was limited to washing wipes with appropriate solvents. Chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 reversed phase columns. The HPLC-HRMS/MS method was validated in order to obtain robustness, sensitivity and selectivity. LLOQ (lower limit of quantitation) values provided a sensitivity good enough to evidence the presence of the drugs in a very low concentration range (<1 pg/cm(2) ). The method was applied for a study of real wipe tests coming from many areas from a hospital showing some positive samples. The low quantitation limits and the high specificity due to the high resolution approach of the developed method allowed an accurate description of the working environment that can be used to define procedural rules to limit working place contamination to a minimum. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Analysis of a Novel Diffractive Scanning Wire Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for Discriminative Profiling of Electron Vs. X Ray Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tatchyn, Roman; /SLAC

    2011-09-01

    Recent numerical studies of Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime indicate a large sensitivity of the gain to the degree of transverse overlap (and associated phase coherence) between the electron and photon beams traveling down the insertion device. Simulations of actual systems imply that accurate detection and correction for this relative loss of overlap, rather than correction for the absolute departure of the electron beam from a fixed axis, is the preferred function of an FEL amplifier's Beam Position Monitor (BPM) and corrector systems. In this note we propose a novel diffractive BPM with the capability of simultaneously detecting and resolving the absolute (and relative) transverse positions and profiles of electron and x-ray beams co-propagating through an undulator. We derive the equations governing the performance of the BPM and examine its predicted performance for the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), viz., for profiling multi-GeV electron bunches co-propagating with one-to-several-hundred keV x-ray beams. Selected research and development (r&d) tasks for fabricating and testing the proposed BPM are discussed.

  8. Electronic fetal monitoring in relation to cesarean section delivery, for live births and stillbirths in the U.S., 1980.

    PubMed Central

    Placek, P J; Keppel, K G; Taffel, S M; Liss, T L

    1984-01-01

    In the 1980 National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys, information about fetal monitoring and type of delivery was obtained from hospitals for a sample of 9,941 live births and 6,386 fetal deaths of 28 weeks' gestation or more. Data in this analysis are weighted to provide national estimates of live births and late fetal deaths that occurred in U.S. hospitals during 1980. Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) was used for 47.7 percent of live births; 27.2 percent were monitored by Doppler ultrasound only, 10.2 percent by scalp electrode only, 6.3 percent by Doppler ultrasound and scalp electrode only, and 4.0 percent by other methods and combinations. The distribution by type of EFM used was similar for the 42.7 percent of late fetal deaths (also called stillbirths) that were monitored. Variation in the use of EFM for live births and stillbirths is examined according to maternal age, parity, education, race, marital status, income, previous fetal loss, underlying medical conditions, complications of pregnancy, complications of labor, duration of labor, infant birth weight, and length of gestation. Among live births, 17.1 percent were delivered by cesarean section, as were 16.8 percent of stillbirths. The association between fetal monitoring and the primary cesarean section rate (the probability of cesarean section for women who had never had one) for all birth orders and for first births is examined according to characteristics of the mothers and the infants. Factors involved in the consistent association found between fetal monitoring and the primary cesarean section rate are discussed. PMID:6424166

  9. Monitoring non-pseudomorphic epitaxial growth of spinel/perovskite oxide heterostructures by reflection high-energy electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Schütz, P.; Pfaff, F.; Scheiderer, P.; Sing, M.; Claessen, R.

    2015-02-09

    Pulsed laser deposition of spinel γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films on bulk perovskite SrTiO{sub 3} is monitored by high-pressure reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The heteroepitaxial combination of two materials with different crystal structures is found to be inherently accompanied by a strong intensity modulation of bulk diffraction patterns from inelastically scattered electrons, which impedes the observation of RHEED intensity oscillations. Avoiding such electron surface-wave resonance enhancement by de-tuning the RHEED geometry allows for the separate observation of the surface-diffracted specular RHEED signal and thus the real-time monitoring of sub-unit cell two-dimensional layer-by-layer growth. Since these challenges are essentially rooted in the difference between film and substrate crystal structure, our findings are of relevance for the growth of any heterostructure combining oxides with different crystal symmetry and may thus facilitate the search for novel oxide heterointerfaces.

  10. Characterizing Focused-Ultrasound Mediated Drug Delivery to the Heterogeneous Primate Brain In Vivo with Acoustic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shih-Ying; Sanchez, Carlos Sierra; Samiotaki, Gesthimani; Buch, Amanda; Ferrera, Vincent P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Focused ultrasound with microbubbles has been used to noninvasively and selectively deliver pharmacological agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for treating brain diseases. Acoustic cavitation monitoring could serve as an on-line tool to assess and control the treatment. While it demonstrated a strong correlation in small animals, its translation to primates remains in question due to the anatomically different and highly heterogeneous brain structures with gray and white matteras well as dense vasculature. In addition, the drug delivery efficiency and the BBB opening volume have never been shown to be predictable through cavitation monitoring in primates. This study aimed at determining how cavitation activity is correlated with the amount and concentration of gadolinium delivered through the BBB and its associated delivery efficiency as well as the BBB opening volume in non-human primates. Another important finding entails the effect of heterogeneous brain anatomy and vasculature of a primate brain, i.e., presence of large cerebral vessels, gray and white matter that will also affect the cavitation activity associated with variation of BBB opening in different tissue types, which is not typically observed in small animals. Both these new findings are critical in the primate brain and provide essential information for clinical applications. PMID:27853267

  11. Hyperspectral imaging using near infrared spectroscopy to monitor coat thickness uniformity in the manufacture of a transdermal drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Pavurala, Naresh; Xu, Xiaoming; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R

    2017-03-19

    Hyperspectral imaging using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) integrates spectroscopy and conventional imaging to obtain both spectral and spatial information of materials. The non-invasive and rapid nature of hyperspectral imaging using NIRS makes it a valuable process analytical technology (PAT) tool for in-process monitoring and control of the manufacturing process for transdermal drug delivery systems (TDS). The focus of this investigation was to develop and validate the use of Near Infra-red (NIR) hyperspectral imaging to monitor coat thickness uniformity, a critical quality attribute (CQA) for TDS. Chemometric analysis was used to process the hyperspectral image and a partial least square (PLS) model was developed to predict the coat thickness of the TDS. The goodness of model fit and prediction were 0.9933 and 0.9933, respectively, indicating an excellent fit to the training data and also good predictability. The % Prediction Error (%PE) for internal and external validation samples was less than 5% confirming the accuracy of the PLS model developed in the present study. The feasibility of the hyperspectral imaging as a real-time process analytical tool for continuous processing was also investigated. When the PLS model was applied to detect deliberate variation in coating thickness, it was able to predict both the small and large variations as well as identify coating defects such as non-uniform regions and presence of air bubbles.

  12. Characterizing Focused-Ultrasound Mediated Drug Delivery to the Heterogeneous Primate Brain In Vivo with Acoustic Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shih-Ying; Sanchez, Carlos Sierra; Samiotaki, Gesthimani; Buch, Amanda; Ferrera, Vincent P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2016-11-01

    Focused ultrasound with microbubbles has been used to noninvasively and selectively deliver pharmacological agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for treating brain diseases. Acoustic cavitation monitoring could serve as an on-line tool to assess and control the treatment. While it demonstrated a strong correlation in small animals, its translation to primates remains in question due to the anatomically different and highly heterogeneous brain structures with gray and white matteras well as dense vasculature. In addition, the drug delivery efficiency and the BBB opening volume have never been shown to be predictable through cavitation monitoring in primates. This study aimed at determining how cavitation activity is correlated with the amount and concentration of gadolinium delivered through the BBB and its associated delivery efficiency as well as the BBB opening volume in non-human primates. Another important finding entails the effect of heterogeneous brain anatomy and vasculature of a primate brain, i.e., presence of large cerebral vessels, gray and white matter that will also affect the cavitation activity associated with variation of BBB opening in different tissue types, which is not typically observed in small animals. Both these new findings are critical in the primate brain and provide essential information for clinical applications.

  13. Therapeutic drug monitoring of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium by limited sampling strategies is associated with a high rate of failure

    PubMed Central

    Hougardy, Jean-Michel; Maufort, Laurette; Cotton, Frédéric; Coussement, Julien; Mikhalski, Dimitri; Wissing, Karl M.; Le Moine, Alain; Broeders, Nilufer; Abramowicz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic drug monitoring of mycophenolic acid (MPA) is usually performed with a limited sampling strategy (LSS), which relies on a limited number of blood samples and subsequent extrapolation of the global exposure to MPA. LSS is usually performed successfully with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), but data on enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) are scarce. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of 6-h LSS therapeutic drug monitoring with EC-MPS compared with MMF monitoring among kidney transplant recipients. Methods Sixty-two patients who received EC-MPS during the first 6 months of transplantation were compared with a matched group of 64 MMF-treated kidney transplant recipients. The area under the curve (AUC) was computed by LSS using multiple concentration time points (0, 1, 2, 3 and 6 h post-dose) and a trapezoidal rule. Patients had MPA therapeutic drug monitoring performed on two occasions, one within 2 weeks and the second after 3–4 months of transplantation. Results EC-MPS monitoring and MMF therapeutic drug monitoring were not interpretable in 34.5% (n = 40/116) and 1.8% (n = 2/112) of patients, respectively {relative risk [RR] 19.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.8–78.0]; P < 0.0001}. The main cause of abnormal EC-MPS therapeutic drug monitoring was delayed absorption of both the previous evening and the morning dose, resulting in MPA plasma levels before the next morning dose being higher than MPA plasma levels measured at 1, 2 and 3 h after taking EC-MPS. Cyclosporin in association with MMF significantly increased the risk of low AUC values (<30 mg h/L) in comparison with tacrolimus [55% (n = 11/20) and 10% (n = 9/88), respectively; RR 5.4 (95% CI 2.6–11.2); P < 0.0001]. Conclusions The risk of therapeutic drug monitoring failure with EC-MPS is >30% during the first 6 months of renal transplantation. Delayed pharmacokinetics was the main reason. In contrast, the risk of therapeutic drug monitoring failure was substantially lower with

  14. Nanoparticles as Alternative Strategies for Drug Delivery to the Alzheimer Brain: Electron Microscopy Ultrastructural Analysis.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Gjumrakch; Daza, Jesús; Herrera, Arturo Solís; del Carmen Arias Esparza, María; Morales, Ludis; Echeverria, Valentina; Bachurin, Sergey Olegovich; Barreto, George Emilio

    2015-01-01

    One of the biggest problems and challenges for the development of new drugs and treatment strategies against Alzheimer Disease (AD) is the crossing of target drugs into the blood brain barrier. The use of nanoparticles in drug delivery therapy holds much promise in targeting remote tissues, and as a result many studies have attempted to study the ultrastructural localization of nanoparticles in various tissues. However, there are currently no in vivo studies demonstrating the ultrastructural distribution of nanoparticles in the brain. The aim of this study was to address how intraperitoneal injection of silver nanoparticles in the brain leads to leaking on the inter-endothelial contact and luminal plasma membrane, thus elucidating the possibility of penetrating into the most affected areas in the Alzheimer brain (vascular endothelium, perivascular, neuronal and glial cells). Our results show that the silver nanoparticles reached the brain and were found in hippocampal areas, indicating that they can be conjugated and used to deliver the drugs into the cell cytoplasm of the damaged brain cells. The present study can be useful for the development of novel drug delivering therapy and useful in understanding the delivery, distribution and effects of silver nanoparticles in AD brain tissue at cellular and subcellular level.

  15. Safeguarding the process of drug administration with an emphasis on electronic support tools

    PubMed Central

    Seidling, Hanna M; Lampert, Anette; Lohmann, Kristina; Schiele, Julia T; Send, Alexander J F; Witticke, Diana; Haefeli, Walter E

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aim of this work is to understand the process of drug administration and identify points in the workflow that resulted in interventions by clinical information systems in order to improve patient safety. Methods To identify a generic way to structure the drug administration process we performed peer-group discussions and supplemented these discussions with a literature search for studies reporting errors in drug administration and strategies for their prevention. Results We concluded that the drug administration process might consist of up to 11 sub-steps, which can be grouped into the four sub-processes of preparation, personalization, application and follow-up. Errors in drug handling and administration are diverse and frequent and in many cases not caused by the patient him/herself, but by family members or nurses. Accordingly, different prevention strategies have been set in place with relatively few approaches involving e-health technology. Conclusions A generic structuring of the administration process and particular error-prone sub-steps may facilitate the allocation of prevention strategies and help to identify research gaps. PMID:24007450

  16. Characterization and scanning electron microscopic investigation of crosslinked freeze dried gelatin matrices for study of drug diffusivity and release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Goutam; Mitra, Analava; Basak, Amit; Sheet, Debdoot

    2012-02-01

    Drug delivery is a promising technique to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. However, properties of carrier materials require intense improvement for effective transport of drug molecules. In the current study, attempts have been made to develop freeze dried gelatin matrices cross linked with genipin at various temperatures (5°C, 15°C and 25°C) prior to freeze-drying (-80°C). The freeze dried matrices thus obtained at the said temperatures are characterized for crosslinking density, compression strength, swelling behaviors. The matrix crosslinked at 25°C showed highest Flory-Rehner crosslinking density (467 ± 46) (p<0.05), highest compressive strength (12.36 ± 0.12) (p<0.05) and lowest equilibrium water content. In this context, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to study the surface morphology (size and shape of pores) of the crosslinked matrices. These images were further processed for quantitative analysis of morphological features, viz., areas, radius, ferret diameter, length of major and minor axis and eccentricity using MATLAB toolboxes. These quantitative analyses correlate transport and the release kinetics of model anti-inflammatory drug (indomethacin) from crosslinked matrices in vitro to tune as a controllable delivery system. The diffusional exponent (n) for all constructs ranging from 0.61 to 0.69 (p<0.05) (0.45

  17. A voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for water quality monitoring in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Campos, Inmaculada; Alcañiz, Miguel; Aguado, Daniel; Barat, Ramón; Ferrer, José; Gil, Luis; Marrakchi, Mouna; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón; Soto, Juan; Vivancos, José-Luis

    2012-05-15

    The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for the prediction of concentration levels of certain water quality parameters from influent and effluent wastewater from a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor pilot plant applied to domestic wastewater treatment is proposed here. The electronic tongue consists of a set of noble (Au, Pt, Rh, Ir, and Ag) and non-noble (Ni, Co and Cu) electrodes that were housed inside a stainless steel cylinder which was used as the body of the electronic tongue system. As a previous step an electrochemical study of the response of the ions sulphate, orthophosphate, acetate, bicarbonate and ammonium was carried out in water using the electrodes contained in the electronic tongue. The second part of the work was devoted to the application of the electronic tongue to the characterization of the influent and effluent waters from the wastewater treatment plant. Partial Least Squares analysis was used to obtain a correlation between the data from the tongue and the pollution parameters measured in the laboratory such as soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs), soluble biological oxygen demand (BODs), ammonia (NH(4)-N), orthophosphate (PO(4)-P), Sulphate (SO(4)-S), acetic acid (HAC) and alkalinity (Alk). A total of 28 and 11 samples were used in the training and the validation steps, respectively, for both influent and effluent water samples. The electronic tongue showed relatively good predictive power for the determination of BOD, COD, NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P, SO(4)-S, and Alk.

  18. Comparison of AC electronic monitoring and field data for estimating tolerance to Empoasca kraemeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in common bean genotypes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, M S; Backus, E A; Cardona, C

    2000-12-01

    Two methods for estimating the tolerance of common bean genotypes to Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore were compared, using a yield trial carried out at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia, versus stylet penetration tactics measured by AC electronic feeding monitors. A stylet penetration index was devised based on principal component scores of three penetration tactics identified (pulsing laceration, cell rupturing, and lancing sap ingestion), combined with knowledge of the hopperburn symptoms caused by each tactic. Tolerant genotypes, as classified by the CIAT yield index, showed significantly more unprotected yield and lower hopperburn scores than the susceptible control. They also induced performance of less pulsing laceration (the tactic considered most damaging to the plant), and more of the other two, mitigating tactics, especially cell rupturing. When index values were calculated for each genotype, stylet penetration index values matched those of the yield index for three out of five genotypes: two EMP-coded tolerant lines ('EMP 385' and 'EMP 392') and the susceptible control 'BAT 41'. Thus, for these three genotypes, all subsequent hoppereburn symptoms are predictable by the type of feeding behavior performed on them. 'Porrillo Sintético' and 'EMP 84', considered borderline genotypes by the yield index, were overestimated and underestimated respectively, by the stylet penetration index. We postulate that, for these two genotypes, plant physiological responses to feeding (either compensatory or heightened sensitivity, respectively) synergize with type of feeding performed to generate the overall hopperburn condition. This multivariate analysis of electronic monitoring data was successfully used to devise an index of resistance. The implications of using the stylet penetration index and the advantages of using electronic monitoring in a bean-breeding program are discussed.

  19. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of 6-thioguanine nucleotides in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: interest and limits].

    PubMed

    Fakhoury, May; de Beaumais, Tiphaine; Médard, Yves; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2010-01-01

    6-mercaptopurine, a key drug for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children, is a prodrug metabolized into 6-thioguanine (6-TGN) which are the active compounds and into methylated metabolites, primary by thiopurine S-methyltransferase enzyme (TPMT). This enzyme displays important inter subject variability linked to a genetic polymorphism: when treated with standard doses of thiopurine, TPMT-deficient and heterozygous patients are at great risk for developing severe and potentially life-threatening toxicity (hematopoietic, hepatic, mucositis...) but show a better survival rate while patients with high TPMT activity (wild type) present lower peripheral red blood cells 6-TGN concentrations and a higher risk of leukemia relapse. Genotyping remains crucial before 6-MP administration at diagnosis to identify patients with homozygous mutant TPMT genotype and therefore prevent severe and life-threatening toxicity, and to individualize therapy according to TMPT genotype. Follow-up of ALL treatment should preferentially be based on repeated determinations of intracellular active metabolites (6-thioguanine nucleotides) and methylated metabolites in addition to haematological surveillance.

  20. The experimental electron density in polymorphs A and B of the anti-ulcer drug famotidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overgaard, J.; Hibbs, D. E.

    2004-09-01

    A multipole description of the electron-density distribution in the two polymorphs of famotidine is given. The electrostatic potential shown on the molecular surfaces provides additional information on molecular reactivity.

  1. Improving high-altitude emp modeling capabilities by using a non-equilibrium electron swarm model to monitor conduction electron evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusateri, Elise Noel

    abruptly. The objective of the PhD research is to mitigate this effect by integrating a conduction electron model into CHAP-LA which can calculate the conduction current based on a non-equilibrium electron distribution. We propose to use an electron swarm model to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in the EMP environment which is characterized by electric field and pressure. Swarm theory uses various collision frequencies and reaction rates to study how the electron distribution and the resultant transport coefficients change with time, ultimately reaching an equilibrium distribution. Validation of the swarm model we develop is a necessary step for completion of the thesis work. After validation, the swarm model is integrated in the air chemistry model CHAP-LA employs for conduction electron simulations. We test high altitude EMP simulations with the swarm model option in the air chemistry model to show improvements in the computational capability of CHAP-LA. A swarm model has been developed that is based on a previous swarm model developed by Higgins, Longmire and O'Dell 1973, hereinafter HLO. The code used for the swarm model calculation solves a system of coupled differential equations for electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Important swarm parameters, including the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are recalculated and compared to the previously reported empirical results given by HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford 2005. BOLSIG+ utilizes updated electron scattering cross sections that are defined over an expanded energy range found in the atomic and molecular cross section database published by Phelps in the Phelps Database 2014 on the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. 2012. The swarm model is also updated from the original HLO model by including

  2. Biofiltration of composting gases using different municipal solid waste-pruning residue composts: monitoring by using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    López, R; Cabeza, I O; Giráldez, I; Díaz, M J

    2011-09-01

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the composting of kitchen waste and pruning residues, and the abatement of VOCs by different compost biofilters was studied. VOCs removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained using composts of municipal solid waste (MSW) or MSW-pruning residue as biofilter material. An electronic nose identified qualitative differences among the biofilter output gases at very low concentrations of VOCs. These differences were related to compost constituents, compost particle size (2-7 or 7-20mm), and a combination of both factors. The total concentration of VOCs determined by a photoionization analyser and inferred from electronic nose data sets were correlated over an ample range of concentrations of VOCs, showing that these techniques could be specially adapted for the monitoring of these processes.

  3. Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Optimal Sampling Strategies for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Rifampin in Patients with Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sturkenboom, Marieke G. G.; Mulder, Leonie W.; de Jager, Arthur; van Altena, Richard; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; de Lange, Wiel C. M.; Proost, Johannes H.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; van der Werf, Tjip S.

    2015-01-01

    Rifampin, together with isoniazid, has been the backbone of the current first-line treatment of tuberculosis (TB). The ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24) to the MIC is the best predictive pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameter for determinations of efficacy. The objective of this study was to develop an optimal sampling procedure based on population pharmacokinetics to predict AUC0–24 values. Patients received rifampin orally once daily as part of their anti-TB treatment. A one-compartmental pharmacokinetic population model with first-order absorption and lag time was developed using observed rifampin plasma concentrations from 55 patients. The population pharmacokinetic model was developed using an iterative two-stage Bayesian procedure and was cross-validated. Optimal sampling strategies were calculated using Monte Carlo simulation (n = 1,000). The geometric mean AUC0–24 value was 41.5 (range, 13.5 to 117) mg · h/liter. The median time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (Tmax) was 2.2 h, ranging from 0.4 to 5.7 h. This wide range indicates that obtaining a concentration level at 2 h (C2) would not capture the peak concentration in a large proportion of the population. Optimal sampling using concentrations at 1, 3, and 8 h postdosing was considered clinically suitable with an r2 value of 0.96, a root mean squared error value of 13.2%, and a prediction bias value of −0.4%. This study showed that the rifampin AUC0–24 in TB patients can be predicted with acceptable accuracy and precision using the developed population pharmacokinetic model with optimal sampling at time points 1, 3, and 8 h. PMID:26055359

  4. Single-cell bioelectrical impedance platform for monitoring cellular response to drug treatment

    PubMed Central

    Asphahani, Fareid; Wang, Kui; Thein, Myo; Veiseh, Omid; Yung, Sandy; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Miqin

    2011-01-01

    The response of cells to a chemical or biological agent in terms of their impedance changes in real-time is a useful mechanism that can be utilized for a wide variety of biomedical and environmental applications. The use of a single-cell based analytical platform could be an effective approach to acquiring more sensitive cell impedance measurements, particularly in applications where only diminutive changes in impedance are expected. Here, we report the development of an on-chip cell impedance biosensor with two types of electrodes that hosts individual cells and cell populations, respectively, to study its efficacy in detecting cellular response. Human glioblastoma (U87MG) cells were patterned on single- and multi-cell electrodes through ligand-mediated natural cell adhesion. We comparatively investigated how these cancer cells on both types of electrodes respond to an ion channel inhibitor, chlorotoxin (CTX), in terms of their shape alternations and impedance changes to exploit the fine detectability of the single-cell based system. The detecting electrodes hosting single cells exhibited a significant reduction in the real impedance signal, while electrodes hosting confluent monolayer of cells showed little to no impedance change. When single-cell electrodes were treated with CTX of different doses, a dose-dependent impedance change was observed. This enables us to identify the effective dose needed for this particular treatment. Our study demonstrated that this single-cell impedance system may potentially serve as a useful analytical tool for biomedical applications such as environmental toxin detection and drug evaluation. PMID:21301069

  5. Clinical evaluation of the Philips 5306B electronic blood pressure monitor.

    PubMed

    Hall, C L; Goodfellow, J; Waites, J

    1991-01-01

    A patient-recorded home blood pressure series using an electronic manometer is used increasingly to provide a representative sample of blood pressure (BP) and to avoid frequent office visits and office rises in BP. Few of the many available electronic manometers have undergone rigorous testing and validation against a standard mercury manometer. We have evaluated fully the commonly used Philips 5306B electronic manometer against a Hawksley random zero mercury manometer employing a randomized, single-blind, crossover design and statistical analyses that have been validated previously. Although correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 were achieved for both systolic and diastolic pressure, the electronic manometer gave systolic and diastolic readings that differed from the mercury manometer by greater than or equal to +/- 5 mmHg in some 33% of patients and by greater than or equal to +/- 1- mmHg in some 18% of patients. Thus, in common with most electronic manometers, the Philips 5306B needs to be improved to correlate more closely with the standard mercury manometer to enhance its clinical usefulness.

  6. In situ monitoring of a flash light sintering process using silver nano-ink for producing flexible electronics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2013-01-25

    In this work, a flash light sintering process using silver nano-inks is investigated. A silver nano-ink pattern was printed on a flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrate using a gravure-offset printing system. The printed silver nano-ink was sintered at room temperature and under ambient conditions using a flash of light from a xenon lamp using an in-house flash light sintering system. In order to monitor the light sintering process, a Wheatstone bridge electrical circuit was devised and changes in the voltage difference of the silver nano-ink were recorded during the sintering process using an oscilloscope. The sheet resistance changes during the sintering process were monitored using the in situ monitoring system devised, under various light conditions (e.g. light energy, on-time and off-time duration, and pulse numbers). The microstructure of the sintered silver film and the interface between the silver film and the PET substrate were observed using a scanning electron microscope, a focused ion beam and an optical microscope. The electrical sheet resistances of the sintered silver films were measured using a four-point probe method. Using the in situ monitoring system devised, the flash light sintering mechanism was studied for each type of light pulse (e.g. evaporation of organic binder followed by the forming of a neck-like junction and its growth, etc).The optimal flash light sintering condition is suggested on the basis of the in situ monitoring results. The optimized flash light sintering process produces a silver film with a lower sheet resistance (0.95 Ω/sq) compared with that of the thermally sintered silver film (2.03 Ω/sq) without damaging the PET substrate or allowing interfacial delamination between the silver film and the PET substrate.

  7. Bread-Board Testing of the Radiation Hard Electron Monitor (RADEM) being developed for the ESA JUICE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Hajdas, Wojtek; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Xiao, Hualin; Goncalves, Patricia; Pinto, Marco; Pinto, Costa; Marques, Arlindo; Meier, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The RADEM instrument will serve as the radiation monitor for the JUICE spacecraft. It will characterize the highly dynamic radiation environment of the Jovian system by measuring the energy spectra of energetic electrons and protons up to 40 MeV and 250 MeV, respectively. It will also determine the directionality of 0.3-10 MeV electrons. Further goals include the detection of heavy ions, and the determination of the corresponding LET spectra and dose rates. Here, the tests of the Electron and Proton Telescopes, and the Directionality Detector of the RADEM Bread-Board model are described. The objective of these tests is to validate RADEM design and physical concept applied therein. The tests were performed at various irradiation facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) where energy ranges relevant for space applications can be covered (electrons: ≤100 MeV and protons: ≤230 MeV). The measured values are also compared with GEANT4 Monte-Carlo Simulation results.

  8. Catching Conical Intersections in the Act; Monitoring Transient Electronic Coherences by Attosecond Stimulated X-Ray Raman Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Kochise; Kowalewski, Markus; Dorfman, Konstantin; Mukamel, Shaul

    Conical intersections (CIs) dominate the pathways and outcomes of virtually all photochemical molecular processes. Despite extensive experimental and theoretical effort, CIs have not been directly observed yet and the experimental evidence is inferred from fast reaction rates and vibrational signatures. We show that short X-ray pulses can directly detect the passage through a CI with the adequate temporal and spectral sensitivity. The non-adiabatic coupling that exists in the region of a CI redistributes electronic population but also generates electronic coherence. This coherent oscillation can then be detected via a coherent Raman process that employs a composite femtosecond/attosecond X-ray pulse. This technique, dubbed Transient Redistribution of Ultrafast Electronic Coherences (TRUECARS) is reminiscent of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) in that a coherent oscillation is set in motion and then monitored, but differs in that the dynamics is electronic (CARS generally observes nuclear dynamics) and the coherence is generated internally by passage through a region of non-adiabatic coupling rather than by an externally applied laser. Support provided by U.S. Department of Energy through Award No. DE-FG02-04ER15571, the National Science Foundation (Grant No CHE-1361516), and the Alexander von Humboldt foundation through the Feodor Lynen program.

  9. Cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography: complementary approaches to structural biology and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Vénien-Bryan, Catherine; Li, Zhuolun; Vuillard, Laurent; Boutin, Jean Albert

    2017-04-01

    The invention of the electron microscope has greatly enhanced the view scientists have of small structural details. Since its implementation, this technology has undergone considerable evolution and the resolution that can be obtained for biological objects has been extended. In addition, the latest generation of cryo-electron microscopes equipped with direct electron detectors and software for the automated collection of images, in combination with the use of advanced image-analysis methods, has dramatically improved the performance of this technique in terms of resolution. While calculating a sub-10 Å resolution structure was an accomplishment less than a decade ago, it is now common to generate structures at sub-5 Å resolution and even better. It is becoming possible to relatively quickly obtain high-resolution structures of biological molecules, in particular large ones (>500 kDa) which, in some cases, have resisted more conventional methods such as X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Such newly resolved structures may, for the first time, shed light on the precise mechanisms that are essential for cellular physiological processes. The ability to attain atomic resolution may support the development of new drugs that target these proteins, allowing medicinal chemists to understand the intimacy of the relationship between their molecules and targets. In addition, recent developments in cryo-electron microscopy combined with image analysis can provide unique information on the conformational variability of macromolecular complexes. Conformational flexibility of macromolecular complexes can be investigated using cryo-electron microscopy and multiconformation reconstruction methods. However, the biochemical quality of the sample remains the major bottleneck to routine cryo-electron microscopy-based determination of structures at very high resolution.

  10. Online monitoring of printed electronics by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Alarousu, Erkki; AlSaggaf, Ahmed; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is an optical method capable of 3D imaging of object's internal structure with micron-scale resolution. Modern SD-OCT tools offer the speed capable of online monitoring of printed devices. This paper demonstrates the use of SD-OCT in a simulated roll-to-roll (R2R) process through monitoring some structural properties of moving screen printed interdigitated electrodes. It is shown that structural properties can be resolved for speeds up to ca. 1 m/min, which is the first step towards application of this method in real manufacturing processes, including roll-to-roll (R2R) printing. PMID:23536206

  11. Online monitoring of printed electronics by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Alarousu, Erkki; AlSaggaf, Ahmed; Jabbour, Ghassan E

    2013-01-01

    Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is an optical method capable of 3D imaging of object's internal structure with micron-scale resolution. Modern SD-OCT tools offer the speed capable of online monitoring of printed devices. This paper demonstrates the use of SD-OCT in a simulated roll-to-roll (R2R) process through monitoring some structural properties of moving screen printed interdigitated electrodes. It is shown that structural properties can be resolved for speeds up to ca. 1 m/min, which is the first step towards application of this method in real manufacturing processes, including roll-to-roll (R2R) printing.

  12. MONITOR Ionospheric Network: two case studies on scintillation and electron content variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béniguel, Yannick; Cherniak, Iurii; Garcia-Rigo, Alberto; Hamel, Pierrick; Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; Kameni, Roland; Kashcheyev, Anton; Krankowski, Andrzej; Monnerat, Michel; Nava, Bruno; Ngaya, Herbert; Orus-Perez, Raül; Secrétan, Hughes; Sérant, Damien; Schlüter, Stefan; Wilken, Volker

    2017-03-01

    The ESA MONITOR network is composed of high-frequency-sampling global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers deployed mainly at low and high latitudes to study ionosphere variability and jointly with global GNSS data and ionospheric processing software in support of the GNSS and its satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS) like the European EGNOS. In a recent phase of the project, the network was merged with the CNES/ASECNA network and new receivers were added to complement the latter in the western African sector. This paper summarizes MONITOR, presenting two case studies on scintillations (using almost 2 years of data measurements). The first case occurred during the major St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm in 2015. The second case study was performed in the last phase of the project, which was supported by ESA EGNOS Project Office, when we paid special attention to extreme events that might degrade the system performance of the European EGNOS.

  13. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2006. Volume I: Secondary School Students. NIH Publication No. 07-6205

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The Monitoring the Future study has provided the nation with a window into the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illicit drug use, alcohol use, and tobacco use. It has provided a clearer view of the changing topography of these problems among adolescents and adults, a better understanding of the dynamics of factors that drive…

  14. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2007. Volume I, Secondary School Students. NIH Publication No. 08-6418A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2008-01-01

    The Monitoring the Future study has provided the nation with a window into the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illicit drug use, alcohol use, and tobacco use. It has provided a clearer view of the changing topography of these problems among adolescents and adults, a better understanding of the dynamics of factors that drive…

  15. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2008. Volume I, Secondary School Students. NIH Publication No. 09-7402

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The Monitoring the Future study has provided the nation with a window into the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illicit drug use, alcohol use, and tobacco use. It has provided a clearer view of the changing topography of these problems among adolescents and adults, a better understanding of the dynamics of factors that drive…

  16. The Moderating Role of Parental Monitoring on the Influence of Peer Pro-Drug Norms on Alcohol and Cigarette Use among Adolescents in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, David; Castillo, Jason T.; Ayón, Cecilia; Blanchard, Kelly N.

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized data drawn from a study of 980 adolescents living in Tijuana, Mexico, in February 2009 to examine whether parental monitoring had a moderating impact on the influence of peer pro-drug norms on lifetime and past-30-day alcohol and cigarette use among a group of adolescents living along the United States-Mexico border. The…

  17. Monitoring the Future. National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume II, College Students & Adults Ages 19-50. NIH Publication Number 10-7585

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Now in its 35th year, Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term program of research conducted at the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research under a series of investigator-initiated research grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The study is comprised of several ongoing series of annual surveys of nationally…

  18. Parenting Practices and Problem Behavior across Three Generations: Monitoring, Harsh Discipline, and Drug Use in the Intergenerational Transmission of Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David

    2009-01-01

    Using data from grandparents (G1), parents (G2), and children (G3), this study examined continuity in parental monitoring, harsh discipline, and child externalizing behavior across generations, and the contribution of parenting practices and parental drug use to intergenerational continuity in child externalizing behavior. Structural equation and…

  19. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2010. Volume II, College Students & Adults Ages 19-50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF), which is now in its 36th year, is a research program conducted at the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research under a series of investigator-initiated research grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The study is comprised of several ongoing series of annual surveys of nationally representative…

  20. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume II: College Students and Adults Ages 19-50. NIH Publication No. 10-7585

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF), now in its 35th year, has become one of the nation's most relied-upon sources of information on changes taking place in licit and illicit psychoactive drug use among American adolescents, college students, young adults, and more recently, middle-aged adults. During the last three and a half decades, the study has…