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  1. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Share this page: Was this page ... Monitored Drugs | Common Questions | Related Pages What is therapeutic drug monitoring? Therapeutic drug monitoring is the measurement ...

  2. Therapeutic drug monitoring: antiarrhythmic drugs.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T J; Williams, K M

    2001-01-01

    Antiarrhythmic agents are traditionally classified according to Vaughan Williams into four classes of action. Class I antiarrhythmic agents include most of the drugs traditionally thought of as antiarrhythmics, and have as a common action, blockade of the fast-inward sodium channel on myocardium. These agents have a very significant toxicity, and while they are being used less, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) does significantly increase the safety with which they can be administered. Class II agents are antisympathetic drugs, particularly the b-adrenoceptor blockers. These are generally safe agents which do not normally require TDM. Class III antiarrhythmic agents include sotalol and amiodarone. TDM can be useful in the case of amiodarone to monitor compliance and toxicity but is generally of little value for sotalol. Class IV antiarrhythmic drugs are the calcium channel blockers verapamil and diltiazem. These are normally monitored by haemodynamic effects, rather than using TDM. Other agents which do not fall neatly into the Vaughan Williams classification include digoxin and perhexiline. TDM is very useful for monitoring the administration (and particularly the safety) of both of these agents.

  3. Therapeutic drug monitoring: antiarrhythmic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, T J; Williams, K M

    2001-01-01

    Antiarrhythmic agents are traditionally classified according to Vaughan Williams into four classes of action. Class I antiarrhythmic agents include most of the drugs traditionally thought of as antiarrhythmics, and have as a common action, blockade of the fast-inward sodium channel on myocardium. These agents have a very significant toxicity, and while they are being used less, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) does significantly increase the safety with which they can be administered. Class II agents are antisympathetic drugs, particularly the b-adrenoceptor blockers. These are generally safe agents which do not normally require TDM. Class III antiarrhythmic agents include sotalol and amiodarone. TDM can be useful in the case of amiodarone to monitor compliance and toxicity but is generally of little value for sotalol. Class IV antiarrhythmic drugs are the calcium channel blockers verapamil and diltiazem. These are normally monitored by haemodynamic effects, rather than using TDM. Other agents which do not fall neatly into the Vaughan Williams classification include digoxin and perhexiline. TDM is very useful for monitoring the administration (and particularly the safety) of both of these agents. PMID:11564050

  4. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.; Savage, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  5. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  6. Overview of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the clinical practice of measuring specific drugs at designated intervals to maintain a constant concentration in a patient's bloodstream, thereby optimizing individual dosage regimens. It is unnecessary to employ TDM for the majority of medications, and it is used mainly for monitoring drugs with narrow therapeutic ranges, drugs with marked pharmacokinetic variability, medications for which target concentrations are difficult to monitor, and drugs known to cause therapeutic and adverse effects. The process of TDM is predicated on the assumption that there is a definable relationship between dose and plasma or blood drug concentration, and between concentration and therapeutic effects. TDM begins when the drug is first prescribed, and involves determining an initial dosage regimen appropriate for the clinical condition and such patient characteristics as age, weight, organ function, and concomitant drug therapy. When interpreting concentration measurements, factors that need to be considered include the sampling time in relation to drug dose, dosage history, patient response, and the desired medicinal targets. The goal of TDM is to use appropriate concentrations of difficult-to-manage medications to optimize clinical outcomes in patients in various clinical situations. PMID:19270474

  7. A Synthesis of Current Surveillance Planning Methods for the Sequential Monitoring of Drug and Vaccine Adverse Effects Using Electronic Health Care Data

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jennifer C.; Wellman, Robert; Yu, Onchee; Cook, Andrea J.; Maro, Judith C.; Ouellet-Hellstrom, Rita; Boudreau, Denise; Floyd, James S.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Pinheiro, Simone; Reichman, Marsha; Shoaibi, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The large-scale assembly of electronic health care data combined with the use of sequential monitoring has made proactive postmarket drug- and vaccine-safety surveillance possible. Although sequential designs have been used extensively in randomized trials, less attention has been given to methods for applying them in observational electronic health care database settings. Existing Methods: We review current sequential-surveillance planning methods from randomized trials, and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) and Mini-Sentinel Pilot projects—two national observational electronic health care database safety monitoring programs. Future Surveillance Planning: Based on this examination, we suggest three steps for future surveillance planning in health care databases: (1) prespecify the sequential design and analysis plan, using available feasibility data to reduce assumptions and minimize later changes to initial plans; (2) assess existing drug or vaccine uptake, to determine if there is adequate information to proceed with surveillance, before conducting more resource-intensive planning; and (3) statistically evaluate and clearly communicate the sequential design with all those designing and interpreting the safety-surveillance results prior to implementation. Plans should also be flexible enough to accommodate dynamic and often unpredictable changes to the database information made by the health plans for administrative purposes. Conclusions: This paper is intended to encourage dialogue about establishing a more systematic, scalable, and transparent sequential design-planning process for medical-product safety-surveillance systems utilizing observational electronic health care databases. Creating such a framework could yield improvements over existing practices, such as designs with increased power to assess serious adverse events. PMID:27713904

  8. [The importance of therapeutic drug monitoring for psychotropic drugs].

    PubMed

    Messer, Thomas; Schmauss, Max

    2006-05-15

    The goal of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the optimization of the psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Above all, TDM is absolutely indicated for the prevention of adverse drug effects or poisoning. TDM is well-established for therapies with antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs and mood stabilizers. For anti-dementia drugs, anxiolytic drugs, hypnotic drugs and medications for treating addiction, monitoring is currently applied to the interpretation of side effects, drug interactions and to forensic questions. PMID:20104722

  9. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of rufinamide].

    PubMed

    Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Tribut, Olivier; Verdier, Marie-Clémence

    2012-01-01

    Rufinamide is a third-generation antiepileptic drug, available since early 2010 in France. It is indicated in combination therapy in the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome from the age of 4. It has orphan drug status. The bioavailability of rufinamide is high, but decreases with the dose and increases with food intake. Rufinamide is not metabolized by cytochromes but hydrolyzed by a carboxylesterase in an inactive carboxylic derivative. Elimination is mainly renal. The half-life varies from 6 to 10h. Although established from relatively few studies, exposure efficacy and exposure toxicity relationships are argued. A plasma concentration of 15 mg/L, obtained with a standard regimen, reduces the number of seizures of 25%. Few factors of intrinsic variability are described. There are few clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions and they concern combinations with other antiepileptic drugs, especially valproate. Although there is no validated therapeutic range, the level of evidence for this therapeutic drug monitoring has been estimated at "possibly useful". PMID:22850104

  10. Drug attitude and other predictors of medication adherence in schizophrenia: 12 months of electronic monitoring (MEMS(®)) in the Swedish COAST-study.

    PubMed

    Brain, Cecilia; Allerby, Katarina; Sameby, Birgitta; Quinlan, Patrick; Joas, Erik; Karilampi, Ulla; Lindström, Eva; Eberhard, Jonas; Burns, Tom; Waern, Margda

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to investigate clinical predictors of adherence to antipsychotics. Medication use was electronically monitored with a Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS(®)) for 12 months in 112 outpatients with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis according to DSM-IV. Symptom burden, insight, psychosocial function (PSP) and side effects were rated at baseline. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered and a global composite score was calculated. The Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10) was filled in. A slightly modified DAI-10 version for informants was distributed as a postal questionnaire. Non-adherence (MEMS(®) adherence ≤0.80) was observed in 27%. In univariate regression models low scores on DAI-10 and DAI-10 informant, higher positive symptom burden, poor function, psychiatric side effects and lack of insight predicted non-adherence. No association was observed with global cognitive function. In multivariate regression models, low patient-rated DAI-10 and PSP scores emerged as predictors of non-adherence. A ROC analysis showed that DAI-10 had a moderate ability to correctly identify non-adherent patients (AUC=0.73, p<0.001). At the most "optimal" cut-off of 4, one-third of the adherent would falsely be identified as non-adherent. A somewhat larger AUC (0.78, p<0.001) was observed when the ROC procedure was applied to the final regression model including DAI-10 and PSP. For the subgroup with informant data, the AUC for the DAI-10 informant version was 0.68 (p=0.021). Non-adherence cannot be properly predicted in the clinical setting on the basis of these instruments alone. The DAI-10 informant questionnaire needs further testing.

  11. Immunoassays in monitoring biotechnological drugs.

    PubMed

    Gygax, D; Botta, L; Ehrat, M; Graf, P; Lefèvre, G; Oroszlan, P; Pfister, C

    1996-08-01

    For the evaluation and interpretation of pharmacokinetic data reliable quantitative determinations are a requirement that can only be met by well-characterized and fully validated analytical methods. To cope with these requirements a method is being established that is based on an integrated and automated fiber-optic biospecific interaction analysis system (FOBIA) for immunoassays. Performance characteristics of this system used in monitoring of recombinant hirudin (CGP 39 393) are presented. Recombinant hirudin is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of human thrombin. Owing to its size and charge, recombinant hirudin is mainly eliminated by glomerular filtration. But only a fraction of the hirudin dose seems to be reabsorbed at the proximal tubule by luminal endocytosis and hydrolyzed by lysosomal enzymes, leaving approximately 50% of the dose to be extracted in the urine. Thus, renal clearance of recombinant hirudin in the absence of renal insufficiency appears to depend primarily on the glomerular filtration rate. During a 3-month i.v. tolerability study in dogs, some of the dogs developed antibodies against recombinant hirudin. The hirudin-antibody complex accumulated in plasma and apparent hirudin plasma concentrations were therefore much higher than expected from single-dose kinetics. Hirudin captured by antibodies showed an extended half-life and the hirudin-antibody complex is still pharmacologically active, as demonstrated by the observed increase in thrombin time. In conclusion, only appropriate analytical methods allow adequate monitoring and pharmacokinetic characterization of biotechnology drugs in biological materials. PMID:8857560

  12. Drug Interactions and Antiretroviral Drug Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Matthew; Sperati, C. John; Lucas, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the improved longevity afforded by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-infected individuals are developing several non-AIDS related comorbid conditions. Consequently, medical management of the HIV-infected population is increasingly complex, with a growing list of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This article reviews some of the most relevant and emerging potential interactions between antiretroviral medications and other agents. The most common DDIs are those involving protease inhibitors or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors which alter the cytochrome P450 enzyme system and/or drug transporters such as p-glycoprotein. Of note are the new agents for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. These new classes of drugs and others drugs which are increasingly used in this patient population represent a significant challenge with regard to achieving the goals of effective HIV suppression and minimization of drug-related toxicities. Awareness of DDIs and a multidisciplinary approach are imperative in reaching these goals. PMID:24950731

  13. Monitoring Adverse Drug Reactions: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of family physicians functioning as monitors of adverse drug reactions (ADR) was examined over one month in ten practices. This was done as a preliminary trial, before attempting to use the 200 family physicians of the National Reporting System of the College of Family Physicians of Canada to monitor ADRs on a national basis. Both of these trials were designed to examine the feasibility of family physicians acting as prospective monitors of ADRs in newly marketed drugs and to identify a drug group suitable for monitoring. This study examined the detection of ADRs, prescribing and practice profiles. No firm conclusion could be reached as to the value of family doctors monitoring ADRs. This study supports the evidence that older patients receive more drugs and are at even greater risk of an ADR. Antibiotics, cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory or antidepressant drugs are suggested as those most suitable for prospective monitoring in a family practice setting. PMID:21289786

  14. Novel Approaches for Visualizing and Analyzing Dose-Timing Data from Electronic Drug Monitors, or "How the 'Broken Window' Theory Pertains to ART Adherence".

    PubMed

    Gill, Christopher J; DeSilva, Mary Bachman; Hamer, Davidson H; Keyi, Xu; Wilson, Ira B; Sabin, Lora

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral medications is usually expressed in terms of the proportion of doses taken. However, the timing of doses taken may also be an important dimension to overall adherence. Little is known about whether patients who mistime doses are also more likely to skip doses. Using data from the completed Adherence for Life randomized controlled trial, we created visual and statistical models to capture and analyze dose timing data collected longitudinally with electronic drug monitors (EDM). From scatter plots depicting dose time versus calendar date, we identified dominant patterns of dose taking and calculated key features [slope of line over calendar date; residual mean standard error (RMSE)]. Each was assessed for its ability to categorize subjects with 'sub-optimal' (<95 % of doses taken) using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AROC) curve analysis. Sixty eight subjects contributed EDM data, with ~300 to 400 observations/subject. While regression line slopes did not predict 'sub-optimal' adherence (AROC 0.51, 95 % CI 0.26-0.75), the variability in dose timing (RMSE) was strongly predictive (AROC 0.79, 95 % CI 0.62-0.97). Compared with the lowest quartile of RMSE (minimal dose time variability), each successive quartile roughly doubled the odds of 'sub-optimal' adherence (OR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.3-3.4). Patterns of dose timing and mistiming are strongly related to overall adherence behavior. Notably, individuals who skip doses are more likely to mistime doses, with the degree of risk positively correlated with the extent of dose timing variability.

  15. Novel Approaches for Visualizing and Analyzing Dose-Timing Data from Electronic Drug Monitors, or “How the ‘Broken Window’ Theory Pertains to ART Adherence”

    PubMed Central

    DeSilva, Mary Bachman; Hamer, Davidson H.; Keyi, Xu; Wilson, Ira B.; Sabin, Lora

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral medications is usually expressed in terms of the proportion of doses taken. However, the timing of doses taken may also be an important dimension to overall adherence. Little is known about whether patients who mistime doses are also more likely to skip doses. Using data from the completed Adherence for Life randomized controlled trial, we created visual and statistical models to capture and analyze dose timing data collected longitudinally with electronic drug monitors (EDM). From scatter plots depicting dose time versus calendar date, we identified dominant patterns of dose taking and calculated key features [slope of line over calendar date; residual mean standard error (RMSE)]. Each was assessed for its ability to categorize subjects with ‘suboptimal’ (<95 % of doses taken) using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AROC) curve analysis. Sixty eight subjects contributed EDM data, with ~300 to 400 observations/subject. While regression line slopes did not predict ‘sub-optimal’ adherence (AROC 0.51, 95 % CI 0.26–0.75), the variability in dose timing (RMSE) was strongly predictive (AROC 0.79, 95 % CI 0.62–0.97). Compared with the lowest quartile of RMSE (minimal dose time variability), each successive quartile roughly doubled the odds of ‘sub-optimal’ adherence (OR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.3–3.4). Patterns of dose timing and mistiming are strongly related to overall adherence behavior. Notably, individuals who skip doses are more likely to mistime doses, with the degree of risk positively correlated with the extent of dose timing variability. PMID:25893658

  16. Monitoring drug markets in the Internet age and the evolution of drug monitoring systems in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lucy; Roxburgh, Amanda; Bruno, Raimondo; Van Buskirk, Joe

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, drug monitoring systems have been in place for more than a decade allowing for the measurement of ongoing trends in drug use and the detection of new drugs. The Drug Trends Unit at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre monitors drugs through four separate systems. The Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) measures the price, purity, and availability of drugs that are primarily injected. The Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) monitors psychostimulants that are used recreationally. The National Illicit Drugs Indicator Project (NIDIP) analyzes indicator data including drug-related hospitalizations and deaths. Finally, the Drugs and Emerging Technologies Project (DNeT) analyzes the role of the Internet in the procurement and use of novel psychoactive substances. This paper provides an overview of each component of the system, demonstrating how the system has evolved over time.

  17. Monitoring drug markets in the Internet age and the evolution of drug monitoring systems in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lucy; Roxburgh, Amanda; Bruno, Raimondo; Van Buskirk, Joe

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, drug monitoring systems have been in place for more than a decade allowing for the measurement of ongoing trends in drug use and the detection of new drugs. The Drug Trends Unit at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre monitors drugs through four separate systems. The Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) measures the price, purity, and availability of drugs that are primarily injected. The Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) monitors psychostimulants that are used recreationally. The National Illicit Drugs Indicator Project (NIDIP) analyzes indicator data including drug-related hospitalizations and deaths. Finally, the Drugs and Emerging Technologies Project (DNeT) analyzes the role of the Internet in the procurement and use of novel psychoactive substances. This paper provides an overview of each component of the system, demonstrating how the system has evolved over time. PMID:24574080

  18. [Customizing dosage drugs what contribution in therapeutic drug monitoring?].

    PubMed

    Abdessadek, Mohammed; Magoul, Rabia; Amarti, Afaf; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Khabbal, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Drug response is often variable from an individual to another: the same dose of drug administered to different patients could cause variable pharmacological effects in nature and intensity. Those effects are often the result of variability in drugs pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination) which alter their bioavailability. In fact, two factors should be taken into account: the disease(s) from which the patient suffers, and the associated drugs, because many drug interactions may alter their pharmacokinetics causing consequently quite enough of different therapeutic effects. The choice of the assay of the drug subject in monitoring is crucial, it allows quantifying the in vivo dose of the drug and the quality of compliance thereof, the pharmacokinetic characteristics allows the clinician to adjust the dosage by different approaches so that plasma concentrations are included in the therapeutic range. Therapeutic monitoring aims to increase clinical efficacy and to minimize toxicity.

  19. A Review on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Immunosuppressant Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Niloufar; Elyasi, Sepideh; Vahdati, Naser; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Shamsara, Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Immunosuppressants require therapeutic drug monitoring because of their narrow therapeutic index and significant inter-individual variability in blood concentrations. This variability can be because of factors like drug-nutrient interactions, drug-disease interactions, renal-insufficiency, inflammation and infection, gender, age, polymorphism and liver mass. Drug monitoring is widely practiced especially for cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus and mycophenolic acid. Cyclosporine Therapeutic monitoring of immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine is a critical requirement because of intra- and inter-patient variability of drug absorption, narrow therapeutic window and drug induced nephrotoxicity. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) Some reasons for therapeutic drug monitoring of MPA during post-transplant period include: relationship between MPA pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical outcomes, Inter-patient pharmacokinetic variability for MPA despite fixed MMF doses, alternations of MPA pharmacokinetics during the first months after transplantation, drug- drug interaction and influence of kidney function on MPA pharmacokinetic. Sirolimus A recent review of the pharmacokinetics of sirolimus suggested a therapeutic range of 5 to 10 μg l−1 in whole blood. However, the only consensus guidelines published on the therapeutic monitoring of sirolimus concluded that there was not enough information available about the clinical use of the drug to make recommendations. Tacrolimus Sudies have shown, in kidney and liver transplant patients, significant associations of low tacrolimus concentrations with rejection and of high concentrations with nephrotoxicity. Although the feasibility of a limited sampling scheme to predict AUC has been demonstrated, as yet, trough, or pre-dose, whole blood concentration monitoring is still the method of choice. PMID:23493821

  20. Monitoring drug promiscuity over time

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Drug promiscuity and polypharmacology are much discussed topics in pharmaceutical research. Experimentally, promiscuity can be studied by profiling of compounds on arrays of targets. Computationally, promiscuity rates can be estimated by mining of compound activity data. In this study, we have assessed drug promiscuity over time by systematically collecting activity records for approved drugs. For 518 diverse drugs, promiscuity rates were determined over different time intervals. Significant differences between the number of reported drug targets and the promiscuity rates derived from activity records were frequently observed. On the basis of high-confidence activity data, an increase in average promiscuity rates from 1.5 to 3.2 targets per drug was detected between 2000 and 2014. These promiscuity rates are lower than often assumed. When the stringency of data selection criteria was reduced in subsequent steps, non-realistic increases in promiscuity rates from ~6 targets per drug in 2000 to more than 28 targets were obtained. Hence, estimates of drug promiscuity significantly differ depending on the stringency with which target annotations and activity data are considered. PMID:25352982

  1. Monitoring drug promiscuity over time.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Drug promiscuity and polypharmacology are much discussed topics in pharmaceutical research. Experimentally, promiscuity can be studied by profiling of compounds on arrays of targets. Computationally, promiscuity rates can be estimated by mining of compound activity data. In this study, we have assessed drug promiscuity over time by systematically collecting activity records for approved drugs. For 518 diverse drugs, promiscuity rates were determined over different time intervals. Significant differences between the number of reported drug targets and the promiscuity rates derived from activity records were frequently observed. On the basis of high-confidence activity data, an increase in average promiscuity rates from 1.5 to 3.2 targets per drug was detected between 2000 and 2014. These promiscuity rates are lower than often assumed. When the stringency of data selection criteria was reduced in subsequent steps, non-realistic increases in promiscuity rates from ~6 targets per drug in 2000 to more than 28 targets were obtained. Hence, estimates of drug promiscuity significantly differ depending on the stringency with which target annotations and activity data are considered.

  2. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used...

  3. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used...

  4. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used...

  5. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used...

  6. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used...

  7. Annual Report 2000: Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Justice Programs.

    This annual report reflects changes to the National Institute of Justice's Drug Use Forecasting program. After several years of development and testing, the restructured program was fully implemented in 2000 as Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM). Probability-based sampling was adopted, the interview instrument (questionnaire) was enhanced to…

  8. Multifunctional inverse opal particles for drug delivery and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Huan; Ye, Baofen; Shang, Luoran; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-06-01

    Particle-based delivery systems have a demonstrated value for drug discovery and development. Here, we report a new type of particle-based delivery system that has controllable release and is self-monitoring. The particles were composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) hydrogel with an inverse opal structure. The presence of macropores in the particles provides channels for active drug loading and release from the materials.Particle-based delivery systems have a demonstrated value for drug discovery and development. Here, we report a new type of particle-based delivery system that has controllable release and is self-monitoring. The particles were composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) hydrogel with an inverse opal structure. The presence of macropores in the particles provides channels for active drug loading and release from the materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02324f

  9. ECONOMIC ISSUES IN THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING.

    PubMed

    Petryszyn, Paweł; Wiela-Hojeńska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The fact that resources for health care are limited has been found as a rationale for the development of pharmacoeconomics. Pharmacoeconomic analysis identifies, measures and compares the costs and the economic, clinical and humanistic outcomes of diseases, drug therapies and programmes directed to these diseases. As health care expenditures have escalated over the past decades, the number of its applications has increased. Taking into consideration outcome and economic issues and establishing their mutual relationship helps proper resource allocation. In the case of some effective and toxic drugs therapeutic drug monitoring has been proven to allow obtaining the desired clinical effects safely and thus to improve outcome. However, it requires the presence of clinical pharmacology or clinical pharmacy service within a hospital, which in turn is associated with some additional costs. This review sums up the results of pharmacoeconomic studies relevant to the use of therapeutic drug monitoring in case of the medicines for which it has been commonly performed so far.

  10. ECONOMIC ISSUES IN THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING.

    PubMed

    Petryszyn, Paweł; Wiela-Hojeńska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The fact that resources for health care are limited has been found as a rationale for the development of pharmacoeconomics. Pharmacoeconomic analysis identifies, measures and compares the costs and the economic, clinical and humanistic outcomes of diseases, drug therapies and programmes directed to these diseases. As health care expenditures have escalated over the past decades, the number of its applications has increased. Taking into consideration outcome and economic issues and establishing their mutual relationship helps proper resource allocation. In the case of some effective and toxic drugs therapeutic drug monitoring has been proven to allow obtaining the desired clinical effects safely and thus to improve outcome. However, it requires the presence of clinical pharmacology or clinical pharmacy service within a hospital, which in turn is associated with some additional costs. This review sums up the results of pharmacoeconomic studies relevant to the use of therapeutic drug monitoring in case of the medicines for which it has been commonly performed so far. PMID:27476276

  11. Therapeutic drug monitoring and tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Herviou, Pauline; Thivat, Emilie; Richard, Damien; Roche, Lucie; Dohou, Joyce; Pouget, Mélanie; Eschalier, Alain; Durando, Xavier; Authier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic activity of drugs can be optimized by establishing an individualized dosage, based on the measurement of the drug concentration in the serum, particularly if the drugs are characterized by an inter-individual variation in pharmacokinetics that results in an under- or overexposure to treatment. In recent years, several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed to block intracellular signaling pathways in tumor cells. These oral drugs are candidates for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) due to their high inter-individual variability for therapeutic and toxic effects. Following a literature search on PubMed, studies on TKIs and their pharmacokinetic characteristics, plasma quantification and inter-individual variability was studied. TDM is commonly used in various medical fields, including cardiology and psychiatry, but is not often applied in oncology. Plasma concentration monitoring has been thoroughly studied for imatinib, in order to evaluate the usefulness of TDM. The measurement of plasma concentration can be performed by various analytical techniques, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry being the reference method. This method is currently used to monitor the efficacy and tolerability of imatinib treatments. Although TDM is already being used for imatinib, additional studies are required in order to improve this practice with the inclusion of other TKIs. PMID:27446421

  12. Monitoring problem drug use in Bristol.

    PubMed

    Parker, J; Pool, Y; Rawle, R; Gay, M

    1988-02-01

    A prospective multi-agency survey of problem drug use associated with illicit drugs and solvents in the city of Bristol in 1984-1985 found 759 problem drug users, giving a period prevalence rate of 0.4-0.8% of those aged 10-44 years. The group was a young one, with 92% under the age of 35. Over half had problems associated with opiates, mainly illicit heroin; 17% had problems associated with solvents, 9% with cannabis, 13% with stimulants, mainly illicit amphetamine, and 3% with hallucinogens. There was little indication of problematic use of barbiturates or cocaine. The problems associated with drugs and solvents were wide-ranging and not specific for individual drugs. Future community surveys would find it cost-effective to concentrate on the five best sources identified here, and to supplement these with indications of drug-taking among teenagers. The difficulties of using the definition of problem drug use for research and the value of case-register surveys for community drug monitoring are discussed. PMID:3262395

  13. Therapeutic drug monitoring of psychotropic medications

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Philip B

    2001-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of a number of psychotropic medications has proven to be of value, enabling minimization of the limitations of considerable genetic variability in their metabolism and the high rates of poor compliance with many psychiatric disorders. Therapeutic ranges have been established for lithium, some of the tricyclic antidepressants, and clozapine. TDM has also been shown to be useful in avoiding toxicity (as many psychotropics have narrow therapeutic indices), particularly that due to interactions with other compounds. PMID:11564052

  14. Monitoring occupational exposure to cancer chemotherapy drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, E. S.; Connor, T. H.

    1996-01-01

    Reports of the health effects of handling cytotoxic drugs and compliance with guidelines for handling these agents are briefly reviewed, and studies using analytical and biological methods of detecting exposure are evaluated. There is little conclusive evidence of detrimental health effects from occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Work practices have improved since the issuance of guidelines for handling these drugs, but compliance with the recommended practices is still inadequate. Of 64 reports published since 1979 on studies of workers' exposure to these drugs, 53 involved studies of changes in cellular or molecular endpoints (biological markers) and 12 described chemical analyses of drugs or their metabolites in urine (2 involved both, and 2 reported the same study). The primary biological markers used were urine mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange, and chromosomal aberrations; other studies involved formation of micronuclei and measurements of urinary thioethers. The studies had small sample sizes, and the methods were qualitative, nonspecific, subject to many confounders, and possibly not sensitive enough to detect most occupational exposures. Since none of the currently available biological and analytical methods is sufficiently reliable or reproducible for routine monitoring of exposure in the workplace, further studies using these methods are not recommended; efforts should focus instead on wide-spread implementation of improved practices for handling cytotoxic drugs.

  15. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring By Reverse Iontophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Anroop B; Goel, Ankit; Prakash, Shashi; Kumar, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic molecules possessing distinct pharmacokinetic variation, narrow therapeutic index and concentration dependent therapeutic/adverse effects demand constant monitoring. The current methods for blood sampling are invasive and possess low patient compliance. Human skin, selective and effective membrane to chemical permeation, offers an alternative route for the extraction of endogenous molecules in the body. Significant attention has been received in the application of reverse iontophoresis in extracting drugs/biomaterials from the subdermal region. This technique involves transiting of a low electric current across the skin usually with couple of skin electrodes to extract charged as well as neutral molecules. Electromigration and electroosmosis are the two basic mechanisms involved in transport of molecules. Several in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated the potential of reverse iontophoresis as a noninvasive tool in clinical chemistry and therapeutic drug monitoring. This technology is currently being used in device such as Glucowatch Biogrpaher which allows blood glucose detection across skin layers. Advances in technology and rapid progress in research has widely improved the opportunity of this system, and the recent trend indicates that several products are likely to be developed very soon. This review provides an overview about the recent developments in reverse iontophoresis for therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:24826025

  16. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Mycophenolic Acid.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, A

    2016-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressant requiring therapeutic drug monitoring. Although immunoassays are commercially available, there is significant positive bias using this approach when compared to high-performance liquid chromatography or LC combined with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Positive bias is due to variable cross-reactivity of MPA acyl glucuronide with antibodies traditionally used in immunoassay formats. As can be expected, the magnitude of bias varies considerably. MPA strongly binds albumin and, as a result, disproportionate increases in free MPA occur in patients with uremia, hypoalbuminemia, and hepatic dysfunction. As such, monitoring free MPA poses additional challenges. Because MPA inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, monitoring this enzyme may provide an alternative approach. PMID:27645819

  17. When not to trust therapeutic drug monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Westergreen-Thorne, Mathew; Lee, Sook Yan; Shah, Nilesh; Dodd, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the measurement of serum or plasma drug concentration to allow the individualization of dosing. We describe the case of a patient who was prescribed inappropriately large doses of vancomycin due to inaccurate TDM. Specifically, our laboratory reported progressively lower vancomycin concentrations despite dose increases. Eventually, when duplicate samples were sent to a different laboratory vancomycin concentrations were found to be in the toxic range. We hypothesize this was due to the patient generating immunoglobulin antibodies against her infection that interfered with the original TDM immunoassay. Immunogenic TDM interference has been known to rarely occur in patients with immune related comorbidities; however, if we are correct, this is a unique case as this patient did not have such a background. This case illustrates the importance of using clinical judgement when interpreting TDM as, in this case, substantial harm to the patient was likely only narrowly avoided. PMID:27606069

  18. When not to trust therapeutic drug monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Westergreen-Thorne, Mathew; Lee, Sook Yan; Shah, Nilesh; Dodd, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the measurement of serum or plasma drug concentration to allow the individualization of dosing. We describe the case of a patient who was prescribed inappropriately large doses of vancomycin due to inaccurate TDM. Specifically, our laboratory reported progressively lower vancomycin concentrations despite dose increases. Eventually, when duplicate samples were sent to a different laboratory vancomycin concentrations were found to be in the toxic range. We hypothesize this was due to the patient generating immunoglobulin antibodies against her infection that interfered with the original TDM immunoassay. Immunogenic TDM interference has been known to rarely occur in patients with immune related comorbidities; however, if we are correct, this is a unique case as this patient did not have such a background. This case illustrates the importance of using clinical judgement when interpreting TDM as, in this case, substantial harm to the patient was likely only narrowly avoided.

  19. When not to trust therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Westergreen-Thorne, Mathew; Lee, Sook Yan; Shah, Nilesh; Dodd, Alan

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the measurement of serum or plasma drug concentration to allow the individualization of dosing. We describe the case of a patient who was prescribed inappropriately large doses of vancomycin due to inaccurate TDM. Specifically, our laboratory reported progressively lower vancomycin concentrations despite dose increases. Eventually, when duplicate samples were sent to a different laboratory vancomycin concentrations were found to be in the toxic range. We hypothesize this was due to the patient generating immunoglobulin antibodies against her infection that interfered with the original TDM immunoassay. Immunogenic TDM interference has been known to rarely occur in patients with immune related comorbidities; however, if we are correct, this is a unique case as this patient did not have such a background. This case illustrates the importance of using clinical judgement when interpreting TDM as, in this case, substantial harm to the patient was likely only narrowly avoided. PMID:27606069

  20. Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs by use of saliva.

    PubMed

    Patsalos, Philip N; Berry, Dave J

    2013-02-01

    Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly. For each AED, this review summarizes the key pharmacokinetic characteristics relevant to the practice of TDM, discusses the use of other biological matrices with particular emphasis on saliva and the evidence that saliva concentration reflects those in serum. Also discussed are the indications for salivary AED TDM, the key factors to consider when saliva sampling is to be undertaken, and finally, a practical protocol is described so as to enable AED TDM to be applied optimally and effectively in the clinical setting. Overall, there is compelling evidence that salivary TDM can be usefully applied so as to optimize the treatment of epilepsy with carbamazepine, clobazam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. Salivary TDM of valproic acid is probably not helpful, whereas for clonazepam, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, the data are sparse or nonexistent. PMID:23288091

  1. RFID Tag Helix Antenna Sensors for Wireless Drug Dosage Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiyu; Zhao, Peisen; Chen, Pai-Yen; Ren, Yong; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Hu, Ye; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturized helix antennas are integrated with drug reservoirs to function as RFID wireless tag sensors for real-time drug dosage monitoring. The general design procedure of this type of biomedical antenna sensors is proposed based on electromagnetic theory and finite element simulation. A cost effective fabrication process is utilized to encapsulate the antenna sensor within a biocompatible package layer using PDMS material, and at the same time form a drug storage or drug delivery unit inside the sensor. The in vitro experiment on two prototypes of antenna sensor-drug reservoir assembly have shown the ability to monitor the drug dosage by tracking antenna resonant frequency shift from 2.4-2.5-GHz ISM band with realized sensitivity of 1.27 [Formula: see text] for transdermal drug delivery monitoring and 2.76-[Formula: see text] sensitivity for implanted drug delivery monitoring. PMID:27170865

  2. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, N.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D. P.; Stifter, K.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few nanosecond resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is read out via IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providing online feedback on the beam quality. A dedicated calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate short triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the system. The electronics has been in operation since the first LHC beams of Run II and has served as the first demonstration of the new QIE10, Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA and high-speed 5 Gbps link with LHC data.

  3. Biomarkers to monitor drug-induced phospholipidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Baronas, Elizabeth Tengstrand; Lee, Ju-Whei; Alden, Carl; Hsieh, Frank Y. . E-mail: frank.hsieh@nextcea.com

    2007-01-01

    Di-docosahexaenoyl (C22:6)-bis(monoacylglycerol) phosphate (BMP) was identified as a promising phospholipidosis (PL) biomarker in rats treated with either amiodarone, gentamicin, or azithromycin. Sprague-Dawley rats received either amiodarone (150 mg/kg), gentamicin (100 mg/kg) or azithromycin (30 mg/kg) once daily for ten consecutive days. Histopathological examination of tissues by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated different degrees of accumulation of phospholipidosis in liver, lung, mesenteric lymph node, and kidney of drug-treated rats but not controls. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used to identify levels of endogenous biochemical profiles in rat urine. Urinary levels of di-docosahexaenoyl (C22:6)-bis(monoacylglycerol) phosphate (BMP) correlated with induction of phospholipidosis for amiodarone, gentamicin and azithromycin. Rats treated with gentamicin also had increased urinary levels of several phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) species.

  4. Performance comparison of electronic radon monitors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Feng; Wang, Jeng-Jong; Lin, Shih-Jung; Lin, Chien-Kung

    2013-11-01

    The electronic radon monitors are noted for their convenience and acceptable accuracy. Even so, it is necessary to reassure their data quality regularly. We utilized a performance comparison system for this purpose. The instruments in our laboratories (Alphaguard, RAD7, RTM-2100 and Safety Siren) were tested via the comparison experiments. We conclude that by utilizing this system with the concept of calibration factor, it can be helpful to decide whether to send the monitors back to the original manufacturers for adjustment. PMID:23566805

  5. Electronic Noses for Environmental Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Rosso, Renato Del

    2014-01-01

    Electronic nose applications in environmental monitoring are nowadays of great interest, because of the instruments' proven capability of recognizing and discriminating between a variety of different gases and odors using just a small number of sensors. Such applications in the environmental field include analysis of parameters relating to environmental quality, process control, and verification of efficiency of odor control systems. This article reviews the findings of recent scientific studies in this field, with particular focus on the abovementioned applications. In general, these studies prove that electronic noses are mostly suitable for the different applications reported, especially if the instruments are specifically developed and fine-tuned. As a general rule, literature studies also discuss the critical aspects connected with the different possible uses, as well as research regarding the development of effective solutions. However, currently the main limit to the diffusion of electronic noses as environmental monitoring tools is their complexity and the lack of specific regulation for their standardization, as their use entails a large number of degrees of freedom, regarding for instance the training and the data processing procedures. PMID:25347583

  6. Drug Monitoring Programs Do Curb Overdose Deaths: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Drug Monitoring Programs Do Curb Overdose Deaths: Study Opioid epidemic demands such measures, researcher says To ... deaths from prescription painkillers called opioids, a new study finds. In an effort to curb overdose deaths ...

  7. Applications of translation monitoring using electronic tacheometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obidowski, Ray M.; Teskey, William F.

    1994-03-01

    Monitoring the translations of points on structures and machinery is an important procedure in industrial engineering. Two low-cost translation monitoring systems using electronic tachometers have been developed and tested at the University of Calgary. The systems use both network and nonnetwork (direct) methods to measure relative point translations with submillimeter accuracy. The systems are simple and efficient, requiring only one observer using normal surveying instruments. Two case studies undertaken by the authors are described, demonstrating applications of the new monitoring systems. The first study is the measurement of thermal growth of a rotating gas turbine/compressor system during startup. The thermal movements were measured and found to be consistent with their expected behavior to a precision of 0.2 mm. The second study is the measurement of point displacements on a concrete structure and test frame during a load test at the University's Civil Engineering Structures Lab. The translations measured agree with the theoretical values from a finite element analysis.

  8. Prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Sausan El Burai; Mack, Karin

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the late 1990s, the number of opioid analgesic overdose deaths has quadrupled in the United States of America (from 4 030 deaths in 1999 to 16 651 in 2010). The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the problem of prescription drug overdose in the United States and to discuss actions that could help reduce the problem, with particular attention to the characteristics of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). These programs consist of state-level databases that monitor controlled substances. The information compiled in the databases is at the disposal of authorized persons (e.g., physicians, pharmacists, and other health-care providers) and may be used only for professional purposes. Suppliers can use such information to prevent interaction with other drugs or therapeutic duplication, or to identify drug-search behavior. Law enforcement agencies can use these programs to identify improper drug prescription or dispensing patterns, or drug diversion. PMID:25563153

  9. RFID Tag Helix Antenna Sensors for Wireless Drug Dosage Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyu; Zhao, Peisen; Chen, Pai-Yen; Ren, Yong; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Hu, Ye; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturized helix antennas are integrated with drug reservoirs to function as RFID wireless tag sensors for real-time drug dosage monitoring. The general design procedure of this type of biomedical antenna sensors is proposed based on electromagnetic theory and finite element simulation. A cost effective fabrication process is utilized to encapsulate the antenna sensor within a biocompatible package layer using PDMS material, and at the same time form a drug storage or drug delivery unit inside the sensor. The in vitro experiment on two prototypes of antenna sensor-drug reservoir assembly have shown the ability to monitor the drug dosage by tracking antenna resonant frequency shift from 2.4–2.5-GHz ISM band with realized sensitivity of 1.27 \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mu~{\\rm l}/{\\rm MHz}$\\end{document} for transdermal drug delivery monitoring and 2.76-\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mu~{\\rm l}/{\\rm MHz}$\\end{document} sensitivity for implanted drug delivery monitoring. PMID:27170865

  10. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... professional practice. Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost...

  11. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... professional practice. Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost...

  12. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing means the transmission... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and...

  13. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... professional practice. Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost...

  14. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing means the transmission... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and...

  15. A Study on Drug Safety Monitoring Program in India

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, A.; Patel, Isha; Sanyal, Sudeepa; Balkrishnan, R.; Mohanta, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is useful in assuring the safety of medicines and protecting the consumers from their harmful effects. A number of single drugs as well as fixed dose combinations have been banned from manufacturing, marketing and distribution in India. An important issue about the availability of banned drugs over the counter in India is that sufficient adverse drug reactions data about these drugs have not been reported. The most common categories of drugs withdrawn in the last decade were nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (28%), antidiabetics (14.28%), antiobesity (14.28%), antihistamines (14.28%), gastroprokinetic drugs (7.14%), breast cancer and infertility drugs (7.14%), irritable bowel syndrome and constipation drugs (7.14%) and antibiotics (7.14%). Drug withdrawals from market were made mainly due to safety issues involving cardiovascular events (57.14%) and liver damage (14.28%). Majority of drugs have been banned since 3-5 years in other countries but are still available for sale in India. The present study compares the drug safety monitoring systems in the developed countries such as the USA and UK and provides implications for developing a system that can ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in India. Absence of a gold standard for a drug safety surveillance system, variations in culture and clinical practice across countries makes it difficult for India to completely adopt another country's practices. There should be a multidisciplinary approach towards drug safety that should be implemented throughout the entire duration spanning from drug discovery to usage by consumers. PMID:25425751

  16. A study on drug safety monitoring program in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A; Patel, Isha; Sanyal, Sudeepa; Balkrishnan, R; Mohanta, G P

    2014-09-01

    Pharmacovigilance is useful in assuring the safety of medicines and protecting the consumers from their harmful effects. A number of single drugs as well as fixed dose combinations have been banned from manufacturing, marketing and distribution in India. An important issue about the availability of banned drugs over the counter in India is that sufficient adverse drug reactions data about these drugs have not been reported. The most common categories of drugs withdrawn in the last decade were nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (28%), antidiabetics (14.28%), antiobesity (14.28%), antihistamines (14.28%), gastroprokinetic drugs (7.14%), breast cancer and infertility drugs (7.14%), irritable bowel syndrome and constipation drugs (7.14%) and antibiotics (7.14%). Drug withdrawals from market were made mainly due to safety issues involving cardiovascular events (57.14%) and liver damage (14.28%). Majority of drugs have been banned since 3-5 years in other countries but are still available for sale in India. The present study compares the drug safety monitoring systems in the developed countries such as the USA and UK and provides implications for developing a system that can ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in India. Absence of a gold standard for a drug safety surveillance system, variations in culture and clinical practice across countries makes it difficult for India to completely adopt another country's practices. There should be a multidisciplinary approach towards drug safety that should be implemented throughout the entire duration spanning from drug discovery to usage by consumers.

  17. Medication monitoring and drug testing ethics project.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard; Moe, Jeffrey L; Sevier, Catherine Harvey; Sevier, David; Waitzkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Duke University initiated a research project, funded by an unrestricted research grant from Millennium Laboratories, a drug testing company. The project focused on assessing the frequency and nature of questionable, unethical, and illegal business practices in the clinical drug testing industry and assessing the potential for establishing a business code of ethics. Laboratory leaders, clinicians, industry attorneys, ethicists, and consultants participated in the survey, were interviewed, and attended two face-to-face meetings to discuss a way forward. The study demonstrated broad acknowledgment of variations in the legal and regulatory environment, resulting in inconsistent enforcement of industry practices. Study participants expressed agreement that overtly illegal practices sometimes exist, particularly when laboratory representatives and clinicians discuss reimbursement, extent of testing, and potential business incentives with medical practitioners. Most respondents reported directly observing probable violations involving marketing materials, contracts, or, in the case of some individuals, directly soliciting people with offers of clinical supplies and other "freebies." While many study respondents were skeptical that voluntary standards alone would eliminate questionable business practices, most viewed ethics codes and credentialing as an important first step that could potentially mitigate uneven enforcement, while improving quality of care and facilitating preferred payment options for credentialed parties. Many were willing to participate in future discussions and industry-wide initiatives to improve the environment.

  18. Multifunctional inverse opal particles for drug delivery and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Huan; Ye, Baofen; Shang, Luoran; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-06-28

    Particle-based delivery systems have a demonstrated value for drug discovery and development. Here, we report a new type of particle-based delivery system that has controllable release and is self-monitoring. The particles were composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) hydrogel with an inverse opal structure. The presence of macropores in the particles provides channels for active drug loading and release from the materials.

  19. Multifunctional inverse opal particles for drug delivery and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Huan; Ye, Baofen; Shang, Luoran; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-06-28

    Particle-based delivery systems have a demonstrated value for drug discovery and development. Here, we report a new type of particle-based delivery system that has controllable release and is self-monitoring. The particles were composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) hydrogel with an inverse opal structure. The presence of macropores in the particles provides channels for active drug loading and release from the materials. PMID:26035621

  20. Examining Big Brother's Purpose for Using Electronic Performance Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Lynn K.; Nordstrom, Cynthia R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether the reason offered for electronic performance monitoring (EPM) influenced participants' performance, stress, motivation, and satisfaction. Participants performed a data-entry task in one of five experimental conditions. In one condition, participants were not electronically monitored. In the remaining conditions, participants…

  1. Wire Position Monitoring with FPGA based Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, N.; Lysenko, O.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    This fall the first Tesla-style cryomodule cooldown test is being performed at Fermilab. Instrumentation department is preparing the electronics to handle the data from a set of wire position monitors (WPMs). For simulation purposes a prototype pipe with a WMP has been developed and built. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by 320 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPM. The wire is stretched along the pipe with a tensioning load of 9.07 kg. The WPM consists of four 50 {Omega} striplines spaced 90{sup o} apart. FPGA based digitizer scans the WPM and transmits the data to a PC via VME interface. The data acquisition is based on the PC running LabView. In order to increase the accuracy and convenience of the measurements some modifications were required. The first is implementation of an average and decimation filter algorithm in the integrator operation in the FPGA. The second is the development of alternative tool for WPM measurements in the PC. The paper describes how these modifications were performed and test results of a new design. The last cryomodule generation has a single chain of seven WPMs (placed in critical positions: at each end, at the three posts and between the posts) to monitor a cold mass displacement during cooldown. The system was developed in Italy in collaboration with DESY. Similar developments have taken place at Fermilab in the frame of cryomodules construction for SCRF research. This fall preliminary cryomodule cooldown test is being performed. In order to prepare an appropriate electronic system for the test a prototype pipe with a WMP has been developed and built, figure 1. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by 320 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPM. The 0.5 mm diameter Cu wire is stretched along the pipe with a tensioning load of 9.07 kg and has a length of 1.1 m. The WPM consists of four 50 {Omega} striplines spaced 90{sup o} apart. An FPGA based

  2. Pharmacogenetic testing and therapeutic drug monitoring are complementary tools for optimal individualization of drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Gervasini, Guillermo; Benítez, Julio; Carrillo, Juan Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Genetic factors contribute to the phenotype of drug response, but the translation of pharmacogenetic outcomes into drug discovery, drug development or clinical practice has proved to be surprisingly disappointing. Despite significant progress in pharmacogenetic research, only a few drugs, such as cetuximab, dasatinib, maraviroc and trastuzumab, require a pharmacogenetic test before being prescribed. There are several gaps that limit the application of pharmacogenetics based upon the complex nature of the drug response itself. First, pharmacogenetic tests could be more clinically applicable if they included a comprehensive survey of variation in the human genome and took into account the multigenic nature of many phenotypes of drug disposition and response. Unfortunately, much of the existing research in this area has been hampered by limitations in study designs and the nonoptimal selection of gene variants. Secondly, although responses to drugs can be influenced by the environment, only fragmentary information is currently available on how the interplay between genetics and environment affects drug response. Third, the use of a pharmacogenetic test as a standard of care for drug therapy has to overcome significant scientific, economic, commercial, political and educational barriers, among others, in order for clinically useful information to be effectively communicated to practitioners and patients. Meanwhile, the lack of efficacy is in this process is quite as costly as drug toxicity, especially for very expensive drugs, and there is a widespread need for clinically and commercially robust pharmacogenetic testing to be applied. In this complex scenario, therapeutic drug monitoring of parent drugs and/or metabolites, alone or combined with available pharmacogenetic tests, may be an alternative or complementary approach when attempts are made to individualize dosing regimen, maximize drug efficacy and enhance drug safety with certain drugs and populations (e

  3. Bosnian and American students' attitudes toward electronic monitoring: is it about what we know or where we come from?

    PubMed

    Muftić, Lisa R; Payne, Brian K; Maljević, Almir

    2015-06-01

    The use of community corrections continues to grow across the globe as alternatives to incarceration are sought. Little research attention, however, has been directed at correctional alternatives from a global orientation. The purpose of this research study is to compare the way that a sample of criminal justice students from the United States (n = 118) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (n = 133) perceive electronic monitoring. Because electronic monitoring is a newer sentencing alternative and it is used differently in Bosnia and Herzegovina than it is in the United States, it is predicted that Bosnian students will view electronic monitoring differently than will students from the United States. This study finds that while students are largely supportive of electronic monitoring sentences, support is affected by offender type and student nationality. For example, Bosnian students are more supportive of electronic monitoring sentences for drug offenders while American students are more supportive of electronic monitoring sentences for juvenile offenders. Differences were also found across student groups when attitudes toward electronic monitoring and the costs and pains associated with electronic monitoring were assessed. Specifically, American students were less likely to view electronic monitoring as meeting the goals of rehabilitation and more likely to view the conditions and restrictions associated with electronic monitoring as being punitive than Bosnian students were. Implications from these findings, as well as limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  4. Presenting Multiple Drug Alerts in an Ambulatory Electronic Prescribing System

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, M.B.; Gregg, W.M.; Johnson, K.B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective This study explores alternative approaches to the display of drug alerts, and examines whether and how human-factors based interface design can be used to improve the prescriber’s perception about drug alert presentation, signal detection from noisy alert data, and their comprehension of clinical decision support during electronic prescribing. Methods We reviewed issues with presenting multiple drug alerts in electronic prescribing systems. User-centered design, consisting of iterative usability and prototype testing was applied. After an iterative design phase, we proposed several novel drug alert presentation interfaces; expert evaluation and formal usability testing were applied to access physician prescribers’ perceptions of the tools. We mapped drug alert attributes to different interface constructs. We examined four different interfaces for presenting multiple drug alerts. Results A TreeDashboard View was better perceived than a text-based ScrollText View with respect to the ability to detect critical information, the ability to accomplish tasks, and the perceptional efficacy of finding information. Conclusion A robust model for studying multiple drug-alert presentations was developed. Several drug alert presentation interfaces were proposed. The TreeDashboard View was better perceived than the text-based ScrollText View in delivering multiple drug alerts during a simulation of electronic prescribing. PMID:25024753

  5. Therapeutic drug monitoring for imatinib: Current status and Indian experience

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Brijesh; Gota, Vikram; Menon, Hari; Sengar, Manju; Nair, Reena; Patial, Pankaj; Banavali, S. D.

    2013-01-01

    Imatinib is the current gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recent pharmacokinetic studies have shown considerable variability in trough concentrations of imatinib due to variations in its metabolism, poor compliance, or drug-drug interactions and highlighted its impact on clinical response. A trough level close to 1000 ng/mL, appears to be correlated with better cytogenetic and molecular responses. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) for imatinib may provide useful added information on efficacy, safety and compliance than clinical assessment alone and help in clinical decision making. It may be particularly helpful in patients with suboptimal response to treatment or treatment failure, severe or rare adverse events, possible drug interactions, or suspected nonadherence. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm relationship between imatinib plasma concentrations with response, and to define effective plasma concentrations in different patient populations. PMID:24516317

  6. Therapeutic drug monitoring for imatinib: Current status and Indian experience.

    PubMed

    Arora, Brijesh; Gota, Vikram; Menon, Hari; Sengar, Manju; Nair, Reena; Patial, Pankaj; Banavali, S D

    2013-07-01

    Imatinib is the current gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recent pharmacokinetic studies have shown considerable variability in trough concentrations of imatinib due to variations in its metabolism, poor compliance, or drug-drug interactions and highlighted its impact on clinical response. A trough level close to 1000 ng/mL, appears to be correlated with better cytogenetic and molecular responses. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) for imatinib may provide useful added information on efficacy, safety and compliance than clinical assessment alone and help in clinical decision making. It may be particularly helpful in patients with suboptimal response to treatment or treatment failure, severe or rare adverse events, possible drug interactions, or suspected nonadherence. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm relationship between imatinib plasma concentrations with response, and to define effective plasma concentrations in different patient populations.

  7. Constructing a Real-Time Prescription Drug Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Tae; Jo, Emmanuel C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the possibility of the construction of a real-time prescription drug monitoring system (PDMOS) using data from the nationwide Drug Utilization Review (DUR) system in Korea. Methods The DUR system collects information on drug prescriptions issued by healthcare practitioners and on drugs dispensed by pharmacies. PDMOS was constructed using this data. The screen of PDMOS is designed to exhibit the number of drug prescriptions, the number of prescriptions dispensed by pharmacies, and the dispensed prescription drug costs on a daily and weekly basis. Data was sourced from the DUR system between June 1, 2016 and July 18, 2016. The TOGA solution developed by the EYEQMC Co. Ltd. of Seoul, Korea was used to produce the screen shots. Results Prescription numbers by medical facilities were more numerous than the number of prescriptions dispensed by pharmacies, as expected. The number of prescriptions per day was between 2 to 3 million. The prescriptions issued by primary care clinics were most numerous, at 75% of the total number of prescriptions. Daily prescription drug costs were found to be approximately US $50 million. The prescription drug costs were highest on Mondays and were reduced towards the end of the week. Prescriptions and dispensed prescriptions numbered approximately 1,200 and 1,000 million, respectively. Conclusions The construction of a real-time PDMOS has been successful to provide daily and weekly information. There was a lag time of only one day at the national level in terms of information extraction, and scarcely any time was required to load the data. Therefore, this study highlights the potential of constructing a PDMOS to monitor the estimate the number of prescriptions and the resulting expenditures from prescriptions. PMID:27525159

  8. Therapeutic drug monitoring: A patient management tool for precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Jang, S H; Yan, Z; Lazor, J A

    2016-02-01

    The precision medicine initiative is designed to better understand the causes of disease, to develop target therapies, and to identify patients that would benefit from treatment. Prescribing the right dose, which is not always the same to all patients, is needed for a successful outcome. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss the role of dose individualization based on therapeutic drug monitoring as a clinical patient management tool in the application of precision medicine.

  9. [Interventional neuroradiology. Drug treatment, monitoring and function tests].

    PubMed

    Laurent, A; Gobin, Y P; Launay, F; Aymard, A; Casasco, A; Merland, J J

    1994-04-23

    Specialized monitoring as well as function tests and drug therapy play an ever growing role in neuroradiological procedures. The particular route of administration and the territories involved in neuroradiology require special precautions. Anaesthesia must enable the operators to monitor the central nervous system since the patients must remain totally immobilized for several hours. Catheterization is made safe by careful asepsia and antibiotic prophylaxis and by preventing embolic events, particularly in neuro-cervico-facial interventions where an anticoagulant protocol is important. Arterial spasms can be prevented or cured with calcium inhibitors. The safety of the procedure itself is guaranteed by various function tests including sensitivity to ischaemia using anaesthetic barbiturates, controlled clampings or the lidocaine test. Undesirable effects of both emboli (e.g. toxicity of cyanoacrylate glue) and embolization (e.g. subsequent venous thrombosis) can be prevented by adapted anti-inflammatory drugs. Herein, we describe the routine monitoring conditions, drugs prescribed and function tests performed at the Therapeutic Angiography Department of the Lariboisière Hospital, Paris.

  10. Electronic solutions for combating counterfeit drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hemalatha, R.; Rao, A. Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The problem of counterfeiting of drugs is assuming alarming proportions and is getting difficult to combat due to its trans-national character. It is undermining the faith of people on health care system. Therefore, there is a need to adopt zero tolerance approach to combat the problem. The Way Forward: There are many solutions available which are being adopted in piece meal manner by individual manufacturers. However, for wholesalers and resellers it is getting difficult to maintain multiple solutions. Therefore, there is a need to adopt a unified solution preferably with the help of the government. Conclusions: This paper discusses the available solutions, their shortcomings and proposes a comprehensive solution where at each level in the supply chain the authenticity is verified preferable linking it with Unique identification. PMID:26229359

  11. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity. Monitoring the European drug situation: the ongoing challenge for the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA).

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Paul; Mounteney, Jane; Lopez, Dominique; Zobel, Frank; Götz, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the designated hub for drug-related information in the European Union. The organization's role is to provide the European Union (EU) and its Member States with a factual overview of European drug problems and a common information framework to support the drugs debate. In order to achieve its mission, the EMCDDA coordinates and relies on a network of 30 national monitoring centres, the Reitox National Focal Points. The Centre publishes on a wide range of drug-related topics, across epidemiology, interventions, laws and policies. Every November, the EMCDDA publishes its Annual Report, providing a yearly update on the European drug situation, translated into 23 EU languages. In line with its founding regulation, the EMCDDA has a role acting as an interface between the worlds of science and policy. While not a research centre in the formal sense, the results the Centre generates serve as catalysts for new research questions and help to identify priorities. Current challenges facing the agency include continuing to increase scientific standards while maintaining a strong institutional role, as well as supporting European efforts to identify, share and codify best practice in the drugs field.

  12. How Parents of Teens Store and Monitor Prescription Drugs in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Moore, Roland S.; Grube, Joel W.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with parents of teens to explore how parents store and monitor prescription drugs in the home. Most parents had prescription drugs in the house, but took few precautions against teens accessing these drugs. Strategies for monitoring included moving the drugs to different locations, remembering how many pills…

  13. Design and implementation of an electronic investigational drug accountability system.

    PubMed

    Grilley, B J; Trissel, L A; Bluml, B M

    1991-12-01

    A software system designed to maintain protocol-specific investigational drug accountability records is described. The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and Cygnus Systems Development, Inc., worked together to create an electronic investigational drug accountability system (IDRx), which meets the requirements of the National Cancer Institute. This system performs record keeping, stores information on drugs and protocols, and generates standard and customized reports. On-screen assistance makes it easy to use. Security is achieved by granting access only to authorized users, and an audit trail is automatically generated. Systematic implementation at M. D. Anderson, initially in the investigational drug control area and subsequently in the satellite pharmacies, has resulted in increased accuracy and efficiency, and few problems have been encountered. The IDRx software package is useful for keeping records, generating reports, and tracking and evaluating data associated with an investigational drug accountability system. PMID:1814202

  14. A Fibrous Localized Drug Delivery Platform with NIR-Triggered and Optically Monitored Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Liu, Heng; Fu, Yike; Li, Yangyang; Ren, Zhaohui; Li, Xiang; Han, Gaorong; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-09-01

    Implantable localized drug delivery systems (LDDSs) with intelligent functionalities have emerged as a powerful chemotherapeutic platform in curing cancer. Developing LDDSs with rationally controlled drug release and real-time monitoring functionalities holds promise for personalized therapeutic protocols but suffers daunting challenges. To overcome such challenges, a series of porous Yb(3+)/Er(3+) codoped CaTiO3 (CTO:Yb,Er) nanofibers, with specifically designed surface functionalization, were synthesized for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. The content of DOX released could be optically monitored by increase in the intensity ratio of green to red emission (I550/I660) of upconversion photoluminescent nanofibers under 980 nm near-infrared (NIR) excitation owing to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) effect between DOX molecules and the nanofibers. More importantly, the 808 nm NIR irradiation enabled markedly accelerated DOX release, confirming representative NIR-triggered drug release properties. In consequence, such CTO:Yb,Er nanofibers presented significantly enhanced in vitro anticancer efficacy under NIR irradiation. This study has thus inspired another promising fibrous LDDS platform with NIR-triggered and optics-monitored DOX releasing for personalized tumor chemotherapy. PMID:27557281

  15. Quantitative EEG Brain Mapping In Psychotropic Drug Development, Drug Treatment Selection, and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Itil, Turan M.; Itil, Kurt Z.

    1995-05-01

    Quantification of standard electroencephalogram (EEG) by digital computers [computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG)] has transformed the subjective analog EEG into an objective scientific method. Until a few years ago, CEEG was only used to assist in the development of psychotropic drugs by means of the quantitative pharmaco EEG. Thanks to the computer revolution and the accompanying reductions in cost of quantification, CEEG can now also be applied in psychiatric practice. CEEG can assist the physician in confirming clinical diagnoses, selecting psychotropic drugs for treatment, and drug treatment monitoring. Advancements in communications technology allow physicians and researchers to reduce the costs of acquiring a high-technology CEEG brain mapping system by utilizing the more economical telephonic services. PMID:11850678

  16. Quantitative EEG Brain Mapping In Psychotropic Drug Development, Drug Treatment Selection, and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Itil, Turan M.; Itil, Kurt Z.

    1995-05-01

    Quantification of standard electroencephalogram (EEG) by digital computers [computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG)] has transformed the subjective analog EEG into an objective scientific method. Until a few years ago, CEEG was only used to assist in the development of psychotropic drugs by means of the quantitative pharmaco EEG. Thanks to the computer revolution and the accompanying reductions in cost of quantification, CEEG can now also be applied in psychiatric practice. CEEG can assist the physician in confirming clinical diagnoses, selecting psychotropic drugs for treatment, and drug treatment monitoring. Advancements in communications technology allow physicians and researchers to reduce the costs of acquiring a high-technology CEEG brain mapping system by utilizing the more economical telephonic services.

  17. Novel antiretroviral drugs and renal function monitoring of HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Paolo; Montinaro, Vincenzo; Mussini, Cristina; Di Biagio, Antonio; Bellagamba, Rita; Bonfanti, Paolo; Calza, Leonardo; Cherubini, Chiara; Corsi, Paola; Gargiulo, Miriam; Montella, Francesco; Rusconi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major comorbidity in patients affected by HIV infection. In addition, the introduction of new antiretroviral agents that interact with creatinine transporters is raising some concerns. In this review we analyze the currently available data about three new antiretroviral drugs and one new pharmacokinetic enhancer. Three of them (rilpivirine, cobicistat, dolutegravir) have shown some interactions with renal function, while tenofovir alafenamide fumarate reduces the plasmatic concentration of the parent drug. The future use of tenofovir alafenamide seems to be encouraging in order to reduce the renal interaction of tenofovir. Rilpivirine, cobicistat, and dolutegravir reduce the tubular secretion of creatinine, inducing a decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate according to creatinine. Rilpivirine and dolutegravir block the uptake of creatinine from the blood, inhibiting organic cation transporter 2, and cobicistat interacts with the efflux inhibiting multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1. This effect can then be considered a "reset" of the estimated glomerular filtration rate according to creatinine. However, clinicians should carefully monitor renal function in order to identify possible alterations suggestive of a true renal functional impairment. Owing to the interference of these drugs with creatinine secretion, an alternative way of estimation of glomerular filtration rate would be desirable. However, at the moment, other methods of direct glomerular filtration rate measurement have a high impact on the patient, are not readily available, or are not reliable in HIV patients. Consequently, use of classic formulas to estimate glomerular filtration rate is still recommended. Also, tubular function needs to be carefully monitored with simple tests such as proteinuria, phosphatemia, urinary excretion of phosphate, normoglycemic glycosuria, and excretion of uric acid.

  18. Raman spectroscopy towards clinical application: drug monitoring and pathogen identification.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Ute; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a label-free method that measures quickly and contactlessly, providing detailed information from the sample, and has proved to be an ideal tool for medical and life science research. In this review, recent advances of the technique towards drug monitoring and pathogen identification by the Jena Research Groups are reviewed. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy in hollow-core optical fibres enable the detection of drugs at low concentrations as shown for the metabolites of the immunosuppressive drug 6-mercaptopurine as well as antimalarial agents. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy can be used to characterise pathogenic bacteria in infectious diseases directly from body fluids, making time-consuming cultivation processes dispensable. Using the example of urinary tract infection, it is shown how bacteria can be identified from patients' urine samples within <1 h. The methods cover both single-cell analysis and dielectrophoretic capturing of bacteria in suspension. The latter method could also be used for fast (<3.5 h) identification of antibiotic resistance as shown exemplarily for vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

  19. Offenders' Perceptions of House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jamie S.; Hanrahan, Kate; Bowers, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence. Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a)…

  20. Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Identifying Unanticipated Consequences and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demichele, Matthew; Payne, Brian K.; Button, Deeanna M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, increased legislative attention has been given to strategies to supervise sex offenders in the community. Among other policies, several states have passed laws calling for the use of electronic monitoring technologies to supervise sex offenders in the community. When initially developed, this community-based sanction was designed…

  1. 29. View of typical radio frequency monitor group electronic tubetype ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. View of typical radio frequency monitor group electronic tube-type cabinet. System is water-cooled with antenna assist. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  2. Impact of Laboratory Practices on Interlaboratory Variability in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Immunosuppressive Drugs.

    PubMed

    Christians, Uwe; Vinks, Alexander A; Langman, Loralie J; Clarke, William; Wallemacq, Pierre; van Gelder, Teun; Renjen, Varun; Marquet, Pierre; Meyer, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    The immunosuppressants cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus, everolimus, and probably also mycophenolic acid require therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)-guided dosing to ensure that blood concentrations are kept within the target range in transplant patients. Reliable, accurate, and precise test methods are therefore essential to effectively monitor levels and to make proper dose adjustments. Data from proficiency testing programs have shown substantial interlaboratory variability. Only few attempts have been made to study the underlying causes. The aim of this study was to systematically document current practices used for immunosuppressant drug TDM in clinical laboratories and identify methodological and practice differences, which may cause the variability observed among laboratories. Data collection was primarily conducted by a structured Web-based survey. Invitations to participate in the survey were distributed to clinical laboratories providing immunosuppressant drug TDM. Surveys were completed by 76 laboratories in 14 countries. The results of our survey suggest that there are 3 main reasons for interlaboratory variability: (1) lack of standardization of laboratory procedures and workflows starting with sample collection and handling, (2) lack of use of appropriate reference materials (eg, isotope-labeled internal standards for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy), and (3) poor compliance with internationally accepted good laboratory practice guidelines (eg, related to quality control, quality assurance, validation, training of personnel). The results of the survey also suggest that interlaboratory variability is a multifactorial problem. Technical-level consensus on laboratory operational procedures, quality systems, and personnel training will be of great importance to improve quality and interlaboratory comparability.

  3. Intelligent Janus nanoparticles for intracellular real-time monitoring of dual drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Han; Yang, Yuhong; Chen, Xin; Shao, Zhengzhong

    2016-03-01

    fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The FRET acceptor Dox is attached to CMR (as a FRET donor) conjugated MS with a pH-responsive linker hydrazone, and 6MP is conjugated to the Au surface through the gold-thiol interaction. As the Janus nanoparticle enters into tumor cells, the breakage of the hydrazone bond in an acidic environment and the substitution of glutathione (GSH) overexpressed in cancer cells give rise to the release of Dox and 6MP, respectively. Thus, the change of the CMR fluorescence signal and the SERS decrease of 6MP can be used to monitor the dual-drug release within living cells in real time. In addition, this work demonstrates the enhanced anticancer effect of the designed dual-drug loaded nanosystem. Therefore, the current study may provide new perspectives for the real-time study of intelligent multi-drug delivery and release, as well as cellular responses to drug treatment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00987e

  4. Feasibility demonstration of a second-generation electronic monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, John H.

    1997-02-01

    First generation electronic monitoring systems are being used by the criminal justice system to effect behavioral modifications of persons in pre-trial release programs, on parole, and on probation. Current systems are merely radio frequency proximity detection systems that operate over limited ranges, on the order of 45 to 70 meters. One major defect with proximity detection systems is that when the offenders leave the area being monitored, there is no way to ensure that the offenders travel where they should. As a result, the first generation electronic monitoring systems are only applied to a restricted number of low risk cases. There is a growing need for a second generation electronic monitoring system which utilizes community-wide tracking and location technologies to increase the public safety and to expand the number of offenders monitored by these systems. Even though GPS (Global Positioning System) is rapidly becoming the technology of choice for vehicle tracking and location, GPS is not an ideal candidate for the second generation electronic monitoring system. Urban environments prevent GPS systems from providing continuous and accurate location service due to satellite occlusion by obstacles such as: hills, mountains, vehicles, buildings, and trees. An inverse-GPS approach which overcomes these urban environment related limitations has been evaluated by Northrop Grumman as a means to track people. This paper presents the results of a National Institute of Justice funded program to demonstrate in downtown Pittsburgh the feasibility of spread spectrum based time-of-arrival location systems for intelligently tracking people on probation and parole.

  5. Asparaginase pharmacokinetics and implications of therapeutic drug monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Asselin, Barbara; Rizzari, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Asparaginase is widely used in chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and has led to a substantial improvement in cure rates, especially in children. Optimal therapeutic effects depend on a complete and sustained depletion of serum asparagine. However, pronounced interpatient variability, differences in pharmacokinetic properties between asparaginases and the formation of asparaginase antibodies make it difficult to predict the degree of asparagine depletion that will result from a given dose of asparaginase. The pharmacological principles underlying asparaginase therapy in the treatment of ALL are summarized in this article. A better understanding of the many factors that influence asparaginase activity and subsequent asparagine depletion may allow physicians to tailor treatment to the individual, maximizing therapeutic effect and minimizing treatment-related toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring provides a means of assessing a patient's current depletion status and can be used to better evaluate the potential benefit of treatment adjustments. PMID:25586605

  6. Electronic noses and their applications in environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Compact, portable systems capable of quickly identifying contaminants in the field are of great importance when monitoring the environment. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of using artificial neural networks for real-time data analysis of a sensor array. Analyzing the sensor data in parallel may allow for rapid identification of contaminants in the field without requiring highly selective component sensors. A sensor array combined with a data analysis module is referred to as an electronic nose. In this paper, we investigate the trade off between sensor sensitivity and selectivity relating to the applications of neural network based-electronic noses in environmental monitoring. We use a prototype electronic nose which consists of nine tin-oxide Taguchi-type sensors, a temperature sensor, and a humidity sensor. We illustrate that by using neural network based analysis of a sensor data, the selectivity of a sensor array may be significantly improved, especially when some (or all) sensors are not highly selective.

  7. LASER-BASED PROFILE MONITOR FOR ELECTRON BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Marc C

    2003-05-27

    High performance TeV energy electron / positron colliders (LC) are the first machines to require online, non-invasive beam size monitors for micron and sub-micron for beam phase space optimization. Typical beam densities in the LC are well beyond the threshold density for single pulse melting and vaporization of any material, making conventional wire scanners ineffective. Using a finely focused, diffraction limited high power laser, it is possible to devise a sampling profile monitor that, in operation, resembles a wire scanner. Very high resolution laser-based profile monitors have been developed and tested, first at FFTB (SLAC) and later at SLC and ATF. The monitor has broad applicability and we review here the technology, application and status of ongoing research programs.

  8. HOW CLINICIANS USE PRESCRIPTION DRUG MONITORING PROGRAMS: A QUALITATIVE INQUIRY

    PubMed Central

    Hildebran, Christi; Cohen, Deborah J.; Irvine, Jessica M.; Foley, Carol; O’Kane, Nicole; Beran, Todd; Deyo, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) are now active in most states to assist clinicians in identifying potential controlled drug misuse, diversion or excessive prescribing. Little is still known about the ways in which they are incorporated into workflow and clinical decision making, what barriers continue to exist, and how clinicians are sharing PDMP results with their patients. Design Qualitative data were collected through online focus groups and telephone interviews Setting Clinicians from pain management, emergency and family medicine, psychiatry/behavioral health, rehabilitation medicine, internal medicine and dentistry. Subjects 35 clinicians from 9 states participated. Methods We conducted two online focus groups and seven telephone interviews. A multidisciplinary team then used a grounded theory approach coupled with an immersion-crystallization strategy for identifying key themes in the resulting transcripts. Results Some participants, mainly from pain clinics, reported checking the PDMP with every patient, every time. Others checked only for new patients, for new opioid prescriptions, or for patients for whom they suspected abuse. Participants described varied approaches to sharing PDMP information with patients, including openly discussing potential addiction or safety concerns; avoiding discussion altogether; and approaching discussion confrontationally. Participants described patient anger or denial as a common response and noted the role of patient satisfaction surveys as an influence on prescribing. Conclusion Routines for accessing PDMP data and how clinicians respond to it vary widely. As PDMP use becomes more widespread, it will be important to understand what approaches are most effective for identifying and addressing unsafe medication use. PMID:24833113

  9. Hospital pharmacy practice in Saudi Arabia: Drug monitoring and patient education in the Riyadh region

    PubMed Central

    Alsultan, Mohammed S.; Mayet, Ahmed Y.; Khurshid, Fowad; Al-jedai, Ahmed H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this national survey is to evaluate hospital pharmacy practice in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia. The results of the survey pertaining to the monitoring and patient education of the medication use process were presented. Methods We have invited pharmacy directors from all 48 hospitals in the Riyadh region to participate in a modified-American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) survey questionnaire. The survey was conducted using similar methods to those of the ASHP surveys. Results The response rate was 60.4% (29/48). Most hospitals (23, 79%) had pharmacists regularly monitor medication therapy for patients. Of these hospitals, 61% had pharmacists monitoring medication therapy daily for less than 26% of patients, 17% monitored 26–50% of patients and 22% monitored more than half of patients daily. In 41% of hospitals, pharmacists routinely monitored serum medication concentrations or their surrogate markers; 27% gave pharmacists the authority to order initial serum medication concentrations, and 40% allowed pharmacists to adjust dosages. Pharmacists routinely documented their medication therapy monitoring activities in 52% of hospitals. Overall, 74% of hospitals had an adverse drug event (ADE) reporting system, 59% had a multidisciplinary committee responsible for reviewing ADEs, and 63% had a medication safety committee. Complete electronic medical record (EMR) systems were available in 15% of hospitals and 81% had a partial EMR system. The primary responsibility for performing patient medication education lays with nursing (37%), pharmacy (37%), or was a shared responsibility (26%). In 44% of hospitals, pharmacists provided medication education to half or more inpatients and in a third of hospitals, pharmacists gave medication education to 26% or more of patients at discharge. Conclusion Hospital pharmacists in the Riyadh region are actively engaged in monitoring medication therapy and providing patient medication education

  10. DRUG-DRUG INTERACTION PROFILES OF MEDICATION REGIMENS EXTRACTED FROM A DE-IDENTIFIED ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORDS SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Butkiewicz, Mariusz; Restrepo, Nicole A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Crawford, Dana C.

    2016-01-01

    With age, the number of prescribed medications increases and subsequently raises the risk for adverse drug-drug interactions. These adverse effects lower quality of life and increase health care costs. Quantifying the potential burden of adverse effects before prescribing medications can be a valuable contribution to health care. This study evaluated medication lists extracted from a subset of the Vanderbilt de-identified electronic medical record system. Reported drugs were cross-referenced with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes DRUG database to identify known drug-drug interactions. On average, a medication regimen contained 6.58 medications and 2.68 drug-drug interactions. Here, we quantify the burden of potential adverse events from drug-drug interactions through drug-drug interaction profiles and include a number of alternative medications as provided by the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. PMID:27570646

  11. DRUG-DRUG INTERACTION PROFILES OF MEDICATION REGIMENS EXTRACTED FROM A DE-IDENTIFIED ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORDS SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    Butkiewicz, Mariusz; Restrepo, Nicole A; Haines, Jonathan L; Crawford, Dana C

    2016-01-01

    With age, the number of prescribed medications increases and subsequently raises the risk for adverse drug-drug interactions. These adverse effects lower quality of life and increase health care costs. Quantifying the potential burden of adverse effects before prescribing medications can be a valuable contribution to health care. This study evaluated medication lists extracted from a subset of the Vanderbilt de-identified electronic medical record system. Reported drugs were cross-referenced with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes DRUG database to identify known drug-drug interactions. On average, a medication regimen contained 6.58 medications and 2.68 drug-drug interactions. Here, we quantify the burden of potential adverse events from drug-drug interactions through drug-drug interaction profiles and include a number of alternative medications as provided by the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. PMID:27570646

  12. Review of therapeutic drug monitoring of anticancer drugs part 1--cytotoxics.

    PubMed

    Paci, Angelo; Veal, Gareth; Bardin, Christophe; Levêque, Dominique; Widmer, Nicolas; Beijnen, Jos; Astier, Alain; Chatelut, Etienne

    2014-08-01

    Most anticancer drugs are characterised by a steep dose-response relationship and narrow therapeutic window. Inter-individual pharmacokinetic (PK) variability is often substantial. The most relevant PK parameter for cytotoxic drugs is the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC). Thus it is somewhat surprising that therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is still uncommon for the majority of agents. Goals of the review were to assess the rationale for more widely used TDM of cytotoxics in oncology. There are several reasons why TDM has never been fully implemented into daily oncology practice. These include difficulties in establishing appropriate concentration target ranges, common use of combination chemotherapies for many tumour types, analytical challenges with prodrugs, intracellular compounds, the paucity of published data from pharmacological trials and 'Day1 = Day21' administration schedules. There are some specific situations for which these limitations are overcome, including high dose methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil infusion, mitotane and some high dose chemotherapy regimens. TDM in paediatric oncology represents an important challenge. Established TDM approaches includes the widely used anticancer agents carboplatin, busulfan and methotrexate, with 13-cis-retinoic acid also recently of interest. Considerable effort should be made to better define concentration-effect relationships and to utilise tools such as population PK/PD models and comparative randomised trials of classic dosing versus pharmacokinetically guided adaptive dosing. There is an important heterogeneity among clinical practices and a strong need to promote TDM guidelines among the oncological community.

  13. Electronic Monitoring and Feedback to Improve Adherence in Pediatric Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Spaulding, Scott A.; Devine, Katie A.; Wilson, Nevin W.; Hogan, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of electronic monitoring and feedback to improve adherence in children taking daily asthma controller medications. Method Five patients with asthma and considered nonadherent participated. Inhalers were electronically monitored with the MDILogIITM device, and feedback was given by medical staff. Using a nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design, patients and their parents received bimonthly feedback regarding medication use. Following treatment, feedback was withdrawn and effects of monitoring alone were observed. Results Three participants showed improvements in adherence following treatment, with more notable increases when baseline adherence was low. Improvements in the inhaler technique occurred for all patients. Some patients demonstrated improvements in lung functioning and functional severity. When feedback was withdrawn, adherence decreased for some participants, but technique improvements maintained. Conclusions Results support the use of objective monitoring devices for assessing pediatric asthma patients’ adherence and indicate that feedback from medical staff may improve and maintain medication adherence for some patients. PMID:21852340

  14. Materials for Stretchable Electronics: Electronic Eyeballs, Brain Monitors, and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John A.

    2009-02-04

    Electronic circuits that involve transistors and related components on thin plastic sheets or rubber slabs offer mechanical properties (e.g. bendability, stretchability) and other features (e.g. lightweight, rugged construction) which cannot be easily achieved with technologies that use rigid, fragile semiconductor wafer or glass substrates. Device examples include personal or structural health monitors and electronic eye imagers, in which the electronics must conform to complex curvilinear shapes or flex/stretch during use. Our recent work accomplishes these technology outcomes by use of single crystal inorganic nanomaterials in 'wavy' buckled configurations on elastomeric supports. This talk will describe key fundamental materials and mechanics aspects of these approaches, as well as engineering features of their use in individual transistors, photodiodes and integrated circuits. Cardiac and brain monitoring devices provide examples of application in biomedicine; hemispherical electronic eye cameras illustrate new capacities for bio-inspired device design.

  15. Materials for Stretchable Electronics - Electronic Eyeballs, Brain Monitors and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John A.

    2009-02-04

    Electronic circuits that involve transistors and related components on thin plastic sheets or rubber slabs offer mechanical properties (e.g. bendability, stretchability) and other features (e.g. lightweight, rugged construction) which cannot be easily achieved with technologies that use rigid, fragile semiconductor wafer or glass substrates.  Device examples include personal or structural health monitors and electronic eye imagers, in which the electronics must conform to complex curvilinear shapes or flex/stretch during use.  Our recent work accomplishes these technology outcomes by use of single crystal inorganic nanomaterials in ‘wavy’ buckled configurations on elastomeric supports.  This talk will describe key fundamental materials and mechanics aspects of these approaches, as well as engineering features of their use in individual transistors, photodiodes and integrated circuits.  Cardiac and brain monitoring devices provide examples of application in biomedicine; hemispherical electronic eye cameras illustrate new capacities for bio-inspired device design.

  16. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-06-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, freestanding electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function.

  17. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, free-standing electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on-demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function. PMID:26974408

  18. Optical properties of the chemotherapy drugs used in the central nervous system lymphoma therapy: monitoring drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myllylä, T.; Popov, A.; Surazyński, L.; Oinas, J.; Bibikova, O.; Bykov, A.; Wróbel, M. S.; Gnyba, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.; Meglinski, I.; Kuittinen, O.

    2015-07-01

    Our aim is to optically monitor the delivery of the chemotherapy drugs for brain tumours, particularly used in the central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma therapy. In vivo monitoring would help to optimize the treatment and avoiding unnecessary medications. Moreover, it would be beneficial to be able to measure which of the multi-regimen drugs actually do penetrate and how well into the brain tissue. There exist several potential optical measurement techniques to be utilised for the purpose. The most desired method would allow the detection of the drugs without using optical biomarkers as a contrast agent. In this case, for non-invasive sensing of the drug in the brain cortex, the drug should have a reasonably strong optical absorption band somewhere in the range between 600 nm and 1700 nm, and not directly coincident with the strong bands of haemoglobin or water. Alternatively, mid-infrared (MIR) range has the potential for invasive drug monitoring techniques. In this paper, we report the optical properties of several chemotherapy drugs used in CNS lymphoma therapy, such as rituximabi, cyclophosphamide and etoposide. We measured their transmittance and reflectance spectra in near-infrared (NIR) range, particularly 900 nm - 2500 nm, to be considered when choosing the in vivo monitoring method to be developed. The absorption and scattering coefficients were retrieved from the measurements and applying Beer's law. For the measurement of the sum of total transmission and reflection in NIR range we used integrating sphere with spektralo to enable calculation of the scattering coefficient.

  19. Beam Charge Asymmetry Monitors for Low Intensity Continuous Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Jean-Claude Denard; Arne P. Freyberger; Youri Sharabian

    2001-05-01

    Experimental Hall B at Jefferson Lab typically operates with CW electron beam currents in the range of 1 - 10 nA. This low beam current coupled with a 30 Hz flip rate of the beam helicity required the development of new devices to measure and monitor the beam charge asymmetry. We have developed four independent devices with sufficient bandwidth for readout at 30 Hz rate: a synchrotron light monitor (SLM), two backward optical transition radiation monitors (OTR) and a Faraday Cup. Photomultipliers operating in current mode provided the readout of the light from the SLM and the OTRs, while high bandwidth electronics provided the readout from the Faraday cup. Using {approximately}6 helicity pairs, we measured the beam charge asymmetry to a statistically accuracy which is better than 0.05%. We present the results from the successful operation of these devices during the fall 2000 physics program. The reliability and the bandwidth of the devices allowed us to control the gain on the source laser by means of a feedback loop.

  20. Gender Differences in Adolescent Drug Use: The Impact of Parental Monitoring and Peer Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Investigated gender differences in adolescent drug use in terms of parental monitoring and peer deviance. Surveys of Swedish adolescents indicated that girls were more highly monitored than boys, and boys were more exposed to deviant peers than girls. There was a significant interaction for parental monitoring and peer deviance for the sample as a…

  1. Effects of Shared Electronic Health Record Systems on Drug-Drug Interaction and Duplication Warning Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rinner, Christoph; Grossmann, Wilfried; Sauter, Simone Katja; Wolzt, Michael; Gall, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Shared electronic health records (EHRs) systems can offer a complete medication overview of the prescriptions of different health care providers. We use health claims data of more than 1 million Austrians in 2006 and 2007 with 27 million prescriptions to estimate the effect of shared EHR systems on drug-drug interaction (DDI) and duplication warnings detection and prevention. The Austria Codex and the ATC/DDD information were used as a knowledge base to detect possible DDIs. DDIs are categorized as severe, moderate, and minor interactions. In comparison to the current situation where only DDIs between drugs issued by a single health care provider can be checked, the number of warnings increases significantly if all drugs of a patient are checked: severe DDI warnings would be detected for 20% more persons, and the number of severe DDI warnings and duplication warnings would increase by 17%. We show that not only do shared EHR systems help to detect more patients with warnings but DDIs are also detected more frequently. Patient safety can be increased using shared EHR systems. PMID:26682218

  2. Challenges in implementing electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Conway, Laurie J

    2016-05-01

    Electronic hand hygiene (HH) monitoring systems offer the exciting prospect of a more precise, less biased measure of HH performance than direct observation. However, electronic systems are challenging to implement. Selecting a system that minimizes disruption to the physical infrastructure and to clinician workflow, and that fits with the organization's culture and budget, is challenging. Getting front-line workers' buy-in and addressing concerns about the accuracy of the system and how the data will be used are also difficult challenges. Finally, ensuring information from the system reaches front-line workers and is used by them to improve HH practice is a complex challenge. We describe these challenges in detail and suggests ways to overcome them. PMID:27131139

  3. The LUCID detector ATLAS luminosity monitor and its electronic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manghi, F. Lasagni

    2016-07-01

    In 2015 LHC is starting a new run, at higher center of mass energy (13 TeV) and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. The ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID has been completely rebuilt, both the detector and the electronics, in order to cope with the new running conditions. The new detector electronics features a new read-out board (LUCROD) for signal acquisition and digitization, PMT-charge integration and single-side luminosity measurements, and a revisited LUMAT board for combination of signals from the two detectors. This note describes the new board design, the firmware and software developments, the implementation of luminosity algorithms, the optical communication between boards and the integration into the ATLAS TDAQ system.

  4. Tribological monitoring of drugs used for the treatment of arthropathies.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, L S; Chernyakova, Yu M; Kadolich, Z V; Nikolaev, V I

    2006-03-01

    Lubricating capacity of drugs injected into articular cavity were tested using a pendulum tribometer. The findings indicate that friction coefficient for a pair simulating metallopolymeric articular endoprosthesis is changed under the effect of electromagnetic field after lubrication. Regularities of these changes depend on the nature and mechanism of action of drugs. A method for rapid evaluation of the lubricating characteristics of drugs is proposed for optimizing their therapeutic effect on joints.

  5. Development and application of a system for monitoring drug abuse: the Malaysian experience.

    PubMed

    Navaratnam, V; Foong, K

    1989-01-01

    Monitoring systems are useful epidemiological instruments for assessing the problem of drug abuse. The rapid growth of the drug dependence problem in Malaysia led to increased awareness of the need for a system for continuous monitoring of the situation. Preliminary work on the design of an appropriate monitoring system was initiated in 1976. A fully integrated national reporting system was established in 1978, linking all public services and agencies coming into contact with drug-dependent persons, including law enforcement agencies, drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation centres, and social and welfare institutions. The information system included a mechanism for systematic gathering, processing, analysing and presenting essential data on the prevention, control and management of drug abuse problems. It also included reporting on drug-related events, such as hospitalizations and arrests, as well as data on known drug-dependent persons and new cases of dependence. The system has been used for routine monitoring of the extent, trends, patterns and other characteristics of drug abuse problems in Malaysia, providing basic information for policy-making and programme planning. On the basis of data generated by the system, it was estimated that the prevalence rate of drug-dependent persons per 100,000 population increased from 84.3 in 1976 to 754.6 in 1986. It was estimated that there were 119,001 drug-dependent persons in Malaysia in 1986.

  6. Single-Molecule Electronic Monitoring of DNA Polymerase Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marushchak, Denys O.; Pugliese, Kaitlin M.; Turvey, Mackenzie W.; Choi, Yongki; Gul, O. Tolga; Olsen, Tivoli J.; Rajapakse, Arith J.; Weiss, Gregory A.; Collins, Philip G.

    Single-molecule techniques can reveal new spatial and kinetic details of the conformational changes occurring during enzymatic catalysis. Here, we investigate the activity of DNA polymerases using an electronic single-molecule technique based on carbon nanotube transistors. Single molecules of the Klenow fragment (KF) of polymerase I were conjugated to the transistors and then monitored via fluctuations in electrical conductance. Continuous, long-term monitoring recorded single KF molecules incorporating up to 10,000 new bases into single-stranded DNA templates. The duration of individual incorporation events was invariant across all analog and native nucleotides, indicating that the precise structure of different base pairs has no impact on the timing of incorporation. Despite similar timings, however, the signal magnitudes generated by certain analogs reveal alternate conformational states that do not occur with native nucleotides. The differences induced by these analogs suggest that the electronic technique is sensing KF's O-helix as it tests the stability of nascent base pairs.

  7. Real time monitoring of drug action on T. cruzi parasites using a biospeckle laser method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. Z.; Grassi, H. C.; Cabrera, H.; Andrades, E. D. J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on a biospeckle laser method used to monitor a specific drug action on T. cruzi parasites. Experimental results from fast biospeckle monitoring of the parasites’ activity under the influence of the drug demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. We measure the speckle parameters such as spatiotemporal correlation and speckle grain size to assess the immediate action of the drug on the parasites during a very short incubation period. From a practical point of view, this aproach allows us to validate biospeckle as a fast, non-invasive and alternative method to test candidate drugs on T. cruzi parasites.

  8. High-priority drug–drug interactions for use in electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Amrita A; Bell, Douglas; Yoshida, Eileen; Doole, John; Czochanski, Melissa; Middleton, Blackford; Bates, David W

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a set of high-severity, clinically significant drug–drug interactions (DDIs) for use in electronic health records (EHRs). Methods A panel of experts was convened with the goal of identifying critical DDIs that should be used for generating medication-related decision support alerts in all EHRs. Panelists included medication knowledge base vendors, EHR vendors, in-house knowledge base developers from academic medical centers, and both federal and private agencies involved in the regulation of medication use. Candidate DDIs were assessed by the panel based on the consequence of the interaction, severity levels assigned to them across various medication knowledge bases, availability of therapeutic alternatives, monitoring/management options, predisposing factors, and the probability of the interaction based on the strength of evidence available in the literature. Results Of 31 DDIs considered to be high risk, the panel approved a final list of 15 interactions. Panelists agreed that this list represented drugs that are contraindicated for concurrent use, though it does not necessarily represent a complete list of all such interacting drug pairs. For other drug interactions, severity may depend on additional factors, such as patient conditions or timing of co-administration. Discussion The panel provided recommendations on the creation, maintenance, and implementation of a central repository of high severity interactions. Conclusions A set of highly clinically significant drug-drug interactions was identified, for which warnings should be generated in all EHRs. The panel highlighted the complexity of issues surrounding development and implementation of such a list. PMID:22539083

  9. Materials for Stretchable Electronics - Electronic Eyeballs, Brain Monitors and Other Applications

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, John A. [University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, Illinois, United States

    2016-07-12

    Electronic circuits that involve transistors and related components on thin plastic sheets or rubber slabs offer mechanical properties (e.g. bendability, stretchability) and other features (e.g. lightweight, rugged construction) which cannot be easily achieved with technologies that use rigid, fragile semiconductor wafer or glass substrates.  Device examples include personal or structural health monitors and electronic eye imagers, in which the electronics must conform to complex curvilinear shapes or flex/stretch during use.  Our recent work accomplishes these technology outcomes by use of single crystal inorganic nanomaterials in ‘wavy’ buckled configurations on elastomeric supports.  This talk will describe key fundamental materials and mechanics aspects of these approaches, as well as engineering features of their use in individual transistors, photodiodes and integrated circuits.  Cardiac and brain monitoring devices provide examples of application in biomedicine; hemispherical electronic eye cameras illustrate new capacities for bio-inspired device design.

  10. Sensor systems, electronic tongues and electronic noses, for the monitoring of biotechnological processes.

    PubMed

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Legin, Andrey

    2008-05-01

    Production of biofuel is based on the conversion by microorganisms of complex organic substrates into the methane or ethanol, which are consequently used as energy sources. Real time monitoring of the fermented media composition is of paramount for the effectiveness of the whole process. However, despite the fact that products worth billions of dollars are produced through fermentation processes annually, analytical instruments used for these processes' monitoring remain relatively primitive. Established laboratory techniques produce exhaustive information about media composition but analysis is often quite time-consuming, expensive, requires skilled personnel and hardly can be automated. Lack of on-line sensors for the fermentation monitoring is commonly stressed in the literature. One of the techniques particularly suitable for this purpose is chemical sensors. Such features as low prices, relatively simple instrumentation, minimal sample preparation and easy automation of measurements make chemical sensors an attractive tool for industrial process control. However, practical use of chemical sensors in complex media is often hindered by their insufficient selectivity. For example, only pH and oxygen probes are routinely used in bio-reactors. One of the emerging approaches permitting to overcome the selectivity problems is the use of systems instead of discrete sensors. Such systems for liquid and gas analysis were named electronic tongues and electronic noses correspondingly. They are capable to perform both quantitative analysis (components' concentrations) and classification or recognition of multicomponent media. This review presents recent achievements in the R&D and applications of electronic tongues and noses to the monitoring of biotechnological processes.

  11. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This booklet presents an overview of the findings pertaining to eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students from the 1999 Monitoring the Future Study. This overview focuses on recent trends in the use of various licit and illicit drugs. It also examines trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug, which…

  12. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Inst. for Social Research.

    This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2002 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

  13. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2001 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

  14. The Intensive Vaccines Monitoring Programme (IVMP): an electronic system to monitor vaccine safety in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Tatley, Michael V; Kunac, Desireé L; McNicholas, Anne; Zhou, Lifeng; Ballantyne, Suzie; Ashton, Janelle; Stehr-Green, Paul; Galloway, Yvonne; Reid, Stewart

    2008-05-23

    New Zealand introduced a tailor-made vaccine (MeNZB) for epidemic control of Group B meningococcal disease. The Intensives Vaccine Monitoring Programme (IVMP), which prospectively collected data electronically on a cohort of children receiving vaccinations in sentinel practices across NZ, was developed as part of a national multi-faceted safety strategy. The main aim of the IVMP was to identify the presence of unexpected adverse events occurring with MeNZB vaccination. We describe the methodology and success factors plus consider the limitations encountered in this system which shows potential as a means for post-marketing vaccine and medicine surveillance in the future.

  15. Photonic monitoring of chitosan nanostructured alginate microcapsules for drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajuria, Deepak Kumar; Konnur, Manish C.; Vasireddi, Ramakrishna; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2015-02-01

    By using a novel microfluidic set-up for drug screening applications, this study examines delivery of a novel risedronate based drug formulation for treatment of osteoporosis that was developed to overcome the usual shortcomings of risedronate, such as its low bioavailability and adverse gastric effects. Risedronate nanoparticles were prepared using muco-adhesive polymers such as chitosan as matrix for improving the intestinal cellular absorption of risedronate and also using a gastric-resistant polymer such as sodium alginate for reducing the gastric inflammation of risedronate. The in-vitro characteristics of the alginate encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles are investigated, including their stability, muco-adhesiveness, and Caco-2 cell permeability. Fluorescent markers are tagged with the polymers and their morphology within the microcapsules is imaged at various stages of drug release.

  16. Monte Carlo calculation of monitor unit for electron arc therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, James C. L.; Jiang Runqing

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Monitor unit (MU) calculations for electron arc therapy were carried out using Monte Carlo simulations and verified by measurements. Variations in the dwell factor (DF), source-to-surface distance (SSD), and treatment arc angle ({alpha}) were studied. Moreover, the possibility of measuring the DF, which requires gantry rotation, using a solid water rectangular, instead of cylindrical, phantom was investigated. Methods: A phase space file based on the 9 MeV electron beam with rectangular cutout (physical size=2.6x21 cm{sup 2}) attached to the block tray holder of a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator (linac) was generated using the EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo code and verified by measurement. The relative output factor (ROF), SSD offset, and DF, needed in the MU calculation, were determined using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. An ionization chamber, a radiographic film, a solid water rectangular phantom, and a cylindrical phantom made of polystyrene were used in dosimetry measurements. Results: Percentage deviations of ROF, SSD offset, and DF between measured and Monte Carlo results were 1.2%, 0.18%, and 1.5%, respectively. It was found that the DF decreased with an increase in {alpha}, and such a decrease in DF was more significant in the {alpha} range of 0 deg. - 60 deg. than 60 deg. - 120 deg. Moreover, for a fixed {alpha}, the DF increased with an increase in SSD. Comparing the DF determined using the rectangular and cylindrical phantom through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations, it was found that the DF determined by the rectangular phantom agreed well with that by the cylindrical one within {+-}1.2%. It shows that a simple setup of a solid water rectangular phantom was sufficient to replace the cylindrical phantom using our specific cutout to determine the DF associated with the electron arc. Conclusions: By verifying using dosimetry measurements, Monte Carlo simulations proved to be an alternative way to perform MU calculations effectively

  17. "Not just eliminating the mosquito but draining the swamp": A critical geopolitics of Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction and Turkey's approach to illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Evered, Kyle T; Evered, Emine Ö

    2016-07-01

    In the 1970s, Turkey ceased to be a significant producer state of illicit drugs, but it continued to serve as a key route for the trade of drugs between East and West. Over the past decade, however, authorities identified two concerns beyond its continued transit state status. These reported problems entail both new modes of production and a rising incidence of drug abuse within the nation-state - particularly among its youth. Amid these developments, new law enforcement institutions emerged and acquired European sponsorship, leading to the establishment of TUBİM (the Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction). Coordinating with and reporting to the European Union agency EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction), TUBİM's primary assigned duties entail the collection and analysis of data on drug abuse, trafficking, and prevention, the geographic identification of sites of concern (e.g. consumption, drug-related crimes, and peoples undergoing treatment), and the production of annual national reports. In this article, we examine the geopolitical origins of TUBİM as Turkey's central apparatus for confronting drug problems and its role as a vehicle for policy development, interpretation, and enforcement. In doing so, we emphasize the political and spatial dimensions inherent to the country's institutional and policy-driven approaches to contend with drug-related problems, and we assess how this line of attack reveals particular ambiguities in mission when evaluated from scales at world regional, national, and local levels. In sum, we assess how Turkey's new institutional and legislative landscapes condition the state's engagements with drug use, matters of user's health, and policy implementation at local scales and amid ongoing political developments.

  18. "Not just eliminating the mosquito but draining the swamp": A critical geopolitics of Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction and Turkey's approach to illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Evered, Kyle T; Evered, Emine Ö

    2016-07-01

    In the 1970s, Turkey ceased to be a significant producer state of illicit drugs, but it continued to serve as a key route for the trade of drugs between East and West. Over the past decade, however, authorities identified two concerns beyond its continued transit state status. These reported problems entail both new modes of production and a rising incidence of drug abuse within the nation-state - particularly among its youth. Amid these developments, new law enforcement institutions emerged and acquired European sponsorship, leading to the establishment of TUBİM (the Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction). Coordinating with and reporting to the European Union agency EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction), TUBİM's primary assigned duties entail the collection and analysis of data on drug abuse, trafficking, and prevention, the geographic identification of sites of concern (e.g. consumption, drug-related crimes, and peoples undergoing treatment), and the production of annual national reports. In this article, we examine the geopolitical origins of TUBİM as Turkey's central apparatus for confronting drug problems and its role as a vehicle for policy development, interpretation, and enforcement. In doing so, we emphasize the political and spatial dimensions inherent to the country's institutional and policy-driven approaches to contend with drug-related problems, and we assess how this line of attack reveals particular ambiguities in mission when evaluated from scales at world regional, national, and local levels. In sum, we assess how Turkey's new institutional and legislative landscapes condition the state's engagements with drug use, matters of user's health, and policy implementation at local scales and amid ongoing political developments. PMID:27267659

  19. Watching the monitors: "PAID" prescriptions, fiscal intermediaries and drug-utilization review.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J P

    1977-02-01

    Prescription monitoring evolved from the need of drug firms to obtain marketing information. Today, extensive monitoring is also done by fiscal intermediaries who administer prepaid drug benefit plans, both private and governmental, particularly Medicaid. The most important such agent is PAID Prescriptions. Under various contracts, PAID monitors physician, pharmacy, and patient behavior related to prescriptions and uses review processes that evaluate certain kinds of behavior for appropriateness. The criteria of appropriateness are essentially those that save money. PAID negotiates a program fee with the insurer (public or private) and applies constraints so that prescription and administrative costs do not overrun that fee. PAID and other monitors have contemplated expansion into the realm of defining and encouraging appropriate prescribing under the concept of "drugutilization review." The actual practices of PAID, particularly the background of fiscal enforcement, may impede the development of an actual drug-utilization review process.

  20. Monitoring of drug intake during pregnancy by questionnaires and LC-MS/MS drug urine screening: evaluation of both monitoring methods.

    PubMed

    Hoeke, Henrike; Roeder, Stefan; Bertsche, Thilo; Lehmann, Irina; Borte, Michael; von Bergen, Martin; Wissenbach, Dirk K

    2015-08-01

    Various studies pointed towards a relationship between chronic diseases such as asthma and allergy and environmental risk factors, which are one aspect of the so-called Exposome. These environmental risk factors include also the intake of drugs. One critical step in human development is the prenatal period, in which exposures might have critical impact on the child's health outcome. Thereby, the health effects of drugs taken during gestation are discussed controversially with regard to newborns' disease risk. Due to this, the drug intake of pregnant women in the third trimester was monitored by questionnaire, in addition to biomonitoring using a local birth cohort study, allowing correlations of drug exposure with disease risk. Therefore, 622 urine samples were analyzed by an untargeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) urine screening and the results were compared to self-administered questionnaires. In total, 48% (n = 296) reported an intake of pharmaceuticals, with analgesics as the most frequent reported drug class in addition to dietary supplements. 182 times compounds were detected by urine screening, with analgesics (42%; n = 66) as the predominantly drug class. A comparison of reported and detected drug intake was performed for three different time spans between completion of the questionnaires and urine sampling. Even if the level of accordance was low in general, similar percentages (~25%, ~19%, and ~ 20%) were found for all groups. This study illustrates that a comprehensive evaluation of drug intake is neither achieved by questionnaires nor by biomonitoring alone. Instead, a combination of both monitoring methods, providing complementary information, should be considered.

  1. Computer-generated reports for monitoring variances in the drug budget.

    PubMed

    Horner, L B; Keys, P W

    1987-04-01

    A computerized pharmaceutical-purchasing cost-management system that can be used to monitor variances in the drug budget is described. Variance reports on inflation, volume of drugs used, and changes in inventory are generated monthly to determine whether the pharmacy is operating within its budget. The reports are processed on an IBM personal computer with the use of a dBASE-III management software package. The price and quantity of each drug, as specified in the standard drug budget, are entered into the system; using approximately four hours per month is required for entry of the quantities and prices of drugs received as noted on the invoice. Variances in the budget are reviewed, and drug-use data are assessed to determine trends. Demand intensity (use per 1000 cases) is also tracked to determine the effects of educational programs on the proper use of drugs. Variance reports generated by a computerized budget-monitoring system provide the pharmacy with timely cost data that can be used to monitor the effects of drug-use guidelines and educational programs on the budget. PMID:3578310

  2. Modern Methods for Analysis of Antiepileptic Drugs in the Biological Fluids for Pharmacokinetics, Bioequivalence and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoo-Sin; Kim, Shin-Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Jun, Min-Young

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disease occurring in approximately 1.0% of the world's population. About 30% of the epileptic patients treated with availably antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) continue to have seizures and are considered therapy-resistant or refractory patients. The ultimate goal for the use of AEDs is complete cessation of seizures without side effects. Because of a narrow therapeutic index of AEDs, a complete understanding of its clinical pharmacokinetics is essential for understanding of the pharmacodynamics of these drugs. These drug concentrations in biological fluids serve as surrogate markers and can be used to guide or target drug dosing. Because early studies demonstrated clinical and/or electroencephalographic correlations with serum concentrations of several AEDs, It has been almost 50 years since clinicians started using plasma concentrations of AEDs to optimize pharmacotherapy in patients with epilepsy. Therefore, validated analytical method for concentrations of AEDs in biological fluids is a necessity in order to explore pharmacokinetics, bioequivalence and TDM in various clinical situations. There are hundreds of published articles on the analysis of specific AEDs by a wide variety of analytical methods in biological samples have appears over the past decade. This review intends to provide an updated, concise overview on the modern method development for monitoring AEDs for pharmacokinetic studies, bioequivalence and therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:21660146

  3. Prioritising anticancer drugs for environmental monitoring and risk assessment purposes.

    PubMed

    Booker, Victoria; Halsall, Crispin; Llewellyn, Neville; Johnson, Andrew; Williams, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Anticancer drugs routinely used in chemotherapy enter wastewater through the excretion of the non-metabolised drug following administration to patients. This study considers the consumption and subsequent behaviour and occurrence of these chemicals in aquatic systems, with the aim of prioritising a selection of these drugs which are likely to persist in the environment and hence be considered for environmental screening programmes. Accurate consumption data were compiled from a hospital survey in NW England and combined with urinary excretion rates derived from clinical studies. Physical-chemical property data were compiled along with likely chemical fate and persistence during and after wastewater treatment. A shortlist of 15 chemicals (from 65) was prioritised based on their consumption, persistency and likelihood of occurrence in surface waters and supported by observational studies where possible. The ecological impact of these 'prioritised' chemicals is uncertain as the measured concentrations in surface waters generally fall below standard toxicity thresholds. Nonetheless, this prioritised sub-list should prove useful for developing environmental screening programmes. PMID:24369294

  4. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tamoxifen using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tchu, Simone M; Lynch, Kara L; Wu, Alan H B

    2012-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is used widely in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer (ER+). Therapeutic monitoring of tamoxifen, and its metabolites N-desmethyltamoxifen (NDTam) and 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen (endoxifen), may be clinically useful for guiding treatment decisions. Two significant barriers to tamoxifen efficacy are: (1) variability in conversion of tamoxifen into the potent antiestrogenic metabolite, endoxifen, and (2) poor compliance and adherence to tamoxifen therapy. Therapeutic monitoring can be used to address both of these issues. Low levels of endoxifen indicate either poor compliance or poor metabolism of tamoxifen. Low tamoxifen levels would suggest poor compliance while a low ratio of endoxifen to NDTam would be indicative of poor metabolism. Solid phase extraction of patient serum followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection enables rapid, accurate, detection of tamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, and endoxifen. PMID:22767121

  5. On the Slow Diffusion of Point-of-Care Systems in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Sanavio, Barbara; Krol, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in point-of-care (PoC) technologies show great transformative promises for personalized preventative and predictive medicine. However, fields like therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), that first allowed for personalized treatment of patients’ disease, still lag behind in the widespread application of PoC devices for monitoring of patients. Surprisingly, very few applications in commonly monitored drugs, such as anti-epileptics, are paving the way for a PoC approach to patient therapy monitoring compared to other fields like intensive care cardiac markers monitoring, glycemic controls in diabetes, or bench-top hematological parameters analysis at the local drug store. Such delay in the development of portable fast clinically effective drug monitoring devices is in our opinion due more to an inertial drag on the pervasiveness of these new devices into the clinical field than a lack of technical capability. At the same time, some very promising technologies failed in the clinical practice for inadequate understanding of the outcome parameters necessary for a relevant technological breakthrough that has superior clinical performance. We hope, by over-viewing both TDM practice and its yet unmet needs and latest advancement in micro- and nanotechnology applications to PoC clinical devices, to help bridging the two communities, the one exploiting analytical technologies and the one mastering the most advanced techniques, into translating existing and forthcoming technologies in effective devices. PMID:25767794

  6. A quality monitor and monitoring technique employing optically stimulated electron emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Welch, Christopher S. (Inventor); Joe, Edmond J. (Inventor); Hefner, Bill Bryan, Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A light source directs ultraviolet light onto a test surface and a detector detects a current of photoelectrons generated by the light. The detector includes a collector which is positively biased with respect to the test surface. Quality is indicated based on the photoelectron current. The collector is then negatively biased to replace charges removed by the measurement of a nonconducting substrate to permit subsequent measurements. Also, the intensity of the ultraviolet light at a particular wavelength is monitored and the voltage of the light source varied to maintain the light a constant desired intensity. The light source is also cooled via a gas circulation system. If the test surface is an insulator, the surface is bombarded with ultraviolet light in the presence of an electron field to remove the majority of negative charges from the surface. The test surface is then exposed to an ion field until it possesses no net charge. The technique described above is then performed to assess quality.

  7. Monitoring electron donor metabolism under variable electron acceptor conditions using 13C-labeled lactate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.; Yang, L.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Three sets of flow-through columns constructed with aquifer sediment from Hanford (WA) were used to study reduction of Cr(VI) to poorly soluble Cr(III) under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing/fermentative, and iron-reducing conditions with lactate as the electron donor. In order to understand the relationship between electron donors and biomarkers, and to determine the differences in carbon isotope fractionation resulting from different microbial metabolic processes, we monitored the variation in carbon isotopes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in total organic carbon (TOC), and in lactate, acetate and propionate. The greatest enrichment in 13C in columns was observed under denitrifying conditions. The δ13C of DIC increased by ~1750 to ~2000‰ fifteen days after supplementation of natural abundance lactate with a 13C-labeled lactate tracer (for an influent δ13C of ~2250‰ for the lactate) indicating almost complete oxidation of the electron donor. The denitrifying columns were among the most active columns and had the highest cell counts and the denitrification rate was highly correlated with Cr(VI) reduction rate. δ13C values of DIC ranged from ~540 to ~1170‰ for iron-reducing conditions. The lower enrichment in iron columns was related to the lower biological activity observed with lower yields of RNA and cell numbers in the column effluents. The carbon isotope shift in the sulfate-reducing ~198 to ~1960‰ for sulfate-reducing conditions reflecting the lower levels of the lactate in these columns. Additionally, in two of the sulfate columns, almost complete fermentation of the lactate occurred, producing acetate and propionate with the labeled carbon signature, but relatively smaller amounts of inorganic carbon. For all electron-accepting conditions, TOC yielded similar δ13C values as lactate stock solutions. Differences in C use efficiency, metabolic rate or metabolic pathway contributed to the differing TOC δ13C to DIC δ13C ratios between treatments

  8. Drug eruptions presenting at sites of prior radiation damage (sunlight and electron beam)

    SciTech Connect

    Shelley, W.B.; Shelley, E.D.; Campbell, A.C.; Weigensberg, I.J.

    1984-07-01

    Two patients are described in whom sunburn and electron beam radiodermatitis, respectively, were critical determinants in localizing the initial presentation of drug eruptions. In the first instance, a severe sunburn of the back and thighs was followed 7 months later by the appearance of a toxic epidermal necrolysis drug reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the exact sites of the previous bullous sunburn reaction. In the second patient, a radiodermatitis of the left upper arm due to electron beam therapy for metastatic breast cancer was followed 7 weeks later by a codeine drug reaction confined to the area of the radiodermatitis. In both instances, oral rechallenge with the offending drug reproduced the eruption.

  9. Monitoring of early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in antiretroviral therapy clinics in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Dzangare, J; Gonese, E; Mugurungi, O; Shamu, T; Apollo, T; Bennett, D E; Kelley, K F; Jordan, M R; Chakanyuka, C; Cham, F; Banda, R M

    2012-05-01

    Monitoring human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) can help national antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs to identify clinic factors associated with HIVDR emergence and provide evidence to support national program and clinic-level adjustments, if necessary. World Health Organization-recommended HIVDR EWIs were monitored in Zimbabwe using routinely available data at selected ART clinics between 2007 and 2009. As Zimbabwe's national ART coverage increases, improved ART information systems are required to strengthen routine national ART monitoring and evaluation and facilitate scale-up of HIVDR EWI monitoring. Attention should be paid to minimizing loss to follow-up, supporting adherence, and ensuring clinic-level drug supply continuity. PMID:22544194

  10. Therapeutic drug monitoring of mexiletine at a large academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Nei, Scott D; Danelich, Ilya M; Lose, Jennifer M; Leung, Lydia Yuk Ting; Asirvatham, Samuel J; McLeod, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The therapeutic trough range for mexiletine (0.8–2 mcg/mL) was largely established in the setting of arrhythmia prophylaxis following myocardial infarction. Objective: Describe the usage patterns of serum mexiletine concentrations and the impact of these concentrations on mexiletine dosing in modern practice for ventricular arrhythmia treatment. Methods: A single-center, retrospective analysis was conducted using the electronic medical record to identify serum mexiletine concentrations drawn between December 2004 and December 2014. The primary endpoint was the incidence of mexiletine concentrations drawn as troughs. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of mexiletine concentrations that prompted a dose change, association between adverse events and elevated concentrations, and association between baseline characteristics and mexiletine concentrations. Results: A total of 237 individual concentrations were included for analysis with 109 (46.0%) drawn appropriately as trough concentrations. Only 31 (13.1%) of the 237 concentrations drawn prompted a dose change. Mexiletine was primarily used for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias (96.2%), and 108 (45.6%) concentrations were drawn in an effort to assess efficacy. The median concentration was statistically different between patients with and without an adverse event (0.8 vs 0.7 mcg/mL, respectively; p = 0.017), but may not represent a clinical significance. Patients with hepatic dysfunction had higher median concentrations compared to those without hepatic dysfunction (1.30 vs 1.07 mcg/mL; p = 0.01). Conclusion: Mexiletine concentrations are often drawn at inappropriate times and seldom influence a dose change. This study suggests that routine monitoring of mexiletine concentrations may not be necessary; however, therapeutic drug monitoring may be considered in patients with hepatic dysfunction or to confirm mexiletine absorption in patients where this represents a concern. PMID

  11. The Analytical Chemistry of Drug Monitoring in Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Larry D.

    2009-07-01

    The detection and deterrence of the abuse of performance-enhancing drugs in sport are important to maintaining a level playing field among athletes and to decreasing the risk to athletes’ health. The World Anti-Doping Program consists of six documents, three of which play a role in analytical development: The World Anti-Doping Code, The List of Prohibited Substances and Methods, and The International Standard for Laboratories. Among the classes of prohibited substances, three have given rise to the most recent analytical developments in the field: anabolic agents; peptide and protein hormones; and methods to increase oxygen delivery to the tissues, including recombinant erythropoietin. Methods for anabolic agents, including designer steroids, have been enhanced through the use of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/combustion/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Protein and peptide identification and quantification have benefited from advances in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Incorporation of techniques such as flow cytometry and isoelectric focusing have supported the detection of blood doping.

  12. Therapeutic drug monitoring for triazoles: A needs assessment review and recommendations from a Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Laverdiere, Michel; Bow, Eric J; Rotstein, Coleman; Autmizguine, Julie; Broady, Raewyn; Garber, Gary; Haider, Shariq; Hussaini, Trana; Husain, Shahid; Ovetchkine, Philippe; Seki, Jack T; Théorêt, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with concomitant underlying immunosuppressive diseases. The recent addition of new triazoles to the antifungal armamentarium has allowed for extended-spectrum activity and flexibility of administration. Over the years, clinical use has raised concerns about the degree of drug exposure following standard approved drug dosing, questioning the need for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Accordingly, the present guidelines focus on TDM of triazole antifungal agents. A review of the rationale for triazole TDM, the targeted patient populations and available laboratory methods, as well as practical recommendations based on current evidence from an extended literature review are provided in the present document. PMID:25587296

  13. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antifungal agents: guidelines from the British Society for Medical Mycology

    PubMed Central

    Ashbee, H. Ruth; Barnes, Rosemary A.; Johnson, Elizabeth M.; Richardson, Malcolm D.; Gorton, Rebecca; Hope, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The burden of human disease related to medically important fungal pathogens is substantial. An improved understanding of antifungal pharmacology and antifungal pharmacokinetics–pharmacodynamics has resulted in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) becoming a valuable adjunct to the routine administration of some antifungal agents. TDM may increase the probability of a successful outcome, prevent drug-related toxicity and potentially prevent the emergence of antifungal drug resistance. Much of the evidence that supports TDM is circumstantial. This document reviews the available literature and provides a series of recommendations for TDM of antifungal agents. PMID:24379304

  14. Nanoscale monitoring of drug actions on cell membrane using atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mi; Liu, Lian-qing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yue-chao

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the nanoscale changes that take place in individual cells in response to a drug is useful for understanding the drug action. However, due to the lack of adequate techniques, such knowledge was scarce until the advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM), which is a multifunctional tool for investigating cellular behavior with nanometer resolution under near-physiological conditions. In the past decade, researchers have applied AFM to monitor the morphological and mechanical dynamics of individual cells following drug stimulation, yielding considerable novel insight into how the drug molecules affect an individual cell at the nanoscale. In this article we summarize the representative applications of AFM in characterization of drug actions on cell membrane, including topographic imaging, elasticity measurements, molecular interaction quantification, native membrane protein imaging and manipulation, etc. The challenges that are hampering the further development of AFM for studies of cellular activities are aslo discussed. PMID:26027658

  15. A sustained intravitreal drug delivery system with remote real time monitoring capability

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Huiyuan; Nieto, Alejandra; Belghith, Akram; Nan, Kaihui; Li, Yangyang; Freeman, William R.; Sailor, Michael J.; Cheng, Lingyun

    2015-01-01

    Many chorioretinal diseases are chronic and need sustained drug delivery systems to keep therapeutic drug level at the disease site. Many intravitreal drug delivery systems under developing do not have mechanism incorporated for a non-invasive monitoring of drug release. Current study prepared rugate porous silicon (pSi) particles by electrochemical etching with the currents frequency (K value) of 2.17 and 2.45. Two model drugs (Rapmycin and Dexamethasone) and two drug-loading strategies were tested for the feasibility to monitor drug release from the pSi particles through a color fundus camera. The pSi particles (k=2.45) with infiltration loading of rapamycin demonstrated progressively more violet color reflection which was negatively associated with the rapamycin released into the vitreous (r=−0.4, p<0.001, pairwise). In contrast, pSi with K value of 2.17 demonstrated progressive color change towards green and a weak association between rapmycin released into vitreous and green color abundance was identified (r=−0.23, p=0.002, pairwise). Dexamethasone was covalently loaded on to the fully oxidized pSi particles that appeared in vitreous as yellow color and fading over time. The yellow color decrease over time was strongly associated with the dexamethasone detected from the vitreous samples (r=0.7, p<0.0001, pairwise). These results suggest that engineered porous silicon particles may be used as a self-reporting drug delivery system for a non-invasive real time remote monitoring. PMID:26087110

  16. Quasi Real Time Data Analysis for Air Quality Monitoring with an Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Hanying; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Pelletier, Christine C.; Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, M. Amy

    2006-01-01

    Cabin Air Quality Monitoring: A) Functions; 1) Incident monitor for targeted contaminants exceeding targeted concentrations. Identify and quantify. 2) Monitor for presence of compounds associated with fires or overheating electronics. 3) Monitor clean-up process. B) Characteristics; 1) Low mass, low power device. 2) Requires little crew time for maintenance and calibration. 3) Detects, identifies and quantifies selected chemical species at or below 24 hour SMAC.

  17. Monitoring Ligand-Induced Protein Ordering in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Grace, Christy R; Ban, David; Min, Jaeki; Mayasundari, Anand; Min, Lie; Finch, Kristin E; Griffiths, Lyra; Bharatham, Nagakumar; Bashford, Donald; Kiplin Guy, R; Dyer, Michael A; Kriwacki, Richard W

    2016-03-27

    While the gene for p53 is mutated in many human cancers causing loss of function, many others maintain a wild-type gene but exhibit reduced p53 tumor suppressor activity through overexpression of the negative regulators, Mdm2 and/or MdmX. For the latter mechanism of loss of function, the activity of endogenous p53 can be restored through inhibition of Mdm2 or MdmX with small molecules. We previously reported a series of compounds based upon the Nutlin-3 chemical scaffold that bind to both MdmX and Mdm2 [Vara, B. A. et al. (2014) Organocatalytic, diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of nonsymmetric cis-stilbene diamines: A platform for the preparation of single-enantiomer cis-imidazolines for protein-protein inhibition. J. Org. Chem. 79, 6913-6938]. Here we present the first solution structures based on data from NMR spectroscopy for MdmX in complex with four of these compounds and compare them with the MdmX:p53 complex. A p53-derived peptide binds with high affinity (Kd value of 150nM) and causes the formation of an extensive network of hydrogen bonds within MdmX; this constitutes the induction of order within MdmX through ligand binding. In contrast, the compounds bind more weakly (Kd values from 600nM to 12μM) and induce an incomplete hydrogen bond network within MdmX. Despite relatively weak binding, the four compounds activated p53 and induced p21(Cip1) expression in retinoblastoma cell lines that overexpress MdmX, suggesting that they specifically target MdmX and/or Mdm2. Our results document structure-activity relationships for lead-like small molecules targeting MdmX and suggest a strategy for their further optimization in the future by using NMR spectroscopy to monitor small-molecule-induced protein order as manifested through hydrogen bond formation. PMID:26812210

  18. Monitoring of Nonsteroidal Immunosuppressive Drugs in Patients With Lung Disease and Lung Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Keith C; Nathanson, Ian; Angel, Luis; Bhorade, Sangeeta M; Chan, Kevin M; Culver, Daniel; Harrod, Christopher G; Hayney, Mary S; Highland, Kristen B; Limper, Andrew H; Patrick, Herbert; Strange, Charlie; Whelan, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Immunosuppressive pharmacologic agents prescribed to patients with diffuse interstitial and inflammatory lung disease and lung transplant recipients are associated with potential risks for adverse reactions. Strategies for minimizing such risks include administering these drugs according to established, safe protocols; monitoring to detect manifestations of toxicity; and patient education. Hence, an evidence-based guideline for physicians can improve safety and optimize the likelihood of a successful outcome. To maximize the likelihood that these agents will be used safely, the American College of Chest Physicians established a committee to examine the clinical evidence for the administration and monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs (with the exception of corticosteroids) to identify associated toxicities associated with each drug and appropriate protocols for monitoring these agents. Methods: Committee members developed and refined a series of questions about toxicities of immunosuppressives and current approaches to administration and monitoring. A systematic review was carried out by the American College of Chest Physicians. Committee members were supplied with this information and created this evidence-based guideline. Conclusions: It is hoped that these guidelines will improve patient safety when immunosuppressive drugs are given to lung transplant recipients and to patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease. PMID:23131960

  19. Psychotropic Drug Use among College Students: Patterns of Use, Misuse, and Medical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberleitner, Lindsay M. S.; Tzilos, Golfo K.; Zumberg, Kathryn M.; Grekin, Emily R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether college students who use psychotropic drugs are (1) aware of potential side effects, (2) appropriately monitored by prescribing physicians, and (3) taking medications as prescribed. Participants: Fifty-five college students, currently taking psychotropic medications, were recruited between Summer 2008 and Fall 2009.…

  20. Prescription drug monitoring program utilization in Kentucky community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Wixson, Sarah E.; Blumenschein, Karen; Goodin, Amie J.; Talbert, Jeffery; Freeman, Patricia R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Identify characteristics of Kentucky community pharmacists and community pharmacists’ practice environment associated with utilization of the Kentucky All Schedule Prescription Electronic Reporting Program (KASPER). Methods: Surveys were mailed to all 1,018 Kentucky pharmacists with a KASPER account and an additional 1,000 licensed pharmacists without an account. Bivariate analyses examined the association between KASPER utilization and practice type (independent or chain) and practice location (rural or urban). A multivariate Poisson regression model with robust error variance estimated risk ratios (RR) of KASPER utilization by characteristics of pharmacists’ practice environment. Results: Responses were received from 563 pharmacists (response rate 27.9%). Of these, 402 responses from community pharmacists were included in the analyses. A majority of responding pharmacists (84%) indicated they or someone in their pharmacy had requested a patient’s controlled substance history since KASPER’s inception. Bivariate results showed that pharmacists who practiced in independent pharmacies reported greater KASPER utilization (94%) than pharmacists in chain pharmacies (75%; p<0.001). Multivariate regression results found utilization of KASPER varied significantly among practice environments of community pharmacists with those who practiced in an urban location (RR: 1.11; [1.01–1.21]) or at an independent pharmacy (RR: 1.27; [1.14–1.40]) having an increased likelihood of KASPER utilization. Conclusion: Utilization of KASPER differs by community pharmacists’ practice environment, predominantly by practice type and location. Understanding characteristics of community pharmacists and community pharmacists’ practice environment associated with PDMP use is necessary to remove barriers to access and increase utilization thereby increasing PDMP effectiveness. PMID:26131042

  1. Optically monitored drug delivery patch based on porous silicon and polymer microneedles.

    PubMed

    Dardano, Principia; Caliò, Alessandro; Politi, Jane; Rea, Ilaria; Rendina, Ivo; De Stefano, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Fabrication and characterization of an optically monitored hybrid patch for local administration of drugs, based on polymeric micro-needles and a porous silicon free-standing membrane, are reported. The micro-needles are realized by an innovative photolithographic approach that allows fine tuning of geometrical parameters, using polyethylene glycol and a commercial photo-catalyzer. The porous silicon multilayer not only increases the storage of a relevant amount of the drug, but also offers a continuous, naked-eye monitoring of the drug delivery process. As a proof-of-concept experiment, we report our results on the release of a dye molecule (fluorescein, 332 Da) in a phosphate saline buffer. PMID:27231611

  2. Optically monitored drug delivery patch based on porous silicon and polymer microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Dardano, Principia; Caliò, Alessandro; Politi, Jane; Rea, Ilaria; Rendina, Ivo; De Stefano, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication and characterization of an optically monitored hybrid patch for local administration of drugs, based on polymeric micro-needles and a porous silicon free-standing membrane, are reported. The micro-needles are realized by an innovative photolithographic approach that allows fine tuning of geometrical parameters, using polyethylene glycol and a commercial photo-catalyzer. The porous silicon multilayer not only increases the storage of a relevant amount of the drug, but also offers a continuous, naked-eye monitoring of the drug delivery process. As a proof-of-concept experiment, we report our results on the release of a dye molecule (fluorescein, 332 Da) in a phosphate saline buffer. PMID:27231611

  3. Potential of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM). A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Aleksandra; Fornasaro, Stefano; Sergo, Valter; Bonifacio, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a label-free technique that enables quick monitoring of substances at low concentrations in biological matrices. These advantages make it an attractive tool for the development of point-of-care tests suitable for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of drugs with a narrow therapeutic window, such as chemotherapeutic drugs, immunosuppressants, and various anticonvulsants. In this article, the current applications of SERS in the field of TDM for cancer therapy are discussed in detail and illustrated according to the different strategies and substrates. In particular, future perspectives are provided and special concerns regarding the standardization of self-assembly methods and nanofabrication procedures, quality assurance, and technology readiness are critically evaluated. PMID:27657146

  4. Drug monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry for improved efficacy and safety of psychopharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Kölch, Michael; Kirchheiner, Julia; Antony, Gisela; Fegert, Jörg M; Gerlach, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Most psychotropic drugs used in the treatment of children and adolescents are applied "off label" with a direct risk of under- or overdosing and a delayed risk of long-term side effects. The selection of doses in paediatric psychiatric patients requires a consideration of pharmacokinetic parameters and the development of central nervous system, and warrants specific studies in children and adolescents. Because these are lacking for most of the psychotropic drugs applied in the Child and Adolescent and Psychiatry, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a valid tool to optimise pharmacotherapy and to enable to adjust the dosage of drugs according to the characteristics of the individual patient. Multi-centre TDM studies enable the identification of age- and development-dependent therapeutic ranges of blood concentrations and facilitate a highly qualified standardized documentation in the child and adolescent health care system. In addition, they will provide data for future research on psychopharmacological treatment in children and adolescents, as a baseline for example for clinically relevant interactions with various co-medications. Therefore, a German-Austrian-Swiss "Competence Network on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry" was founded [1] introducing a comprehensive internet data base for the collection of demographic, safety and efficacy data as well as blood concentrations of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents. PMID:19358696

  5. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function.

    PubMed

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-06-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, freestanding electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function.

  6. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2009. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Series. Paper 73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This occasional paper serves as a supplement to one of four annual monographs from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, written by the study's investigators and published by the study's sponsor, the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The full 2009 survey results are reported in "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use,…

  7. Ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers: a scanning electron microscopic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Kasirga, Ugur Baran; Celik, Hakan Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    As drug abuse carries a societal stigma, patients do not often report their history of drug abuse to the healthcare providers. However, drug abuse is highly co-morbid with a host of other health problems such as psychiatric disorders and skin diseases, and majority of individuals with drug use disorders seek treatment in the first place for other problems. Therefore, it is very important for physicians to be aware of clinical signs and symptoms of drug use. Recently diagnostic value of dermatologic tissue alterations associated with drug abuse has become a very particular interest because skin changes were reported to be the earliest noticeable consequence of drug abuse prompting earlier intervention and treatment. Although hair is an annex of skin, alterations on hair structure due to drug use have not been demonstrated. This study represents the first report on ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers. We have investigated ultra-structure of the hair samples obtained from 6 cocaine, 6 heroin, 7 cannabis and 4 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) abusers by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis of hair samples gave us drug-specific discriminating alterations. We suggest that results of this study will make a noteworthy contribution to cutaneous alterations associated with drug abuse which are regarded as the earliest clinical manifestations, and this SEM approach is a very specific and effective tool in the detection of abuse of respective drugs, leading early treatment. PMID:26309532

  8. Ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers: a scanning electron microscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Kasirga, Ugur Baran; Celik, Hakan Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    As drug abuse carries a societal stigma, patients do not often report their history of drug abuse to the healthcare providers. However, drug abuse is highly co-morbid with a host of other health problems such as psychiatric disorders and skin diseases, and majority of individuals with drug use disorders seek treatment in the first place for other problems. Therefore, it is very important for physicians to be aware of clinical signs and symptoms of drug use. Recently diagnostic value of dermatologic tissue alterations associated with drug abuse has become a very particular interest because skin changes were reported to be the earliest noticeable consequence of drug abuse prompting earlier intervention and treatment. Although hair is an annex of skin, alterations on hair structure due to drug use have not been demonstrated. This study represents the first report on ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers. We have investigated ultra-structure of the hair samples obtained from 6 cocaine, 6 heroin, 7 cannabis and 4 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) abusers by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis of hair samples gave us drug-specific discriminating alterations. We suggest that results of this study will make a noteworthy contribution to cutaneous alterations associated with drug abuse which are regarded as the earliest clinical manifestations, and this SEM approach is a very specific and effective tool in the detection of abuse of respective drugs, leading early treatment. PMID:26309532

  9. Alternative matrices for therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressive agents using LC–MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Ghareeb, Mwlod; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs used in solid organ transplants typically have narrow therapeutic windows and high intra- and intersubject variability. To ensure satisfactory exposure, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) plays a pivotal role in any successful posttransplant maintenance therapy. Currently, recommendations for optimum immunosuppressant concentrations are based on blood/plasma measurements. However, they introduce many disadvantages, including poor prediction of allograft survival and toxicity, a weak correlation with drug concentrations at the site of action and the invasive nature of the sample collection. Thus, alternative matrices have been investigated. This paper reviews tandem-mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) methods used for the quantification of immunosuppressant drugs utilizing nonconventional matrices, namely oral fluids, fingerprick blood and intracellular and intratissue sampling. The advantages, disadvantages and clinical application of such alternative mediums are discussed. Additionally, sample extraction techniques and basic chromatography information regarding these methods are presented in tabulated form. PMID:25966013

  10. Alternative matrices for therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressive agents using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, Mwlod; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs used in solid organ transplants typically have narrow therapeutic windows and high intra- and intersubject variability. To ensure satisfactory exposure, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) plays a pivotal role in any successful posttransplant maintenance therapy. Currently, recommendations for optimum immunosuppressant concentrations are based on blood/plasma measurements. However, they introduce many disadvantages, including poor prediction of allograft survival and toxicity, a weak correlation with drug concentrations at the site of action and the invasive nature of the sample collection. Thus, alternative matrices have been investigated. This paper reviews tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods used for the quantification of immunosuppressant drugs utilizing nonconventional matrices, namely oral fluids, fingerprick blood and intracellular and intratissue sampling. The advantages, disadvantages and clinical application of such alternative mediums are discussed. Additionally, sample extraction techniques and basic chromatography information regarding these methods are presented in tabulated form.

  11. Approaches to Recording Drug Allergies in Electronic Health Records: Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Bernard; Morrison, Zoe; Kalra, Dipak; Cresswell, Kathrin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug allergy represent an important subset of adverse drug reactions that is worthy of attention because many of these reactions are potentially preventable with use of computerised decision support systems. This is however dependent on the accurate and comprehensive recording of these reactions in the electronic health record. The objectives of this study were to understand approaches to the recording of drug allergies in electronic health record systems. Materials and Methods We undertook a case study comprising of 21 in-depth interviews with a purposefully selected group of primary and secondary care clinicians, academics, and members of the informatics and drug regulatory communities, observations in four General Practices and an expert group discussion with 15 participants from the Allergy and Respiratory Expert Resource Group of the Royal College of General Practitioners. Results There was widespread acceptance among healthcare professionals of the need for accurate recording of drug allergies and adverse drug reactions. Most drug reactions were however likely to go unreported to and/or unrecognised by healthcare professionals and, even when recognised and reported, not all reactions were accurately recorded. The process of recording these reactions was not standardised. Conclusions There is considerable variation in the way drug allergies are recorded in electronic health records. This limits the potential of computerised decision support systems to help alert clinicians to the risk of further reactions. Inaccurate recording of information may in some instances introduce new problems as patients are denied treatments that they are erroneously believed to be allergic to. PMID:24740090

  12. The gas-liquid chromatograph and the electron capture detection in equine drug testing.

    PubMed Central

    Blake, J. W.; Tobin, T.

    1976-01-01

    Three gas-liquid chromatographic (G.L.C.) procedures discussed have been designed around the four "esses" of detection tests--speed, sensitivity, simplicity, and specificity. These techniques are admirably applicable to the very low plasma drug levels encountered in blood testing under pre-race conditions. The methods are equally applicable to post-race testing procedures, where both blood and urine samples are tested. Drugs can only rarely be detected by the electron capture detector (E.C.D.) without a prior derivatization step, which conveys to the drug(s) high electron affinity. Because of broad applicability, two derivatizing agents, heptafluorobutyric (HFBA) and pentafluorpropionic (PFPA) anhydrides are employed. The three techniques, allowing broad coverage of various drug classes are: 1) direct derivatization of drugs to form strongly electron capturing amides and esters. 2) reductive fragmentation of drugs with lithium aluminum hydride to form alcohols, with conversion to ester derivatives. 3) oxidative fragmentation of drugs with potassium dichromate to form derivatizable groups, followed by direct derivatization. PMID:1000157

  13. A New Reporter Cell Line to Monitor HIV Infection and Drug Susceptibility in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervaix, Alain; West, Daniel; Leoni, Lorenzo M.; Richman, Douglas D.; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Corbeil, Jacques

    1997-04-01

    Determination of HIV infectivity in vitro and its inhibition by antiretroviral drugs by monitoring reduction of production of p24 antigen is expensive and time consuming. Such assays also do not allow accurate quantitation of the number of infected cells over time. To develop a simple, rapid, and direct method for monitoring HIV infection, we generated a stable T-cell line (CEM) containing a plasmid encoding the green fluorescent protein (humanized S65T GFP) driven by the HIV-1 long terminal repeat. Clones were selected that displayed low constitutive background fluorescnece, but a high level of GFP expression upon infection with HIV. HIV-1 infection induced a 100- to 1,000-fold increase in relative fluorescence of cells over 2 to 4 days as monitored by fluorescence microscopy, cytofluorimetry, and flow cytometry. Addition of inhibitors of reverse transcriptase, protease, and other targets at different multiplicities of infection permitted the accurate determination of drug susceptibility. This technique also permitted quantitation of infectivity of viral preparations by assessment of number of cells infected in the first round of infection. In conclusion, the CEM-GFP reporter cell line provides a simple, rapid, and direct method for monitoring HIV infectivity titers and antiretroviral drug susceptibility of syncytium-inducing strains.

  14. Electronic Fetal Monitoring by Microcomputer: A Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Lichten, Edward M.

    1981-01-01

    Using recent advances in microcomputer technology, a system for the continuous, direct processing of fetal monitor information is installed in Sinai Hospital. The basic system consists of an Apple IIR microcomputer with accessories readily available at local computer stores. Eight fetal monitors are connected to the computer system by cable. Monitor tracings, similar in quality to the original, are displayed at the central unit and at remote locations throughout the labor and delivery areas. This information can also be transmitted to physicians' homes and reproduced on a multi-copy graphic printer. Two benefits with this system are noted. First, this application of microcomputer technology promotes the rapid dissemination of information to physicians and staff. Second, medical record storage can be improved by the graphic printer's copies.

  15. Self-carried curcumin nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo cancer therapy with real-time monitoring of drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Li, Shengliang; An, Fei-Fei; Liu, Juan; Jin, Shubin; Zhang, Jin-Chao; Wang, Paul C.; Zhang, Xiaohong; Lee, Chun-Sing; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2015-08-01

    stability in physiological environments with drug loading capacities >78 wt%. Both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed the cellular fluorescence ``OFF-ON'' activation and real-time monitoring of the Cur molecule release. In vitro and in vivo experiments clearly show that the therapeutic efficacy of the PEGylated Cur NPs is considerably better than that of free Cur. This self-carried strategy with real-time monitoring of drug release may open a new way for simultaneous cancer therapy and monitoring. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03259h

  16. Monitoring trends in drug use: strategies for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Turner, C F; Miller, H G

    1997-12-01

    Since the 1970s the United States and other nations have conducted regular statistical monitoring of the prevalence and patterns of drug use in their populations. Given the importance of such surveys for policymaking, their quality is a critical issue, and the biases that may affect their measurements become a major concern. An increasing volume of empirical evidence shows that the mode of administration of a survey can strongly influence the validity of respondents' reports. Compared with interviewer-administered questionnaires, self-administered forms appear to elicit more complete reporting of drug use, but the challenges they pose to the literacy skills of respondents may result in measurement biases. In addition, processes of social change may confound true shifts in drug use with changes in the willingness of respondents to report such use. The authors propose several strategies to improve monitoring of trends in drug use. Those approaches include 1) more frequent use of a survey technology--audio computer-assisted self-interviewing--that ensures full privacy for all survey respondents but does not require literacy; 2) increased use of time-series of indicators of drug use consequences built from blinded surveys of medical records; and 3) population-based surveys that collect biological specimens (e.g., hair samples). Data from the latter two sources are not subject to the same constellation of biases that afflict self-reports of drug use. Time-series of those data can be integrated with self-reports to provide a better understanding of changes over time in the prevalence and patterns of drug use. PMID:9440154

  17. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES.

    PubMed

    Correia, Rion Brattig; Li, Lang; Rocha, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this "Bibliome", the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products-including cannabis-which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015.We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that Instagram

  18. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES.

    PubMed

    Correia, Rion Brattig; Li, Lang; Rocha, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this "Bibliome", the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products-including cannabis-which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015.We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that Instagram

  19. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES

    PubMed Central

    CORREIA, RION BRATTIG; LI, LANG; ROCHA, LUIS M.

    2015-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this “Bibliome”, the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products—including cannabis—which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015. We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that

  20. Behavioral-Progress Monitoring Using the Electronic Daily Behavioral Report Card (e-DBRC) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mack D.; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an overview of a Web-based electronic system for behavioral-progress monitoring. Behavioral-progress monitoring is necessary to evaluate responsiveness to behavioral interventions, the effects of positive behavioral support, and the attainment of individualized education program goals and objectives. The…

  1. The Impact of the Perceived Purpose of Electronic Performance Monitoring on an Array of Attitudinal Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Deborah L.; Moorman, Robert H.; Werner, Jon M.

    2007-01-01

    As a form of performance monitoring, electronic performance monitoring (EPM) offers the opportunity for unobtrusive and continuous performance data gathering. These strengths can also make EPM stressful and threatening. Many features of performance evaluation systems, including the organizational purposes for which they are used, can affect…

  2. Optical Drug Monitoring: Photoacoustic Imaging of Nanosensors to Monitor Therapeutic Lithium In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Kevin J.; Li, Chiye; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.; Clark, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine could revolutionize how primary care physicians treat chronic disease and how researchers study fundamental biological questions. To realize this goal we need to develop more robust, modular tools and imaging approaches for in vivo monitoring of analytes. In this report, we demonstrate that synthetic nanosensors can measure physiologic parameters with photoacoustic contrast, and we apply that platform to continuously track lithium levels in vivo. Photoacoustic imaging achieves imaging depths that are unattainable with fluorescence or multiphoton microscopy. We validated the photoacoustic results that illustrate the superior imaging depth and quality of photoacoustic imaging with optical measurements. This powerful combination of techniques will unlock the ability to measure analyte changes in deep tissue and will open up photoacoustic imaging as a diagnostic tool for continuous physiological tracking of a wide range of analytes. PMID:25588028

  3. Therapeutic drug monitoring in cancer--are we missing a trick?

    PubMed

    Bardin, Christophe; Veal, Gareth; Paci, Angelo; Chatelut, Etienne; Astier, Alain; Levêque, Dominique; Widmer, Nicolas; Beijnen, Jos

    2014-08-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can be defined as the measurement of drug in biological samples to individualise treatment by adapting drug dose to improve efficacy and/or reduce toxicity. The cytotoxic drugs are characterised by steep dose-response relationships and narrow therapeutic windows. Inter-individual pharmacokinetic (PK) variability is often substantial. There are, however, a multitude of reasons why TDM has never been fully implemented in daily oncology practice. These include difficulties in establishing appropriate concentration target, common use of combination chemotherapies and the paucity of published data from pharmacological trials. The situation is different with targeted therapies. The large interindividual PK variability is influenced by the pharmacogenetic background of the patient (e.g. cytochrome P450 and ABC transporters polymorphisms), patient characteristics such as adherence to treatment and environmental factors (drug-drug interactions). Retrospective studies have shown that targeted drug exposure correlates with treatment response in various cancers. Evidence for imatinib currently exists, others are emerging for compounds including nilotinib, dasatinib, erlotinib, sunitinib, sorafenib and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Applications for TDM during oral targeted therapies may best be reserved for particular situations including lack of therapeutic response, severe or unexpected toxicities, anticipated drug-drug interactions and concerns over adherence treatment. There are still few data with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in favour of TDM approaches, even if data showed encouraging results with rituximab and cetuximab. TDM of mAbs is not yet supported by scientific evidence. Considerable effort should be made for targeted therapies to better define concentration-effect relationships and to perform comparative randomised trials of classic dosing versus pharmacokinetically-guided adaptive dosing.

  4. DigiSpenser--a GSM-based drug management and compliance monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Schukat, M; Rudroju, B

    2011-01-01

    Approximately one-third of all independently living elderly people are not compliant with their drug therapy. This lack of medication management results either in undermedication or overmedication, causing unnecessary and often serious health risks. This problem will worsen in the future with the change of demographics and cost constraints in the health sector. Therefore there is a need for (cost-) effective reliable approaches to compliance monitoring. To date numerous care schemes, retrospective assessment procedures and compliance supports tools have been introduced, but none of them has fully solved the problem of medication non-compliance yet. This paper will address some of the factors that need to be considered when designing such systems and will showcase DigiSpenser, a recently developed compliance monitoring and drug management system. PMID:22255537

  5. Low invasive in vivo tissue sampling for monitoring biomarkers and drugs during surgery.

    PubMed

    Bojko, Barbara; Gorynski, Krzysztof; Gomez-Rios, German A; Knaak, Jan M; Machuca, Tiago; Cudjoe, Erasmus; Spetzler, Vinzent N; Hsin, Michael; Cypel, Marcelo; Selzner, Markus; Liu, Mingyao; Keshjavee, Shaf; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    The techniques currently used for drug, metabolite, and biomarker determination are based on sample collection, and therefore they are not suitable for repeated analysis because of the high invasiveness. Here, we present a novel method of biochemical analysis directly in organ during operation without need of a separate sample collection step: solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The approach is based on flexible microprobe coated with biocompatible extraction phase that is inserted to the tissue with no damage or disturbance of the organ. The method was evaluated during lung and liver transplantations using normothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (NEVLP) and ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP). The study demonstrated feasibility of the method to extract wide range of endogenous compounds and drugs. Statistical analysis allowed observing metabolic changes of lung during cold ischemic time, perfusion, and reperfusion. It was also demonstrated that the level of drugs and their metabolites can be monitored over time. Based on the methylprednisolone as a selected example, the impairment of enzymatic properties of liver was detected in the injured organs but not in healthy control. This finding was supported by changes in pathways of endogenous metabolites. The SPME probe was also used for analysis of perfusion fluid using stopcock connection. The evaluation of biochemical profile of perfusates demonstrated potential of the approach for monitoring organ function during ex vivo perfusion. The simplicity of the device makes it convenient to use by medical personnel. With the microprobe, different areas of the organ or various organs can be sampled simultaneously. The technology allows assessment of organ function by biochemical profiling, determination of potential biomarkers, and drug monitoring. The use of this method for preintervention analysis could enhance the decision-making process for the best possible personalized approach, whereas post-transplantation monitoring would be

  6. Monitorization of drug content in furosemide and lorazepam tablets stored in multidose pill boxes

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Jessica; Oliveira, Magda; Tapiço, Maria; Nascimento, Tânia; Grenha, Ana; Braz, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Background: Therapeutic nonadherence is a major health problem, particularly when therapeutic regimens are complex and long-lasting. Therefore, tools such as multidose pill boxes have been designed to provide the means for higher therapeutic compliance. However, no studies are available reporting on their capacity to keep the drug content of the stored tablets unaltered. Objective: This work aimed at monitoring the drug content of tablets stored in multidose boxes for a period of two weeks. Materials and Methods: Furosemide and lorazepam were selected as model drugs, given their frequent chronic use, which is coherent with the profile of medicines susceptible of storage in the referred boxes. Variations of the tablets drug content were assessed as a function of temperature (25°C and 40°C) and the presence of blister. Results and Discussion: The obtained results allowed concluding that concerning temperature, only lorazepam tablets registered drug content alterations and only when stored at 40°C. On the other side, it was concluded that the absence of blister does not compromise the drug content of the studied tablets. Conclusion In the specific conditions of this study, the storage of these medicines in multidose boxes is considered reliable and adequate. PMID:21180472

  7. [Chemical analysis of wastewater as a new way of monitoring drugs and medicines consumption at workplace].

    PubMed

    Wiergowski, Marek; Sołtyszewski, Ireneusz; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The available information on the quality and frequency of illegal psychoactive substances used or medicines misused by workers, are often out of date at the time of its publication. This is due to the dynamic introduction of new synthetic drugs on the black market, changes in trends in the recreational use of medicines and the lack of readily available and reliable tests for fast identification. Strategy for detection of narcotic and non-medical psychoactive drugs use at workplace should embrace all possible sources of information. Classical sources of information on the use of psychoactive substances at the workplace include: statistical data (general information on trends and magnitude of drug and medicine addiction collected by the Polish National Police, the National Bureau for Drug Prevention and emergency medical services), surveys, psychomotor tests and qualitative and quantitative analyses of biological material. Of the new and promising methods, used throughout the world in recent years, chemical-toxicological analysis of surface water and wastewater deserve special mention. An increasing interest in the study of urban waste water can significantly complement the source of knowledge about drug and medicine addiction using obtainable conventional methods. In recent years, a municipal wastewater analysis has become a new and very promising way of collecting updated information on the use of psychoactive substances and medicines. It seems that this kind of study may play an important role in the ongoing monitoring of drug and/or medicines use by selected groups of population (e.g., students, military, firemen, policemen, etc.). PMID:26674170

  8. [Chemical analysis of wastewater as a new way of monitoring drugs and medicines consumption at workplace].

    PubMed

    Wiergowski, Marek; Sołtyszewski, Ireneusz; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The available information on the quality and frequency of illegal psychoactive substances used or medicines misused by workers, are often out of date at the time of its publication. This is due to the dynamic introduction of new synthetic drugs on the black market, changes in trends in the recreational use of medicines and the lack of readily available and reliable tests for fast identification. Strategy for detection of narcotic and non-medical psychoactive drugs use at workplace should embrace all possible sources of information. Classical sources of information on the use of psychoactive substances at the workplace include: statistical data (general information on trends and magnitude of drug and medicine addiction collected by the Polish National Police, the National Bureau for Drug Prevention and emergency medical services), surveys, psychomotor tests and qualitative and quantitative analyses of biological material. Of the new and promising methods, used throughout the world in recent years, chemical-toxicological analysis of surface water and wastewater deserve special mention. An increasing interest in the study of urban waste water can significantly complement the source of knowledge about drug and medicine addiction using obtainable conventional methods. In recent years, a municipal wastewater analysis has become a new and very promising way of collecting updated information on the use of psychoactive substances and medicines. It seems that this kind of study may play an important role in the ongoing monitoring of drug and/or medicines use by selected groups of population (e.g., students, military, firemen, policemen, etc.).

  9. Organic electronics based pressure sensor towards intracranial pressure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Pratyush; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2010-04-01

    The intra-cranial space, which houses the brain, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that acts as a fluid suspension medium for the brain. The CSF is always in circulation, is secreted in the cranium and is drained out through ducts called epidural veins. The venous drainage system has inherent resistance to the flow. Pressure is developed inside the cranium, which is similar to a rigid compartment. Normally a pressure of 5-15 mm Hg, in excess of atmospheric pressure, is observed at different locations inside the cranium. Increase in Intra-Cranial Pressure (ICP) can be caused by change in CSF volume caused by cerebral tumors, meningitis, by edema of a head injury or diseases related to cerebral atrophy. Hence, efficient ways of monitoring ICP need to be developed. A sensor system and monitoring scheme has been discussed here. The system architecture consists of a membrane less piezoelectric pressure sensitive element, organic thin film transistor (OTFT) based signal transduction, and signal telemetry. The components were fabricated on flexible substrate and have been assembled using flip-chip packaging technology. Material science and fabrication processes, subjective to the device performance, have been discussed. Capability of the device in detecting pressure variation, within the ICP pressure range, is investigated and applicability of measurement scheme to medical conditions has been argued for. Also, applications of such a sensor-OTFT assembly for logic sensor switching and patient specific-secure monitoring system have been discussed.

  10. Implementation Of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs Associated With Reductions In Opioid-Related Death Rates.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Stephen W; Fry, Carrie E; Jones, Timothy F; Buntin, Melinda B

    2016-07-01

    Over the past two decades the number of opioid pain relievers sold in the United States rose dramatically. This rise in sales was accompanied by an increase in opioid-related overdose deaths. In response, forty-nine states (all but Missouri) created prescription drug monitoring programs to detect high-risk prescribing and patient behaviors. Our objectives were to determine whether the implementation or particular characteristics of the programs were effective in reducing opioid-related overdose deaths. In adjusted analyses we found that a state's implementation of a program was associated with an average reduction of 1.12 opioid-related overdose deaths per 100,000 population in the year after implementation. Additionally, states whose programs had robust characteristics-including monitoring greater numbers of drugs with abuse potential and updating their data at least weekly-had greater reductions in deaths, compared to states whose programs did not have these characteristics. We estimate that if Missouri adopted a prescription drug monitoring program and other states enhanced their programs with robust features, there would be more than 600 fewer overdose deaths nationwide in 2016, preventing approximately two deaths each day. PMID:27335101

  11. Beyond the prescription: medication monitoring and adverse drug events in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Michael A.; Handler, Steven M.; Gurwitz, Jerry H.; Schiff, Gordon D.; Covinsky, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Whether a given patient will suffer harm from a medication or how severe that harm will be is difficult to precisely predict. As a result, many adverse drug events (ADEs) occur in patients in whom it was reasonable to believe that the drug's benefits exceeded its risks. Improving safety and reducing the burden of ADEs in older adults requires addressing this uncertainty by focusing not only on the appropriateness of the initial prescribing decision but also on detecting and mitigating adverse events once they have started to occur. Such enhanced monitoring of signs, symptoms, and laboratory parameters can determine whether an adverse event has only mild and short-term impacts or major long-term effects on morbidity and mortality. While current medication monitoring practices are often suboptimal, several strategies can be leveraged to improve the quality and outcomes of monitoring. These strategies include using health information technology to link pharmacy and laboratory data, prospective delineation of risk, and patient outreach and activation, all within a framework of team-based approaches to patient management. While many of these strategies are theoretically possible now, they are poorly utilized and will be difficult to implement without a significant restructuring of medical practice. An enhanced focus on medication monitoring will also require a new conceptual framework to re-engineer the prescribing process. In this approach, prescribing quality hinges not on static attributes of the initial prescribing decision, but entails a dynamic process in which the benefits and harms of drugs are actively monitored, managed, and reassessed over time. PMID:21797831

  12. Application of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and imaging in drug delivery research - chances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Sabine; Metz, Hendrik; Mäder, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study chemical species with unpaired electrons. Since its discovery in 1944, it has been widely used in a number of research fields such as physics, chemistry, biology and material and food science. This review is focused on its application in drug delivery research. EPR permits the direct measurement of microviscosity and micropolarity inside drug delivery systems (DDS), the detection of microacidity, phase transitions and the characterization of colloidal drug carriers. Additional information about the spatial distribution can be obtained by EPR imaging. The chances and also the challenges of in vitro and in vivo EPR spectroscopy and imaging in the field of drug delivery are discussed.

  13. The fast beam condition monitor BCM1F backend electronics upgraded MicroTCA-based architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka A.; Bell, Alan; Dabrowski, Anne E.; Guthoff, Moritz; Hempel, Maria; Henschel, Hans; Karacheban, Olena; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lokhovitskiy, Arkady; Leonard, Jessica L.; Loos, Robert; Miraglia, Marco; Penno, Marek; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Przyborowski, Dominik; Stickland, David; Trapani, Pier Paolo; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Ryjov, Vladimir; Walsh, Roberval

    2014-11-01

    The Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity Project of the CMS experiment, consists of several beam monitoring systems. One system, the upgraded Fast Beams Condition Monitor, is based on 24 single crystal CVD diamonds with a double-pad sensor metallization and a custom designed readout. Signals for real-time monitoring are transmitted to the counting room, where they are received and processed by new back-end electronics designed to extract information on LHC collision, beam induced background and activation products. The Slow Control Driver is designed for the front-end electronics configuration and control. The system architecture and the upgrade status will be presented.

  14. Fault detection monitor circuit provides ''self-heal capability'' in electronic modules - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, J. J.

    1970-01-01

    Self-checking technique detects defective solid state modules used in electronic test and checkout instrumentation. A ten bit register provides failure monitor and indication for 1023 comparator circuits, and the automatic fault-isolation capability permits the electronic subsystems to be repaired by replacing the defective module.

  15. Electronic simulation of a barometric pressure sensor for the meteorological monitor assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiar, C. N.; Duff, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the electronic simulation of barometric pressure used to self-test the counter electronics of the digital barometer is presented. The barometer is part of the Meteorological Monitor Assembly that supports navigation in deep space communication. The theory of operation of the digital barometer, the design details, and the verification procedure used with the barometric pressure simulator are presented.

  16. An automated system for determining drug solubility based on laser monitoring technique.

    PubMed

    Jouyban-Gharamaleki, Vahid; Jouyban-Gharamaleki, Karim; Shayanfar, Ali; Khoubnasabjafari, Mehry; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2015-02-01

    The aqueous solubility of a drug candidate is a vital physicochemical property that stops a drug candidate from proceeding further in the drug development processes. Classical solubility determination methods, which are commonly used in pharmaceutical laboratories, are expensive and time-consuming. In this work, an automated determination method is proposed that is based on a laser monitoring technique, and the validity of the measured solubilities is checked by comparing the measured solubilities of acetaminophen at various temperatures as proposed in various literatures. An additional set of acetaminophen solubilities in various concentrations of a surface active agent is measured at various temperatures, which has been reported for the first time, and it could be applied in the pharmaceutical industry, where solubilization of acetaminophen in aqueous solutions is required. PMID:25331492

  17. An automated system for determining drug solubility based on laser monitoring technique.

    PubMed

    Jouyban-Gharamaleki, Vahid; Jouyban-Gharamaleki, Karim; Shayanfar, Ali; Khoubnasabjafari, Mehry; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2015-02-01

    The aqueous solubility of a drug candidate is a vital physicochemical property that stops a drug candidate from proceeding further in the drug development processes. Classical solubility determination methods, which are commonly used in pharmaceutical laboratories, are expensive and time-consuming. In this work, an automated determination method is proposed that is based on a laser monitoring technique, and the validity of the measured solubilities is checked by comparing the measured solubilities of acetaminophen at various temperatures as proposed in various literatures. An additional set of acetaminophen solubilities in various concentrations of a surface active agent is measured at various temperatures, which has been reported for the first time, and it could be applied in the pharmaceutical industry, where solubilization of acetaminophen in aqueous solutions is required.

  18. Equipment for Beam Current and Electron Energy Monitoring During Industry Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.

    1997-05-01

    The electron beam irradiation sterilization is placed first among all types of medical items sterilization. The quality of sterilization is determined by value of dose, which is in one's turn determined by beam current, electron energy and beam scanning system parameters. Therefore this parameters have to be controlled during the irradiation process. The equipment for beam current and electron energy monitoring allows to control beam current, electron energy spectrum and nominal deflection of electron beam when scanning during the irradiation process each scanning period or, for example, each tenth period by request.

  19. Creative Uses of Custom Electronics for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to build custom electronic devices specifically suited to a unique task has gotten easier and cheaper, thanks to the recent popularity of open source electronics platforms like Arduino. Using Arduino-based processor boards, we have been creating a variety of helpful devices to perform functions that would have been too expensive to implement with standard methods and commercial hardware. The Christina River Basin CZO is currently operating dozens of homemade dataloggers that are connected to different types of environmental sensors. Most of these Arduino loggers have been deployed for over a year, so our experiences with them and their sensors have taught us a lot about the reliability and accuracy of both the loggers and the sensors. Some loggers also have the capability for wireless radio or ethernet data transmission for reporting live data to web sites for instant graphing or archiving. Other Arduino devices have the ability to be controlled remotely through web sites or telephones, making it easy to remotely trigger sample pumps or valves. The open-source nature of Arduino means collaboration is easy because the circuit schematics and source code for programming the boards can be shared between users. And because Arduino devices are easy to use and program, we developed an interface board that allows educators to easily connect a variety of inexpensive environmental sensors to an Arduino board. Then the students can write and upload simple programs to interact with the sensors, making it a very effective tool for teaching electronics and environmental science at the same time. The flexibility and capability of electronics prototyping platforms like Arduino mean these simple boards can cheaply and effectively perform a countless number of tasks for projects in environmental science and education.

  20. A better resolution for integrating methods for monitoring Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Al-Shibani, Latifa A; Allam, Amal F

    2014-09-01

    Effective chemotherapy is the mainstay of malaria control. However, resistance of falciparum malaria to antimalarial drugs compromised the efforts to eliminate the disease and led to the resurgence of malaria epidemics. Three main approaches are used to monitor antimalarial drug efficacy and drug resistance; namely, in vivo trials, in vitro/ex vivo assays and molecular markers of drug resistance. Each approach has its implications of use as well as its advantages and drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need to use an integrated approach that would give the utmost effect to detect resistance as early as its emergence and to track it once spread. Such integration becomes increasingly needed in the era of artemisinin-based combination therapy as a forward action to deter resistance. The existence of regional and global networks for the standardization of methodology, provision of high quality reagents for the assessment of antimalarial drug resistance and dissemination of open-access data would help in approaching an integrated resistance surveillance system on a global scale.

  1. New generation electronics applied to beam position monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unser, Klaus B.

    1997-01-01

    Cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) satellite receivers are examples of modern rf engineering. Taking some inspiration from those designs, a precision signal-processor module for beam position monitors was developed. It features a heterodyne receiver (100 MHz to 1 GHz) with more than 90 dB dynamic range. Four multiplexed input channels are able to resolve signal differences lower than 0.0005 dB with good long-term stability. This corresponds to sub-micron resolution when used with a beam position pick-up with 40 mm free aperture. The paper concentrates on circuit design and modern dynamic testing methods, used first during development and later for production tests. The frequency synthesizer of the local oscillator, the phase-locked synchronous detector, and the low-noise preamplifier with automatic gain control are discussed. Other topics are design for immunity to electromagnetic interference to ensure reliable operation in an accelerator environment.

  2. Electrochemical approach for monitoring the effect of anti tubulin drugs on breast cancer cells based on silicon nanograss electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zanganeh, Somayeh; Khosravi, Safoora; Namdar, Naser; Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Gharooni, Milad; Abdolahad, Mohammad

    2016-09-28

    One of the most interested molecular research in the field of cancer detection is the mechanism of drug effect on cancer cells. Translating molecular evidence into electrochemical profiles would open new opportunities in cancer research. In this manner, applying nanostructures with anomalous physical and chemical properties as well as biocompatibility would be a suitable choice for the cell based electrochemical sensing. Silicon based nanostructure are the most interested nanomaterials used in electrochemical biosensors because of their compatibility with electronic fabrication process and well engineering in size and electrical properties. Here we apply silicon nanograss (SiNG) probing electrodes produced by reactive ion etching (RIE) on silicon wafer to electrochemically diagnose the effect of anticancer drugs on breast tumor cells. Paclitaxel (PTX) and mebendazole (MBZ) drugs have been used as polymerizing and depolymerizing agents of microtubules. PTX would perturb the anodic/cathodic responses of the cell-covered biosensor by binding phosphate groups to deformed proteins due to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK(1/2)) pathway. MBZ induces accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm. Reduction of the mentioned agents in cytosol would change the ionic state of the cells monitored by silicon nanograss working electrodes (SiNGWEs). By extending the contacts with cancer cells, SiNGWEs can detect minor signal transduction and bio recognition events, resulting in precise biosensing. Effects of MBZ and PTX drugs, (with the concentrations of 2 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively) on electrochemical activity of MCF-7 cells are successfully recorded which are corroborated by confocal and flow cytometry assays. PMID:27619088

  3. Electrochemical approach for monitoring the effect of anti tubulin drugs on breast cancer cells based on silicon nanograss electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zanganeh, Somayeh; Khosravi, Safoora; Namdar, Naser; Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Gharooni, Milad; Abdolahad, Mohammad

    2016-09-28

    One of the most interested molecular research in the field of cancer detection is the mechanism of drug effect on cancer cells. Translating molecular evidence into electrochemical profiles would open new opportunities in cancer research. In this manner, applying nanostructures with anomalous physical and chemical properties as well as biocompatibility would be a suitable choice for the cell based electrochemical sensing. Silicon based nanostructure are the most interested nanomaterials used in electrochemical biosensors because of their compatibility with electronic fabrication process and well engineering in size and electrical properties. Here we apply silicon nanograss (SiNG) probing electrodes produced by reactive ion etching (RIE) on silicon wafer to electrochemically diagnose the effect of anticancer drugs on breast tumor cells. Paclitaxel (PTX) and mebendazole (MBZ) drugs have been used as polymerizing and depolymerizing agents of microtubules. PTX would perturb the anodic/cathodic responses of the cell-covered biosensor by binding phosphate groups to deformed proteins due to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK(1/2)) pathway. MBZ induces accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm. Reduction of the mentioned agents in cytosol would change the ionic state of the cells monitored by silicon nanograss working electrodes (SiNGWEs). By extending the contacts with cancer cells, SiNGWEs can detect minor signal transduction and bio recognition events, resulting in precise biosensing. Effects of MBZ and PTX drugs, (with the concentrations of 2 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively) on electrochemical activity of MCF-7 cells are successfully recorded which are corroborated by confocal and flow cytometry assays.

  4. Relativistic electron precipitation at International Space Station: Space weather monitoring by Calorimetric Electron Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Asaoka, Yoichi; Torii, Shoji; Terasawa, Toshio; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Tamura, Tadahisa; Shimizu, Yuki; Akaike, Yosui; Mori, Masaki

    2016-05-01

    The charge detector (CHD) of the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) on board the International Space Station (ISS) has a huge geometric factor for detecting MeV electrons and is sensitive to relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events. During the first 4 months, CALET CHD observed REP events mainly at the dusk to midnight sector near the plasmapause, where the trapped radiation belt electrons can be efficiently scattered by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Here we show that interesting 5-20 s periodicity regularly exists during the REP events at ISS, which is useful to diagnose the wave-particle interactions associated with the nonlinear wave growth of EMIC-triggered emissions.

  5. Online fast Biospeckle monitoring of drug action in Trypanosoma cruzi parasites by motion history image.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Zaheer; Grassi, Hilda C; Cabrera, Humberto; Velásquez, Ana; Andrades, Efrén D J

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports on the application of the motion history image (MHI) method on dynamic laser speckle processing as a result of a specific drug action on Trypanosoma cruzi parasites. The MHI procedure is based on human action recognition, and unlike other methods which use a sequence consisting of several frames for recognition, this method uses only an MHI per action sequence for recognition. MHI method avoids the complexity as well as the large computation in sequence matching-based methods and detects a change in the speckle pattern. Experimental results of MHI on real-time monitoring of activity (motility) under the influence of the drug demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The MHI showed an online result without loss of resolution and definition if we compare with routine LASCA method. The obtained results highlight the advantage of the MHI analysis over traditional qualitative image intensity-based methods and demonstrate the potential of measuring the activity of parasites via dynamic laser speckle analysis. The data was further numerically analyzed in the time domain, and the results presented the ability of the technique to monitor the action of the drug, particularly Epirubicin (100 μg/ml). PMID:27349247

  6. Optical sensors for therapeutic drug monitoring of antidepressants for a better medication adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieg, Anne K.; Hess, Stefan; Gauglitz, Günter

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring provides the attending physicians with detailed information on a patient's individual serum level especially during long-term medication. Due to the fact that each patient tolerates drugs or their metabolites differently a medication adjustment can reduce the number and intensity of noticeable side-effects. In particular, psychotropic drugs can cause unpleasant side-effects that affect a patient's life almost as much as the mental disease itself. The tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline is commonly used for treatment of depressions and was selected for the development of an immunoassay using the direct optical sensor technique Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy (RIfS). RIfS is a simple, robust and label-free method for direct monitoring of binding events on glass surfaces. Binding to the surface causes a shift of the interference spectrum by a change of the refractive index or physical thickness. This technique can be used for time-resolved observation of association and dissociation of amitriptyline (antigen) and a specific antibody using the binding inhibition test format. An amitriptyline derivative is immobilized on the sensor surface and a specific amount of antibodies can bind to the surface unless the binding is inhibited by free amitriptyline in a sample. No fluorescent label is needed making the whole assay less expensive than label-based methods. With this recently developed immunoassay amitriptyline concentrations in buffer (PBS) can easily be detected down to 500 ng/L.

  7. Implementation of transmission NIR as a PAT tool for monitoring drug transformation during HME processing.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhammad T; Scoutaris, Nikolaos; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Moradiya, Hiren G; Halsey, Sheelagh A; Bradley, Michael S A; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Snowden, Martin J; Douroumis, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the work reported herein was to implement process analytical technology (PAT) tools during hot melt extrusion (HME) in order to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between HME processing parameters and the extruded formulations. For the first time two in-line NIR probes (transmission and reflectance) have been coupled with HME to monitor the extrusion of the water insoluble drug indomethacin (IND) in the presence of Soluplus (SOL) or Kollidon VA64 hydrophilic polymers. In-line extrusion monitoring of sheets, produced via a specially designed die, was conducted at various drug/polymer ratios and processing parameters. Characterisation of the extruded transparent sheets was also undertaken by using DSC, XRPD and Raman mapping. Analysis of the experimental findings revealed the production of molecular solutions where IND is homogeneously blended (ascertained by Raman mapping) in the polymer matrices, as it acts as a plasticizer for both hydrophilic polymers. PCA analysis of the recorded NIR signals showed that the screw speed used in HME affects the recorded spectra but not the homogeneity of the embedded drug in the polymer sheets. The IND/VA64 and IND/SOL extruded sheets displayed rapid dissolution rates with 80% and 30% of the IND being released, respectively within the first 20min.

  8. Online fast Biospeckle monitoring of drug action in Trypanosoma cruzi parasites by motion history image.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Zaheer; Grassi, Hilda C; Cabrera, Humberto; Velásquez, Ana; Andrades, Efrén D J

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports on the application of the motion history image (MHI) method on dynamic laser speckle processing as a result of a specific drug action on Trypanosoma cruzi parasites. The MHI procedure is based on human action recognition, and unlike other methods which use a sequence consisting of several frames for recognition, this method uses only an MHI per action sequence for recognition. MHI method avoids the complexity as well as the large computation in sequence matching-based methods and detects a change in the speckle pattern. Experimental results of MHI on real-time monitoring of activity (motility) under the influence of the drug demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The MHI showed an online result without loss of resolution and definition if we compare with routine LASCA method. The obtained results highlight the advantage of the MHI analysis over traditional qualitative image intensity-based methods and demonstrate the potential of measuring the activity of parasites via dynamic laser speckle analysis. The data was further numerically analyzed in the time domain, and the results presented the ability of the technique to monitor the action of the drug, particularly Epirubicin (100 μg/ml).

  9. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings 2005. NIH Publication No. 06-5882

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Results from the Monitoring the Future's 2005 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students are given in this report. Recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs are emphasized, as well as trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug. This study has shown these beliefs and attitudes to…

  10. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2006. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This occasional paper is intended to serve as a supplement to the larger annual volume, "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2006: Volume I: Secondary School Students." This supplement contains the graphic presentation of the trends in drug use for various demographic subgroups, namely those defined by gender, college…

  11. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2001. Volume 1: Secondary School Students, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    Since 1975, the Monitoring the Future project has provided the nation with an important window through which to view the rapidly changing problems of drug use among American youth. This latest two-volume monograph reports the results of the twenty-seventh (2001) national survey of drug use and related attitudes and beliefs among American high…

  12. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2000. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper 53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This occasional paper is intended to serve as a supplement to the larger annual volume, "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2000: Volume 1: Secondary School Students." This supplement contains the graphic presentation of the trends in drug use for various demographic subgroups, namely those defined by gender, college…

  13. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2007. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper 69

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2008-01-01

    This occasional paper is intended to serve as a supplement to the larger annual volume, "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2007: Volume I: Secondary School Students." This supplement contains the graphic presentation of the trends in drug use for various demographic subgroups, namely those defined by gender, college…

  14. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2010. Volume I, Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The Monitoring the Future (MTF) study involves an ongoing series of national surveys of American adolescents and adults that has provided the nation with a vital window into the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illegal drug use, alcohol use, tobacco use, anabolic steroid use, and psychotherapeutic drug use. For more than a third…

  15. Renal sympathetic denervation after Symplicity HTN-3 and therapeutic drug monitoring in severe hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula M.; Larstorp, Anne C.; Kjeldsen, Sverre E.; Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) has been and is still proposed as a new treatment modality in patients with apparently treatment resistant hypertension (TRH), a condition defined as persistent blood pressure elevation despite prescription of at least 3 antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic. However, the large fall in blood pressure after RDN reported in the first randomized study, Symplicity HTN-2 and multiple observational studies has not been confirmed in five subsequent prospective randomized studies and may be largely explained by non-specific effects such as improvement of drug adherence in initially poorly adherent patients (the Hawthorne effect), placebo effect and regression to the mean. The overall blood-pressure lowering effect of RDN seems rather limited and the characteristics of true responders are largely unknown. Accordingly, RDN is not ready for clinical practice. In most patients with apparently TRH, drug monitoring and improvement of drug adherence may prove more effective and cost-beneficial to achieve blood pressure control. In the meantime, research should aim at identifying characteristics of those patients with truly TRH who may respond to RDN. PMID:25709581

  16. Integrated hollow microneedle-optofluidic biosensor for therapeutic drug monitoring in sub-nanoliter volumes.

    PubMed

    Ranamukhaarachchi, Sahan A; Padeste, Celestino; Dübner, Matthias; Häfeli, Urs O; Stoeber, Boris; Cadarso, Victor J

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) typically requires painful blood drawn from patients. We propose a painless and minimally-invasive alternative for TDM using hollow microneedles suitable to extract extremely small volumes (<1 nL) of interstitial fluid to measure drug concentrations. The inner lumen of a microneedle is functionalized to be used as a micro-reactor during sample collection to trap and bind target drug candidates during extraction, without requirements of sample transfer. An optofluidic device is integrated with this microneedle to rapidly quantify drug analytes with high sensitivity using a straightforward absorbance scheme. Vancomycin is currently detected by using volumes ranging between 50-100 μL with a limit of detection (LoD) of 1.35 μM. The proposed microneedle-optofluidic biosensor can detect vancomycin with a sample volume of 0.6 nL and a LoD of <100 nM, validating this painless point of care system with significant potential to reduce healthcare costs and patients suffering. PMID:27380889

  17. Integrated hollow microneedle-optofluidic biosensor for therapeutic drug monitoring in sub-nanoliter volumes

    PubMed Central

    Ranamukhaarachchi, Sahan A.; Padeste, Celestino; Dübner, Matthias; Häfeli, Urs O.; Stoeber, Boris; Cadarso, Victor J.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) typically requires painful blood drawn from patients. We propose a painless and minimally-invasive alternative for TDM using hollow microneedles suitable to extract extremely small volumes (<1 nL) of interstitial fluid to measure drug concentrations. The inner lumen of a microneedle is functionalized to be used as a micro-reactor during sample collection to trap and bind target drug candidates during extraction, without requirements of sample transfer. An optofluidic device is integrated with this microneedle to rapidly quantify drug analytes with high sensitivity using a straightforward absorbance scheme. Vancomycin is currently detected by using volumes ranging between 50–100 μL with a limit of detection (LoD) of 1.35 μM. The proposed microneedle-optofluidic biosensor can detect vancomycin with a sample volume of 0.6 nL and a LoD of <100 nM, validating this painless point of care system with significant potential to reduce healthcare costs and patients suffering. PMID:27380889

  18. Integrated hollow microneedle-optofluidic biosensor for therapeutic drug monitoring in sub-nanoliter volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, Sahan A.; Padeste, Celestino; Dübner, Matthias; Häfeli, Urs O.; Stoeber, Boris; Cadarso, Victor J.

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) typically requires painful blood drawn from patients. We propose a painless and minimally-invasive alternative for TDM using hollow microneedles suitable to extract extremely small volumes (<1 nL) of interstitial fluid to measure drug concentrations. The inner lumen of a microneedle is functionalized to be used as a micro-reactor during sample collection to trap and bind target drug candidates during extraction, without requirements of sample transfer. An optofluidic device is integrated with this microneedle to rapidly quantify drug analytes with high sensitivity using a straightforward absorbance scheme. Vancomycin is currently detected by using volumes ranging between 50–100 μL with a limit of detection (LoD) of 1.35 μM. The proposed microneedle-optofluidic biosensor can detect vancomycin with a sample volume of 0.6 nL and a LoD of <100 nM, validating this painless point of care system with significant potential to reduce healthcare costs and patients suffering.

  19. Relationship between electronic properties and drug activity of seven quinoxaline compounds: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzadi, Hadi; Roonasi, Payman; Assle taghipour, Khatoon; van der Spoel, David; Manzetti, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    The quantum chemical calculations at the DFT/B3LYP level of theory were carried out on seven quinoxaline compounds, which have been synthesized as anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis agents. Three conformers were optimized for each compound and the lowest energy structure was found and used in further calculations. The electronic properties including EHOMO, ELUMO and related parameters as well as electron density around oxygen and nitrogen atoms were calculated for each compound. The relationship between the calculated electronic parameters and biological activity of the studied compounds were investigated. Six similar quinoxaline derivatives with possible more drug activity were suggested based on the calculated electronic descriptors. A mechanism was proposed and discussed based on the calculated electronic parameters and bond dissociation energies.

  20. Pharmacogenetics, enzyme probes and therapeutic drug monitoring as potential tools for individualizing taxane therapy.

    PubMed

    Krens, Stefanie D; McLeod, Howard L; Hertz, Daniel L

    2013-04-01

    The taxanes are a class of chemotherapeutic agents that are widely used in the treatment of various solid tumors. Although taxanes are highly effective in cancer treatment, their use is associated with serious complications attributable to large interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics and a narrow therapeutic window. Unpredictable toxicity occurrence necessitates close patient monitoring while on therapy and adverse effects frequently require decreasing, delaying or even discontinuing taxane treatment. Currently, taxane dosing is based primarily on body surface area, ignoring other factors that are known to dictate variability in pharmacokinetics or outcome. This article discusses three potential strategies for individualizing taxane treatment based on patient information that can be collected before or during care. The clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics, enzyme probes or therapeutic drug monitoring could enable clinicians to personalize taxane treatment to enhance efficacy and/or limit toxicity.

  1. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Meropenem in Neonate with Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Borrey, Daniëlle; Decaluwe, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) continues to be a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. We describe the added value of therapeutic drug monitoring by presenting the case of a preterm infant with severe NEC treated with meropenem. Dosing strategy will achieve adequate patient outcome when treating pathogens with elevated MIC. As safe as meropenem is, there are not enough data for 40 mg/kg, every 8 h infused over 4 h; accordingly, strict monitoring of blood levels is mandatory. Based on our findings, a 4 h prolonged infusion of 40 mg/kg meropenem, every 8 h, will achieve an adequate patient outcome. PMID:27703820

  2. A protocol for developing a clinical practice guideline for therapeutic drug monitoring of vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhi-Kang; Chen, Ken; Chen, Yao-Long; Zhai, Suo-di

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to develop a guideline for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of vancomycin. We adopted the new guideline definition from the Institute of Medicine (IOM), adhered closely to the six domains of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II (AGREE II), and made recommendations based on systematic reviews. We established a Guideline Steering Group and a Guideline Development Group, formulated 12 questions in the form of Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) and completed a literature search. As far as we know, we will develop the first evidenced-based guideline for vancomycin TDM under the framework of the Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). PMID:27376822

  3. The tautomerization phenomenon of glibenclamide drug monitored by means of volumetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnarowska, Z.; Paluch, M.; Pionteck, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the tautomerization process of glibenclamide drug by monitoring the changes in the specific volume. The density changes observed during the chemical equilibration process, carried out at a pressure of p = 10 MPa and at three different temperatures, enable us to study the kinetics of tautomerization reaction, i.e., to determine the activation energy and to recognize the real time scale of this process at various temperature conditions. The results obtained from analysis of Vsp(t) dependencies were next compared with the kinetic data previously obtained from dielectric spectroscopy studies.

  4. Dealing with electronic waste: modeling the costs and environmental benefits of computer monitor disposal.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Molly; Palmer, Karen; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2003-05-01

    The importance of information technology to the world economy has brought about a surge in demand for electronic equipment. With rapid technological change, a growing fraction of the increasing stock of many types of electronics becomes obsolete each year. We model the costs and benefits of policies to manage 'e-waste' by focusing on a large component of the electronic waste stream-computer monitors-and the environmental concerns associated with disposal of the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors. We find that the benefits of avoiding health effects associated with CRT disposal appear far outweighed by the costs for a wide range of policies. For the stock of monitors disposed of in the United States in 1998, we find that policies restricting or banning some popular disposal options would increase disposal costs from about US dollar 1 per monitor to between US dollars 3 and US dollars 20 per monitor. Policies to promote a modest amount of recycling of monitor parts, including lead, can be less expensive. In all cases, however, the costs of the policies exceed the value of the avoided health effects of CRT disposal.

  5. Associations Between Personality Traits and Adherence to Antidepressants Assessed Through Self-Report, Electronic Monitoring, and Pharmacy Dispensing Data: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya F H; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R; Egberts, Antoine C G; Gardarsdottir, Helga

    2016-10-01

    Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality "traits." Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed by a single method. Hence, we investigated associations between the Big Five personality traits and adherence assessed by self-report, electronic drug use monitoring, and dispensing data. Using the Big Five Inventory, we assessed the personality traits "openness," "conscientiousness," "extraversion," "agreeableness," and "neuroticism" of patients treated with antidepressants who were invited through community pharmacies. Self-reported adherence was assessed with the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (score >24), electronic monitoring with medication event monitoring system (MEMS) devices (therapy days missed ≤ 10% and < 4 consecutive days missed), and dispensing data (medication possession ratio ≥ 80%). One hundred four women and 33 men participated (mean age, 51; standard deviation, 14). Paroxetine was most frequently prescribed (N = 53, 38%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that of the personality traits, the third and fourth quartiles of "conscientiousness" were associated with better self-reported adherence (odds ratio, 3.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-9.86 and odds ratio, 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-8.08; P ≤ 0.05). No relationships were found between personality traits and adherence assessed through electronic drug use monitoring or dispensing data. We therefore conclude that adherence to antidepressant therapy seems to be largely unrelated to personality traits. PMID:27454894

  6. Recent advances in electronic nose techniques for monitoring of fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Quansheng; Mei, Congli; Liu, Guohai

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fermentation process is often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, the monitoring of the process is critical for discovering unfavorable deviations as early as possible and taking the appropriate measures. However, the use of traditional analytical techniques is often time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this sense, the most effective way of developing rapid, accurate and relatively economical method for quality assurance in microbial fermentation process is the use of novel chemical sensor systems. Electronic nose techniques have particular advantages in non-invasive monitoring of microbial fermentation process. Therefore, in this review, we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the quality control in microbial fermentation process using the electronic nose techniques. After a brief description of the fundamentals of the sensor techniques, some examples of potential applications of electronic nose techniques monitoring are provided, including the implementation of control strategies and the combination with other monitoring tools (i.e. sensor fusion). Finally, on the basis of the review, the electronic nose techniques are critically commented, and its strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. In addition, on the basis of the observed trends, we also propose the technical challenges and future outlook for the electronic nose techniques.

  7. Validation of a metered dose inhaler electronic monitoring device: implications for asthma clinical trial use

    PubMed Central

    Pilcher, Janine; Holliday, Mark; Ebmeier, Stefan; McKinstry, Steve; Messaoudi, Fatiha; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background The SmartTouch Ventolin monitor (Adherium, Auckland, New Zealand) is an electronic monitor for use with a Ventolin metered dose inhaler, which records the date and time of inhaler actuations. This technology has the potential to allow in-depth analysis of patterns of inhaler use in clinical trial settings. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the SmartTouch Ventolin monitor in recording Ventolin actuations. Methods 20 SmartTouch Ventolin monitors were attached to Ventolin metered dose inhalers. Bench testing was performed over a 10-week period, to reflect the potential time frame between visits in a clinical trial. Inhaler actuations were recorded in a paper diary, which was compared with data uploaded from the monitors. Results 2560 actuations were performed during the 10-week study period. Monitor sensitivity for diary-recorded actuations was 99.9% with a lower 97.5% confidence bound of 99.7%. The positive predictive value for diary-recorded actuations was 100% with a 97.5% lower confidence bound of 99.9%. Conclusions The SmartTouch Ventolin monitor is highly accurate in recording and retaining electronic data. It can be recommended for use in clinical trial settings in which training and quality control systems are incorporated into study protocols to ensure accurate data acquisition. PMID:27026805

  8. Design of a surface plasmon resonance immunoassay for therapeutic drug monitoring of amikacin.

    PubMed

    Losoya-Leal, Adrian; Estevez, M-Carmen; Martínez-Chapa, Sergio O; Lechuga, Laura M

    2015-08-15

    The therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of pharmaceutical drugs with narrow therapeutic ranges is of great importance in the clinical setting. It provides useful information towards the enhancement of drug therapies, aiding in dosage control and toxicity risk management. Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic commonly used in neonatal therapies that is indicated for TDM due to the toxicity risks inherent in its use. Current techniques for TDM such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are costly, time consuming, and cannot be performed at the site of action. Over the last decades, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have become increasingly popular in clinical diagnostics due to their ability to detect biomolecular interactions in real-time. We present an SPR-based competitive immunoassay for the detection of the antibiotic amikacin, suitable for TDM in both adults and neonates. We have obtained high specificity and sensitivity levels with an IC50 value of 1.4ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.13ng/mL, which comfortably comply with the drug's therapeutic range. Simple dilution of serum can therefore be sufficient to analyze low-volume real samples from neonates, increasing the potential of the methodology for TDM. Compared to current TDM conventional methods, this SPR-based immunoassay can provide advantages such as simplicity, potential portability, and label-free measurements with the possibility of high throughput. This work is the foundation towards the development of an integrated, simple use, highly sensitive, fast, and point-of-care sensing platform for the opportune TDM of antibiotics and other drugs in a clinical setting.

  9. Electron density guided fragment-based drug design--a lead generation example.

    PubMed

    Abad, Marta C; Gibbs, Alan C; Zhang, Xuqing

    2011-01-01

    We describe here a method using protein crystallography as the sole detection tool for fragment-based lead discovery. The methodology consists of iterative design, synthesis, and X-ray crystallographic screening of three libraries of compounds. Target-specific compound design, by way of active site electron density in the presence of a bound fragment hit and the intentional lack of solution activity bias form the basis of our approach. We provide an example of this alternative fragment-based drug design (FBDD) method, detailing results from a campaign using ketohexokinase to generate a unique lead series with promising drug-like properties. PMID:21371603

  10. A survey of electronic drug information resources and identification of problems associated with the differing vocabularies used to key them.

    PubMed Central

    Gnassi, J. A.; Barnett, G. O.

    1993-01-01

    Drug information resources are increasingly becoming electronically available. They differ in scope, granularity, and purpose. These considerations have shaped the selection of dissimilar drug name keys, complicating access. An abbreviated and simplified historical context of the development of official controlled vocabularies and their relationships is followed by a review of the kinds of information available in several electronic drug information resources. The key vocabularies used are discussed with examples. Problems using the differing terms of the resource vocabularies are identified. PMID:8130551

  11. Monitoring, removal and risk assessment of cytostatic drugs in hospital wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lenz, K; Mahnik, S N; Weissenbacher, N; Mader, R M; Krenn, P; Hann, S; Koellensperger, G; Uhl, M; Knasmüller, S; Ferk, F; Bursch, W; Fuerhacker, M

    2007-01-01

    Cytostatic agents are applied in cancer therapy and subsequently excreted into hospital wastewater. As these substances are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic for reproduction, they should be removed from wastewater at their source of origin. In this study the fate and effects of the cancerostatic platinum compounds (CPC) cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and the anthracyclines doxorubicin, daunorubicin and epirubicin were investigated in hospital wastewater. Wastewater from the in-patient treatment ward of a hospital in Vienna was collected and monitored for the occurrence of the selected drugs. A calculation model was established to spot the correlation between administered dosage and measured concentrations. To investigate the fate of the selected substances during wastewater treatment, the oncologic wastewater was treated in a pilot membrane bioreactor system (MBR) and in downstream advanced wastewater treatment processes (adsorption to activated carbon and UV-treatment). Genotoxic effects of the oncologic wastewater were assessed before and after wastewater treatment followed by a risk assessment. Monitoring concentrations of the selected cytostatics in the oncologic wastewater were in line with calculated concentrations. Due to different mechanisms (adsorption, biodegradation) in the MBR-system 5 - FU and the anthracyclines were removed < LOD, whereas CPC were removed by 60%. In parallel, genotoxic effects could be reduced significantly by the MBR-system. The risk for humans, the aquatic and terrestrial environment by hospital wastewater containing cytostatic drugs was classified as small in a preliminary risk assessment.

  12. A Case Report of Clonazepam Dependence: Utilization of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring During Withdrawal Period.

    PubMed

    Kacirova, Ivana; Grundmann, Milan; Silhan, Petr; Brozmanova, Hana

    2016-03-01

    Clonazepam is long-acting benzodiazepine agonist used in short-acting benzodiazepine withdrawal; however, recent observations suggest the existence of its abuse. We demonstrate a 40-year-old man with a 20-year history of psychiatric care with recently benzodiazepine dependence (daily intake of ∼60 mg of clonazepam and 10 mg of alprazolam). High serum levels of both drugs were analyzed 3 weeks before admission to hospitalization (clonazepam 543.9 ng/mL, alprazolam 110 ng/mL) and at the time of admission (clonazepam 286.2 ng/mL, alprazolam 140 ng/mL) without any signs of benzodiazepine intoxication. Gradual withdrawal of clonazepam with monitoring of its serum levels and increase of gabapentin dose were used to minimize physical signs and symptoms of clonazepam withdrawal. Alprazolam was discontinued promptly. Clinical consequences of the treatment were controllable tension, intermittent headache, and rarely insomia. It is the first case report showing utilization of therapeutic drug monitoring during withdrawal period in the patient with extreme toleration to severe benzodiazepine dependence. PMID:26945373

  13. A Simplified Method for Routine Outcome Monitoring after Drug Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Richard D.; Sternquist, Marie A.; Paredes, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    The routine collection of drug treatment outcomes to manage quality of care, improve patient satisfaction, and allocate treatment resources is currently hampered by two key difficulties: (1) problems locating clients once they leave treatment; and (2) the prohibitive cost of obtaining meaningful and reliable post-treatment data. This pilot describes precise methods for an economical staff-based routine outcome monitoring (ROM) system using an 18-item core measure telephone survey. As implemented at Narconon™ of Oklahoma, a behavioral and social skills based, residential drug rehabilitation program, the system was psychometrically adequate for aggregate reporting while providing clinically useful information. Standardized procedures for staff training, collecting client contact information, structuring exit interviews and maintaining post-treatment telephone contact produced follow-up rates that improved from 57.6% to 100% over the course of the project. Aggregate data was used to improve program delivery and thereby post-treatment substance use and social outcomes. These methods and use of data may contribute to the discussion on how to best monitor outcomes. PMID:24092985

  14. [Mass spectrometry of blood low-molecular fraction as a method for unification of therapeutic drug monitoring].

    PubMed

    Lokhov, P G; Maslov, D L; Trifonova, O P; Balashova, E E; Archakov, A I

    2014-01-01

    The article describes a new therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) method based on direct infusion of low-molecular fraction of blood into electrospray ionization source of mass spectrometer. This technique allows performing TDM of almost all drugs used in clinic. In article, the universality and high-throughput of the method, that significantly simplifies its wide application, have been shown. Moreover, the possibility of method application in most cases of drug therapy has been argued as a tool of control of drug doses, rationality of drug therapy, and the quality of the drugs themselves. In conclusion, the prospects for application of the method as primary means of improving the quality and personalization of drug therapy have been discussed.

  15. Monitoring Nonadiabatic Electron-Nuclear Dynamics in Molecules by Attosecond Streaking of Photoelectrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Bennett, Kochise; Rouxel, Jérémy R.; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-07-01

    Streaking of photoelectrons has long been used for the temporal characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses. When the time-resolved photoelectrons originate from a coherent superposition of electronic states, they carry additional phase information, which can be retrieved by the streaking technique. In this contribution we extend the streaking formalism to include coupled electron and nuclear dynamics in molecules as well as initial coherences. We demonstrate how streaked photoelectrons offer a novel tool for monitoring nonadiabatic dynamics as it occurs in the vicinity of conical intersections and avoided crossings. Streaking can provide high time resolution direct signatures of electronic coherences, which affect many primary photochemical and biological events.

  16. Opto-Curling Probe for Simultaneous Monitoring of Optical Emission and Electron Density in Reactive Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Anil; Nakamura, Keiji; Sugai, Hideo

    2013-05-01

    An advanced robust probe called opto-curling probe (OCP) is presented, which enables the simultaneous monitoring of electron density and optical emission of reactive plasma. The electron density is obtained from the microwave resonance frequency of a small antenna set on the probe surface while the optical emission spectra are observed through an optical fiber tip located at the probe surface. The ratio of the measured optical emission intensity to the electron density readily provides the radical density without relying on actinometry. The usefulness of OCP was experimentally demonstrated in the oxygen plasma cleaning of a carbonized wall with endpoint detection.

  17. Monitoring Nonadiabatic Electron-Nuclear Dynamics in Molecules by Attosecond Streaking of Photoelectrons.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Markus; Bennett, Kochise; Rouxel, Jérémy R; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-07-22

    Streaking of photoelectrons has long been used for the temporal characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses. When the time-resolved photoelectrons originate from a coherent superposition of electronic states, they carry additional phase information, which can be retrieved by the streaking technique. In this contribution we extend the streaking formalism to include coupled electron and nuclear dynamics in molecules as well as initial coherences. We demonstrate how streaked photoelectrons offer a novel tool for monitoring nonadiabatic dynamics as it occurs in the vicinity of conical intersections and avoided crossings. Streaking can provide high time resolution direct signatures of electronic coherences, which affect many primary photochemical and biological events. PMID:27494470

  18. When microchip implants do more than drug delivery: blending, blurring, and bundling of protected health information and patient monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bramstedt, Katrina A

    2005-01-01

    Although currently in the research stage, scientists argue that drug-releasing microchip implants are on the horizon for future patients. This paper presents ethical reflection on these implants and identifies specific areas of concern; namely, patient monitoring and tracking, and patient privacy and confidentiality. It is foreseeable that drug delivery chips could be multifunctional with the overt or covert addition of sensors that monitor more than just the bloodstream concentrations of prescribed drugs (e.g., cotinine and alcohol in non-compliant patients, patient location via radio frequency or global positioning satellite). Similarly, it is foreseeable that these chips could be embedded with a patient's protected health information that could potentially be accessed and used by unauthorized persons. While drug delivery microchips are theoretically convenient and accurate for dosing, and might offer faster drug delivery with fewer side effects, ethical issues loom and should be contemplated now, while the technology is still under development.

  19. A Toroidal Charge Monitor for High-Energy Picosecond Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Robert H.; Ng, Johnny S.T.

    2007-03-28

    A monitor system suitable for the accurate measurement of the total charge of a 2-ps 28.5 GeV electron beam over a large dynamic range is described. Systematic uncertainties and results on absolute calibration, resolution, and long-term stability are presented.

  20. Using Cytochome c to Monitor Electron Transport and Inhibition in Beef Heart Submitochondrial Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Amanda D.; Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a two-part undergraduate laboratory exercise. In the first part, electron transport in bovine heart submitochondrial particles causing reduction of cytochrome c is monitored at 550 nm. Redox-active dyes have historically been used in most previous undergraduate laboratory exercises of this sort but do not demonstrate respiratory…

  1. Bioluminescence-based neuraminidase inhibition assay for monitoring influenza virus drug susceptibility in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Marjuki, Henju; Mishin, Vasiliy P; Sleeman, Katrina; Okomo-Adhiambo, Margaret; Sheu, Tiffany G; Guo, Lizheng; Xu, Xiyan; Gubareva, Larisa V

    2013-11-01

    The QFlu prototype bioluminescence-based neuraminidase (NA) inhibition (NI) assay kit was designed to detect NA inhibitor (NAI)-resistant influenza viruses at point of care. Here, we evaluated its suitability for drug susceptibility assessment at a surveillance laboratory. A comprehensive panel of reference viruses (n = 14) and a set of 90 seasonal influenza virus A and B isolates were included for testing with oseltamivir and/or zanamivir in the QFlu assay using the manufacturer-recommended protocol and a modified version attuned to surveillance requirements. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) generated were compared with those of NI assays currently used for monitoring influenza drug susceptibility, the fluorescent (FL) and chemiluminescent (CL) assays. To provide proof of principle, clinical specimens (n = 235) confirmed by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to contain influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 and prescreened for the oseltamivir resistance marker H275Y using pyrosequencing were subsequently tested in the QFlu assay. All three NI assays were able to discriminate the reference NA variants and their matching wild-type viruses based on the difference in their IC50s. Unless the antigenic types were first identified, certain NA variants (e.g., H3N2 with E119V) could be detected among seasonal viruses using the FL assays only. Notably, the QFlu assay identified oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses carrying the H275Y marker directly in clinical specimens, which is not feasible with the other two phenotypic assays, which required prior virus culturing in cells. Furthermore, The QFlu assay allows detection of the influenza virus A and B isolates carrying established and potential NA inhibitor resistance markers and may become a useful tool for monitoring drug resistance in clinical specimens. PMID:23917311

  2. Drug transport mechanism of P-glycoprotein monitored by single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, S.; Verhalen, B.; Zarrabi, N.; Wilkens, S.; Börsch, M.

    2011-03-01

    In this work we monitor the catalytic mechanism of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Pgp, a member of the ATP binding cassette family of transport proteins, is found in the plasma membrane of animal cells where it is involved in the ATP hydrolysis driven export of hydrophobic molecules. When expressed in the plasma membrane of cancer cells, the transport activity of Pgp can lead to the failure of chemotherapy by excluding the mostly hydrophobic drugs from the interior of the cell. Despite ongoing effort, the catalytic mechanism by which Pgp couples MgATP binding and hydrolysis to translocation of drug molecules across the lipid bilayer is poorly understood. Using site directed mutagenesis, we have introduced cysteine residues for fluorescence labeling into different regions of the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of Pgp. Double-labeled single Pgp molecules showed fluctuating FRET efficiencies during drug stimulated ATP hydrolysis suggesting that the NBDs undergo significant movements during catalysis. Duty cycle-optimized alternating laser excitation (DCO-ALEX) is applied to minimize FRET artifacts and to select the appropriate molecules. The data show that Pgp is a highly dynamic enzyme that appears to fluctuate between at least two major conformations during steady state turnover.

  3. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    PubMed

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain.

  4. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    PubMed

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain. PMID:26274819

  5. Noninvasive technique for monitoring drug transport through the murine cochlea using micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Haghpanahi, Masoumeh; Gladstone, Miriam B; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Frisina, Robert D; Borkholder, David A

    2013-10-01

    Local delivery of drugs to the inner ear has the potential to treat inner ear disorders including permanent hearing loss or deafness. Current mathematical models describing the pharmacokinetics of drug delivery to the inner ear have been based on large rodent studies with invasive measurements of concentration at few locations within the cochlea. Hence, estimates of clearance and diffusion parameters are based on fitting measured data with limited spatial resolution to a model. To overcome these limitations, we developed a noninvasive imaging technique to monitor and characterize drug delivery inside the mouse cochlea using micro-computed tomography (μCT). To increase the measurement accuracy, we performed a subject-atlas image registration to exploit the information readily available in the atlas image of the mouse cochlea and pass segmentation or labeling information from the atlas to our μCT scans. The approach presented here has the potential to quantify concentrations at any point along fluid-filled scalae of the inner ear. This may permit determination of spatially dependent diffusion and clearance parameters for enhanced models.

  6. Electron line shape and transmission function of the KATRIN monitor spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Slezák, M.

    2013-12-30

    Knowledge of the neutrino mass is of particular interest in modern neutrino physics. Besides the neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmological observation information about the neutrino mass is obtained from single beta decay by observing the shape of the electron spectrum near the endpoint. The KATRIN β decay experiment aims to push the limit on the effective electron antineutrino mass down to 0.2 eV/c{sup 2}. To reach this sensitivity several systematic effects have to be under control. One of them is the fluctuations of the absolute energy scale, which therefore has to be continuously monitored at very high precision. This paper shortly describes KATRIN, the technique for continuous monitoring of the absolute energy scale and recent improvements in analysis of the monitoring data.

  7. Development of a new method for sampling and monitoring oncology staff exposed to cyclophosphamide drug.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Davood; Azari, Mansour; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Zendehdel, Rezvan; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza; Hatami, Hossein; Mehrabi, Yadollah

    2016-04-01

    Treatment using cytotoxic drugs is considered to be the most common treatment for cancers. However, the widespread use of these drugs on the health status of the staff at the oncology department has become a great concern. Due to challenges of sampling and analysis of cytotoxic drugs, the aim of this study was to development a novel practical method called Needle trap devices (NTD) for sampling and analysis of personal exposure to cyclophosphamide drug. The sampler consisted of a stainless steel hyper needle gauge 21 of length 9 cm packed with Carboxen 1000 for adsorbing cyclophosphamide. A total of 41 samples of staff's air breathing zone in different wards of the oncology department were taken with the sampler. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (ECD). Linear range concentration was 212-1062 μg/m(3), and LOD and LOQ were 100 and 191 μg/m(3), respectively. The mean inter-day and intra-day coefficient variations for standards within linear range concentration were 8.9 and 4.8 %, respectively. Detectable levels of cyclophosphamide were measured in 31.7 % of air samples. The developed method is user-friendly, quick, and precise for sampling of airborne cyclophosphamide. The results showed that some staff of the oncology department were exposed to the carcinogenic drug and their health were at risk. Since carcinogens do not have a threshold and oncology staffs with their continuous exposure might be at risk, therefore, proper work practice and adequate control measures are essential to ensure their wellbeing. PMID:27003403

  8. When big brother is watching: goal orientation shapes reactions to electronic monitoring during online training.

    PubMed

    Watson, Aaron M; Foster Thompson, Lori; Rudolph, Jane V; Whelan, Thomas J; Behrend, Tara S; Gissel, Amanda L

    2013-07-01

    Web-based training is frequently used by organizations as a convenient and low-cost way to teach employees new knowledge and skills. As web-based training is typically unproctored, employees may be held accountable to the organization by computer software that monitors their behaviors. The current study examines how the introduction of electronic performance monitoring may provoke negative emotional reactions and decrease learning among certain types of e-learners. Through motivated action theory and trait activation theory, we examine the role of performance goal orientation when e-learners are exposed to asynchronous and synchronous monitoring. We show that some e-learners are more susceptible than others to evaluation apprehension when they perceive their activities are being monitored electronically. Specifically, e-learners higher in avoid performance goal orientation exhibited increased evaluation apprehension if they believed asynchronous monitoring was present, and they showed decreased skill attainment as a result. E-learners higher on prove performance goal orientation showed greater evaluation apprehension if they believed real-time monitoring was occurring, resulting in decreased skill attainment.

  9. Point-of-care detection and real-time monitoring of intravenously delivered drugs via tubing with an integrated SERS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsin-Yu; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2014-04-01

    pharmaceutical compounds (hydrocodone, levorphanol, morphine, oxycodone, methadone, phenobarbital, dopamine, diltiazem, promethazine, and mitoxantrone). We demonstrate dose-dependent SERS signal magnitude, resulting in detection limits (ng ml-1) well below typical administered dosages (mg ml-1). Further, we show that the detected drugs are not permanently attached to the PNA surface, and thus our approach is capable of performing continuous monitoring of drug delivery as materials flow through IV tubing that is connected in series with the sensor. Finally, we demonstrate the potential co-detection of multiple drugs when they are mixed together, and show excellent reproducibility and stability of SERS measurements for periods extending at least five days. The capabilities reported here demonstrate the potential to use PNA SERS surfaces for enhancing the safety of IV drug delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fabrication of PNA substrates, fabrication details of the flow cell, details of FDTD simulation, characterization of the scattering volume, and detection of diltiazem diluted in DI water and PBS. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00027g

  10. Postmarketing safety reports for human drug and biological products; electronic submission requirements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending its postmarketing safety reporting regulations for human drug and biological products to require that persons subject to mandatory reporting requirements submit safety reports in an electronic format that FDA can process, review, and archive. FDA is taking this action to improve the Agency's systems for collecting and analyzing postmarketing safety reports. The change will help the Agency to more rapidly review postmarketing safety reports, identify emerging safety problems, and disseminate safety information in support of FDA's public health mission. In addition, the amendments will be a key element in harmonizing FDA's postmarketing safety reporting regulations with international standards for the electronic submission of safety information.

  11. Industrial use of the real time monitor for quality assurance in electron processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneeland, D. R.; Nablo, S. V.; Weiss, D. E.; Sinz, T. E.

    1999-07-01

    The performance of a three channel real time radiation monitor, installed on a 250 kV×0.3 m electron sterilizer used for controlled depth of sterilization of medical devices, is reported. The bremsstrahlung generated at the window plane is monitored with good spatial resolution at three locations across the beam, and provides information on the electron current density (dose rate) and the electron energy. Software has been developed for analysis and display of these data in real time so that the dose received by the product, and the energy at which it was treated can be displayed and recorded. The several geometries used for bremsstrahlung detection are discussed, and some calculated low energy distributions are shown. Typical data are presented from an eleven channel unit mounted on a 250 kV×1.6 m processor illustrating its use for process quality assurance. The use of Monitorad® for overall closed-loop processor control is reviewed.

  12. Dried blood spots for monitoring and individualization of antiepileptic drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Milosheska, Daniela; Grabnar, Iztok; Vovk, Tomaž

    2015-07-30

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a multi-disciplinary clinical specialty used for optimization and individualization of drug therapy in the general and special populations. Since most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are characterized by pronounced intra- and inter-individual variability, it can be especially valuable as an aid for dosing adjustments in patients with epilepsy. Dried blood spots (DBS) sampling technique is recognized as a suitable alternative for conventional sampling methods as TDM interventions should be applied in the most cost-effective, rational and clinically useful manner. In the present review we summarize the latest trends and applications of DBS in TDM of epilepsy. Quantification of AEDs in DBS was employed in various clinical settings and has been already reported for phenobarbital, phenytoin, valproic acid, clonazepam, clobazam, carbamazepine, topiramate, rufinamide, lamotrigine, 10-hydroxycarbazepine and levetiracetam. The major limitation of the published studies are restricted evaluation of critical parameters such as the impact of spotted blood volume, spot homogeneity and haematocrit effect, limited clinical validation and non-established correlations between the DBS and plasma concentrations of AEDs. Standardization of critical technical aspects for appropriate sampling, sample preparation and validation of the analytical procedures for quantification of the drugs, as well as appropriate interpretation of the results are the fields which should get more attention in upcoming studies. Limited data on clinical validation and the fact that this technique has been used in practice only for a few AEDs makes the routine implementation of TDM of AEDs using DBS method a big challenge that should be faced by the pharmaceutical scientists in the future. PMID:25896371

  13. Therapeutic drug monitoring of racemic venlafaxine and its main metabolites in an everyday clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Reis, Margareta; Lundmark, Jöns; Björk, Henrik; Bengtsson, Finn

    2002-08-01

    When Efexor (venlafaxine) became available in Sweden, a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service was developed in the authors' laboratory. This analytical service was available to all physicians in the country. From March 1996, to November 1997, 797 serum concentration analyses of venlafaxine (VEN) and its main metabolites, O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV), N-desmethylvenlafaxine (NDV), and N,O-didesmethylvenlafaxine (DDV) were requested. These samples, each of which was accompanied by clinical information on a specially designed request form, represented 635 inpatients or outpatients, comprising all ages, treated in a naturalistic setting. The first sample per patient, drawn as a trough value in steady state and with documented concomitant medication, was further evaluated pharmacokinetically (n = 187). The doses prescribed were from 37.5 mg/d to 412.5 mg/d. There was a wide interindividual variability of serum concentrations on each dose level, and the mean coefficient of variation of the dose-corrected concentrations (C/D) was 166% for C/D VEN, 60% for C/D ODV, 151% for C/D NDV, and 59% for C/D DDV. The corresponding CV for the ratio ODV/VEN was 110%. However, within patients over time, the C/D VEN and ODV/VEN variation was low, indicating stability in individual metabolizing capacity. Patients over 65 years of age had significantly higher concentrations of C/D VEN and C/D ODV than the younger patients. Women had higher C/D NDV and C/D DDV, and a higher NDV/VEN ratio than men, and smokers showed lower C/D ODV and C/D DDV than nonsmokers. A number of polycombinations of drugs were assessed for interaction screening, and a trend for lowered ODV/VEN ratio was found, predominantly with concomitant medication with CNS-active drug(s) known to inhibit CYP2D6.

  14. Assessment of the use of oral fluid as a matrix for drug monitoring in patients undergoing treatment for opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Frank; Fey, Elizabeth; Borg, Damon; Stripp, Richard; Getto, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Drug testing is an important clinical tool that is available to physicians who are assessing the effectiveness of drug treatment as well as patient compliance to the administered program. While urine has traditionally been the matrix of choice for drug monitoring, oral fluid, a filtrate of the blood, has shown great promise as an alternative matrix for such applications. Oral fluid collection can be accomplished without the need for highly trained medical staff through the use of a simple, noninvasive oral fluid collection device, which obtains an adequate sample in only a few minutes. There has been a significant amount of research performed on the use of oral fluid for forensic toxicology application; however, more studies assessing the use of oral fluid drug testing are required to validate its ability to achieve clinical drug monitoring goals. Testing for various drugs in oral fluid may yield a different result when compared to the same drugs in urine, requiring an assessment of the utility of oral fluid for such practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the application of oral fluid drug testing in patients undergoing buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence. A retrospective analysis of drug testing results obtained from 6,928 patients (4,560 unobserved urine collections and 2,368 observed oral fluid collections) monitored for heroin metabolite, amphetamine, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, codeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, and oxymorphone was completed. Results of this statistical exercise indicated that patients undergoing observed oral fluid collection tested positive more frequently than those unobserved urine collections for several illicit drugs and prescription medications targeted. Oral fluid was shown to detect illicit drug use as well as noncompliance in this patient population under the studied conditions more often than the urine specimens.

  15. Assessment of the use of oral fluid as a matrix for drug monitoring in patients undergoing treatment for opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Frank; Fey, Elizabeth; Borg, Damon; Stripp, Richard; Getto, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Drug testing is an important clinical tool that is available to physicians who are assessing the effectiveness of drug treatment as well as patient compliance to the administered program. While urine has traditionally been the matrix of choice for drug monitoring, oral fluid, a filtrate of the blood, has shown great promise as an alternative matrix for such applications. Oral fluid collection can be accomplished without the need for highly trained medical staff through the use of a simple, noninvasive oral fluid collection device, which obtains an adequate sample in only a few minutes. There has been a significant amount of research performed on the use of oral fluid for forensic toxicology application; however, more studies assessing the use of oral fluid drug testing are required to validate its ability to achieve clinical drug monitoring goals. Testing for various drugs in oral fluid may yield a different result when compared to the same drugs in urine, requiring an assessment of the utility of oral fluid for such practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the application of oral fluid drug testing in patients undergoing buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence. A retrospective analysis of drug testing results obtained from 6,928 patients (4,560 unobserved urine collections and 2,368 observed oral fluid collections) monitored for heroin metabolite, amphetamine, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, codeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, and oxymorphone was completed. Results of this statistical exercise indicated that patients undergoing observed oral fluid collection tested positive more frequently than those unobserved urine collections for several illicit drugs and prescription medications targeted. Oral fluid was shown to detect illicit drug use as well as noncompliance in this patient population under the studied conditions more often than the urine specimens. PMID:26535971

  16. Monitoring dissolved orthophosphate in a struvite precipitation reactor with a voltammetric electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Daniel; Barat, Ramón; Soto, Juan; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón

    2016-10-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a voltammetric electronic tongue to monitor effluent dissolved orthophosphate concentration in a struvite precipitation reactor. The electrochemical response of the electronic tongue to the presence of orthophosphate in samples collected from the effluent of the precipitation reactor is used to predict orthophosphate concentration via a statistical model based on Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression. PLS predictions were suitable for this monitoring application in which precipitation efficiencies higher than 80% (i.e., effluent dissolved orthophosphate concentrations lower than 40mg P-PO4(3-) L(-1)) could be considered as indicator of good process performance. The electronic tongue consisted of a set of metallic (noble and non-noble) electrodes housed inside a stainless steel cylinder which was used as the body of the electronic tongue system. Fouling problems were prevented via a simple mechanical polishing of the electrodes. The measurement of each sample with the electronic tongue was done in less than 3s. Conductivity of the samples only affected the electronic tongue marginally, being the main electrochemical response due to the orthophosphate concentration in the samples. Copper, silver, iridium and rhodium were the electrodes that exhibited noticeable response correlated with the dissolved orthophosphate concentration variations, while gold, platinum and especially cobalt and nickel were the less useful electrodes for this application. PMID:27474282

  17. Monitoring dissolved orthophosphate in a struvite precipitation reactor with a voltammetric electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Daniel; Barat, Ramón; Soto, Juan; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón

    2016-10-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a voltammetric electronic tongue to monitor effluent dissolved orthophosphate concentration in a struvite precipitation reactor. The electrochemical response of the electronic tongue to the presence of orthophosphate in samples collected from the effluent of the precipitation reactor is used to predict orthophosphate concentration via a statistical model based on Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression. PLS predictions were suitable for this monitoring application in which precipitation efficiencies higher than 80% (i.e., effluent dissolved orthophosphate concentrations lower than 40mg P-PO4(3-) L(-1)) could be considered as indicator of good process performance. The electronic tongue consisted of a set of metallic (noble and non-noble) electrodes housed inside a stainless steel cylinder which was used as the body of the electronic tongue system. Fouling problems were prevented via a simple mechanical polishing of the electrodes. The measurement of each sample with the electronic tongue was done in less than 3s. Conductivity of the samples only affected the electronic tongue marginally, being the main electrochemical response due to the orthophosphate concentration in the samples. Copper, silver, iridium and rhodium were the electrodes that exhibited noticeable response correlated with the dissolved orthophosphate concentration variations, while gold, platinum and especially cobalt and nickel were the less useful electrodes for this application.

  18. Graphic Mining of High-Order Drug Interactions and Their Directional Effects on Myopathy Using Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Du, L; Chakraborty, A; Chiang, C-W; Cheng, L; Quinney, S K; Wu, H; Zhang, P; Li, L; Shen, L

    2015-08-01

    We propose to study a novel pharmacovigilance problem for mining directional effects of high-order drug interactions on an adverse drug event (ADE). Our goal is to estimate each individual risk of adding a new drug to an existing drug combination. In this proof-of-concept study, we analyzed a large electronic medical records database and extracted myopathy-relevant case control drug co-occurrence data. We applied frequent itemset mining to discover frequent drug combinations within the extracted data, evaluated directional drug interactions related to these combinations, and identified directional drug interactions with large effect sizes. Furthermore, we developed a novel visualization method to organize multiple directional drug interaction effects depicted as a tree, to generate an intuitive graphical and visual representation of our data-mining results. This translational bioinformatics approach yields promising results, adds valuable and complementary information to the existing pharmacovigilance literature, and has the potential to impact clinical practice. PMID:26380157

  19. An Electronic Daily Diary Study of Anal Intercourse in Drug-Using Women.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Women (N = 138) with histories of illicit drug use were recruited into an electronic diary study that used Android smartphones for data collection. The diary was to be completed each day for 12 weeks using an "app" created in HTML5 and accessed over the Internet via smartphone. Data collection included information on sexual behaviors with up to 10 partners per day and contextual factors surrounding sexual behavior such as drug use before/after, type of sexual behavior (oral, vaginal, anal), and other activities such as using condoms for vaginal and anal intercourse and use of sexual lubricants. The sample was predominantly African American (58 %); 20 % Latina, 20 % White and 2 % reported as Other. Most women reported either less than a high school education (33 %) or having a high school diploma (33 %). The mean age was 39 years (SD = 11.78). Anal intercourse occurred on days when women also reported using illicit drugs, specifically methamphetamine and cocaine. Anal intercourse was not an isolated sexual activity, but took place on days when vaginal intercourse and giving and receiving oral sex also occurred along with illicit drug use. Anal intercourse also occurred on days when women reported they wanted sex. HIV prevention interventions must address the risks of anal intercourse for women, taking into account concurrent drug use and sexual pleasure that may reduce individual harm-reduction behaviors. PMID:25835461

  20. An Electronic Daily Diary Study of Anal Intercourse in Drug-Using Women

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Women (N = 138) with histories of illicit drug use were recruited into an electronic diary study that used Android smartphones for data collection. The diary was to be completed each day for 12 weeks using an “app” created in HTML5 and accessed over the Internet via smartphone. Data collection included information on sexual behaviors with up to 10 partners per day and contextual factors surrounding sexual behavior such as drug use before/after, type of sexual behavior (oral, vaginal, anal), and other activities such as using condoms for vaginal and anal intercourse and use of sexual lubricants. The sample was predominantly African American (58 %); 20 % Latina, 20 % White and 2 % reported as Other. Most women reported either less than a high school education (33 %) or having a high school diploma (33 %). The mean age was 39 years (SD = 11.78). Anal intercourse occurred on days when women also reported using illicit drugs, specifically methamphetamine and cocaine. Anal intercourse was not an isolated sexual activity, but took place on days when vaginal intercourse and giving and receiving oral sex also occurred along with illicit drug use. Anal intercourse also occurred on days when women reported they wanted sex. HIV prevention interventions must address the risks of anal intercourse for women, taking into account concurrent drug use and sexual pleasure that may reduce individual harm-reduction behaviors. PMID:25835461

  1. Three-month validation of a turbuhaler electronic monitoring device: implications for asthma clinical trial use

    PubMed Central

    Pilcher, Janine; Shirtcliffe, Philippa; Patel, Mitesh; McKinstry, Steve; Cripps, Terrianne; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic monitoring of inhaled asthma therapy is suggested as the ‘gold standard’ for measuring patterns of medication use in clinical trials. The SmartTurbo (Adherium (NZ) Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand) is an electronic monitor for use with a turbuhaler device (AstraZeneca, UK). The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the SmartTurbo in recording Symbicort actuations over a 12-week period of use. Methods Twenty SmartTurbo monitors were attached to the base of 20 Symbicort turbuhalers. Bench testing in a research facility was undertaken on days 0, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 21, 28, 56 and 84. Patterns of ‘low-use’ (2 sets of 2 actuations on the same day) and ‘high-use’ (2 sets of 8 actuations on the same day) were performed. The date and time of actuations were recorded in a paper diary and compared with data uploaded from the SmartTurbo monitors. Results 2800 actuations were performed. Monitor sensitivity was 99.9% with a lower 97.5% confidence bound of 99.6%. The positive predictive value was 99.9% with a 97.5% lower confidence bound of 99.7%. Accuracy was not affected by whether the pattern of inhaler use was low or high, or whether there was a delay in uploading the actuation data. Conclusions The SmartTurbo monitor is highly accurate in recording and retaining electronic data in this 12-week bench study. It can be recommended for use in clinical trial settings, in which quality control systems are incorporated into study protocols to ensure accurate data acquisition. PMID:26629345

  2. Performance Studies of the Vibration Wire Monitor on the Test Stand with Low Energy Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Kota; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

    In the high intensity proton accelerator as the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) accelerators, serious radiation and residual dose is induced by a small beam loss such a beam halo. Therefore, diagnostics of the beam halo formation is one of the most important issues to control the beam loss. For the beam halo monitor, the vibration wire monitor (VWM) has a potential for investigating the beam halo and weak beam scanning. The VWM has a wide dynamic range, high resolution and the VWM is not susceptible to secondary electrons and electric noises. We have studied the VWM features as a new beam-halo monitor on the test stand with low energy electron gun. The frequency shift of the irradiated vibration wire was confirmed about wire material and the electron beam profile measured by using the VWM was consistent with the results of the Faraday cup measurement. Also we calculated a temperature distribution on the vibration wire which is irradiated by the electron beam with the numerical simulation. The simulations have been fairly successful in reproducing the transient of the irradiated vibration wire frequency measured by test stand experiments. In this paper, we will report a result of performance evaluation for the VWM on the test stands and discuss the VWM for beam halo diagnostic

  3. Role of scanning electron microscopy in identifying drugs used in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Fazil Marickar, Y M; Sylaja, N; Koshy, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Several plant preparations are administered for treatment of stone disease without scientific basis. This paper presents the results of in vitro and animal experimental studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in the identification of the therapeutic properties of trial drugs in medicine. In the first set of the study, urinary crystals namely calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dehydrate were grown in six sets of Hane's tubes in silica gel medium. Trial drugs namely scoparia dulcis Lynn, musa sapiens and dolicos biflorus were incorporated in the gel medium to identify the dopant effect of the trial drugs on the size and extent of crystal column growth. The changes in morphology of crystals were studied using SEM. In the second set, six male Wistar rats each were calculogenised by administering sodium oxalate and ethylene glycol and diabetised using streptozotocin. The SEM changes of calculogenisation were studied. The rats were administered trial drugs before calculogenisation or after. The kidneys of the rats studied under the scanning electron microscope showed changes in tissue morphology and crystal deposition produced by calculogenisation and alterations produced by addition of trial drugs. The trial drugs produced changes in the pattern of crystal growth and in the crystal morphology of both calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate grown in vitro. Elemental distribution analysis showed that the crystal purity was not altered by the trial drugs. Scoparia dulcis Lynn was found to be the most effective anticalculogenic agent. Musa sapiens and dolicos biflorus were found to have no significant effect in inhibiting crystal growth. The kidneys of rats on calculogenisation showed different grades of crystals in the glomerulus and interstitial tissues, extrusion of the crystals into the tubular lumen, collodisation and tissue inflammatory cell infiltration. Scoparia dulcis Lynn exhibited maximum protector effect against the

  4. Impact of speciation on the electron charge transfer properties of nanodiamond drug carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baichuan; Barnard, Amanda S.

    2016-07-01

    Unpassivated diamond nanoparticles (bucky-diamonds) exhibit a unique surface reconstruction involving graphitization of certain crystal facets, giving rise to hybrid core-shell particles containing both aromatic and aliphatic carbon. Considerable effort is directed toward eliminating the aromatic shell, but persistent graphitization of subsequent subsurface-layers makes perdurable purification a challenge. In this study we use some simple statistical methods, in combination with electronic structure simulations, to predict the impact of different fractions of aromatic and aliphatic carbon on the charge transfer properties of the ensembles of bucky-diamonds. By predicting quality factors for a variety of cases, we find that perfect purification is not necessary to preserve selectivity, and there is a clear motivation for purifying samples to improve the sensitivity of charge transfer reactions. This may prove useful in designing drug delivery systems where the release of (selected) drugs needs to be sensitive to specific conditions at the point of delivery.Unpassivated diamond nanoparticles (bucky-diamonds) exhibit a unique surface reconstruction involving graphitization of certain crystal facets, giving rise to hybrid core-shell particles containing both aromatic and aliphatic carbon. Considerable effort is directed toward eliminating the aromatic shell, but persistent graphitization of subsequent subsurface-layers makes perdurable purification a challenge. In this study we use some simple statistical methods, in combination with electronic structure simulations, to predict the impact of different fractions of aromatic and aliphatic carbon on the charge transfer properties of the ensembles of bucky-diamonds. By predicting quality factors for a variety of cases, we find that perfect purification is not necessary to preserve selectivity, and there is a clear motivation for purifying samples to improve the sensitivity of charge transfer reactions. This may prove

  5. Evaluation test of the energy monitoring device in industrial electron beam facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A.; Corda, U.; Cornia, G.; Kovács, A.

    2009-07-01

    The electron beam energy monitoring device, previously developed and tested under standard laboratory conditions using electron beams in the energy range 4-12 MeV, has now been tested under industrial irradiation conditions in high-energy, high-power electron beam facilities. The measuring instrument was improved in order to measure high peak current delivered at low pulse repetition rate as well. Tests, with good results, were carried out at two different EB plants: one equipped with a LUE-8 linear electron accelerator of 7 MeV maximum energy used for cross-linking of cables and for medical device sterilization, and the other with a 10 MeV Rhodotron type TT 100 used for in-house sterilization.

  6. The role of nanotechnology and nano and micro-electronics in monitoring and control of cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.

    2007-04-01

    Nanotechnology has been broadly defined as the one for not only the creation of functional materials and devices as well as systems through control of matter at the scale of 1-100 nm, but also the exploitation of novel properties and phenomena at the same scale. Growing needs in the point-of-care (POC) that is an increasing market for improving patient's quality of life, are driving the development of nanotechnologies for diagnosis and treatment of various life threatening diseases. This paper addresses the recent development of nanodiagnostic sensors and nanotherapeutic devices with functionalized carbon nanotube and/or nanowire on a flexible organic thin film electronics to monitor and control of the three leading diseases namely 1) neurodegenerative diseases, 2) cardiovascular diseases, and 3) diabetes and metabolic diseases. The sensors developed include implantable and biocompatible devices, light weight wearable devices in wrist-watches, hats, shoes and clothes. The nanotherapeutics devices include nanobased drug delivery system. Many of these sensors are integrated with the wireless systems for the remote physiological monitoring. The author's research team has also developed a wireless neural probe using nanowires and nanotubes for monitoring and control of Parkinson's disease. Light weight and compact EEG, EOG and EMG monitoring system in a hat developed is capable of monitoring real time epileptic patients and patients with neurological and movement disorders using the Internet and cellular network. Physicians could be able to monitor these signals in realtime using portable computers or cell phones and will give early warning signal if these signals cross a pre-determined threshold level. In addition the potential impact of nanotechnology for applications in medicine is that, the devices can be designed to interact with cells and tissues at the molecular level, which allows high degree of functionality. Devices engineered at nanometer scale imply a

  7. The food and drug administration is now preparing to establish tighter performance requirements for blood glucose monitors.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C

    2010-05-01

    On March 16 and 17, 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) presented a public meeting about blood glucose monitoring at the Gaithersberg Hilton Hotel. The meeting was intended to present expert opinions and solicit input from the public about whether to develop new regulatory policies for blood glucose monitors. The meeting was divided into three sections: (1) Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Blood Glucose Monitors, (2) Interferences and Limitations of Blood Glucose Monitors, and (3) Tight Glycemic Control. Many officials from the Center for Devices and Radiologic Health and the Office of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices, which are the parts of FDA that regulate approval of blood glucose monitors, either spoke on the agenda or attended in the audience. Approximately 300 people attended; they were mostly clinicians (such as adult endocrinologists, pediatric endocrinologists, internists, clinical chemists, intensivists, surgeons, nurses, and diabetes educators) or industry officials from companies involved in glucose monitoring, pharmaceutical products, data analysis, or regulatory consulting. PMID:20513313

  8. Simple and sensitive method for monitoring drug-induced cell injury in cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shirhatti, V.; Krishna, G.

    1985-06-01

    A simple, sensitive method has been developed for evaluating cell injury noninvasively in monolayer cells in culture. The cell ATP pool was radiolabeled by incubating the cells with (/sup 14/C)adenine. The uptake and incorporation of (/sup 14/C)adenine was shown to proportional to the number of cells. As determined by HPLC, about 65-70% of the incorporated /sup 14/C label was in the ATP pool, 15-20% was in the ADP pool, and the rest was in the 5'-AMP pool. When prelabeled cells were exposed to toxic drugs (acetaminophen, calcium ionophore A-23187, or daunomycin) there was a marked decrease in cell ATP with a concomitant increase in leakage of labeled nucleotides, mainly 5'-AMP and 5'IMP. The authors have shown that leakage of /sup 14/C label into the medium from the prelabeled cells may be employed for quantitation of cell injury. This new measure of toxicity was shown to correlate very well with LDH leakage from the cells, which is a well accepted measure of cell injury. The leakage of 5'-(/sup 14/C)AMP also correlated very well with the reduction of cell ATP in cardiac myocytes. This method has been used for monitoring drug-induced toxicity in liver cells, cardiac myocytes, and LB cells.

  9. Molecular Similarity Methods for Predicting Cross-Reactivity With Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Siam, Mohamed G.; Iyer, Manisha; Ekins, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Immunoassays are used for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) yet may suffer from cross-reacting compounds able to bind the assay antibodies in a manner similar to the target molecule. To our knowledge, there has been no investigation using computational tools to predict cross-reactivity with TDM immunoassays. The authors used molecular similarity methods to enable calculation of structural similarity for a wide range of compounds (prescription and over-the-counter medications, illicit drugs, and clinically significant metabolites) to the target molecules of TDM immunoassays. Utilizing different molecular descriptors (MDL public keys, functional class fingerprints, and pharmacophore fingerprints) and the Tanimoto similarity coefficient, the authors compared cross-reactivity data in the package inserts of immunoassays marketed for in vitro diagnostic use. Using MDL public keys and the Tanimoto similarity coefficient showed a strong and statistically significant separation between cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive compounds. Thus, two-dimensional shape similarity of cross-reacting molecules and the target molecules of TDM immunoassays provides a fast chemoinformatics methods for a priori prediction of potential of cross-reactivity that might be otherwise undetected. These methods could be used to reliably focus cross-reactivity testing on compounds with high similarity to the target molecule and limit testing of compounds with low similarity and ultimately with a very low probability of cross-reacting with the assay in vitro. PMID:19333148

  10. Molecular Surveillance as Monitoring Tool for Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Suriname

    PubMed Central

    Adhin, Malti R.; Labadie-Bracho, Mergiory; Bretas, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this translational study was to show the use of molecular surveillance for polymorphisms and copy number as a monitoring tool to track the emergence and dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. A molecular baseline for Suriname was established in 2005, with P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance (pfmdr1) markers and copy number in 40 samples. The baseline results revealed the existence of a uniformly distributed mutated genotype corresponding with the fully mefloquine-sensitive 7G8-like genotype (Y184F, S1034C, N1042D, and D1246Y) and a fixed pfmdr1 N86 haplotype. All samples harbored the pivotal pfcrtK76T mutation, showing that chloroquine reintroduction should not yet be contemplated in Suriname. After 5 years, 40 samples were assessed to trace temporal changes in the status of pfmdr1 polymorphisms and copy number and showed minor genetic alterations in the pfmdr1 gene and no significant changes in copy number, thus providing scientific support for prolongation of the current drug policy in Suriname. PMID:23836573

  11. The role of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in device evaluation and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Diehl, David L; Tierney, William M; Adler, Douglas G; Conway, Jason D; Farraye, Francis A; Kantsevoy, Sergey V; Kaul, Vivek; Kethu, Sripathi R; Kwon, Richard S; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A

    2010-07-01

    The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used by performing a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the Governing Board of the ASGE. When financial guidance is indicated, the most recent coding data and list prices at the time of publication are provided. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through October 2009 for articles and references related to devices and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by using the keywords "FDA" and "devices." In addition, the Web was searched using the same keywords. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration website was also thoroughly reviewed. Practitioners should continue to monitor the medical literature for subsequent data about these issues. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment. PMID:20421100

  12. Detector and front-end electronics of a fissile mass flow monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, M.J.; Uckan, T.; Lenarduzzi, R.; Mullens, J.A.; Castleberry, K.N.; McMillan, D.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1997-07-20

    A detector and front-end electronics unit with secure data transmission has been designed and implemented for a fissile mass flow monitoring system for fissile mass flow of gases and liquids in a pipe. The unit consists of 4 bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors, pulse-shaping and counting electronics, local temperature sensors, and on-board local area network nodes which locally acquire data and report to the master computer via a secure network link. The signal gain of the pulse-shaping circuitry and energy windows of the pulse-counting circuitry are periodicially self calibrated and self adjusted in situ using a characteristic line in the fissile material pulse height spectrum as a reference point to compensate for drift such as in the detector gain due to PM tube aging. The temperature- dependent signal amplitude variations due to the intrinsic temperature coefficients of the PM tube gain and BGO scintillation efficiency have been characterized and real-time gain corrections introduced. The detector and electronics design, measured intrinsic performance of the detectors and electronics, and the performance of the detector and electronics within the fissile mass flow monitoring system are described.

  13. Pediatric vancomycin dosing: Trends over time and the impact of therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Balch, Alfred H; Constance, Jonathan E; Thorell, Emily A; Stockmann, Chris; Korgenski, Ernest K; Campbell, Sarah C; Spigarelli, Michael G; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2015-02-01

    Monitoring of vancomycin trough concentrations is recommended for pediatric patients in the product label and by several professional societies. However, among a network of freestanding children's hospitals vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) practices were reported to be highly variable. In this study, we sought to evaluate whether trends in vancomycin use and TDM changed across a large healthcare delivery system in Utah and Idaho from 2006 to 2012. Children ≤18 years who received ≥2 vancomycin doses were included. Overall, vancomycin TDM was performed during 5,035 (80%) of 6,259 hospital encounters, in which 85,442 doses were administered and 7,935 concentrations were obtained. Across this time period, the median trough concentration increased from 10.9 to 13.7 µg/mL (P < .001), which temporally coincided with recommendations published by the Infectious Disease Society of America that recommend targeting higher trough concentrations. Two or more abnormally low trough concentrations were accompanied by an increase in the dose 75% of the time. Similarly, ≥2 abnormally high trough concentrations were followed by a decrease in the dose 35% of the time. In aggregate, these data suggest that vancomycin TDM is commonly performed among children and the majority of abnormal trough concentrations were associated with an appropriate modification to the dosing regimen. PMID:25264036

  14. Assays for therapeutic drug monitoring of β-lactam antibiotics: A structured review.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Mieke; Stove, Veronique; Wallis, Steven C; De Waele, Jan J; Verstraete, Alain G; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

    2015-10-01

    In some patient groups, including critically ill patients, the pharmacokinetics of β-lactam antibiotics may be profoundly disturbed due to pathophysiological changes in distribution and elimination. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a strategy that may help to optimise dosing. The aim of this review was to identify and analyse the published literature on the methods used for β-lactam quantification in TDM programmes. Sixteen reports described methods for the simultaneous determination of three or more β-lactam antibiotics in plasma/serum. Measurement of these antibiotics, due to low frequency of usage relative to some other tests, is generally limited to in-house chromatographic methods coupled to ultraviolet or mass spectrometric detection. Although many published methods state they are fit for TDM, they are inconvenient because of intensive sample preparation and/or long run times. Ideally, methods used for routine TDM should have a short turnaround time (fast run-time and fast sample preparation), a low limit of quantification and a sufficiently high upper limit of quantification. The published assays included a median of 6 analytes [interquartile range (IQR) 4-10], with meropenem and piperacillin being the most frequently measured β-lactam antibiotics. The median run time was 8 min (IQR 5.9-21.3 min). There is also a growing number of methods measuring free concentrations. An assay that measures antibiotics without any sample preparation would be the next step towards real-time monitoring; no such method is currently available.

  15. Monitoring adverse reactions to food additives in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, L

    1988-12-01

    Technological advances in food science have resulted in the development of numerous food additives, most of which require premarket approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Concomitant with the benefits of these additives, such as extending the shelf life of certain food commodities, is the potential for various risks. These potential risks include the possibility of the consumer experiencing an adverse reaction to the additive. In order to ascertain the character and the gravity of alleged adverse reactions to food products which it regulates, the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition has developed the Adverse Reaction Monitoring System (ARMS). This postmarketing surveillance system for food additives is designed to analyze consumer reports of adverse reactions in order to alert FDA officials about any potential public health hazard associated with an approved food additive, and to delineate specific syndromes which may lead to focused clinical investigations. To date, among the products routinely monitored in the ARMS, sulfiting agents and the artificial sweetener aspartame have generated the largest volume of consumer reports describing adverse reactions. An overview of the analyses of the sulfite and aspartame adverse reaction reports is presented, along with a description of the mechanics of the postmarketing surveillance system, and a detailed discussion of its limitations.

  16. Pediatric vancomycin dosing: Trends over time and the impact of therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Balch, Alfred H; Constance, Jonathan E; Thorell, Emily A; Stockmann, Chris; Korgenski, Ernest K; Campbell, Sarah C; Spigarelli, Michael G; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2015-02-01

    Monitoring of vancomycin trough concentrations is recommended for pediatric patients in the product label and by several professional societies. However, among a network of freestanding children's hospitals vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) practices were reported to be highly variable. In this study, we sought to evaluate whether trends in vancomycin use and TDM changed across a large healthcare delivery system in Utah and Idaho from 2006 to 2012. Children ≤18 years who received ≥2 vancomycin doses were included. Overall, vancomycin TDM was performed during 5,035 (80%) of 6,259 hospital encounters, in which 85,442 doses were administered and 7,935 concentrations were obtained. Across this time period, the median trough concentration increased from 10.9 to 13.7 µg/mL (P < .001), which temporally coincided with recommendations published by the Infectious Disease Society of America that recommend targeting higher trough concentrations. Two or more abnormally low trough concentrations were accompanied by an increase in the dose 75% of the time. Similarly, ≥2 abnormally high trough concentrations were followed by a decrease in the dose 35% of the time. In aggregate, these data suggest that vancomycin TDM is commonly performed among children and the majority of abnormal trough concentrations were associated with an appropriate modification to the dosing regimen.

  17. Maintaining effective mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis through in-process monitoring in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2007 Sierra Leone has conducted mass drug administration (MDA) for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) implemented by unpaid community health volunteers (CHVs). Other health campaigns such as Mother and Child Health Weeks (MCHW) pay for services to be implemented at community level and these persons are then known as community health workers (CHWs). In 2010, the LF MDA in the 12 districts of the Southern, Northern and Eastern Provinces un-expectantly coincided with universal distribution of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLITNs) during the MCHW. In-process monitoring of LF MDA was performed to ensure effective coverage was attained in hard to reach sites (HTR) in both urban and rural locations where vulnerable populations reside. Methods Independent monitors interviewed individuals eligible for LF MDA and tallied those who recalled having taken ivermectin and albendazole, calculated program coverage and reported results daily by phone. Monitoring of coverage in HTR sites in the 4 most rapidly urbanizing towns was performed after 4 weeks of LF MDA and again after 8 weeks throughout all 12 districts. End process monitoring was performed in randomly selected HTR sites not previously sampled throughout all 12 districts and compared to coverage calculated from the pre-MDA census and reported treatments. Results Only one town had reached effective program coverage (≥80%) after 4 weeks following which CHWs were recruited for LF MDA in all district headquarter towns. After 8 weeks only 4 of 12 districts had reached effective coverage so LF MDA was extended for a further month in all districts. By 12 weeks effective program coverage had been reached in all districts except Port Loko and there was no significant difference between those interviewed in communities versus households or by sex. Effective epidemiological coverage (≥65%) was reported in all districts and overall was significantly higher in males versus females. Conclusions

  18. Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials. PMID:23633977

  19. ["When the ad is good, the product is sold." The MonitorACAO Project and drug advertising in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Jussara Calmon Reis de Souza

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis on drug advertising in Brazil, based on the final report of the MonitorACAO Project, by the group from the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Due to a partnership between the university and the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA), drug advertisements were monitored and analyzed for one year, according to the methodology defined by the Agency. The samples were collected in medical practices and hospitals, drugstores, pharmacies and in scientific magazines. TV and radio programs were monitored, in the case of OTC drugs. 159 advertisements referring to pharmaceuticals were sent to ANVISA,from a total of 263 irregular ads analyzed between October 2004 and August 2005. The main problems found were the poor quality of drug information to health professionals, as well as misleading drug use to lay population. Based on the results of this project and on other studies, the banning of drug advertising in Brazil is proposed. PMID:21936168

  20. Mobile health platform for pressure ulcer monitoring with electronic health record integration.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Pedro, Luís M C C; Vardasca, Tomé; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Martins, Henrique M G

    2013-12-01

    Pressure ulcers frequently occur in patients with limited mobility, for example, people with advanced age and patients wearing casts or prostheses. Mobile information communication technologies can help implement ulcer care protocols and the monitoring of patients with high risk, thus preventing or improving these conditions. This article presents a mobile pressure ulcer monitoring platform (mULCER), which helps control a patient's ulcer status during all stages of treatment. Beside its stand-alone version, it can be integrated with electronic health record systems as mULCER synchronizes ulcer data with any electronic health record system using HL7 standards. It serves as a tool to integrate nursing care among hospital departments and institutions. mULCER was experimented with in different mobile devices such as LG Optimus One P500, Samsung Galaxy Tab, HTC Magic, Samsung Galaxy S, and Samsung Galaxy i5700, taking into account the user's experience of different screen sizes and processing characteristics.

  1. Electronic structure of an anticancer drug DC81 and its interaction with DNA base pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Gargi; Sharma, Dipendra; Dwivedi, K. K.; Dwivedi, M. K.

    2016-05-01

    The drug, 8-Hydroxy-7-methoxy-pyrrolo-[2,1-c][1,4] benzodiazepine-5-one, commonly christened as DC81 belongs to the pyrrolo-[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBDs) family. It is a member of the group of naturally occurring antitumour antibiotics produced by various Streptomyces species. The antitumour activity of DC81 is attributed to its sequence specific interaction with G-C rich DNA region in particular, for Pu-G-Pu motifs. In the present paper, physico-chemical properties DC81 have been carried out using an ab-initio method, HF/6-31G(d,p) with GAMESS program. MEP, HOMO and LUMO surfaces have been scanned. Ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, global hardness and softness of the drug have been calculated. Further, drug-DNA interactions have been examined using modified second order perturbation theory along with multicentred-multipole expansion technique. Results have been discussed in the light of other theoretical and experimental observations. Efforts have been made to elucidate the binding patterns and thereby biological properties of the drug.

  2. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) for studying the morphology of colloidal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Judith; Horst, Jennifer C; Bunjes, Heike

    2011-09-30

    Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) has evolved into an indispensable tool for the characterization of colloidal drug delivery systems. It can be applied to study the size, shape and internal structure of nanoparticulate carrier systems as well as the overall colloidal composition of the corresponding dispersions. This review gives a short overview over the instrumentation used in cryo-TEM experiments and over the sample preparation procedure. Selected examples of cryo-TEM studies on colloidal drug carrier systems, including liposomes, colloidal lipid emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticles, polymer-based colloids and delivery systems for nucleic acids, are presented in order to illustrate the wealth of information that can be obtained by this technique.

  3. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  4. Electronic radon monitoring with the CMOS System-on-Chip AlphaRad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higueret, S.; Husson, D.; Le, T. D.; Nourreddine, A.; Michielsen, N.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the integrated circuit AlphaRad as a new System-on-Chip for detection of α-particles has already been reported. This paper deals with electronic monitoring of atmospheric radon, which is one of the promising applications of the chip. The future electronic radon monitor (ERM) is designed to be compact, inexpensive, operating at low voltage and fully stand-alone. We present here the complete electronic board of the future ERM: it is made of three independent AlphaRad chips running in parallel, mounted on a small printed-circuit board which includes a numeric block for data treatment based on a Xilinx programmable gate array. The maximal counting rate of the AlphaRad chip has been pushed to at least 3×10 6 α-particles cm -2. The complete system for detection of the solid aerosols will be published separately, and this paper will focus on the electronic board alone. Already 20 times faster than our first measurement with a CMOS pixel sensor, the system was tested at low and high activities, showing an excellent linearity for 222Rn levels up to 80 kBq m -3.

  5. Rugged and breathable forms of stretchable electronics with adherent composite substrates for transcutaneous monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Han, Sang Youn; Xu, Sheng; Mathewson, Kyle E.; Zhang, Yihui; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Webb, R. Chad; Lee, Jung Woo; Dawidczyk, Thomas J.; Kim, Rak Hwan; Song, Young Min; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Kim, Stanley; Cheng, Huanyu; Rhee, Sang Il; Chung, Jeahoon; Kim, Byunggik; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dongjun; Yang, Yiyuan; Cho, Moongee; Gaspar, John G.; Carbonari, Ronald; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-09-01

    Research in stretchable electronics involves fundamental scientific topics relevant to applications with importance in human healthcare. Despite significant progress in active components, routes to mechanically robust construction are lacking. Here, we introduce materials and composite designs for thin, breathable, soft electronics that can adhere strongly to the skin, with the ability to be applied and removed hundreds of times without damaging the devices or the skin, even in regions with substantial topography and coverage of hair. The approach combines thin, ultralow modulus, cellular silicone materials with elastic, strain-limiting fabrics, to yield a compliant but rugged platform for stretchable electronics. Theoretical and experimental studies highlight the mechanics of adhesion and elastic deformation. Demonstrations include cutaneous optical, electrical and radio frequency sensors for measuring hydration state, electrophysiological activity, pulse and cerebral oximetry. Multipoint monitoring of a subject in an advanced driving simulator provides a practical example.

  6. Rugged and breathable forms of stretchable electronics with adherent composite substrates for transcutaneous monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kyung-In; Han, Sang Youn; Xu, Sheng; Mathewson, Kyle E; Zhang, Yihui; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Webb, R Chad; Lee, Jung Woo; Dawidczyk, Thomas J; Kim, Rak Hwan; Song, Young Min; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Kim, Stanley; Cheng, Huanyu; Rhee, Sang Il; Chung, Jeahoon; Kim, Byunggik; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dongjun; Yang, Yiyuan; Cho, Moongee; Gaspar, John G; Carbonari, Ronald; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-09-03

    Research in stretchable electronics involves fundamental scientific topics relevant to applications with importance in human healthcare. Despite significant progress in active components, routes to mechanically robust construction are lacking. Here, we introduce materials and composite designs for thin, breathable, soft electronics that can adhere strongly to the skin, with the ability to be applied and removed hundreds of times without damaging the devices or the skin, even in regions with substantial topography and coverage of hair. The approach combines thin, ultralow modulus, cellular silicone materials with elastic, strain-limiting fabrics, to yield a compliant but rugged platform for stretchable electronics. Theoretical and experimental studies highlight the mechanics of adhesion and elastic deformation. Demonstrations include cutaneous optical, electrical and radio frequency sensors for measuring hydration state, electrophysiological activity, pulse and cerebral oximetry. Multipoint monitoring of a subject in an advanced driving simulator provides a practical example.

  7. Drug Use among American College Students and Their Noncollege Age Peers. Monitoring the Future. Occasional Paper Series, Paper 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    Monitoring the Future is an ongoing research program which annually surveys high school seniors and also performs followup surveys of previous high school classes. This study used five different questionnaire forms to examine illicit and licit (alcohol and nicotine) drug use among U.S. college students and their age-peers not in college. The…

  8. Relation Between Witnessing Violence and Drug Use Initiation Among Rural Adolescents: Parental Monitoring and Family Support as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Kung, Eva M.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relation between witnessing violence and drug use initiation among 6th graders attending middle schools in 5 rural counties and investigated the extent to which family support and parental monitoring moderated this relation. Data were obtained from 1,282 adolescents at 2 time points during the 6th grade. Witnessing violence…

  9. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2010. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Series. Paper 74

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The full 2010 survey results are reported in "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975;2010: Volume I, Secondary School Students". That monograph contains a description of MTF's design and purposes, as well as extended reporting on substance use of all kinds, licit and illicit, and a number of related factors such as…

  10. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2004. Volume I: Secondary School Students, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 the Monitoring the Future study marked its 30th year of conducting national surveys of substance use among American young people. Beginning with the first survey of high school seniors in 1975, the study has provided the nation with a window through which to view the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illicit drug use,…

  11. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2005. Volume I. Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the Monitoring the Future study marked its 31st year of conducting national surveys of substance use among American young people. Beginning with the first survey of high school seniors in 1975, the study has provided the nation with a window through which to view the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illicit drug use,…

  12. National Survey Results on Drug Use from the Monitoring the Future Study, 1975-1997. Volume 1: Secondary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    The high school portion of the "Monitoring the Future Study" is presented. Since 1975, this national survey has helped to quantify, track, characterize, and explain changes in drug prevalence, attitudes, and behaviors among American high school students. Data are reported in graphs and statistical tables for eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade…

  13. Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

  14. Preparation and spectroscopic studies on charge-transfer complexes of famciclovir drug with different electron acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballa, Akmal S.; Teleb, Said M.; Nour, El-Metwally

    2012-09-01

    The CT-interaction of electron acceptors such as chloranilic acid (H2CA), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ) and and 7,7',8,8'-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TCNQ) with the antiviral drug famciclovir (FCV) have been investigated spectrophotometrically in the defined solvent. The data indicate the formation of CT-complexes with the general formula [(FCV)(acceptor)]. The 1:1 stoichiometry of the (FCV)-acceptors were based on elemental analysis, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis of the solid CT-complexes along with the photometric titration measurements for the reactions. The formation constants (KCT) for the CT-complexes are shown to be strongly dependent on the type and structure of the electron acceptor. Factors affecting the CT-processes such as redox potentials and steric hinderance of reactants are discussed.

  15. First principles calculation of electron ionization mass spectra for selected organic drug molecules.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christoph Alexander; Grimme, Stefan

    2014-11-21

    This study presents a showcase for the novel Quantum Chemistry Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometry (QCEIMS) method on five FDA-approved drugs. The method allows a first-principles electronic structure-based prediction of EI mass spectra in principle for any molecule. The systems in this case study are organic substances of nominal masses between 404 and 853 atomic mass units and cover a wide range of functional groups and organic molecular structure motifs. The results demonstrate the widespread applicability of the QCEIMS method for the unbiased computation of EI mass spectra even for larger molecules. Its strengths compared to standard (static) or database driven approaches in such cases are highlighted. Weak points regarding the required computation times or the approximate character of the employed QC methods are also discussed. We propose QCEIMS as a viable and robust way of predicting EI mass spectra for sizeable organic molecules relevant to medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry.

  16. Electronic Adherence Monitoring in a High-Utilizing Pediatric Asthma Cohort: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Joyce; Wynter, Sheri-Ann; Fowler, Jessica C; Long, Jin; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra C

    2016-01-01

    Background Inner-city, minority children with asthma have the highest rates of morbidity and death from asthma and the lowest rates of asthma controller medication adherence. Some recent electronic medication monitoring interventions demonstrated dramatic improvements in adherence in lower-risk populations. The feasibility and acceptability of such an intervention in the highest-risk children with asthma has not been studied. Objective Our objective was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a community health worker-delivered electronic adherence monitoring intervention among the highest utilizers of acute asthma care in an inner-city practice. Methods This was a prospective cohort pilot study targeting children with the highest frequency of asthma-related emergency department and hospital care within a local managed care Medicaid plan. The 3-month intervention included motivational interviewing, electronic monitoring of controller and rescue inhaler use, and outreach by a community health worker for predefined medication alerts. We measured acceptability by using a modified technology acceptability model and changes in asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Given prominent feasibility issues, we describe qualitative patterns of medication use at baseline only. Results We enrolled 14 non-Hispanic black children with a median age of 3.5 years. Participants averaged 7.8 emergency or hospital visits in the year preceding enrollment. We observed three distinct patterns of baseline controller use: 4 patients demonstrated sustained use, 5 patients had periodic use, and 5 patients lapsed within 2 weeks. All participants initiated use of the electronic devices; however, no modem signal was transmitted for 5 or the 14 participants after a mean of 45 days. Of the 9 (64% of total) caregivers who completed the final study visit, all viewed the electronic monitoring device favorably and would recommend it to friends, and 5 (56%) believed that the device

  17. Sensitive and Selective Plasmon Ruler Nanosensors for Monitoring the Apoptotic Drug Response in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Caspases are proteases involved in cell death, where caspase-3 is the chief executioner that produces an irreversible cutting event in downstream protein substrates and whose activity is desired in the management of cancer. To determine such activity in clinically relevant samples with high signal-to-noise, plasmon rulers are ideal because they are sensitively affected by their interparticle separation without ambiguity from photobleaching or blinking effects. A plasmon ruler is a noble metal nanoparticle pair, tethered in close proximity to one another via a biomolecule, that acts through dipole–dipole interactions and results in the light scattering to increase exponentially. In contrast, a sharp decrease in intensity is observed when the pair is confronted by a large interparticle distance. To align the mechanism of protease activity with building a sensor that can report a binary signal in the presence or absence of caspase-3, we present a caspase-3 selective plasmon ruler (C3SPR) composed of a pair of Zn0.4Fe2.6O4@SiO2@Au core–shell nanoparticles connected by a caspase-3 cleavage sequence. The dielectric core (Zn0.4Fe2.6O4@SiO2)-shell (Au) geometry provided a brighter scattering intensity versus solid Au nanoparticles, and the magnetic core additionally acted as a purification handle during the plasmon ruler assembly. By monitoring the decrease in light scattering intensity per plasmon ruler, we detected caspase-3 activity at single molecule resolution across a broad dynamic range. This was observed to be as low as 100 fM of recombinant material or 10 ng of total protein from cellular lysate. By thorough analyses of single molecule trajectories, we show caspase-3 activation in a drug-treated chronic myeloid leukemia (K562) cancer system as early as 4 and 8 h with greater sensitivity (2- and 4-fold, respectively) than conventional reagents. This study provides future implications for monitoring caspase-3 as a biomarker and efficacy of drugs. PMID:25166742

  18. Sensitive and selective plasmon ruler nanosensors for monitoring the apoptotic drug response in leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tajon, Cheryl A; Seo, Daeha; Asmussen, Jennifer; Shah, Neil; Jun, Young-wook; Craik, Charles S

    2014-09-23

    Caspases are proteases involved in cell death, where caspase-3 is the chief executioner that produces an irreversible cutting event in downstream protein substrates and whose activity is desired in the management of cancer. To determine such activity in clinically relevant samples with high signal-to-noise, plasmon rulers are ideal because they are sensitively affected by their interparticle separation without ambiguity from photobleaching or blinking effects. A plasmon ruler is a noble metal nanoparticle pair, tethered in close proximity to one another via a biomolecule, that acts through dipole-dipole interactions and results in the light scattering to increase exponentially. In contrast, a sharp decrease in intensity is observed when the pair is confronted by a large interparticle distance. To align the mechanism of protease activity with building a sensor that can report a binary signal in the presence or absence of caspase-3, we present a caspase-3 selective plasmon ruler (C3SPR) composed of a pair of Zn0.4Fe2.6O4@SiO2@Au core-shell nanoparticles connected by a caspase-3 cleavage sequence. The dielectric core (Zn0.4Fe2.6O4@SiO2)-shell (Au) geometry provided a brighter scattering intensity versus solid Au nanoparticles, and the magnetic core additionally acted as a purification handle during the plasmon ruler assembly. By monitoring the decrease in light scattering intensity per plasmon ruler, we detected caspase-3 activity at single molecule resolution across a broad dynamic range. This was observed to be as low as 100 fM of recombinant material or 10 ng of total protein from cellular lysate. By thorough analyses of single molecule trajectories, we show caspase-3 activation in a drug-treated chronic myeloid leukemia (K562) cancer system as early as 4 and 8 h with greater sensitivity (2- and 4-fold, respectively) than conventional reagents. This study provides future implications for monitoring caspase-3 as a biomarker and efficacy of drugs.

  19. Cell culture monitoring for drug screening and cancer research: a transparent, microfluidic, multi-sensor microsystem.

    PubMed

    Weltin, Andreas; Slotwinski, Kinga; Kieninger, Jochen; Moser, Isabella; Jobst, Gerhard; Wego, Marcus; Ehret, Ralf; Urban, Gerald A

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel, multiparametric microphysiometry system for the dynamic online monitoring of human cancer cell metabolism. The optically transparent, modular, hybrid microsystem is based on a glass chip and combines a cell cultivation chamber, microfluidics and metabolic monitoring with fully integrated chemo- and biosensors. pH and oxygen are measured in the cell culture area, and biosensors for lactate and glucose are connected downstream by microfluidics. The wafer-level fabrication features thin-film platinum and iridium oxide microelectrodes on a glass chip, microfluidics in an epoxy resist, a hybrid assembly and an on-chip reference electrode. The reliable analytical performance of the sensors in cell culture medium was demonstrated. The pH sensors exhibit a long-term stable, linear response. The oxygen sensors show a linear behaviour, which is also observed for low oxygen concentrations. Glucose and lactate measurements show a linear, long-term stable, selective and reversible behaviour in the desired range. T98G human brain cancer cells were cultivated and cell culture metabolism was measured on-chip. Stop/flow cycles were applied and extracellular acidification, respiration, glucose consumption and lactate production were quantified. Long-term metabolic rates were determined and all parameters could be measured in the outlet channel. A placement downstream of the cell cultivation area for biosensors was realised. A highly effective medium exchange and undiluted sampling from the cell culture chamber with low flow rates (2 μl min(-1)) and low volumes (15 μl per cycle) were achieved. The drug screening application was demonstrated by detecting alteration and recovery effects of cellular metabolism induced by the addition of substances to the medium. PMID:24217869

  20. Acidic pH-Triggered Drug-Eluting Nanocomposites for Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Monitored Intra-arterial Drug Delivery to Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Wooram; Chen, Jeane; Cho, Soojeong; Park, Sin-Jung; Larson, Andrew C; Na, Kun; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-25

    Transcatheter hepatic intra-arterial (IA) injection has been considered as an effective targeted delivery technique for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, drug-eluting beads (DEB) were developed for transcatheter IA delivery to HCC. However, the conventional DEB has offered relatively modest survival benefits. It can be difficult to control drug loading/release from DEB and to monitor selective delivery to the targeted tumors. Embolized DEBs in hepatic arteries frequently induce hypoxic and low pH conditions, promoting cancer cell growth. In this study, an acidic pH-triggered drug-eluting nanocomposite (pH-DEN) including superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocubes and pH-responsive synthetic peptides with lipid tails [octadecylamine-p(API-l-Asp)10] was developed for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-monitored transcatheter delivery of sorafenib (the only FDA-approved systemic therapy for liver cancer) to HCC. The synthesized sorafenib-loaded pH-DENs exhibited distinct pH-triggered drug release behavior at acidic pH levels and highly sensitive MR contrast effects. In an orthotopic HCC rat model, successful hepatic IA delivery and distribution of sorafenib-loaded pH-DEN was confirmed with MRI. IA-delivered sorafenib-loaded pH-DENs elicited significant tumor growth inhibition in a rodent HCC model. These results indicate that the sorafenib-pH-DENs platform has the potential to be used as an advanced tool for liver-directed IA treatment of unresectable HCC.

  1. Adolescent Ecstasy and other drug use in the National Survey of Parents and Youth: the role of sensation-seeking, parental monitoring and peer’s drug use

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Silvia S.; Storr, Carla L.; Alexandre, Pierre K.; Chilcoat, Howard D.

    2008-01-01

    The association between high sensation-seeking, close friends’ drug use and low parental monitoring with Ecstasy (MDMA) use in adolescence was examined in a sample of US household-dwelling adolescents aged 12–18 years (N=5,049). We also tested whether associations were of stronger magnitude than associations between these correlates and marijuana or alcohol/tobacco use in adolescence. Data from Round 2 of the National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY) Restricted Use Files (RUF) was analyzed via Jackknife weighted multinomial logistic regression models. High sensation-seekers were more likely to be ecstasy, marijuana, and alcohol/tobacco users, respectively, as compared to low sensation-seekers. High sensation-seeking and close friends’ drug use were more strongly associated with ecstasy as compared to marijuana and alcohol/tobacco use. Low parental monitoring was associated with marijuana use and alcohol/tobacco use and there was a trend for it to be associated with ecstasy use. Ecstasy use is strongly associated with peer drug use and more modestly associated with high sensation-seeking. School prevention programs should target high-sensation-seeking adolescents and also encourage them to affiliate with non-drug using peers. PMID:18355973

  2. Evaluation of Monitoring Schemes for Wastewater-Based Epidemiology to Identify Drug Use Trends Using Cocaine, Methamphetamine, MDMA and Methadone.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Melissa A; Bruno, Raimondo; Lai, Foon Yin; Thai, Phong K; Holland, Barbara R; O'Brien, Jake W; Ort, Christoph; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater-based epidemiology is increasingly being used as a tool to monitor drug use trends. To minimize costs, studies have typically monitored a small number of days. However, cycles of drug use may display weekly and seasonal trends that affect the accuracy of monthly or annual drug use estimates based on a limited number of samples. This study aimed to rationalize sampling methods for minimizing the number of samples required while maximizing information about temporal trends. A range of sampling strategies were examined: (i) targeted days (e.g., weekends), (ii) completely random or stratified random sampling, and (iii) a number of sampling strategies informed by known weekly cycles in drug use data. Using a time-series approach, analysis was performed for four drugs (MDMA, methamphetamine, cocaine, methadone) collected through a continuous sampling program over 14 months. Results showed, for drugs with weekly cycles (MDMA, methamphetamine and cocaine in this sample), sampling strategies which made use of those weekly cycles required fewer samples to obtain similar information as sampling 5 days per week and had better accuracy than stratified random sampling techniques. PMID:27007609

  3. Fluorescence and Electron Microscopy to Visualize the Intracellular Fate of Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo, M.; Carton, F.; Marengo, A.; Berlier, G.; Stella, B.; Arpicco, S.; Malatesta, M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to design valid protocols for drug release via nanocarriers, it is essential to know the mechanisms of cell internalization, the interactions with organelles, and the intra-cellular permanence and degradation of nanoparticles (NPs) as well as the possible cell alteration or damage induced. In the present study, the intracellular fate of liposomes, polymeric NPs and mesoporous silica NPs (MSN) has been investigated in an in vitro cell system by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. The tested nanocarriers proved to be characterized by specific interactions with the cell: liposomes enter the cells probably by fusion with the plasma membrane and undergo rapid cytoplasmic degradation; polymeric NPs are internalized by endocytosis, occur in the cytoplasm both enclosed in endosomes and free in the cytosol, and then undergo massive degradation by lysosome action; MSN are internalized by both endocytosis and phagocytosis, and persist in the cytoplasm enclosed in vacuoles. No one of the tested nanocarriers was found to enter the nucleus. The exposure to the different nanocarriers did not increase cell death; only liposomes induced a reduction of cell population after long incubation times, probably due to cell overloading. No subcellular damage was observed to be induced by polymeric NPs and MSN, whereas transmission electron microscopy revealed cytoplasm alterations in liposome-treated cells. This important information on the structural and functional relationships between nanocarriers designed for drug delivery and cultured cells further proves the crucial role of microscopy techniques in nanotechnology. PMID:27349319

  4. The customised electronic nebuliser: a new category of liquid aerosol drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Knoch, Martin; Keller, Manfred

    2005-03-01

    Inhalation of aerosols is the preferred route of administration of pharmaceutical compounds to the lungs when treating various respiratory diseases. Inhaled antibiotics, hormones, peptides and proteins are potential candidates for direct targeting to the site of action, thus minimising systemic absorption, dilution and undesired side effects, as much lower doses (as low as a fiftieth) are sufficient to achieve a similar therapeutic effect, compared with oral administration. A quick relief from the symptoms and a good tolerance are the main advantages of aerosol therapy. A new class of electronic delivery device is now starting to enter the market. The eFlow electronic nebuliser (PARI GmbH, Germany) provides improved portability and, in some instances, cuts treatment time to only a fraction of what has been experienced with current nebulised therapy. Drug formulations and the device can be mutually adapted and matched for optimal characteristics to meet the desired therapeutic target. Reformulation of known and proven compounds in a liquid format are commercially attractive as they present a relatively low development risk for potential drug candidates and, thus, have become a preferred pathway for the development of new inhalation products. PMID:16296761

  5. Wireless connection of continuous glucose monitoring system to the electronic patient record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Alexandre; Gutierrez, Marco A.; Lage, Silvia G.; Rebelo, Marina S.; Granja, Luiz A. R.; Ramires, Jose A. F.

    2005-04-01

    The control of blood sugar level (BSL) at near-normal levels has been documented to reduce both acute and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. Recent studies suggested, the reduction of mortality in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU), when the BSL are maintained at normal levels. Despite of the benefits appointed by these and others clinical studies, the strict BSL control in critically ill patients suffers from some difficulties: a) medical staff need to measure and control the patient"s BSL using blood sample at least every hour. This is a complex and time consuming task; b) the inaccuracy of standard capillary glucose monitoring (fingerstick) in hypotensive patients and, if frequently used to sample arterial or venous blood, may lead to excess phlebotomy; c) there is no validated procedure for continuously monitoring of BSL levels. This study used the MiniMed CGMS in ill patients at ICU to send, in real-time, BSL values to a Web-Based Electronic Patient Record. The BSL values are parsed and delivered through a wireless network as an HL7 message. The HL7 messages with BSL values are collected, stored into the Electronic Patient Record and presented into a bed-side monitor at the ICU together with other relevant patient information.

  6. Use of Continuous Electronic Fetal Monitoring in a Preterm Fetus: Clinical Dilemmas and Recommendations for Practice

    PubMed Central

    Afors, Karolina; Chandraharan, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of intrapartum continuous electronic fetal monitoring using a cardiotocograph (CTG) is to identify a fetus exposed to intrapartum hypoxic insults so that timely and appropriate action could be instituted to improve perinatal outcome. Features observed on a CTG trace reflect the functioning of somatic and autonomic nervous systems and the fetal response to hypoxic or mechanical insults during labour. Although, National Guidelines on electronic fetal monitoring exist for term fetuses, there is paucity of recommendations based on scientific evidence for monitoring preterm fetuses during labour. Lack of evidence-based recommendations may pose a clinical dilemma as preterm births account for nearly 8% (1 in 13) live births in England and Wales. 93% of these preterm births occur after 28 weeks, 6% between 22–27 weeks, and 1% before 22 weeks. Physiological control of fetal heart rate and the resultant features observed on the CTG trace differs in the preterm fetus as compared to a fetus at term making interpretation difficult. This review describes the features of normal fetal heart rate patterns at different gestations and the physiological responses of a preterm fetus compared to a fetus at term. We have proposed an algorithm “ACUTE” to aid management. PMID:21922045

  7. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-01-01

    Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy), it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable. PMID:27657086

  8. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation: a new indication for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tam, Carolyn; McKenna, Kate; Goh, Y Ingrid; Klieger-Grossman, Chagit; O'Connor, Deborah L; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon

    2009-06-01

    The role of periconceptional folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) has been well established. Maternal red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration is inversely associated with NTD risk, and concentrations above 906 nmol/L are associated with a low risk of NTDs. Current guidelines call for a minimum of 0.4 mg of folic acid per day for all women who could become pregnant and higher levels of supplementation for women with a family history of NTDs or risk factors associated with NTDs. However, there is variability in supplement adherence and lack of knowledge of conditions that may elevate folate requirements or NTD risk. Therefore, guidance provided to the population as a whole may be inappropriate for individual women. Current data show that a significant proportion of women of childbearing age have RBC folate concentrations below 906 nmol/L, rendering a higher-than-baseline risk for NTDs. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of RBC folate could be used to identify these women and to help them improve their folate status, thus reducing their risk for having a child with an NTD.This review describes the evolution of the evidence for TDM of RBC folate and preliminary experience with TDM in a population of 12 women who were planning a pregnancy and who were being treated with an atypical antipsychotic.

  9. Potentiometric electronic tongue-flow injection analysis system for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; del Valle, M; Alegret, S; Valderrama, C; Florido, A

    2012-05-15

    An automated flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system with electronic tongue detection (ET) is used for the monitoring of biosorption processes of heavy metals on vegetable wastes. Grape stalk wastes are used as biosorbent to remove Cu(2+) ions in a fixed-bed column configuration. The ET is formed by a 5-sensor array with Cu(2+) and Ca(2+)-selective electrodes and electrodes with generic response to heavy-metals, plus an artificial neural network response model of the sensor's cross-response. The real-time monitoring of both the Cu(2+) and the cation exchanged and released (Ca(2+)) in the effluent solution is performed by using flow-injection potentiometric electronic tongue system. The coupling of the electronic tongue with automation features of the flow-injection system allows us to accurately characterize the Cu(2+) ion-biosorption process, through obtaining its breakthrough curves, and the profile of the Ca(2+) ion release. In parallel, fractions of the extract solution are analysed by spectroscopic techniques in order to validate the results obtained with the reported methodology. The sorption performance of grape stalks is also evaluated by means of well-established sorption models.

  10. A configurable electronics system for the ESS-Bilbao beam position monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muguira, L.; Belver, D.; Etxebarria, V.; Varnasseri, S.; Arredondo, I.; del Campo, M.; Echevarria, P.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J.; Jugo, J.; Portilla, J.

    2013-09-01

    A versatile and configurable system has been developed in order to monitorize the beam position and to meet all the requirements of the future ESS-Bilbao Linac. At the same time the design has been conceived to be open and configurable so that it could eventually be used in different kinds of accelerators, independent of the charged particle, with minimal change. The design of the Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) system includes a test bench both for button-type pick-ups (PU) and striplines (SL), the electronic units and the control system. The electronic units consist of two main parts. The first part is an Analog Front-End (AFE) unit where the RF signals are filtered, conditioned and converted to base-band. The second part is a Digital Front-End (DFE) unit which is based on an FPGA board where the base-band signals are sampled in order to calculate the beam position, the amplitude and the phase. To manage the system a Multipurpose Controller (MC) developed at ESSB has been used. It includes the FPGA management, the EPICS integration and Archiver Instances. A description of the system and a comparison between the performance of both PU and SL BPM designs measured with this electronics system are fully described and discussed.

  11. Gas-Monitor Detector for Intense and Pulsed VUV/EUV Free-Electron Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A. A.; Bobashev, S. V.; Feldhaus, J.; Gerth, Ch.; Gottwald, A.; Hahn, U.; Kroth, U.; Richter, M.; Shmaenok, L. A.; Steeg, B.; Tiedtke, K.; Treusch, R.

    2004-05-01

    In the framework of current developments of new powerful VUV and EUV radiation sources, like VUV free-electron-lasers or EUV plasma sources for 13-nm lithography, we developed a gas-monitor detector in order to measure the photon flux of highly intense and extremely pulsed VUV and EUV radiation in absolute terms. The device is based on atomic photoionization of a rare gas at low particle density. Therefore, it is free of degradation and almost transparent, which allows the detector to be used as a continuously working beam-intensity monitor. The extended dynamic range of the detector allowed its calibration with relative standard uncertainties of 4% in the Radiometry Laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron-storage ring BESSY II in Berlin using spectrally dispersed synchrotron radiation at low photon intensities and its utilization for absolute photon flux measurements of high power sources. In the present contribution, we describe the design of the detector and its application for the characterization of VUV free-electron-laser radiation at the TESLA test facility in Hamburg. By first pulse resolved measurements, a peak power of more than 100 MW at a wavelength of 87 nm was detected.

  12. Group velocity delay spectroscopy technique for industrial monitoring of electron beam induced vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Benterou, J J; Berzins, L V; Sharma, M N

    1998-09-24

    Spectroscopic techniques are ideal for characterization and process control of electron beam generated vapor plumes. Absorption based techniques work well for a wide variety of applications, but are difficult to apply to optically dense or opaque vapor plumes. We describe an approach for monitoring optically dense vapor plumes that is based on measuring the group velocity delay of a laser beam near an optical transition to determine the vapor density. This technique has a larger dynamic range than absorption spectroscopy. We describe our progress towards a robust system to monitor aluminum vaporization in an industrial environment. Aluminum was chosen because of its prevalence in high performance aircraft alloys. In these applications, composition control of the alloy constituents is critical to the deposition process. Data is presented demonstrating the superior dynamic range of the measurement. In addition, preliminary data demonstrating aluminum vapor rate control in an electron beam evaporator is presented. Alternative applications where this technique could be useful are discussed. Keywords: Group velocity delay spectroscopy, optical beat signal, optical heterodyne, index of refraction, laser absorption spectroscopy, external cavity diode laser (ECDL), electron beam vaporization, vapor density, vapor phase manufacturing, process control

  13. An evaluation of the electronic fetal monitor as a feedback device during labor.

    PubMed Central

    Brasted, W S; Callahan, E J

    1984-01-01

    We describe new methodology for the evaluation of the labor experience and preliminary findings using these methods. The effects of feedback from an Electronic Fetal Monitor on report of contraction onset were evaluated during the labors of eight primiparous women, four of whom had attended childbirth preparation classes. Using a within-subject reversal design, data were gathered across four phases for each woman: no feedback (monitor turned away from mother and coach), feedback, no feedback, and feedback again. The women were observed in early labor without medication. Six women were able to note the onset of contractions earlier with the availability of feedback; two women (who had not attended childbirth preparation classes) were more variable in their response. Threshold for recognition of pain onset did not change reliably. Seven of the eight women chose to continue monitoring when offered the chance to discontinue it. These results suggest that the technological advance of fetal monitoring can be used in cooperation with prepared childbirth techniques to facilitate earlier recognition of contraction onset, allowing increased preparation for contractions. Further experimental evaluations during labor are suggested. PMID:6735956

  14. Implementation and evaluation of adverse drug reaction monitoring system in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Patidar, Dindayal; Rajput, Mithun S; Nirmal, Nilesh P; Savitri, Wenny

    2013-03-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, often identified only post-marketingly. Improvement in current ADR reporting, including utility of underused or innovative methods, is crucial to improve patient safety and public health. Hospital-based monitoring is one of the methods used to collect data about drug prescriptions and adverse events. The aims of this study were to identify the most frequent ADRs recognized by the attending physicians, study their nature, and to target these ADRs in order to take future preventive measures. A prospective study was conducted over a 7-month period in an internal medicine department using stimulated spontaneous reporting for identifying ADRs. Out of the 254 admissions, 32 ADRs in 37 patients (14.56%) were validated from the total of 36 suspected ADRs in 41 patients. Female predominance was noted over males in case of ADRs. Fifty percent of total ADRs occurred due to multiple drug therapy. Dermatological ADRs were found to be the most frequent (68.75%), followed by respiratory, central nervous system and gastrointestinal ADRs. The drugs most frequently involved were antibiotics, anti-tubercular agents, antigout agents, and NSAIDs. The most commonly reported reactions were itching and rashes. Out of the 32 reported ADRs, 50% of the reactions were probable, 46.87% of the reactions were possible and 3.12% of the reactions were definite. The severity assessment done by using the Hartwig and Seigel scale indicated that the majority of ADRs were 'Mild' followed by 'Moderate' and 'Severe' reactions, respectively. Out of all, 75% of ADRs were recovered. The most potent management of ADRs was found to be drug withdrawal. Our study indicated that hospital based monitoring was a good method to detect links between drug exposure and adverse drug reactions. Adequate training regarding pharmacology and optimization of drug therapy might be helpful to reduce ADR morbidity and mortality. PMID:24170978

  15. Emerging technologies for electronic monitoring of adherence, inhaler competence, and true adherence.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, John N; Nicholls, Clare

    2015-04-01

    Despite the availability of effective treatments for respiratory disorders, disease control is often suboptimal, due in part to the failure of patients to adhere to prescribed regimens, or to demonstrate competence with the often complex steps in the administration of inhaled medications. The cost of poor true adherence, a combined measure of adherence and inhaler competence, is considerable, both economically and in terms of health-related impact. While patient education is recognized as essential, there exist many barriers to healthcare professional-led monitoring and promotion of true adherence. Successful intervention remains a challenging task, dependent upon understanding and addressing the distinct issues associated with poor adherence and inhaler competence, and lessening the perceived burden on healthcare professionals. Electronic monitors provide an accurate and objective indication of adherence and may also be of value in assessing inhaler competence. The information provided by such devices is a helpful aid to understanding the challenging nature of true adherence, and may be crucial to the development and assessment of true adherence promoting interventions. This article provides a background to the impact of suboptimal adherence and inhaler competence, and the challenges associated with the promotion of true adherence, with an emphasis on respiratory therapies. Contemporary electronic monitors of adherence and inhaler competence are critically reviewed, and case studies of emerging technologies are provided to illustrate the use of innovative monitoring devices in the promotion of true adherence in practice. Potential future directions, including increased targeting and individualization, enhanced coordination of care, and a greater focus on inhaler competence are considered to be important additions to currently available technologies in this rapidly evolving field.

  16. A Novel High Throughput Assay for Anthelmintic Drug Screening and Resistance Diagnosis by Real-Time Monitoring of Parasite Motility

    PubMed Central

    Smout, Michael J.; Kotze, Andrew C.; McCarthy, James S.; Loukas, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Background Helminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed by observing motility or development of parasites using laborious, subjective, low-throughput methods. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a novel application for a real-time cell monitoring device (xCELLigence) that can simply and objectively assess anthelmintic effects by measuring parasite motility in real time in a fully automated high-throughput fashion. We quantitatively assessed motility and determined real time IC50 values of different anthelmintic drugs against several developmental stages of major helminth pathogens of humans and livestock, including larval Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides ratti, and adult hookworms and blood flukes. The assay enabled quantification of the onset of egg hatching in real time, and the impact of drugs on hatch rate, as well as discriminating between the effects of drugs on motility of drug-susceptible and –resistant isolates of H. contortus. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that this technique will be suitable for discovery and development of new anthelmintic drugs as well as for detection of phenotypic resistance to existing drugs for the majority of helminths and other pathogens where motility is a measure of pathogen viability. The method is also amenable to use for other purposes where motility is assessed, such as gene silencing or antibody-mediated killing. PMID:21103363

  17. A collaborative interdisciplinary approach to electronic fetal monitoring: report of a statewide initiative.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa A; Miller, David A

    2013-01-01

    Intrapartum electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is one of the most common procedures in obstetrics. Current consensus statements provide clinicians with a common language for EFM as well as provide a basis for a simplified approach to interpretation and management. This article presents a summary of the content and implementation of a statewide initiative in interdisciplinary EFM education and training designed to give clinicians of all backgrounds a shared mental model in EFM. Challenges to implementation at individual institutions may include physician and nursing engagement as well as time and cost constraints. PMID:23618933

  18. Using the Global GPS Network and Other Satellite Data to Monitor Ionospheric Total Electron Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannucci, Anthony J.; Wilson, Brian D.; Yuan, Dah-Ning; Lindqwister, Ulf

    1994-01-01

    A globally distributed network of dual-frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers is the primary source of data used to measure ionospheric total electron content (TEC) on global scales. Maps of TEC useful for calibrating propagation delays, or monitoring the solar-terrestrial environment, can be produced using this continuously operating network. The maps can also form the basis of a TEC calibration service for users around the world. Potential users may include single-frequency satellite altimetry missions, satellite tracking stations, and astronomical observatories.

  19. Real-time Monitoring of Sustained Drug Release using the Optical Properties of Porous Silicon Photonic Crystal Particles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, E.C.; Andrew, J.S.; Cheng, L; Freeman, W.R.; Pearson, L; Sailor, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    A controlled and observable drug delivery system that enables long-term local drug administration is reported. Biodegradable and biocompatible drug-loaded porous Si microparticles were prepared from silicon wafers, resulting in a porous 1-dimensional photonic crystal (rugate filter) approx. 12 micrometers thick and 35 micrometers across. An organic linker, 1-undecylenic acid, was attached to the Si-H terminated inner surface of the particles by hydrosilylation and the anthracycline drug daunorubicin was bound to the carboxy terminus of the linker. Degradation of the porous Si matrix in vitro was found to release the drug in a linear and sustained fashion for 30 d. The bioactivity of the released daunorubicin was verified on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The degradation/drug delivery process was monitored in situ by digital imaging or spectroscopic measurement of the photonic resonance reflected from the nanostructured particles, and a simple linear correlation between observed wavelength and drug release was observed. Changes in the optical reflectance spectrum were sufficiently large to be visible as a distinctive red to green color change. PMID:21122914

  20. From B. F. Skinner to Spiderman to Martha Stewart: The Past, Present and Future of Electronic Monitoring of Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, William D.; Gable, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic monitoring was originally designed as a system to facilitate the rehabilitation of young adult offenders. The concept was not well-received, and the first judicially sanctioned program was not initiated until 20 years later. Adoption of the technology then spread rapidly. The primary use of monitoring has evolved from being an adjunct…

  1. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... phonocardiographic monitor is a device designed to detect, measure, and record fetal heart sounds electronically,...

  2. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... phonocardiographic monitor is a device designed to detect, measure, and record fetal heart sounds electronically,...

  3. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... phonocardiographic monitor is a device designed to detect, measure, and record fetal heart sounds electronically,...

  4. Motion Compensated Ultrasound Imaging Allows Thermometry and Image Guided Drug Delivery Monitoring from Echogenic Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ektate, Kalyani; Kapoor, Ankur; Maples, Danny; Tuysuzoglu, Ahmet; VanOsdol, Joshua; Ramasami, Selvarani; Ranjan, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is widely used both for cancer diagnosis and to assess therapeutic success, but due to its weak tissue contrast and the short half-life of commercially available contrast agents, it is currently not practical for assessing motion compensated contrast-enhanced tumor imaging, or for determining time-resolved absolute tumor temperature while simultaneously reporting on drug delivery. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop echogenic heat sensitive liposomes (E-LTSL) and non-thermosensitive liposomes (E-NTSL) to enhance half-life of contrast agents, and 2) measure motion compensated temperature induced state changes in acoustic impedance and Laplace pressure of liposomes to monitor temperature and doxorubicin (Dox) delivery to tumors. LTSL and NTSL containing Dox were co-loaded with an US contrast agent (perfluoropentane, PFP) using a one-step sonoporation method to create E-LTSL and E-NTSL. To determine temperature induced intensity variation with respect to the state change of E-LTSL and E-NTSL in mouse colon tumors, cine acquisition of 20 frames/second for about 20 min (or until wash out) at temperatures of 42°C, 39.5°C, and 37°C was performed. A rigid rotation and translation was applied to each of the “key frames” to adjust for any gross motion that arose due to motion of the animal or the transducer. To evaluate the correlation between ultrasound (US) intensity variation and Dox release at various temperatures, treatment (5 mg Dox/kg) was administered via a tail vein once tumors reached a size of 300-400 mm3, and mean intensity within regions of interest (ROIs) defined for each sample was computed over the collected frames and normalized in the range of [0,1]. When the motion compensation technique was applied, a > 2-fold drop in standard deviation in mean image intensity of tumor was observed, enabling a more robust estimation of temporal variations in tumor temperatures for 15-20 min. due to state change of E-LTSL and E

  5. Motion Compensated Ultrasound Imaging Allows Thermometry and Image Guided Drug Delivery Monitoring from Echogenic Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Ektate, Kalyani; Kapoor, Ankur; Maples, Danny; Tuysuzoglu, Ahmet; VanOsdol, Joshua; Ramasami, Selvarani; Ranjan, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is widely used both for cancer diagnosis and to assess therapeutic success, but due to its weak tissue contrast and the short half-life of commercially available contrast agents, it is currently not practical for assessing motion compensated contrast-enhanced tumor imaging, or for determining time-resolved absolute tumor temperature while simultaneously reporting on drug delivery. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop echogenic heat sensitive liposomes (E-LTSL) and non-thermosensitive liposomes (E-NTSL) to enhance half-life of contrast agents, and 2) measure motion compensated temperature induced state changes in acoustic impedance and Laplace pressure of liposomes to monitor temperature and doxorubicin (Dox) delivery to tumors. LTSL and NTSL containing Dox were co-loaded with an US contrast agent (perfluoropentane, PFP) using a one-step sonoporation method to create E-LTSL and E-NTSL. To determine temperature induced intensity variation with respect to the state change of E-LTSL and E-NTSL in mouse colon tumors, cine acquisition of 20 frames/second for about 20 min (or until wash out) at temperatures of 42°C, 39.5°C, and 37°C was performed. A rigid rotation and translation was applied to each of the "key frames" to adjust for any gross motion that arose due to motion of the animal or the transducer. To evaluate the correlation between ultrasound (US) intensity variation and Dox release at various temperatures, treatment (5 mg Dox/kg) was administered via a tail vein once tumors reached a size of 300-400 mm(3), and mean intensity within regions of interest (ROIs) defined for each sample was computed over the collected frames and normalized in the range of [0,1]. When the motion compensation technique was applied, a > 2-fold drop in standard deviation in mean image intensity of tumor was observed, enabling a more robust estimation of temporal variations in tumor temperatures for 15-20 min. due to state change of E-LTSL and E

  6. Internet-Based Device-Assisted Remote Monitoring of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Pron, G; Ieraci, L; Kaulback, K

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) report was to conduct a systematic review of the available published evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of Internet-based device-assisted remote monitoring systems (RMSs) for therapeutic cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) such as pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The MAS evidence-based review was performed to support public financing decisions. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of fatalities in developed countries. In the United States almost half a million people die of SCD annually, resulting in more deaths than stroke, lung cancer, breast cancer, and AIDS combined. In Canada each year more than 40,000 people die from a cardiovascular related cause; approximately half of these deaths are attributable to SCD. Most cases of SCD occur in the general population typically in those without a known history of heart disease. Most SCDs are caused by cardiac arrhythmia, an abnormal heart rhythm caused by malfunctions of the heart’s electrical system. Up to half of patients with significant heart failure (HF) also have advanced conduction abnormalities. Cardiac arrhythmias are managed by a variety of drugs, ablative procedures, and therapeutic CIEDs. The range of CIEDs includes pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. Bradycardia is the main indication for PMs and individuals at high risk for SCD are often treated by ICDs. Heart failure (HF) is also a significant health problem and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in those over 65 years of age. Patients with moderate to severe HF may also have cardiac arrhythmias, although the cause may be related more to heart pump or haemodynamic failure. The presence of HF, however

  7. A Portable Surface Contamination Monitor Based on the Principle of Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perey, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    Many industrial and aerospace processes involving the joining of materials, require sufficient surface cleanliness to insure proper bonding. Processes as diverse as painting, welding, or the soldering of electronic circuits will be compromised if prior inspection and removal of surface contaminants is inadequate. As process requirements become more stringent and the number of different materials and identified contaminants increases, various instruments and techniques have been developed for improved inspection. One such technique, based on the principle of Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE), has been explored for a number of years as a tool for surface contamination monitoring. Some of the benefits of OSEE are: it is non-contacting; requires little operator training; and has very high contamination sensitivity. This paper describes the development of a portable OSEE based surface contamination monitor. The instrument is suitable for both hand-held and robotic inspections with either manual or automated control of instrument operation. In addition, instrument output data is visually displayed to the operator and may be sent to an external computer for archiving or analysis.

  8. Spontaneous monitoring of adverse reactions to drugs by Italian dermatologists: a pilot study. Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    During 1988, the Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia (GISED) coordinated a pilot study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of a system for spontaneous monitoring of adverse drug reactions in dermatological practice in Italy. Approximately 400 dermatologists were asked to collaborate, and 141 agreed to the study. Procedures similar to those well established in other surveillance programs (including the use of standard forms and standardized assessment procedure) were adopted. In a 2-month period 775 reports were collected, of which 711 were maintained after careful evaluation. The general profile of the adverse reactions reported was in accordance with the experience derived by other spontaneous surveillance programs. The main purpose of spontaneous reporting systems is the identification of new reactions, and a model analysis was proposed, in our study, with reference to skin reactions to bamifylline. The demonstration of the feasibility of a drug-monitoring program in Italy, where little tradition exists in the area, is the most important result of our study.

  9. Monitoring the osmotic response of single yeast cells through force measurement in the environmental scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Anna; Nafari, Alexandra; Hedfalk, Kristina; Olsson, Eva; Svensson, Krister; Sanz-Velasco, Anke

    2014-02-01

    We present a measurement system that combines an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). This combination enables studies of static and dynamic mechanical properties of hydrated specimens, such as individual living cells. The integrated AFM sensor provides direct and continuous force measurement based on piezoresistive force transduction, allowing the recording of events in the millisecond range. The in situ ESEM-AFM setup was used to study Pichia pastoris wild-type yeast cells. For the first time, a quantified measure of the osmotic response of an individual yeast cell inside an ESEM is presented. With this technique, cell size changes due to humidity variations can be monitored with nanometre accuracy. In addition, mechanical properties were extracted from load-displacement curves. A Young's modulus of 13-15 MPa was obtained for the P. pastoris yeast cells. The developed method is highly interesting as a complementary tool for the screening of drugs directed towards cellular water transport activity and provides new possibilities of studying mechanosensitive regulation of aquaporins.

  10. Electron spin resonance microscopy applied to the study of controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Blank, Aharon; Freed, Jack H; Kumar, Naraharisetti Pavan; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2006-03-10

    We describe our recent developments towards 3D micron-scale imaging capability, based on electron spin resonance (ESR), and its application to the study of controlled release. The method, termed ESR microscopy (ESRM), is an extension of the conventional "millimeter-scale" ESR imaging technique. It employs paramagnetic molecules (such as stable radicals or spin-labeled drugs) and may enable one to obtain accurate 3D spatially resolved information about the drug concentration, its self-diffusion tensor, rotational correlation time and the pH in the release matrix. Theoretical calculations, along with initial experimental results, suggest that a 3D resolution of approximately 1 microm is feasible with this method. Here we were able to image successfully a high spin concentration sample with a resolution of approximately 3 x 3 x 8 microm and subsequently study a single approximately 120 microm biodegradable microsphere, internalized with a dilute solution of trityl radical, with a resolution of approximately 12.7 x 13.2 x 26 microm. Analysis of the microsphere ESR imaging data revealed a likely increase in the viscosity inside the sphere and/or binding of the radical molecule to the sphere matrix. Future directions for progress are also discussed.

  11. Monitoring system including an electronic sensor platform and an interrogation transceiver

    DOEpatents

    Kinzel, Robert L.; Sheets, Larry R.

    2003-09-23

    A wireless monitoring system suitable for a wide range of remote data collection applications. The system includes at least one Electronic Sensor Platform (ESP), an Interrogator Transceiver (IT) and a general purpose host computer. The ESP functions as a remote data collector from a number of digital and analog sensors located therein. The host computer provides for data logging, testing, demonstration, installation checkout, and troubleshooting of the system. The IT transmits signals from one or more ESP's to the host computer to the ESP's. The IT host computer may be powered by a common power supply, and each ESP is individually powered by a battery. This monitoring system has an extremely low power consumption which allows remote operation of the ESP for long periods; provides authenticated message traffic over a wireless network; utilizes state-of-health and tamper sensors to ensure that the ESP is secure and undamaged; has robust housing of the ESP suitable for use in radiation environments; and is low in cost. With one base station (host computer and interrogator transceiver), multiple ESP's may be controlled at a single monitoring site.

  12. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  13. Electronic Communications and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring (e-BP) study: Design, delivery, and evaluation framework

    PubMed Central

    Green, Beverly B.; Ralston, James D.; Fishman, Paul A.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Cook, Andrea; Carlson, Jim; Tyll, Lynda; Carrell, David; Thompson, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials have provided unequivocal evidence that treatment of hypertension decreases mortality and major disability from cardiovascular disease; however, blood pressure remains inadequately treated in most affected individuals. This large gap continues despite the facts that more than 90% of adults with hypertension have health insurance, and hypertension is the leading cause of visits to the doctor. New approaches are needed to improve hypertension care. Objectives The Electronic Communications and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring (e-BP) study is a three-arm randomized controlled trial designed to determine whether care based on the Chronic Care Model and delivered over the Internet improves hypertension care. The primary study outcomes are systolic, diastolic, and blood pressure control; secondary outcomes are medication adherence, patient self-efficacy, satisfaction and quality of life, and healthcare utilization and costs. Methods Hypertensive patients receiving care at Group Health medical centers are eligible if they have uncontrolled blood pressure on two screening visits and access to the Web and an e-mail address. Study participants are randomly assigned to three intervention groups: (a) usual care; (b) home blood pressure monitoring receipt and proficiency training on its use and the Group Health secure patient website (with secure e-mail access to their healthcare provider, access to a shared medical record, prescription refill and other services); or (c) this plus pharmacist care management (collaborative care management between the patient, the pharmacist, and the patient’s physician via a secure patient website and the electronic medical record). Conclusion We will determine whether a new model of patient-centered care that leverages Web communications, self-monitoring, and collaborative care management improves hypertension control. If this model proves successful and cost-effective, similar interventions could be used

  14. Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

  15. Ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric assay for therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral drugs in pediatric HIV-1 infection applying dried blood spots

    PubMed Central

    van Kampen, Jeroen J. A.; Reedijk, Mariska L.; Scheuer, Rachel D.; Dekker, Lennard J. M.; Burger, David M.; Hartwig, Nico G.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Luider, Theo M.; Gruters, Rob A.

    2010-01-01

    Kaletra® (Abott Laboratories) is a co-formulated medication used in the treatment of HIV-1-infected children, and it contains the two antiretroviral protease inhibitor drugs lopinavir and ritonavir. We validated two new ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric assays to be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations in whole blood and in plasma from HIV-1-infected children. Whole blood was blotted onto dried blood spot (DBS) collecting cards, and plasma was collected simultaneously. DBS collecting cards were extracted by an acetonitrile/water mixture while plasma samples were deproteinized with acetone. Drug concentrations were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS). The application of DBS made it possible to measure lopinavir and ritonavir in whole blood in therapeutically relevant concentrations. The MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS plasma assay was successfully cross-validated with a commonly used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–ultraviolet (UV) assay for the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of HIV-1-infected patients, and it showed comparable performance characteristics. Observed DBS concentrations showed as well, a good correlation between plasma concentrations obtained by MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS and those obtained by the HPLC-UV assay. Application of DBS for TDM proved to be a good alternative to the normally used plasma screening. Moreover, collection of DBS requires small amounts of whole blood which can be easily performed especially in (very) young children where collection of large whole blood amounts is often not possible. DBS is perfectly suited for TDM of HIV-1-infected children; but nevertheless, DBS can also easily be applied for TDM of patients in areas with limited or no laboratory facilities. PMID:20632164

  16. In-die ultrasonic and off-line air-coupled monitoring and characterization techniques for drug tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, J. D.; Kowalczyk, B. R.; Hancock, B. C.; Kaul, G.; Akseli, I.; Cetinkaya, C.

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical integrity and properties of drug tablets may adversely affect their therapeutic and structural functions. An embedded ultrasound monitoring system for tablet mechanical property monitoring during compaction and a non-contact/non-destructive off-line air-coupled technique for determining the mechanical properties of coated drug tablets are presented. In the compaction monitoring system, the change of ToF and the reflection coefficient for the upper-punch surface interface as a function of compaction pressure has been studied. In the air-coupled measurement approach, air-coupled excitation and laser interferometric detection are utilized and their effectiveness in characterizing the mechanical properties of a drug tablet by examining its vibrational resonance frequencies is demonstrated. An iterative computational procedure based on the finite element method and Newton's method is developed to extract the mechanical properties of the coated tablet from a subset of its measured resonance frequencies. The mechanical properties characterized by this technique are compared to those obtained by a contact ultrasonic method.

  17. Emerging Technologies for Monitoring Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis at the Point-of-Care

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Vigneshwaran; Wang, ShuQi; Inci, Fatih; De Libero, Gennaro; Singhal, Amit; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Among them, tuberculosis (TB) remains a major threat to public health, exacerbated by the emergence of multiple drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). MDR-Mtb strains are resistant to first-line anti-TB drugs such as isoniazid and rifampicin; whereas XDR-Mtb strains are resistant to additional drugs including at least to any fluoroquinolone and at least one of the second-line anti-TB injectable drugs such as kanamycin, capreomycin, or amikacin. Clinically, these strains have significantly impacted the management of TB in high-incidence developing countries, where systemic surveillance of TB drug resistance is lacking. For effective management of TB on-site, early detection of drug resistance is critical to initiate treatment, to reduce mortality, and to thwart drug-resistant TB transmission. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic challenges to detect drug-resistant TB at the point-of-care (POC). Moreover, we present the latest advances in nano/microscale technologies that can potentially detect TB drug resistance to improve on-site patient care. PMID:24882226

  18. Development of Electronics for the ATF2 Interaction Point Region Beam Position Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngim; Heo, Ae-young; Kim, Eun-San; Boogert, Stewart; Honda, Yosuke; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Smith, Tonee; /SLAC

    2012-08-14

    Nanometer resolution beam position monitors have been developed to measure and control beam position stability at the interaction point region of ATF2. The position of the beam has to be measured to within a few nanometers at the interaction point. In order to achieve this performance, electronics for the low-Q IP-BPM was developed. Every component of the electronics have been simulated and checked on the bench and using the ATF2 beam. We will explain each component and define their working range. Then, we will show the performance of the electronics measured with beam signal. ATF2 is a final focus test beam line for ILC in the framework of the ATF international collaboration. The new beam line was constructed to extend the extraction line at ATF, KEK, Japan. The first goal of ATF2 is the acheiving of a 37 nm vertical beam size at focal point (IP). The second goal is to stabilize the beam at the focal point at a few nanometer level for a long period in order to ensure the high luminosity. To achieve these goals a high resolution IP-BPM is essential. In addition for feedback applications a low-Q system is desirable.

  19. Development of an On-animal Separation-based Sensor for Monitoring Drug Metabolism in Freely Roaming Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David E.; Willis, Sean D.; Gabbert, Seth; Johnson, Dave A.; Naylor, Erik; Janle, Elsa M.; Krichevsky, Janice E.; Lunte, Craig E.; Lunte, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of an on-animal separation-based sensor that can be employed for monitoring drug metabolism in a freely roaming sheep is described. The system consists of microdialysis sampling coupled directly to microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection (MD-ME-EC). Separations were accomplished using an all-glass chip with integrated platinum working and reference electrodes. Discrete samples from the microdialysis flow were introduced into the electrophoresis chip using a flow-gated injection approach. Electrochemical detection was accomplished in-channel using a two-electrode isolated potentiostat. Nitrite was separated by microchip electrophoresis using reverse polarity and a run buffer consisting of 50 mM phosphate at pH 7.4. The entire system was under telemetry control. The system was first tested with rats to monitor the production of nitrite following introduction of nitroglycerin into the subdermal tissue using a linear probe. The data acquired using the on-line MD-ME-EC system was compared to that obtained off-line analysis by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (LC-EC), using a second microdialysis probe implanted parallel to the first probe in the same animal. The MD-ME-EC device was then used on-animal to monitor the subdermal metabolism of nitroglycerin in sheep. The ultimate goal is to use this device to simultaneously monitor drug metabolism and behavior in a freely roaming animal. PMID:25697221

  20. Long-term Cross-validation of Everolimus Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Assays: The Zortracker Study

    PubMed Central

    Schniedewind, B; Niederlechner, S; Galinkin, JL; Johnson-Davis, KL; Christians, U; Meyer, EJ

    2015-01-01

    Background This ongoing academic collaboration was initiated for providing support to set up, validate, and maintain everolimus therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) assays and to study long-term inter- laboratory performance. Methods This study was based on EDTA whole blood samples collected from transplant patients treated with everolimus in a prospective clinical trial. Samples were handled under controlled conditions during collection, storage, and were shipped on dry ice to minimize freeze-thaw cycles. For more than 1.5 years participating laboratories received a set of 3 blinded samples on a monthly basis. Among others, these samples included individual patient samples, patient sample pools to assess long-term performance and patient samples pools enriched with isolated everolimus metabolites. Results The results between LC-MS/MS and the everolimus Quantitative Microsphere System (QMS, Thermo Fisher) assay were comparable. The monthly inter-laboratory variability (CV%) for cross validation samples ranged from 6.5 – 23.2% (average of 14.8%) for LC-MS/MS and 4.2 – 26.4% (average of 11.1%) for laboratories using the QMS assay. A blinded long-term pool sample was sent to the laboratories for 13 months. The result was 5.31 ± 0.86 ng/mL (range 2.9–7.8 ng/mL) for the LC-MS/MS and 5.20 ± 0.54 ng/mL (range 4.0–6.8 ng/mL) for QMS laboratories. Conclusions Enrichment of patient sample pools with 5–25 ng/mL of purified everolimus metabolites (46-hydroxy everolimus and 39-O-desmethyl everolimus) did not affect the results of either LC-MS/MS or QMS assays. Both LC-MS/MS and QMS assays gave similar results and showed similar performance, albeit with a trend towards higher inter-laboratory variability among laboratories using LC-MS/MS than the QMS assay. PMID:25970506

  1. Monitoring adverse drug reactions in children using community pharmacies: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Derek; Helms, Peter; McCaig, Dorothy; Bond, Christine; McLay, James

    2005-01-01

    Aims To determine the feasibility of a community pharmacy-based parental adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting system for children. Design Prospective study of parent-reported ADRs using a questionnaire issued to the parent or guardians of children 0–11 years of age collecting prescribed medicine for amoxicillin, and/or salbutamol, and collecting prescribed medicine for, or purchasing, paracetamol or ibuprofen suspension. Setting Seven community pharmacies in Grampian, Scotland. Results During a 4-week period 360 prescriptions or purchases for the study medications occurred. Two hundred and sixty-seven parents (85.5%) agreed to participate in the study. One hundred and six participants (40%) returned a total of 122 questionnaires. The demographics of responders and nonresponders including medication, age of child, and social status as assessed by the Depcat score were similar. There was no evidence of under-representation of any socio-economic group. Possible adverse events were detected using a symptom tick list and perceived ADRs using free text entry. Using the symptom tick list approach the most commonly reported symptoms were diarrhoea (28.9%) and tiredness (31.6%) for amoxicillin. The levels of diarrhoea and tiredness reported for ibuprofen, paracetamol and salbutamol were 15% and 20%, 7.4% and 18.5%, and 20% and 0%, respectively. Using the freehand section of the questionnaire 15 specific ADRs were reported by parents (12.3%). Eight children (21.2%) reported ADRs attributed to amoxicilin [diarrhoea (n = 4), fever (n = 1), anorexia (n = 1), hyperactivity (n = 1) and nonspecific (n = 1)], five to paracetamol [diarrhoea (n = 3), anorexia, irritability, crying and very angry (n = 1) and not stated (n = 1)], two to ibuprofen [diarrhoea (n = 1), not stated (n =)]. Only one off-label prescription was identified and this was for salbutamol syrup prescribed to a child under 2 years of age. Conclusions The prospective monitoring of paediatric ADRs, using a

  2. Direct injection human plasma analysis for the quantification of antihypertensive drugs for therapeutic drug monitoring using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meimaroglou, Stefanos; Vonaparti, Ariadni; Migias, George; Gennimata, Dimitra; Poulou, Sofia; Panderi, Irene

    2015-11-01

    The concept of personalized medicine is related to the development of new sensitive, precise and accurate analytical methods for therapeutic drug monitoring. In this article a rapid, sensitive and specific method was developed for the quantification of aliskiren, losartan, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide in human plasma. Sample preparation was performed by protein precipitation with acetonitrile followed by filtration. All analytes and the internal standard (tiamulin) were separated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography using an X-Bridge-HILIC analytical column (150.0×2.1mm i.d., particle size 3.5μm) under isocratic elution. The mobile phase was composed of a 10% 5mM ammonium formate water solution pH 4.5, adjusted with formic acid, in acetonitrile and pumped at a flow rate of 0.25mLmin(-1). The assay was linear over the concentration range of 5-500ngmL(-1) for all the analytes. Intermediate precision was less than 5.2% over the tested concentration ranges. The method is the first reported application of HILIC in the analysis antihypertensives in human plasma. With a small sample size (50μL human plasma) and a run time less than 6.0min for each sample the method can be used to support a wide range of clinical studies and therapeutic drug monitoring.

  3. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1960s, when illicit drug use burgeoned in the normal youth population, substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly changing phenomenon. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How vigorously the nation responds to…

  4. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid-1960s, when illicit drug use burgeoned in the normal youth population, substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly changing phenomenon. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How vigorously the nation responds to…

  5. Monitoring model drug microencapsulation in PLGA scaffolds using X-ray powder diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Aina, Adeyinka; Gupta, Manish; Boukari, Yamina; Morris, Andrew; Billa, Nashiru; Doughty, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The microencapsulation of three model drugs; metronidazole, paracetamol and sulphapyridine into Poly (dl-Lactide-Co-Glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds were probed using X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD). Changes in the diffraction patterns of the PLGA scaffolds after encapsulation was suggestive of a chemical interaction between the pure drugs and the scaffolds and not a physical intermixture. PMID:27013917

  6. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides a summary of drug use trends from a survey of nearly 50,000 eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth- grade students nationwide. It also includes perceived risk, personal disapproval, and perceived availability of each drug by this group. A synopsis of the methods used in the study and an overview of the key results from the 2006 survey…

  7. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This publication presents an overview of the 2000 survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students, with a particular emphasis on recent trends in the use of various licit and illicit drugs. It also shows trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug, which this study has shown to be particularly important…

  8. Changes in Drug Use during Ages 18-32. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick, M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Rodgers, Willard L.; Schulenberg, John E.; Lim, Jeannette; Wadsworth, Kate N.

    This paper is a companion to the book, "Smoking, Drinking, and Drug Use in Young Adulthood: The Impacts of New Freedoms and New Responsibilities," by Bachman, Wadsworth, O'Malley, Johnston, and Schulenberg (1997). The book attempts to disentangle the effects of post-high school roles on drug use by conducting a variety of analyses on data from the…

  9. Paper-basd surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of pnenobarbital sodium for point-of-care therapeutic drug monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Moe; Yamada, Kenji; Nishimura, Takahiro; Kido, Michiko; Jeong, Hieyong; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) contributes to safe and effective pharmacotherapy in clinical fields. A simple, rapid, low-cost, and minimally-invasive drug measurement method attracts much interest for point-of-care TDM. Tear fluids can be collected minimally-invasively compared to blood sampling and there is a correlation between a drug concentration in tears and that in bloods. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with paper-based substrate is useful for point-of-care TDM owing to inexpensiveness and high-sensitivity. Paper is also a safe tear collection tool. Then we are studying on a paper-based SERS of tear specimen for point-of-care TDM. In this paper, to improve sensitivity in measuring drug concentration in tear fluids, we fabricated a SERS substrate by coating gold nano-rods on a paper substrate and evaluated whether the fabricated substrate can enhance Raman scattering. Sodium phenobarbital (PB), an anti-convulsant agent, was used as a target. In experiment, the fabricated substrate indicated the lower detection limit of PB in a solution than a plain paper substrate. This result showed the potential of the paper based SERS substrate to measure drug concentration in tears simply and inexpensively.

  10. Automated integration of continuous glucose monitor data in the electronic health record using consumer technology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv B; Goren, Nira D; Stark, David E; Wall, Dennis P; Longhurst, Christopher A

    2016-05-01

    The diabetes healthcare provider plays a key role in interpreting blood glucose trends, but few institutions have successfully integrated patient home glucose data in the electronic health record (EHR). Published implementations to date have required custom interfaces, which limit wide-scale replication. We piloted automated integration of continuous glucose monitor data in the EHR using widely available consumer technology for 10 pediatric patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. Establishment of a passive data communication bridge via a patient's/parent's smartphone enabled automated integration and analytics of patient device data within the EHR between scheduled clinic visits. It is feasible to utilize available consumer technology to assess and triage home diabetes device data within the EHR, and to engage patients/parents and improve healthcare provider workflow. PMID:27018263

  11. Molecular modeling of interactions in electronic nose sensors for environmental monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Yen, S. -P. S.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding analyte interactions with sensors made from polymer-carbon black composite films. The sensors are used in an Electronic Nose (ENose) which is used for monitoring the breathing air quality in human habitats. The model mimics the experimental conditions of the composite film deposition and formation and was developed using molecular modeling and simulation tools. The Dreiding 2.21 Force Field was used for the polymer and analyte molecules while graphite parameters were assigned to the carbon black atoms. The polymer considered for this work is methyl vinyl ether / maleic acid copolymer. The target analytes include both inorganic (NH3) and organic (methanol) types of compound. Results indicate different composite-analyte interaction behavior.

  12. Automated integration of continuous glucose monitor data in the electronic health record using consumer technology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv B; Goren, Nira D; Stark, David E; Wall, Dennis P; Longhurst, Christopher A

    2016-05-01

    The diabetes healthcare provider plays a key role in interpreting blood glucose trends, but few institutions have successfully integrated patient home glucose data in the electronic health record (EHR). Published implementations to date have required custom interfaces, which limit wide-scale replication. We piloted automated integration of continuous glucose monitor data in the EHR using widely available consumer technology for 10 pediatric patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. Establishment of a passive data communication bridge via a patient's/parent's smartphone enabled automated integration and analytics of patient device data within the EHR between scheduled clinic visits. It is feasible to utilize available consumer technology to assess and triage home diabetes device data within the EHR, and to engage patients/parents and improve healthcare provider workflow.

  13. Combing signals from spontaneous reports and electronic health records for detection of adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    Harpaz, Rave; Vilar, Santiago; DuMouchel, William; Salmasian, Hojjat; Haerian, Krystl; Shah, Nigam H; Chase, Herbert S; Friedman, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective Data-mining algorithms that can produce accurate signals of potentially novel adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a central component of pharmacovigilance. We propose a signal-detection strategy that combines the adverse event reporting system (AERS) of the Food and Drug Administration and electronic health records (EHRs) by requiring signaling in both sources. We claim that this approach leads to improved accuracy of signal detection when the goal is to produce a highly selective ranked set of candidate ADRs. Materials and methods Our investigation was based on over 4 million AERS reports and information extracted from 1.2 million EHR narratives. Well-established methodologies were used to generate signals from each source. The study focused on ADRs related to three high-profile serious adverse reactions. A reference standard of over 600 established and plausible ADRs was created and used to evaluate the proposed approach against a comparator. Results The combined signaling system achieved a statistically significant large improvement over AERS (baseline) in the precision of top ranked signals. The average improvement ranged from 31% to almost threefold for different evaluation categories. Using this system, we identified a new association between the agent, rasburicase, and the adverse event, acute pancreatitis, which was supported by clinical review. Conclusions The results provide promising initial evidence that combining AERS with EHRs via the framework of replicated signaling can improve the accuracy of signal detection for certain operating scenarios. The use of additional EHR data is required to further evaluate the capacity and limits of this system and to extend the generalizability of these results. PMID:23118093

  14. Thermographic In-Situ Process Monitoring of the Electron Beam Melting Technology used in Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Dehoff, Ryan R; Lloyd, Peter D; Lowe, Larry E; Ulrich, Joseph B

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been utilizing the ARCAM electron beam melting technology to additively manufacture complex geometric structures directly from powder. Although the technology has demonstrated the ability to decrease costs, decrease manufacturing lead-time and fabricate complex structures that are impossible to fabricate through conventional processing techniques, certification of the component quality can be challenging. Because the process involves the continuous deposition of successive layers of material, each layer can be examined without destructively testing the component. However, in-situ process monitoring is difficult due to metallization on inside surfaces caused by evaporation and condensation of metal from the melt pool. This work describes a solution to one of the challenges to continuously imaging inside of the chamber during the EBM process. Here, the utilization of a continuously moving Mylar film canister is described. Results will be presented related to in-situ process monitoring and how this technique results in improved mechanical properties and reliability of the process.

  15. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L.; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa-1, a fast response time of <10 ms, high stability over >15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of <1 mW. The combination of a microstructured polydimethylsiloxane dielectric and the high-mobility semiconducting polyisoindigobithiophene-siloxane in a monolithic transistor design enabled us to operate the devices in the subthreshold regime, where the capacitance change upon compression of the dielectric is strongly amplified. We demonstrate that our sensors can be used for non-invasive, high fidelity, continuous radial artery pulse wave monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  16. In vivo real-time monitoring system of electroporation mediated control of transdermal and topical drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Blagus, Tanja; Markelc, Bostjan; Cemazar, Maja; Kosjek, Tina; Preat, Veronique; Miklavcic, Damijan; Sersa, Gregor

    2013-12-28

    Electroporation (EP) is a physical method for the delivery of molecules into cells and tissues, including the skin. In this study, in order to control the degree of transdermal and topical drug delivery, EP at different amplitudes of electric pulses was evaluated. A new in vivo real-time monitoring system based on fluorescently labeled molecules was developed, for the quantification of transdermal and topical drug delivery. EP of the mouse skin was performed with new non-invasive multi-array electrodes, delivering different amplitudes of electric pulses ranging from 70 to 570 V, between the electrode pin pairs. Patches, soaked with 4 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate labeled dextran (FD), doxorubicin (DOX) or fentanyl (FEN), were applied to the skin before and after EP. The new monitoring system was developed based on the delivery of FD to and through the skin. FD relative quantity was determined with fluorescence microscopy imaging, in the treated region of the skin for topical delivery and in a segment of the mouse tail for transdermal delivery. The application of electric pulses for FD delivery resulted in enhanced transdermal delivery. Depending on the amplitude of electric pulses, it increased up to the amplitude of 360 V, and decreased at higher amplitudes (460 and 570 V). Topical delivery steadily enhanced with increasing the amplitude of the delivered electric pulses, being even higher than after tape stripping used as a positive control. The non-invasive monitoring of the delivery of DOX, a fluorescent chemotherapeutic drug, qualitatively and quantitatively confirmed the effects of EP at 360 and 570 V pulse amplitudes on topical and transdermal drug delivery. Delivery of FEN at 360 and 570 V pulse amplitudes verified the observed effects as obtained with FD and DOX, by the measured physiological responses of the mice as well as FEN plasma concentration. This study demonstrates that with the newly developed non-invasive multi-array electrodes and with the

  17. A human telomeric G-quadruplex-based electronic nanoswitch for the detection of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Bagheryan, Zahra; Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh; Ojani, Reza; Rezaei, Parizad

    2015-06-21

    An electronic nanoswitch is described based on the conformational change of the DNA sequence in the presence of stabilizing ligands. The new electrochemical biosensor was prepared by modifying a screen-printed graphite electrode (SPE) with functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles [(SiO2-N-propylpiperazine-N-(2-mercaptopropane-1-one) (SiO2@NPPNSH)] and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). These nanoparticles are able to immobilize thiolated G-quadruplex DNA structures (SH-G4DNA). The SH groups on the SiO2@NPPNSH nanoparticles provide a good platform for stabilizing AuNPs on the surface of the electrode. This is due to the fact that AuNPs are able to bind to the organic SH groups on the SiO2@NPPNSH. The SH-G4DNA binds to the modified electrode by a AuNPs-S bond. The structure of SiO2@NPPNSH was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by SEM. The interaction between G4DNA and the anticancer drug, Tamoxifen (Tam), was studied in Tris-HCl buffer and [Fe(CN)6](3-) using cyclic (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The G-quadruplex formation and the interaction mechanism were identified by circular dichroism (CD) measurements. The CV current was seen to decrease with increasing concentration of Tam due to interaction between G4DNA and Tam. This biosensor is a simple and useful tool for selecting G-quadruplex-binding ligands. PMID:25884046

  18. A human telomeric G-quadruplex-based electronic nanoswitch for the detection of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Bagheryan, Zahra; Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh; Ojani, Reza; Rezaei, Parizad

    2015-06-21

    An electronic nanoswitch is described based on the conformational change of the DNA sequence in the presence of stabilizing ligands. The new electrochemical biosensor was prepared by modifying a screen-printed graphite electrode (SPE) with functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles [(SiO2-N-propylpiperazine-N-(2-mercaptopropane-1-one) (SiO2@NPPNSH)] and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). These nanoparticles are able to immobilize thiolated G-quadruplex DNA structures (SH-G4DNA). The SH groups on the SiO2@NPPNSH nanoparticles provide a good platform for stabilizing AuNPs on the surface of the electrode. This is due to the fact that AuNPs are able to bind to the organic SH groups on the SiO2@NPPNSH. The SH-G4DNA binds to the modified electrode by a AuNPs-S bond. The structure of SiO2@NPPNSH was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by SEM. The interaction between G4DNA and the anticancer drug, Tamoxifen (Tam), was studied in Tris-HCl buffer and [Fe(CN)6](3-) using cyclic (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The G-quadruplex formation and the interaction mechanism were identified by circular dichroism (CD) measurements. The CV current was seen to decrease with increasing concentration of Tam due to interaction between G4DNA and Tam. This biosensor is a simple and useful tool for selecting G-quadruplex-binding ligands.

  19. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging for real-time monitoring of Li-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Sathiya, M.; Leriche, J.-B.; Salager, E.; Gourier, D.; Tarascon, J.-M.; Vezin, H.

    2015-01-01

    Batteries for electrical storage are central to any future alternative energy paradigm. The ability to probe the redox mechanisms occurring at electrodes during their operation is essential to improve battery performances. Here we present the first report on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance operando spectroscopy and in situ imaging of a Li-ion battery using Li2Ru0.75Sn0.25O3, a high-capacity (>270 mAh g−1) Li-rich layered oxide, as positive electrode. By monitoring operando the electron paramagnetic resonance signals of Ru5+ and paramagnetic oxygen species, we unambiguously prove the formation of reversible (O2)n− species that contribute to their high capacity. In addition, we visualize by imaging with micrometric resolution the plating/stripping of Li at the negative electrode and highlight the zones of nucleation and growth of Ru5+/oxygen species at the positive electrode. This efficient way to locate ‘electron’-related phenomena opens a new area in the field of battery characterization that should enable future breakthroughs in battery research. PMID:25662295

  20. Photometer for monitoring the thickness of inkjet printed films for organic electronic and sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Jisun; Sengupta, Sandip K.; Whitten, James E.

    2010-03-01

    Inkjet printed organic thin films are being used for a variety of electronic and sensor applications with advantages that include ease of fabrication and reproducibility. Construction and use of a low-cost photometer based on a light-emitting diode (LED) light source and a photodiode detector are described. The photometer attaches to the exit of the printer with the transparent substrate onto which the film is printed passing between the LED and photodiode. By measuring the output voltage of the detector, the transmittance and absorbance of the inkjet printed film can be calculated in real-time. Since absorbance is linearly proportional to thickness in the Beer-Lambert regime, the thickness of the film may be monitored and controlled by varying the number of passes through the printer. Use of the photometer is demonstrated for inkjet printed films of monolayer-protected colloidal gold nanoparticles that function as chemical vapor sensors. The photometer may find applications in both research and quality control related to the manufacture of organic electronic devices and sensors and enables "feedback-controlled" inkjet printing.

  1. Pulsed Neutron Monitoring at High Energy Electron Accelerators with Silver Lined Proportional Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dighe, P. M.; Ghodgaonkar, M. D.; Dhairyawan, M. P.; Haridas, P.

    2007-01-01

    To meet the challenging requirement of pulsed neutron background measurement, which is present around electron accelerators at the Indus-1 facility of the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) Indore, a silver lined proportional counter with 0.2cps/n cm-2s-1 thermal neutron sensitivity has been developed. The detector has been tested for its performance in continuous thermal neutron field at Apsara reactor and in pulsed neutron field at Indus-1 facility. The detector shows ±11% signal linearity at various reactor powers and follows the silver decay scheme during reactor scram experiment. Off-line measurements made in pulsed neutron background at the Indus-1 facility compare well with nuclear track detectors (CR-39). For monitoring on-line neutron flux, electronic gating circuit was used that can switch off the scalar counter unit during the prompt X-ray response of the detector taking trigger pulse from the accelerator and experiments showed that the neutron flux measured by the detector is in close agreement with CR-39 values.

  2. Clinical outcomes of the inclusion of the therapeutic drug monitoring report in the electronic clinical record.

    PubMed

    Sáez Belló, Marina; Moya Gil, Ana; López Montenegro Soria, M Ángeles; Sánchez Sancho, Pablo; Frias Ruiz, Pau; Climente Martí, Mónica

    2016-09-01

    Objetivos: Valorar la integración del informe de monitorización farmacocinética (IMFC) en la historia clínica electrónica (HCE). Método: Estudio observacional ambispectivo de cohortes de 149 días de duración: PRE (retrospectiva, 49 días) con emisión del IMFC en papel y POST (prospectiva, 100 días) con emisión del IMFC integrado en HCE. Criterios de exclusión: Pacientes no ingresados, solicitudes de monitorización farmacocinética de unidades de críticos y neonatos, así como monitorizaciones cuyo objetivo no era el ajuste posológico.

  3. Reasons for Use, Abstention, and Quitting Illicit Drug Use by American Adolescents: A Report Commissioned by the Drugs-Violence Task Force of the National Sentencing Commission. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.

    The data for this report were obtained from the Monitoring the Future study. Surveys from eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade respondents were used to examine adolescents' reasons for use, abstention, and quitting illicit drug use. Many reasons were found for drug use. Abstainers provided more reasons for their abstention than quitters gave for their…

  4. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A.; Kovács, A.; Mehta, K.; Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S.

    2010-03-01

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  5. [Practical information for therapeutic drug monitoring of the most common compounds].

    PubMed

    Saint-Marcoux, Franck; Libert, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    This article reports the main information for the interpretation of blood concentrations of most common drugs measured in pharmacology-toxicology departments: acetaminophen, amikacin, carbamazepine, digoxin, gentamicin, lithium, methotrexate, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproic acid. PMID:27203171

  6. 78 FR 42084 - Electronic Study Data Submission; Data Standard Support; Availability of the Center for Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...; Availability of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Data Standards Program Documents AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER... Strategy (version 1.0) and the CDER Data Standards Strategy--Action Plan (version 1.0). This action...

  7. Continuing the Epidemiological Function of the Addicts Index--Evidence from Matching the Home Office Addicts Index with the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Matthew; Griffin, Maria; Mott, Joy; Corkery, John; Madden, Peter; Sondhi, Arun; Stimson, Gerry

    2004-01-01

    Aims: We discuss the Addicts Index (AI) and examine whether the epidemiological trends of the AI can be continued by the regional drug misuse databases (DMDs, now known as National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS). Methods: (i) Matching individuals recorded as addicted to opiates and/or cocaine in the AI with those reported to the North…

  8. Monitoring the Future. National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume I, Secondary School Students. NIH Publication Number 10-7584

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    The Monitoring the Future (MTF) study is an ongoing series of national surveys of American adolescents and adults that has provided the nation with a vital window into the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illegal drug use, alcohol use, tobacco use, anabolic steroid use, and psychotherapeutic drug use. For more than a third of a…

  9. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume I: Secondary School Students. NIH Publication No. 10-7584

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    The Monitoring the Future (MTF) study is an ongoing series of national surveys of American adolescents and adults that has provided the nation with a vital window into the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illegal drug use, alcohol use, tobacco use, anabolic steroid use, and psychotherapeutic drug use. For more than a third of…

  10. Correlates of benzodiazepine use among a sample of arrestees surveyed through the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) Program.

    PubMed

    Yacoubian, George S

    2003-01-01

    While marijuana and cocaine are the two most prevalent drugs used among arrestee populations, benzodiazepine use has surpassed that of opiates in several jurisdictions across the United States. Despite this proliferation, few scholarly works have focused on benzodiazepine use among individuals under criminal justice supervision. In the present study, chi-square statistics and logistic regression are utilized to identify significant associations between recent benzodiazepine use (as measured by urinalysis), demographic characteristics, and alcohol and other drug (AOD) use among a sample of 862 adult Philadelphia arrestees interviewed in 1997 through the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) Program. Compared to nonusers, benzodiazepine-positive respondents were more likely to be White, to have used alcohol and barbiturates in the three days preceding the interview, and to have tested positive by urinalysis for marijuana, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine (PCP). Moreover, logistic regression identified that if an arrestee reported three-day barbiturate use, the odds ratio (OR) of recent benzodiazepine use was more than nine times higher than an arrestee who reported no three-day barbiturate use. Implications for drug surveillance are assessed in light of the current findings.

  11. Inertial cavitation to non-invasively trigger and monitor intratumoral release of drug from intravenously delivered liposomes.

    PubMed

    Graham, Susan M; Carlisle, Robert; Choi, James J; Stevenson, Mark; Shah, Apurva R; Myers, Rachel S; Fisher, Kerry; Peregrino, Miriam-Bazan; Seymour, Len; Coussios, Constantin C

    2014-03-28

    The encapsulation of cytotoxic drugs within liposomes enhances pharmacokinetics and allows passive accumulation within tumors. However, liposomes designed to achieve good stability during the delivery phase often have compromised activity at the target site. This problem of inefficient and unpredictable drug release is compounded by the present lack of low-cost, non-invasive methods to measure such release. Here we show that focused ultrasound, used at pressures similar to those applied during diagnostic ultrasound scanning, can be utilised to both trigger and monitor release of payload from liposomes. Notably, drug release was influenced by liposome composition and the presence of SonoVue® microbubbles, which provided the nuclei for the initiation of an event known as inertial cavitation. In vitro studies demonstrated that liposomes formulated with a high proportion of 1,2 distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DSPE) released up to 30% of payload following ultrasound exposure in the presence of SonoVue®, provided that the exposure created sufficient inertial cavitation events, as characterised by violent bubble collapse and the generation of broadband acoustic emissions. In contrast a 'Doxil'-like liposome formulation gave no such triggered release. In pre-clinical studies, ultrasound was used as a non-invasive, targeted stimulus to trigger a 16-fold increase in the level of payload release within tumors following intravenous delivery. The inertial cavitation events driving this release could be measured remotely in real-time and were a reliable predictor of drug release.

  12. Pediatric Exposure to Drugs of Abuse by Hair Testing: Monitoring 15 Years of Evolution in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pichini, Simona; García-Algar, Oscar; Alvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Mortali, Claudia; Gottardi, Massimo; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Hair testing is a useful tool to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected chronic exposure to drugs of abuse in pediatric populations and it has been applied to three different cohorts of children from Barcelona, Spain along fifteen years to evaluate eventual changes in this exposure. Children were recruited from three independent studies performed at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) and approved by the local Ethics Committee. Hair samples were collected from the first 187 children cohort (around 4 years of age) in 1998, from the second 90 children cohort (1.5–5 years of age) in 2008 and from the third 114 children cohort (5–14 years of age) in 2013. Hair samples were analysed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabis by validated methodologies using gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Familiar sociodemographics and eventual consumption of drugs of abuse by parents, and caregivers were recorded. Hair samples from 24.6% children in 1998 were positive for any drug of abuse (23.0% cocaine), 25.5% in 2008 (23.3% cocaine), and 28.1% in 2013 (20.1% cocaine and 11.4% cannabis). In none of the cohorts, parental sociodemographics were associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. The results of the three study cohorts demonstrated a significant prevalence of unsuspected pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse which mainly involved cocaine maintained along fifteen years in Barcelona, Spain. We recommend to be aware about unsuspected passive exposure to drugs of abuse in general population and to use general or selected hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions. PMID:25153461

  13. Pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse by hair testing: monitoring 15 years of evolution in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; García-Algar, Oscar; Alvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Mortali, Claudia; Gottardi, Massimo; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-08-01

    Hair testing is a useful tool to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected chronic exposure to drugs of abuse in pediatric populations and it has been applied to three different cohorts of children from Barcelona, Spain along fifteen years to evaluate eventual changes in this exposure. Children were recruited from three independent studies performed at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) and approved by the local Ethics Committee. Hair samples were collected from the first 187 children cohort (around 4 years of age) in 1998, from the second 90 children cohort (1.5-5 years of age) in 2008 and from the third 114 children cohort (5-14 years of age) in 2013. Hair samples were analysed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabis by validated methodologies using gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Familiar sociodemographics and eventual consumption of drugs of abuse by parents, and caregivers were recorded. Hair samples from 24.6% children in 1998 were positive for any drug of abuse (23.0% cocaine), 25.5% in 2008 (23.3% cocaine), and 28.1% in 2013 (20.1% cocaine and 11.4% cannabis). In none of the cohorts, parental sociodemographics were associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. The results of the three study cohorts demonstrated a significant prevalence of unsuspected pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse which mainly involved cocaine maintained along fifteen years in Barcelona, Spain. We recommend to be aware about unsuspected passive exposure to drugs of abuse in general population and to use general or selected hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions.

  14. Measuring Patient Adherence to Malaria Treatment: A Comparison of Results from Self-Report and a Customised Electronic Monitoring Device

    PubMed Central

    Bruxvoort, Katia; Festo, Charles; Cairns, Matthew; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mayaya, Frank; Kachur, S. Patrick; Schellenberg, David; Goodman, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-report is the most common and feasible method for assessing patient adherence to medication, but can be prone to recall bias and social desirability bias. Most studies assessing adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have relied on self-report. In this study, we use a novel customised electronic monitoring device—termed smart blister packs—to examine the validity of self-reported adherence to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in southern Tanzania. Methods Smart blister packs were designed to look identical to locally available AL blister packs and to record the date and time each tablet was removed from packaging. Patients obtaining AL at randomly selected health facilities and drug stores were followed up at home three days later and interviewed about each dose of AL taken. Blister packs were requested for pill count and extraction of smart blister pack data. Results Data on adherence from both self-report verified by pill count and smart blister packs were available for 696 of 1,204 patients. There was no difference between methods in the proportion of patients assessed to have completed treatment (64% and 67%, respectively). However, the percentage taking the correct number of pills for each dose at the correct times (timely completion) was higher by self-report than smart blister packs (37% vs. 24%; p<0.0001). By smart blister packs, 64% of patients completing treatment did not take the correct number of pills per dose or did not take each dose at the correct time interval. Conclusion Smart blister packs resulted in lower estimates of timely completion of AL and may be less prone to recall and social desirability bias. They may be useful when data on patterns of adherence are desirable to evaluate treatment outcomes. Improved methods of collecting self-reported data are needed to minimise bias and maximise comparability between studies. PMID:26214848

  15. Raman endoscopy for real time monitoring of anticancer drug treatment in colorectal tumors of live model mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taketani, Akinori; Ishigaki, Mika; Andriana, Bibin Bintan; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the capability of a miniaturized Raman endoscope (mRE) system to monitor the advancement of colorectal tumors in live model mice. The endoscope is narrow enough to observe the inside of the mouse colon under anesthesia. The mRE system allows to observe the tissues and to apply a miniaturized Raman probe for the measurement at any targeted point within the colon. Raman spectroscopy allows obtaining information about molecular composition without damaging the tissue (i.e., noninvasively). Continuous monitoring of the same tumor is carried out to study molecular alterations along with its advancement. The Raman spectra measured before and after the anticancer drug (5-FU) treatment indicated spectral changes in the tumor tissue. It suggests that the tumor is not cured but supposedly transformed to another tumor type after the treatment.

  16. Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-Sang; Park, Su-Jeong; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kang, Myung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea. PMID:27433102

  17. Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Sang; Park, Su-Jeong; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kang, Myung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung; Hur, Sun Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea. PMID:27433102

  18. In Situ Monitoring of Diffusion of Guest Molecules in Porous Media Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Spitzbarth, Martin; Lemke, Tobias; Drescher, Malte

    2016-01-01

    A method is demonstrated to monitor macroscopic translational diffusion using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging. A host-guest system with nitroxide spin probe 3-(2-Iodoacetamido)-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy (IPSL) as a guest inside the periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) aerogel UKON1-GEL as a host and ethanol as a solvent is used as an example to describe the protocol. Data is shown from a previous publication, where the protocol has been applied to both IPSL and Tris(8-carboxy-2,2,6,6-perdeutero-tetramethyl-benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d']bis(1,3)dithiole) methyl (Trityl) as guest molecules and UKON1-GEL and SILICA-GEL as host systems. A method is shown to prepare aerogel samples that cannot be synthesized directly in the sample tube for measurement due to a size change during synthesis. The aerogel is attached to sample tubes using heat shrink tubing and a pressure cooker to reach the necessary temperature without evaporating the solvent in the process. The method does not assume a clearly defined initial distribution of guest molecules at the start of the measurement. Instead, it requires a reservoir on top of the aerogel and experimentally determines the influx rate during data analysis. The diffusion is monitored continually over a period of 20 hr by recording the 1d spin density profile within the sample. The spectrometer settings for the imaging experiment are described quantitatively. Data analysis software is provided to take the resonator sensitivity profile into account and to numerically solve the diffusion equation. The software determines the macroscopic translational diffusion coefficient by least square minimization of the difference between the experiment and the numerical solution of the diffusion equation. PMID:27685166

  19. On the possibility of low cost, adherent therapeutic drug monitoring in oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Marta, Silvia; Fornasaro, Stefano; Jaworska, Aleksandra; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Bonifacio, Alois; Sergo, Valter

    2016-05-01

    A frequent quantification of drugs concentrations in plasma of patients subject to chemotherapy is seldom performed, mostly because the standard methods (Gas or Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectroscopy) are expensive and time consuming. In this paper we report the approach pursued in one of the research units of the EU project RAMAN4CLINICS to tackle the problem of a low cost, time adherent quantification of drugs used for oncological patients using a Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. More specifically, the issues concerning the repeatability of the nanostructured substrates will be presented and some promising results to increase the selectivity of the measures toward specific drugs will be discussed, with examples concerning one cytotoxic agent, Irinotecan and one kinase inhibitor, Sunitinib.

  20. Pralatrexate Monitoring Using a Commercially Available Methotrexate Assay to Avoid Potential Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Jordan P; Vrontikis, Alaina; Sedillo, Courtney; Halwani, Ahmad S; Gilreath, Jeffrey A

    2016-02-01

    Pralatrexate (PDX) is a folate antagonist structurally similar to methotrexate (MTX). Unlike MTX, it is currently not known whether PDX exhibits delayed clearance and heightened toxicity in the setting of fluid overload. A specific serum assay for PDX is not commercially available. To our knowledge, we report the first case using an MTX serum assay as a surrogate for PDX concentrations to avoid a potential drug-drug interaction with pralatrexate. We describe a 76-year-old man with refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma who began therapy with weekly PDX 15 mg/m(2) intravenous infusions on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. He subsequently developed mucositis, a moderate right-sided pleural effusion, and peripheral edema over the next 5 weeks. Aggressive diuresis with furosemide was initiated, which was then withheld the day before his next PDX dose to avoid a potential drug-drug interaction between PDX and furosemide. His baseline MTX/PDX concentration (measured prior to administration of the cycle 2, week 2 PDX dose) was less than 0.20 μmol/L (i.e., undetectable). After PDX administration, his 1-hour peak MTX/PDX concentration increased to 0.58 μmol/L. Aggressive diuresis was withheld until his MTX/PDX concentration was undetectable, 43.5 hours later. PDX is more potent than MTX and displays similar pharmacokinetic properties. PDX concentrations using the serum MTX assay reflect lower values than those reported from PDX-specific assays in clinical studies. Because PDX is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of uncommon malignancies, it is unlikely that a specific assay will be commercially developed. We propose that the MTX serum assay has merit for use in determining when to reinstate possible interacting drug therapies such as loop diuretics.

  1. Powering embedded electronics for wind turbine monitoring using multi-source energy harvesting techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, S. R.; Taylor, S. G.; Raby, E. Y.; Farinholt, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    With a global interest in the development of clean, renewable energy, wind energy has seen steady growth over the past several years. Advances in wind turbine technology bring larger, more complex turbines and wind farms. An important issue in the development of these complex systems is the ability to monitor the state of each turbine in an effort to improve the efficiency and power generation. Wireless sensor nodes can be used to interrogate the current state and health of wind turbine structures; however, a drawback of most current wireless sensor technology is their reliance on batteries for power. Energy harvesting solutions present the ability to create autonomous power sources for small, low-power electronics through the scavenging of ambient energy; however, most conventional energy harvesting systems employ a single mode of energy conversion, and thus are highly susceptible to variations in the ambient energy. In this work, a multi-source energy harvesting system is developed to power embedded electronics for wind turbine applications in which energy can be scavenged simultaneously from several ambient energy sources. Field testing is performed on a full-size, residential scale wind turbine where both vibration and solar energy harvesting systems are utilized to power wireless sensing systems. Two wireless sensors are investigated, including the wireless impedance device (WID) sensor node, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and an ultra-low power RF system-on-chip board that is the basis for an embedded wireless accelerometer node currently under development at LANL. Results indicate the ability of the multi-source harvester to successfully power both sensors.

  2. Impact of membrane-induced particle immobilization on seeded growth monitored by in situ liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Weiner, Rebecca G.; Chen, Dennis P.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Skrabalak, Sara E.

    2016-04-01

    In situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy probes seeded growth in real time. The growth of Pd on Au nanocubes is monitored as a model system to compare growth within a liquid cell and traditional colloidal synthesis. Furthermore, different growth patterns are observed due to seed immobilization and the highly reducing environment within the liquid cell.

  3. Impact of Membrane-Induced Particle Immobilization on Seeded Growth Monitored by In Situ Liquid Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Rebecca G; Chen, Dennis P; Unocic, Raymond R; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2016-05-01

    In situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy probes seeded growth in real time. The growth of Pd on Au nanocubes is monitored as a model system to compare growth within a liquid cell and traditional colloidal synthesis. Different growth patterns are observed due to seed immobilization and the highly reducing environment within the liquid cell.

  4. Remote monitoring as a key innovation in the management of cardiac patients including those with implantable electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Richard

    2013-06-01

    This Introduction to the Supplement provides a brief history of remote monitoring, discusses its current status, and indicates the bright future that it possesses with a broad application in many branches of cardiology, at least including arrhythmias, heart failure, and ischaemic heart disease in addition to the management of implantable electronic devices.

  5. 75 FR 63434 - Availability of Compliance Guide for the Use of Video or Other Electronic Monitoring or Recording...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Availability of Compliance Guide for the Use of Video or Other... video or other electronic monitoring or recording equipment in federally inspected establishments. FSIS... Critical Control Point and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures video records. FSIS is...

  6. Label-free cardiac contractility monitoring for drug screening applications based on compact high-speed lens-free imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauwelyn, Thomas; Reumers, Veerle; Vanmeerbeeck, Geert; Stahl, Richard; Janssens, Stefan; Lagae, Liesbet; Braeken, Dries; Lambrechts, Andy

    2015-03-01

    Cardiotoxicity is the major cause of drug withdrawal from the market, despite rigorous toxicity testing during the drug development process. Existing safety screening techniques, some of which are based on simplified cellular assays, others on electrical (impedance) or optical (fluorescent microscopy) measurements, are either too limited in throughput or offer too poor predictability of toxicity to be applied on large numbers of compounds in the early stage of drug development. We present a compact optical system for direct (label-free) monitoring of fast cellular movements that enable low cost and high throughput drug screening. Our system is based on a high-speed lens-free in-line holographic microscope. When compared to a conventional microscope, the system can combine adequate imaging resolution (5.5 μm pixel pitch) with a large field-of-view (63.4 mm2) and high speed (170 fps) to capture physical cell motion in real-time. This combination enables registration of cardiac contractility parameters such as cell contraction frequency, total duration, and rate and duration of both contraction and relaxation. The system also quantifies conduction velocity, which is challenging in existing techniques. Additionally, to complement the imaging hardware we have developed image processing software that extracts all the contractility parameters directly from the raw interference images. The system was tested with varying concentration of the drug verapamil and at 100 nM, showed a decrease in: contraction frequency (-23.3% +/- 13%), total duration (-21% +/- 5%), contraction duration (-19% +/- 6%) and relaxation duration (-21% +/- 8%). Moreover, contraction displacement ceased at higher concentrations.

  7. Monitoring attosecond dynamics of coherent electron-nuclear wave packets by molecular high-order-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bredtmann, Timm; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, Andre D.

    2011-08-15

    A pump-probe scheme for preparing and monitoring electron-nuclear motion in a dissociative coherent electron-nuclear wave packet is explored from numerical solutions of a non-Born-Oppenheimer time-dependent Schroedinger equation. A mid-ir intense few-cycle probe pulse is used to generate molecular high-order-harmonic generation (MHOHG) from a coherent superposition of two or more dissociative coherent electronic-nuclear wave packets, prepared by a femtosecond uv pump pulse. Varying the time delay between the intense ir probe pulse and the uv pump pulse by a few hundreds of attoseconds, the MHOHG signal intensity is shown to vary by orders of magnitude, thus showing the high sensitivity to electron-nuclear dynamics in coherent electron-nuclear wave packets. We relate this high sensitivity of MHOHG spectra to opposing electron velocities (fluxes) in the electron wave packets of the recombining (recolliding) ionized electron and of the bound electron in the initial coherent superposition of two electronic states.

  8. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly-changing phenomenon, requiring frequent assessments and reassessments. Since the mid-1960s it has remained a major concern for the nation. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How…

  9. Heroin Use among Southern Arrestees: Regional Findings from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Ross, Michael W.; Johnson, Regina J.

    2002-01-01

    To be effective with rehabilitation counseling, counselors need to be aware of cultural patterns of drug use. This study analyzed trends in heroin use between 1990 and 1997 among the arrestee population in some parts of the South. Findings suggest geographic, ethnic, and age-related variables for heroin use. (JDM)

  10. [Cooperation with the electronic medical record and accounting system of an actual dose of drug given by a radiology information system].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hideo; Yoneda, Tarou; Satou, Shuji; Ishikawa, Toru; Hara, Misako

    2009-12-20

    By input of the actual dose of a drug given into a radiology information system, the system converting with an accounting system into a cost of the drug from the actual dose in the electronic medical record was built. In the drug master, the first unit was set as the cost of the drug, and we set the second unit as the actual dose. The second unit in the radiology information system was received by the accounting system through electronic medical record. In the accounting system, the actual dose was changed into the cost of the drug using the dose of conversion to the first unit. The actual dose was recorded on a radiology information system and electronic medical record. The actual dose was indicated on the accounting system, and the cost for the drug was calculated. About the actual dose of drug, cooperation of the information in a radiology information system and electronic medical record were completed. It was possible to decide the volume of drug from the correct dose of drug at the previous inspection. If it is necessary for the patient to have another treatment of medicine, it is important to know the actual dose of drug given. Moreover, authenticity of electronic medical record based on a statute has also improved.

  11. Source density analysis of functional topographical EEG: monitoring of cognitive drug action.

    PubMed

    Dimpfel, W; Hofmann, H C; Prohaska, A; Schober, F; Schellenberg, R

    1996-03-19

    Electrical changes of the brain induced by mental work in the presence or absence of a drug formulation containing dimethylaminoethanolorotrate (DMAE), vitamins and minerals were analysed. Sixty elderly volunteers (30 females and 30 males; aged 40 - 65) who lacked concentration and efficiency during mental exercise according to their own opinions participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The EEG recordings were carried out before and after 12 weeks medication and were analysed according to the electrical charges at the scalp surface (Laplacian estimate) followed by Fast Fourier Transformation to obtain quantitative data. Whereas no change of electrical charge could be observed after 12 weeks of treatment in the placebo group, the verum group taking 1 capsule per day of an established drug containing a biogenic amine-vitamin combination revealed decreases in theta power during rest and increases in absolute theta power induced by mental demand within the area known to change its electrical activity during mental exercise. In the light of the current hypothesis that high theta resting power and low increases at frontotemporal brain areas during mental work indicate mental impairment, treatment with the drug under investigation was seen to successfully reverse these changes. This drug effect was localized in the frontotemporal cortex in a statistically significant manner during both the memory and the symbol recognition tests. The observed effect is fully consistent with a previous study using Fourier transformed data from conventional EEG voltage recordings. It can be concluded that an analysis of EEG data by means of the charge mode provides an excellent tool to quantify drug effects especially in cognitive research. A second perspective arises from the fact that it should be possible to recognize mental impairments at a very early stage by using this method, thus providing the possibility of an early treatment.

  12. Application and assessment of a regular environmental monitoring of the antineoplastic drug contamination level in pharmacies - the MEWIP project.

    PubMed

    Kiffmeyer, Thekla K; Tuerk, Jochen; Hahn, Moritz; Stuetzer, Hartmut; Hadtstein, Claudia; Heinemann, André; Eickmann, Udo

    2013-05-01

    A large-scale study was carried out in order to determine the contamination level of antineoplastic drugs in pharmacies and to investigate the suitability and effects of wipe sample monitoring at regular intervals. A specific study design was developed. The 130 participating pharmacies were divided into a study and a control group, carrying out five and two wipe sampling cycles, respectively. The work practice was analyzed using questionnaires to identify factors that influence the contamination level. From 1269 wipe samples, 774 (61%) were contaminated with at least one of the analyzed cytotoxic drugs: cyclophosphamide, docetaxel, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine, ifosfamide, methotrexate, and paclitaxel. A significant decrease of the contamination with cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil was observed in the study group. The Monitoring-Effect Study of Wipe Sampling in Pharmacies method has proven to be a reliable and affordable tool for contamination control. Based on the 90th percentile of the contamination values, a substance-independent performance-based guidance value of 0.1ng cm(-2) has been derived. PMID:23125441

  13. Sociolegal characteristics and parole infractions among Israeli released prisoners during electronic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Efrat; Yehosha-Stern, Shirley; Efodi, Rotem

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the part played by sociolegal characteristics such as ethnic background, family status, or criminal past in the rate of infractions among ex-prisoners in Electronic Monitoring (EM) Programs. In addition, it focuses on the nature of the formal decisions made by community supervision agents regarding such infractions and their correlation with the sociolegal characteristics of the participants. The research population included all prisoners on license (i.e., prisoners who have been granted conditional early release) who took part in the EM project from mid-2007 until mid-2009 (24 months), altogether 155 participants. The data show no significant correlation between the number of infractions and the participant's sociolegal background. In spite of the fact that the EM coordinators have extensive discretionary power, which is likely to lead to discrimination attributable to variables such as ethnicity, this research shows that the most efficacious variable for explaining formal responses is an objective one-the number of infractions.

  14. Using electronic monitoring devices to measure inhaler adherence: a practical guide for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chan, Amy Hai Yan; Harrison, Jeff; Black, Peter N; Mitchell, Edwin A; Foster, Juliet M

    2015-01-01

    Use of electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) for inhalers is growing rapidly because of their ability to provide objective and detailed adherence data to support clinical decision making. There is increasing potential for the use of EMDs in clinical settings, especially as cost-effectiveness is realized and device costs reduce. However, it is important for clinicians to know about the attributes of different EMDs so that they can select the right device for their patients and understand the factors that affect the reliability and accuracy of the data EMDs record. This article gives information on where to obtain EMDs, describes device specifications, and highlights useful features for the clinician and the patient, including user feedback data. We discuss the benefits and potential drawbacks of data collected by EMDs and provide device users with a set of tools to optimize the use of EMDs in clinical settings, such as advice on how to carry out brief EMD checks to ensure data quality and device reliability. New EMDs on the market require pretesting before use by patients. We provide information on how to carry out EMD pretesting in the clinic and patients' homes, which can be carried out by health professionals or in collaboration with researchers or manufacturers. Strategies for interpreting and managing common device malfunctions are also discussed.

  15. Monitoring deformations of industrial objects using optical-electronic autoreflection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyakhin, Igor A.; Kleshchenok, Maksim A.

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, optical-electronics measuring instruments for control the linear deformations in the monitoring industrial constructions (turbines, dams, booms, bases plates, walls, etc) are used effectively. Autocollimating and auto-reflecting schemes are two main basic of such systems. The autocollimating system has larger sensitive than auto reflecting ones. However, the auto reflecting system is more effective for using IR LED as a source and using CCD matrix as a photo-receiver. In addition, the auto-reflecting system has larger working distance than autocollimating system. The experimental test-bed of auto-reflecting system for alignment control was realized. Parameters of a system are the following: IR LED L2656-03 with power 9 mW as sources of radiation; the focal length of autocollimators objective is 250 mm, the matrix change couple devise as photo-receiver with dimension of pixel 2.2μm. The experimental error of this system is 0,007 mm on a working distance of 0.5 m and 0.06 mm on a distance of 8 m.

  16. Using electronic monitoring devices to measure inhaler adherence: a practical guide for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chan, Amy Hai Yan; Harrison, Jeff; Black, Peter N; Mitchell, Edwin A; Foster, Juliet M

    2015-01-01

    Use of electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) for inhalers is growing rapidly because of their ability to provide objective and detailed adherence data to support clinical decision making. There is increasing potential for the use of EMDs in clinical settings, especially as cost-effectiveness is realized and device costs reduce. However, it is important for clinicians to know about the attributes of different EMDs so that they can select the right device for their patients and understand the factors that affect the reliability and accuracy of the data EMDs record. This article gives information on where to obtain EMDs, describes device specifications, and highlights useful features for the clinician and the patient, including user feedback data. We discuss the benefits and potential drawbacks of data collected by EMDs and provide device users with a set of tools to optimize the use of EMDs in clinical settings, such as advice on how to carry out brief EMD checks to ensure data quality and device reliability. New EMDs on the market require pretesting before use by patients. We provide information on how to carry out EMD pretesting in the clinic and patients' homes, which can be carried out by health professionals or in collaboration with researchers or manufacturers. Strategies for interpreting and managing common device malfunctions are also discussed. PMID:25840665

  17. Feasibility study of a single-shot 3D electron bunch shape monitor with an electro-optic sampling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, Yuichi; Tomizawa, Hiromitsu; Matsubara, Shinichi; Kumagai, Noritaka; Maekawa, Akira; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2013-05-01

    We developed a three-dimensional electron bunch charge distribution (3D-BCD) monitor with single-shot detection, and a spectral decoding based electro-optic (EO) sampling technique for a nondestructive monitor enables real-time reconstruction of the three-dimensional distribution of a bunch charge. We realized three goals by simultaneously probing a number of Pockels EO crystals that surround the electron beam axis with hollow and radial polarized laser pulses. First, we performed a feasibility test as a simple case of a 3D-BCD monitor probing two ZnTe crystals as EO detectors installed on the opposite angle to the electron beam axis and confirmed that we simultaneously obtained both EO signals. Since the adopted hollow probe laser pulse is not only radially polarized but also temporally shifted azimuthally, some disorders in the radial polarization distribution of such a laser pulse were numerically analyzed with a plane-wave expansion method. Based on the above investigations, the 3D-BCD monitor is feasible both in experimental and numerical estimations. Furthermore, we previously developed a femtosecond response organic crystal as a Pockels EO detector and a broadband probe laser (≥350nm in FWHM); the 3D-BCD monitor realizes 30- to 40-fs (FWHM) temporal resolution. Eventually, the monitor is expected to be equipped in such advanced accelerators as XFEL to measure and adjust the electron bunch charge distribution in real time. The 3D-BCD measurement works as a critical tool to provide feedback to seeded FELs.

  18. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975 and is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  19. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975 and is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  20. Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) on the rabbit corneal epithelium studied by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Stroobants, A; Fabre, K; Maudgal, P C

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 6 commercially available non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) eye drops on the normal corneal epithelium of rabbits. Each drug was instilled into both eyes of 2 rabbits, 5 times a day, for 5 consecutive days. Two additional corneas of one rabbit, without any treatment, served as control. After treatment, the corneas were excised and processed for scanning electron microscopic evaluation. The epithelial changes induced by the drugs were graded by an empirical score system. All test compounds caused alterations in the cell membranes and surface microvilli, or even exfoliation and necrosis of surface cells. The extent of cell damage appeared to be related to the active ingredient in the eye drops, the pH of the solution, and the constituents of the vehicle, especially the type of preservative used.

  1. Fluorescent microscope system to monitor real-time interactions between focused ultrasound, echogenic drug delivery vehicles, and live cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Ibsen, Stuart; Benchimol, Michael; Esener, Sadik

    2013-01-01

    Rapid development in the field of ultrasound triggered drug delivery has made it essential to study the real-time interaction between the membranes of live cells and the membranes of echogenic delivery vehicles under exposure to focused ultrasound. The objective of this work was to design an analysis system that combined fluorescent imagining, high speed videography, and definable pulse sequences of focused ultrasound to allow for real time observations of both cell and vehicle membranes. Documenting the behavior of the membranes themselves has not previously been possible due to limitations with existing optical systems used to understand the basic physics of microbubble/ultrasound interaction and the basic interaction between microbubbles and cells. The performance of this new system to monitor membrane behavior was demonstrated by documenting the modes of vehicle fragmentation at different ultrasound intensity levels. At 1.5MPa the membranes were shown to completely fragment while at intensities below 1MPa the membranes pop open and slowly unfold. The interaction between these vehicles and cell membranes was also documented by the removal of fluorescent particles from the surfaces of live cells out to 20μm from the microbubble location. The fluid flow created by microstreaming around ensonated microbubbles was documented at video recording speeds from 60 to 18,000 frames per second. This information about membrane behavior allows the chemical and physical properties of the drug delivery vehicle to be designed along with the ultrasound pulse sequence to cause the most efficient drug delivery.

  2. CYP2C19 Polymorphisms and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Voriconazole: Are We Ready for Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics?

    PubMed Central

    Obeng, Aniwaa Owusu; Egelund, Eric F.; Alsultan, Abdullah; Peloquin, Charles A.; Johnson, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Since its approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2002, voriconazole has become a key component in the successful treatment of many invasive fungal infections, including the most common, aspergillosis and candidiasis. Despite voriconazole’s widespread use, optimizing its treatment in an individual can be challenging due to significant interpatient variability in plasma concentrations of the drug. Variability is due to nonlinear pharmacokinetics and the influence of patient characteristics such as age, sex, weight, liver disease, and genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 2C19 gene (CYP2C19) encoding for the CYP2C19 enzyme, the primary enzyme responsible for metabolism of voriconazole. CYP2C19 polymorphisms account for the largest portion of variability in voriconazole exposure, posing significant difficulty to clinicians in targeting therapeutic concentrations. In this review, we discuss the role of CYP2C19 polymorphisms and their influence on voriconazole’s pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and clinical efficacy. Given the association between CYP2C19 genotype and voriconazole concentrations, as well as the association between voriconazole concentrations and clinical outcomes, particularly efficacy, it seems reasonable to suggest a potential role for CYP2C19 genotype to guide initial voriconazole dose selection followed by therapeutic drug monitoring to increase the probability of achieving efficacy while avoiding toxicity. PMID:24510446

  3. Design of a proton-electron beam overlap monitor for the new RHIC electron lens, based on detecting energetic backscattered electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Thieberger T.; Beebe, E.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D.; Gu, X.; Hamdi, K.; Hock, J.; Minty, M.; Miller, T.; Montag, C.; Pikin, A.

    2012-04-15

    The optimal performance of the two electron lenses that are being implemented for high intensity polarized proton operation of RHIC requires excellent collinearity of the {approx}0.3 mm RMS wide electron beams with the proton bunch trajectories over the {approx}2m interaction lengths. The main beam overlap diagnostic tool will make use of electrons backscattered in close encounters with the relativistic protons. These electrons will spiral along the electron guiding magnetic field and will be detected in a plastic scintillator located close to the electron gun. A fraction of these electrons will have energies high enough to emerge from the vacuum chamber through a thin window thus simplifying the design and operation of the detector. The intensity of the detected electrons provides a measure of the overlap between the e- and the opposing proton beams. Joint electron arrival time and energy discrimination may be used additionally to gain some longitudinal position information with a single detector per lens.

  4. Multi-wavelength pulse plethysmography for real-time drug delivery monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Pratik; Magaña, Isidro B.; O'Neal, Patrick D.

    2014-02-01

    A novel multi-wavelength photoplethysmograph (PPG), previously utilized to quantify optically absorptive circulating gold nanoparticles, has demonstrated the potential to enhance therapeutic treatment predictability as pharmacokinetic metrics are provided throughout the intravenous delivery phase of quinine in real-time. This report demonstrates how the PPG could be used to assess the real-time bioavailability of other types of intravenously delivered optically-absorbing nanoparticles and drugs. The drug currently under investigation is anti-malarial quinine (absorption peak ~350 nm). We describe how the algorithm has been adapted to quantify the concentration of quinine in the pulsatile, circulating blood based on its extinction at three wavelengths (340, 660 and 940 nm). We show an example of the system collecting data representing the baseline, injection, and the clearance phases. An examination of the raw signal suggests that the system is well suited to sense the concentration of quinine in the therapeutic range (10mg/kg).

  5. An optofluidic constriction chip for monitoring metastatic potential and drug response of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez Vazquez, R; Nava, G; Veglione, M; Yang, T; Bragheri, F; Minzioni, P; Bianchi, E; Di Tano, M; Chiodi, I; Osellame, R; Mondello, C; Cristiani, I

    2015-04-01

    Cellular mechanical properties constitute good markers to characterize tumor cells, to study cell population heterogeneity and to highlight the effect of drug treatments. In this work, we describe the fabrication and validation of an integrated optofluidic chip capable of analyzing cellular deformability on the basis of the pressure gradient needed to push a cell through a narrow constriction. We demonstrate the ability of the chip to discriminate between tumorigenic and metastatic breast cancer cells (MCF7 and MDA-MB231) and between human melanoma cells with different metastatic potential (A375P and A375MC2). Moreover, we show that this chip allows highlighting the effect of drugs interfering with microtubule organization (paclitaxel, combretastatin A-4 and nocodazole) on cancer cells, which leads to changes in the pressure-gradient required to push cells through the constriction. Our single-cell microfluidic device for mechanical evaluation is compact and easy to use, allowing for an extensive use in different laboratory environments.

  6. Monitoring antimalarial drug resistance: Applying lessons learned from the past in a fast-moving present.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Carol Hopkins; Price, Ric N

    2012-12-01

    The need for robust surveillance of antimalarial drugs is more urgent than it has ever been. In the western region of Cambodia, artemisinin resistance has emerged in Plasmodium falciparum and threatens to undermine the efficacy of highly effective artemisinin combination therapies. Although some manfestations of artemisinin tolerance are unique to this class of drug, many of its properties mirror previous experience in understanding and tracking resistance to other antimalarials. In this review we outline the spectrum of approaches that were developed to understand the evolution and spread of antifolate resistance, highlighting the importance of integrating information from different methodologies towards a better understanding of the underlying biologic processes. We consider how to apply our experience in investigating and attempting to contain antifolate resistance to inform our prospective assessment of novel antimalarial resistance patterns and their subsequent spread.

  7. Raman microscopic imaging of cells and applications monitoring the uptake of drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthäus, Christian; Chernenko, Tatyana; Quintero, Luis; Milan, Lara; Kale, Amit; Amiji, Mansoor; Torchilin, Vladimir; Diem, Max

    2008-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy, in combination with optical microscopy provides a new non-invasive method to asses and image cellular processes. Based on the spectral signatures of a cell's components, it is possible to image cellular organelles such as the nucleus, chromatin, mitochondria or lipid bodies, at the resolution of conventional microscopy. Several multivariate algorithms, for example hierarchical cluster analysis or orthogonal subspace projection, may be used to reconstruct an image of a cell. The noninvasive character of the technique, as well as the associated chemical information, may offer advantages over other imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy. Currently of particular interest are uptake and intracellular fate of various pharmaceutical nanocarriers, which are widely used for drug delivery purposes, including intracellular drug and gene delivery. We have imaged the uptake and distribution patterns of several carrier systems over time. In order to distinguish the species of interest from their cellular environment spectroscopically, the carrier particles or the drug load itself may be labeled with deuterium. Here, we introduce the concept of Raman imaging in combination with vertex component data analysis to follow the uptake of nanocarriers based on phospholipids as well as biodegradable polymers.

  8. Predicting Drug Use at Electronic Music Dance Events: Self-Reports and Biological Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert A.; Miller, Brenda A.; Holder, Harold D.

    2009-01-01

    Most information on the prevalence of drug use comes from self-report surveys. The sensitivity of such information is cause for concern about the accuracy of self-report measures. In this study, self-reported drug use in the last 48 hr is compared to results from biological assays of saliva samples from 371 young adults entering clubs. The…

  9. Remote monitoring of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices: a Southeast Asian, single-centre pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Paul Chun Yih; Lee, Audry Shan Yin; Chua, Kelvin Chi Ming; Lim, Eric Tien Siang; Chong, Daniel Thuan Tee; Tan, Boon Yew; Ho, Kah Leng; Teo, Wee Siong; Ching, Chi Keong

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) has been shown to improve patient safety and reduce in-office visits. We report our experience with remote monitoring via the Medtronic CareLink® network. METHODS Patients were followed up for six months with scheduled monthly remote monitoring transmissions in addition to routine in-office checks. The efficacy of remote monitoring was evaluated by recording compliance to transmissions, number of device alerts requiring intervention and time from transmission to review. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate the experiences of patients, physicians and medical technicians. RESULTS A total of 57 patients were enrolled; 16 (28.1%) had permanent pacemakers, 34 (59.6%) had implantable cardioverter defibrillators and 7 (12.3%) had cardiac resynchronisation therapy defibrillators. Overall, of 334 remote transmissions scheduled, 73.7% were on time, 14.5% were overdue and 11.8% were missed. 84.6% of wireless transmissions were on time, compared to 53.8% of non-wireless transmissions. Among all transmissions, 4.4% contained alerts for which physicians were informed and only 1.8% required intervention. 98.6% of remote transmissions were reviewed by the second working day. 73.2% of patients preferred remote monitoring. Physicians agreed that remote transmissions provided information equivalent to in-office checks 97.1% of the time. 77.8% of medical technicians felt that remote monitoring would help the hospital improve patient management. No adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION Remote monitoring of CIED is safe and feasible. It has possible benefits to patient safety through earlier detection of arrhythmias or device malfunction, permitting earlier intervention. Wireless remote monitoring, in particular, may improve compliance to device monitoring. Patients may prefer remote monitoring due to possible improvements in quality of life. PMID:27439396

  10. Endogenous and exogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive substances: impact on therapeutic drug monitoring of digoxin.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava

    2002-07-01

    Endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) was first reported in volume-expanded dogs. Its presence has been confirmed in blood, urine, and other body fluids. Elevated DLIS concentrations are encountered in patients with volume-expanded conditions such as uremia, essential hypertension, liver disease, and preeclampsia. DLISs cross-react with antidigoxin antibodies and falsely elevate serum digoxin concentrations, interfering in interpretation of results for therapeutic digoxin monitoring. Falsely lower digoxin values due to the presence of DLISs have been reported. The association of DLISs with volume expansion led to speculation that they could be natriuretic hormones. Several structures have been proposed for DLISs, including nonesterified fatty acid, phospholipid, lysophospholipid, bile acid, bile salt, and steroid. Exogenous DLISs can be found in serum after ingestion of various Chinese medicines and therapy with spironolactone, canrenone, or potassium canrenoate. Like endogenous DLISs, exogenous DLISs interfere with serum digoxin assays, complicating therapeutic digoxin monitoring. However, most reported endogenous and exogenous DLISs are strongly protein-bound while digoxin is weakly protein-bound. Therefore, interference of both endogenous and exogenous DLISs in serum digoxin measurement can be eliminated by monitoring digoxin concentrations in the protein-free ultrafiltrates. PMID:12109847

  11. [Electronic fetal monitoring and management of adverse outcomes: how to perform and improve a training program for clinicians?].

    PubMed

    Secourgeon, J-F

    2012-10-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring during labor is the most commonly used method to evaluate the fetal status, but it remains exposed to some criticism. By comparison with intermittent auscultation and in the light of the results of the great studies in the last 30 years, it may be accused its failure to improve the neonatal outcome and its responsibility in the increase on operative deliveries. Actually, the electronic fetal monitoring is a tool whose effectiveness is linked to the accuracy of the analysis developed by the clinician. Studies on assessment of the tracing interpretation indicate that there is always a lack of quality, which may be improved through training programs. It also reveals the benefit of the fetal blood sampling to reduce operative deliveries and the generalization of this method, in addition to electronic fetal monitoring, is recommended by referral agencies. More generally, the continuous monitoring is only a part of the patient safety strategy in the labour ward and we are currently observing, in some European countries and in the United States, the development of training programs concerning the management of the adverse outcomes in obstetrics. The good performances related to the quality of care are demonstrated by the findings of the studies performed in the centers that have implemented an active training policy. In France, the professionals directly involved in the field of the perinatology should benefit from such educational programs that could be organized within the care networks under the authority of referral agencies.

  12. Behavioral Reactivity Associated With Electronic Monitoring of Environmental Health Interventions--A Cluster Randomized Trial with Water Filters and Cookstoves.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Evan A; Tellez-Sanchez, Sarita; Wick, Carson; Kirby, Miles; Zambrano, Laura; Abadie Rosa, Ghislaine; Clasen, Thomas F; Nagel, Corey

    2016-04-01

    Subject reactivity--when research participants change their behavior in response to being observed--has been documented showing the effect of human observers. Electronics sensors are increasingly used to monitor environmental health interventions, but the effect of sensors on behavior has not been assessed. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Rwanda among 170 households (70 blinded to the presence of the sensor, 100 open) testing whether awareness of an electronic monitor would result in a difference in weekly use of household water filters and improved cookstoves over a four-week surveillance period. A 63% increase in number of uses of the water filter per week between the groups was observed in week 1, an average of 4.4 times in the open group and 2.83 times in the blind group, declining in week 4 to an insignificant 55% difference of 2.82 uses in the open, and 1.93 in the blind. There were no significant differences in the number of stove uses per week between the two groups. For both filters and stoves, use decreased in both groups over four-week installation periods. This study suggests behavioral monitoring should attempt to account for reactivity to awareness of electronic monitors that persists for weeks or more. PMID:26986617

  13. Fluvoxamine inhibition and carbamazepine induction of the metabolism of clozapine: evidence from a therapeutic drug monitoring service.

    PubMed

    Jerling, M; Lindström, L; Bondesson, U; Bertilsson, L

    1994-08-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring data for clozapine were used to study interactions with other drugs. The distribution of the ratio concentration/dose (C/D) of clozapine was compared in four matched groups--patients simultaneously treated with benzodiazepines, patients on drugs that inhibit the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6, patients taking carbamazepine, and those not taking any of these drugs. No difference was seen among the monotherapy, CYP2D6, and benzodiazepine groups. Patients on carbamazepine had a mean 50% lower C/D than the monotherapy group (p < 0.001), indicating that carbamazepine is an inducer of the metabolism of clozapine. The C/D was inversely correlated to the daily dose of carbamazepine. Intraindividual comparisons in eight patients, with analyses both on and off carbamazepine, confirmed a substantial decrease of the clozapine concentration when carbamazepine was introduced. Four patients treated with clozapine were concomitantly given the antidepressant fluvoxamine. Three of them exhibited a much higher C/D ratio when on fluvoxamine compared with the monotherapy group. Two had their clozapine levels analyzed when on and off fluvoxamine. The dose-normalized clozapine concentration increased by a factor of 5-10 when fluvoxamine was added. We conclude that carbamazepine causes decreased clozapine plasma levels, while fluvoxamine increases the levels. The pathways are not known with certainty, but CYP1A2 may be of major importance for the metabolism of clozapine, since fluvoxamine is a potent inhibitor of this enzyme. A recent panel study suggests that determination of CYP1A2 activity with the caffeine test may be very useful for the dosing of clozapine. The induction of clozapine metabolism by carbamazepine might be partly mediated by CYP3A4.

  14. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  15. Application of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Oximetry to Monitor Oxygen in Wounds in Diabetic Models

    PubMed Central

    Desmet, Céline M.; Lafosse, Aurore; Vériter, Sophie; Porporato, Paolo E.; Sonveaux, Pierre; Dufrane, Denis; Levêque, Philippe; Gallez, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    A lack of oxygen is classically described as a major cause of impaired wound healing in diabetic patients. Even if the role of oxygen in the wound healing process is well recognized, measurement of oxygen levels in a wound remains challenging. The purpose of the present study was to assess the value of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry to monitor pO2 in wounds during the healing process in diabetic mouse models. Kinetics of wound closure were carried out in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated and db/db mice. The pO2 was followed repeatedly during the healing process by 1 GHz EPR spectroscopy with lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) crystals used as oxygen sensor in two different wound models: a full-thickness excisional skin wound and a pedicled skin flap. Wound closure kinetics were dramatically slower in 12-week-old db/db compared to control (db/+) mice, whereas kinetics were not statistically different in STZ-treated compared to control mice. At the center of excisional wounds, measurements were highly influenced by atmospheric oxygen early in the healing process. In pedicled flaps, hypoxia was observed early after wounding. While reoxygenation occurred over time in db/+ mice, hypoxia was prolonged in the diabetic db/db model. This observation was consistent with impaired healing and microangiopathies observed using intravital microscopy. In conclusion, EPR oximetry using LiPc crystals as the oxygen sensor is an appropriate technique to follow wound oxygenation in acute and chronic wounds, in normal and diabetic animals. Nevertheless, the technique is limited for measurements in pedicled skin flaps and cannot be applied to excisional wounds in which diffusion of atmospheric oxygen significantly affects the measurements. PMID:26659378

  16. Application of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Oximetry to Monitor Oxygen in Wounds in Diabetic Models.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Céline M; Lafosse, Aurore; Vériter, Sophie; Porporato, Paolo E; Sonveaux, Pierre; Dufrane, Denis; Levêque, Philippe; Gallez, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    A lack of oxygen is classically described as a major cause of impaired wound healing in diabetic patients. Even if the role of oxygen in the wound healing process is well recognized, measurement of oxygen levels in a wound remains challenging. The purpose of the present study was to assess the value of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry to monitor pO2 in wounds during the healing process in diabetic mouse models. Kinetics of wound closure were carried out in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated and db/db mice. The pO2 was followed repeatedly during the healing process by 1 GHz EPR spectroscopy with lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) crystals used as oxygen sensor in two different wound models: a full-thickness excisional skin wound and a pedicled skin flap. Wound closure kinetics were dramatically slower in 12-week-old db/db compared to control (db/+) mice, whereas kinetics were not statistically different in STZ-treated compared to control mice. At the center of excisional wounds, measurements were highly influenced by atmospheric oxygen early in the healing process. In pedicled flaps, hypoxia was observed early after wounding. While reoxygenation occurred over time in db/+ mice, hypoxia was prolonged in the diabetic db/db model. This observation was consistent with impaired healing and microangiopathies observed using intravital microscopy. In conclusion, EPR oximetry using LiPc crystals as the oxygen sensor is an appropriate technique to follow wound oxygenation in acute and chronic wounds, in normal and diabetic animals. Nevertheless, the technique is limited for measurements in pedicled skin flaps and cannot be applied to excisional wounds in which diffusion of atmospheric oxygen significantly affects the measurements. PMID:26659378

  17. Broad spectrum drug screening using electron-ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (EI-GCMS).

    PubMed

    Stone, Judy

    2010-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of drugs and internal standard (promazine) is performed by mixing urine at basic pH with 1-chlorobutane. There are no hydrolysis or derivatization steps. After centrifugation the organic (upper) layer is transferred to another tube and evaporated. The dried extract is reconstituted with ethyl acetate and 1 microL is injected onto the GCMS. Drugs are volatilized in the GC inlet and separated on a capillary column. In the EI source drugs become positively charged and fragment. Mass analysis of ionized fragments occurs with a single quadrupole. The resulting full scan mass spectra are automatically searched against three libraries. PMID:20077071

  18. Flexible and waterproof micro-sensors to uncover zebrafish circadian rhythms: The next generation of cardiac monitoring for drug screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Beebe, Tyler; Jen, Nelson; Lee, Chia-An; Tai, Yuchong; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2015-09-15

    Flexible electronics are the next generation of sensors for mobile health and implantation. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emergent strategy for pre-clinical drug development and toxicity testing. To address the confounding effects from sedation of fish and removal from the aquatic habitat for micro-electrocardiogram (µECG) measurements, we developed waterproof and wearable sensors to uncover the circadian variation in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) (Massin et al., 2000). The parylene-C based ECG sensor consisted of an ultra-soft silicone integrated jacket designed to wrap around the fish during swimming. The Young's modulus of this silicone jacket matched with the fish surface, and an extended parylene cable connected the underwater chest electrodes with the out-of water electronics. In addition, embedded micro-glass spheres in the silicone effectively reduced the effective density of the jacket to ~1 g cm(-3). These innovations enabled physiological ECG telemetry in the fish's natural habitat without the need for sedation. Furthermore, a set of non-linear signal processing techniques filtered out the breathing and electromagnetic artifacts from the recorded signals. We observed a reduction in mean HR and an increase in HRV over 24h at 10 dpa, accompanied by QT prolongation as well as diurnal variations, followed by normalization in mean HR and QT intervals at 26 days post ventricular amputation (dpa). We revealed Amiodarone-mediated QTc prolongation, HR reduction and HRV increase otherwise masked by sedation. The novel features of the flexible silicon jacket for µECG telemetry unraveled the biological clock and normalization of QT intervals at 26 dpa, providing the first evidence of new physiological phenomena during cardiac injury and repair as well as cardiac drug-mediated aberrant rhythms. Thus, the light weight and waterproof design holds promise to advance the next generation of mobile health and drug discovery. PMID:25909335

  19. Monitoring early tumor response to drug therapy with diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flexman, Molly L.; Vlachos, Fotios; Kim, Hyun Keol; Sirsi, Shashank R.; Huang, Jianzhong; Hernandez, Sonia L.; Johung, Tessa B.; Gander, Jeffrey W.; Reichstein, Ari R.; Lampl, Brooke S.; Wang, Antai; Borden, Mark A.; Yamashiro, Darrell J.; Kandel, Jessica J.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    Although anti-angiogenic agents have shown promise as cancer therapeutics, their efficacy varies between tumor types and individual patients. Providing patient-specific metrics through rapid noninvasive imaging can help tailor drug treatment by optimizing dosages, timing of drug cycles, and duration of therapy--thereby reducing toxicity and cost and improving patient outcome. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive three-dimensional imaging modality that has been shown to capture physiologic changes in tumors through visualization of oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentrations, using non-ionizing radiation with near-infrared light. We employed a small animal model to ascertain if tumor response to bevacizumab (BV), an anti-angiogenic agent that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), could be detected at early time points using DOT. We detected a significant decrease in total hemoglobin levels as soon as one day after BV treatment in responder xenograft tumors (SK-NEP-1), but not in SK-NEP-1 control tumors or in non-responder control or BV-treated NGP tumors. These results are confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxometry and lectin perfusion studies. Noninvasive DOT imaging may allow for earlier and more effective control of anti-angiogenic therapy.

  20. Biological lipid membranes for on-demand, wireless drug delivery from thin, bioresorbable electronic implants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Hojun; Harburg, Daniel V; Park, Gayoung; Ma, Yinji; Pan, Taisong; Kim, Jae Soon; Lee, Na Yeon; Kim, Bong Hoon; Jang, Kyung-In; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Huang, Yonggang; Kim, Jeongmin; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Leal, Cecilia; Rogers, John A

    2016-01-01

    On-demand, localized release of drugs in precisely controlled, patient-specific time sequences represents an ideal scenario for pharmacological treatment of various forms of hormone imbalances, malignant cancers, osteoporosis, diabetic conditions and others. We present a wirelessly operated, implantable drug delivery system that offers such capabilities in a form that undergoes complete bioresorption after an engineered functional period, thereby obviating the need for surgical extraction. The device architecture combines thermally actuated lipid membranes embedded with multiple types of drugs, configured in spatial arrays and co-located with individually addressable, wireless elements for Joule heating. The result provides the ability for externally triggered, precision dosage of drugs with high levels of control and negligible unwanted leakage, all without the need for surgical removal. In vitro and in vivo investigations reveal all of the underlying operational and materials aspects, as well as the basic efficacy and biocompatibility of these systems. PMID:27175221

  1. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Vancomycin in Dermal Interstitial Fluid Using Dissolving Microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yukako; Inagaki, Yuto; Kobuchi, Shinji; Takada, Kanji; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To design an alternative painless method for vancomycin (VCM) monitoring by withdrawing interstitial fluid (ISF) the skin using dissolving microneedles (DMNs) and possibly replace the conventional clinical blood sampling method. Methods: Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with 50 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital. Vancomycin at 5 mg/mL in saline was intravenously administered via the jugular vein. ISF was collected from a formed pore at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 120 min after the DMNs was removed from the skin. In addition, 0.3 mL blood samples were collected from the left femoral vein. Results: The correlation between the plasma and ISF VCM concentrations was significantly strong (r = 0.676, p < 0.05). Microscopic observation of the skin after application of the DMNs demonstrated their safety as a device for sampling ISF. Conclusion: A novel monitoring method for VCM was developed to painlessly determine concentrations in the ISF as opposed to blood sampling. PMID:27076783

  2. Outward electron transfer by Saccharomyces cerevisiae monitored with a bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell-type activity sensor.

    PubMed

    Ducommun, Raphaël; Favre, Marie-France; Carrard, Delphine; Fischer, Fabian

    2010-03-01

    A Janus head-like bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell was constructed to monitor the electron transfer from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to a woven carbon anode. The experiments were conducted during an ethanol cultivation of 170 g/l glucose in the presence and absence of yeast-peptone medium. First, using a basic fuel-cell type activity sensor, it was shown that yeast-peptone medium contains electroactive compounds. For this purpose, 1% solutions of soy peptone and yeast extract were subjected to oxidative conditions, using a microbial fuel cell set-up corresponding to a typical galvanic cell, consisting of culture medium in the anodic half-cell and 0.5 M K(3)Fe(CN)(6) in the cathodic half-cell. Second, using a bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell, it was shown that electrons were transferred from yeast cells to the carbon anode. The participation of electroactive compounds in the electron transport was separated as background current. This result was verified by applying medium-free conditions, where only glucose was fed, confirming that electrons are transferred from yeast cells to the woven carbon anode. Knowledge about the electron transfer through the cell membrane is of importance in amperometric online monitoring of yeast fermentations and for electricity production with microbial fuel cells.

  3. [Monitoring of formation of diclofenac sodium salt hydrates and their influence on the drug dissolution from prepared tablets].

    PubMed

    Doležel, Petr; Muselík, Jan; Králová, Michaela; Vetchý, David

    2013-12-01

    NIR spectroscopy together with multivariate data analysis were used to analyze the hydrates of diclofenac sodium prepared from the non-aqueous solvents tetrahydrofuran and methanol under standard laboratory conditions at 20 °C and relative humidity less than 60%. It was confirmed that the developed PLS regression model can monitor the process of formation of hydrates. It was also found that the hydrated form of diclofenac sodium arises during the preparation of the dosage form the using technology of impregnating the solid carrier by non-aqueous solvents, which resulted in reducing of the drug release rate from prepared tablets up to twice. NIR spectroscopy was confirmed as one of the effective PAT (Process Analytical Technology) methods. PMID:24393114

  4. Bioinspired fluorescent dipeptide nanoparticles for targeted cancer cell imaging and real-time monitoring of drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhen; Sun, Leming; Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-04-01

    Peptide nanostructures are biodegradable and are suitable for many biomedical applications. However, to be useful imaging probes, the limited intrinsic optical properties of peptides must be overcome. Here we show the formation of tryptophan–phenylalanine dipeptide nanoparticles (DNPs) that can shift the peptide's intrinsic fluorescent signal from the ultraviolet to the visible range. The visible emission signal allows the DNPs to act as imaging and sensing probes. The peptide design is inspired by the red shift seen in the yellow fluorescent protein that results from π–π stacking and by the enhanced fluorescence intensity seen in the green fluorescent protein mutant, BFPms1, which results from the structure rigidification by Zn(II). We show that DNPs are photostable, biocompatible and have a narrow emission bandwidth and visible fluorescence properties. DNPs functionalized with the MUC1 aptamer and doxorubicin can target cancer cells and can be used to image and monitor drug release in real time.

  5. Role of therapeutic drug monitoring in pulmonary infections: use and potential for expanded use of dried blood spot samples.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Susan; Bolhuis, Mathieu S; Koster, Remco A; Akkerman, Onno W; van Assen, Sander; Stove, Christophe; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in men. We reviewed literature to document their pharmacological treatments, and the extent to which therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is needed during treatment. We subsequently examined potential use of dried blood spots as sample procedure for TDM. TDM was found to be an important component of clinical care for many (but not all) pulmonary infections. For gentamicin, linezolid, voriconazole and posaconazole dried blood spot methods and their use in TDM were already evident in literature. For glycopeptides, β-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones it was determined that development of a dried blood spot (DBS) method could be useful. This review identifies specific antibiotics for which development of DBS methods could support the optimization of treatment of pulmonary infections.

  6. Bioinspired fluorescent dipeptide nanoparticles for targeted cancer cell imaging and real-time monitoring of drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhen; Sun, Leming; Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-04-01

    Peptide nanostructures are biodegradable and are suitable for many biomedical applications. However, to be useful imaging probes, the limited intrinsic optical properties of peptides must be overcome. Here we show the formation of tryptophan-phenylalanine dipeptide nanoparticles (DNPs) that can shift the peptide's intrinsic fluorescent signal from the ultraviolet to the visible range. The visible emission signal allows the DNPs to act as imaging and sensing probes. The peptide design is inspired by the red shift seen in the yellow fluorescent protein that results from π-π stacking and by the enhanced fluorescence intensity seen in the green fluorescent protein mutant, BFPms1, which results from the structure rigidification by Zn(II). We show that DNPs are photostable, biocompatible and have a narrow emission bandwidth and visible fluorescence properties. DNPs functionalized with the MUC1 aptamer and doxorubicin can target cancer cells and can be used to image and monitor drug release in real time.

  7. Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springford, Michael

    1997-03-01

    1. J. J. Thomson and the discovery of the electron A. B. P. Pippard; 2. The isolated electron W. N. Cottingham; 3. The relativistic electron D. I. Olive; 4. The electron glue B. L. Gyorffy; 5. The electron fluid P. Coleman; 6. The magnetic electron G. G. Lonzarich; 7. The paired electron A. J. Leggett; 8. The heavy electron M. Springford; 9. The coherent electron Y. Imry and M. Peskin; 10. The composite electron R. Nicholas; 11. The electron in the cosmos M. S. Longair.

  8. Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springford, Michael

    2008-12-01

    1. J. J. Thomson and the discovery of the electron A. B. P. Pippard; 2. The isolated electron W. N. Cottingham; 3. The relativistic electron D. I. Olive; 4. The electron glue B. L. Gyorffy; 5. The electron fluid P. Coleman; 6. The magnetic electron G. G. Lonzarich; 7. The paired electron A. J. Leggett; 8. The heavy electron M. Springford; 9. The coherent electron Y. Imry and M. Peskin; 10. The composite electron R. Nicholas; 11. The electron in the cosmos M. S. Longair.

  9. Dried Blood Spot Analysis for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Linezolid in Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Vu, D. H.; Bolhuis, M. S.; Koster, R. A.; Greijdanus, B.; de Lange, W. C. M.; van Altena, R.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; Uges, D. R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Linezolid is a promising antimicrobial agent for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), but its use is limited by toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may help to minimize toxicity while adequate drug exposure is maintained. Conventional plasma sampling and monitoring might be hindered in many parts of the world by logistical problems that may be solved by dried blood spot (DBS) sampling. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a novel method for TDM of linezolid in MDR-TB patients using DBS sampling. Plasma, venous DBS, and capillary DBS specimens were obtained simultaneously from eight patients receiving linezolid. A DBS sampling method was developed and clinically validated by comparing DBS with plasma results using Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman analysis. This study showed that DBS analysis was reproducible and robust. Accuracy and between- and within-day precision values from three validations presented as bias and coefficient of variation (CV) were less than 17.2% for the lower limit of quantification and less than 7.8% for other levels. The method showed a high recovery of approximately 95% and a low matrix effect of less than 8.7%. DBS specimens were stable at 37°C for 2 months and at 50°C for 1 week. The ratio of the concentration of linezolid in DBS samples to that in plasma was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 1.27). Linezolid exposure calculated from concentrations DBS samples and plasma showed good agreement. In conclusion, DBS analysis of linezolid is a promising tool to optimize linezolid treatment in MDR-TB patients. An easy sampling procedure and high sample stability may facilitate TDM, even in underdeveloped countries with limited resources and where conventional plasma sampling is not feasible. PMID:22926568

  10. Monitoring of adverse drug reactions in psychiatry outpatient department of a Secondary Care Hospital of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Al-Thamer, Sura Saad Faris; Jabbar, Riadh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, resulting in increased healthcare cost. Association of psychotropic medications with ADRs is common. Pharmacovigilance can play a vital role in alerting the healthcare providers from the possible ADRs and thus protecting the patients receiving psychotropic medications. Aim: To monitor and report the incidence and nature of ADRs in psychiatry outpatient department (OPD). Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out in the psychiatry OPD. All the patients attending psychiatry outpatient and satisfying the inclusion criteria were monitored for ADRs. The causality, severity and preventability assessment of documented ADRs was done. Chi-square test was done to identify the association between ADRs and sociodemographic, disease and treatment-related variables. Paired Student's t-test was carried out to compare the significance difference in the weight of the patients who reported weight gain to psychotropic medications. Results: The incidence rate of ADR was found to be 10.2%. A total of 112 ADRs were documented. Weight gain 18 (16.07%) followed by somnolence 8 (7.14%) was the most commonly reported ADR. Atypical antipsychotics 37 (33.0%) were the most common class of psychotropic drugs implicated in ADRs. Escitalopram 16 (14.28%) followed by quetiapine 14 (12.5%) were associated with a maximum number of ADRs. No significant association (P > 0.05) documented between demographic and treatment-related variables with number of ADRs. Conclusion: Study revealed a moderate incidence of ADRs in patients attending the psychiatry OPD. Majority of the ADRs reported during the study were mild in nature and not preventable type. PMID:27330260

  11. Diagnosis, monitoring and management of immune-related adverse drug reactions of anti-PD-1 antibody therapy.

    PubMed

    Eigentler, Thomas K; Hassel, Jessica C; Berking, Carola; Aberle, Jens; Bachmann, Oliver; Grünwald, Viktor; Kähler, Katharina C; Loquai, Carmen; Reinmuth, Niels; Steins, Martin; Zimmer, Lisa; Sendl, Anna; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors are associated with a specific spectrum of immune-related adverse events. This spectrum is different from toxicities known for kinase inhibitors or cytotoxic drugs. Since PD-1 directed therapies show effectivity in an increasing number of malignant diseases, their clinical usage will increase rapidly. Therefore clinicians from different specialities such as medical oncology, internal medicine, family doctors and emergency unit staff should be aware of the adverse effects of PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment. Based on pooled data from pivotal trials as reported by the European Medicines Agency, the present paper reviews incidences and kinetics of onset and resolution of immune-mediated "adverse events of specific interest" (AEOSI) of both approved PD-1 inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab. In general, the severity of AEOSI is mild to moderate (grade 1-2); the frequency of immune-mediated but also idiopathic grade 3-4 adverse drug reactions is ⩽2% for any event term. Recommendations for the diagnosis, monitoring and management of the relevant dermatological, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, endocrine, renal and hepatic toxicities are convened by an expert panel that consolidated and clarified treatment recommendations after the onset of AEOSI. Although the time of onset is not predictable - the medians range from 1 to 6months - the huge majority of events is reversible, with no impact of the time of onset. By the systemic use of glucocorticoids, notably methylprednisolone or equivalents, most AEOSI are well manageable. Non-steroidal immunosuppressants may be used in certain cases of refractory/recalcitrant, long-lasting immune toxicities. With regard to the outstanding clinical activity of the anti-PD-1 antibodies, therapy restart is the principal therapeutic option after recovery of grade 2 AEOSI, or diminution of higher grade skin or endocrine events to mild severity. Early diagnosis and close clinical

  12. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Anti-TNF Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Frank I.; Lichtenstein, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    While anti-TNF agents have had a marked impact in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, a significant number of patients lose their response to these medications over time. Clinical trials have demonstrated that antibodies against anti-TNF medications may impact treatment response and increase the risk of infusion reaction. Scheduled dosing and concurrent use of immunomodulators may help to mitigate these risks via inhibiting the formation of these antibodies. The recent availability of assays to measure anti-TNF drug levels and antibodies against anti-TNFs offer the opportunity to assess patients who have lost response with infliximab and adalimumab, and potentially determine the most appropriate therapeutic strategy. There is growing evidence that such testing improves patient outcomes and is cost-effective, although heterogeneity in the assays used in clinical and observational trials has resulted in mixed results. PMID:24452768

  13. Assessment of MEKC suitability for residue drug monitoring on pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment.

    PubMed

    Boca, Madalina Brindusa; Pretorius, Etheresia; Kgaje, Christopher; Apostolides, Zeno

    2008-03-13

    The suitability of micellar electrokinetic chromatography for the simultaneous trace determination of several compounds (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, sulfanilic acid, sulfanilamide, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid and nonoxynol-9) was assessed. The mixture was separated within 14min at an applied voltage of 22kV by using 30mM phosphate electrolyte, containing 10mM SDS, adjusted to pH 7.8. Under optimized separation conditions acceptable levels of linearity, precision and accuracy were obtained for all compounds. The method could be used as part of a cleaning validation study when assaying trace levels of co-trimoxazole drug, some of its decomposition products and detergent in the swab samples collected from pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment, after cleaning. PMID:18178359

  14. An audit of therapeutic drug monitoring service provision by laboratories participating in an external quality assessment scheme.

    PubMed

    Thomson, A H; Watson, I D; Wilson, J F; Sweeney, G; Dawkins, C E; Smith, B L; Williams, J; Capps, N E; Toseland, P A

    1998-06-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring services were investigated in a questionnaire sent to all subscribers to the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Therapeutic Drug Assays. Questions were posed on assay availability and use, target ranges, and reporting procedures for digoxin, lithium, phenytoin, phenobarbitone, carbamazepine, theophylline, and valproic acid. One hundred fifty-seven laboratories replied and, except for lithium, 45% reported in mass units, 34% in molar units, and 22% a mixture of mass and molar units. Target ranges for lithium, digoxin, carbamazepine, and phenobarbitone were highly variable but ranges for phenytoin, theophylline, and valproic acid were more consistent. Immunoassay was the most popular methodology although high-performance liquid chromatography was commonly used for anticonvulsants. Paper copies of results were provided by 93% of laboratories, 40% reported by telephone, 12% by fax, and 28% by computer. Additional data, mainly dose, time of last dose, and duration of therapy were requested by 55% to 67% of laboratories. Grades of staff authorizing results ranged from nurses to senior consultants, and collaboration with pharmacists occurred in 26% of laboratories. Most laboratories provided a daily analytical service and 73% offered a 24-hour emergency service. This audit unexpectedly identified use of a wide range of target concentrations, particularly for digoxin and lithium. PMID:9631919

  15. Real-Time Monitoring of Tumorigenesis, Dissemination, & Drug Response in a Preclinical Model of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis/Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangbing; Lunsford, Elaine P.; Tong, Jingli; Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Gibbs, Summer L.; Yu, Jane; Choi, Hak Soo; Henske, Elizabeth P.; Frangioni, John V.

    2012-01-01

    Background TSC2-deficient cells can proliferate in the lungs, kidneys, and other organs causing devastating progressive multisystem disorders such as lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Preclinical models utilizing LAM patient-derived cells have been difficult to establish. We developed a novel animal model system to study the molecular mechanisms of TSC/LAM pathogenesis and tumorigenesis and provide a platform for drug testing. Methods and Findings TSC2-deficient human cells, derived from the angiomyolipoma of a LAM patient, were engineered to co-express both sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). Cells were inoculated intraparenchymally, intravenously, or intratracheally into athymic NCr nu/nu mice and cells were tracked and quantified using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT). Surprisingly, TSC2-deficient cells administered intratracheally resulted in rapid dissemination to lymph node basins throughout the body, and histopathological changes in the lung consistent with LAM. Estrogen was found to be permissive for tumor growth and dissemination. Rapamycin inhibited tumor growth, but tumors regrew after the drug treatment was withdrawn. Conclusions We generated homogeneous NIS/GFP co-expressing TSC2-deficient, patient-derived cells that can proliferate and migrate in vivo after intratracheal instillation. Although the animal model we describe has some limitations, we demonstrate that systemic tumors formed from TSC2-deficient cells can be monitored and quantified noninvasively over time using SPECT/CT, thus providing a much needed model system for in vivo drug testing and mechanistic studies of TSC2-deficient cells and their related clinical syndromes. PMID:22719903

  16. Nanoparticles as Alternative Strategies for Drug Delivery to the Alzheimer Brain: Electron Microscopy Ultrastructural Analysis.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Gjumrakch; Daza, Jesús; Herrera, Arturo Solís; del Carmen Arias Esparza, María; Morales, Ludis; Echeverria, Valentina; Bachurin, Sergey Olegovich; Barreto, George Emilio

    2015-01-01

    One of the biggest problems and challenges for the development of new drugs and treatment strategies against Alzheimer Disease (AD) is the crossing of target drugs into the blood brain barrier. The use of nanoparticles in drug delivery therapy holds much promise in targeting remote tissues, and as a result many studies have attempted to study the ultrastructural localization of nanoparticles in various tissues. However, there are currently no in vivo studies demonstrating the ultrastructural distribution of nanoparticles in the brain. The aim of this study was to address how intraperitoneal injection of silver nanoparticles in the brain leads to leaking on the inter-endothelial contact and luminal plasma membrane, thus elucidating the possibility of penetrating into the most affected areas in the Alzheimer brain (vascular endothelium, perivascular, neuronal and glial cells). Our results show that the silver nanoparticles reached the brain and were found in hippocampal areas, indicating that they can be conjugated and used to deliver the drugs into the cell cytoplasm of the damaged brain cells. The present study can be useful for the development of novel drug delivering therapy and useful in understanding the delivery, distribution and effects of silver nanoparticles in AD brain tissue at cellular and subcellular level.

  17. Monitoring tissue inflammation and responses to drug treatments in early stages of mice bone fracture using 50 MHz ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chu; Lin, Yi-Hsun; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Lin, Shih-Ping; Shung, K Kirk; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Bone fracture induces moderate inflammatory responses that are regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) for initiating tissue repair and bone formation. Only a handful of non-invasive techniques focus on monitoring acute inflammation of injured bone currently exists. In the current study, we monitored in vivo inflammation levels during the initial 2 weeks of the inflammatory stage after mouse bone fracture utilizing 50 MHz ultrasound. The acquired ultrasonic images were correlated well with histological examinations. After the bone fracture in the tibia, dynamic changes in the soft tissue at the medial-posterior compartment near the fracture site were monitored by ultrasound on the days of 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14. The corresponding echogenicity increased on the 2nd, 4th, and 7th day, and subsequently declined to basal levels after the 14th day. An increase of cell death was identified by the positive staining of deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and was consistent with ultrasound measurements. The increases of both COX-2 and Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1, 5-LO-relative receptor), which are regulators for tissue inflammation, in the immunohistochemistry staining revealed their involvement in bone fracture injury. Monitoring the inflammatory response to various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) treatments was investigated by treating injured mice with a daily oral intake of aspirin (Asp), indomethacin (IND), and a selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236). The Asp treatment significantly reduced fracture-increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity, p<0.05) in ultrasound images as well as inhibited cell death, and expression of COX-2 and BLT1. In contrast, treatment with IND or SC-236 did not reduce the hyperechogenicity, as confirmed by cell death (TUNEL) and expression levels of COX-2 or BLT1. Taken together, the current study reports the feasibility of a non-invasive ultrasound method capable of monitoring post

  18. Monitoring tissue inflammation and responses to drug treatments in early stages of mice bone fracture using 50 MHz ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chu; Lin, Yi-Hsun; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Lin, Shih-Ping; Shung, K Kirk; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Bone fracture induces moderate inflammatory responses that are regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) for initiating tissue repair and bone formation. Only a handful of non-invasive techniques focus on monitoring acute inflammation of injured bone currently exists. In the current study, we monitored in vivo inflammation levels during the initial 2 weeks of the inflammatory stage after mouse bone fracture utilizing 50 MHz ultrasound. The acquired ultrasonic images were correlated well with histological examinations. After the bone fracture in the tibia, dynamic changes in the soft tissue at the medial-posterior compartment near the fracture site were monitored by ultrasound on the days of 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14. The corresponding echogenicity increased on the 2nd, 4th, and 7th day, and subsequently declined to basal levels after the 14th day. An increase of cell death was identified by the positive staining of deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and was consistent with ultrasound measurements. The increases of both COX-2 and Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1, 5-LO-relative receptor), which are regulators for tissue inflammation, in the immunohistochemistry staining revealed their involvement in bone fracture injury. Monitoring the inflammatory response to various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) treatments was investigated by treating injured mice with a daily oral intake of aspirin (Asp), indomethacin (IND), and a selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236). The Asp treatment significantly reduced fracture-increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity, p<0.05) in ultrasound images as well as inhibited cell death, and expression of COX-2 and BLT1. In contrast, treatment with IND or SC-236 did not reduce the hyperechogenicity, as confirmed by cell death (TUNEL) and expression levels of COX-2 or BLT1. Taken together, the current study reports the feasibility of a non-invasive ultrasound method capable of monitoring post

  19. Lamotrigine in pregnancy - therapeutic drug monitoring in maternal blood, amniotic fluid, and cord blood.

    PubMed

    Paulzen, Michael; Lammertz, Sarah E; Veselinovic, Tanja; Goecke, Tamme W; Hiemke, Christoph; Gründer, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    This study is the first to measure and correlate lamotrigine concentrations in maternal blood, amniotic fluid, and umbilical cord blood and account for distribution of the drug between these three compartments. Concentrations of lamotrigine were measured in six mother-infant pairs at the time of delivery. Daily doses of lamotrigine ranged between 200 and 650 mg. Daily doses were correlated with maternal serum and umbilical cord blood concentrations, and serum levels were correlated with levels in amniotic fluid. Lamotrigine levels in serum correlated strongly with the lamotrigine levels in amniotic fluid (r=+0.986, P<0.001) and cord blood (r=+0.928, P=0.008). The penetration ratio into amniotic fluid was in a range between 0.31 and 0.75 (mean 0.58, SD 0.17); the penetration ratio into the fetal circulation, calculated on the basis of umbilical cord blood levels, was found to be in a range between 0.48 and 1.27 (mean 0.81, SD 0.28). Lamotrigine concentrations in amniotic fluid provided evidence that maternally administered lamotrigine is accessible to the fetus in a manner not previously appreciated. Furthermore, the penetration ratio into umbilical cord blood calculated here is in line with the largest study carried out so far to explore transplacental transfer.

  20. An Automated Electronic Tongue for In-Situ Quick Monitoring of Trace Heavy Metals in Water Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Gao, Xiaoming; Guo, Hongsun; Zhao, Huixin; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    An automated electronic tongue instrumentation has been developed for in-situ concentration determination of trace heavy metals in water environment. The electronic tongue contains two main parts. The sensor part consists of a silicon-based Hg-coated Au microelectrodes array (MEA) for the detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) and a multiple light-addressable potentiometric sensor (MLAPS) for the detection of Fe(III) and Cr(VI). The control part employs pumps, valves and tubes to enable the pick-up and pretreatment of aqueous sample. The electronic tongue realized detection of the six metals mentioned above at part-per-billion (ppb) level without manual operation. This instrumentation will have wide application in quick monitoring and prediction the heavy metal pollution in lakes and oceans.

  1. Single-cell bioelectrical impedance platform for monitoring cellular response to drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Asphahani, Fareid; Wang, Kui; Thein, Myo; Veiseh, Omid; Yung, Sandy; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Miqin

    2011-02-01

    The response of cells to a chemical or biological agent in terms of their impedance changes in real-time is a useful mechanism that can be utilized for a wide variety of biomedical and environmental applications. The use of a single-cell-based analytical platform could be an effective approach to acquiring more sensitive cell impedance measurements, particularly in applications where only diminutive changes in impedance are expected. Here, we report the development of an on-chip cell impedance biosensor with two types of electrodes that host individual cells and cell populations, respectively, to study its efficacy in detecting cellular response. Human glioblastoma (U87MG) cells were patterned on single- and multi-cell electrodes through ligand-mediated natural cell adhesion. We comparatively investigated how these cancer cells on both types of electrodes respond to an ion channel inhibitor, chlorotoxin (CTX), in terms of their shape alternations and impedance changes to exploit the fine detectability of the single-cell-based system. The detecting electrodes hosting single cells exhibited a significant reduction in the real impedance signal, while electrodes hosting confluent monolayer of cells showed little to no impedance change. When single-cell electrodes were treated with CTX of different doses, a dose-dependent impedance change was observed. This enables us to identify the effective dose needed for this particular treatment. Our study demonstrated that this single-cell impedance system may potentially serve as a useful analytical tool for biomedical applications such as environmental toxin detection and drug evaluation.

  2. Single-cell bioelectrical impedance platform for monitoring cellular response to drug treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphahani, Fareid; Wang, Kui; Thein, Myo; Veiseh, Omid; Yung, Sandy; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Miqin

    2011-02-01

    The response of cells to a chemical or biological agent in terms of their impedance changes in real-time is a useful mechanism that can be utilized for a wide variety of biomedical and environmental applications. The use of a single-cell-based analytical platform could be an effective approach to acquiring more sensitive cell impedance measurements, particularly in applications where only diminutive changes in impedance are expected. Here, we report the development of an on-chip cell impedance biosensor with two types of electrodes that host individual cells and cell populations, respectively, to study its efficacy in detecting cellular response. Human glioblastoma (U87MG) cells were patterned on single- and multi-cell electrodes through ligand-mediated natural cell adhesion. We comparatively investigated how these cancer cells on both types of electrodes respond to an ion channel inhibitor, chlorotoxin (CTX), in terms of their shape alternations and impedance changes to exploit the fine detectability of the single-cell-based system. The detecting electrodes hosting single cells exhibited a significant reduction in the real impedance signal, while electrodes hosting confluent monolayer of cells showed little to no impedance change. When single-cell electrodes were treated with CTX of different doses, a dose-dependent impedance change was observed. This enables us to identify the effective dose needed for this particular treatment. Our study demonstrated that this single-cell impedance system may potentially serve as a useful analytical tool for biomedical applications such as environmental toxin detection and drug evaluation.

  3. 76 FR 36919 - Proof of Concept Demonstration for Electronic Reporting of Clean Water Act Compliance Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... information for this expanded universe of regulated facilities. Electronic data collection and transmission... and initially focused on a subset of point source pollution. Since then, the universe of...

  4. Plasma Charge Current for Controlling and Monitoring Electron Beam Welding with Beam Oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Belenkiy, Vladimir; Shchavlev, Valeriy; Piskunov, Anatoliy; Abdullin, Aleksandr; Mladenov, Georgy

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process. PMID:23242276

  5. Plasma charge current for controlling and monitoring electron beam welding with beam oscillation.

    PubMed

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Belenkiy, Vladimir; Shchavlev, Valeriy; Piskunov, Anatoliy; Abdullin, Aleksandr; Mladenov, Georgy

    2012-12-14

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process.

  6. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2010. Volume II, College Students & Adults Ages 19-50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF), which is now in its 36th year, is a research program conducted at the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research under a series of investigator-initiated research grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The study is comprised of several ongoing series of annual surveys of nationally representative…

  7. The Moderating Role of Parental Monitoring on the Influence of Peer Pro-Drug Norms on Alcohol and Cigarette Use among Adolescents in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, David; Castillo, Jason T.; Ayón, Cecilia; Blanchard, Kelly N.

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized data drawn from a study of 980 adolescents living in Tijuana, Mexico, in February 2009 to examine whether parental monitoring had a moderating impact on the influence of peer pro-drug norms on lifetime and past-30-day alcohol and cigarette use among a group of adolescents living along the United States-Mexico border. The…

  8. Parenting Practices and Problem Behavior across Three Generations: Monitoring, Harsh Discipline, and Drug Use in the Intergenerational Transmission of Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David

    2009-01-01

    Using data from grandparents (G1), parents (G2), and children (G3), this study examined continuity in parental monitoring, harsh discipline, and child externalizing behavior across generations, and the contribution of parenting practices and parental drug use to intergenerational continuity in child externalizing behavior. Structural equation and…

  9. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2006. Volume I: Secondary School Students. NIH Publication No. 07-6205

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The Monitoring the Future study has provided the nation with a window into the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illicit drug use, alcohol use, and tobacco use. It has provided a clearer view of the changing topography of these problems among adolescents and adults, a better understanding of the dynamics of factors that drive…

  10. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2007. Volume I, Secondary School Students. NIH Publication No. 08-6418A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2008-01-01

    The Monitoring the Future study has provided the nation with a window into the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illicit drug use, alcohol use, and tobacco use. It has provided a clearer view of the changing topography of these problems among adolescents and adults, a better understanding of the dynamics of factors that drive…

  11. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2008. Volume I, Secondary School Students. NIH Publication No. 09-7402

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The Monitoring the Future study has provided the nation with a window into the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illicit drug use, alcohol use, and tobacco use. It has provided a clearer view of the changing topography of these problems among adolescents and adults, a better understanding of the dynamics of factors that drive…

  12. National Survey Results on Drug Use from the Monitoring the Future Study, 1975-1997. Volume 2: College Students and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    Data from the "Monitoring the Future" study follow-up studies on drug use of young adults post-high school are presented. An introduction, overview of key findings, and study design and procedures (including discussions of validity and representativeness) are provided. Follow-up procedures and sampling issues are discussed. This report is focused…

  13. Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume II: College Students and Adults Ages 19-50. NIH Publication No. 10-7585

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF), now in its 35th year, has become one of the nation's most relied-upon sources of information on changes taking place in licit and illicit psychoactive drug use among American adolescents, college students, young adults, and more recently, middle-aged adults. During the last three and a half decades, the study has…

  14. Monitoring the Future. National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2009. Volume II, College Students & Adults Ages 19-50. NIH Publication Number 10-7585

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Now in its 35th year, Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term program of research conducted at the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research under a series of investigator-initiated research grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The study is comprised of several ongoing series of annual surveys of nationally…

  15. Evolution of the National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Act (NASPER): a public law for balancing treatment of pain and drug abuse and diversion.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Whitfield, Ed; Pallone, Frank

    2005-10-01

    In the United States, physicians are faced with two opposing dilemmas in the treatment of pain - the potential for drug abuse and diversion, and the possible undertreatment of pain. While controlled prescription drugs such as narcotic analgesics, anxiolytics, antidepressants, stimulants, and sedative-hypnotics, play a legitimate role in managing chronic pain and other conditions, the illicit use of prescribed medicines is increasing at epidemic proportions. Diversion and abuse of prescription drugs is costly in terms of addiction, overdose, death, and related criminal activities, but chronic pain carries significant economic, social, and health impact as well. The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP), as the introducing organization, was joined by several physician and nurse practitioner organizations in support of the National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting (NASPER) Act of 2005, legislation that not only will give physicians an information tool to aid in prescribing controlled substances but also will help identify illicit use and abuse. NASPER is the law that provides for the establishment of a controlled substances monitoring program in each state. The concept for NASPER originated with ASIPP and was modeled after the highly successful Kentucky All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Program (KASPER). Legislation was introduced in the United States House of Representatives during three different Congresses, the 107th, 108th, and 109th, by Reps. Edward Whitfield (R-KY) and Frank Pallone (D-NJ). It was first introduced in the United States Senate in the 107th Congress by Sen. Tim Hutchinson (R-AK), and in the 108th and 109th by Sens. Jeff Sessions (R-AL) and Dick Durbin (D-IL), with multiple cosponsors in both chambers. NASPER passed the House on July 27, 2005, by voice vote and passed the Senate by unanimous consent on July 29, 2005. President George W. Bush signed NASPER on August 11, 2005, and it became Public Law

  16. Plasma quetiapine in relation to prescribed dose and other factors: data from a therapeutic drug monitoring service, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Bowskill, Sally V.J.; Patel, Maxine X.; Flanagan, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Suggested predose plasma quetiapine target ranges for effective therapy in schizophrenia lie between 50 and 500 µg/l. We aimed to examine data from a quetiapine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service to assess the plasma quetiapine concentrations attained at specified doses in clinical practice. Method: We studied TDM data from patients given immediate-release quetiapine in the period 2000–2011. Results: There were 946 samples from 487 patients (257 males, age at time of first sample, median [range] 34 [14–87] years, and 230 females, age at time of first sample, median [range] 38 [10–92] years). The plasma quetiapine concentration was <50 and <100 µg/l in 30% and 50% of samples, respectively (no quetiapine detected in 9% of samples). The relationship between dose and plasma quetiapine was poor. The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) quetiapine dose was higher (t = 3.6, df = 446, p <0.01) in males versus females (641 [600–1240] and 548 [600–943] mg/day, respectively), although there was no difference in median dose (600 mg/day) or in the mean (95% CI) plasma quetiapine concentrations attained. Smoking habit had no discernible effect on plasma quetiapine concentration. Conclusions: There was a poor relationship between dose and plasma quetiapine concentration in this study, as found by others. This is probably because of the short plasma half-life of the drug, at least in part. Nevertheless, quetiapine TDM can help assess adherence and measurement of quetiapine metabolites, notably N-desalkylquetiapine, as well as quetiapine itself may enhance the value of quetiapine TDM in future. PMID:24167685

  17. Antimicrobial drug use in Austrian pig farms: plausibility check of electronic on-farm records and estimation of consumption

    PubMed Central

    Trauffler, M.; Griesbacher, A.; Fuchs, K.; Köfer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic drug application records from farmers from 75 conventional pig farms were revised and checked for their plausibility. The registered drug amounts were verified by comparing the farmers' records with veterinarians' dispensary records. The antimicrobial consumption was evaluated from 2008 to 2011 and expressed in weight of active substance(s), number of used daily doses (nUDD), number of animal daily doses (nADD) and number of product-related daily doses (nPrDD). All results were referred to one year and animal bodyweight (kg biomass). The data plausibility proof revealed about 14 per cent of unrealistic drug amount entries in the farmers' records. The annual antimicrobial consumption was 33.9 mg/kg/year, 4.9 UDDkg/kg/year, 1.9 ADDkg/kg/year and 2.5 PrDDkg/kg/year (average). Most of the antimicrobials were applied orally (86 per cent) and at group-level. Main therapy indications were metaphylactic/prophylactic measures (farrow-to-finish and fattening farms) or digestive tract diseases (breeding farms). The proportion of the ‘highest priority critically important antimicrobials’ was low (12 per cent). After determination of a threshold value, farms with a high antimicrobial use could be detected. Statistical tests showed that the veterinarian had an influence on the dosage, the therapy indication and the active substance. Orally administered antimicrobials were mostly underdosed, parenterally administered antimicrobials rather correctly or overdosed. PMID:25053268

  18. Monitoring non-pseudomorphic epitaxial growth of spinel/perovskite oxide heterostructures by reflection high-energy electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Schütz, P.; Pfaff, F.; Scheiderer, P.; Sing, M.; Claessen, R.

    2015-02-09

    Pulsed laser deposition of spinel γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films on bulk perovskite SrTiO{sub 3} is monitored by high-pressure reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The heteroepitaxial combination of two materials with different crystal structures is found to be inherently accompanied by a strong intensity modulation of bulk diffraction patterns from inelastically scattered electrons, which impedes the observation of RHEED intensity oscillations. Avoiding such electron surface-wave resonance enhancement by de-tuning the RHEED geometry allows for the separate observation of the surface-diffracted specular RHEED signal and thus the real-time monitoring of sub-unit cell two-dimensional layer-by-layer growth. Since these challenges are essentially rooted in the difference between film and substrate crystal structure, our findings are of relevance for the growth of any heterostructure combining oxides with different crystal symmetry and may thus facilitate the search for novel oxide heterointerfaces.

  19. Monitoring the Environment: The Use of Electronic Meters and Chemical or Bacteriological Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, J. R.; Tranter, J.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of electronic environmental meters available for use in schools. Included are conductivity, oxygen, pH, and temperature meters. Chemical test papers and kits for use in environmental studies are included. (BB)

  20. Monitoring electron and proton diffusion flux through three-dimensional, paper-based, variable biofilm and liquid media layers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gihoon; Choi, Seokheun

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this work is to pursue analytical approaches that elucidate electron and proton diffusion inside the Shewanella oneidensis biofilm and bulk liquid, which will inevitably promote the translation of Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) technology for renewable, "green energy" solutions that are in demand to sustain the world's ever-increasing energy demands and to mitigate the depletion of current resources. This study provides a novel strategy for monitoring electron/proton fluxes in 3-D multi-laminate structures of paper as a scaffold to support S. oneidensis biofilms and bulk media liquid. Multiple layers of paper containing bacterial cells and/or media are stacked to form a layered 3-D model of the overall biofilm/bulk liquid construct. Mass transport of electrons and protons into this 3-D system can be quantified along with the exploration of microbial energy production. Assembly of a 3D paper stack can be modular and allows us to control the thickness of the overall biofilm/bulk liquid construct with the different diffusion distances of the electrons/protons through the stack. By measuring the current generated from the 3-D stack, the electron and proton diffusivity through biofilms were quantitatively investigated. We found that (i) the diffusion length of the electrons/protons in the S. oneidensis biofilm/bulk liquid is a determinant factor for the MFC performance, (ii) the electron transfer through the endogenous mediators of S. oneidensis can be a more critical factor to limit the current/power generation of the MFCs than the proton transfer in the MFC system and (iii) the thicker biofilm allows higher and longer current generation but requires more time to reach a peak current value and increases the total energy loss of the MFC system.

  1. Upgrading the Digital Electronics of the PEP-II Bunch Current Monitors at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Josh; /SLAC

    2006-08-28

    The testing of the upgrade prototype for the bunch current monitors (BCMs) in the PEP-II storage rings at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is the topic of this paper. Bunch current monitors are used to measure the charge in the electron/positron bunches traveling in particle storage rings. The BCMs in the PEP-II storage rings need to be upgraded because components of the current system have failed and are known to be failure prone with age, and several of the integrated chips are no longer produced making repairs difficult if not impossible. The main upgrade is replacing twelve old (1995) field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) with a single Virtex II FPGA. The prototype was tested using computer synthesis tools, a commercial signal generator, and a fast pulse generator.

  2. A voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for water quality monitoring in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Campos, Inmaculada; Alcañiz, Miguel; Aguado, Daniel; Barat, Ramón; Ferrer, José; Gil, Luis; Marrakchi, Mouna; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón; Soto, Juan; Vivancos, José-Luis

    2012-05-15

    The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for the prediction of concentration levels of certain water quality parameters from influent and effluent wastewater from a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor pilot plant applied to domestic wastewater treatment is proposed here. The electronic tongue consists of a set of noble (Au, Pt, Rh, Ir, and Ag) and non-noble (Ni, Co and Cu) electrodes that were housed inside a stainless steel cylinder which was used as the body of the electronic tongue system. As a previous step an electrochemical study of the response of the ions sulphate, orthophosphate, acetate, bicarbonate and ammonium was carried out in water using the electrodes contained in the electronic tongue. The second part of the work was devoted to the application of the electronic tongue to the characterization of the influent and effluent waters from the wastewater treatment plant. Partial Least Squares analysis was used to obtain a correlation between the data from the tongue and the pollution parameters measured in the laboratory such as soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs), soluble biological oxygen demand (BODs), ammonia (NH(4)-N), orthophosphate (PO(4)-P), Sulphate (SO(4)-S), acetic acid (HAC) and alkalinity (Alk). A total of 28 and 11 samples were used in the training and the validation steps, respectively, for both influent and effluent water samples. The electronic tongue showed relatively good predictive power for the determination of BOD, COD, NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P, SO(4)-S, and Alk.

  3. Variation in Prescribing Patterns and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Intravenous Busulfan in Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    McCune, Jeannine S.; Baker, K. Scott; Blough, David K.; Gamis, Alan; Bemer, Meagan J.; Kelton-Rehkopf, Megan C.; Winter, Laura; Barrett, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Personalizing intravenous (IV) busulfan doses in children using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is an integral component of hematopoietic cell transplant. The authors sought to characterize initial dosing and TDM of IV busulfan, along with factors associated with busulfan clearance, in 729 children who underwent busulfan TDM from December 2005 to December 2008. The initial IV busulfan dose in children weighing ≤12 kg ranged 4.8-fold, with only 19% prescribed the package insert dose of 1.1 mg/kg. In those children weighing >12 kg, the initial dose ranged 5.4-fold, and 79% were prescribed the package insert dose. The initial busulfan dose achieved the target exposure in only 24.3% of children. A wide range of busulfan exposures were targeted for children with the same disease (eg, 39 target busulfan exposures for the 264 children diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia). Considerable heterogeneity exists regarding when TDM is conducted and the number of pharmacokinetic samples obtained. Busulfan clearance varied by age and dosing frequency but not by underlying disease. The authors’ group is currently evaluating how using population pharmacokinetics to optimize initial busulfan dose and TDM (eg, limited sampling schedule in conjunction with maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation) may affect clinical outcomes in children. PMID:23444282

  4. Variation in prescribing patterns and therapeutic drug monitoring of intravenous busulfan in pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    McCune, Jeannine S; Baker, K Scott; Blough, David K; Gamis, Alan; Bemer, Meagan J; Kelton-Rehkopf, Megan C; Winter, Laura; Barrett, Jeffrey S

    2013-03-01

    Personalizing intravenous (IV) busulfan doses in children using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is an integral component of hematopoietic cell transplant. The authors sought to characterize initial dosing and TDM of IV busulfan, along with factors associated with busulfan clearance, in 729 children who underwent busulfan TDM from December 2005 to December 2008. The initial IV busulfan dose in children weighing ≤12 kg ranged 4.8-fold, with only 19% prescribed the package insert dose of 1.1 mg/kg. In those children weighing >12 kg, the initial dose ranged 5.4-fold, and 79% were prescribed the package insert dose. The initial busulfan dose achieved the target exposure in only 24.3% of children. A wide range of busulfan exposures were targeted for children with the same disease (eg, 39 target busulfan exposures for the 264 children diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia). Considerable heterogeneity exists regarding when TDM is conducted and the number of pharmacokinetic samples obtained. Busulfan clearance varied by age and dosing frequency but not by underlying disease. The authors- group is currently evaluating how using population pharmacokinetics to optimize initial busulfan dose and TDM (eg, limited sampling schedule in conjunction with maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation) may affect clinical outcomes in children.

  5. The use of Doppler shift radar to monitor physiological and drug induced activity patterns in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marsden, C A; King, B

    1979-05-01

    Doppler shift radar was used to monitor circadian activity patterns in the rat and to study the behavioural effects of p-chloroamphetamine and d-amphetamine. Activity was classified in two ways:-(a) slow (non-locomotory) and high (locomotory) speed movements. (b) the number of starts of activity, within either the slow or high speed zones of activity during a pre-set time. p-Choloramphetamine (5 mg/kg) produced a biphasic activity response; an initial increase in continuous non-locomotory activity followed by a longer lasting increase in exploratory locomotion containing regular starts of activity. d-Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg) produced an increase in both non-locomotory and locomotory movements but a marked reduction in starts of activity (i.e. continuous non-exploratory activity). The combination of information on the amount and pattern (starts) of activity allows a more detailed analysis of the effects of drugs on activity to be made than with existing automated methods.

  6. In-situ monitoring of drug release from therapeutic eluting polyelectrolyte multilayers under static and dynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fei; Min, Jouha; Kanka, Jiri; Hammond, Paula T.; Du, Henry

    2015-05-01

    The release profiles of gentamicin sulfate (GS) from [chitosan (CHI)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/GS/PAA]n polyelectrolyte multilayers were investigated in situ using an innovative lab-on-fiber (LOF) optofluidic platform that mimics physiologically relevant fluid flow in a microenvironment. The LOF was constructed by enclosing in a flow-enabled and optically coupled glass capillary a long-period fiber grating both as a substrate for LbL growth of [CHI/PAA/GS/PAA]n and a measurement probe for GS release. We show that the LOF is very robust in monitoring the construction of the [CHI/PAA/GS/PAA]n multilayers at monolayer resolution as well as evaluating the rate of GS release with high sensitivity. The release processes in the LOF under static and a range of dynamic conditions are evaluated, showing a faster release under dynamic condition than that under static condition due to the varying circumstance of GS concentration gradient and the effect of flow-induced shear at the medium-multilayer interface. The LOF platform has the potential to be a powerful test bed to facilitate the design and evaluation of drug-eluting polyelectrolyte thin films for their clinical insertion as part of patient care strategy.

  7. Variation in prescribing patterns and therapeutic drug monitoring of intravenous busulfan in pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    McCune, Jeannine S; Baker, K Scott; Blough, David K; Gamis, Alan; Bemer, Meagan J; Kelton-Rehkopf, Megan C; Winter, Laura; Barrett, Jeffrey S

    2013-03-01

    Personalizing intravenous (IV) busulfan doses in children using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is an integral component of hematopoietic cell transplant. The authors sought to characterize initial dosing and TDM of IV busulfan, along with factors associated with busulfan clearance, in 729 children who underwent busulfan TDM from December 2005 to December 2008. The initial IV busulfan dose in children weighing ≤12 kg ranged 4.8-fold, with only 19% prescribed the package insert dose of 1.1 mg/kg. In those children weighing >12 kg, the initial dose ranged 5.4-fold, and 79% were prescribed the package insert dose. The initial busulfan dose achieved the target exposure in only 24.3% of children. A wide range of busulfan exposures were targeted for children with the same disease (eg, 39 target busulfan exposures for the 264 children diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia). Considerable heterogeneity exists regarding when TDM is conducted and the number of pharmacokinetic samples obtained. Busulfan clearance varied by age and dosing frequency but not by underlying disease. The authors- group is currently evaluating how using population pharmacokinetics to optimize initial busulfan dose and TDM (eg, limited sampling schedule in conjunction with maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation) may affect clinical outcomes in children. PMID:23444282

  8. Electron-beam plasma in the production of bioactive agents and drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, M.; Vasilieva, T.

    2006-07-01

    The modification of some biopolymers and amino-acids by the Electron-Beam Plasma was studied experimentally. The plasma was generated by injecting the continuous electron beam in gaseous or vapor media. The powders of the substances under consideration were found to change their physical-chemical and biological properties due to the treatment. The aggregation degree of human blood platelets in vitro was chosen as the quantitative characteristics of the biological effect. The untreated compounds were not dissolvable in distilled water at room temperature and did not inhibit the human platelet aggregation. The modified by the Electron-Beam Plasma synthetic derivative of 2-aminopropanoic acid (alanine) was proved to acquire the anti-aggregation activity for platelets. Products of the plasma modified fibrin-monomer were found to be soluble in water at room temperature and reduced the aggregation degree up to approx 33-35 % in vitro, treatment in the water EBP being more effective than the treatment in helium.

  9. Bread-Board Testing of the Radiation Hard Electron Monitor (RADEM) being developed for the ESA JUICE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Hajdas, Wojtek; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Xiao, Hualin; Goncalves, Patricia; Pinto, Marco; Pinto, Costa; Marques, Arlindo; Meier, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The RADEM instrument will serve as the radiation monitor for the JUICE spacecraft. It will characterize the highly dynamic radiation environment of the Jovian system by measuring the energy spectra of energetic electrons and protons up to 40 MeV and 250 MeV, respectively. It will also determine the directionality of 0.3-10 MeV electrons. Further goals include the detection of heavy ions, and the determination of the corresponding LET spectra and dose rates. Here, the tests of the Electron and Proton Telescopes, and the Directionality Detector of the RADEM Bread-Board model are described. The objective of these tests is to validate RADEM design and physical concept applied therein. The tests were performed at various irradiation facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) where energy ranges relevant for space applications can be covered (electrons: ≤100 MeV and protons: ≤230 MeV). The measured values are also compared with GEANT4 Monte-Carlo Simulation results.

  10. Catching Conical Intersections in the Act; Monitoring Transient Electronic Coherences by Attosecond Stimulated X-Ray Raman Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Kochise; Kowalewski, Markus; Dorfman, Konstantin; Mukamel, Shaul

    Conical intersections (CIs) dominate the pathways and outcomes of virtually all photochemical molecular processes. Despite extensive experimental and theoretical effort, CIs have not been directly observed yet and the experimental evidence is inferred from fast reaction rates and vibrational signatures. We show that short X-ray pulses can directly detect the passage through a CI with the adequate temporal and spectral sensitivity. The non-adiabatic coupling that exists in the region of a CI redistributes electronic population but also generates electronic coherence. This coherent oscillation can then be detected via a coherent Raman process that employs a composite femtosecond/attosecond X-ray pulse. This technique, dubbed Transient Redistribution of Ultrafast Electronic Coherences (TRUECARS) is reminiscent of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) in that a coherent oscillation is set in motion and then monitored, but differs in that the dynamics is electronic (CARS generally observes nuclear dynamics) and the coherence is generated internally by passage through a region of non-adiabatic coupling rather than by an externally applied laser. Support provided by U.S. Department of Energy through Award No. DE-FG02-04ER15571, the National Science Foundation (Grant No CHE-1361516), and the Alexander von Humboldt foundation through the Feodor Lynen program.

  11. Modeling and simulation of heterogeneous electronic system based on smart sensors for aerospace structures health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Paula L.; Aragonés, Raúl; Oliver, Joan; Ferrer, Carles

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a top-down design methodology for a behavioral modeling System, based on smart sensors for aerospace structures monitoring, implemented on a MATLAB/Simulink environment. The modeled acquisition platform in this aeronautic health monitoring systems (AHMS) is built using the following specific sensors: humidity, pressure, temperature, stress and acceleration. For this application it has been implemented frequency acquisition techniques ensuring optimum noise immunity, particularly: a signal acquisition technique based on voltage to frequency converter, capacitance to frequency and frequency to code converters (VtoF-cC, CtoF-cC). The Simulink model presents a high accuracy level in signal acquisition and conditioning compared to the electrical system simulation behavior.

  12. Doxorubicin-modified magnetic nanoparticles as a drug delivery system for magnetic resonance imaging-monitoring magnet-enhancing tumor chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Po-Chin; Chen, Yung-Chu; Chiang, Chi-Feng; Mo, Lein-Ray; Wei, Shwu-Yuan; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Win-Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles consisting of a magnetic Fe3O4 core and a shell of aqueous stable polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated with doxorubicin (Dox) (SPIO-PEG-D) for tumor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement and chemotherapy. The size of SPIO nanoparticles was ~10 nm, which was visualized by transmission electron microscope. The hysteresis curve, generated with vibrating-sample magnetometer, showed that SPIO-PEG-D was superparamagnetic with an insignificant hysteresis. The transverse relaxivity (r 2) for SPIO-PEG-D was significantly higher than the longitudinal relaxivity (r 1) (r 2/r 1 >10). The half-life of Dox in blood circulation was prolonged by conjugating Dox on the surface of SPIO with PEG to reduce its degradation. The in vitro experiment showed that SPIO-PEG-D could cause DNA crosslink more serious, resulting in a lower DNA expression and a higher cell apoptosis for HT-29 cancer cells. The Prussian blue staining study showed that the tumors treated with SPIO-PEG-D under a magnetic field had a much higher intratumoral iron density than the tumors treated with SPIO-PEG-D alone. The in vivo MRI study showed that the T2-weighted signal enhancement was stronger for the group under a magnetic field, indicating that it had a better accumulation of SPIO-PEG-D in tumor tissues. In the anticancer efficiency study for SPIO-PEG-D, the results showed that there was a significantly smaller tumor size for the group with a magnetic field than the group without. The in vivo experiments also showed that this drug delivery system combined with a local magnetic field could reduce the side effects of cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results showed that the developed SPIO-PEG-D nanoparticles own a great potential for MRI-monitoring magnet-enhancing tumor chemotherapy. PMID:27274233

  13. Doxorubicin-modified magnetic nanoparticles as a drug delivery system for magnetic resonance imaging-monitoring magnet-enhancing tumor chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Po-Chin; Chen, Yung-Chu; Chiang, Chi-Feng; Mo, Lein-Ray; Wei, Shwu-Yuan; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Win-Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles consisting of a magnetic Fe3O4 core and a shell of aqueous stable polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated with doxorubicin (Dox) (SPIO-PEG-D) for tumor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement and chemotherapy. The size of SPIO nanoparticles was ~10 nm, which was visualized by transmission electron microscope. The hysteresis curve, generated with vibrating-sample magnetometer, showed that SPIO-PEG-D was superparamagnetic with an insignificant hysteresis. The transverse relaxivity (r2) for SPIO-PEG-D was significantly higher than the longitudinal relaxivity (r1) (r2/r1 >10). The half-life of Dox in blood circulation was prolonged by conjugating Dox on the surface of SPIO with PEG to reduce its degradation. The in vitro experiment showed that SPIO-PEG-D could cause DNA crosslink more serious, resulting in a lower DNA expression and a higher cell apoptosis for HT-29 cancer cells. The Prussian blue staining study showed that the tumors treated with SPIO-PEG-D under a magnetic field had a much higher intratumoral iron density than the tumors treated with SPIO-PEG-D alone. The in vivo MRI study showed that the T2-weighted signal enhancement was stronger for the group under a magnetic field, indicating that it had a better accumulation of SPIO-PEG-D in tumor tissues. In the anticancer efficiency study for SPIO-PEG-D, the results showed that there was a significantly smaller tumor size for the group with a magnetic field than the group without. The in vivo experiments also showed that this drug delivery system combined with a local magnetic field could reduce the side effects of cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results showed that the developed SPIO-PEG-D nanoparticles own a great potential for MRI-monitoring magnet-enhancing tumor chemotherapy. PMID:27274233

  14. ELECTRONIC PUBLICATION OF DATA AND METHODS FOR COASTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are designing an electronic report on coastal conditions in the Northeast (from Delaware to Maine) for release in 2005. The report will be similar in appearance to a chapter on Northeast Coastal Conditions (EPA, National Coastal Condition Report 2), but based on twice as many...

  15. First-principles calculation of structural and electronic properties of memantine (Alzheimer's disease) and adamantane (anti-flu) drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Kirsten; Zhang, Guoping; George, Thomas F.

    2012-02-01

    Memantine is currently used as a treatment for mild to severe Alzheimer's disease, although its functionality is complicated. Using various density functional theory calculations and basis sets, we first examine memantine alone and then add ions which are present in the human body. This provides clues as to how the compound may react in the calcium ion channel, where it is believed to treat the disease. In order to understand the difference between calcium and magnesium ions interacting with memantine, we compute the electron affinity of each complex. We find that memantine is more strongly attracted to magnesium ions than calcium ions within the channel. By observing the HOMO-LUMO gap within memantine in comparison to adamantane, we find that memantine is more excitable than the anti-flu drug. We believe these factors to affect the efficiency of memantine as a treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Epidemiological Assessment of Eight Rounds of Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in India: Implications for Monitoring and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Subramanian; Perumal, Vanamail; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Kaliannagounder, Krishnamoorthy; Rengachari, Ravi; Purushothaman, Jambulingam

    2012-01-01

    Background Monitoring and evaluation guidelines of the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis require impact assessments in at least one sentinel and one spot-check site in each implementation unit (IU). Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) that assess antigenaemia (Ag) in children in IUs that have completed at least five rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) each with >65% coverage and with microfilaria (Mf) levels <1% in the monitored sites form the basis for stopping the MDA. Despite its rigour, this multi-step process is likely to miss sites with transmission potential (‘hotspots’) and its statistical assumptions for sampling and threshold levels for decision-making have not been validated. We addressed these issues in a large-scale epidemiological study in two primary health centres in Thanjavur district, India, endemic for bancroftian filariasis that had undergone eight rounds of MDA. Methodology/Principal Findings The prevalence and intensity of Mf (per 60 µl blood) were 0.2% and 0.004 respectively in the survey that covered >70% of 50,363 population. The corresponding values for Ag were 2.3% and 17.3 Ag-units respectively. Ag-prevalence ranged from 0.7 to 0.9%, in children (2–10 years) and 2.7 to 3.0% in adults. Although the Mf-levels in the survey and the sentinel/spot check sites were <1% and Ag-level was <2% in children, we identified 7 “residual” (Mf-prevalence ≥1%, irrespective of Ag-status in children) and 17 “transmission” (at least one Ag-positive child born during the MDA period) hotspots. Antigenaemic persons were clustered both at household and site levels. We identified an Ag-prevalence of ∼1% in children (equivalent to 0.4% community Mf-prevalence) as a possible threshold value for stopping MDA. Conclusions/Significance Existence of ‘hotspots’ and spatial clustering of infections in the study area indicate the need for developing good surveillance strategies for detecting ‘hotspots’, adopting evidence

  17. Effective solutions for monitoring the electrostatic separation of metal and plastic granular waste from electric and electronic equipment.

    PubMed

    Senouci, Khouira; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2013-02-01

    The variability of the quantity and purity of the recovered materials is a serious drawback for the application of electrostatic separation technologies to the recycling of granular wastes. In a series of previous articles we have pointed out how capability and classic control chart concepts could be employed for better mastering the outcome of such processes. In the present work, the multiple exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart is introduced and shown to be more effective than the Hotelling T2 chart for monitoring slow varying changes in the electrostatic separation of granular mixtures originating from electric and electronic equipment waste. The operation of the industrial process was simulated by using a laboratory roll-type electrostatic separator and granular samples resulting from shredded electric cable wastes. The 25 tests carried out during the observation phase enabled the calculation of the upper and lower control limits for the two control charts considered in the present study. The 11 additional tests that simulated the monitoring phase pointed out that the MEWMA chart is more effective than Hotelling's T(2) chart in detecting slow varying changes in the outcome of a process. As the reverse is true in the case of abrupt alterations of monitored process performances, simultaneous usage of the two control charts is strongly recommended. While this study focused on a specific electrostatic separation process, using the MEWMA chart together with the well known Hotelling's T(2) chart should be applicable to the statistical control of other complex processes in the field of waste processing.

  18. A Multi-Channel Opto-Electronic Sensor to Accurately Monitor Heart Rate against Motion Artefact during Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS) to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR) efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA), and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05); a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation (SD) 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) from −17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm. For the Mio-Alpha and OEPS, a strong correlation was found (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 1.63 bpm, SD 8.62 bpm, LOA from −15.27 bpm to +18.58 bpm. These results demonstrate the OEPS to be capable of carrying out real time and remote monitoring of heart rate. PMID:26473860

  19. A multi-channel opto-electronic sensor to accurately monitor heart rate against motion artefact during exercise.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-10-12

    This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS) to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR) efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA), and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05); a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation (SD) 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA) from -17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm. For the Mio-Alpha and OEPS, a strong correlation was found (r: 0.96, p < 0.001); the bias of BAA 1.63 bpm, SD 8.62 bpm, LOA from -15.27 bpm to +18.58 bpm. These results demonstrate the OEPS to be capable of carrying out real time and remote monitoring of heart rate.

  20. Student Drug Use in America: Differences among High Schools 1986-1987. Monitoring the Future. Occasional Paper Series, Paper 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patrick M.; And Others

    A previous study from 1982-1985 established that the drug problem was common in virtually all high schools. The present study examined the incidence of drug use in high schools in 1986 and 1987. The results indicated that, as in the previous study, illicit drug use was common in virtually all high schools. Most seniors (58.7%) attended schools in…

  1. A collaborative approach to developing an electronic health record phenotyping algorithm for drug-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Overby, Casey Lynnette; Pathak, Jyotishman; Gottesman, Omri; Haerian, Krystl; Perotte, Adler; Murphy, Sean; Bruce, Kevin; Johnson, Stephanie; Talwalkar, Jayant; Shen, Yufeng; Ellis, Steve; Kullo, Iftikhar; Chute, Christopher; Friedman, Carol; Bottinger, Erwin; Hripcsak, George; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe a collaborative approach for developing an electronic health record (EHR) phenotyping algorithm for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Methods We analyzed types and causes of differences in DILI case definitions provided by two institutions—Columbia University and Mayo Clinic; harmonized two EHR phenotyping algorithms; and assessed the performance, measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value, of the resulting algorithm at three institutions except that sensitivity was measured only at Columbia University. Results Although these sites had the same case definition, their phenotyping methods differed by selection of liver injury diagnoses, inclusion of drugs cited in DILI cases, laboratory tests assessed, laboratory thresholds for liver injury, exclusion criteria, and approaches to validating phenotypes. We reached consensus on a DILI phenotyping algorithm and implemented it at three institutions. The algorithm was adapted locally to account for differences in populations and data access. Implementations collectively yielded 117 algorithm-selected cases and 23 confirmed true positive cases. Discussion Phenotyping for rare conditions benefits significantly from pooling data across institutions. Despite the heterogeneity of EHRs and varied algorithm implementations, we demonstrated the portability of this algorithm across three institutions. The performance of this algorithm for identifying DILI was comparable with other computerized approaches to identify adverse drug events. Conclusions Phenotyping algorithms developed for rare and complex conditions are likely to require adaptive implementation at multiple institutions. Better approaches are also needed to share algorithms. Early agreement on goals, data sources, and validation methods may improve the portability of the algorithms. PMID:23837993

  2. Monitoring Ultrafast Chemical Dynamics by Time-Domain X-ray Photo- and Auger-Electron Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Oliver; Gühr, Markus

    2016-01-19

    The directed flow of charge and energy is at the heart of all chemical processes. Extraordinary efforts are underway to monitor and understand the concerted motion of electrons and nuclei with ever increasing spatial and temporal sensitivity. The element specificity, chemical sensitivity, and temporal resolution of ultrafast X-ray spectroscopy techniques hold great promise to provide new insight into the fundamental interactions underlying chemical dynamics in systems ranging from isolated molecules to application-like devices. Here, we focus on the potential of ultrafast X-ray spectroscopy techniques based on the detection of photo- and Auger electrons to provide new fundamental insight into photochemical processes of systems with various degrees of complexity. Isolated nucleobases provide an excellent testing ground for our most fundamental understanding of intramolecular coupling between electrons and nuclei beyond the traditionally applied Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Ultrafast electronic relaxation dynamics enabled by the breakdown of this approximation is the major component of the nucleobase photoprotection mechanisms. Transient X-ray induced Auger electron spectroscopy on photoexcited thymine molecules provides atomic-site specific details of the extremely efficient coupling that converts potentially bond changing ultraviolet photon energy into benign heat. In particular, the time-dependent spectral shift of a specific Auger band is sensitive to the length of a single bond within the molecule. The X-ray induced Auger transients show evidence for an electronic transition out of the initially excited state within only ∼200 fs in contrast to theoretically predicted picosecond population trapping behind a reaction barrier. Photoinduced charge transfer dynamics between transition metal complexes and semiconductor nanostructures are of central importance for many emerging energy and climate relevant technologies. Numerous demonstrations of photovoltaic and

  3. Factors contributing to perceptions about policies regarding the electronic monitoring of sex offenders: the role of demographic characteristics, victimization experiences, and social disorganization.

    PubMed

    Button, Deeanna M; Tewksbury, Richard; Mustaine, Elizabeth E; Payne, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore factors contributing to perceptions about electronic monitoring policies governing sex offenders. Guided by Tannenbaum's theory of attribution and Shaw and McKay's theory of social disorganization, the authors examine the influence of demographic characteristics, victimization experiences, and neighborhood characteristics on perceptions about policies regarding the electronic monitoring of sex offenders. Ordinary least squares regression and logistic regression analyses of stratified telephone survey data reveal that factors associated with favorable views on the use of global positioning satellite monitoring for registered sex offenders appear to stem primarily from individuals' demographic characteristics. Experiential and neighborhood factors do provide some influence over individuals' views of electronic monitoring policies for sex offenders. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.

  4. Electronic Public Health Registry of Extensively Drug-Resistant Organisms, Illinois, USA

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Michael Y.; Cheng-Leidig, Robynn; Driscoll, Mary; Tang, Angela S.; Gao, Wei; Runningdeer, Erica; Arwady, M. Allison; Weinstein, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    In response to clusters of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in Illinois, USA, the Illinois Department of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Chicago Prevention Epicenter launched a statewide Web-based registry designed for bidirectional data exchange among health care facilities. CRE occurrences are entered and searchable in the system, enabling interfacility communication of patient information. For rapid notification of facilities, admission feeds are automated. During the first 12 months of implementation (November 1, 2013–October 31, 2014), 1,557 CRE reports (≈4.3/day) were submitted from 115 acute care hospitals, 5 long-term acute care hospitals, 46 long-term care facilities, and 7 reference laboratories. Guided by a state and local public health task force of infection prevention specialists and microbiologists and a nonprofit informatics entity, Illinois Department of Public Health deployed a statewide registry of extensively drug-resistant organisms. The legal, technical, and collaborative underpinnings of the system enable rapid incorporation of other emerging organisms. PMID:26402744

  5. Electronic Public Health Registry of Extensively Drug-Resistant Organisms, Illinois, USA.

    PubMed

    Trick, William E; Lin, Michael Y; Cheng-Leidig, Robynn; Driscoll, Mary; Tang, Angela S; Gao, Wei; Runningdeer, Erica; Arwady, M Allison; Weinstein, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    In response to clusters of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in Illinois, USA, the Illinois Department of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Chicago Prevention Epicenter launched a statewide Web-based registry designed for bidirectional data exchange among health care facilities. CRE occurrences are entered and searchable in the system, enabling interfacility communication of patient information. For rapid notification of facilities, admission feeds are automated. During the first 12 months of implementation (November 1, 2013-October 31, 2014), 1,557 CRE reports (≈4.3/day) were submitted from 115 acute care hospitals, 5 long-term acute care hospitals, 46 long-term care facilities, and 7 reference laboratories. Guided by a state and local public health task force of infection prevention specialists and microbiologists and a nonprofit informatics entity, Illinois Department of Public Health deployed a statewide registry of extensively drug-resistant organisms. The legal, technical, and collaborative underpinnings of the system enable rapid incorporation of other emerging organisms.

  6. In vivo monitoring of the potassium channel KcsA in Streptomyces lividans hyphae using immuno-electron microscopy and energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hegermann, Jan; Overbeck, Jens; Schrempf, Hildgund

    2006-09-01

    The previous discovery of the Streptomyces lividans kcsA gene and its overexpression followed by the functional reconstitution of the purified gene product has resulted in new strategies to explore this channel protein in vitro. KcsA has evolved as a general model to investigate the structure/function relationship of ion channel proteins. Using specific antibodies raised against a domain of KcsA lacking membrane-spanning regions, KcsA has now been localized within numerous separated clusters between the outer face of the cytoplasm and the cell envelope in substrate hyphae of the S. lividans wild-type strain but not in a designed chromosomal disruption mutant DeltaK, lacking a functional kcsA gene. Previous findings had revealed that caesium ions led to a block of KcsA channel activity within S. lividans protoplasts fused to giant vesicles. As caesium can be scored by electron energy loss spectroscopy better than potassium, this technique was applied to hyphae that had been briefly exposed to caesium instead of potassium ions. Caesium was found preferentially at the cell envelope. Compared to the DeltaK mutant, the relative level of caesium was approximately 30 % enhanced in the wild-type. This is attributed to the presence of KcsA channels. Additional visualization by electron spectroscopic imaging supported this conclusion. The data presented are believed to represent the first demonstration of in vivo monitoring of KcsA in its original host.

  7. Sleep-monitoring, experiment M133. [electronic recording system for automatic analysis of human sleep patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Salamy, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab sleep-monitoring experiment simulated the timelines and environment expected during a 56-day Skylab mission. Two crewmembers utilized the data acquisition and analysis hardware, and their sleep characteristics were studied in an online fashion during a number of all night recording sessions. Comparison of the results of online automatic analysis with those of postmission visual data analysis was favorable, confirming the feasibility of obtaining reliable objective information concerning sleep characteristics during the Skylab missions. One crewmember exhibited definite changes in certain sleep characteristics (e.g., increased sleep latency, increased time Awake during first third of night, and decreased total sleep time) during the mission.

  8. Hole Surface Trapping Dynamics Directly Monitored by Electron Spin Manipulation in CdS Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Feng, Donghai; Tong, Haifang; Jia, Tianqing; Deng, Li; Sun, Zhenrong; Xu, Zhizhan

    2014-12-18

    A new detection technique, pump-spin orientation-probe ultrafast spectroscopy, is developed to study the hole trapping dynamics in colloidal CdS nanocrystals. The hole surface trapping process spatially separates the electron-hole pairs excited by the pump pulse, leaves the core negatively charged, and thus enhances the electron spin signal generated by the orientation pulse. The spin enhancement transients as a function of the pump-orientation delay reveal a fast and a slow hole trapping process with respective time constants of sub-10 ps and sub-100 ps, orders of magnitude faster than that of carrier recombination. The power dependence of hole trapping dynamics elucidates the saturation process and relative number of traps, and suggests that there are three subpopulations of nanoparticles related to hole surface trapping, one with the fast trapping pathway only, another with the slow trapping pathway only, and the third with both pathways together. PMID:26273979

  9. Monitoring of domestic and imported apples and rice by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration pesticide program.

    PubMed

    Roy, R R; Wilson, P; Laski, R R; Roberts, J I; Weishaar, J A; Bong, R L; Yess, N J

    1997-01-01

    In 1993-94, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a statistically based study of pesticide residues in domestic and imported fresh apples and processed rice. For apples, 769 domestic and 1062 imported samples were collected and analyzed; 85% of the domestic and 86% of the imported samples had detectable residues. Benomyl, a widely used fungicide, was found with greatest frequency in domestic apples, while diphenylamine was found most often in imported apples. One domestic and 4 imported samples contained violative residues of pesticides for which there are no U.S. tolerances on apples. The statistically weighted (by domestic packer throughput or import shipment size) violation rates for domestic and imported apples were 0.30% (0.13 unweighted) and 0.41% (0.38 unweighted), respectively. For rice, 598 domestic and 612 imported samples were collected and analyzed; 56% of the domestic and 12% of the imported samples had detectable residues. Malathion had the greatest frequency of occurrence in both groups of rice. Eight domestic and 9 imported samples were violative, all as a result of use of pesticides for which there are no U.S. tolerances on rice. The statistically weighted violation rates for domestic and imported rice were 0.43% (1.3 unweighted) and 1.1% (1.5 unweighted), respectively. Results of the statistically based study show that, as in FDA's regulatory monitoring, the levels of most pesticide residues found in these 2 commodities are generally well below U.S. tolerances, and few violative residues are found.

  10. Forensic intelligence framework--Part I: Induction of a transversal model by comparing illicit drugs and false identity documents monitoring.

    PubMed

    Morelato, Marie; Baechler, Simon; Ribaux, Olivier; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Kirkbride, Paul; Roux, Claude; Margot, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Forensic intelligence is a distinct dimension of forensic science. Forensic intelligence processes have mostly been developed to address either a specific type of trace or a specific problem. Even though these empirical developments have led to successes, they are trace-specific in nature and contribute to the generation of silos which hamper the establishment of a more general and transversal model. Forensic intelligence has shown some important perspectives but more general developments are required to address persistent challenges. This will ensure the progress of the discipline as well as its widespread implementation in the future. This paper demonstrates that the description of forensic intelligence processes, their architectures, and the methods for building them can, at a certain level, be abstracted from the type of traces considered. A comparative analysis is made between two forensic intelligence approaches developed independently in Australia and in Europe regarding the monitoring of apparently very different kind of problems: illicit drugs and false identity documents. An inductive effort is pursued to identify similarities and to outline a general model. Besides breaking barriers between apparently separate fields of study in forensic science and intelligence, this transversal model would assist in defining forensic intelligence, its role and place in policing, and in identifying its contributions and limitations. The model will facilitate the paradigm shift from the current case-by-case reactive attitude towards a proactive approach by serving as a guideline for the use of forensic case data in an intelligence-led perspective. A follow-up article will specifically address issues related to comparison processes, decision points and organisational issues regarding forensic intelligence (part II).

  11. Quality Assessment for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG 5146): A Multicenter Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    DiFrancesco, Robin; Rosenkranz, Susan; Mukherjee, A. Lisa; Demeter, Lisa M.; Jiang, Hongyu; DiCenzo, Robert; Dykes, Carrie; Rinehart, Alex; Albrecht, Mary; Morse, Gene D.

    2010-01-01

    In a randomized trial, AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) protocol 5146 (A5146) investigated the use of TDM to adjust doses of HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) in patients with prior virologic failure on PI-based therapy who were starting a new PI-based regimen. The overall percentage of “PI trough repeats”, such as rescheduled visits or redrawn PI trough specimens, increased from 2% to 5% to 10% as the process progressed from the clinical sites, the PSL, and the study team, respectively. Cumulatively, this represents a 17% rate of failure to obtain adequate PI trough sample. While targeting a turn-around of ≤ 7 days from sample receipt to a drug concentration report, 12% of the received specimens required a longer period to report concentrations. The implementation of dosing changes in the TDM arm were achieved within ≤7 days for 56% of the dose change events, and within ≤14 days for 77% of dose change events. This quality assurance analysis provides a valuable summary of the specific points in the TDM process that could be improved during a multicenter clinical trial including: [1] shortening the timeline of sample shipment from clinical site to the lab, [2] performing the collection of PI trough specimen within the targeted sampling window by careful monitoring of the last dose times and collection times by the clinicians [3] increasing patient adherence counseling to reduce the number of samples that are redrawn due to suspecting inconsistent adherence, and [4] decreasing the time to successful TDM-based dose adjustment. The application of some of these findings may also be relevant to single center studies or clinical TDM programs within a hospital. PMID:20592644

  12. A prospective study on drug monitoring of PEGasparaginase and Erwinia asparaginase and asparaginase antibodies in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wing H; Pieters, Rob; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; te Loo, D Maroeska W M; Bierings, Marc B; van den Bos, Cor; Kollen, Wouter J W; Hop, Wim C J; Lanvers-Kaminsky, Claudia; Relling, Mary V; Tissing, Wim J E; van der Sluis, Inge M

    2014-03-27

    This study prospectively analyzed the efficacy of very prolonged courses of pegylated Escherichia coli asparaginase (PEGasparaginase) and Erwinia asparaginase in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Patients received 15 PEGasparaginase infusions (2500 IU/m(2) every 2 weeks) in intensification after receiving native E coli asparaginase in induction. In case of allergy to or silent inactivation of PEGasparaginase, Erwinia asparaginase (20 000 IU/m(2) 2-3 times weekly) was given. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled in the PEGasparaginase study. Twenty (22%) of the PEGasparaginase-treated patients developed an allergy; 7 (8%) showed silent inactivation. The PEGasparaginase level was 0 in all allergic patients (grade 1-4). Patients without hypersensitivity to PEGasparaginase had serum mean trough levels of 899 U/L. Fifty-nine patients were included in the Erwinia asparaginase study; 2 (3%) developed an allergy and none silent inactivation. Ninety-six percent had at least 1 trough level ≥100 U/L. The serum asparagine level was not always completely depleted with Erwinia asparaginase in contrast to PEGasparaginase. The presence of asparaginase antibodies was related to allergies and silent inactivation, but with low specificity (64%). Use of native E coli asparaginase in induction leads to high hypersensitivity rates to PEGasparaginase in intensification. Therefore, PEGasparaginase should be used upfront in induction, and we suggest that the dose could be lowered. Switching to Erwinia asparaginase leads to effective asparaginase levels in most patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring has been added to our ALL-11 protocol to individualize asparaginase therapy.

  13. Use of electronic nose and GC-MS in detection and monitoring some VOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Rodríguez, M.; Ruiz-Montoya, M.; Giraldez, I.; López, R.; Madejón, E.; Díaz, M. J.

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an electronic nose (e-nose) as on-line, rapid method to quantify the MSW composting gases. Changes in selected VOCs (limonene, β-pinene, 2-butanone, undecane, toluene and dimethyl disulfide) during composting were studied and quantified by means of two different analytical methods (GC-MS and e-nose). The results of this study indicate that it is possible to differentiate and quantify the main gases emitted during Municipal Solid Waste- Legume Trimming Residues composting using an electronic nose equipped with 10 Metal Oxide Sensors. The electronic nose was able to detect a clear difference in volatile compounds profile of emitted gases in composting, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analysis. PCA successfully reduced the data sets from the sensors to two principal components, which accounted for 74.5%, 68.8% and 62.8% of the total variance by using patterns for initial, thermophilic and mesophilic composting phases respectively.

  14. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays Allow Detection of Drugs and Glucose In Vivo: Potential for Use in Diagnosis and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Brady, Aaron J.; Eltayib, Eyman; Meng, Teng; Alonso-Vicente, Ana; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Patricia; Torrisi, Barbara M.; Vicente-Perez, Eva Maria; Mooney, Karen; Jones, David S.; Bell, Steven E. J.; McCoy, Colin P.; McCarthy, Helen O.; McElnay, James C.; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    We describe, for the first time the use of hydrogel-forming microneedle (MN) arrays for minimally-invasive extraction and quantification of drug substances and glucose from skin in vitro and in vivo. MN prepared from aqueous blends of hydrolysed poly(methyl-vinylether-co-maleic anhydride) (11.1% w/w) and poly(ethyleneglycol) 10,000 daltons (5.6% w/w) and crosslinked by esterification swelled upon skin insertion by uptake of fluid. Post-removal, theophylline and caffeine were extracted from MN and determined using HPLC, with glucose quantified using a proprietary kit. In vitro studies using excised neonatal porcine skin bathed on the underside by physiologically-relevant analyte concentrations showed rapid (5 min) analyte uptake. For example, mean concentrations of 0.16 μg/mL and 0.85 μg/mL, respectively, were detected for the lowest (5 μg/mL) and highest (35 μg/mL) Franz cell concentrations of theophylline after 5 min insertion. A mean concentration of 0.10 μg/mL was obtained by extraction of MN inserted for 5 min into skin bathed with 5 μg/mL caffeine, while the mean concentration obtained by extraction of MN inserted into skin bathed with 15 μg/mL caffeine was 0.33 μg/mL. The mean detected glucose concentration after 5 min insertion into skin bathed with 4 mmol/L was 19.46 nmol/L. The highest theophylline concentration detected following extraction from a hydrogel-forming MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed orally with 10 mg/kg was of 0.363 μg/mL, whilst a maximum concentration of 0.063 μg/mL was detected following extraction from a MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed with 5 mg/kg theophylline. In human volunteers, the highest mean concentration of caffeine detected using MN was 91.31 μg/mL over the period from 1 to 2 h post-consumption of 100 mg Proplus® tablets. The highest mean blood glucose level was 7.89 nmol/L detected 1 h following ingestion of 75 g of glucose, while the highest mean glucose concentration extracted

  15. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays Allow Detection of Drugs and Glucose In Vivo: Potential for Use in Diagnosis and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Brady, Aaron J; Eltayib, Eyman; Meng, Teng; Alonso-Vicente, Ana; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Patricia; Torrisi, Barbara M; Vicente-Perez, Eva Maria; Mooney, Karen; Jones, David S; Bell, Steven E J; McCoy, Colin P; McCarthy, Helen O; McElnay, James C; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2015-01-01

    We describe, for the first time the use of hydrogel-forming microneedle (MN) arrays for minimally-invasive extraction and quantification of drug substances and glucose from skin in vitro and in vivo. MN prepared from aqueous blends of hydrolysed poly(methyl-vinylether-co-maleic anhydride) (11.1% w/w) and poly(ethyleneglycol) 10,000 daltons (5.6% w/w) and crosslinked by esterification swelled upon skin insertion by uptake of fluid. Post-removal, theophylline and caffeine were extracted from MN and determined using HPLC, with glucose quantified using a proprietary kit. In vitro studies using excised neonatal porcine skin bathed on the underside by physiologically-relevant analyte concentrations showed rapid (5 min) analyte uptake. For example, mean concentrations of 0.16 μg/mL and 0.85 μg/mL, respectively, were detected for the lowest (5 μg/mL) and highest (35 μg/mL) Franz cell concentrations of theophylline after 5 min insertion. A mean concentration of 0.10 μg/mL was obtained by extraction of MN inserted for 5 min into skin bathed with 5 μg/mL caffeine, while the mean concentration obtained by extraction of MN inserted into skin bathed with 15 μg/mL caffeine was 0.33 μg/mL. The mean detected glucose concentration after 5 min insertion into skin bathed with 4 mmol/L was 19.46 nmol/L. The highest theophylline concentration detected following extraction from a hydrogel-forming MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed orally with 10 mg/kg was of 0.363 μg/mL, whilst a maximum concentration of 0.063 μg/mL was detected following extraction from a MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed with 5 mg/kg theophylline. In human volunteers, the highest mean concentration of caffeine detected using MN was 91.31 μg/mL over the period from 1 to 2 h post-consumption of 100 mg Proplus® tablets. The highest mean blood glucose level was 7.89 nmol/L detected 1 h following ingestion of 75 g of glucose, while the highest mean glucose concentration extracted

  16. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays Allow Detection of Drugs and Glucose In Vivo: Potential for Use in Diagnosis and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Brady, Aaron J; Eltayib, Eyman; Meng, Teng; Alonso-Vicente, Ana; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Patricia; Torrisi, Barbara M; Vicente-Perez, Eva Maria; Mooney, Karen; Jones, David S; Bell, Steven E J; McCoy, Colin P; McCarthy, Helen O; McElnay, James C; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2015-01-01

    We describe, for the first time the use of hydrogel-forming microneedle (MN) arrays for minimally-invasive extraction and quantification of drug substances and glucose from skin in vitro and in vivo. MN prepared from aqueous blends of hydrolysed poly(methyl-vinylether-co-maleic anhydride) (11.1% w/w) and poly(ethyleneglycol) 10,000 daltons (5.6% w/w) and crosslinked by esterification swelled upon skin insertion by uptake of fluid. Post-removal, theophylline and caffeine were extracted from MN and determined using HPLC, with glucose quantified using a proprietary kit. In vitro studies using excised neonatal porcine skin bathed on the underside by physiologically-relevant analyte concentrations showed rapid (5 min) analyte uptake. For example, mean concentrations of 0.16 μg/mL and 0.85 μg/mL, respectively, were detected for the lowest (5 μg/mL) and highest (35 μg/mL) Franz cell concentrations of theophylline after 5 min insertion. A mean concentration of 0.10 μg/mL was obtained by extraction of MN inserted for 5 min into skin bathed with 5 μg/mL caffeine, while the mean concentration obtained by extraction of MN inserted into skin bathed with 15 μg/mL caffeine was 0.33 μg/mL. The mean detected glucose concentration after 5 min insertion into skin bathed with 4 mmol/L was 19.46 nmol/L. The highest theophylline concentration detected following extraction from a hydrogel-forming MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed orally with 10 mg/kg was of 0.363 μg/mL, whilst a maximum concentration of 0.063 μg/mL was detected following extraction from a MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed with 5 mg/kg theophylline. In human volunteers, the highest mean concentration of caffeine detected using MN was 91.31 μg/mL over the period from 1 to 2 h post-consumption of 100 mg Proplus® tablets. The highest mean blood glucose level was 7.89 nmol/L detected 1 h following ingestion of 75 g of glucose, while the highest mean glucose concentration extracted

  17. E-bra with nanosensors, smart electronics and smart phone communication network for heart rate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Rai, Pratyush; Kegley, Lauren

    2011-04-01

    Heart related ailments have been a major cause for deaths in both men and women in United States. Since 1985, more women than men have died due to cardiac or cardiovascular ailments for reasons that are not well understood as yet. Lack of a deterministic understanding of this phenomenon makes continuous real time monitoring of cardiovascular health the best approach for both early detection of pathophysiological changes and events indicative of chronic cardiovascular diseases in women. This approach requires sensor systems to be seamlessly mounted on day to day clothing for women. With this application in focus, this paper describes a e-bra platform for sensors towards heart rate monitoring. The sensors, nanomaterial or textile based dry electrodes, capture the heart activity signals in form Electrocardiograph (ECG) and relay it to a compact textile mountable amplifier-wireless transmitter module for relay to a smart phone. The ECG signal, acquired on the smart phone, can be transmitted to the cyber space for post processing. As an example, the paper discusses the heart rate estimation and heart rate variability. The data flow from sensor to smart phone to server (cyber infrastructure) has been discussed. The cyber infrastructure based signal post processing offers an opportunity for automated emergency response that can be initiated from the server or the smartphone itself. Detailed protocols for both the scenarios have been presented and their relevance to the present emergency healthcare response system has been discussed.

  18. Improving drug abuse treatment delivery through adoption of harmonized electronic health record systems.

    PubMed

    Ghitza, Udi E; Sparenborg, Steven; Tai, Betty

    2011-07-01

    A great divide currently exists between mainstream health care and specialty substance use disorders (SUD) treatment, concerning the coordination of care and sharing of medical information. Improving the coordination of SUD treatment with other disciplines of medicine will benefit SUD patients. The development and use of harmonized electronic health record systems (EHR) containing standardized person-level information will enable improved coordination of healthcare services. We attempt here to illuminate the urgent public health need to develop and implement at the national level harmonized EHR including data fields containing standardized vocabulary/terminologies relevant to SUD treatment. The many advantages and barriers to harmonized EHR implementation in SUD treatment service groups, and pathways to their successful implementation, are also discussed. As the US Federal Government incentivizes Medicare and Medicaid Service providers nationwide for "meaningful use" of health information technology (HIT) systems, relevant stakeholders may face relatively large and time-consuming processes to conform their local practices to meet the federal government's "meaningful use" criteria unless they proactively implement data standards and elements consistent with those criteria. Incorporating consensus-based common data elements and standards relevant to SUD screening, diagnosis, and treatment into the federal government's "meaningful use" criteria is an essential first step to develop necessary infrastructure for effective coordination of HIT systems among SUD treatment and other healthcare service providers to promote collaborative-care implementation of cost-effective, evidence-based treatments and to support program evaluations.

  19. The electronic behavior of a photosynthetic reaction center monitored by conductive atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mikayama, Takeshi; Iida, Kouji; Suemori, Yoshiharu; Dewa, Takehisa; Miyashita, Tokuji; Nango, Mamoru; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The conductivity of a photosynthetic reaction center (RC) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides was measured with conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) on SAM-modified Au(111) substrates. 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME), 2-mercaptoacetic acid (MAC), 2-mercaptopyridine (2MP) and 4-mercaptopyridine (4MP) were prepared as SAM materials to investigate the stability and morphology of RCs on the substrate by using near-IR absorption spectroscopy and AFM, respectively. The clear presence of the three well known RC near-IR absorption peaks indicates that the RCs were native on the SAM-modified Au(111). Dense grains with various diameters of 5-20 nm, which corresponded to mixtures of single RCs up to aggregates of 10, were observed in topographs of RCs adsorbed on all the different SAM-modified Au(111) substrates. The size of currents obtained from the RC using a bare conductive cantilever were produced in the following order for SAM molecules: 2MP > 2ME > 4MP > MAC. A clear rectification of this current was observed for the modification of the Au(111) substrate with the pi-conjugated thiol, 2MP, indicating that 2MP was effective in both promoting the specific orientation of the RCs on the electrode and electron injection into the RC. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate that the 2MP is better mediator for the electron transfer between a quinone and substrate. The current with 2MP-modified cantilever was twice as high as that obtained with the Au-coated one alone, indicating that 2MP has an important role in lowering the electron injection barrier between special pair side of RC and gold electrode.

  20. Polymer-carbon black composite sensors in an electronic nose for air-quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Homer, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    An electronic nose that uses an array of 32 polymer-carbon black composite sensors has been developed, trained, and tested. By selecting a variety of chemical functionalities in the polymers used to make sensors, it is possible to construct an array capable of identifying and quantifying a broad range of target compounds, such as alcohols and aromatics, and distinguishing isomers and enantiomers (mirror-image isomers). A model of the interaction between target molecules and the polymer-carbon black composite sensors is under development to aid in selecting the array members and to enable identification of compounds with responses not stored in the analysis library.

  1. A wireless 64-channel ECoG recording electronic for implantable monitoring and BCI applications: WIMAGINE.

    PubMed

    Charvet, G; Foerster, M; Chatalic, G; Michea, A; Porcherot, J; Bonnet, S; Filipe, S; Audebert, P; Robinet, S; Josselin, V; Reverdy, J; D'Errico, R; Sauter, F; Mestais, C; Benabid, A L

    2012-01-01

    A wireless, low power, 64-channel data acquisition system named WIMAGINE has been designed for ElectroCorticoGram (ECoG) recording. This system is based on a custom integrated circuit (ASIC) for amplification and digitization on 64 channels. It allows the RF transmission (in the MICS band) of 32 ECoG recording channels (among 64 channels available) sampled at 1 kHz per channel with a 12-bit resolution. The device is powered wirelessly through an inductive link at 13.56 MHz able to provide 100mW (30mA at 3.3V). This integration is a first step towards an implantable device for brain activity monitoring and Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) applications. The main features of the WIMAGINE platform and its architecture will be presented, as well as its performances and in vivo studies. PMID:23366009

  2. Therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole: a case report of multiple drug interactions in a patient with an increased CYP2C19 activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Voriconazole is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 and CYP 3A4. Drug-drug interactions and genetic polymorphisms modulate their activities. Case presentation A 35-year old African female patient with resistant HIV and a cerebral mass of unknown origin was treated with voriconazole for a suspicion of disseminated Aspergillosis infection. Voriconazole trough concentrations (C0) were within target range while the patient was under esomeprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor. Phenotyping showed decreased CYP2C19 activity, whereas genotyping showed a variant allele associated with increased enzyme activity. The patient was switched to ranitidine because of the introduction of atazanavir. CYP3A4 inhibition by atazanavir combined with uninhibited CYP2C19 activity resulted in subtherapeutic voriconazole C0. The reintroduction of esomeprazole allowed restoring voriconazole C0 back to target range. Conclusion The integration of drug-drug interactions and pharmacogenetics data is crucial to interpret drug concentrations correctly, thus preventing suboptimal exposure to voriconazole. PMID:25120580

  3. 21 CFR 880.2910 - Clinical electronic thermometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clinical electronic thermometer. 880.2910 Section... Monitoring Devices § 880.2910 Clinical electronic thermometer. (a) Identification. A clinical electronic thermometer is a device used to measure the body temperature of a patient by means of a transducer...

  4. 21 CFR 880.2910 - Clinical electronic thermometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clinical electronic thermometer. 880.2910 Section... Monitoring Devices § 880.2910 Clinical electronic thermometer. (a) Identification. A clinical electronic thermometer is a device used to measure the body temperature of a patient by means of a transducer...

  5. 21 CFR 880.2910 - Clinical electronic thermometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clinical electronic thermometer. 880.2910 Section... Monitoring Devices § 880.2910 Clinical electronic thermometer. (a) Identification. A clinical electronic thermometer is a device used to measure the body temperature of a patient by means of a transducer...

  6. 21 CFR 880.2910 - Clinical electronic thermometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical electronic thermometer. 880.2910 Section... Monitoring Devices § 880.2910 Clinical electronic thermometer. (a) Identification. A clinical electronic thermometer is a device used to measure the body temperature of a patient by means of a transducer...

  7. 21 CFR 880.2910 - Clinical electronic thermometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clinical electronic thermometer. 880.2910 Section... Monitoring Devices § 880.2910 Clinical electronic thermometer. (a) Identification. A clinical electronic thermometer is a device used to measure the body temperature of a patient by means of a transducer...

  8. Analysis of eighteen antidepressants, four atypical antipsychotics and active metabolites in serum by liquid chromatography: a simple tool for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Frahnert, Christine; Rao, Marie Luise; Grasmäder, Katja

    2003-08-25

    Therapeutic drug monitoring necessitates efficient, fast and reliable analytical methods validated by external quality control. We therefore devised an isocratic reversed-phase HPLC method with ultraviolet detection and optimised this to quantify mirtazapine, reboxetine, moclobemide, venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, doxepin, nordoxepin, clomipramine, norclomipramine, trimipramine, mianserine, maprotiline, normaprotiline, amisulpride, clozapine, norclozapine, quetiapine, risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone in human serum. After solid-phase extraction of the drugs and metabolites, the chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nucleosil 100-Protect 1 column with acetonitrile-potassium dihydrogenphosphate buffer as mobile phase. The method was validated for therapeutic and toxic serum ranges. A linear relationship (r>0.998) was obtained between the concentration and the detector signal. Recoveries were between 75 and 99% for the drugs and metabolites. The accuracy of the quality control samples, expressed as percent recovery, ranged from 91 to 118%; intra- and inter-assay-relative standard deviations were 0.9-10.2% and 0.9-9.7%, respectively. Additional external quality control is carried out since 3 years. This method is applicable to rapidly and effectively analyze serum or plasma samples for therapeutic drug monitoring of about 30 antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics. PMID:12888196

  9. Multifunctional skin-like electronics for quantitative, clinical monitoring of cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Falgout, Leo; Lee, Woosik; Jung, Sung-Young; Poon, Emily; Lee, Jung Woo; Na, Ilyoun; Geisler, Amelia; Sadhwani, Divya; Zhang, Yihui; Su, Yewang; Wang, Xiaoqi; Liu, Zhuangjian; Xia, Jing; Cheng, Huanyu; Webb, R Chad; Bonifas, Andrew P; Won, Philip; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Jang, Kyung-In; Song, Young Min; Nardone, Beatrice; Nodzenski, Michael; Fan, Jonathan A; Huang, Yonggang; West, Dennis P; Paller, Amy S; Alam, Murad; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Rogers, John A

    2014-10-01

    Non-invasive, biomedical devices have the potential to provide important, quantitative data for the assessment of skin diseases and wound healing. Traditional methods either rely on qualitative visual and tactile judgments of a professional and/or data obtained using instrumentation with forms that do not readily allow intimate integration with sensitive skin near a wound site. Here, an electronic sensor platform that can softly and reversibly laminate perilesionally at wounds to provide highly accurate, quantitative data of relevance to the management of surgical wound healing is reported. Clinical studies on patients using thermal sensors and actuators in fractal layouts provide precise time-dependent mapping of temperature and thermal conductivity of the skin near the wounds. Analytical and simulation results establish the fundamentals of the sensing modalities, the mechanics of the system, and strategies for optimized design. The use of this type of "epidermal" electronics system in a realistic clinical setting with human subjects establishes a set of practical procedures in disinfection, reuse, and protocols for quantitative measurement. The results have the potential to address important unmet needs in chronic wound management.

  10. Multifunctional Skin-like Electronics for Quantitative, Clinical Monitoring of Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Falgout, Leo; Lee, Woosik; Jung, Sung-Young; Poon, Emily; Lee, Jung Woo; Na, Ilyoun; Geisler, Amelia; Sadhwani, Divya; Zhang, Yihui; Su, Yewang; Wang, Xiaoqi; Liu, Zhuangjian; Xia, Jing; Cheng, Huanyu; Webb, R. Chad; Bonifas, Andrew P.; Won, Philip; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Jang, Kyung-In; Song, Young Min; Nardone, Beatrice; Nodzenski, Michael; Fan, Jonathan A.; Huang, Yonggang; West, Dennis P.; Paller, Amy S.; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive, biomedical devices have the potential to provide important, quantitative data for the assessment of skin diseases and wound healing. Traditional methods either rely on qualitative visual and tactile judgments of a professional and/or data obtained using instrumentation with forms that do not readily allow intimate integration with sensitive skin near a wound site. Here we report a skin-like electronics platform that can softly and reversibly laminate perilesionally at wounds to provide highly accurate, quantitative data of relevance to the management of surgical wound healing. Clinical studies on patients using thermal sensors and actuators in fractal layouts provide precise time-dependent mapping of temperature and thermal conductivity of the skin near the wounds. Analytical and simulation results establish the fundamentals of the sensing modalities, the mechanics of the system, and strategies for optimized design. The use of this type of ‘epidermal’ electronics system in a realistic, clinical setting with human subjects establishes a set of practical procedures in disinfection, reuse, and protocols for quantitative measurement. The results have the potential to address important unmet needs in chronic wound management. PMID:24668927

  11. Monitoring and Imaging Ionospheric Total Electron Content Without the Thin-Shell Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, L.

    2008-12-01

    The thin-shell model of the ionosphere relies on the coarse approximation that ionospheric electron density is non-negligible only in the vicinity of a specified reference height (typically the peak of the F-layer). The utility of this approximation resides primarily in the ease with which measurements of slant total electron content (TEC) may be converted into estimates of vertical TEC: if we identify the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) where a signal raypath intersects the shell height, then the vertical TEC at this IPP is estimated by scaling the TEC measured along the raypath by a simple geometric factor that depends upon the elevation angle of the signal. Developed to ensure the accuracy and integrity of user position estimates based upon global navigation satellite system (GNSS) measurements, all satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS) to date, such as the United States' Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), and the Multi-Functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) in Japan, use the thin-shell model as the basis for estimating vertical ionospheric delay at a specified set of regularly-spaced intervals in latitude and longitude, i.e., ionospheric grid points (IGPs). The vertical delay estimate at each IGP is calculated from a planar fit of neighboring slant delay measurements projected to vertical using the standard thin-shell obliquity factor. For an estimate of vertical TEC based upon the thin-shell approximation to be valid, two conditions must generally be satisfied: (1) the ionospheric electron density must be azimuthally symmetric with respect to the IPP; and (2) the choice of shell height must be appropriate. The successful operation of WAAS over the past fives years is a testament to the fact that these conditions are roughly satisfied under nominal ionospheric conditions at mid-latitudes. In the presence of significant horizontal electron density gradients, however, distinct

  12. A Review of Electronic Hand Hygiene Monitoring: Considerations for Hospital Management in Data Collection, Healthcare Worker Supervision, and Patient Perception.

    PubMed

    McGuckin, Maryanne; Govednik, John

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in U.S. acute care hospitals lead to a burden of $96-$147 billion annually on the U.S. health system and affect 1 in 20 hospital patients (Marchetti & Rossiter, 2013). Hospital managers are charged with reducing and eliminating HAIs to cut costs and improve patient outcomes. Healthcare worker (HCW) hand hygiene (HH) practice is the most effective means of preventing the spread of HAIs, but compliance is at or below 50% (McGuckin, Waterman, & Govednik, 2009). For managers to increase the frequency of HCW HH occurrences and improve the quality of HH performance, companies have introduced electronic technologies to assist managers in training, supervising, and gathering data in the patient care setting. Although these technologies offer valuable feedback regarding compliance, little is known in terms of capabilities in the clinical setting. Less is known about HCW or patient attitudes if the system allows feedback to be shared. Early-adopting managers have begun to examine their experiences with HH technologies and publish their findings. We review peer-reviewed research on infection prevention that focused on the capabilities of these electronic systems, as well as the related research on HCW and patient interactions with electronic HH systems. Research suggests that these systems are capable of collecting data, but the results are mixed regarding their impact on HH compliance, reducing HAIs, or both and their costs. Research also indicates that HCWs and patients may not regard the technology as positively as industry or healthcare managers may have intended. When considering the adoption of electronic HH monitoring systems, hospital administrators should proceed with caution. PMID:26554146

  13. A Review of Electronic Hand Hygiene Monitoring: Considerations for Hospital Management in Data Collection, Healthcare Worker Supervision, and Patient Perception.

    PubMed

    McGuckin, Maryanne; Govednik, John

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in U.S. acute care hospitals lead to a burden of $96-$147 billion annually on the U.S. health system and affect 1 in 20 hospital patients (Marchetti & Rossiter, 2013). Hospital managers are charged with reducing and eliminating HAIs to cut costs and improve patient outcomes. Healthcare worker (HCW) hand hygiene (HH) practice is the most effective means of preventing the spread of HAIs, but compliance is at or below 50% (McGuckin, Waterman, & Govednik, 2009). For managers to increase the frequency of HCW HH occurrences and improve the quality of HH performance, companies have introduced electronic technologies to assist managers in training, supervising, and gathering data in the patient care setting. Although these technologies offer valuable feedback regarding compliance, little is known in terms of capabilities in the clinical setting. Less is known about HCW or patient attitudes if the system allows feedback to be shared. Early-adopting managers have begun to examine their experiences with HH technologies and publish their findings. We review peer-reviewed research on infection prevention that focused on the capabilities of these electronic systems, as well as the related research on HCW and patient interactions with electronic HH systems. Research suggests that these systems are capable of collecting data, but the results are mixed regarding their impact on HH compliance, reducing HAIs, or both and their costs. Research also indicates that HCWs and patients may not regard the technology as positively as industry or healthcare managers may have intended. When considering the adoption of electronic HH monitoring systems, hospital administrators should proceed with caution.

  14. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, John P; Antolak, John A; Followill, David S; Huq, M Saiful; Klein, Eric E; Lam, Kwok L; Palta, Jatinder R; Roback, Donald M; Reid, Mark; Khan, Faiz M

    2014-03-01

    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D'0, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D'0 = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D'0 ≤ 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of dm, with D'0 = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

  15. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, John P.; Antolak, John A.; Followill, David S.; Huq, M. Saiful; Klein, Eric E.; Lam, Kwok L.; Palta, Jatinder R.; Roback, Donald M.; Reid, Mark; Khan, Faiz M.

    2014-03-15

    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D{sub 0}{sup ′}, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D{sub 0}{sup ′} = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D{sub 0}{sup ′} ≤ 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of d{sub m}, with D{sub 0}{sup ′} = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

  16. Electronic management: Exploring its impact on small business

    SciTech Connect

    Bewayo, E.D.

    1994-12-31

    Macworld magazine recently reported that more than one in five companies eavesdrops electronically on its employees. Electronic eavesdropping is one name given to electronic management Besides being known as electronic eaves-dropping, electronic management also goes by electronic monitoring, electronic supervision, electronic snooping, electronic sweat-shopping, electronic surveillance, electronic Big Brothering, and computerized performance monitoring. Some of these labels connote negative things about electronic management, and relate to applications of electronic management to extreme and unreasonable levels. In the rest of this paper the terms electronic management and electronic monitoring will be used interchangeably. In this paper we discuss the impacts of electronic management, positive and negative, on workplaces, with emphasis on small businesses. This small business emphasis is partly because of the author`s research interests, and partly because most of what has been written on electronic management has been based on large business contexts. This large business bias has been partly due to the fact that the early inroads of electronic management were almost exclusively limited to large companies--beginning with telephone service observation in the late 1800s. However, now with the growing affordability and, consequently, the proliferation of electronic technology (especially the computer), electronic management is no longer the monopoly of large corporations. Electronic management has now reached restaurants, drug stores, liquor stores, convenience stores, and trucking companies. And in some industries, e.g., banking, every business, regardless of size, uses electronic monitoring.

  17. Drug dosing in patients with renal insufficiency in a hospital setting using electronic prescribing and automated reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anita L; Henriksen, Daniel P; Marinakis, Christianna; Hellebek, Annemarie; Birn, Henrik; Nybo, Mads; Søndergaard, Jens; Nymark, Anita; Pedersen, Court

    2014-05-01

    In patients with impaired renal function, drug dose adjustment is often required. Non-adherence to clinical prescribing recommendations may result in severe adverse events. In previous studies, the prevalence rate of non-adherence to recommended dosing has been reported to be 19-67%. Using the clinical support system Renbase(®) as reference, we investigated the use and dosing of drugs in patients with impaired renal function in a university hospital setting using electronic prescription and automatic reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In all, 232 patients with an eGFR in the range of 10-49 ml/min./1.73 m(2) were included. We identified 436 episodes with administration of renal risk drugs (prescribed to 183 patients): 410 drugs required dose adjustment according to the eGFR and 26 should be avoided. In total, the use or dosing of 66 (15%) of the 436 renal risk drugs was not in agreement with recommendations in Renbase(®) . This reflects less disagreement with expert guidelines than reported previously, indicating a possible beneficial effect of electronic prescribing and reporting of eGFR. However, we also found that disagreement to some extent reflected inappropriate drug use. We conclude that despite implementation of electronic prescribing and automated reporting of eGFR, patients with renal insufficiency may still be exposed to inappropriate drug use, with potential increased risk of adverse effects. Initiatives to reduce medication errors such as the use of electronic decision support systems should be explored.

  18. Monitoring compliance to therapy during addiction treatments by means of hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites using capillary zone electrophoresis coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gottardo, Rossella; Fanigliulo, Ameriga; Sorio, Daniela; Liotta, Eloisa; Bortolotti, Federica; Tagliaro, Franco

    2012-03-10

    Capillary electrophoresis coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used in the present work for the determination of therapeutic and abused drugs and their metabolites in the hair of subjects undergoing addiction treatments, in order to monitor their compliance to therapy. For this purpose a rapid, qualitative drug screening method was adopted based on capillary electrophoresis hyphenated with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, which had earlier been developed and validated for the forensic-toxicological analysis of hair, limitedly to illicit/abused drugs [1]. Sampling of hair was carried out in order to refer to a time window of about two months from the date of sampling (i.e. 2cm ca. from cortex). A single extraction procedure was applied, allowing the determination in the hair matrix of "drugs of abuse" referred to the past abuses, and therapeutic drugs prescribed in the detoxification program as well as their metabolites. Analyte identification was based on accurate mass measurements and comparison of isotope patterns, providing the most likely matching between accurate mass value and elemental formula. Small molecules (<500Da) of forensic and toxicological interest could be identified unambiguously using mass spectrometric conditions tailored to meet a mass accuracy ≤5ppm. In the present study, the proposed approach proved suitable for the rapid broad spectrum screening of hair samples, although needing further confirmation of results by using fragmentation mass spectrometry.

  19. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G; Manatt, Kenneth S; Mowrey, Victoria S; Jackson, Shannon P; Kisor, Adam K; Shevade, Abhijit V; Homer, Margie L

    2004-06-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  20. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Mowrey, Victoria S.; Jackson, Shannon P.; Kisor, Adam K.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Homer, Margie L.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.