Science.gov

Sample records for electronic products volume

  1. Radiofrequency and 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance H- volume production ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Peng, S. X.

    2016-10-01

    The volume production of negative hydrogen ions ({{{H}}}-) in plasma ion sources is based on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules (H2), which is a two-step process requiring both, hot electrons for ionization, and vibrational excitation of the H2 and cold electrons for the {{{H}}}- formation through DEA. Traditionally {{{H}}}- ion sources relying on the volume production have been tandem-type arc discharge sources equipped with biased filament cathodes sustaining the plasma by thermionic electron emission and with a magnetic filter separating the main discharge from the {{{H}}}- formation volume. The main motivation to develop ion sources based on radiofrequency (RF) or electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma discharges is to eliminate the apparent limitation of the cathode lifetime. In this paper we summarize the principles of {{{H}}}- volume production dictating the ion source design and highlight the differences between the arc discharge and RF/ECR ion sources from both, physics and technology point-of-view. Furthermore, we introduce the state-of-the-art RF and ECR {{{H}}}- volume production ion sources and review the challenges and future prospects of these yet developing technologies.

  2. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, G.D.

    1998-11-24

    Microwave injection methods are disclosed for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant ``volume`` ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources. 5 figs.

  3. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, Gerald D.

    1998-01-01

    Microwave injection methods for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant "volume" ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources.

  4. A new grid-type electron filter for volume-production negative-ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafalskyi, D. V.; Dudin, S. V.

    2012-03-01

    A new system providing continuous generation of broad negative-ion beam is described and characterized. The key element of the system is the grid-type electron filter allowing the formation without magnetic field of a stationary highly electronegative plasma which can be biased negatively with respect to a relatively high-area electrode that allows to extract the negative ions. Measurements of negative-ion energy distribution functions conducted using a magnetically filtered energy analyzer show broad (250 mm) negative-ion beam formation with controllable energy starting from several eV. A conclusion is made about the possibility of practical application of the grid-type electron filter in negative ion sources for electric propulsion and etching technologies.

  5. Production of solvated electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. K.

    1969-01-01

    Current research, both theoretical and experimental, relating to the production and kinetics of interactions of solvated electrons is reviewed. Particular attention is focused on solvated electrons generated by ionizing radiation in water, alcohols, and organic systems.

  6. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  7. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  8. Absorbed fractions for electrons in ellipsoidal volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, E.; Lizio, D.; Baldari, S.

    2011-01-01

    We applied a Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4 in order to calculate the absorbed fractions for monoenergetic electrons in the energy interval between 10 keV and 2 MeV, uniformly distributed in ellipsoids made from soft tissue. For each volume, we simulated a spherical shape, four oblate and four prolate ellipsoids, and one scalene shape. For each energy and for every geometrical configuration, an analytical relationship between the absorbed fraction and a 'generalized radius' was found, and the dependence of the fit parameters from electron energy is discussed and fitted by proper parametric functions. With the proposed formulation, the absorbed fraction for electrons in the 10-2000 keV energy range can be calculated for all volumes and for every ellipsoidal shape of practical interest. This method can be directly applied to evaluation of the absorbed fraction from the radionuclide emission of monoenergetic electrons, such as Auger or conversion electrons. The average deposited energy per disintegration in the case of extended beta spectra can be evaluated through integration. Two examples of application to a pure beta emitter such as 90Y and to 131I, whose emission include monoenergetic and beta electrons plus gamma photons, are presented. This approach represent a generalization of our previous studies, allowing a comprehensive treatment of absorbed fractions from electron and photon sources uniformly distributed in ellipsoidal volumes of any ellipticity and volume, in the whole range of practical interest for internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine applications, as well as in radiological protection estimations of doses from an internal contamination.

  9. Absorbed fractions for electrons in ellipsoidal volumes.

    PubMed

    Amato, E; Lizio, D; Baldari, S

    2011-01-21

    We applied a Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4 in order to calculate the absorbed fractions for monoenergetic electrons in the energy interval between 10 keV and 2 MeV, uniformly distributed in ellipsoids made from soft tissue. For each volume, we simulated a spherical shape, four oblate and four prolate ellipsoids, and one scalene shape. For each energy and for every geometrical configuration, an analytical relationship between the absorbed fraction and a 'generalized radius' was found, and the dependence of the fit parameters from electron energy is discussed and fitted by proper parametric functions. With the proposed formulation, the absorbed fraction for electrons in the 10-2000 keV energy range can be calculated for all volumes and for every ellipsoidal shape of practical interest. This method can be directly applied to evaluation of the absorbed fraction from the radionuclide emission of monoenergetic electrons, such as Auger or conversion electrons. The average deposited energy per disintegration in the case of extended beta spectra can be evaluated through integration. Two examples of application to a pure beta emitter such as (90)Y and to (131)I, whose emission include monoenergetic and beta electrons plus gamma photons, are presented. This approach represent a generalization of our previous studies, allowing a comprehensive treatment of absorbed fractions from electron and photon sources uniformly distributed in ellipsoidal volumes of any ellipticity and volume, in the whole range of practical interest for internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine applications, as well as in radiological protection estimations of doses from an internal contamination.

  10. Report on Federal Productivity. Volume 2, Productivity Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Financial Management Improvement Program, Washington, DC.

    Volume 2 contains 15 productivity case studies which illustrate and expand on the causal factors mentioned in volume 1. The cases illustrate many different approaches to productivity measurement improvement. The case studies are: Development of an Output-Productivity Measure for the Air Force Medical Service; Measuring Effectiveness and Efficiency…

  11. EOS Data Products Handbook. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L. (Editor); Greenstone, Reynold (Editor); Closs, James (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Data Products Handbook provides brief descriptions of the data products that will be produced from a range of missions of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and associated projects. Volume 1, originally published in 1997, covers the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Terra mission (formerly named EOS AM-1), and the Data Assimilation System, while this volume, Volume 2, covers the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite (ACRIMSAT), Aqua, Jason-1, Landsat 7, Meteor 3M/Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III). the Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat), the Quick Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (Quik-TOMS), and the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) missions. Volume 2 follows closely the format of Volume 1, providing a list of products and an introduction and overview descriptions of the instruments and data processing, all introductory to the core of the book, which presents the individual data product descriptions, organized into 11 topical chapters. The product descriptions are followed by five appendices, which provide contact information for the EOS data centers that will be archiving and distributing the data sets, contact information for the science points of contact for the data products, references, acronyms and abbreviations, and a data products index.

  12. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  13. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  14. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  15. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... as intermediates to produce pesticides are covered by TSCA.) (e) The burden of establishing the...

  16. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... as intermediates to produce pesticides are covered by TSCA.) (e) The burden of establishing the...

  17. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... as intermediates to produce pesticides are covered by TSCA.) (e) The burden of establishing the...

  18. 4f electron delocalization and volume collapse in praseodymium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Joseph A.; Moore, Kevin T.; Lipp, Magnus J.; Mattern, Brian A.; Pacold, Joseph I.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Chow, Paul; Rod, Eric; Xiao, Yuming; Evans, William J.

    2012-04-17

    We study the pressure evolution of the 4f electrons in elemental praseodymium metal compressed through several crystallographic phases, including the large volume-collapse transition at 20 GPa. Using resonant x-ray emission, we directly and quantitatively measure the development of multiple electronic configurations with differing 4f occupation numbers, the key quantum observable related to the delocalization of the strongly correlated 4f electrons. These results provide a high-fidelity test of prior predictions by dynamical mean-field theory, and support the hypothesis of a strong connection between electronic and structural degrees of freedom at the volume-collapse transition.

  19. Improving Organizational Productivity in NASA. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Recognizing that NASA has traditionally been in the forefront of technological change, the NASA Administrator challenged the Agency in 1982 to also become a leader in developing and applying advanced technology and management practices to increase productivity. One of the activities undertaken by the Agency to support this ambitious productivity goal was participation in a 2-year experimental action research project devoted to learning more about improving and assessing the performance of professional organizations. Participating with a dozen private sector organizations, NASA explored the usefulness of a productivity improvement process that addressed all aspects of organizational performance. This experience has given NASA valuable insight into the enhancement of professional productivity. More importantly, it has provided the Agency with a specific management approach that managers and supervisors can effectively use to emphasize and implement continuous improvement. This report documents the experiences of the five different NASA installations participating in the project, describes the improvement process that was applied and refined, and offers recommendations for expanded application of that process. Of particular interest is the conclusion that measuring white collar productivity may be possible, and at a minimum, the measurement process itself is beneficial to management. Volume I of the report provides a project overview, significant findings, and recommendations. Volume II presents individual case studies of the NASA pilot projects that were part of the action research effort.

  20. Voyager electronic parts radiation program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft is subject to radiation from external natural space, from radioisotope thermoelectric generators and heater units, and from the internal environment where penetrating electrons generate surface ionization effects in semiconductor devices. Methods for radiation hardening and tests for radiation sensitivity are described. Results of characterization testing and sample screening of over 200 semiconductor devices in a radiation environment are summarized.

  1. 7 CFR 1280.612 - Volume of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Volume of production. 1280.612 Section 1280.612... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.612 Volume of production. (a) For producers and seedstock producers, the term volume of production means the total number of live...

  2. Design study report. Volume 2: Electronic unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The recording system discussed is required to record and reproduce wideband data from either of the two primary Earth Resources Technology Satellite sensors: Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera or Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS). The camera input is an analog signal with a bandwidth from dc to 3.5 MHz; this signal is accommodated through FM recording techniques which provide a recorder signal-to-noise ratio in excess of 39 db, black-to-white signal/rms noise, over the specified bandwidth. The MSS provides, as initial output, 26 narrowband channels. These channels are multiplexed prior to transmission, or recording, into a single 15 Megabit/second digital data stream. Within the recorder, the 15 Megabit/second NRZL signal is processed through the same FM electronics as the RBV signal, but the basic FM standards are modified to provide an internal, 10.5 MHz baseland response with signal-to-noise ratio of about 25 db. Following FM demodulation, however, the MSS signal is digitally re-shaped and re-clocked so that good bit stability and signal-to-noise exist at the recorder output.

  3. Cost of heliostats in low volume production

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, K.; Williams, T. A.; Dilbeck, R. A.; Allison, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    This study indicates that in small volumes, heliostats can be produced at an installed cost of approximately 200 $/M/sup 2/ for a 49.053 m/sup 2/ heliostat. Initial one-time costs of $10 to $15 million would be required, although part of the one-time costs are recoverable. This study provides estimated costs of heliostats that are produced in a plant operating on a continuous basis for a period of four years at a production rate of 2,500 heliostats per year. This scenario was selected somewhat arbitrarily as a scenario that could lead to heliostat market of 5,000 to 10,000 units per year.

  4. Volume scanning electron microscopy for imaging biological ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Titze, Benjamin; Genoud, Christel

    2016-11-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) has been a key imaging method to investigate biological ultrastructure for over six decades. In recent years, novel volume EM techniques have significantly advanced nanometre-scale imaging of cells and tissues in three dimensions. Previously, this had depended on the slow and error-prone manual tasks of cutting and handling large numbers of sections, and imaging them one-by-one with transmission EM. Now, automated volume imaging methods mostly based on scanning EM (SEM) allow faster and more reliable acquisition of serial images through tissue volumes and achieve higher z-resolution. Various software tools have been developed to manipulate the acquired image stacks and facilitate quantitative analysis. Here, we introduce three volume SEM methods: serial block-face electron microscopy (SBEM), focused ion beam SEM (FIB-SEM) and automated tape-collecting ultramicrotome SEM (ATUM-SEM). We discuss and compare their capabilities, provide an overview of the full volume SEM workflow for obtaining 3D datasets and showcase different applications for biological research.

  5. Volumes from which calcium and phosphorus X-rays arise in electron probe emission microanalysis of bone: Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Howell, P G T; Boyde, A

    2003-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of trajectories for electrons with initial energy of 10 keV through 30 keV were used to map the 3D location of characteristic x-ray photon production for the elements C, P, and Ca until the electrons either escaped as backscattered electrons (BSE) or had insignificant energy. The x-ray production volumes for phosphorus slightly exceed those for calcium, but both greatly exceed the volume through which BSE travel prior to leaving the sample. The x-ray volumes are roughly hemispherical in shape, and the oblate spheroid from which BSE derive occupies only the upper third to half the volume of x-ray generation. Energy-dispersive x-ray emission microanalysis (EDX) may not be secure as a method for the quantitation of BSE images of bone in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ca:P elemental ratios from EDX analyses may also be imperfect.

  6. Scalar electron productions at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, H.; Nishikawa, K.; Yamada, S.; Kuroda, M.

    1990-08-01

    The cross section of the process: ep-->e~Γ~X is calculated including resonance state productions and deep inelastic reactions. Comparison is made with the two body process: eq-->e~q~. It is found that some unexamined region of the selectron mass can be investigated at HERA. Permanent address: Department of Physics, Meiji-Gakuin University, Yokohama, Japan.

  7. Solder technology in the manufacturing of electronic products

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.

    1993-08-01

    The electronics industry has relied heavily upon the use of soldering for both package construction and circuit assembly. The solder attachment of devices onto printed circuit boards and ceramic microcircuits has supported the high volume manufacturing processes responsible for low cost, high quality consumer products and military hardware. Defects incurred during the manufacturing process are minimized by the proper selection of solder alloys, substrate materials and process parameters. Prototyping efforts are then used to evaluate the manufacturability of the chosen material systems. Once manufacturing feasibility has been established, service reliability of the final product is evaluated through accelerated testing procedures.

  8. Commercial Superconducting Electron Linac for Radioisotope Production

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, Terry Lee; Boulware, Charles H.; Hollister, Jerry L.; Jecks, Randall W.; Mamtimin, Mayir; Starovoitova, Valeriia

    2015-08-13

    The majority of radioisotopes used in the United States today come from foreign suppliers or are generated parasitically in large government accelerators and nuclear reactors. Both of these restrictions limit the availability of radioisotopes and discourage the development and evaluation of new isotopes and for nuclear medicine, science, and industry. Numerous studies have been recommending development of dedicated accelerators for production of radioisotopes for over 20 years (Institute of Medicine, 1995; Reba, et al, 2000; National Research Council, 2007; NSAC 2009). The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan for Isotopes again identified electron accelerators as an area for continued research and development. Recommendation 1(c) from the 2015 NSAC Isotope report specifically identifies electron accelerators for continued funding for the purpose of producing medical and industrial radioisotopes. Recognizing the pressing need for new production methods of radioisotopes, the United States Congress passed the American Medical Isotope Production Act of 2012 to develop a domestic production of 99Mo and to eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the production of 99Mo. One of the advantages of high power electron linear accelerators (linacs) is they can create both proton- and neutron-rich isotopes by generating high energy x-rays that knock out protons or neutrons from stable atoms or by fission of uranium. This allows for production of isotopes not possible in nuclear reactors. Recent advances in superconducting electron linacs have decreased the size and complexity of these systems such that they are economically competitive with nuclear reactors and large, high energy accelerators. Niowave, Inc. has been developing a radioisotope production facility based on a superconducting electron linac with liquid metal converters.

  9. Circulating blood volume determination using electronic spin resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Facorro, Graciela; Bianchin, Ana; Boccio, José; Hager, Alfredo

    2006-09-01

    There have been numerous methods proposed to measure the circulating blood volume (CBV). Nevertheless, none of them have been massively and routinely accepted in clinical diagnosis. This study describes a simple and rapid method, on a rabbit model, using the dilution of autologous red cells labeled with a nitroxide radical (Iodoacetamide-TEMPO), which can be detected by electronic spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Blood samples were withdrawn and re-injected using the ears' marginal veins. The average CBV measured by the new method/body weight (CBV(IAT)/BW) was 59 +/- 7 mL/kg (n = 33). Simultaneously, blood volume determinations using the nitroxide radical and (51)Cr (CBV(Cr)) were performed. In the plot of the difference between the methods (CBV(IAT) - CBV(Cr)) against the average (CBV(IAT) + CBV(Cr))/2, the mean of the bias was -1.1 +/- 6.9 mL and the limits of agreement (mean difference +/-2 SD) were -14.9 and 12.7 mL. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient p(c) = 0.988. Thus, both methods are in close agreement. The development of a new method that allows a correct estimation of the CBV without using radioactivity, avoiding blood manipulation, and decreasing the possibility of blood contamination with similar accuracy and precision of that of the "gold standard method" is an innovative proposal.

  10. A simple electronic volume cell sorter for clonogenicity assays.

    PubMed

    Freyer, J P; Wilder, M E; Schor, P L; Coulter, J; Raju, M R

    1989-05-01

    A single-parameter electronic volume flow cell sorter that can be easily and inexpensively constructed using existing technology is described. The instrument is designed for ease and flexibility of operation, including such features as a large open area for recovering sorted cells into a variety of dishes or vessels; a remote, electrically activated fluidics system; a mechanism for heating or cooling samples during sorting; a simple arrangement for monitoring and adjusting the sorting control parameters; and an interface to a standard IBM personal computer for data acquisition, analysis, and control of the sorting windows. Several researchers in our laboratory now routinely use this sorter for plating precise numbers of cells directly into culture dishes in an aseptic manner for clonogenicity assays. The instrument can sort cells at rates of up to approximately 2,000 per second with greater than 80% sorting efficiency and no cytotoxicity. An advantage of this system is that the sorting windows can be set to exclude acellular debris and include either the entire cell volume distribution or a subset thereof. Applications of the instrument are detailed, including 1) precise cell plating for low-dose survival studies, 2) separation of cells into age compartments, and 3) rapid inoculation of single cells into multiwell dishes for cloning studies. Advantages of this technology for cell survival studies are detailed, along with some limitations to its applicability.

  11. Electronic tagging and integrated product intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swerdlow, Martin; Weeks, Brian

    1996-03-01

    The advent of 'intelligent,' electronic data bearing tags is set to revolutionize the way industrial and retail products are identified and tracked throughout their life cycles. The dominant system for unique identification today is the bar code, which is based on printed symbology and regulated by the International Article Numbering Association. Bar codes provide users with significant operational advantages and generate considerable added value to packaging companies, product manufacturers, distributors and retailers, across supply chains in many different sectors, from retailing, to baggage handling and industrial components, e.g., for vehicles or aircraft. Electronic tags offer the potential to: (1) record and store more complex data about the product or any modifications which occur during its life cycle; (2) access (and up-date) stored data in real time in a way which does not involve contact with the product or article; (3) overcome the limitations imposed by systems which rely on line-of-sight access to stored data. Companies are now beginning to consider how electronic data tags can be used, not only to improve the efficiency of their supply chain processes, but also to revolutionize the way they do business. This paper reviews the applications and business opportunities for electronic tags and outlines CEST's strategy for achieving an 'open' standard which will ensure that tags from different vendors can co-exist on an international basis.

  12. Space station human productivity study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary goal was to develop design and operations requirements for direct support of intra-vehicular activity (IVA) crew performance and productivity. It was recognized that much work had already been accomplished which provided sufficient data for the definition of the desired requirements. It was necessary, therefore, to assess the status of such data to extract definable requirements, and then to define the remaining study needs. The explicit objectives of the study were to: review existing data to identify potential problems of space station crew productivity and to define requirements for support of productivity insofar as they could be justified by current information; identify those areas that lack adequate data; and prepare plans for managing studies to develop the lacking data, so that results can be input to the space station program in a timely manner.

  13. Agricultural Products: Program Planning Guide: Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Richard; Robb, Sam

    The program planning guide for agricultural products was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of meat and meat byproducts, dairy processing, fruit and vegetable…

  14. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-06-24

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. Here, we have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. Moreover, we found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.

  15. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-06-01

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. We have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. We found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.

  16. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    DOE PAGES

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; ...

    2015-06-24

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. Here, we have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the termmore » artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. Moreover, we found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.« less

  17. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-01-01

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. We have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. We found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity. PMID:26104672

  18. 48 CFR 23.704 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electronic products... 23.704 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. (a) General. As required by E.O. 13423... electronic products with Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)-registered...

  19. 48 CFR 23.704 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electronic products... 23.704 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. (a) General. As required by E.O. 13423... electronic products with Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)-registered...

  20. 48 CFR 23.704 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic products... 23.704 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. (a) General. As required by E.O. 13423... electronic products with Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)-registered...

  1. 21 CFR 1010.20 - Electronic products intended for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic products intended for export. 1010.20... (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS: GENERAL Exportation of Electronic Products § 1010.20 Electronic products intended for export. The performance standards...

  2. 21 CFR 1010.20 - Electronic products intended for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic products intended for export. 1010.20... (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS: GENERAL Exportation of Electronic Products § 1010.20 Electronic products intended for export. The performance standards...

  3. Verification of Production Hole Quality. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    Cincinnati, Ohio, under Contract No. F33615-75-C-5173. Manufacturing Methods Project 760-5, "Verification of Production Hole Quality". Mr. William A...8217■ Ufa h: (fin f d. Reading) /. yg £ MaLtr to LA ntrf .Past rm^t TAme mt zAaMSj&m DtAetne*’ mjjdJk oeaHEMMäSL miCdQJS£A££, /M sjaamm...Ind. Reading) ___„ Procedure: abvfiVCJ? fi/S UeVSie* JNTn »DL£ UWDl ,t- / bAMS coM-mc.r; THtti ßnnr\\ .tnt" Oeep

  4. How big is the hydrated electron? Thermodynamics of electron solvation and its partial molar volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, David

    2015-03-01

    Several models for the hydrated electron solvation structure have been proposed, which all can do a reasonable job of reproducing the room temperature optical spectrum. As Larsen, Glover and Schwartz demonstrated, tweaking the electron-water pseudopotential can completely change the structure from a cavity to a non-cavity geometry. Deciding between the competing models then requires comparison with other observables. The resonance Raman spectrum and the temperature dependence of the optical spectrum can be cited as evidence in favor of a non-cavity structure. In the present work we will re-examine the thermodynamics of hydration. In particular, we will present new experimental and simulation results for the partial molar volume, which can bear directly on the cavity vs. non-cavity controversy. DMB is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE- FC02-04ER1553.

  5. Electron spectra from decay of fission products

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, J K

    1982-09-01

    Electron spectra following decay of individual fission products (72 less than or equal to A less than or equal to 162) are obtained from the nuclear data given in the compilation using a listed and documented computer subroutine. Data are given for more than 500 radionuclides created during or after fission. The data include transition energies, absolute intensities, and shape parameters when known. An average beta-ray energy is given for fission products lacking experimental information on transition energies and intensities. For fission products having partial or incomplete decay information, the available data are utilized to provide best estimates of otherwise unknown decay schemes. This compilation is completely referenced and includes data available in the reviewed literature up to January 1982.

  6. Design for Production Manual. Volume 2. Design/Production Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    assist you and your organization in a re-thinking process concerning shipbuilding design and production. To this end , the writers want to emphasize that... break the design process into a number of stages, which reflect the realities of the overall ship design and production scheme. For each stage a set...consistent with steel unit breaks . At the same time system diagrams will have been developed which indicate the links between system elements and the

  7. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Morrell, Jonathan S [Knoxville, TN; Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ludtka, Gerald M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-03-22

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  8. High-Volume Production of Lightweight Multijunction Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youtsey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    MicroLink Devices, Inc., has transitioned its 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable of sustaining large-volume production. This Phase II project improves the ELO process by reducing cycle time and increasing the yield of large-area devices. In addition, all critical device fabrication processes have transitioned to 6-inch production tool sets designed for volume production. An emphasis on automated cassette-to-cassette and batch processes minimizes operator dependence and cell performance variability. MicroLink Devices established a pilot production line capable of at least 1,500 6-inch wafers per month at greater than 80 percent yield. The company also increased the yield and manufacturability of the 6-inch reclaim process, which is crucial to reducing the cost of the cells.

  9. 7 CFR 1280.612 - Volume of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... lambs owned and produced during the most recent calendar year. (b) For feeders, volume of production means the total number of lambs owned and fed during the most recent calendar year. (c) For...

  10. System Development of Estimated Figures of Volume Production Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazhnikov, Maksim A.; Khorina, Irina V.; Minina, Yulia I.; Kolyasnikova, Lyudmila V.; Streltsov, Aleksey V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this problem is primarily determined by a necessity of improving production efficiency in conditions of innovative development of the economy and implementation of Import Substitution Program. The purpose of the article is development of set of criteria and procedures for the comparative assessment of alternative volume production…

  11. The SEA of the Future: Prioritizing Productivity. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Betheny, Ed.; Jochim, Ashley, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "The SEA of the Future" is an education publication series examining how state education agencies can shift from a compliance to a performance-oriented organization through strategic planning and performance management tools to meet growing demands to support education reform while improving productivity. This volume, the second in the…

  12. Catalog of Audiovisual Productions. Volume 1. Army Productions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    reproduction , distribution, or disclosure are limited because of security classification, rights retained by copyright owners, or by talent by virtue of...procurement conditions govern for each title. :. Violation of federal copyright laws by unauthorized reproduction or exhibition may result in judicial or...the appropriate Defense Contract Administration Services Office, for approval. :,., 9. Prohibition Against Reproduction of DoD AV Productions. Copies

  13. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, Th.

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10∗∗4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50°C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the iradiation field in a closed conveyor system.

  14. Looking for Guidelines for the Production of Electronic Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landoni, M.; Wilson, R.; Gibb, F.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of two studies of electronic book production, including production on the World Wide Web, and explains EBONI (Electronic Books On-screen Interface) that focuses on the evaluation of electronic resources and compiling guidelines for publishing electronic materials on the Internet for the United Kingdom higher education…

  15. WDM production with intense relativistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Josh; Andrews, Heather; Klasky, Mark; Colgan, James; Burris-Mog, Trevor; Creveling, Dan; Miller, Craig; Welch, Dale; Berninger, Mike

    2016-10-01

    The production of warm dense matter (WDM) through collisional heating with intense relativistic electrons is underway. A 100-ns-long monochromatic bunch of electrons with energies of 19.1-19.8 MeV and currents of 0.2-1.7 kA is used to heat 100- μm-thick foils with Z <29. The principal objective of these experiments is to develop a controlled method of measuring the equation of state with particle beams and benchmark numerical models. Measurements indicate the formation of a warm dense plasma near the end of the pulse, which is on the order of the beam size. These plasmas expand 5 mm in the first microsecond and slow down to <0.5 mm/ μs over the next 10 μs. These plasmas also produce both emitted and absorbed spectra amongst a continuum for Ti, Fe, and Cu. Cu-I spectra is dominated by stark broadening, indicating a cool plasma with ne >1018 cm-3. At these densities our plasma is collisionally dominated making it possible to spectrally model the density and temperature in LTE. Preliminary density gradient measurements will also be presented indicating the spatial extent of the solid density cutoff. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Se- curity Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  16. Low-loss polysilicon waveguides fabricated in an emulated high-volume electronics process.

    PubMed

    Orcutt, Jason S; Tang, Sanh D; Kramer, Steve; Mehta, Karan; Li, Hanqing; Stojanović, Vladimir; Ram, Rajeev J

    2012-03-26

    We measure end-of-line polysilicon waveguide propagation losses of ~6-15 dB/cm across the telecommunication O-, E-, S-, C- and L-bands in a process representative of high-volume product integration. The lowest loss of 6.2 dB/cm is measured at 1550 nm in a polysilicon waveguide with a 120 nm x 350 nm core geometry. The reported waveguide characteristics are measured after the thermal cycling of the full CMOS electronics process that results in a 32% increase in the extracted material loss relative to the as-crystallized waveguide samples. The measured loss spectra are fit to an absorption model using defect state parameters to identify the dominant loss mechanism in the end-of-line and as-crystallized polysilicon waveguides.

  17. OSA Proceedings on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    of Anharmonicity and Disorder-Induced Effects in 2. N. S. Wingreen, K. W. Jacobsen, and J. W. Ga -lxAlxAs Epitaxial Layers", Phys. Rev. B24, Wilkins...probably not due to hot emission /absorption process at a higher phonon effects alone, but additionally energy has a lower wavevector associated anti...GaAs MESFET and HBT Technology in Picosecond Electronics ............. 139 KazuyoshiAsai and Tadao Ishibashi Electron-Hole Effects on the Velocity

  18. Redesigned Electron-Beam Furnace Boosts Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    1995-01-01

    Redesigned electron-beam furnace features carousel of greater capacity so more experiments conducted per loading, and time spent on reloading and vacuum pump-down reduced. Common mounting plate for electron source and carousel simplifies installation and reduces vibration.

  19. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic products... COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures...

  20. 21 CFR 1003.2 - Defect in an electronic product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 1003.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... which relates to the safety of use by reason of the emission of electronic product radiation if: (a) It is a product which does not utilize the emission of electronic product radiation in order...

  1. 21 CFR 1003.2 - Defect in an electronic product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 1003.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... which relates to the safety of use by reason of the emission of electronic product radiation if: (a) It is a product which does not utilize the emission of electronic product radiation in order...

  2. 21 CFR 1003.2 - Defect in an electronic product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 1003.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... which relates to the safety of use by reason of the emission of electronic product radiation if: (a) It is a product which does not utilize the emission of electronic product radiation in order...

  3. Free Volume Related Fluorescence Properties of Electron Irradiated Chalcone Doped PMMA Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindrachary, Ismayil V.; Bhajantri, R. F.; Harisha, A.; Praveena, S. D.

    2011-07-15

    Effect of electron irradiation on free volume related fluorescence properties of chalcone doped Poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) composite films have been studied using Positron Annihilation and Fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. In this polymer composite, enhancement of fluorescence at lower doses and reduction at higher doses has been observed under electron irradiation. From Positron annihilation studies suggests that at lower doses of irradiation induced crosslinking which affect the free volume properties and inturn hinders the chalcone molecular rotation. At higher doses chain scission process affect matrix relaxation. Under the restricted condition the chromophore molecules likely to emit enhanced fluorescence and its mobility is directly related to the free volume around it.

  4. WaferOptics® mass volume production and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolterink, E.; Demeyer, K.

    2010-05-01

    The Anteryon WaferOptics® Technology platform contains imaging optics designs, materials, metrologies and combined with wafer level based Semicon & MEMS production methods. WaferOptics® first required complete new system engineering. This system closes the loop between application requirement specifications, Anteryon product specification, Monte Carlo Analysis, process windows, process controls and supply reject criteria. Regarding the Anteryon product Integrated Lens Stack (ILS), new design rules, test methods and control systems were assessed, implemented, validated and customer released for mass production. This includes novel reflowable materials, mastering process, replication, bonding, dicing, assembly, metrology, reliability programs and quality assurance systems. Many of Design of Experiments were performed to assess correlations between optical performance parameters and machine settings of all process steps. Lens metrologies such as FFL, BFL, and MTF were adapted for wafer level production and wafer mapping was introduced for yield management. Test methods for screening and validating suitable optical materials were designed. Critical failure modes such as delamination and popcorning were assessed and modeled with FEM. Anteryon successfully managed to integrate the different technologies starting from single prototypes to high yield mass volume production These parallel efforts resulted in a steep yield increase from 30% to over 90% in a 8 months period.

  5. 76 FR 4549 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals; Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 799 RIN 2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of... testing of certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to obtain screening level data for.... 799.5087 Chemical testing requirements for second group of high production volume chemicals...

  6. 48 CFR 23.704 - Electronic product environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...® electronic products are designated “bronze-,” “silver-,” or “gold-” registered. (4) Agencies shall, at a minimum, acquire EPEAT® bronze-registered products. (5) Agencies are encouraged to acquire EPEAT®...

  7. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  8. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  9. Volume production of polarization controlled single-mode VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin; King, Roger; Jäger, Roland; Wiedenmann, Dieter; Gerlach, Philipp; Duckeck, Denise; Wimmer, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Over the past 3 years laser based tracking systems for optical PC mice have outnumbered the traditional VCSEL market datacom by far. Whereas VCSEL for datacom in the 850 nm regime emit in multipe transverse modes, all laser based tracking systems demand for single-mode operation which require advanced manufacturing technology. Next generation tracking systems even require single-polarization characteristics in order to avoid unwanted movement of the pointer due to polarization flips. High volume manufacturing and optimized production methods are crucial for achieving the addressed technical and commercial targets of this consumer market. The resulting ideal laser source which emits single-mode and single-polarization at low cost is also a promising platform for further applications like tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) or miniature atomic clocks when adapted to the according wavelengths.

  10. Space station human productivity study. Volume 5: Management plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The 67 Management Plans represent recommended study approaches for resolving 108 of the 305 Issues which were identified. Each study Management Plan is prepared in three formats: Management Plan Overview (lists the subsumed Issues, study background, and related overview information); Study Plan (details the study approach by tasks, lists special needs, and describes expected study products); Schedule-Task Flow (provides a time-lined schedule for the study tasks and resource requirements). The Management Relationships Matrix, included in this volume, shows the data input-output relationships among all recommended studies. A listing is also included which cross-references the unresolved requirements to Issues to management plans. A glossary of all abbreviations utilized is provided.

  11. A facile electron microscopy method for measuring precipitate volume fractions in AlCuMg alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.Q.; Shi, M.J.; Chen, J.H. Wang, S.B.; Liu, C.H.; Wu, C.L.

    2012-07-15

    Precipitate volume fraction is an important parameter to estimate the strength of precipitation-hardened metals. In this study, a facile method was applied to measure the precipitate volume fractions in an age-hardened AlCuMg alloy. In this method, the precipitate volume fraction values can be obtained by multiplying the volume precipitate number densities with the averaged precipitate volumes, which can be easily measured in scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Compared with the conventional method, in which the specimen thickness has to be measured in transmission electron microscopy, the method proposed in this study is more facile to perform. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have proposed a facile method to measure precipitate volume fractions for precipitation-hardened metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique works well for the square-shaped {theta} Prime -phase nano-precipitates in 2xxx aluminum alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interesting is that the proposed method is easy for materials scientists and engineers to perform.

  12. NIL defect performance toward high volume mass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Kei; Kashiwagi, Hiroyuki; Tokue, Hiroshi; Kono, Takuya; Tetsuro, Nakasugi; Choi, Eun Hyuk; Jung, Wooyung

    2016-03-01

    A low cost alternative lithographic technology is desired to meet with the decreasing feature size of semiconductor devices. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is one of the candidates for alternative lithographic technologies. NIL has advantages such as good resolution, critical dimension (CD) uniformity and smaller line edge roughness (LER). 4 On the other hand, NIL involves some risks. Defectivity is the most critical issue in NIL. The progress in the defect reduction on templates shows great improvement recently. In other words, the defect reduction of the NIIL process is a key to apply NIL to mass production. In this paper, we describe the evaluation results of the defect performance of NIL using an up-to-date tool, Canon FPA-1100 NZ2, and discuss the future potential of NIL in terms of defectivity. The impact of various kinds defects, such as the non-filling defect, plug defect, line collapse, and defects on replica templates are discussed. We found that non-fill defects under the resist pattern cause line collapse. It is important to prevent line collapse. From these analyses based on actual NIL defect data on long-run stability, we will show the way to reduce defects and the possibility of NIL in device high volume mass production. For the past one year, we have been are collaborating with SK Hynix to bring this promising technology into mainstream manufacturing. This work is the result of this collaboration.

  13. 48 CFR 23.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Personal computer products is a category of EPEAT-registered electronic products. (1) The IEEE 1680... detail at http://www.epeat.net. (2) A list of EPEAT-registered products that meet the IEEE 1680 standard can be found at http://www.epeat.net. (3) The IEEE 1680 standard sets forth required and...

  14. Modular Electronics for Flash Memory Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-28

    terms of size compared to conventional circuit elements. The development of molecular electronic devices for memory applications in computing...to understanding these physical phenomena arises from the inability to use conventional spectroscopic tools at the small length scales and low...Host ~®~^H^:i>V~®-~#-« «~®^^^|®-=-#^M»-. Figure 1. Chemical structures of the molecular wires incorporating, A, e-rich crown ether subunits which

  15. Electron positron pair production at RHIC and LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Cem Gueclue, M.

    2008-11-11

    The STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider present data on electron-positron pair production accompanied by nuclear breakup at small impact parameters where the simultaneous excitation of the two ions, mainly the giant dipole resonance GDR, can occur. We calculate the electron-positron pair production cross section relevant for the STAR experimental setup, and compare our results with the other calculations. We have also predictions for the LHC energies.

  16. Effect of MeV electron irradiation on the free volume of polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegaonkar, P. S.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    2004-08-01

    The free volume of the microvoids in the polyimide samples, irradiated with 6 MeV electrons, was measured by the positron annihilation technique. The free volume initially decreased the virgin value from similar to13.70 to similar to10.98 Angstrom(3) and then increased to similar to18.11 Angstrom(3) with increasing the electron fluence, over the range of 5 x 10(14) - 5 x 10(15) e/cm(2). The evolution of gaseous species from the polyimide during electron irradiation was confirmed by the residual gas analysis technique. The polyimide samples irradiated with 6 MeV electrons in AgNO3 solution were studied with the Rutherford back scattering technique. The diffusion of silver in these polyimide samples was observed for fluences >2 x 10(15) e/cm(2), at which microvoids of size greater than or equal to3 Angstrom are produced. Silver atoms did not diffuse in the polyimide samples, which were first irradiated with electrons and then immersed in AgNO3 solution. These results indicate that during electron irradiation, the microvoids with size greater than or equal to3 Angstrom were retained in the surface region through which silver atoms of size similar to2.88 Angstrom could diffuse into the polyimide. The average depth of diffusion of silver atoms in the polyimide was similar to2.5 mum.

  17. Enhancement of negative hydrogen ion production at low pressure by controlling the electron kinetics property with transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, June Young; Cho, Won-Hwi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Kim, Seongcheol; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    In a volume production H- ion source, independent control of electron energy distribution between the driver region and the extraction region is crucial for the efficient production of H- ions due to its unique volume production mechanism. However, at the low pressure regime compatible to ITER operation, it is difficult to control electron energy distribution separately because the nonlocal property dominates the electron kinetics. In this work, we suggest a new method to control the locality of electron kinetics. In this method, an additional pair of permanent magnets is introduced in the vicinity of the skin layer, differently from the conventional method in which the magnetic filter field was strengthened in the extraction region. This magnetic field shortens the energy relaxation length and changes the electron kinetics from nonlocal to local even for low pressure discharges. In this paper, we show that the locality of electron kinetics can be effectively controlled by the additional magnetic field near the skin layer by measuring the electron temperature profile along the center of the discharge chamber as well as by comparing electron energy probability function shapes for different strengths of magnetic field. Using this new method, we demonstrate that control of locality of electron kinetics can greatly enhance the production of H- ions in the extraction region by measuring H- ion beam current extracted from the plasma source.

  18. Large-Scale Production of Carbon Nanotubes Using the Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, Brian C.

    2003-01-01

    We report on our interdisciplinary program to use the Free Electron Laser (FEL) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (J-Lab) for high-volume pulsed laser vaporization synthesis of carbon nanotubes. Based in part on the funding of from this project, a novel nanotube production system was designed, tested, and patented. Using this new system nanotube production rates over 100 times faster than conventional laser systems were achieved. Analysis of the material produced shows that it is of as high a quality as the standard laser-based materials.

  19. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  20. Absolute Emission Spectroscopy of Electronically Excited Products of Dissociative Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypkowski, M. P.; Gougousi, T.; Golde, M. F.; Johnsen, R.

    1997-10-01

    We have employed spatially-resolved optical emission spectroscopy in a flowing afterglow plasma to investigate radiations in the 200-400 nm range resulting from electron-ion dissociative recombination. Calibrated emission data combined with Langmuir probe electron-density measurements are analyzed to obtain branching ratios for electronically excited recombination products. In particular, we will report absolute yields of CO(a^3Π) resulting from recombining CO_2^+ ions, NO(B^2Π) from N_2O^+, OH(A^2Σ^+) from HCO_2^+, as well as NH(A^3Π_i), and OH(A^2Σ^+) from the recombination of N_2OH^+ ions.

  1. SECONDARY ELECTRON PRODUCTION AT THE SNS STORAGE RING COLLIMATOR.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,S.Y.

    1999-03-29

    Secondary electron (SE) production is briefly reviewed. If the collimator of the SNS storage ring allows proton beam scraping to take place, the electron yield might be quite large. At the AGS Booster, by steering the Au{sup 31+} ion beam into the electrostatic inflector, beam scraping effect on SE production is studied. The results of this experiment can be translated into the situation of proton beam scraping at the SNS collimator. It seems sufficient to support a new look of the SNS ring collimator design.

  2. Channeling, Volume Reection and Gamma Emission Using 14GeV Electrons in Bent Silicon Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Brandon

    2015-08-14

    High energy electrons can be deflected with very tight bending radius using a bent silicon crystal. This produces gamma radiation. As these crystals can be thin, a series of bent silicon crystals with alternating direction has the potential to produce coherent gamma radiation with reasonable energy of the driving electron beam. Such an electron crystal undulator offers the prospect for higher energy radiation at lower cost than current methods. Permanent magnetic undulators like LCLS at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory are expensive and very large (about 100 m in case of the LCLS undulator). Silicon crystals are inexpensive and compact when compared to the large magnetic undulators. Additionally, such a high energy coherent light source could be used for probing through materials currently impenetrable by x-rays. In this work we present the experimental data and analysis of experiment T523 conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We collected the spectrum of gamma ray emission from 14 GeV electrons on a bent silicon crystal counting single photons. We also investigated the dynamics of electron motion in the crystal i.e. processes of channeling and volume reflection at 14 GeV, extending and building off previous work. Our single photon spectrum for the amorphous crystal orientation is consistent with bremsstrahlung radiation and the volume reflection crystal orientation shows a trend consistent with synchrotron radiation at a critical energy of 740 MeV. We observe that in these two cases the data are consistent, but we make no further claims because of statistical limitations. We also extended the known energy range of electron crystal dechanneling length and channeling efficiency to 14 GeV.

  3. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2013-12-15

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma.

  4. Texas Education Product Study, Volume 2. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    The second volume of a study of former Texas high school students who left as graduates or dropouts during the school years 1963-64 and 1968-69 contains the study respondents' comments on school counselors, extracurricular activities, and dropouts, career goals, and employment experiences. Respondents who had contact with counselors questioned the…

  5. Enhanced production of low energy electrons by alpha particle impact.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Keun; Titze, Jasmin; Schöffler, Markus; Trinter, Florian; Waitz, Markus; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Sann, Hendrik; Meckel, Moritz; Stuck, Christian; Lenz, Ute; Odenweller, Matthias; Neumann, Nadine; Schössler, Sven; Ullmann-Pfleger, Klaus; Ulrich, Birte; Fraga, Rui Costa; Petridis, Nikos; Metz, Daniel; Jung, Annika; Grisenti, Robert; Czasch, Achim; Jagutzki, Ottmar; Schmidt, Lothar; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst; Dörner, Reinhard

    2011-07-19

    Radiation damage to living tissue stems not only from primary ionizing particles but to a substantial fraction from the dissociative attachment of secondary electrons with energies below the ionization threshold. We show that the emission yield of those low energy electrons increases dramatically in ion-atom collisions depending on whether or not the target atoms are isolated or embedded in an environment. Only when the atom that has been ionized and excited by the primary particle impact is in immediate proximity of another atom is a fragmentation route known as interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) enabled. This leads to the emission of a low energy electron. Over the past decade ICD was explored in several experiments following photoionization. Most recent results show its observation even in water clusters. Here we show the quantitative role of ICD for the production of low energy electrons by ion impact, thus approaching a scenario closer to that of radiation damage by alpha particles: We choose ion energies on the maximum of the Bragg peak where energy is most efficiently deposited in tissue. We compare the electron production after colliding He(+) ions on isolated Ne atoms and on Ne dimers (Ne(2)). In the latter case the Ne atom impacted is surrounded by a most simple environment already opening ICD as a deexcitation channel. As a consequence, we find a dramatically enhanced low energy electron yield. The results suggest that ICD may have a significant influence on cell survival after exposure to ionizing radiation.

  6. SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION. VOLUME I. COST ANALYSIS PROGRAM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT, *COSTS), (*AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY, INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION ), MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING, AIRFRAMES, ECONOMICS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, MONEY, AIRCRAFT ENGINES, FEASIBILITY STUDIES

  7. Consumer Electronic Product Servicing. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a consumer electronic product servicing program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of…

  8. Consumer Electronic Product Servicing. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This packet contains a program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for the implementation of a consumer electronic product servicing program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, lists job titles under the program, and includes…

  9. Electric fields, electron production, and electron motion at the stripper foil in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M.

    1995-05-01

    The beam instability at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) most likely involves coupled oscillations between electrons and protons. For this instability to occur, there must be a strong source of electrons. Investigation of the various sources of electrons in the PSR had begun. Copious electron production is expected in the injection section because this section contains the stripper foil. This foil is mounted near the center of the beam pipe, and both circulating and injected protons pass through it, thus allowing ample opportunity for electron production. This paper discusses various mechanisms for electron production, beam-induced electric fields, and electron motion in the vicinity of the foil.

  10. Structural and volume changes and their correlation in electron irradiated alkali silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavenda, Tadeáš; Gedeon, Ondrej; Jurek, Karel

    2017-04-01

    Two binary alkali silicate glasses (15K2O·85SiO2 - denoted as K15 and 15Li2O·85SiO2 - denoted as Li15) were irradiated by 50 keV electron beams with doses within the range of 2.1-15.9 kC/m2. Volume changes induced by electron irradiation were monitored by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Raman spectra were taken from the irradiated spots to observe structural changes. Volume compaction observed at lower doses was correlated with the increase of the D2 peak. Volume expansion at higher doses was related to migration of alkali ions. Irradiated glasses were annealed at 400 °C and 500 °C for 60 min. After annealing irradiated spots were again examined by AFM and Raman spectroscopy in order to determine volume and structural relaxation of radiation induced changes. Annealing at higher temperatures resulted in the levelling of the pits created by irradiation, but only for doses below incubation dose. The pits created by doses above incubation dose were not levelled. Annealing caused decrease of D2 peak and shift of the Si-O-Si vibrations band in direction to original structure. Low-frequency region of annealed Li15 glass was undistinguishable from that of pristine glass, while annealing of K15 glass did not result in the full reversion to the original shape. The differences between glasses were attributed to higher Tg of K15 glass. Q-motives bands of both glasses were not completely restored after annealing due to the absence of alkali ions.

  11. Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment for irregularly shaped food product volume measurement.

    PubMed

    Siswantoro, Joko; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Abdullah, Azizi; Idrus, Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method.

  12. Convoy electron production in heavy-ion-solid collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, I.A.; Breinig, M.; Brandt, W.; Laubert, R.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of the sharp v vector/sub e/ approx. = v vector cusps observed in the velocity spectrum of convoy electrons (v vector/sub e/) ejected in heavy ion-solid collisions in the ion velocity range (v vector) 6 to 18 au are compared to the properties of analogous cusps observed in binary electron capture to the continuum (ECC) and electron loss to the continuum (ELC) collisions in gases. Apart from a skew toward v vector/sub e/ > v vector, the v-independent convoy distributions observed are very similar to those for ELC and the cusp widths are the same in both cases. While the shape of convoy peaks is approximately independent of projectile Z, v, and of target material, yields in polycrystalline targets (C, Al, Ag, Au) exhibit a strong dependence on Z and v. Coincidence experiments in which convoy electrons are allocated according to emergent ion charge-state q/sub e/ show a surprising independence of q/sub e/, mirroring the unweighted statistical emergent charge-state fraction. Coincidence experiments of O/sup 6 +/ /sup 7 +/ /sup 8 +/ ions traversing < 110 > and < 100 > channels in Au show a strong yield suppression and a dependence of yield on the channel chosen. Interpretation of these observations, comparisons to convoy production studies using protons, and a discussion of remaining puzzles is given. The history of ECC, ELC, and wake-riding models of convoy electron production is also reviewed.

  13. Metastable Oxygen Production by Electron-Impact of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, J. D.; Malone, C. P.; Kanik, I.; Johnson, P. V.

    2013-12-01

    Electron-impact excitation processes involving atomic and molecular oxygen are important in atmospheric interactions. The production of long-lived metastable O(1S) and O(1D) through electron impact of atomic O and molecular O2 play a significant role in the dynamics of oxygen-containing atmospheres (Earth, Europa, Io). Emissions from metastable O (1S → 1D) produce the well-recognized green light from terrestrial aurora. Electron-impact excitation to 1S and 1D are sensitive channels for determining energy partitioning and dynamics from space weather. Electron-impact excitation cross sections determined through fundamental experimental studies are necessary for modeling of natural phenomena and observation data. The detection of metastable states in laboratory experiments requires a novel approach, since typical detection techniques (e.g., fluorescence by radiative de-excitation) cannot be performed due to the long-lived nature of the excited species. In this work, metastable O is incident on a cryogenically cooled rare gas matrix, where excimer production and subsequent rapid radiative de-excitation provides measurable signal that is directly related to the originating electron-impact excitation process.

  14. Studies on plasma production in a large volume system using multiple compact ECR plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarey, R. D.; Ganguli, A.; Sahu, D.; Narayanan, R.; Arora, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for large volume plasma production using multiple highly portable compact ECR plasma sources (CEPS) (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026). The large volume plasma system (LVPS) described in the paper is a scalable, cylindrical vessel of diameter  ≈1 m, consisting of source and spacer sections with multiple CEPS mounted symmetrically on the periphery of the source sections. Scaling is achieved by altering the number of source sections/the number of sources in a source section or changing the number of spacer sections for adjusting the spacing between the source sections. A series of plasma characterization experiments using argon gas were conducted on the LVPS under different configurations of CEPS, source and spacer sections, for an operating pressure in the range 0.5-20 mTorr, and a microwave power level in the range 400-500 W per source. Using Langmuir probes (LP), it was possible to show that the plasma density (~1  -  2  ×  1011 cm-3) remains fairly uniform inside the system and decreases marginally close to the chamber wall, and this uniformity increases with an increase in the number of sources. It was seen that a warm electron population (60-80 eV) is always present and is about 0.1% of the bulk plasma density. The mechanism of plasma production is discussed in light of the results obtained for a single CEPS (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026).

  15. Coherence in laser-driven electrons at the surface and in the volume of solid matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommelhoff, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The femtosecond frequency comb allows controlling the carrier field of ultrashort laser pulses. We show two examples on how this control over fields oscillating with a few hundred terahertz can be utilized to control electrons at the surface and in the volume of solids. After a brief discussion of strong-field physics at metal needle tips, we show how ultrafast two-color laser pulses allow quantum path interference to dramatically alter the emission current from sharp tips, with an interference visibility of 94%. With carrier-envelope phase-controlled laser pulses, we show furthermore how light-field sensitive currents can be excited in monolayer graphene via an interplay of interband and intraband electron dynamics including multiple Landau-Zener transitions.

  16. Effects of solution volume on hydrogen production by pulsed spark discharge in ethanol solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Y. B.; Sun, B.; Zhu, X. M.; Yan, Z. Y.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y. J.

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen production from ethanol solution (ethanol/water) by pulsed spark discharge was optimized by varying the volume of ethanol solution (liquid volume). Hydrogen yield was initially increased and then decreased with the increase in solution volume, which achieved 1.5 l/min with a solution volume of 500 ml. The characteristics of pulsed spark discharge were studied in this work; the results showed that the intensity of peak current, the rate of current rise, and energy efficiency of hydrogen production can be changed by varying the volume of ethanol solution. Meanwhile, the mechanism analysis of hydrogen production was accomplished by monitoring the process of hydrogen production and the state of free radicals. The analysis showed that decreasing the retention time of gas production and properly increasing the volume of ethanol solution can enhance the hydrogen yield. Through this research, a high-yield and large-scale method of hydrogen production can be achieved, which is more suitable for industrial application.

  17. Electronic properties and free radical production by nitrofuran compounds.

    PubMed

    Paulino-Blumenfeld, M; Hansz, M; Hikichi, N; Stoppani, A O

    1992-01-01

    Substitution of nifurtimox tetrahydrothiazine moiety by triazol-4-yl, benzimidazol-l-yl, pyrazol-l-yl or related aromatic nitrogen heterocycles determines changes in the quantum chemistry descriptors of the molecule, namely, (a) greater negative LUMO energy; (b) lesser electron density on specific atoms, especially on the nitro group atoms, and (c) modification of individual net atomic charges at relevant atoms. These variations correlate with the greater capability of nifurtimox analogues for redox-cycling and oxygen radical production, after one-electron reduction by ascorbate or reduced flavoenzymes. Variation of the nitrofurans electronic structure can also explain the greater activity of nifurtimox analogues as inhibitors of glutathione reductase and Trypanosoma cruzi growth, although other factors, such as molecular hydrophobicity and connectivity may contribute to the latter inhibition.

  18. Electronic beam steering used with a toroidal HIFU transducer substantially increases the coagulated volume.

    PubMed

    Vincenot, Jeremy; Melodelima, David; Chavrier, Françoise; Vignot, Alexandre; Kocot, Anthony; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2013-07-01

    Treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound is well established but requires extended treatment time. A device composed of 256 elements arranged on a toroidal transducer was developed to increase the coagulated volume. When all the elements are working in phase for 40 s, a volume of 6-8 cm(3) can be ablated. However, the mechanical juxtaposition of single lesions is still necessary for treating one tumor with a diameter of 2 cm. The objective of this study was to combine this toroidal transducer geometry with electronic beam steering to ablate tumors with adequate normal tissue margins and without any mechanical displacement of the high-intensity focused ultrasound device. In vitro tests demonstrated that the coagulated volume obtained from 130 s of total exposure has an average diameter of 41.4 ± 4.0 mm and an average length of 53.3 ± 6.1 mm. This single lesion can be used to treat various size of metastasis, located at depths in the liver ranging 5-45 mm.

  19. Investigation of (123)I production using electron accelerator.

    PubMed

    Avetisyan, Albert; Avagyan, Robert; Dallakyan, Ruben; Avdalyan, Gohar; Dobrovolsky, Nikolay; Gavalyan, Vasak; Kerobyan, Ivetta; Harutyunyan, Gevorg

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of (123)I isotope production with the help of the high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons produced by the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator at the A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute [YerPhI]) is considered. The production method has been established and shown to be successful. The (124)Xe(γ,n)(123)Xe→(123)I nuclear reaction has been investigated and the cross-section was calculated by nuclear codes TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2. The optimum parameter of the thickness of the target was determined by GEANT4 code. For the normalized yield of (123)I, the value of 143Bq/(mg·μA·h) has been achieved.

  20. A Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Approach to Analyzing Large Volumes of Tissue to Detect Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, Paul J.; Thakor, Avnesh S.; Zavaleta, Cristina; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Sinclair, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer requires the complete characterization of their toxicity, including accurately locating them within biological tissues. Owing to their size, traditional light microscopy techniques are unable to resolve them. Transmission electron microscopy provides the necessary spatial resolution to image individual nanoparticles in tissue but is severely limited by the very small analysis volume, usually on the order of tens of cubic microns. In this work we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) approach to analyze large volumes of tissue for the presence of polyethylene glycol coated Raman-active-silica-gold-nanoparticles (PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs). This approach utilizes the simultaneous bright and dark field imaging capabilities of STEM along with careful control of the image contrast settings to readily identify PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs in mouse liver tissue without the need for additional time consuming analytical characterization. We utilized this technique to analyze 243,000 µm3 of mouse liver tissue for the presence of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs. Nanoparticles injected into the mice intravenously via the tail-vein accumulated in the liver while those injected intrarectally did not, indicating that they remain in the colon and do not pass through the colon wall into the systemic circulation. PMID:23803218

  1. A scanning transmission electron microscopy approach to analyzing large volumes of tissue to detect nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kempen, Paul J; Thakor, Avnesh S; Zavaleta, Cristina; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The use of nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer requires the complete characterization of their toxicity, including accurately locating them within biological tissues. Owing to their size, traditional light microscopy techniques are unable to resolve them. Transmission electron microscopy provides the necessary spatial resolution to image individual nanoparticles in tissue, but is severely limited by the very small analysis volume, usually on the order of tens of cubic microns. In this work, we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) approach to analyze large volumes of tissue for the presence of polyethylene glycol-coated Raman-active-silica-gold-nanoparticles (PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs). This approach utilizes the simultaneous bright and dark field imaging capabilities of STEM along with careful control of the image contrast settings to readily identify PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs in mouse liver tissue without the need for additional time-consuming analytical characterization. We utilized this technique to analyze 243,000 mm³ of mouse liver tissue for the presence of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs. Nanoparticles injected into the mice intravenously via the tail vein accumulated in the liver, whereas those injected intrarectally did not, indicating that they remain in the colon and do not pass through the colon wall into the systemic circulation.

  2. Environmental scanning electron microscopy of personal and household products.

    PubMed

    Hoyberg, K

    1997-03-01

    The ability to forego sample preparation and to make observation directly in the environmental scanning electron microscope has benefited both household and personal product research at Unilever Research. Product efficacy on biological materials such as microcomedones was easily ascertained. Skin biopsies were examined in a moist state with no sample preparation. Effects of relative humidity on detergents were visually determined by recreating the necessary conditions in the microscope. Effects of cooling rates on the morphology of softener sheet actives that remained on polyester fabric were characterized via dynamic experimentation.

  3. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.

    1998-01-01

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder.

  4. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.

    1998-12-08

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder. 1 fig.

  5. 19 CFR 12.91 - Electronic products offered for importation under the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic products offered for importation under... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Electronic Products § 12.91 Electronic... Human Services. Electronic products offered for importation into the customs territory of the...

  6. A search for single electron production in electron positron annihilation at E = 29 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, T.R.

    1989-09-01

    This thesis presents experimental results from the ASP detector which took data on e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions in the PEP storage ring at SLAC. Its design was particularly suitable for searching for production of supersymmetric particles. The motivations for and phenomenology of Supersymmetry are discussed. In particular, the production of a single supersymmetric electron ( selectron'', {tilde e}) in combination with a supersymmetric photon ( photino'', {tilde {gamma}}) would result in events in which a single electron and no other particles are observed in the detector at an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider such as PEP, provided the masses of these particles are not too large. Such events would also result from the production of a single supersymmetric W-boson ( wino'', {tilde W}) in combination with a supersymmetric neutrino ( sneutrino'', {tilde {nu}}). These processes make it possible to search for electrons and winos with masses greater than the beam energy. Observation of these unusual events would distinctly indicate the production of new particles. The ASP detector was designed to be hermetic and to provide efficient event reconstruction for low multiplicity events. The detector is described and its performance is evaluated; it is found to be well-suited to this study. The data sample collected with the detector was thoroughly analyzed for evidence of single-electron events. The various possible background processes are considered and Monte Carlo calculations of the distributions from single selectron and single wino production are presented. Using this information an efficient off-line event selection process was developed, and it is described in detail. 82 refs., 41 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Engineering electron metabolism to increase ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGES

    Lo, Jonathan; Olson, Daniel G.; Murphy, Sean Jean-Loup; ...

    2016-10-28

    Here, the NfnAB (NADH-dependent reduced ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase) and Rnf (Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation) complexes are thought to catalyze electron transfer between reduced ferredoxin and NAD(P)+. Efficient electron flux is critical for engineering fuel production pathways, but little is known about the relative importance of these enzymes in vivo. In this study we investigate the importance of the NfnAB and Rnf complexes in Clostridium thermocellum for growth on cellobiose and Avicel using gene deletion, enzyme assays, and fermentation product analysis. The NfnAB complex does not seem to play a major role in metabolism, since deletion of nfnAB genes had little effect onmore » the distribution of fermentation products. By contrast, the Rnf complex appears to play an important role in ethanol formation. Deletion of rnf genes resulted in a decrease in ethanol formation. Overexpression of rnf genes resulted in an increase in ethanol production of about 30%, but only in strains where the hydG hydrogenase maturation gene was also deleted.« less

  8. Engineering electron metabolism to increase ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Jonathan; Olson, Daniel G.; Murphy, Sean Jean-Loup; Tian, Liang; Hon, Shuen; Lanahan, Anthony; Guss, Adam M.; Lynd, Lee R.

    2016-10-28

    Here, the NfnAB (NADH-dependent reduced ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase) and Rnf (Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation) complexes are thought to catalyze electron transfer between reduced ferredoxin and NAD(P)+. Efficient electron flux is critical for engineering fuel production pathways, but little is known about the relative importance of these enzymes in vivo. In this study we investigate the importance of the NfnAB and Rnf complexes in Clostridium thermocellum for growth on cellobiose and Avicel using gene deletion, enzyme assays, and fermentation product analysis. The NfnAB complex does not seem to play a major role in metabolism, since deletion of nfnAB genes had little effect on the distribution of fermentation products. By contrast, the Rnf complex appears to play an important role in ethanol formation. Deletion of rnf genes resulted in a decrease in ethanol formation. Overexpression of rnf genes resulted in an increase in ethanol production of about 30%, but only in strains where the hydG hydrogenase maturation gene was also deleted.

  9. Space station human productivity study. Volume 4: Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The 305 Issues contained represent topics recommended for study in order to develop requirements in support of space station crew performance/productivity. The overall subject matter, space station elements affecting crew productivity, was organized into a coded subelement listing, which is included for the reader's reference. Each issue is numbered according to the 5-digit topical coding scheme. The requirements column on each Issue page shows a cross-reference to the unresolved requirement statement(s). Because topical overlaps were frequently encountered, many initial Issues were consolidated. Apparent gaps, therefore, may be accounted for by an Issue described within a related subelement. A glossary of abbreviations used throughout the study documentation is also included.

  10. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 4: Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implementation plan which is presented was developed to provide the means for the successful implementation of the automated production control system. There are three factors which the implementation plan encompasses: detailed planning; phased implementation; and user involvement. The plan is detailed to the task level in terms of necessary activities as the system is developed, refined, installed, and tested. These tasks are scheduled, on a preliminary basis, over a two-and-one-half-year time frame.

  11. Interactive Videodisc Design and Production, Workshop Guide. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    shop, instructors, and instructional developers . These can be allocated to a videodisc production, and their salaries, equipment, facilities, benefits ... developing similar programs. The W1orkshop Guide you are now using will be a great benefit , but it is important to gain some hands-on experience to...Interactive Videodisc Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Module 1: Analysis and Project Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Analyze Needs, Goals

  12. Cost and price estimate of Brayton and Stirling engines in selected production volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortgang, H. R.; Mayers, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The methods used to determine the production costs and required selling price of Brayton and Stirling engines modified for use in solar power conversion units are presented. Each engine part, component and assembly was examined and evaluated to determine the costs of its material and the method of manufacture based on specific annual production volumes. Cost estimates are presented for both the Stirling and Brayton engines in annual production volumes of 1,000, 25,000, 100,000 and 400,000. At annual production volumes above 50,000 units, the costs of both engines are similar, although the Stirling engine costs are somewhat lower. It is concluded that modifications to both the Brayton and Stirling engine designs could reduce the estimated costs.

  13. Proceedings: 13. international symposium on use and management of coal combustion products (CCPs). Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the 1999 International Symposium on the Management and Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs), the thirteenth in a series since 1967, is to publicize innovations in coal ash use technology. These symposia support the mission of the American Coal Ash Association (established originally as the National Ash Association after the first symposium) to promote coal ash technology transfer and commercial utilization. The three-volume publication contains 91 papers, presented in 15 sessions during the January 1999 event. Volume 1 contains papers related to waste aggregates, agricultural uses, beneficiation/quality, and building products. Volume 2 covers the growing market in concrete, environmental performance, FGD material, filler applications, flowable fill, and international perspectives. Volume 3 contains papers on mining applications, regional and State perspectives, stabilized road bases, structural fills, and vitrification/solidification.

  14. Convoy electron production in polycrystalline and monocrystalline targets

    SciTech Connect

    Huldt, S.

    1980-01-01

    The velocity distribution of electrons ejected close to the forward direction by 0.8-2 MeV/A ions traversing various solid targets, including a Au monocrystal, is measured in coincidence with emerging charge-selected ions. The velocity spectrum is observed to be independent of outgoing projectile velocity and charge state for polycrystalline targets. Measurements on the Au crystal under channeling conditions show dependences on final charge state, and are tentatively explained by assuming that the main contribution to the production yield comes from the non-channeled fraction of the ions. A simple model for the creation of the forward-ejected electrons is proposed, which accounts for most of the experimental findings.

  15. Kinematic distributions for electron pair production by muons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsker, R.

    1972-01-01

    Cross sections and kinematic distributions for the trident production process plus or negative muon plus charge yields plus or minus muon plus electron plus positron plus charge (with charge = dipion moment and Fe) are given for beam energies of 100 to 300 GeV at fixed (electron positron) masses from 5 to 15 GeV. This process is interesting as a test of quantum electrodynamics at high energies, and in particular as a test of the form of the photon propagator at large timelike (four-momentum) squared. For this purpose, it is desirable to impose kinematic cuts that favor those Bethe-Heitler graphs which contain a timelike photon propagator. It is found that there are substantial differences between the kinematic distributions for the full Bethe-Heitler matrix element and the distributions for the two timelike-photon graphs alone; these differences can be exploited in the selection of appropriate kinematic cuts.

  16. Earth observing system. Output data products and input requirements, version 2.0. Volume 1: Instrument data product characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi; Chang, Hyo Duck; Krupp, Brian; Kumar, Ravindra; Swaroop, Anand

    1992-01-01

    Information on Earth Observing System (EOS) output data products and input data requirements that has been compiled by the Science Processing Support Office (SPSO) at GSFC is presented. Since Version 1.0 of the SPSO Report was released in August 1991, there have been significant changes in the EOS program. In anticipation of a likely budget cut for the EOS Project, NASA HQ restructured the EOS program. An initial program consisting of two large platforms was replaced by plans for multiple, smaller platforms, and some EOS instruments were either deselected or descoped. Updated payload information reflecting the restructured EOS program superseding the August 1991 version of the SPSO report is included. This report has been expanded to cover information on non-EOS data products, and consists of three volumes (Volumes 1, 2, and 3). Volume 1 provides information on instrument outputs and input requirements. Volume 2 is devoted to Interdisciplinary Science (IDS) outputs and input requirements, including the 'best' and 'alternative' match analysis. Volume 3 provides information about retrieval algorithms, non-EOS input requirements of instrument teams and IDS investigators, and availability of non-EOS data products at seven primary Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's).

  17. Electronic version of the third volume of the general catalogue of variable stars with improved coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samus', N. N.; Durlevich, O. V.; Zharova, A. V.; Kazarovets, E. V.; Kireeva, N. N.; Pastukhova, E. N.; Williams, D. B.; Hazen, M. L.

    2006-04-01

    We present a new electronic version of the third volume of the fourth edition of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS) that contains data on 13 855 variables in the constellations Pavo-Vulpecula. The Name Lists of Variable Stars from no. 67 to no. 77 were included in the new version. The main distinctive feature of the new version is that improved J2000.0 equatorial coordinates (including those for 6163 stars corrected for the proper motions) based on the identifications with positional catalogues using finding charts and on our new measurements are presented for 13 812 stars. We searched for a number of stars on original plates from the plate stacks of several observatories and using images from digital sky surveys. Apart from the complete update of the positional information, we made several corrections that were found to be necessary after the publication of the GCVS Volume III (1985) and several corrections of the information about the variability features based on photometry from currently available automatic sky surveys. A number of problem identifications are described in detail. The new version completes our long-term work on the complete revision of the positional information in the GCVS. In the Conclusions, we give a list of references to new Internet resources.

  18. Using electronic data interchange to report product quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Donald F.; Frank, Donald T.

    1993-03-01

    The Product Quality Deficiency Report (PQDR) is a Department of Defense form that identifies deficiencies in the manufacture, repair, or procurement of materiel. It may be used by DoD employees or contractors to identify defects at any point in the item's life. DoD generates nearly 75,000 such deficiency reports each year. In most cases, when a defect is identified, Standard Form (SF) 368 is completed and sent to the activity managing the contract under which the materiel was procured. That activity, usually in conjunction with the contractor, investigates the complaint, attempts to determine a cause and a corrective action, and must make some disposition of the defective materiel. The process is labor- and paper-intensive and time-consuming. Technology can reduce the costs of the process and at the same time improve timeliness by electronically exchanging discrepancy data between activities. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is one technology for electronically passing PQDR data. It is widely used in industry and increasingly within DoD. DMRD 941 defines DoD's commitment to use EDI and cites the PQDR and other discrepancy reports as early candidates for EDI. In this report, we describe how EDI can be linked to changes in PQDR processing practices to provide further improvements.

  19. Estimation of the outer-sphere contribution to the activation volume for electron exchange reactions using the mean spherical approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Hideo D.; Swaddle, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    The outer-sphere contribution to the volume of activation of homogeneous electron exchange reactions is estimated for selected solvents on the basis of the mean spherical approximation (MSA), and the calculated values are compared with those estimated by the Strank-Hush-Marcus (SHM) theory and with activation volumes obtained experimentally for the electron exchange reaction between tris(hexafluoroacetylacetonato)ruthenium(III) and -(II) in acetone, acetonitrile, methanol and chloroform. The MSA treatment, which recognizes the molecular nature of the solvent, does not improve significantly upon the continuous-dielectric SHM theory, which represents the experimental data adequately for the more polar solvents.

  20. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? 80.1455 Section 80.1455 Protection of... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  1. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? 80.1455 Section 80.1455 Protection of... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  2. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? 80.1455 Section 80.1455 Protection of... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  3. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? 80.1455 Section 80.1455 Protection of... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  4. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? 80.1455 Section 80.1455 Protection of... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  5. Key role of the pore volume of zeolite for selective production of propylene from olefins.

    PubMed

    Koyama, To-ru; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Horie, Hironori; Kawauchi, Susumu; Matsumoto, Akihiko; Iwase, Yasuyoshi; Sakamoto, Yasuharu; Miyaji, Akimitsu; Motokura, Ken; Baba, Toshihide

    2010-03-20

    A plausible reaction mechanism for propylene (C(3)H(6)) production from ethylene (C(2)H(4)) was investigated, based on the amounts of effluent hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons produced in the pores of SAPO-34. Propylene was produced via an oligomerization-cracking mechanism. On the basis of this mechanism, the conversions of C(2)H(4), pentenes, and hexenes were examined. The catalytic performance was compared, in order to investigate the role of the pore volume of zeolites with 8-, 10-, and 12-membered rings in the selective production of C(3)H(6). The selectivity for C(3)H(6) was crucially dependent upon the pore volume of the zeolite. Highly selective production of C(3)H(6) from olefins (C(2)H(4), pentenes, and hexenes) can be accomplished by employing a new concept: adjusting the pore volume of a zeolite to accommodate the volume of an olefin and/or its carbenium cations, as opposed to a conventional molecular sieve approach. For example, an unimolecular cracking of pentenes into C(3)H(6) and C(2)H(4) involving primary cations can be controlled by the pore volume of a zeolite.

  6. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  7. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  8. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  9. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  10. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  11. 19 CFR 12.91 - Electronic products offered for importation under the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic products offered for importation under... Human Services. Electronic products offered for importation into the customs territory of the United... the event that any electronic products are not redelivered to Customs custody or exported...

  12. 77 FR 20416 - Used Electronic Products: An Examination of U.S. Exports; Proposed Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ..., recycling, and/or exporting used electronic products in 2011. (6) Estimated number of respondents: 5,000. (7.... companies that export used electronic products, and (3) describes the foreign enterprises that import used... forms and activities, with respect to used electronic products, of enterprises receiving U.S....

  13. 75 FR 18825 - Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC AGENCY: Department of Energy... intent to grant to: Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC, of... enhanced. Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC, of...

  14. 78 FR 11700 - Notice of Availability: Beta Test of Electronic Product Fulfillment for Addressing and Delivery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...) licensees to test a beta web service that allows the electronic download of these products through the USPS Electronic Product Fulfillment (EPF) Web site. DATES: Interested licensees should submit requests for... licensees to test a beta web service that allows the electronic download of these products through the...

  15. 77 FR 21584 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of... States after importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same... electronics and display devices and products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 2, 3, 5,...

  16. 75 FR 8575 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Third Group of Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... manufacturers, importers, and processors of certain high production volume (HPV) chemicals to conduct testing to obtain screening level data for health and environmental effects and chemical fate. DATES: Comments must... (NAIC codes 325 and 324110), e.g., chemical manufacturing and petroleum refineries. Processors of one...

  17. 76 FR 1067 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... manufacturers, importers, and processors of certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to conduct testing to obtain screening level data for health and environmental effects and chemical fate. ] DATES... manufacturing and petroleum refineries. Processors of one or more of the 19 subject chemical substances...

  18. 75 FR 51734 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemical Substances; Third Group of Chemical Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Chemicals.'' The proposed rule, when finalized, would require manufacturers, importers, and processors of certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to conduct testing to obtain screening level data...., chemical manufacturing and petroleum refineries. Processors of one or more of the 29 subject...

  19. The SEA of the Future: Building the Productivity Infrastructure. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Betheny, Ed.; Jochim, Ashley, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    "The SEA of the Future" is an education publication series examining how state education agencies can shift from a compliance to a performance-oriented organization through strategic planning and performance management tools to meet growing demands to support education reform while improving productivity. This volume, the third in the…

  20. The SEA of the Future: Uncovering the Productivity Promise of Rural Education. Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Betheny, Ed.; Jochim, Ashley, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    "The SEA of the Future" is an education publication series examining how state education agencies can shift from a compliance to a performance-oriented organization through strategic planning and performance management tools to meet growing demands to support education reform while improving productivity. This is the fourth volume in the…

  1. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] quarterly technical report, July 1--September 30, 1991. Volume 2, Energy production research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The report is submitted in two volumes, Volume I representing the work accomplished under Fuels Research and Volume II the work for Energy Production Research during the period July 1--Sept. 30, 1991. Topics covered include: chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience technology, resource assessment technology, microbial technology, environmental technology.

  2. Production of oxygen by electronically induced dissociations in ice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R E; Cooper, P D; Quickenden, T I; Grieves, G A; Orlando, T M

    2005-11-08

    A solid-state chemical model is given for the production of O2 by electronic excitation of ice, a process that occurs on icy bodies in the outer solar system. Based on a review of the relevant available laboratory data, we propose that a trapped oxygen atom-water complex is the principal precursor for the formation of molecular oxygen in low-temperature ice at low fluences. Oxygen formation then occurs through direct excitation of this complex or by its reaction with a freshly produced, nonthermal O from an another excitation event. We describe a model for the latter process that includes competition with precursor destruction and the effect of sample structure. This allows us to put the ultraviolet photon, low-energy electron, and fast-ion experiments on a common footing for the first time. The formation of the trapped oxygen atom precursor is favored by the preferential loss of molecular hydrogen and is quenched by reactions with mobile H. The presence of impurity scavengers can limit the trapping of O, leading to the formation of oxygen-rich molecules in ice. Rate equations that include these reactions are given and integrated to obtain an analytic approximation for describing the experimental results on the production and loss of molecular oxygen from ice samples. In the proposed model, the loss rate varies, roughly, inversely with solid-state defect density at low temperatures, leading to a yield that increases with increasing temperature as observed. Cross sections obtained from fits of the model to laboratory data are evaluated in light of the proposed solid-state chemistry.

  3. Novel production techniques of radioisotopes using electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Daniel Robert

    Non-traditional radioisotope production techniques using a compact, high power linear electron accelerator have been demonstrated and characterized for the production of 18F, 47Sc, 147 Pm, and 99mTc from a variety of target candidates. These isotopes are used extensively in the medical field as diagnostic and therapy radioisotopes, as well as the space industry as RTG's. Primary focus was placed on 99mTc as it constitutes approximately 80% of all diagnostic procedures in the medical community that use radioactive tracers. It was also the prime focus due to recent events at the Chalk River nuclear reactor, which caused global shortages of this isotope a few years ago. A Varian K15 LINAC was first used to show proof of principle in Las Vegas. Various samples were then taken to the Idaho Accelerator Center where they were activated using an electron LINAC capable of electron energies from 4 to 25 MeV at a beam power of approximately 1 kW. Production rates, cross sections, and viability studies were then performed and conducted to assess the effectiveness of the candidate target and the maximum production rate for each radioisotope. Production rates for 18F from lithium fluoride salts were shown to be ideal at 21MeV, namely 1.7 Ci per kg of LiF salt, per kW of beam current, per 10 hour irradiation time. As the typical hospital consumption of 18F is around 500 mCi per day, it is clear that a large amount of 18F can be made from a small (300 gram) sample of LiF salt. However, since there is no current separation process for 18F from 19F, the viability of this technique is limited until a separations technique is developed. Furthermore, the calculated cross section for this reaction is in good agreement with literature, which supports the techniques for the isotopes mentioned below. Production rates for 47Sc from vanadium oxide targets were shown to be a maximum at 25 MeV with a production rate of 2 mCi per day, assuming a 2 kW beam and a 10 kg target. While this

  4. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-6 - Noncertified and certified electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... laser products; or (E) Any other electronic products subject to an FDA performance standard. (ii) Only... cabinet X-ray systems; (v) Noncertified laser products; (vi) Noncertified cold-cathode gas discharge...

  5. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-6 - Noncertified and certified electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... laser products; or (E) Any other electronic products subject to an FDA performance standard. (ii) Only... cabinet X-ray systems; (v) Noncertified laser products; (vi) Noncertified cold-cathode gas discharge...

  6. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-6 - Noncertified and certified electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... laser products; or (E) Any other electronic products subject to an FDA performance standard. (ii) Only... cabinet X-ray systems; (v) Noncertified laser products; (vi) Noncertified cold-cathode gas discharge...

  7. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-6 - Noncertified and certified electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... laser products; or (E) Any other electronic products subject to an FDA performance standard. (ii) Only... cabinet X-ray systems; (v) Noncertified laser products; (vi) Noncertified cold-cathode gas discharge...

  8. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-6 - Noncertified and certified electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... laser products; or (E) Any other electronic products subject to an FDA performance standard. (ii) Only... cabinet X-ray systems; (v) Noncertified laser products; (vi) Noncertified cold-cathode gas discharge...

  9. 21 CFR 1004.4 - Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plans for refunding the cost of electronic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS § 1004.4 Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products. Every plan for refunding the cost of...

  10. 76 FR 72439 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...-72440] [FR Doc No: 2011-30184] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2858] Certain Consumer Electronics and... Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same, DN 2858; the Commission is... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same. The...

  11. 77 FR 14422 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt... Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain consumer electronics...

  12. Production of neutrinos and secondary electrons in cosmic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.-Y.; Pohl, M.

    2008-05-01

    We study the individual contribution to secondary lepton production in hadronic interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) including resonances and heavier secondaries. For this purpose we use the same methodology discussed earlier [C.-Y. Huang, S.-E. Park, M. Pohl, C.D. Daniels, Astropart. Phys. 27 (2007) 429], namely the Monte-Carlo particle collision code DPMJET3.04 to determine the multiplicity spectra of various secondary particles with leptons as the final decay states, that result from inelastic collisions of cosmic-ray protons and Helium nuclei with the interstellar medium of standard composition. By combining the simulation results with parametric models for secondary particle (with resonances included) for incident cosmic-ray energies below a few GeV, where DPMJET appears unreliable, we thus derive production matrices for all stable secondary particles in cosmic-ray interactions with energies up to about 10 PeV. We apply the production matrices to calculate the radio synchrotron radiation of secondary electrons in a young shell-type SNR, RX J1713.7-3946, which is a measure of the age, the spectral index of hadronic cosmic rays, and most importantly the magnetic field strength. We find that the multi-mG fields recently invoked to explain the X-ray flux variations are unlikely to extend over a large fraction of the radio-emitting region, otherwise the spectrum of hadronic cosmic rays in the energy window 0.1-100 GeV must be unusually hard. We also use the production matrices to calculate the muon event rate in an IceCube-like detector that are induced by muon neutrinos from high-energy γ-ray sources such as RX J1713.7-3946, Vela Jr. and MGRO J2019+37. At muon energies of a few TeV, or in other word, about 10 TeV neutrino energy, an accumulation of data over about 5-10 years would allow testing the hadronic origin of TeV γ-rays.

  13. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume I. Technical discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). The first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 referenvces and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2. 18 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  15. Catalog of Audiovisual Productions. Volume 3. Air Force and Miscellaneous DoD Productions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    govern for each title. Violation of federal copyright laws by unauthorized reproduction or exhibition may result in judicial or administrative penalties...Administration Services Office, for approval. 9. Prohibition Against Reproduction of DF AV Productions. Copies of DF AV productions are accountable AV...aspects of celestial bodies, their origin and evolution . Includes astronomical spectroscopy and radio astronomy. 03 Atmtpharit Physical and chemical

  16. Capabilities for managing high-volume production of electric engineering equipment at the Electrochemical Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Podlednev, V.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Electromechanical Production Plant is essentially a research center with experimental facilities and power full testing base. Major products of the plant today include heat pipes and devices of their basis of different functions and power from high temperature ranges to cryogenics. This report describes work on porous titanium and carbon-graphite current collectors, electrocatalyst synthesis, and electrocatalyst applications.

  17. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 3: Product data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is analyzed and the study results are presented. The chronology of the study process is discussed. The separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process is investigated. The production requirements of twelve candidate products including antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and interferon are evaluated.

  18. An abbreviated repeat dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity test for high production volume chemicals.

    PubMed

    Scala, R A; Bevan, C; Beyer, B K

    1992-08-01

    A novel protocol is described for obtaining preliminary data on repeated dose systemic effects and reproductive/developmental toxicity. The test protocol was developed by a group of experts at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as part of a Screening Information Data Set on high production volume chemicals. Interest in this protocol is shared by several regulatory agencies, including the Organization for Economic Cooperation, the European Community, and the EPA. To validate the study protocol, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) was used. After a dosing period of approximately 6 weeks, EGME showed both systemic and reproductive/developmental effects similar to those previously reported using standard protocols. Thus, this test protocol may be used as a screening tool for high production volume chemicals.

  19. High volume production trial of mirror segments for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oota, Tetsuji; Negishi, Mahito; Shinonaga, Hirohiko; Gomi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Yutaka; Akutsu, Kotaro; Otsuka, Itaru; Mochizuki, Shun; Iye, Masanori; Yamashita, Takuya

    2014-07-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope is a next-generation optical/infrared telescope to be constructed on Mauna Kea, Hawaii toward the end of this decade, as an international project. Its 30 m primary mirror consists of 492 off-axis aspheric segmented mirrors. High volume production of hundreds of segments has started in 2013 based on the contract between National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and Canon Inc.. This paper describes the achievements of the high volume production trials. The Stressed Mirror Figuring technique which is established by Keck Telescope engineers is arranged and adopted. To measure the segment surface figure, a novel stitching algorithm is evaluated by experiment. The integration procedure is checked with prototype segment.

  20. Electron beam treatment parameters for control of stored product insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleghorn, D. A.; Nablo, S. V.; Ferro, D. N.; Hagstrum, D. W.

    2002-03-01

    The fluidized bed process (EBFB) has been evaluated for the disinfestation of cereal grains. The various life stages from egg to adult have been studied on the 225 kV pilot as a function of surface dose. Three of the most common pests were selected: the rice weevil ( S. oryzae), the lesser grain borer ( R. dominica) and the red flour beetle ( T. castaneum). The major challenge to this process lies in those "protected" life-stages active deeply within the endosperm of the grain kernel. The rice weevil is such an internal feeder in which the larvae develop through several molts during several weeks before pupation and adult emergence. Product velocities up to 2000 m/min have been used for infested hard winter wheat at dose levels up to 1000 Gy. Detailed depth of penetration studies at three life stages of S. oryzae larvae were conducted at 225-700 kV and demonstrated effective mortality at 400 kV×200 Gy. Mortality data are also presented for the radiation labile eggs of these insects as well as the (sterile) adults, which typically lived for several weeks before death. These results are compared with earlier 60Co gamma-ray studies on these same insects. Based upon these studies, the effectiveness of the fluidized bed process employing self-shielded electron beam equipment for insect control in wheat/rice at sub-kilogray dose levels has been demonstrated.

  1. 78 FR 73563 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products... limited exclusion order prohibiting the unlicensed entry of electronic devices having placeshifting...

  2. 12 CFR 7.5002 - Furnishing of products and services by electronic means and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Furnishing of products and services by... products and services by electronic means and facilities. (a) Use of electronic means and facilities. A..., function, product, or service that it is otherwise authorized to perform, provide, or deliver, subject...

  3. Survey and Analysis of Environmental Requirements for Shipboard Electronic Equipment Applications. Appendix B. Volume 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-31

    General Requirements, Electronic Equipment, Ground MIL-T-5400, Airborne Electronic Equipment MIL-E-16400, Electronic IC and NAV Equipment...150 nsec access time I I MIL-SPECS AND MIL-STDS: MIL-STD-883, Microelectronics Test Methods/Procedures MIL-E-4158, General Requirements, Electronic...STDS: MIL-STD-883, Microelectronics Test Methods/Procedures MIL-E-4158, General Requirements, Electronic Equipment, Ground MIL-T-5400, Airborne

  4. Product specification documentation standard and Data Item Descriptions (DID). Volume of the information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    This is the third of five volumes on Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards which present a well organized, easily used standard for providing technical information needed for developing information systems, components, and related processes. This volume states the Software Management and Assurance Program documentation standard for a product specification document and for data item descriptions. The framework can be applied to any NASA information system, software, hardware, operational procedures components, and related processes.

  5. Rapid specimen preparation to improve the throughput of electron microscopic volume imaging for three-dimensional analyses of subcellular ultrastructures with serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Thai, Truc Quynh; Nguyen, Huy Bang; Saitoh, Sei; Wu, Bao; Saitoh, Yurika; Shimo, Satoshi; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Ichii, Osamu; Kon, Yasuhiro; Takaki, Takashi; Joh, Kensuke; Ohno, Nobuhiko

    2016-09-01

    Serial block-face imaging using scanning electron microscopy enables rapid observations of three-dimensional ultrastructures in a large volume of biological specimens. However, such imaging usually requires days for sample preparation to reduce charging and increase image contrast. In this study, we report a rapid procedure to acquire serial electron microscopic images within 1 day for three-dimensional analyses of subcellular ultrastructures. This procedure is based on serial block-face with two major modifications, including a new sample treatment device and direct polymerization on the rivets, to reduce the time and workload needed. The modified procedure without uranyl acetate can produce tens of embedded samples observable under serial block-face scanning electron microscopy within 1 day. The serial images obtained are similar to the block-face images acquired by common procedures, and are applicable to three-dimensional reconstructions at a subcellular resolution. Using this approach, regional immune deposits and the double contour or heterogeneous thinning of basement membranes were observed in the glomerular capillary loops of an autoimmune nephropathy model. These modifications provide options to improve the throughput of three-dimensional electron microscopic examinations, and will ultimately be beneficial for the wider application of volume imaging in life science and clinical medicine.

  6. Web-based volume slicer for 3D electron-microscopy data from EMDB.

    PubMed

    Salavert-Torres, José; Iudin, Andrii; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Patwardhan, Ardan

    2016-05-01

    We describe the functionality and design of the Volume slicer - a web-based slice viewer for EMDB entries. This tool uniquely provides the facility to view slices from 3D EM reconstructions along the three orthogonal axes and to rapidly switch between them and navigate through the volume. We have employed multiple rounds of user-experience testing with members of the EM community to ensure that the interface is easy and intuitive to use and the information provided is relevant. The impetus to develop the Volume slicer has been calls from the EM community to provide web-based interactive visualisation of 2D slice data. This would be useful for quick initial checks of the quality of a reconstruction. Again in response to calls from the community, we plan to further develop the Volume slicer into a fully-fledged Volume browser that provides integrated visualisation of EMDB and PDB entries from the molecular to the cellular scale.

  7. Electronics-X: A Study of Military Electronics with Particular Reference to Cost and Reliability. Volume 2: Complete Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    Paper design, development, test, and evaluation Director of Defense Research and Engineering defensive electronic countermeasure Disassembly...assignment to IDA, was "to identify and / evaluate current and alternative DOD and industry policies, procedures and practices in development...repair. These standards include such elements as methods and practices to be used, tolerances authorized, and wear limits. Each Navy ship’s

  8. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3: Study products. Part 2: Sections 8-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part two of the study products section of the five volume series.

  9. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3, part 1: Study products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part one of the study products section of the five volume series.

  10. Channeling, volume reflection and gamma emission using 14GeV electrons in bent silicon crystals - Oral presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Brandon

    2015-08-23

    High energy electrons can be deflected with very tight bending radius using a bent silicon crystal. This produces gamma radiation. As these crystals can be thin, a series of bent silicon crystals with alternating direction has the potential to produce coherent gamma radiation with reasonable energy of the driving electron beam. Such an electron crystal undulator offers the prospect for higher energy radiation at lower cost than current methods. Permanent magnetic undulators like LCLS at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory are expensive and very large (about 100 m in case of the LCLS undulator). Silicon crystals are inexpensive and compact when compared to the large magnetic undulators. Additionally, such a high energy coherent light source could be used for probing through materials currently impenetrable by x-rays. In this work we present the experimental data and analysis of experiment T523 conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We collected the spectrum of gamma ray emission from 14 GeV electrons on a bent silicon crystal counting single photons. We also investigated the dynamics of electron motion in the crystal i.e. processes of channeling and volume reflection at 14 GeV, extending and building off previous work. Our single photon spectrum for the amorphous crystal orientation is consistent with bremsstrahlung radiation and the volume reflection crystal orientation shows a trend consistent with synchrotron radiation at a critical energy of 740 MeV. We observe that in these two cases the data are consistent, but we make no further claims because of statistical limitations. We also extended the known energy range of electron crystal dechanneling length and channeling efficiency to 14 GeV.

  11. 75 FR 3154 - Children's Products Containing Lead; Exemptions for Certain Electronic Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1500 Children's Products Containing Lead; Exemptions for Certain Electronic Devices... Commission (CPSC or Commission) is issuing a final rule concerning certain electronic devices for which it is... feasible for certain electronic devices to comply with the lead limits, section 101(b)(4) of the...

  12. 78 FR 28633 - TE Connectivity, a Subsidiary of Tyco Electronics Corporation, Relay Products Business Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration TE Connectivity, a Subsidiary of Tyco Electronics Corporation, Relay... Assistance on March 12, 2013, applicable to workers of TE Connectivity, a subsidiary of Tyco Electronics... Connectivity, a subsidiary of Tyco Electronics Corporation, Relay Products Business Unit. The Department...

  13. Spontaneous and induced radiation by electrons/positrons in natural and photonic crystals. Volume free electron lasers (VFELs): From microwave and optical to X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshevsky, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous and induced radiation produced by relativistic particles passing through natural and photonic crystals has enhanced capabilities for achieving the radiation sources operating in different wavelength ranges. Use of a non-one-dimensional distributed feedback, arising through Bragg diffraction in spatially periodic systems (natural and artificial (electromagnetic, photonic) crystals), establishes the foundation for the development of volume free electron lasers/masers (VFELs/VFEMs) as well as high-energy charged particle accelerators. The analysis of basic principles of VFEL theory demonstrates the promising potential of VFELs as the basis for the development of high-power microwave and optical sources.

  14. Voyager electronic parts radiation program. Volume 2: Test requirements and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Documents are presented outlining the conditions and requirements of the test program. The Appendixes are as follows: appendix A -- Electron Simulation Radiation Test Specification for Voyager Electronic Parts and Devices, appendix B -- Electronic Piece-Part Testing Program for Voyager, appendix C -- Test Procedure for Radiation Screening of Voyager Piece Parts, appendix D -- Boeing In Situ Test Fixture, and appendix E -- Irradiate - Anneal (IRAN) Screening Documents.

  15. 77 FR 31876 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not To... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing the same by reason...

  16. Immersion defectivity study with volume production immersion lithography tool for 45 nm node and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Katsushi; Nagaoka, Shiro; Yoshida, Masato; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Shiraishi, Kenichi; Owa, Soichi

    2008-03-01

    Volume production of 45nm node devices utilizing Nikon's S610C immersion lithography tool has started. Important to the success in achieving high-yields in volume production with immersion lithography has been defectivity reduction. In this study we evaluate several methods of defectivity reduction. The tools used in our defectivity analysis included a dedicated immersion cluster tools consisting of a Nikon S610C, a volume production immersion exposure tool with NA of 1.3, and a resist coater-developer LITHIUS i+ from TEL. In our initial procedure we evaluated defectivity behavior by comparing on a topcoat-less resist process to a conventional topcoat process. Because of its simplicity the topcoatless resist shows lower defect levels than the topcoat process. In a second study we evaluated the defect reduction by introducing the TEL bevel rinse and pre-immersion bevel cleaning techniques. This technique was shown to successfully reduce the defect levels by reducing the particles at the wafer bevel region. For the third defect reduction method, two types of tool cleaning processes are shown. Finally, we discuss the overall defectivity behavior at the 45nm node. To facilitate an understanding of the root cause of the defects, defect source analysis (DSA) was applied to separate the defects into three classes according to the source of defects. DSA analysis revealed that more than 99% of defects relate to material and process, and less than 1% of the defects relate to the exposure tool. Material and process optimization by collaborative work between exposure tool vendors, track vendors and material vendors is a key for success of 45nm node device manufacturing.

  17. Web-based volume slicer for 3D electron-microscopy data from EMDB

    PubMed Central

    Salavert-Torres, José; Iudin, Andrii; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Patwardhan, Ardan

    2016-01-01

    We describe the functionality and design of the Volume slicer – a web-based slice viewer for EMDB entries. This tool uniquely provides the facility to view slices from 3D EM reconstructions along the three orthogonal axes and to rapidly switch between them and navigate through the volume. We have employed multiple rounds of user-experience testing with members of the EM community to ensure that the interface is easy and intuitive to use and the information provided is relevant. The impetus to develop the Volume slicer has been calls from the EM community to provide web-based interactive visualisation of 2D slice data. This would be useful for quick initial checks of the quality of a reconstruction. Again in response to calls from the community, we plan to further develop the Volume slicer into a fully-fledged Volume browser that provides integrated visualisation of EMDB and PDB entries from the molecular to the cellular scale. PMID:26876163

  18. Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G. P.; Filippi, F.; Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Ferrario, M.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10-100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10-100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC_LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.

  19. Development of a Gimballed, dual frequency, space-based, microwave antenna for volume production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckie, Martin; Laidig, Dave

    1996-01-01

    A dual-frequency, two-axis Gimballed, Microwave Antenna (GMA) has been developed by COM DEV and Motorola for commercial satellites. The need for volume production of over three hundred antennas at a rate of four per week, a compressed development schedule, and the commercial nature of the effort necessitated a paradigm shift to an 'overall' cost-driven design approach. The translation of these demands into antenna requirements, a description of the resulting GMA design, and examples of development issues are detailed herein.

  20. Surface production operations, Volume 1: Design of oil-handling facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, K.; Stewart, M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Surface Production Operations is intended as a textbook and reference for the design of equipment for separation and treatment of gas, oil and water. This volume discusses separating and treating equipment and their operations, as well as facility types with suggestions on choosing a process. This book covers fluid properties and demonstrates theory and practical design techniques for gas/liquid separators, oil/water separators, oil- and water-treating equipment as well as system piping requirements. It examines two- and three- phase separators along with process calculations and concludes with a look at facility management.

  1. Microwave electron cyclotron electron resonance (ECR) ion source with a large, uniformly distributed, axially symmetric, ECR plasma volume

    DOEpatents

    Alton, Gerald D.

    1996-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source includes a primary mirror coil disposed coaxially around a vacuum vessel in which a plasma is induced and introducing a solenoidal ECR-producing field throughout the length of the vacuum vessel. Radial plasma confinement is provided by a multi-cusp, multi-polar permanent magnet array disposed azimuthally around the vessel and within the primary mirror coil. Axial confinement is provided either by multi-cusp permanent magnets at the opposite axial ends of the vessel, or by secondary mirror coils disposed on opposite sides of the primary coil.

  2. Learner-Centered Instruction (LCI): Volume 1-A. Systems Approach to Electronics Maintenance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Horace H.

    The report describes the proposed development and evaluation of a learner-centered (LCI) systems approach to electronics maintenance training. An electronics course, appropriate for airmen of various aptitudes, will be prepared to develop proficiency in the specific duties required of a Weapon Control Systems Mechanic/Technician in the F-111A…

  3. Robert Sylwester on Electronic Media and Brain Development. Windows to the Mind, Volume 2. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    This videotape explores the influence of electronic media on children's cognitive development. Posing the "cyberworld" as both a window to the greater world and a mirror to the students' world, the first part of the video examines electronic media and the brain's response systems. This part notes the brain's two response systems--the…

  4. The correlation of ring distributions with electron conics - Simulations of the production of upper hybrid waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Lin, C. S.; Wong, H. K.

    Using the High Altitude Plasma Instrument on board the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite, an example of electron conics associated with ring (trapped) distributions of warm electrons is shown. Using an electrostatic P-I-C code, numerical simulations of the generation of upper hybrid waves with ring distributions as the free energy source are performed. These waves heat the electrons perpendicular to the magnetic field, and thus provide a very efficient mechanism for the production of electron conics.

  5. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 7. GPGP Jet Fuels Production Program. Evaluation of Technical Uncertainties for Producing Jet Fuels from Liquid By-Products of the Great Plains Gasification Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    AFWAL-TR-87-2042 VOLUME VII PRODUCTION OF JET FUELS FROM COAL DERIVED LIQUIDS I VOLUME VII -- GPGP JET FUELS PRODUCTION PROGRAM -- EVALUATION OF o...from Coal Derived Liquids, Vol VII - GPGP Jet Fuels Production Program - Evaluation of Technical Uncertainties for Producing Jet Fuels from Liquid By...potential of jet fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant ( GPGP

  6. Nonperturbative multiphoton processes and electron-positron pair production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Müller, C.; Keitel, C. H.

    2006-04-01

    Various regimes of pair production in laser fields are analyzed. Particularly, the question of the observability of pair production in a nonperturbative multiphoton regime is discussed. A simple heuristic method is employed which gives order-of-magnitude estimates for probabilities of multiphoton processes and allows to describe its main features. The method is initially probed upon the known process of pair production in a Coulomb and a strong laser field. Then it is applied to the nonperturbative multiphoton regime of the pair production process in a standing laser wave.

  7. A next-generation optical surface form inspection instrument for high-volume production applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, Richard; Freischlad, Klaus

    Despite the introduction of phase-shifting interferometers in the 1980's, high volume catalog and camera production lenses are still inspected using qualitative visual fringe inspection methods. This error-prone inspection technique requires the human operator to quickly judge whether the lens "passes" or "fails" based on the appearance of the fringes. Although this method is sufficient for optics with < 0.25 wave of surface figure irregularity, it is not sensitive enough to properly inspect surfaces in the increasingly common 0.1 wave regime. Furthermore, as visual fringe inspection is not quantitative, it does not produce the statistical surface measurement data that is necessary to monitor and optimize production polish process yields. To overcome these disadvantages, we have developed a robust, quantitative lens surface inspection instrument. A compact, user-friendly, and economical 60 mm aperture Fizeau interferometer directly addresses production optical test applications, providing rapid vibration-robust optical surface measurements of P-V irregularity, RMS irregularity, astigmatism magnitude, and power via a simple touch-screen interface. Pass/Fail criteria are applied to these values, enabling accurate and repeatable sorting of production optics based on these quantitative values and eliminating human interpretive error. Batch statistics are also displayed and stored for customer inspection reports and rapid polish process feedback. This paper will also describe how next-generation Fizeau interferometers serve as part of a total optical production process improvement strategy.

  8. New Applications for ARPANET Developed Information Processing Technology. Volume 3. Briareus - Computer Netting for Design, Fabrication and Repair of Electronic Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-03

    INFORMATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY , VOLUME HI. BRIAREUS - COMPUTER NETTING FOR DESIGN, FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT CABLEDATA ASSOCIATES...E& ED INFORMATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY — VOLUME III; . Final Report "BRIAREUS — COMPUTER NETTING FOR DESIGN, FABRICA- ■ February 1974 - January

  9. Cerium-Based, Intermetallic-Strengthened Aluminum Casting Alloy: High-Volume Co-product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, D.; McCall, S. K.; McGuire, M. A.; Ott, R. T.; Geer, Tom; Rios, Orlando; Turchi, P. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanical properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.

  10. Cerium-based, intermetallic-strengthened aluminum casting alloy: High-volume co-product development

    DOE PAGES

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, David; McCall, S. K.; ...

    2016-05-23

    Here, several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanicalmore » properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.« less

  11. Estimating the impact of high-production-volume chemicals on remote ecosystems by toxic pressure calculation.

    PubMed

    Harbers, Jasper V; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Posthuma, Leo; Van de Meent, Dik

    2006-03-01

    Although many chemicals are in use, the environmental impacts of only a few have been established, usually on per-chemical basis. Uncertainty remains about the overall impact of chemicals. This paper estimates combined toxic pressure on coastal North Sea ecosystems from 343 high-production-volume chemicals used within the catchment of rivers Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt. Multimedia fate modeling and species sensitivity distribution-based effects estimation are applied. Calculations start from production volumes and emission rates and use physicochemical substance properties and aquatic ecotoxicity data. Parameter uncertainty is addressed by Monte Carlo simulations. Results suggest that the procedure is technically feasible. Combined toxic pressure of all 343 chemicals in coastal North Seawater is 0.025 (2.5% of the species are exposed to concentration levels above EC50 values), with a wide confidence interval of nearly 0-1. This uncertainty appears to be largely due to uncertainties in interspecies variances of aquatic toxicities and, to a lesser extent, to uncertainties in emissions and degradation rates. Due to these uncertainties, the results support gross ranking of chemicals in categories: negligible and possibly relevant contributions only. With 95% confidence, 283 of the 343 chemicals (83%) contribute negligibly (less than 0.1%) to overall toxic pressure, and only 60 (17%) need further consideration.

  12. Cerium-based, intermetallic-strengthened aluminum casting alloy: High-volume co-product development

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, David; McCall, S. K.; McGuire, Michael A.; Ott, Ryan T.; Geer, Tom; Rios, Orlando; Turchi, P. A. E.

    2016-05-23

    Here, several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanical properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.

  13. Electron Production, Electron Attachment, and Charge Recombination Process in High Pressure Gas Discharges.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-10

    mixtures of H2 0-Ar, C3F8 -N2 and C3F8 -CH4 increase with increasing E/N. These characteristics are useful for the application of opening switchef. The...published in the Journal of Applied Physics. 4. Electron Attachment Coefficients of CqFA The electron attachment coefficients of C3F8 in buffer gases of...Ar, N2, and CH 4 were measured as a function of E/N. The 5 electron attachment rate constants of C3F8 in N2 and CR 4 increase with E/N, which are

  14. Design of flow chamber with electronic cell volume capability and light detection optics for multilaser flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Schuette, W H; Shackney, S E; Plowman, F A; Tipton, H W; Smith, C A; MacCollum, M A

    1984-11-01

    A multibeam optical detection system has been developed with a high optical efficiency, achieved through a reduction in the number of optical interfaces employed in the system. This reduction is made possible by a combination of employing simple lenses, gluing the objective lens directly upon the face of the flow cuvette and the extraction of only one fluorescence signal from each laser beam. A modified flow chamber is also described that includes fluidic resistance elements for the elimination of most of the electric shielding normally associated with electronic cell volume measurements.

  15. Shock Versus Solar Flare Production of Heliospheric Relativistic Electron Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Cliver, E. W.

    2006-12-01

    Electrons with relativistic (E > 0.3 MeV) energies are often observed as discrete events in the inner heliosphere. Their sharp onsets and antisunward flows indicate that they are produced in solar transient events. In general their origins can be associated in time with both solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Unlike the solar energetic proton (SEP) and ion events, we do not have the advantage of particle elemental abundances and charge states as source diagnostics. We review the characteristics of the electron events observed on the Helios, Venera, ISEE-3, Phobos, and other inner heliospheric spacecraft to determine whether they are more likely to be produced by broad coronal shocks driven by CMEs or by solar flare processes associated with magnetic reconnection. Electron intensity-time profiles and energy spectra are compared with properties of flares and CMEs for this determination. Recent comparisons of peak electron and SEP event intensities provide strong evidence for the shock interpretation, but definitive results require the observations provided by the Sentinels mission.

  16. Global production, use, and emission volumes of short-chain chlorinated paraffins - A minimum scenario.

    PubMed

    Glüge, Juliane; Wang, Zhanyun; Bogdal, Christian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2016-12-15

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) show high persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT properties). Consequently, restrictions on production and use have been enforced in several countries/regions. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants recognized the PBT properties and long-range transport potential of SCCPs in 2015 and is now evaluating a possible global phase-out or restrictions. In this context, it is relevant to know which countries are producing/using SCCPs and in which amounts, and which applications contribute most to their environmental emissions. To provide a first comprehensive overview, we review and integrate all publicly available data on the global production and use of both chlorinated paraffins (CPs) as a whole and specifically SCCPs. Considerable amount of data on production/use of CPs and SCCPs are missing. Based on the available data and reported emission factors, we estimate the past and current worldwide SCCP emissions from individual applications. Using the available data as a minimum scenario, we conclude: (i) SCCP production and use is increasing, with the current worldwide production volume being 165,000t/year at least, whereas the global production of total CPs exceeds 1milliont/year. (ii) The worldwide release of SCCPs from their production and use to air, surface water, and soil between 1935 and 2012 has been in the range of 1690-41,400t, 1660-105,000t, and 9460-81,000t, respectively. (iii) The SCCP manufacture and use in PVC, the use in metal working applications and sealants/adhesives, and the use in plastics and rubber contribute most to the emissions to air, surface water, and soil. Thus, the decrease in the environmental emissions of SCCPs requires reduction of SCCP use in (almost) all applications. (iv) Emissions due to the disposal of waste SCCPs cannot be accurately estimated, because relevant information is missing. Instead, we conduct a scenario analysis to provide some insights into

  17. Production of a sub-10 fs electron beam with 107 electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jang-Hui

    2011-05-01

    We study the possibility to produce a 1.6 pC electron beam (107 electrons) with a bunch length of less than 10 fs and a beam energy of a few MeV. Such a short, relativistic beam will be useful for an electron diffraction experiment with a 10 fs time resolution. An electron beam with 107 electrons will allow a single-shot experiment with a laser pulse pump and an electron beam probe. In this design, an S-band photocathode gun is used for generating and accelerating a beam and a buncher consisting of two S-band four-cell cavities is used for temporally compressing the beam. Focusing solenoids control the beam transverse divergence and size at the sample. Numerical optimization is carried out to achieve a beam with a 4 fs full-width-at-half-maximum length, a 26 microradian root-mean-square divergence, and a 2 nm transverse coherence length at a 3.24 MeV beam energy. When state-of-the-art rf stability is considered, beam arrival time jitter at the sample is calculated to be about 10 fs.

  18. DoD Implementation Guidelines for Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    The maintenance phase continues until experience or time indicates the need for a revision, reaffirmation, or withdrawal 1 -8 SPRWG 11 910602 9.0.27...Procedures are in place for processing these requests; use the Work Request Form (see Section VII). Standards Development Workbooks Three times a...program and for documenting DoD’s EDI data requirements. Volume I contains Chapters 1 -9. Those chapters describe the background, scope, and main issues

  19. CD uniformity optimization at volume ramp up stage for new product introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Ma, Won-Kwang; Kim, Young-Sik; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kwon, Won-Taik; Park, Sung-Ki; Nikolsky, Peter; Otter, Marian; Marun, Maryana Escalante; Anunciado, Roy; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Storms, Greet; van West, Ewould

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we describe the joint development and optimization of the critical dimension uniformity (CDU) at an advanced 300 mm ArFi semiconductor facility of SK Hynix in the high volume device. As the ITRS CDU specification shrinks, semiconductor companies still need to maintain high wafer yield and high performance (hence market value) even during the introduction phase of a new product. This cannot be achieved without continuous improvement of the on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for yield improvement. ASML Imaging Optimizer is one of the most efficient tools to reach this goal. This paper presents experimental results of post-etch CDU improvement by ASML imaging optimizer for immature photolithography and etch processes on critical features of 20nm node. We will show that CDU improvement potential and measured CDU strongly depend on CD fingerprint stability through wafers, lots and time. However, significant CDU optimization can still be achieved, even for variable CD fingerprints. In this paper we will review point-to-point correlation of CD fingerprints as one of the main indicators for CDU improvement potential. We will demonstrate the value of this indicator by comparing CD correlation between wafers used for Imaging Optimizer dose recipe development, predicted and measured CDU for wafers and lots exposed with various delays ranging from a few days to a month. This approach to CDU optimization helps to achieve higher yield earlier in the new product introduction cycle, enables faster technology ramps and thereby improves product time to market.

  20. Increased fibroblast chymase production mediates procollagen autophagic digestion in volume overload

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lianwu; Wei, Chih-Chang; Powell, Pamela C.; Bradley, Wayne E.; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Collawn, James F.; Dell’Italia, Louis J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous work has identified mast cells as the major source of chymase largely associated with a profibrotic phenotype. We recently reported increased fibroblast autophagic procollagen degradation in a rat model of pure volume overload (VO). Here we demonstrate a connection between increased fibroblast chymase production and autophagic digestion of procollagen in the pure VO of aortocaval fistula (ACF) in the rat. Methods and results Isolated LV fibroblasts taken from 4 and 12 week ACF Sprague–Dawley rats have significant increases in chymase mRNA and chymase activity. Increased intracellular chymase protein is documented by immunocytochemistry in the ACF fibroblasts compared to cells obtained from age-matched sham rats. To implicate VO as a stimulus for chymase production, we show that isolated adult rat LV fibroblasts subjected to 24 h of 20% cyclical stretch induces chymase mRNA and protein production. Exogenous chymase treatment of control isolated adult cardiac fibroblasts demonstrates that chymase is internalized through a dynamin-dependent mechanism. Chymase treatment leads to an increased formation of autophagic vacuoles, LC3-II production, autophagic flux, resulting in increased procollagen degradation. Chymase inhibitor treatment reduces cyclical stretch-induced autophagy in isolated cardiac fibroblasts, demonstrating chymase’s role in autophagy induction. Conclusion In a pure VO model, chymase produced in adult cardiac fibroblasts leads to autophagic degradation of newly synthesized intracellular procollagen I, suggesting a new role of chymase in extracellular matrix degradation. PMID:26807691

  1. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  2. Enhanced electron attachment to Rydberg states in molecular hydrogen volume discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnaduwage, L.A.; Ding, W.X.; McCorkle, D.L.; Lin, S.H.; Mebel, A.M.; Garscadden, A.

    1999-05-01

    We review recent studies on negative ion formation and studies in other areas that are relevant to the role of high-Rydberg states of H{sub 2} and H{sub 3} in hydrogen negative ion sources. Possible mechanisms for the formation of these excited states are discussed, including the formation of long-lived superexcited (core-excited) Rydberg states. Experimental evidence for negative ion formation via electron attachment to core-excited Rydberg states in a glow discharge apparatus is presented. An expression for the dissociative electron attachment rate constant for Rydberg molecules is derived based on electron capture by a Rydberg molecule due to polarization interaction. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. An Electronic Version of the Second Volume of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars with Improved Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samus', N. N.; Goranskii, V. P.; Durlevich, O. V.; Zharova, A. V.; Kazarovets, E. V.; Kireeva, N. N.; Pastukhova, E. N.; Williams, D. B.; Hazen, M. L.

    2003-07-01

    We present a new electronic version of the second volume of the fourth edition of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS), which contains data on 13 480 variable stars in the constellations Cygnus-Orion (the order of constellations in the Catalogue follows the Latin alphabet). The new version takes into account the Name Lists of Variable Stars from no. 67 to 76 for the same constellations. The main distinctive feature of the new version is that it contains improved equatorial J2000.0 coordinates for 13 446 stars (including those for 5052 stars with an allowance made for proper motions), based on the identifications with positional catalogs using finding charts, as well as on our new measurements. We searched for a number of stars on original plates from the collections of several observatories and using digital sky survey images. The new version also includes a file of remarks to the second and third GCVS volumes. Apart from a complete update of the positional information, we took into account several corrections that were found to be necessary after the publication of the second GCVS volume (1985). We present a list of references to new Internet resources.

  4. Impact of electron-beam irradiation on free-volume related microstructural properties of PVA:NaBr polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismayil; Vasachar, Ravindrachary; Bhajantri, Rajashekhar F.; Dhola, Praveena S.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Sodium Bromide doped Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA:NaBr, 80:20) polymer composite films were prepared using a solution casting method. These films were subjected to 8 MeV electron beam radiation at a dose of up to 300 kGy in air at room temperature. The free volume related microstructural and electrical properties of these irradiated films were studied using various characterization methods, such as positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and AC & DC conductivity measurement techniques. The variations in the positron lifetime data indicate that the free-volume related properties of the doped polymer are affected by irradiation. From the results, it is found that at lower doses, a cross-linking network provides hopping sites for Na+ ions, and at higher doses, the chain-scission process facilitates ionic transport through segmental motion. Thus, the free volume around the polymer chain leads to mobility of the ions as well as the polymer segments and hence contributes to the enhancement of conductivity.

  5. Management of Electronic Test Equipment. Volume 4. DoD Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    VOL-4 MDASU3-65-C-1139 I NCLASSIFIED_ F/O 14/2 Nt. EEEEEEE h 1 .01 1 11128 11125 liii, JM3,2 1:1 III"o M CROC PY R I L[J U4 𔄁 P , A 6 (, ’. .5 U...electric/electronic test, measurement , and diagnostic equipment (TMDE), defined to include manual electronic test equipment (ETF). automatic test equipment... shielding against electromagnetic inter- ference are more stringent (because of the shipboard operating environment) than those of the Air Force and

  6. Thermodynamics of electron transfer in oxygenic photosynthetic reaction centers: volume change, enthalpy, and entropy of electron-transfer reactions in manganese-depleted photosystem II core complexes.

    PubMed

    Hou, J M; Boichenko, V A; Diner, B A; Mauzerall, D

    2001-06-19

    We have previously reported the thermodynamic data of electron transfer in photosystem I using pulsed time-resolved photoacoustics [Hou et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 7109-7116]. In the present work, using preparations of purified manganese-depleted photosystem II (PS II) core complexes from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we have measured the DeltaV, DeltaH, and estimated TDeltaS of electron transfer on the time scale of 1 micros. At pH 6.0, the volume contraction of PS II was determined to be -9 +/- 1 A3. The thermal efficiency was found to be 52 +/- 5%, which corresponds to an enthalpy change of -0.9 +/- 0.1 eV for the formation of the state P680+Q(A-) from P680*. An unexpected volume expansion on pulse saturation of PS II was observed, which is reversible in the dark. At pH 9.0, the volume contraction, the thermal efficiency, and the enthalpy change were -3.4 +/- 0.5 A3, 37 +/- 7%, and -1.15 +/- 0.13 eV, respectively. The DeltaV of PS II, smaller than that of PS I and bacterial centers, is assigned to electrostriction and analyzed using the Drude-Nernst equation. To explain the small DeltaV for the formation of P680+Q(A-) or Y(Z*)Q(A-), we propose that fast proton transfer into a polar region is involved in this reaction. Taking the free energy of charge separation of PS II as the difference between the energy of the excited-state P680* and the difference in the redox potentials of the donor and acceptor, the apparent entropy change (TDeltaS) for charge separation of PS II is calculated to be negative, -0.1 +/- 0.1 eV at pH 6.0 (P680+Q(A-)) and -0.2 +/- 0.15 eV at pH 9.0 (Y(Z*)Q(A-)). The thermodynamic properties of electron transfer in PS II core reaction centers thus differ considerably from those of bacterial and PS I reaction centers, which have DeltaV of approximately -27 A3, DeltaH of approximately -0.4 eV, and TDeltaS of approximately +0.4 eV.

  7. Commercial and cost effective production of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Crary, David

    2010-05-05

    The nuclear and high energy physics research community is constantly searching for new and improved tracking and radiation detectors. The introduction of micropattern detectors has opened new opportunities for improving the rate capabilities, as well as the spatial and time resolution of particle detectors in these applications. GEM detectors in particular have received enormous interest for use in detectors planned for a number of new and upgraded experiments at many different research facilities. These include both the STAR and PHENIX experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, experiments at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and at the future electron-positron Linear Collider. At the present time, CERN is not able to supply foils in sufficient quantities to accommodate the needs of these experiments. Compounding this problem, there is a strong interest in GEM foils for numerous other applications, such as in astrophysics, medical imaging and detectors for homeland security. It would therefore be of significant benefit to the research community to develop a commercial source of GEM foils for all of these applications. Tech-Etch is in a unique position to develop this technology for commercial use. Tech-Etch has not only experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products, but it also has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven, Yale and MIT) that can help develop and evaluate the performance of the GEM foils produced at Tech-Etch. Additionally, since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, as well as the flexibility to shift production methods, equipment, and chemistry to optimize the GEM foil manufacturing process without being constrained by existing work running on high volume continuous coil equipment.

  8. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Woody, Craig

    2009-03-31

    The nuclear and high energy physics research community is constantly searching for new and improved tracking and radiation detectors. The introduction of micropattern detectors has opened new opportunities for improving the rate capabilities, as well as the spatial and time resolution of particle detectors in these applications. GEM detectors in particular have received enormous interest for use in detectors planned for a number of new and upgraded experiments at many different research facilities. These include both the STAR and PHENIX experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, experiments at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and at the future electron-positron Linear Collider. At the present time, CERN is not able to supply foils in sufficient quantities to accommodate the needs of these experiments. Compounding this problem, there is a strong interest in GEM foils for numerous other applications, such as in astrophysics, medical imaging and detectors for homeland security. It would therefore be of significant benefit to the research community to develop a commercial source of GEM foils for all of these applications. Tech-Etch is in a unique position to develop this technology for commercial use. Tech-Etch has not only experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products, but it also has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven, Yale and MIT) that can help develop and evaluate the performance of the GEM foils produced at Tech-Etch. Additionally, since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, as well as the flexibility to shift production methods, equipment, and chemistry to optimize the GEM foil manufacturing process without being constrained by existing work running on high volume continuous coil equipment.

  9. An Effect of Levels of Learning Ability and Types of Feedback in Electronic Portfolio on Learning Achievement of Students in Electronic Media Production for Education Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koraneekij, Prakob

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study an effect of levels of learning ability and types of feedback in an electronic portfolio on learning achievement of students in electronic media production for education subject. The samples were 113 students registered in Electronic Media Production for Education Subject divided into 6 groups : 3 control…

  10. Electron Beam/Optical Hybrid Lithography For The Production Of Gallium Arsenide Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (Mimics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Rao M.; Rask, Steven D.

    1988-06-01

    beam to optical with t 0.2μm (2 sigma) and (2) Electron beam to electron beam with f 0.lμm (2 sigma). These results suggest that the electron beam/optical hybrid lithography techniques could be used for MIMIC volume production as alignment tolerances required by GaAS chips are met in both cases. These results are discussed in detail.

  11. The Survey of College Marketing Programs. Volume III: Electronic Advertising and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primary Research Group, Inc., New York, NY.

    This report presents 203 tables detailing findings concerning the use of electronic advertising within marketing programs at 68 colleges and universities. Highlights of this report include: colleges in the sample enroll a mean of 5,450 students; 5.6 percent of the colleges produce a CD-ROM version of the viewbook; 39.7 percent enable applicants to…

  12. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part E: Electronics module data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Tests to verify the as-designed performance of all circuits within the thematic mapper electronics module unit are described. Specifically, the tests involved the evaluation of the scan line corrector driver, shutter drivers function, cal lamp controller function, post amplifier function, command decoder verification unit, and the temperature and actuator controllers function.

  13. Production of relativistic electron bunch with tunable current distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y.-E.; Rihaoui, M.; /Northern Illinois U. /NICADD, DeKalb

    2008-11-01

    We propose a novel method for tailoring the current distribution of relativistic electron bunches. The technique relies on a recently proposed transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange. The bunch is transversely shaped and the phase space exchange mechanism converts this transverse profile into a current profile. The technique provides a tool for generating arbitrary current profiles in a tunable fashion.We demonstrate, via computer simulations, the method and its application to tailor specific current profiles such as, e.g., linearly ramped profiles and train of femtosecond micro-bunches that have application in plasma and dielectric wakefield accelerators.

  14. Production of Relativistic Electron Bunch with Tunable Current Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y.-E; Rihaoui, M.

    2009-01-22

    We proposed a novel method for tailoring the current distribution of relativistic electron bunches. The technique relies on a recently proposed transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange. The bunch is transversely shaped and the phase space exchange mechanism converts this transverse profile into a current profile. The technique provides a tool for generating arbitrary current profiles in a tunable fashion. We demonstrate, via computer simulations, the method and its application to tailor specific current profiles such as, e.g., linearly ramped profiles and train of femtosecond micro-bunches that have application in plasma and dielectric wakefield accelerators.

  15. [Advertising and promotion of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes].

    PubMed

    Canevascini, Michela; Kuendig Hervé; Véron, Claudia; Pasche, Myriam

    2015-06-10

    Switzerland is one of the least restrictive countries in Europe in terms of tobacco advertising. A study conducted between 2013 and 2014 documented the presence of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship in western Switzerland. The first part of this article presents the results of the observations realized in points of sale, in private events sponsored by the tobacco industry and during daily itineraries of young people. The results show that tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship are omnipresent and mainly target young people. The second part of the article analyses the presence of electronic cigarette advertising and promotion, observed in points of sale and on online stores.

  16. Spectral-Product Methods for Electronic Structure Calculations (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-12

    and electronically excited potential energy surfaces in Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simula- tions of singly doped inert-gas clusters [27], the...Matsunaga N, Nguyen KA, Su SJ, Windus TL, Dupuis M, Montgomery JA (1993) J Comput Chem 14:1347 3. Pauli W (1925) Z Physik 31:765 4. Heisenberg W (1926) Z...Physik 38:411 5. Heisenberg W (1926) Z Physik 39:499 6. Heisenberg W (1926) Z Physik 40:501 7. Dirac PAM (1926) Proc R Soc (London) A 112:661 8

  17. Materials Science and Technology, Volume 4, Electronic Structure and Properties of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Wolfgang

    1996-12-01

    This volume spans the field of semiconductor physics, with particular emphasis on concepts relevant to semiconductor technology. From the Contents: Lannoo: Band Theory Applied to Semiconductors. Ulbrich: Optical Properties and Charge Transport. Watkins: Intrinsic Point Defects in Semiconductors. Feichtinger: Deep Centers in Semiconductors. Gösele/Tan: Equilibria, Nonequilibria, Diffusion, and Precipitation. Alexander/Teichler: Dislocations. Thibault/Rouvière/Bourret: Grain Boundaries in Semiconductors. Ourmazd/Hull/Tung: Interfaces. Chang: The Hall Effect in Quantum Wires. Street/Winer: Material Properties of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon. Schröter/Seibt/Gilles: High-Temperature Properties of 3d Transition Elements in Silicon.

  18. Electron Microscopy as a Valuable Tool for Designing Biobased Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts are being made worldwide, including USDA laboratories [1-2] to investigate new uses for agriculturally-derived and/or biobased materials as well as to improve and transform such materials to create products of novel functionalities. While the knowledge of biopolymers and material processing ...

  19. Entropy Production and the Pressure-Volume Curve of the Lung.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cláudio L N; Araújo, Ascânio D; Bates, Jason H T; Andrade, José S; Suki, Béla

    2016-01-01

    We investigate analytically the production of entropy during a breathing cycle in healthy and diseased lungs. First, we calculate entropy production in healthy lungs by applying the laws of thermodynamics to the well-known transpulmonary pressure-volume (P-V) curves of the lung under the assumption that lung tissue behaves as an entropic spring similar to rubber. The bulk modulus, B, of the lung is also derived from these calculations. Second, we extend this approach to elastic recoil disorders of the lung such as occur in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. These diseases are characterized by particular alterations in the P-V relationship. For example, in fibrotic lungs B increases monotonically with disease progression, while in emphysema the opposite occurs. These diseases can thus be mimicked simply by making appropriate adjustments to the parameters of the P-V curve. Using Clausius's formalism, we show that entropy production, ΔS, is related to the hysteresis area, ΔA, enclosed by the P-V curve during a breathing cycle, namely, ΔS=ΔA∕T, where T is the body temperature. Although ΔA is highly dependent on the disease, such formula applies to healthy as well as diseased lungs, regardless of the disease stage. Finally, we use an ansatz to predict analytically the entropy produced by the fibrotic and emphysematous lungs.

  20. Entropy Production and the Pressure–Volume Curve of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Cláudio L. N.; Araújo, Ascânio D.; Bates, Jason H. T.; Andrade, José S.; Suki, Béla

    2016-01-01

    We investigate analytically the production of entropy during a breathing cycle in healthy and diseased lungs. First, we calculate entropy production in healthy lungs by applying the laws of thermodynamics to the well-known transpulmonary pressure–volume (P–V) curves of the lung under the assumption that lung tissue behaves as an entropic spring similar to rubber. The bulk modulus, B, of the lung is also derived from these calculations. Second, we extend this approach to elastic recoil disorders of the lung such as occur in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. These diseases are characterized by particular alterations in the P–V relationship. For example, in fibrotic lungs B increases monotonically with disease progression, while in emphysema the opposite occurs. These diseases can thus be mimicked simply by making appropriate adjustments to the parameters of the P–V curve. Using Clausius's formalism, we show that entropy production, ΔS, is related to the hysteresis area, ΔA, enclosed by the P–V curve during a breathing cycle, namely, ΔS=ΔA∕T, where T is the body temperature. Although ΔA is highly dependent on the disease, such formula applies to healthy as well as diseased lungs, regardless of the disease stage. Finally, we use an ansatz to predict analytically the entropy produced by the fibrotic and emphysematous lungs. PMID:26973540

  1. Runaway electron production during intense electron beam penetration in dense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, P. B.; Cowan, T. E.

    2007-01-15

    Relativistic electrons are efficiently generated when multiterawatt lasers focused to ultrahigh intensities > or approx. 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} illuminate the surface of dense plasma targets. A theoretical study finds that during typical picosecond pulse widths, significant amounts of Dreicer produced runaway electrons can build up due to the high axial electric field driving the neutralizing return current. An important consequence is that there will be a conversion of plasma current to runaway electron current, which is maximized at some optimum value of the beam-to-plasma density ratio N{sub b}=n{sub b}/n{sub e}, depending on the plasma collisionality. At collisionalities representative of solid target experiments, complete conversion to runaway electrons can only take place over a certain range of N{sub b} values. At higher collisionalities and pulse widths, applicable to the fast ignition concept for inertial confinement fusion, it was found that conversion to runaways has a peak at {approx}90% around N{sub b}{approx}0.06. Significant lessening of target material heating by Joule current dissipation is also possible, since part of the beam energy loss is transferred through the electric field directly to the formation of energetic runaways. Implications for beam transport inhibition by the electric field are also discussed.

  2. Cost Analysis of an Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System in Selected Annual Production Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company estimated the cost of manufacturing and Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System as designed by the AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corporation. Production costs were estimated at annual volumes of 100; 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 and 1,000,000 units. These costs included direct labor, direct material and manufacturing burden. A make or buy analysis was made of each part of each volume. At high volumes special fabrication concepts were used to reduce operation cycle times. All costs were estimated at an assumed 100% plant capacity. Economic feasibility determined the level of production at which special concepts were to be introduced. Estimated costs were based on the economics of the last half of 1980. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for ach volume. Infrastructure and personnel requirements were also estimated.

  3. The effect of direct electron-positron pair production on relativistic feedback rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodopiyanov, I. B.; Dwyer, J. R.; Cramer, E. S.; Lucia, R. J.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Runaway electron avalanches developing in thunderclouds in high electric field become self-sustaining due to relativistic feedback via the production of backward propagating positrons and backscattered X-rays. To date, only positrons created from pair production by gamma rays interacting with the air have been considered. In contrast, direct electron-positron pair production, also known as "trident process," occurs from the interaction of energetic runaway electrons with atomic nuclei, and so it does not require the generation of a gamma ray mediator. The positrons produced in this process contribute to relativistic feedback and become especially important when the feedback factor value approaches unity. Then the steady state flux of runaway electrons increases significantly. In certain cases, when the strong electrostatic field forms in a narrow area, the direct positrons become one of processes dominating relativistic feedback. Calculations of the direct positron production contribution to relativistic feedback are presented for different electric field configurations.

  4. 78 FR 34393 - Electronic Submission of Tobacco Product Applications and Other Information; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Other Information; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... the potential electronic submission of tobacco product applications and other information. This... input from regulated industry and other stakeholders and interested parties on the potential...

  5. MERCURY REDUCTION IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrical and electronics industries have significantly reduced the amount of mercury from various products and processes. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectronic properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some...

  6. Investigation of the boundary layer during the transition from volume to surface dominated H- production at the BATMAN test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, C.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.

    2016-02-01

    BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative ions) is a test facility equipped with a 1/8 scale H- source for the ITER heating neutral beam injection. Several diagnostics in the boundary layer close to the plasma grid (first grid of the accelerator system) followed the transition from volume to surface dominated H- production starting with a Cs-free, cleaned source and subsequent evaporation of caesium, while the source has been operated at ITER relevant pressure of 0.3 Pa: Langmuir probes are used to determine the plasma potential, optical emission spectroscopy is used to follow the caesiation process, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy allows for the measurement of the H- density. The influence on the plasma during the transition from an electron-ion plasma towards an ion-ion plasma, in which negative hydrogen ions become the dominant negatively charged particle species, is seen in a strong increase of the H- density combined with a reduction of the plasma potential. A clear correlation of the extracted current densities (jH-, je) exists with the Cs emission.

  7. Printing versus coating - What will be the future production technology for printed electronics?

    SciTech Connect

    Glawe, Andrea; Eggerath, Daniel; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-02-17

    The market of Large Area Organic Printed Electronics is developing rapidly to increase efficiency and quality as well as to lower costs further. Applications for OPV, OLED, RFID and compact Printed Electronic systems are increasing. In order to make the final products more affordable, but at the same time highly accurate, Roll to Roll (R2R) production on flexible transparent polymer substrates is the way forward. There are numerous printing and coating technologies suitable depending on the design, the product application and the chemical process technology. Mainly the product design (size, pattern, repeatability) defines the application technology.

  8. Printing versus coating - What will be the future production technology for printed electronics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glawe, Andrea; Eggerath, Daniel; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The market of Large Area Organic Printed Electronics is developing rapidly to increase efficiency and quality as well as to lower costs further. Applications for OPV, OLED, RFID and compact Printed Electronic systems are increasing. In order to make the final products more affordable, but at the same time highly accurate, Roll to Roll (R2R) production on flexible transparent polymer substrates is the way forward. There are numerous printing and coating technologies suitable depending on the design, the product application and the chemical process technology. Mainly the product design (size, pattern, repeatability) defines the application technology.

  9. Earth observing system. Output data products and input requirements, version 2.0. Volume 2: Analysis of IDS input requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi; Chang, Hyo Duck; Krupp, Brian; Kumar, Ravindra; Swaroop, Anand

    1992-01-01

    On 18 Jan. 1991, NASA confirmed 29 Inter-Disciplinary Science (IDS) teams, each involving a group of investigators, to conduct interdisciplinary research using data products from Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments. These studies are multi-disciplinary and require output data products from multiple EOS instruments, including both FI and PI instruments. The purpose of this volume is to provide information on output products expected from IDS investigators, required input data, and retrieval algorithms. Also included in this volume is the revised analysis of the 'best' and 'alternative' match data products for IDS input requirements. The original analysis presented in the August 1991 release of the SPSO Report was revised to incorporate the restructuring of the EOS platform. As a result of the reduced EOS payload, some of EOS instruments were deselected and their data products would not be available for IDS research. Information on these data products is also presented.

  10. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for banking purposes or to support its banking business; and (2) Electronic databases... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  11. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for banking purposes or to support its banking business; and (2) Electronic databases... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  12. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for banking purposes or to support its banking business; and (2) Electronic databases... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  13. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for banking purposes or to support its banking business; and (2) Electronic databases... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  14. 30 CFR 1210.104 - Must I submit these production reports electronically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../payors must report to ONRR electronically via the eCommerce Reporting Web site. All reporters/payors also must report production data directly or upload files using the ONRR electronic web form located at... information and instructions regarding how to use the eCommerce Reporting Web site at...

  15. 30 CFR 1210.104 - Must I submit these production reports electronically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., instructions, and security measures. The handbook may be found on our Internet Web site or you may call your..., all reporters/payors must report to ONRR electronically via the eCommerce Reporting Web site. All reporters/payors also must report production data directly or upload files using the ONRR electronic...

  16. 78 FR 22899 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products... the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices having placeshifting... Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, 19 CFR 210.10 (2012). Scope of Investigation: Having...

  17. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for its banking business. (b) With respect to acquired equipment or facilities... efficiency of the banking operations using that capacity. (c) Types of electronic capacity in equipment or... business. Examples of electronic by-products that banks may have legitimately acquired that may be sold...

  18. Automatic mosaicking and volume assembly for high-throughput serial-section transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tasdizen, Tolga; Koshevoy, Pavel; Grimm, Bradley C.; Anderson, James R.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Whitaker, Ross T.; Marc, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a computationally efficient and robust fully-automatic method for large-scale electron microscopy image registration. The proposed method is able to construct large image mosaics from thousands of smaller, overlapping tiles with unknown or uncertain positions, and to align sections from a serial section capture into a common coordinate system. The method also accounts for nonlinear deformations both in constructing sections and in aligning sections to each other. The underlying algorithms are based on the Fourier shift property which allows for a computationally efficient and robust method. We demonstrate results on two electron microscopy datasets. We also quantify the accuracy of the algorithm through a simulated image capture experiment. The publicly available software tools include the algorithms and a Graphical User Interface for easy access to the algorithms. PMID:20713087

  19. EIA directory of electronic products fourth quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-23

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) makes available for public use a series of machine-readable data files and computer models. The data files and models are made available to the public on magnetic tapes. In addition, selected data files/models are available on diskette for IBM-compatible personal computers. For each product listed in this directory, a detailed abstract is provided which describes the data published.

  20. The Training Information Management System. Volume 6. User’s Manual for the Electronic Clipboard System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    ARI Research Note 86-77/ THE TRAINING INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : U User’s Manual for the (%~J Electronic Clipboard System U Perceptronics for ARI...NUMBER ARI Research Note 86-77 /, TI 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE Of REPORT & PERIOD COVERED THE TRAINING INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : Final Report...Evaluation Field-Portable Computer Unit 20. ANTRACT (rOnme - reree Nid If n ceear, an identify by block nhmtbhe) The Training Information Management System (TItS

  1. Military Handbook. Grounding, Bonding, and Shielding for Electronic Equipments and Facilities. Volume 1. Basic Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-29

    in Transmission System , Dover Publications, Inc, New York NY, 1968. 2-11. W. W. Lewis , The Protection of Transmission Lines Against Lightning, John...Palo Alto CA 94303, 12 March 1973. 3-3. W.W. Lewis , The Protection of Transmission Systems Ajainst Lightning, Dover Publications, Ine, New York, (1965...Handbook for Electrical Engineers, Tenth Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Ine, New York, 1968. 5-3. P.E. Terman , Electronic and Radio Engfineering

  2. Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) Streamlining Project. Volume 2. Directives and Related Study Documents. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-18

    SYSTEMS AND THE PROLIFERATION OF NONDEVELOPMENTAL AND PROTOTYPE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGYi CONTRACTOR SUPPORT HAS BECOME A KEY CONSIDERATION ON THE AIRLAND...AGE. a mobile flight line maintenance/test set. - STE located In an electronlics shop AN/GSli-271A (IPF maintenance van) and electronics shop At4/ARM...System is a disaster: TACJAM O&0 requires high mobility , but M-1015 reliability negates the O&0. "* Initial provisioning of TACJAM LRUs was low. EMRA

  3. Efficient large volume data preparation for electron beam lithography for sub-45nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kang-Hoon; Gutsch, Manuela; Freitag, Martin; Hohle, Christoph; Martin, Luc; Bayle, Sebastien; Manakli, Serdar; Schiavone, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    A new correction approach was developed to improve the process window of electron beam lithography and push its resolution at least one generation further using the same exposure tool. An efficient combination of dose and geometry modulation is implemented in the commercial data preparation software, called Inscale®, from Aselta Nanographics. Furthermore, the electron Resolution Improvement Feature (eRIF) is tested, which is based on the dose modulation and multiple-pass exposure, for not only overcoming the narrow resist process windows and disability of exposure tool but also more accurate correction of exposure data in the application of sub-35nm regime. Firstly, we are demonstrating the newly developed correction method through the comparison of its test exposure and the one with conventional dose modulation method. Secondly, the electron Resolution Improvement Feature is presented with the test application for complementary exposure and with the application of real design, specifically for sub-30nm nodes. Finally, we discuss the requirements of data preparation for the practical applications in e-beam lithography, especially for future technology nodes.

  4. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 4. GPGP Jet Fuels Production Program-Feed Analyses Compilation and Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    DTICFORM70ASTOCK IS EXHAUSTED. o Volume IV 00 PRODUCTION OF JET FUELS FROM COAL DERIVED LIQUIDS SVOL IV - GPGP JET FUELS PRODUCTION PROGRAM-FEEDI ANALYSES...DERIVED LIQUIDS - VOL IV - GPGP JET FUELS PRODUCTION PROGRAM - FEED ANALYSIS COMPILATION AND REVIEW 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) R.J. Rossi 13a. TYPE OF REPORT...the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant ( GPGP ) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding has been provided to the Department of

  5. Modeling electron dynamics coupled to continuum states in finite volumes with absorbing boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Giovannini, Umberto; Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Rubio, Angel

    2015-03-01

    Absorbing boundaries are frequently employed in real-time propagation of the Schrödinger equation to remove spurious reflections and efficiently emulate outgoing boundary conditions. These conditions are a fundamental ingredient for the calculation of observables involving infinitely extended continuum states in finite volumes. In the literature, several boundary absorbers have been proposed. They mostly fall into three main families: mask function absorbers, complex absorbing potentials, and exterior complex-scaled potentials. To date none of the proposed absorbers is perfect, and all present a certain degree of reflections. Characterization of such reflections is thus a critical task with strong implications for time-dependent simulations of atoms and molecules. We introduce a method to evaluate the reflection properties of a given absorber and present a comparison of selected samples for each family of absorbers. Further, we discuss the connections between members of each family and show how the same reflection curves can be obtained with very different absorption schemes.

  6. Novel transparent electrodes allow sustainable production of electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Constant, Kristen

    2010-12-27

    A novel technique for fabricating inexpensive, transparent electrodes from common metals has been developed by engineers and scientists at Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory. They exhibit very high transparency and are very good electrical conductors. This is a combination of properties that is difficult to achieve with common materials. The most frequently used transparent electrode in today's high-technology devices (such as LCD screens) is indium tin oxide (ITO). While ITO performs well in these applications, the supply of indium is very limited. In addition, it is rapidly decreasing as consumer demand for flat-panel electronics is skyrocketing. According to a 2004 US Geological Survey report, as little as 14 years exploitation of known indium reserves remains. In addition to increasing prices, the dwindling supply of indium suggests its use is not sustainable for future generations of electronics enthusiasts. Solar cells represent another application where transparent electrodes are used. To make solar-energy collection economically feasible, all parts of solar photovoltaics must be made more efficient and cost-effective. Our novel transparent electrodes have the potential to do both. In addition, there is much interest in developing more efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly lighting. Incandescent light bulbs are very inefficient, because most of their energy consumption is wasted as heat. Fluorescent lighting is much more efficient but still uses mercury, an environmental toxin. An attractive alternative is offered by LEDs, which have very high efficiencies and long lifetimes, and do not contain mercury. If made bright enough, LED use for general lighting could provide a viable alternative. We have fabricated electrodes from more commonly available materials, using a technique that is cost effective and environmentally friendly. Most of today's electronic devices are made in specialized facilities equipped with low

  7. Concentrating-collector mass-production feasibility. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-02

    The Performance Prototype Trough (PPT) Concentrating Collector consists of four 80-foot modules in a 320-foot row. The collector was analyzed, including cost estimates and manufacturing processes to produce collectors in volumes from 100 to 100,000 modules per year. The four different reflector concepts considered were the sandwich reflector structure, sheet metal reflector structure, molded reflector structure, and glass laminate structure. The sheet metal and glass laminate structures are emphasized with their related structure concepts. A preliminary manufacturing plan is offered that includes: documentation of the manufacturing process with production flow diagrams; labor and material costs at various production levels; machinery and equipment requirements including preliminary design specifications; and capital investment costs for a new plant. Of five reflector designs considered, the two judged best and considered at length are thin annealed glass and steel laminate on steel frame panel and thermally sagged glass. Also discussed are market considerations, costing and selling price estimates, design cost analysis and make/buy analysis. (LEW)

  8. Implementation of tank volume measurement equipment at the Mayak Production Association

    SciTech Connect

    Darenskikh, O.; Suda, S.C.; Valente, J.U.; Zuhoski, P.B.; Salwen, C.A.

    1997-12-31

    One goal of the United States Russia Cooperative program to improve nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) in Russian facilities is to computerize material accounting techniques for bulk materials. Such materials include liquid solutions at radiochemical plants: dissolver, intermediate product, and waste. Material accounting techniques for tank volume measurements (TVM) are needed to determine the nuclear material content of these solutions (chemical and isotopic analysis are also required). The content is required to close the material balance in a radiochemical plant. Computerization of these techniques can provide unattended measurements of material flows, improved precision and accuracy, reduced operator effort, and lower radiation exposure of operators--with equipment that is predominantly remote from high radiation areas. This paper describes the technical activities that contributed to the successful integration of the TVM system, developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), into the Mayak Production Association radiochemical plant conducted under the US/Russian cooperative MPC and A Program. US assistance with installation and adjustment of the instrumentation was completed in May 1997. After that, Mayak experts on measurement and metrology continued mastering and testing the equipment.

  9. Variable volume fed-batch fermentation for nisin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis W28.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhaoliang; Wang, Lin; Jing, Yingjun; Li, Xueliang; Zhao, Yanli

    2009-03-01

    A feeding technology that was suitable for improving the nisin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis W28 was established. The effects of initial sucrose concentration (ISC) in the fermentation broth, feeding time, and feeding rate on the fermentation were studied. It was observed that a fed-batch culture (ISC = 10 g l(-1)) with 100 ml sucrose solution (190 g l(-1)) being evenly fed (9-10 ml h(-1)) into the fermenter after 3-h fermentation gave the best performance in terms of biomass and nisin yield. Under these conditions, the total biomass and the total nisin yield were approximately 23% and 51% higher than those in batch fermentation, respectively. When the sucrose concentration was controlled at 5-10 g l(-1) in variable volume intermittent fed-batch fermentation (VVIF) with ISC = 10 g l(-1), the total biomass and the total nisin yield were 29% and 60% above those in batch fermentation, respectively. The VVIF proved to be effective to eliminate the substrate inhibition by maintaining sucrose at appropriate levels. It is also easy to be scaled up, since various parameters involved in industrial production were taken into account.

  10. Mass production of volume phase holographic gratings for the VIRUS spectrograph array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonis, Taylor S.; Frantz, Amy; Hill, Gary J.; Clemens, J. Christopher; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Adams, Joshua J.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Prochaska, Travis

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple, fiber-fed integral field spectrograph that will be deployed on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS is the first optical astronomical instrument to be replicated on an industrial scale, and represents a relatively inexpensive solution for carrying out large-area spectroscopic surveys, such as the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Each spectrograph contains a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating with a 138 mm diameter clear aperture as its dispersing element. The instrument utilizes the grating in first-order for 350 < λ (nm) < 550. Including witness samples, a suite of 170 VPH gratings has been mass produced for VIRUS. Here, we present the design of the VIRUS VPH gratings and a discussion of their mass production. We additionally present the design and functionality of a custom apparatus that has been used to rapidly test the first-order diffraction efficiency of the gratings for various discrete wavelengths within the VIRUS spectral range. This device has been used to perform both in-situ tests to monitor the effects of adjustments to the production prescription as well as to carry out the final acceptance tests of the gratings' diffraction efficiency. Finally, we present the as-built performance results for the entire suite of VPH gratings.

  11. Annual Review of Research under the Joint Services Electronics Program. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Products," J. Murray. 0. Theses and Dissertations: 1. A Digital Signal Processing and Display System, J . Scott Hawker, M.S. Thesis, Texas Tech University...Dissertation, Department of Mathematics, Texas Tech University, in preparation. Hawker, J . Scott , "A Digital Signal Processing and Display System

  12. 21 CFR 1004.2 - Plans for the repair of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plans for the repair of electronic products. 1004.2 Section 1004.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., alterations, changes, repairs, corrections, or adjustments to be made to bring the product into conformity...

  13. Applications of on-product diffraction-based focus metrology in logic high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, Ben F.; Mokaberi, Babak; Bolton, David; Li, Chen; Palande, Ashwin; Park, Kevin; Noot, Marc; Kea, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The integration of on-product diffraction-based focus (DBF) capability into the majority of immersion lithography layers in leading edge logic manufacturing has enabled new applications targeted towards improving cycle time and yield. A CD-based detection method is the process of record (POR) for excursion detection. The drawback of this method is increased cycle time and limited sampling due to CD-SEM metrology capacity constraints. The DBFbased method allows the addition of focus metrology samples to the existing overlay measurements on the integrated metrology (IM) system. The result enables the addition of measured focus to the SPC system, allowing a faster excursion detection method. For focus targeting, the current method involves using a dedicated focus-exposure matrix (FEM) on all scanners, resulting in lengthy analysis times and uncertainty in the best focus. The DBF method allows the measurement to occur on the IM system, on a regular production wafer, and at the same time as the exposure. This results in a cycle time gain as well as a less subjective determination of best focus. A third application aims to use the novel onproduct focus metrology data in order to apply per-exposure focus corrections to the scanner. These corrections are particularly effective at the edge of the wafer, where systematic layer-dependent effects can be removed using DBFbased scanner feedback. This paper will discuss the development of a methodology to accomplish each of these applications in a high-volume production environment. The new focus metrology method, sampling schemes, feedback mechanisms and analysis methods lead to improved focus control, as well as earlier detection of failures.

  14. Production and delivery of a fluid mixture to an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E [Los Alamos, NM; Bland, Ronald Gene [Houston, TX; Foley, Ron Lee [Magnolia, TX; Bloys, James B [Katy, TX; Gonzalez, Manuel E [Kingwood, NM; Daniel, John M [Germantown, TN; Robinson, Ian M [Guisborough, GB; Carpenter, Robert B [Tomball, TX

    2012-01-24

    The methods described herein generally relate to preparing and delivering a fluid mixture to a confined volume, specifically an annular volume located between two concentrically oriented casing strings within a hydrocarbon fluid producing well. The fluid mixtures disclosed herein are useful in controlling pressure in localized volumes. The fluid mixtures comprise at least one polymerizable monomer and at least one inhibitor. The processes and methods disclosed herein allow the fluid mixture to be stored, shipped and/or injected into localized volumes, for example, an annular volume defined by concentric well casing strings.

  15. Photo-production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc with electron linear accelerator beam.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, R; Avetisyan, A; Kerobyan, I; Dallakyan, R

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development of a relatively new method for the production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. The method involves the irradiation of natural molybdenum using high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons from the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator located at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhi). The production method has been developed and shown to be successful. The linear electron accelerator at YerPhi was upgraded to allow for significant increases of the beam intensity and spatial density. The LUE50 was also instrumented by a remote control system for ease of operation. We have developed and tested the (99m)Tc extraction from the irradiation of natural MoO3. This paper reports on the optimal conditions of our method of (99)Mo production. We show the success of this method with the production and separation of the first usable amounts of (99m)Tc.

  16. Phytoplankton Productivity in an Arctic Fjord (West Greenland): Estimating Electron Requirements for Carbon Fixation and Oxygen Production

    PubMed Central

    Hancke, Kasper; Dalsgaard, Tage; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Markager, Stiig; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of pelagic primary production is essential for quantifying the marine carbon turnover and the energy supply to the food web. Knowing the electron requirement (Κ) for carbon (C) fixation (ΚC) and oxygen (O2) production (ΚO2), variable fluorescence has the potential to quantify primary production in microalgae, and hereby increasing spatial and temporal resolution of measurements compared to traditional methods. Here we quantify ΚC and ΚO2 through measures of Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry, C fixation and O2 production in an Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjorden, W Greenland). Through short- (2h) and long-term (24h) experiments, rates of electron transfer (ETRPSII), C fixation and/or O2 production were quantified and compared. Absolute rates of ETR were derived by accounting for Photosystem II light absorption and spectral light composition. Two-hour incubations revealed a linear relationship between ETRPSII and gross 14C fixation (R2 = 0.81) during light-limited photosynthesis, giving a ΚC of 7.6 ± 0.6 (mean ± S.E.) mol é (mol C)−1. Diel net rates also demonstrated a linear relationship between ETRPSII and C fixation giving a ΚC of 11.2 ± 1.3 mol é (mol C)−1 (R2 = 0.86). For net O2 production the electron requirement was lower than for net C fixation giving 6.5 ± 0.9 mol é (mol O2)−1 (R2 = 0.94). This, however, still is an electron requirement 1.6 times higher than the theoretical minimum for O2 production [i.e. 4 mol é (mol O2)−1]. The discrepancy is explained by respiratory activity and non-photochemical electron requirements and the variability is discussed. In conclusion, the bio-optical method and derived electron requirement support conversion of ETR to units of C or O2, paving the road for improved spatial and temporal resolution of primary production estimates. PMID:26218096

  17. Electron Production, Electron Attachment, and Charge Recombination Process in High Pressure Gas Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-25

    Huxley and R. W. Crompton, The Dtiffsion and Drift of Elec- cess that leads to the production of Br-. The current results trons in Gases (Wiley, New...1964). "L. G. H. Huxley and R. W. Crompton, The Diffusion and Drift of Elec- This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scien- irons in Gases...1978), "L. G. H. Huxley and R. W. Crompton, The Diffusion and Drift of Elec- p. 292. trons in Gases (Wiley, New York, 1974), pp. 298-303. ŚD. L

  18. Vacuum-thermal-evaporation: the route for roll-to-roll production of large-area organic electronic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. M.

    2015-05-01

    Surprisingly little consideration is apparently being given to vacuum-evaporation as the route for the roll-to-roll (R2R) production of large-area organic electronic circuits. While considerable progress has been made by combining silicon lithographic approaches with solution processing, it is not obvious that these will be compatible with a low-cost, high-speed R2R process. Most efforts at achieving this ambition are directed at conventional solution printing approaches such as inkjet and gravure. This is surprising considering that vacuum-evaporation of organic semiconductors (OSCs) is already used commercially in the production of organic light emitting diode displays. Beginning from a discussion of the materials and geometrical parameters determining transistor performance and drawing on results from numerous publications, this review makes a case for vacuum-evaporation as an enabler of R2R organic circuit production. The potential of the vacuum route is benchmarked against solution approaches and found to be highly competitive. For example, evaporated small molecules tend to have higher mobility than printed OSCs. High resolution metal patterning on plastic films is already a low-cost commercial process for high-volume packaging applications. Similarly, solvent-free flash-evaporation and polymerization of thin films on plastic substrates is also a high-volume commercial process and has been shown capable of producing robust gate dielectrics. Reports of basic logic circuit elements produced in a vacuum R2R environment are reviewed and shown to be superior to all-solution printing approaches. Finally, the main issues that need to be resolved in order to fully develop the vacuum route to R2R circuit production are highlighted.

  19. 76 FR 65579 - Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Test Rule and Significant New Use Rule; Fourth Group of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... (TSCA) section 4(a)(1)(B) to require manufacturers and processors of 23 high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to develop screening-level health, environmental, and fate data based on the potential... manufacturing and petroleum refineries. Processors of one or more of the subject chemical substances...

  20. Animal Use and Lessons Learned in the U.S. High Production Volume Chemicals Challenge Program

    PubMed Central

    Manuppello, Joseph R.; Willett, Catherine E.; Sandler, Jessica T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Launched by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1998, the High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program was developed to address the perceived gap in basic hazard information for the 2,800 chemicals produced or imported into the United States in quantities of ≥ 1 million pounds per year. Health and environmental effects data obtained from either existing information or through new vertebrate animal testing were voluntarily submitted by chemical companies (sponsors) to the U.S. EPA. Despite the potential for extensive animal testing, animal welfare guidelines were not provided until after the start of the program. Objectives: We evaluated compliance with the animal welfare principles that arose from an agreement reached between the U.S. EPA and animal protection organizations and tracked the HPV program’s use of animals for testing. Discussion: Under a worst-case scenario, the HPV program had the potential to consume 3.5 million animals in new testing. After application of animal-saving measures, approximately 127,000 were actually used. Categorization of chemicals based on similar structure–activity and application of read-across, along with use of existing test data, were the most effective means of reducing animal testing. However, animal-saving measures were inconsistently used by both sponsors and the U.S. EPA. Conclusions: Lessons learned from the HPV program can be applied to future programs to minimize animal testing and promote more human-relevant chemical risk assessment. PMID:23033452

  1. Guidelines for estimating volume, biomass, and smoke production for piled slash. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, C.C.

    1996-02-01

    Guidelines in the form of a six-step approach are provided for estimating volumes, oven-dry mass, consumption, and particulate matter emissions for piled logging debris. Seven stylized pile shapes and their associated geometric volume formulae are used to estimate gross pile volumes. The gross volumes are then reduced to net wood volume by applying an appropriate wood-to-pile volume packing ratio. Next, the oven-dry mass of the pile is determined by using the wood density, or a weighted-average of two wood densitities, for any of 14 tree species commonly piled and burned in the Western United States. Finally, the percentage of biomass consumed is multiplied by an appropriate emission factor to determine the mass of PM, PM10, and PM2.5 produced from the burned pile. These estimates can be extended to represent multiple piles, or multiple groups of similar piles, to estimate the particulate emissions from an entire burn project.

  2. Cross sections for H(-) and Cl(-) production from HCl by dissociative electron attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    A crossed target beam-electron beam collision geometry and a quadrupole mass spectrometer have been used to conduct dissociative electron attachment cross section measurements for the case of H(-) and Cl(-) production from HCl. The relative flow technique is used to determine the absolute values of cross sections. A tabulation is given of the attachment energies corresponding to various cross section maxima. Error sources contributing to total errors are also estimated.

  3. Influence of complex impact of the picosecond electron beam and volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air on the electronic properties of MCT epitaxial films surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, Denis V.; Novikov, Vadim A.; Bezrodnyy, Dmitriy A.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shulepov, Michail A.; Dvoretskii, Sergei A.

    2015-12-01

    In the present report we studied the distribution of surface potential of the HgCdTe epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy after the impact of picosecond electron beam and volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air. The surface potential distribution was studied by the Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy. The experimental data obtained for the variation of the contact potential difference (ΔCPD) between the V-defect and the main matrix of the epitaxial film. The investigation of the origin epitaxial films show that variation of the spatial distribution of surface potential in the V-defect region can be related to the variation of the material composition. The experimental data obtained for the irradiated samples show that the mean value of ΔCPD for the original surface differs from the one for the irradiated surface for 55 eV. At the same time the mean value of ΔCPD changes its sign indicating that the original surface of the epitaxial HgCdTe film predominantly contains the grains with increased cadmium content while after the irradiation the grains possess an increased content of mercury. Therefore, during the irradiation process a decrease of the mercury content in the near-surface region of the semiconductor takes place resulting in the alteration of the electrophysical properties in the films near-surface region.

  4. Mesospheric NO2 production due to relativistic electron precipitation from 2007 till 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friederich, Felix; Sinnhuber, Miriam; Funke, Bernd; von Clarmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele; Orphal, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    Electrons of the radiation belts and the aurora can precipitate into the Earth's atmosphere. Depending on their energy they intrude into different altitudes and can excitate, ionize, and dissociate molecular nitrogen. Subsequent (ion-)chemical reactions result in an effective NOx-production (NOx=NO+NO2). NOx is produced mostly by auroral electrons in the thermosphere at ca. 110 km altitude. But relativistic electrons from the radiation belts can also reach the stratosphere. However, in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere, no direct NOx-production due to electron precipitation has been detected yet. We use NO2 observations from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat in the altitude range from 40 km to 60 km in order to search for direct NOx-production. We show that the AP index correlates with the nighttime NO2 abundance between 44 km and 54 km altitude at 65±5°N geomagnetic latitude. At these altitudes the NO2 ratio of nighttime NOx is between 80 % and 100 %. Because of the correlation between AP index and nighttime NO2, we conclude, that there is direct NOx-production caused by relativistic electrons about 0.5 ppb at the most.

  5. Studies of slow-positron production using low-energy primary electron beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Lessner, E.

    1999-04-20

    Slow-positron beams produced from negative-work-function solid-state moderators have found numerous applications in condensed matter physics. There are potential advantages in using low-energy primary electron beams for positron production, including reduced radiation damage to single-crystal moderators and reduced activation of nearby components. We present numerical calculations of positron yields and other beam parameters for various target-moderator configurations using the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) [1] and Advanced Photon Source (APS) [2] electron linacs [3] as examples of sources for the primary electron beams. The status of experiments at these facilities is reviewed.

  6. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    PubMed Central

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications. PMID:26883390

  7. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  8. Dissociative Ionization and Product Distributions of Benzene and Pyridine by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Huo, Winifred M.; Fletcher, Graham D.

    2003-01-01

    We report a theoretical study of the dissociative ionization (DI) and product distributions of benzene (C6H6) and pyridine (C5H5N) from their low-lying ionization channels. Our approach makes use of the fact that electronic motion is much faster than nuclear motion allowing DI to be treated as a two-step process. The first step is the electron-impact ionization resulting in an ion with the same nuclear geometry as the neutral molecule. In the second step, the nuclei relax from the initial geometry and undergo unimolecular dissociation. For the ionization process we use the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model [W.M. Huo, Phys. Rev. A64,042719-I (2001)]. For the unimolecular dissociation, we use multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) methods to determine the steepest descent pathways to the possible product channels. More accurate methods are then used to obtain better energetics of the paths which are used to determine unimolecular dissociation probabilities and product distributions. Our analysis of the dissociation products and the thresholds of their productions for benzene are compared with the recent dissociative photoionization meausurements of benzene by Feng et al. [R. Feng, G. Cooper, C.E. Brion, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 123,211 (2002)] and the dissociative photoionization measurements of pyridine by Tixier et al. [S. Tixier, G. Cooper, R. Feng, C.E. Brion, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 123,185 (2002)] using dipole (e,e+ion) coincidence spectroscopy.

  9. A systematic procedure for modeling usability based on product design variables: a case study in audiovisual consumer electronic products.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Jae; Han, Sung H; Yun, Myung Hwan; Kwahk, Jiyoung

    2002-01-01

    A systematic modeling approach to describing, prescribing, and predicting usability of a product has been presented. Given the evaluation results of the usability dimension (UD) and the measurement of the product's design variables, referred to as the human interface elements (HIEs), the approach enables one to systematically assess the relationship between the UD and HIEs. The assessed relationship is called a usability model. Once built, such a usability model can relate, in a quantitative manner, the HIEs directly to the UDs, and thus can serve as an effective aid to designers by evaluating and predicting the usability of an existing or hypothetical product. A usability model for elegance of audiovisual consumer electronic products has been demonstrated.

  10. Automated Transmission-Mode Scanning Electron Microscopy (tSEM) for Large Volume Analysis at Nanoscale Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M.; Lindsey, Laurence F.; Harris, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM) on a field emission SEM platform was developed for efficient and cost-effective imaging of circuit-scale volumes from brain at nanoscale resolution. Image area was maximized while optimizing the resolution and dynamic range necessary for discriminating key subcellular structures, such as small axonal, dendritic and glial processes, synapses, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, polyribosomes, and endosomes which are critical for neuronal function. Individual image fields from the tSEM system were up to 4,295 µm2 (65.54 µm per side) at 2 nm pixel size, contrasting with image fields from a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM) system, which were only 66.59 µm2 (8.160 µm per side) at the same pixel size. The tSEM produced outstanding images and had reduced distortion and drift relative to TEM. Automated stage and scan control in tSEM easily provided unattended serial section imaging and montaging. Lens and scan properties on both TEM and SEM platforms revealed no significant nonlinear distortions within a central field of ∼100 µm2 and produced near-perfect image registration across serial sections using the computational elastic alignment tool in Fiji/TrakEM2 software, and reliable geometric measurements from RECONSTRUCT™ or Fiji/TrakEM2 software. Axial resolution limits the analysis of small structures contained within a section (∼45 nm). Since this new tSEM is non-destructive, objects within a section can be explored at finer axial resolution in TEM tomography with current methods. Future development of tSEM tomography promises thinner axial resolution producing nearly isotropic voxels and should provide within-section analyses of structures without changing platforms. Brain was the test system given our interest in synaptic connectivity and plasticity; however, the new tSEM system is readily applicable to other biological systems. PMID:23555711

  11. The relationship between perceived quality and divulgation strategies of products in the electronic marketplace.

    PubMed

    Costa, João; Horn, Milton

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces concepts regarding management design, the electronic marketplace and recommendation systems, as well as uses a revised bibliography proposing the relationship between applied management design strategies and recommendation products identified through Cazella and the different types of perceived quality developped by Michalos and Schwartz.

  12. Electron-positron pair production in the Aharonov-Bohm potential

    SciTech Connect

    Skarzhinsky, V.D. |; Audretsch, J.; Jasper, U.

    1996-02-01

    In the framework of QED we evaluate the cross section for electron-positron pair production by a single photon in the presence of the external Aharonov-Bohm potential in first order of perturbation theory. We analyze energy, angular, and polarization distributions at different energy regines: near the threshold and at high photon energies. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. 22 CFR 62.71 - Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019. 62.71 Section 62.71 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.71 Control...

  14. 22 CFR 62.71 - Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019. 62.71 Section 62.71 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.71 Control...

  15. 22 CFR 62.71 - Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019. 62.71 Section 62.71 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.71 Control...

  16. 22 CFR 62.71 - Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019. 62.71 Section 62.71 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.71 Control...

  17. 22 CFR 62.71 - Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019. 62.71 Section 62.71 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.71 Control...

  18. Using the scanning electron microscope on the production line to assure quality semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adolphsen, J. W.; Anstead, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    The use of the scanning electron microscope to detect metallization defects introduced during batch processing of semiconductor devices is discussed. A method of determining metallization integrity was developed which culminates in a procurement specification using the scanning microscope on the production line as a quality control tool. Batch process control of the metallization operation is monitored early in the manufacturing cycle.

  19. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2006-01-01

    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year…

  20. 12 CFR 7.5002 - Furnishing of products and services by electronic means and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Establishing, registering, and hosting commercially enabled web sites in the name of sellers; (ii) Establishing... a collection of links to web sites of third-party vendors, organized by-product type and made available to bank customers; (iii) Hosting an electronic marketplace on the bank's Internet web site...

  1. 12 CFR 7.5002 - Furnishing of products and services by electronic means and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Establishing, registering, and hosting commercially enabled web sites in the name of sellers; (ii) Establishing... a collection of links to web sites of third-party vendors, organized by-product type and made available to bank customers; (iii) Hosting an electronic marketplace on the bank's Internet web site...

  2. 12 CFR 7.5002 - Furnishing of products and services by electronic means and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Establishing, registering, and hosting commercially enabled web sites in the name of sellers; (ii) Establishing... a collection of links to web sites of third-party vendors, organized by-product type and made available to bank customers; (iii) Hosting an electronic marketplace on the bank's Internet web site...

  3. Spatial Correlations and Distributions in Energetic Electron Production by Meter-Scale Sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, B. E.; Scherrer, Z.; Weber, K.; LeCaptain, K.; Ostgaard, N.; Grøndahl; Kochkin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Energetic radiation produced by meter-scale sparks implies the existence of a large population of energetic electrons. These electrons are believed to be produced by negative streamers in the high-field region as the spark develops. Detectors placed in the high-field region can directly detect these energetic electrons and the x-rays they produce, but the data is difficult to interpret as radiation production varies strongly from one spark to the next and may vary strongly with position within a single spark. We overcome this difficulty by collecting data from sparks with multiple detectors present to measure both intra- and inter-spark variability. Specifically, we present radiation intensity distributions over many sparks and many detector positions, together with correlations between detectors within sparks and how such correlations vary with detector separation. These statistics shed light on the scale of energetic radiation production by streamers and how and where such radiation is produced in lab sparks.

  4. Dissociation of CH4 by electron impact: Production of metastable hydrogen and carbon fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, T. G.; Carnahan, B. L.; Zipf, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    Metastable fragments produced by electron impact excitation of CH4 have been investigated for incident electron energies from threshold to 300 eV. Only metastable hydrogen and carbon atoms were observed. Onset energies for the production of metastable hydrogen atoms were observed at electron impact energies of 22.0 + or - .5 eV, 25.5 + or - .6 eV, 36.7 + or - .6 eV and 66 + or - 3 eV, and at 26.6 + or - .6 eV for the production of metastable carbon atoms. Most of the fragments appear to have been formed in high-lying Rydberg states. The total metastable hydrogen cross section reaches a maximum value of approximately 1 X 10 to the minus 18th power sq cm at 100 eV. At the same energy, the metastable carbon cross section is 2 x 10 to the minus 19th power sq cm.

  5. Bound-free electron-positron pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengül, M. Y.; Güçlü, M. C.; Fritzsche, S.

    2009-10-01

    The bound-free electron-positron pair production is considered for relativistic heavy ion collisions. In particular, cross sections are calculated for the pair production with the simultaneous capture of the electron into the 1s ground state of one of the ions and for energies that are relevant for the relativistic heavy ion collider and the large hadron colliders. In the framework of perturbation theory, we applied Monte Carlo integration techniques to compute the lowest-order Feynman diagrams amplitudes by using Darwin wave functions for the bound states of the electrons and Sommerfeld-Maue wave functions for the continuum states of the positrons. Calculations were performed especially for the collision of Au+Au at 100 GeV/nucleon and Pb+Pb at 3400 GeV/nucleon.

  6. Double scattering production of two positron-electron pairs in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłusek-Gawenda, Mariola; Szczurek, Antoni

    2016-12-01

    We present first measurable predictions for electromagnetic (two-photon) double scattering production of two positron-electron pairs in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions at LHC. Measurable cross sections are obtained with realistic cuts on electron/positron (pseudo)rapidities and transverse momenta for the ALICE and ATLAS or CMS experiments. The predictions for total and differential cross sections are presented. We show also two-dimensional distributions in rapidities of the opposite-sign (from the same or different subcollisions) and of the same-sign (e+e+ or e-e-) electrons and in rapidity distance between them. Expected number of events are presented and discussed. Our calculations strongly suggest that relevant measurements with the help of ATLAS, CMS and ALICE detectors are possible in a near future. We show and compare energy dependence of the cross sections for one-pair and two-pair production.

  7. Electron transfer pathways of formate-driven H2 production in Desulfovibrio.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mónica; Mourato, Cláudia; Morais-Silva, Fabio O; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D; Pereira, Inês A C

    2016-09-01

    The potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as biocatalysts for H2 production from formate was recently demonstrated, but the electron transfer pathways involved were not described. In the present work, we analyzed the H2 production capacity of five Desulfovibrio strains: Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio alaskensis, Desulfovibrio fructosivorans, and Desulfovibrio gigas. D. vulgaris showed the highest H2 productivity (865 mL Lmedium (-1)), and D. gigas the lowest one (374 mL Lmedium (-1) of H2). The electron transfer pathways involved in formate-driven H2 production by these two organisms were further investigated through the study of deletion mutants of hydrogenases (Hases) and formate dehydrogenases (Fdhs). In D. vulgaris, the periplasmic FdhAB is the key enzyme for formate oxidation and two pathways are apparently involved in the production of H2 from formate: a direct one only involving periplasmic enzymes and a second one that involves transmembrane electron transfer and may allow energy conservation. In the presence of selenium, the Hys [NiFeSe] Hase is the main periplasmic enzyme responsible for H2 production, and the cytoplasmic Coo Hase is apparently involved in the ability of D. vulgaris to grow by converting formate to H2, in sparging conditions. Contrary to D. vulgaris, H2 production in D. gigas occurs exclusively by the direct periplasmic route and does not involve the single cytoplasmic Hase, Ech. This is the first report of the metabolic pathways involved in formate metabolism in the absence of sulfate in SRB, revealing that the electron transfer pathways are species-specific.

  8. Hot electron production using the Texas Petawatt Laser irradiating thick gold targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Devin; Liang, Edison; Clarke, Taylor; Henderson, Alexander; Chaguine, Petr; Wang, Xin; Dyer, Gilliss; Serratto, Kristina; Riley, Nathan; Donovan, Michael; Ditmire, Todd

    2013-06-01

    We present data for relativistic hot electron production by the Texas Petawatt Laser irradiating solid Au targets with thickness between 1 and 4 mm. The experiment was performed at the short focus target chamber TC1 in July 2011, with intensities on the order of several ×1019 W/cm2 and laser energies around 50 J. We discuss the design of an electron-positron magnetic spectrometer to record the lepton energy spectra ejected from the Au targets and present a deconvolution algorithm to extract the lepton energy spectra. We measured hot electron spectra out to ˜50 MeV, which show a narrow peak around 10-20 MeV, plus high energy exponential tail. The hot electron spectral shapes appear significantly different from those reported for other PW lasers.

  9. A study of Channeling, Volume Reflection and Volume Capture of 3.35 - 14.0 GeV Electrons in a bent Silicon Crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Wistisen, T. N.; Uggerhoj, U. I.; Wienands, U.; Markiewicz, T. W.; Noble, R. J.; Benson, B. L.; Smith, T.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Holtzapple, R.; Tucker, S.

    2015-12-03

    We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasi-mosaic silicon crystal. Additionally, these phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5 and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.070, 0.088, 0.13, 0.22 and 0.29 times the critical curvature respectively. We have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  10. Design and production of 3D printed bolus for electron radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Su, Shiqin; Moran, Kathryn; Robar, James L

    2014-07-08

    This is a proof-of-concept study demonstrating the capacity for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) dose distributions using 3D printed bolus. Previous reports have involved bolus design using an electron pencil beam model and fabrication using a milling machine. In this study, an in-house algorithm is presented that optimizes the dose distribution with regard to dose coverage, conformity, and homogeneity within the planning target volume (PTV). The algorithm takes advantage of a commercial electron Monte Carlo dose calculation and uses the calculated result as input. Distances along ray lines from the distal side of 90% isodose line to distal surface of the PTV are used to estimate the bolus thickness. Inhomogeneities within the calculation volume are accounted for using the coefficient of equivalent thickness method. Several regional modulation operators are applied to improve the dose coverage and uniformity. The process is iterated (usually twice) until an acceptable MERT plan is realized, and the final bolus is printed using solid polylactic acid. The method is evaluated with regular geometric phantoms, anthropomorphic phantoms, and a clinical rhabdomyosarcoma pediatric case. In all cases the dose conformity are improved compared to that with uniform bolus. For geometric phantoms with air or bone inhomogeneities, the dose homogeneity is markedly improved. The actual printed boluses conform well to the surface of complex anthropomorphic phantoms. The correspondence of the dose distribution between the calculated synthetic bolus and the actual manufactured bolus is shown. For the rhabdomyosarcoma patient, the MERT plan yields a reduction of mean dose by 38.2% in left kidney relative to uniform bolus. MERT using 3D printed bolus appears to be a practical, low-cost approach to generating optimized bolus for electron therapy. The method is effective in improving conformity of the prescription isodose surface and in sparing immediately adjacent normal

  11. Bio-Nano ECRIS: An electron cyclotron resonance ion source for new materials production

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, T.; Minezaki, H.; Tanaka, K.; Asaji, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Kato, Y.; Biri, S.

    2010-02-15

    We developed an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for new materials production on nanoscale. Our main target is the endohedral fullerenes, which have potential in medical care, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. In particular, iron-encapsulated fullerene can be applied as a contrast material for magnetic resonance imaging or microwave heat therapy. Thus, our new ECRIS is named the Bio-Nano ECRIS. In this article, the recent progress of the development of the Bio-Nano ECRIS is reported: (i) iron ion beam production using induction heating oven and (ii) optimization of singly charged C{sub 60} ion beam production.

  12. Earth observing system. Output data products and input requirements, version 2.0. Volume 3: Algorithm summary tables and non-EOS data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi; Chang, Hyo Duck; Krupp, Brian; Kumar, Ravindar; Swaroop, Anand

    1992-01-01

    Volume 3 assists Earth Observing System (EOS) investigators in locating required non-EOS data products by identifying their non-EOS input requirements and providing the information on data sets available at various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's), including those from Pathfinder Activities and Earth Probes. Volume 3 is intended to complement, not to duplicate, the the EOSDIS Science Data Plan (SDP) by providing detailed data set information which was not presented in the SDP. Section 9 of this volume discusses the algorithm summary tables containing information on retrieval algorithms, expected outputs and required input data. Section 10 describes the non-EOS input requirements of instrument teams and IDS investigators. Also described are the current and future data holdings of the original seven DAACS and data products planned from the future missions and projects including Earth Probes and Pathfinder Activities. Section 11 describes source of information used in compiling data set information presented in this volume. A list of data set attributes used to describe various data sets is presented in section 12 along with their descriptions. Finally, Section 13 presents the SPSO's future plan to improve this report .

  13. A spherical electron cloud hopping model for studying product branching ratios of dissociative recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2008-05-01

    A spherical electron cloud hopping (SECH) model is proposed to study the product branching ratios of dissociative recombination (DR) of polyatomic systems. In this model, the fast electron-captured process is treated as an instantaneous hopping of a cloud of uniform spherical fractional point charges onto a target M+q ion (or molecule). The sum of point charges (-1) simulates the incident electron. The sphere radius is determined by a critical distance (ReMc) between the incoming electron (e -) and the target, at which the potential energy of the e--M+q system is equal to that of the electron-captured molecule M+q-1 in a symmetry-allowed electronic state with the same structure as M+q. During the hopping procedure, the excess energies of electron association reaction are dispersed in the kinetic energies of M+q-1 atoms to conserve total energy. The kinetic energies are adjusted by linearly adding atomic momenta in the direction of driving forces induced by the scattering electron. The nuclear dynamics of the resultant M+q-1 molecule are studied by using a direct ab initio dynamics method on the adiabatic potential energy surface of M+q-1, or together with extra adiabatic surface(s) of M+q-1. For the latter case, the "fewest switches" surface hopping algorithm of Tully was adapted to deal with the nonadiabaticity in trajectory propagations. The SECH model has been applied to study the DR of both CH + and H3O+(H2O)2. The theoretical results are consistent with the experiment. It was found that water molecules play an important role in determining the product branching ratios of the molecular cluster ion.

  14. A spherical electron cloud hopping model for studying product branching ratios of dissociative recombination.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2008-05-21

    A spherical electron cloud hopping (SECH) model is proposed to study the product branching ratios of dissociative recombination (DR) of polyatomic systems. In this model, the fast electron-captured process is treated as an instantaneous hopping of a cloud of uniform spherical fractional point charges onto a target M+q ion (or molecule). The sum of point charges (-1) simulates the incident electron. The sphere radius is determined by a critical distance (Rc eM) between the incoming electron (e-) and the target, at which the potential energy of the e(-)-M+q system is equal to that of the electron-captured molecule M+q(-1) in a symmetry-allowed electronic state with the same structure as M(+q). During the hopping procedure, the excess energies of electron association reaction are dispersed in the kinetic energies of M+q(-1) atoms to conserve total energy. The kinetic energies are adjusted by linearly adding atomic momenta in the direction of driving forces induced by the scattering electron. The nuclear dynamics of the resultant M+q(-1) molecule are studied by using a direct ab initio dynamics method on the adiabatic potential energy surface of M+q(-1), or together with extra adiabatic surface(s) of M+q(-1). For the latter case, the "fewest switches" surface hopping algorithm of Tully was adapted to deal with the nonadiabaticity in trajectory propagations. The SECH model has been applied to study the DR of both CH+ and H3O+(H2O)2. The theoretical results are consistent with the experiment. It was found that water molecules play an important role in determining the product branching ratios of the molecular cluster ion.

  15. Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay for detection and quantitation of endotoxin in a small-volume parenteral product.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, K; Steindler, K A; Harrison, S J

    1980-01-01

    A Limulus amoebocyte lysate gel-clotting method for the determination of endotoxin in a small-volume parenteral product has been described. Sample dilution with 0.1 M potassium phosphate monobasic buffer (pH 8.0) effectively eliminated assay interference, whereas dilution with water did not. The threshold pyrogenic dose for Escherichia coli EC-2 and O127:B8 endotoxins was determined to be 1.0 ng of endotoxin per kg of body weight. Not more than 1.0 ng of endotoxin (the threshold pyrogenic dose) per the highest recommended human dose or the USP pyrogen test dose per kg of body weight, whichever dose is more stringent, is a logical limit for the quantity of bacterial endotoxin in small-volume parenteral products. Excellent correlation was attained when this criterion was used to compare the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay with the USP pyrogen test. PMID:6448582

  16. Production of Volume Wave Plasma with Internally Mounted Cylindrical Planar Microwave Launcher and Two-Dimensional Field Analysis Using Finite Difference Time Domain Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogino, Akihisa; Naito, Katsutoshi; Terashita, Fumie; Nanko, Shohei; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we presented experimental results on the production of volume wave plasma (VWP) using an internally mounted cylindrical planar microwave launcher, for application to novel plasma processings, such as inner wall coating, impurity-free etching or internal sterilization of medical instruments using VWP. It was demonstrated that the ellipsoidal VWP is produced in front of a microwave launcher in He or Ar gas atmosphere. Numerical analyses of microwave fields radiated from a planar launcher have been carried out using the two-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method to determine the mechanism of VWP production in middle of the chamber. It was shown that the calculation results showed fairly good agreements with the experimental results measured using a dipole antenna probe. The spatial distributions of plasma density and the temperature of VWP were also measured using a double probe. It was found that the electron density is comparable to or slightly less than cutoff density of 7.4 × 1010 cm-3 corresponding to the microwave frequency of fm=2.45 GHz, and that the electron temperature is approximately 6 eV at the plasma center.

  17. Assessing the risks of trace gases that can modify the stratosphere. Volume 6. Technical support documentation production projections

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.S.

    1987-12-01

    This document is one of a series that examines the human health, environmental, and atmospheric risks associated with a decrease in stratospheric ozone. This volume includes reports on: Probabilistic projections of chlorofluorocarbon consumption; Scenarios of chlorofluorocarbon use: 1985-2075; Product uses and market trends for potential ozone depleting substance 1985-2000; and An analytic method for constructing scenarios from a subjective joint possibility distribution.

  18. Control and reduction of immersion defectivity for yield enhancement at high volume production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Katsushi; Seki, Rei; Sekito, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Masato; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Owa, Soichi

    2009-03-01

    Volume device manufacturing using immersion lithography is widely accepted as the solution for patterning IC features below 40 nm half pitch. In order to ensure high yield and steady productivity tight control of defectivity is essential. A major source of defects and tool contamination is the particles introduced by incoming wafers. Particles can be categorized in two groups: particles attached to wafer surface or residues on the wafer edge. Surface or edge peeling of topcoats can also be a source of particle. Adhesion force between topcoat or topcoat-less (TC-less) resist and wafer is one of the most important parameter for particle reduction. Peeling test results proved that TC-less resist has better adhesion performance than topcoat. One of the most commonly used adhesion promoting material is hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). Application condition of this material is an important factor in preventing wafer edge and surface topcoat peeling. Studies have shown lower temperature and longer application of HMDS shows better adhesion result. Maintaining a clean wafer surface is also a very important factor for particle reduction. Pre-rinse, which can rinse off particles before exposure, was evaluated and the efficiency was confirmed. Edge particles are more effectively reduced by pre-rinse, because weakly attached topcoat and wafer edge residues were effectively removed by pre-rinse. For further particle reduction, edge residue reduction and cut line roughness improvement were evaluated and their effectiveness was confirmed. Lower cut position achieved improved particle counts on both topcoat and TC-less resist; more frequent contact between water and cut-line can weaken the adhesion and consequently peel off topcoat or TC-less resist. Finally the relationship between defectivity and hydrophobicity is analyzed, high Receding Contact Angle (RCA) showed better defectivity result. Topcoat and TC-less process is compared for each defectivity reduction methodology and for

  19. From electronic consumer products to e-wastes: Global outlook, waste quantities, recycling challenges.

    PubMed

    Tansel, Berrin

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in technology, materials development, and manufacturing processes have changed the consumer products and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) since 1960s. Increasing quantities of discarded consumer products remain a major challenge for recycling efforts, especially for discarded electronic products (also referred as e-waste). The growing demand for high tech products has increased the e-waste quantities and its cross boundary transport globally. This paper reviews the challenges associated with increasing e-waste quantities. The increasing need for raw materials (especially for rare earth and minor elements) and unregulated e-waste recycling operations in developing and underdeveloped counties contribute to the growing concerns for e-waste management. Although the markets for recycled materials are increasing; there are major challenges for development of the necessary infrastructure for e-waste management and accountability as well as development of effective materials recovery technologies and product design.

  20. Efficient Production of O- by Dissociative Attachment of Slow Electrons to Highly Excited Metastable Oxygen Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Daiyu; Kadota, Kiyoshi

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanism for efficient production of O- in the afterglow of a low-pressure and high-density oxygen plasma has been described. We proposed a new production process, the dissociative attachment of slow electrons to highly excited metastable oxygen molecules O2 (A3 Σu+, A'3Δu, c1Σu-). The electron attachment frequency has been obtained from the experimental results, and was significantly high for the electron temperature of less than 2 eV. The cross section, σDA, for this process was evaluated by a quantum mechanical approach. σDA at 0.1 eV was larger by two-orders of magnitude than the peak value at 6.7 eV for the ground state O2 (X3Σg+). The enhancement of the electron attachment frequency at low temperature can be explained by dissociative attachment of slow electrons to O2 (A3Σu+, A'3Δu, c1Σu-).

  1. Propagation of gamma rays and production of free electrons in air

    SciTech Connect

    Dimant, Y. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Granatstein, V. L.; Sprangle, P.; Penano, J.

    2012-10-15

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of production of free electrons in air by gamma-rays leaking from radioactive materials. A model based on the Klein-Nishina scattering theory is used to calculate scattering cross sections and approximate the electron production rate. The model includes the effects of primary gamma-quanta radiated by the source as well as that scattered in air. Comparison of the model with the mcnpx kinetic code (http://mcnpx.lanl.gov/) in a sample problem shows excellent agreement. The motivation for this research comes from the recently proposed concept of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials [V. L. Granatstein and G. S. Nusinovich, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063304 (2010)]. The concept is based on the breakdown in air at the focal point of a high-power beam of electromagnetic waves produced by a THz gyrotron with a 10-20 {mu}s pulse. The presence of a radioactive material can greatly exceed the production rate of free electrons over the natural background rate. Additional electrons act as seeds to initiate the breakdown and create sufficiently dense plasma at the focal region. The dense plasma can then be remotely detected as an unambiguous effect of the concealed radioactive material.

  2. Insights into proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms of electrocatalytic H2 oxidation and production

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Samantha; Fernandez, Laura E.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The design of molecular electrocatalysts for H2 oxidation and production is important for the development of alternative renewable energy sources that are abundant, inexpensive, and environmentally benign. Recently, nickel-based molecular electrocatalysts with pendant amines that act as proton relays for the nickel center were shown to effectively catalyze H2 oxidation and production. We developed a quantum mechanical approach for studying proton-coupled electron transfer processes in these types of molecular electrocatalysts. This theoretical approach is applied to a nickel-based catalyst in which phosphorous atoms are directly bonded to the nickel center, and nitrogen atoms of the ligand rings act as proton relays. The catalytic step of interest involves electron transfer between the nickel complex and the electrode as well as intramolecular proton transfer between the nickel and nitrogen atoms. This process can occur sequentially, with either the electron or proton transferring first, or concertedly, with the electron and proton transferring simultaneously without a stable intermediate. The electrochemical rate constants are calculated as functions of overpotential for the concerted electron-proton transfer reaction and the two electron transfer reactions in the sequential mechanisms. Our calculations illustrate that the concerted electron-proton transfer standard rate constant will increase as the equilibrium distance between the nickel and nitrogen atoms decreases and as the pendant amines become more flexible to facilitate the contraction of this distance with a lower energy penalty. This approach identifies the favored mechanisms under various experimental conditions and provides insight into the impact of substituents on the nitrogen and phosphorous atoms. PMID:22529352

  3. Redox behaviour of nifuroxazide: generation of the one-electron reduction product.

    PubMed

    Squella, J A; Letelier, M E; Lindermeyer, L; Nuñez-Vergara, L J

    1996-01-05

    The electrochemical properties of nifuroxazide have been investigated in aqueous and aqueous-DMF mixed solvents. In aqueous media, a single, irreversible four-electron reduction occurs to give the hydroxylamine derivative. In mixed media, a reversible one-electron reduction to form a nitro radical anion takes place. Cyclic voltammetric studies show that the anion radical product is stable, although the nitro radical anion intermediate shows a tendency to undergo further chemical reactions. A comparison with the voltammetric behaviour of other nitrofurans such as nifurtimox, nitrofurazone and furazolidone is made. The electrochemically-obtained parameters are correlated with the in vivo studies of oxygen consumption on Trypanosoma cruzi cell suspensions.

  4. Defect production in electron-irradiated, n-type GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Look, D. C.; Sizelove, J. R.

    1987-11-01

    Energies and production rates for a pure vapor-phase epitaxial GaAs layer irradiated by 1-MeV electrons were obtained from measurements of temperature-dependent Hall (TDH) effect and were compared with published data based on deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The TDH energy and production rates of two dominant defect centers, C2 and C3, were in good agreement with DLTS data. The most important result of this study is a very high production rate (4 + or - 1/cm) for 'shallow' acceptors C(AS) lying below C3-energy. C(AS) were found to be produced at a much higher rate than all of the DLTS traps observed in this energy range, indicating that close to half of the primary defects in electron-irradiated GaAs are not seen by DLTS. For microscopic models of the electron traps C1 and C2, the high C(AS) production rate renders unnecessary the assumption that one of these centers must be an acceptor in order to explain the Hall-effect results. It is shown that all available HDT and DLTS data are consistent with the C(AS) representing Ga-sublattice damage, a fact which has not been observed before.

  5. Consumption-weighted life cycle assessment of a consumer electronic product community.

    PubMed

    Ryen, Erinn G; Babbitt, Callie W; Williams, Eric

    2015-02-17

    A new approach for quantifying the net environmental impact of a "community" of interrelated products is demonstrated for consumer electronics owned by an average U.S. household over a 15-year period (1992-2007). This consumption-weighted life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology accounts for both product consumption (number of products per household) and impact (cumulative energy demand (MJ) and greenhouse gas emissions (MT CO2 eq) per product), analyzed using a hybrid LCA framework. Despite efficiency improvements in individual devices from 1992 to 2007, the net impact of the entire product community increased, due primarily to increasing ownership and usage. The net energy impact for the product community is significant, nearly 30% of the average gasoline use in a U.S. passenger vehicle in 2007. The analysis points to a large contribution by legacy products (cathode ray tube televisions and desktop computers), due to historically high consumption rates, although impacts are beginning to shift to smaller mobile devices. This method is also applied to evaluate prospective intervention strategies, indicating that environmental impact can be reduced by strategies such as lifespan extension or energy efficiency, but only when applied to all products owned, or by transforming consumption trends toward fewer, highly multifunctional products.

  6. Auto-thermal reforming using mixed ion-electronic conducting ceramic membranes for a small-scale H₂ production plant.

    PubMed

    Spallina, Vincenzo; Melchiori, Tommaso; Gallucci, Fausto; van Sint Annaland, Martin

    2015-03-18

    The integration of mixed ionic electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes for air separation in a small-to-medium scale unit for H2 production (in the range of 650-850 Nm3/h) via auto-thermal reforming of methane has been investigated in the present study. Membranes based on mixed ionic electronic conducting oxides such as Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) give sufficiently high oxygen fluxes at temperatures above 800 °C with high purity (higher than 99%). Experimental results of membrane permeation tests are presented and used for the reactor design with a detailed reactor model. The assessment of the H2 plant has been carried out for different operating conditions and reactor geometry and an energy analysis has been carried out with the flowsheeting software Aspen Plus, including also the turbomachines required for a proper thermal integration. A micro-gas turbine is integrated in the system in order to supply part of the electricity required in the system. The analysis of the system shows that the reforming efficiency is in the range of 62%-70% in the case where the temperature at the auto-thermal reforming membrane reactor (ATR-MR) is equal to 900 °C. When the electric consumption and the thermal export are included the efficiency of the plant approaches 74%-78%. The design of the reactor has been carried out using a reactor model linked to the Aspen flowsheet and the results show that with a larger reactor volume the performance of the system can be improved, especially because of the reduced electric consumption. From this analysis it has been found that for a production of about 790 Nm3/h pure H2, a reactor with a diameter of 1 m and length of 1.8 m with about 1500 membranes of 2 cm diameter is required.

  7. The Social Production of Scientific Knowledge. Sociology of the Sciences, Volume I - Yearbook 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Everett, Ed.; And Others

    This is the first volume of an annual publication that deals with the sociology of the sciences. The aim of the yearbook is to consider sociology from a very broad perspective and to develop a comparative, cross disciplinary understanding of the sciences. It does this by publishing papers from a number of perspectives and approaches on a specific…

  8. Electron and hole transfer from DNA base radicals to oxidized products of guanine in DNA.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhongli; Sevilla, Michael D

    2003-03-01

    An investigation of electron and hole transfer to oxidized guanine bases in DNA is reported. Guanine in DNA was preferentially oxidized by Br(2)(*-) at 298 K to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine (8-oxo-G) and higher oxidation products. HPLC-EC analysis of irradiated DNA shows that the formation of 8-oxo-G could not be increased above the ratio of one 8-oxo-G to 127 +/- 6 bp regardless of dose. 8-oxo-G can be produced only at low levels because it is further oxidized to other species. These oxidation products of guanine have been extensively investigated and identified by others. Our electron spin resonance studies suggest that at 77 K 8-oxo-G is a trap for radiation-produced holes, but certain further oxidation products of 8-oxo-G (G(ox)) are found to be efficient electron traps. Gamma irradiation of oxidized DNA samples in frozen (D(2)O) aqueous ices and glassy 7 M LiBr solutions resulted in radicals formed by electron attachment to the G(ox) sites that were monitored by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) at 77 K. These ESR spectra suggest that those oxidation products of 8-oxo-G containing alpha-diketo groups account for the electron traps (G(ox)) in oxidized DNA with oxaluric acid a likely major trap. Electron transfer from DNA anion radicals to G(ox) was followed by monitoring of their ESR signals with time at 77 K. Using typical values for the tunneling constant beta estimates of the relative amount of G(ox) to base pairs were obtained. Radicals formed by UV photolysis of oxidized DNA in 8 M NaClO(4) glassy aqueous solutions were also investigated. The 8-oxo-G cation accounts for less than 10% of all the radicals observed after either gamma irradiation of oxidized DNA in frozen (D(2)O) aqueous solution or UV photolysis of oxidized DNA in 8 M NaClO(4) glassy aqueous solutions. We estimate hole transfer distances of about 7 +/- 1 bp at 1 min from G(*+) to 8-oxo-G.

  9. Electronic states of MgO: Spectroscopy, predissociation, and cold atomic Mg and O production

    SciTech Connect

    Maatouk, A.; Ben Houria, A.; Yazidi, O.; Jaidane, N.; Hochlaf, M.

    2010-10-14

    We used multiconfigurational methods and a large basis set to compute the potential energy curves of the valence and valence-Rydberg electronic states of MgO molecule. New bound electronic states are found. Using these highly correlated wave functions, we evaluated their mutual spin-orbit couplings and transition moment integrals. For the bound electronic states of MgO, we deduced an accurate set of spectroscopic constants that agree remarkably well with experimental results. Moreover, our potentials, transition moments, and spin-orbit coupling evolutions are incorporated into Fermi golden rule calculations to deduce the radiative lifetimes of MgO(B {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}) rovibrational levels and the natural lifetimes of MgO(A {sup 1}{Pi}) vibrational levels, where a good agreement is found with experimental values. Finally, we suggest new routes for the production of cold Mg and O atoms and cold MgO molecules.

  10. Exit charge state dependence of convoy electron production in heavy-ion solid collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Huelskoetter, H.P.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Sellin, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    The dependence of the yield of convoy electrons emitted near the forward direction in collisions involving fast ions and thin solid targets on the emergent projectile charge state is presented and described in terms of primary electron loss events in the solid. The data include a large array of projectiles, projectile energies and charge states, as well as targets ranging in thickness from the non-equilibrium well into the equilibrium thickness region. The description presented is consistent with other experimental and theoretical results indicating that the convoy electron production is closely linked to the ELC process observed in binary ion-atom collisions, with the dominant contribution to the convoy yield stemming from excited states of the projectiles. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Electron Beam Production and Characterization for the PLEIADES Thomson X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W J; Hartemann, F V; Tremaine, A M; Springer, P T; Le Sage, G P; Barty, C P J; Rosenzweig, J B; Crane, J K; Cross, R R; Fittinghoff, D B; Gibson, D J; Slaughter, D R; Anderson, S

    2002-10-14

    We report on the performance of an S-band RF photocathode electron gun and accelerator for operation with the PLEIADES Thomson x-ray source at LLNL. Simulations of beam production, transport, and focus are presented. It is shown that a 1 ps, 500 pC electron bunch with a normalized emittance of less than 5 {pi}mm-mrad can be delivered to the interaction point. Initial electron measurements are presented. Calculations of expected x-ray flux are also performed, demonstrating an expected peak spectral brightness of 10{sup 20} photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% bandwidth. Effects of RF phase jitter are also presented, and planned phase measurements and control methods are discussed.

  12. 75 FR 38127 - Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ryder Integrated Logistics and Including On-Site Workers From Span... Systems, LLC, North Penn Plant, Electronics Products Group, including on-site leased workers from...

  13. 77 FR 5275 - Used Electronic Products: An Examination of U.S. Exports; Institution of Investigation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... exportation; The forms, activities and characteristics of domestic exporting enterprises (e.g., original... COMMISSION Used Electronic Products: An Examination of U.S. Exports; Institution of Investigation and..., Used Electronic Products: An Examination of U.S. Exports. DATES: April 16, 2012: Deadline for...

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  19. ILU industrial electron accelerators for medical-product sterilization and food treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglov, V. V.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Vlasov, A. Yu.; Voronin, L. A.; Panfilov, A. D.; Radchenko, V. M.; Tkachenko, V. O.; Shtarklev, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Pulse linear electron accelerators of the ILU type have been developed and produced by the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, for more than 30 years. Their distinctive features are simplicity of design, convenience in operation, and reliability during long work under conditions of industrial production. ILU accelerators have a range of energy of 0.7-10 MeV at a power of accelerated beam of up to 100 kW and they are optimally suitable for use as universal sterilizing complexes. The scientific novelty of these accelerators consists of their capability to work both in the electron-treatment mode of production and in the bremsstrahlung generation mode, which has high penetrating power.

  20. Production decline analysis for a multi-fractured horizontal well considering elliptical reservoir stimulated volumes in shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mingqiang; Duan, Yonggang; Fang, Quantang; Zhang, Tiantian

    2016-06-01

    Multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs) are an effective technique for developing shale gas reservoirs. After fracturing, stimulated reservoir volumes (SRVs) invariably exist around the wellbore. In this paper, a composite elliptical SRV model for each hydraulic fracturing stage is established, based on micro-seismic events. Both the SRV and the outer regions are assumed as single-porosity media with different formation physical parameters. Based on unstructured perpendicular bisection (PEBI) grids, a mathematical model considering Darcy flow, diffusion and adsorption/desorption in shale gas reservoirs is presented. The numerical solution is obtained by combining the control volume finite element method with the fully implicit method. The model is verified by a simplified model solution. The MFHW Blasingame production decline curves, which consider elliptical SRVs in shale gas reservoirs, are plotted by computer programming. The flow regions can be divided into five flow regimes: early formation linear flow, radial flow in the SRV region, transient flow, pseudo radial flow and boundary dominated flow. Finally, the effect of six related parameters, including the SRV area size, outer region permeability, SRV region permeability, Langmuir pressure, Langmuir volume and diffusion coefficient, are analyzed on type curves. The model presented in this paper can expand our understanding of MFHW production decline behaviors in shale gas reservoirs and can be applied to estimate reservoir properties, the SRV area, and reserves in these types of reservoirs by type curve matching.

  1. Front-End Electronics Characterization, Production, and QA for the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elia, Sophia; Majorana Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay ββ (0 ν) of the isotope 76Ge. In anticipation of the future tonne-scale experiments, its goal is to demonstrate a path forward to a background rate of one cnt/(ROI-t-y) in a 4 keV region around the Q-value of the 76Ge ββ (0 ν) . Such a background requirement significantly constrains the design of the front end electronics. Low background and low noise qualifications are a necessity. This poster first presents the characterization and noise performance in single and multi detector systems of the front end electronics developed for Majorana. The poster next reviews the full production process and finally describes the Quality Assurance tests developed for the electronics before installation in the experiment. The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay ββ (0 ν) of the isotope 76Ge. In anticipation of the future tonne-scale experiments, its goal is to demonstrate a path forward to a background rate of one cnt/(ROI-t-y) in a 4 keV region around the Q-value of the 76Ge ββ (0 ν) . Such a background requirement significantly constrains the design of the front end electronics. Low background and low noise qualifications are a necessity. This poster first presents the characterization and noise performance in single and multi detector systems of the front end electronics developed for Majorana. The poster next reviews the full production process and finally describes the Quality Assurance tests developed for the electronics before installation in the experiment. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the DOE Office of Science, the Particle and Nuclear Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  2. Diffractive ρ production at small x in future electron-ion colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, V. P.; Navarra, F. S.; Spiering, D.

    2016-09-01

    The future electron-ion (eA) collider is expected to probe the high energy regime of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD), with the exclusive vector meson production cross section being one of the most promising observables. In this paper we complement previous studies of exclusive processes presenting a comprehensive analysis of diffractive ρ production at small x. We compute the coherent and incoherent cross sections taking into account non-linear QCD dynamical effects and considering different models for the dipole-proton scattering amplitude and vector meson wave function. The dependence of these cross sections on the energy, photon virtuality, nuclear mass number and squared momentum transfer is analysed in detail. Moreover, we compare the non-linear predictions with those obtained in the linear regime. Finally, we also estimate the exclusive photon, J/{{\\Psi }} and ϕ production and compare with the results obtained for ρ production. Our results demonstrate that the analysis of diffractive ρ production in future electron-ion colliders will be important in understanding the non-linear QCD dynamics.

  3. Sensitivity of Δ G Through Open Heavy Quark Production using Electron Decay Channels at PHENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wei

    2000-10-01

    The PHENIX experiment at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory is capable of directly measuring the portion of the proton spin carri ed by gluons spin(Δ G)in several channels including direct photon product ion, π production and heavy flavor production. The extraction of Δ G throu gh independent channels gives good control of systematic and theoretical uncerta inty. In this paper we report on PHENIX's Δ G measurement in open heavy q uark production using electron decay channels. Heavy flavor production, cbarc and bbarb, is dominated by gluon-gluon interactions and gives rise to a double spin asymmetry A_LL ~ fracΔ G(x_A)G(x_A)øtimes fracΔ G(x_B)G(x_B)øtimes a_LL^ggarrow qbarq , from which Δ G can be extracted. We will report a full detector simulation which includes the effects of electron trigger and dilutions due to the conversion in inner chamber and π^0 Dalitz decays.

  4. Overdense Plasma Production in a Low-power Microwave Discharge Electron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, Ikkoh; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    2001-04-01

    Plasma characterization of a low-power microwave discharge electron source was conducted. The electron source, which was developed for the neutralization of the 150 mA-class ion beam exhausted from an ion thruster, consists of a small discharge chamber of 18 mm diameter, into which an L-shape antenna is directly inserted into the magnetic circuit comprised of permanent magnets and iron yokes. An overdense plasma production for the 4.2 GHz microwave was observed for an input power range from 3 to 26 W and for the mass flow rate of 0.5-2.0 sccm. In such a wide range, the plasma density inside the discharge chamber can be proportionally increased as the microwave input power. This is because the direct insertion of the microwave antenna into the ECR magnetic field removes the accessibility difficulty of the microwave, and enables energy transmission from the antenna to the plasma even in the overdense mode. In addition, high-energy electrons above the ionization energy were observed for the large microwave input power above 10 W, and these electrons from the antenna also contribute to plasma production.

  5. Note: Production of a mercury beam with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Pardo, R.; Scott, R.

    2013-11-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been utilized to produce mercury beams with intensities of 4.5 eμA of {sup 202}Hg{sup 29+} and 3.0 eμA of {sup 202}Hg{sup 31+} from natural abundance mercury metal. The production technique relies on the evaporation of liquid mercury into the source plasma vacuum region and utilizes elemental mercury instead of a volatile organic compound as the neutral feed material.

  6. Note: Production of a mercury beam with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Vondrasek, R; Pardo, R; Scott, R

    2013-11-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been utilized to produce mercury beams with intensities of 4.5 eμA of (202)Hg(29+) and 3.0 eμA of (202)Hg(31+) from natural abundance mercury metal. The production technique relies on the evaporation of liquid mercury into the source plasma vacuum region and utilizes elemental mercury instead of a volatile organic compound as the neutral feed material.

  7. High-energy electron-induced damage production at room temperature in aluminum-doped silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbett, J. W.; Cheng, L. J.; Jaworowski, A.; Karins, J. P.; Lee, Y. H.; Lindstroem, L.; Mooney, P. M.; Oehrlen, G.; Wang, K. L.

    1979-01-01

    DLTS and EPR measurements are reported on aluminum-doped silicon that was irradiated at room temperature with high-energy electrons. Comparisons are made to comparable experiments on boron-doped silicon. Many of the same defects observed in boron-doped silicon are also observed in aluminum-doped silicon, but several others were not observed, including the aluminum interstitial and aluminum-associated defects. Damage production modeling, including the dependence on aluminum concentration, is presented.

  8. Ceramic transactions: Case studies in ceramic product development, manufacturing, and commercialization. Volume 75

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.; Barks, R.E.; Hiremath, B.

    1997-12-31

    This document presents studies on ceramic development and manufacturing. Topics include general manufacturing, the manufacture of electronic optical components, and bioceramic components. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  9. How log-normal is your country? An analysis of the statistical distribution of the exported volumes of products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annunziata, Mario Alberto; Petri, Alberto; Pontuale, Giorgio; Zaccaria, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    We have considered the statistical distributions of the volumes of 1131 products exported by 148 countries. We have found that the form of these distributions is not unique but heavily depends on the level of development of the nation, as expressed by macroeconomic indicators like GDP, GDP per capita, total export and a recently introduced measure for countries' economic complexity called fitness. We have identified three major classes: a) an incomplete log-normal shape, truncated on the left side, for the less developed countries, b) a complete log-normal, with a wider range of volumes, for nations characterized by intermediate economy, and c) a strongly asymmetric shape for countries with a high degree of development. Finally, the log-normality hypothesis has been checked for the distributions of all the 148 countries through different tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Cramér-Von Mises, confirming that it cannot be rejected only for the countries of intermediate economy.

  10. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 2: Technical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A technical analysis on the feasibility of commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is presented. The method of obtaining pharmaceutical company involvement, laboratory results of the separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process, the selection and study of candidate products, and their production requirements is described. The candidate products are antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon. Production mass balances for antihemophelic factor, beta cells, and erythropoietin were compared for space versus ground operation. A conceptual description of a multiproduct processing system for space operation is discussed. Production requirements for epidermal growth factor of alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon are presented.

  11. Enhanced electron-positron pair production by ultra intense laser irradiating a compound target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Xun; Ma, Yan-Yun; Yu, Tong-Pu; Zhao, Jun; Yang, Xiao-Hu; Gan, Long-Fei; Zhang, Guo-Bo; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Liu, Jin-Jin; Zhuo, Hong-Bin; Shao, Fu-Qiu; Kawata, Shigeo

    2016-12-01

    High-energy-density electron-positron pairs play an increasingly important role in many potential applications. Here, we propose a scheme for enhanced positron production by an ultra intense laser irradiating a gas-Al compound target via the multi-photon Breit-Wheeler (BW) process. The laser pulse first ionizes the gas and interacts with a near-critical-density plasma, forming an electron bubble behind the laser pulse. A great deal of electrons are trapped and accelerated in the bubble, while the laser front hole-bores the Al target and deforms its front surface. A part of the laser wave is thus reflected by the inner curved target surface and collides with the accelerated electron bunch. Finally, a large number of γ photons are emitted in the forward direction via the Compton back-scattering process and the BW process is initiated. Dense electron-positron pairs are produced with a maximum density of 6.02× {{10}27} m-3. Simulation results show that the positron generation is greatly enhanced in the compound target, where the positron yield is two orders of magnitude greater than that in only the solid slab case. The influences of the laser intensity, gas density and length on the positron beam quality are also discussed, which demonstrates the feasibility of the scheme in practice.

  12. Use of electronic noses for detection of odour from animal production facilities: a review.

    PubMed

    Nimmermark, S

    2001-01-01

    In the field of controlling livestock and poultry odours in the internal and external environment and in derived food products, one main obstacle is how to measure the odour in a suitable way. Olfactometry and a human panel have been used in most studies of farm odour until now. Alternatives like electronic noses are interesting considering disadvantages for olfactometry regarding cost and labour requirement. An electronic device can produce an almost instant response which is useful in many applications. Studies have shown detection of farm odour for some electronic noses and also response to odour concentrations. Other studies have shown very high odour threshold values compared to human noses. Electronic noses with a large number of sensors have been developed since a base was formed in the 1950s. The fast progress in data processing and sensor development in the latest years have made the electronic noses interesting for a large number of industrial applications in the food processing industry, as well as in other areas. Materials like manure produce a complex mixture of odorous compounds and the interaction between these creates a unique odour where no specific dominating and characterising compound seems to exist. Related to swine farms almost 200 different odorous compounds have been reported. The electronic noses can, depending on the sensitivity of its sensors, detect some compounds at lower levels than the human nose, while other compounds offensive to a human nose cannot be detected. Proper function of the electronic noses with sensitivity for the odorous gases in the application must be followed by satisfying properties regarding ageing, temperature stability, humidity and other environmental factors.

  13. A methodology for evaluating the usability of audiovisual consumer electronic products.

    PubMed

    Kwahk, Jiyoung; Han, Sung H

    2002-09-01

    Usability evaluation is now considered an essential procedure in consumer product development. Many studies have been conducted to develop various techniques and methods of usability evaluation hoping to help the evaluators choose appropriate methods. However, planning and conducting usability evaluation requires considerations of a number of factors surrounding the evaluation process including the product, user, activity, and environmental characteristics. In this perspective, this study suggested a new methodology of usability evaluation through a simple, structured framework. The framework was outlined by three major components: the interface features of a product as design variables, the evaluation context consisting of user, product, activity, and environment as context variables, and the usability measures as dependent variables. Based on this framework, this study established methods to specify the product interface features, to define evaluation context, and to measure usability. The effectiveness of this methodology was demonstrated through case studies in which the usability of audiovisual products was evaluated by using the methods developed in this study. This study is expected to help the usability practitioners in consumer electronics industry in various ways. Most directly, it supports the evaluators' plan and conduct usability evaluation sessions in a systematic and structured manner. In addition, it can be applied to other categories of consumer products (such as appliances, automobiles, communication devices, etc.) with minor modifications as necessary.

  14. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of the commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is examined. The method of obtaining pharmaceutical company involvement, laboratory results of the separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process, the selection and study of candidate products, and their production requirements is presented. Antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon were studied. Production mass balances for antihemophilic factor, beta cells, and erythropoietin were compared for space verus ground operation.

  15. The GLAS Standard Data Products Specification--Level 2, Version 9. Volume 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document defines the Level-2 GLAS standard data products. This document addresses the data flow, interfaces, record and data formats associated with the GLAS Level 2 standard data products. The term standard data products refers to those EOS instrument data that are routinely generated for public distribution. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC) distribute these products. Each data product has a unique Product Identification code assigned by the Senior Project Scientist. The Level 2 Standard Data Products specifically include those derived geophysical data values (i.e., ice sheet elevation, cloud height, vegetation height, etc.). Additionally, the appropriate correction elements used to transform the Level 1A and Level 1B Data Products into Level 2 Data Products are included. The data are packaged with time tags, precision orbit location coordinates, and data quality and usage flags.

  16. Electronics Come of Age: A Taxonomy for Miscellaneous and LowPower Products

    SciTech Connect

    Nordman, Bruce; Sanchez, Marla C.

    2006-08-01

    Most energy end uses such as space conditioning or waterheating are apparently well-defined in what is included, and haveterminology that derives from the professionals who work in the relevantfield. The topic of miscellaneous consumption lacks such clarity forhistorical and practical reasons. As this end use grows in size andinterest for the energy community, the confusion and ambiguity around thetopic is an increasing barrier to progress. This paper providesdefinitions for key terms and concepts with the intent that that futurework can be more correctly and consistently reported and interpreted. Inaddition, it provides a taxonomy of product types and categories, whichcovers both residential and commercial miscellaneous consumption. A keyelement is identification of "electronics" as a distinct energy end use.Finally, products are identified as to whether they commonly have alow-power mode, and product types that have such modes within thetraditional end uses are also listed.

  17. Proceedings: 11th International Symposium on use and management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, S.S.; Blackstock, T.H.; Hunger, J.; Marshall, A.

    1995-01-01

    Topics discussed at the llth symposium on CCB use and management included fundamental CCB use research, product marketing, applied research, CCB management and the environment, and commercial uses. There is a continuing, international research interest in CCB use because of the prospects of avoiding disposal costs and generating revenue from CCB sales. Volume two contains the following sections on: Flowable fill; handling systems and equipment; international and regional perspectives; manufactured aggregate; mine reclamation; physical and chemical properties; structural fill and stabilized base; and waste management. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Properties of colloidal corrosion products and their effects on nuclear plants. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Matijevic, E.

    1982-10-01

    The properties of aqueous dispersions of finely divided oxides of iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium, and copper are described in overview fashion. More detailed aspects of this work will be found in a separate, larger report, NP-2606, Volume 2. The properties of these oxide corrosion products of importance to nuclear reactor water system technology are emphasized: adhesion, desorption, dissolution, transformation, and adsorption of dissolved species such as Co/sup 60/ ions. The work is fundamental to many LWR problems - radiation transport to piping surfaces, avoidance of crud buildup on nuclear fuel rods, decontamination and chemical cleaning of heat exchangers, and control of corrosion of piping.

  19. Introduction to Poultry Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 31, Number 3 [and] Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Katherine

    This packet contains both teacher and student materials for a unit on poultry production in vocational agriculture courses and covers the following lessons: (1) overview of the poultry industry; (2) selection and evaluation; (3) production; (4) reproduction; (5) health issues; and (6) processing and marketing. The lessons include the following…

  20. Army Library Institute V: Product/Marketing/Service - Volume 2, Supplementary Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    TRALINET (TRADOC Library Information Network) The Library’s Product In the Marketing Mix Session 3, Wednesday, 20 May 1981 General Lecture—Anglo-American...Redstone Scientific Information Center (RSIC) Automated System, J. Cooney F TRADOC Regulation 1-2 G The Library’s Product in the Marketing Mix , H

  1. Electron Microscopic Analysis of Surface Inorganic Substances on Oral and Combustible Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Mary M; Watson, Clifford H; Pappas, R Steven

    2015-01-01

    Although quantitative trace toxic metal analyses have been performed on tobacco products, little has been published on inorganic particulate constituents on and inside the products. We analyzed these constituents using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The nature of SEM-EDS instrumentation makes it an ideal choice for inorganic particulate analyses and yields relevant information to potential exposures during consumption of oral tobacco products, and possibly as a consequence of smoking. Aluminum silicates, silica and calcium compounds were common inorganic particulate constituents of tobacco products. Aluminum silicates and silica from soil were found on external leaf surfaces. Phytolithic silica, found in the lumen of the plant leaf, is of biogenic origin. Calcium oxalate was also apparently of biogenic origin. Small mineral deposits on tobacco could have health implications. Minerals found on the surfaces of smokeless tobacco products could possibly abrade the oral mucosa and contribute to the oral inflammatory responses observed with smokeless tobacco product use. If micron and sub-micron size calcium particles on cigarette filler were transported in mainstream smoke, they could potentially induce a pulmonary irritant inflammation when inhaled. The transport of aluminum silicate and silica in smoke could potentially also contribute to chronic inflammatory disease.

  2. Electron Microscopic Analysis of Surface Inorganic Substances on Oral and Combustible Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, Mary M.; Watson, Clifford H.; Pappas, R. Steven

    2015-01-01

    Though quantitative trace toxic metals analyses have been performed on tobacco products, little has been published on inorganic particulate constituents on and inside the products. We analyzed these constituents using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The nature of SEM-EDS instrumentation makes it an ideal choice for inorganic particulate analyses and yields relevant information to potential exposures during consumption of oral tobacco products, and possibly as a consequence of smoking. Aluminum silicates, silica, and calcium compounds were common inorganic particulate constituents of tobacco products. Aluminum silicates and silica from soil were found on external leaf surfaces. Phytolithic silica, found in the lumen of the plant leaf, is of biogenic origin. Calcium oxalate was also apparently of biogenic origin. Small mineral deposits on tobacco could have health implications. Minerals found on the surfaces of smokeless tobacco products could possibly abrade the oral mucosa and contribute to the oral inflammatory responses observed with smokeless tobacco product use. If micron and sub-micron size calcium particles on cigarette filler were transported in mainstream smoke, they could potentially induce a pulmonary irritant inflammation when inhaled. The transport of aluminum silicate and silica in smoke could potentially also contribute to chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:26286581

  3. Forward electron production in heavy ion-atom and ion-solid collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    A sharp cusp in the velocity spectrum of electrons, ejected in ion-atom and ion-solid collisions, is observed when the ejected electron velocity vector v/sub e/ matches that of the emergent ion vector v/sub p/ in both speed and direction. In ion-atom collisions, the electrons originate from capture to low-lying, projectile-centered continuum states (ECC) for fast bare or nearly bare projectiles, and from loss to those low-lying continuum states (ELC) when loosely bound projectile electrons are available. Most investigators now agree that ECC cusps are strongly skewed toward lower velocities, and exhibit full widths half maxima roughly proportional to v/sub p/ (neglecting target-shell effects, which are sometimes strong). A close examination of recent ELC data shows that ELC cusps are instead nearly symmetric, with widths nearly independent on v/sub p/ in the velocity range 6 to 18 a.u., a result only recently predicted by theory. Convoy electron cusps produced in heavy ion-solid collisions at MeV/u energies exhibit approximately velocity-independent widths very similar to ELC cusp widths. While the shape of the convoy peaks is approximately independent of projectile Z, velocity, and of target material, it is found that the yields in polycrystalline targets exhibit a strong dependence on projectile Z and velocity. While attempts have been made to link convoy electron production to binary ECC or ELC processes, sometimes at the last layer, or alternatively to a solid-state wake-riding model, our measured dependences of cusp shape and yield on projectile charge state and energy are inconsistent with the predictions of available theories. 10 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  4. Production of O2 on icy satellites by electronic excitation of low-temperature water ice.

    PubMed

    Sieger, M T; Simpson, W C; Orlando, T M

    1998-08-06

    The signature of condensed molecular oxygen has been reported in recent optical-reflectance measurements of the jovian moon Ganymede, and a tenuous oxygen atmosphere has been observed on Europa. The surfaces of these moons contain large amounts of water ice, and it is thought that O2 is formed by the sputtering of ice by energetic particles from the jovian magnetosphere. Understanding how O2 might be formed from low-temperature ice is crucial for theoretical and experimental simulations of the surfaces and atmospheres of icy bodies in the Solar System. Here we report laboratory measurements of the threshold energy, cross-section and temperature dependence of O2 production by electronic excitation of ice in vacuum, following electron-beam irradiation. Molecular oxygen is formed by direct excitation and dissociation of a stable precursor molecule, rather than (as has been previously thought) by diffusion and chemical recombination of precursor fragments. The large cross-section for O2 production suggests that electronic excitation plays an important part in the formation of O2 on Ganymede and Europa.

  5. The Equivalence of Dissipation from Gibbs’ Entropy Production with Phase-Volume Loss in Ergodic Heat-Conducting Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Puneet Kumar; Hoover, William Graham; Hoover, Carol Griswold; Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Gibbs’ thermodynamic entropy is given by the logarithm of the phase volume, which itself responds to heat transfer to and from thermal reservoirs. We compare the thermodynamic dissipation described by (i) phase-volume loss with (ii) heat-transfer entropy production. Their equivalence is documented for computer simulations of the response of an ergodic harmonic oscillator to thermostated temperature gradients. In the simulations one or two thermostat variables control the kinetic energy or the kinetic energy and its fluctuation. All of the motion equations are time-reversible. We consider both strong and weak control variables. In every case, the time-averaged dissipative loss of phase-space volume coincides with the entropy produced by heat transfer. Linear-response theory nicely reproduces the small-gradient results obtained by computer simulation. The thermostats considered here are ergodic and provide simple dynamical models, some of them with as few as three ordinary differential equations, while remaining capable of reproducing Gibbs’ canonical phase-space distribution and are precisely consistent with irreversible thermodynamics.

  6. Laser Encapsulation of Organic Electronics with Adapted Diode Lasers in Flexible Production Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosda, Maximilian; Olowinsky, Alexander; Pelzer, Alexander

    Flexible organic electronics such as OLPV and OLED modules are highly sensitive against water and oxygen. To protect them against the environment and to ensure a long lifetime visual transparent ultra high barrier films are used for the encapsulation process. These multilayer films usually consist of a polymer substrate on which, depending on the requirements, various functional layers are applied. The organic device is then fully packed in this films. Instead of conventional joining these film with adhesive, a flexible laser based process can be an interesting alternative especially for roll2roll applications. According to a precise spectral analysis and a consideration of the interaction between the laser radiation and the individual layers of the film a suitable laser beam source is selected. With this laser beam source the weldability of the films is investigated. For analysis of the weldseam and the melted volume cross sections and scanning-electron-microscopy-images are prepared. The strength of the weld is determined by T-Peel tensile tests.

  7. Large-volume reconstruction of brain tissue from high-resolution serial section images acquired by SEM-based scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M; Harris, Kristen M

    2013-01-01

    With recent improvements in instrumentation and computational tools, serial section electron microscopy has become increasingly straightforward. A new method for imaging ultrathin serial sections is developed based on a field emission scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector. This method is capable of automatically acquiring high-resolution serial images with a large field size and very little optical and physical distortions. In this chapter, we describe the procedures leading to the generation and analyses of a large-volume stack of high-resolution images (64 μm × 64 μm × 10 μm, or larger, at 2 nm pixel size), including how to obtain large-area serial sections of uniform thickness from well-preserved brain tissue that is rapidly perfusion-fixed with mixed aldehydes, processed with a microwave-enhanced method, and embedded into epoxy resin.

  8. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  9. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  10. Army Library Institute V: Product/Marketing/Service - Volume I, Report of Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    The Library’s Product in the Marketing Mix 27 Session 3, Wednesday, 20 May 1981 28 General Lecture—Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Second Edition...Scientific Information Center (RSIC) Automated System, J. Cooney 79 F TRADOC Regulation 1-2 85 G The Library’s Product in the Marketing Mix , H...Floor The Library’s Product in the Marketing Mix H. Goldhor, Dir. Lib Res Ctr, U of IL 10 Wednesday 20 May 0800 - 0815 Ballroom West 2nd

  11. Postmarketing safety reports for human drug and biological products; electronic submission requirements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending its postmarketing safety reporting regulations for human drug and biological products to require that persons subject to mandatory reporting requirements submit safety reports in an electronic format that FDA can process, review, and archive. FDA is taking this action to improve the Agency's systems for collecting and analyzing postmarketing safety reports. The change will help the Agency to more rapidly review postmarketing safety reports, identify emerging safety problems, and disseminate safety information in support of FDA's public health mission. In addition, the amendments will be a key element in harmonizing FDA's postmarketing safety reporting regulations with international standards for the electronic submission of safety information.

  12. Production of charm and beauty in e{sup +}e{sup -} with polarized electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Su, D.

    1995-09-01

    The test of the Standard Model through the measurements of Z{sup 0} to fermion couplings can benefit from much enhanced sensitivity by using longitudinally polarized electron beams. This report reviews preliminary electroweak measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z{sup 0}, using 150,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays accumulated during the 93-95 runs with high electron beam polarization. The parity violating parameters A{sub b} and A{sub c} of the Zbb and Zcc couplings are measured directly from the left-right forward-backward asymmetries. A measurement of R{sub b} with a lifetime double tag and a summary of the preliminary measurement of A{sub LR} from the 93-95 SLD data are also included in this report.

  13. Cross section for production of low-energy electron-positron pairs by relativistic heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eby, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    Starting with the lowest-order unscreened QED matrix element for electron-positron pair production by heavy charged particles, the paper calculates the cross section for this process differential in all independent variables and valid for all pair energies small compared to the incident particle energy. Integration over the possible emission angles of one of the pair members gives an expression that is valid for low-energy pairs that can be compared with previous work based on the Weizsaecker-Williams method. Integration over the possible angles of the other pair member then yields an expression identical to one derived by Racah. The high energy-transfer limit of the expression for the cross section integrated over electron and positron angles is found to be identical to that of Kelner in the unscreened case.

  14. Plasma heating, plasma flow and wave production around an electron beam injected into the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.

    1986-01-01

    A brief historical summary of the Minnesota ECHO series and other relevant electron beam experiments is given. The primary purpose of the ECHO experiments is the use of conjugate echoes as probes of the magnetosphere, but beam-plasma and wave studies were also made. The measurement of quasi-dc electric fields and ion streaming during the ECHO 6 experiment has given a pattern for the plasma flow in the hot plasma region extending to 60m radius about the ECHO 6 electron beam. The sheath and potential well caused by ion orbits is discussed with the aid of a model which fits the observations. ELF wave production in the plasma sheath around the beam is briefly discussed. The new ECHO 7 mission to be launched from the Poker Flat range in November 1987 is described.

  15. Comparison of optics and electronics for the calculation of matrix-vector products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, C. K.

    1992-01-01

    Optical processors are attractive because of their ability to perform massively parallel operations such as matrix vector products. The inherently analog nature of optical calculations requires that optical processors be based on analog computations. While the speed at which such analog operations can be performed as well as the natural parallelism of optical systems are great advantages of optical processors, the analog representation of values severely limits the achievable accuracy. Furthermore, optical processors are limited by the need to convert information to and from the intensity of light. Digitization can be used to increase the accuracy of optical matrix-vector processors, but causes a severe reduction in speed. This paper compares the throughput and power requirements of optical and electronic processors, showing that optical matrix-vector processors can provide a greater number of operations/Watt than conventional electronics.

  16. Alcohol production through volatile fatty acids reduction with hydrogen as electron donor by mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Steinbusch, Kirsten J J; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2008-09-01

    In this research we demonstrated a new method to produce alcohols. It was experimentally feasible to produce ethanol, propanol and butanol from solely volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with hydrogen as electron donor. In batch tests, VFAs such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids were reduced by mixed microbial cultures with a headspace of 1.5 bar of hydrogen. Observed alcohol concentrations were 3.69+/-0.25 mM of ethanol, 8.08+/-0.85 mM of propanol and 3.66+/-0.05 mM of n-butanol. The conversion efficiency based on the electron balance was 55.1+/-5.6% with acetate as substrate, 50.3+/-4.7% with propionate and 46.7+/-2.2% with n-butyrate. Methane was the most predominant by-product in each batch experiment, 33.6+/-9.6% of VFA and hydrogen was converted to methane with acetate as substrate; which was 27.1+/-7.1% with propionate and 36.6+/-2.2% with n-butyrate. This VFAs reducing renewable fuel production process does not require carbohydrates like fermentable sugars, but uses biomass with high water content or low sugar content that is unsuitable as feedstock for current fermentation processes. This so-called low-grade biomass is abundantly present in many agricultural areas and is economically very attractive feedstock for the production of biofuels.

  17. Production of no carrier added 80mBr for investigation of Auger electron toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mease, R C; DeJesus, O T; Gatley, S J; Harper, P V; Desombre, E R; Friedman, A M

    1991-01-01

    80mBr (half-life = 4.43 h) is an Auger electron emitting nuclide with convenient properties for investigating Auger electron cytotoxicity and with potential for labeling in vivo radiotherapeutic agents. We have investigated three cyclotron target systems capable of generating 80mBr of sufficiently high specific radioactivity (no carrier added) for biomedical experiments. A 83Kr gas target irradiated with 21.5 MeV deuterons made 80mBr at a production yield of 1.6 +/- 0.2 mCi/muAh at saturation. A five-fold increase in 80mBr yield was obtained from 15 MeV proton irradiation of thin elemental Se enriched in 80Se targets although technical improvements are expected to further raise this production yield. This route is therefore superior for current medical cyclotrons. Irradiation of a reusable 80Se copper selenide target also yielded multi-millicurie amounts of 80mBr, and recovery of radiobromine by dry distillation is faster and more convenient than in the elemental Se target, but an optimum copper selenide target for 80mBr production has not yet been built.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of tooth and dental restoration material on electron dose distribution and production of photon contamination in electron beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Akbari, Fatemeh; Mehrpouyan, Mohammad; Sobhkhiz Sabet, Leila

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of tooth and dental restoration materials on electron dose distribution and photon contamination production in electron beams of a medical linac. This evaluation was performed on 8, 12 and 14 MeV electron beams of a Siemens Primus linac. MCNPX Monte Carlo code was utilized and a 10 × 10 cm(2) applicator was simulated in the cases of tooth and combinations of tooth and Ceramco C3 ceramic veneer, tooth and Eclipse alloy and tooth and amalgam restoration materials in a soft tissue phantom. The relative electron and photon contamination doses were calculated for these materials. The presence of tooth and dental restoration material changed the electron dose distribution and photon contamination in phantom, depending on the type of the restoration material and electron beam's energy. The maximum relative electron dose was 1.07 in the presence of tooth including amalgam for 14 MeV electron beam. When 100.00 cGy was prescribed for the reference point, the maximum absolute electron dose was 105.10 cGy in the presence of amalgam for 12 MeV electron beam and the maximum absolute photon contamination dose was 376.67 μGy for tooth in 14 MeV electron beam. The change in electron dose distribution should be considered in treatment planning, when teeth are irradiated in electron beam radiotherapy. If treatment planning can be performed in such a way that the teeth are excluded from primary irradiation, the potential errors in dose delivery to the tumour and normal tissues can be avoided.

  19. Feasibility study for a 40-MGY/80-MGY fuel-alcohol production plant. Volume 1. Appendices. Executive overview. [Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The results of a study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a 40 to 80 million gallon per year alcohol fuels plant in Talladega County, Alabama are presented. This volume briefly outlines the transformation of the US fermentation industry since its inception in 1979; identifies the current status of the ethanol industry including its existing resources and markets; assesses the most important factors which will effect the development of the industry; and provides an assessment of the impact of GRASP's proposed facility on the US ethanol market. In addition, this document contains 7 appendices entitled: total US ethanol production capacity; US gasohol sales; regional refineries; fermentation ethanol imports for fuel use; state excise tax exemptions; alcohol fuels industry report; and US corn production and prices. (DMC)

  20. The model and the planning method of volume and variety assessment of innovative products in an industrial enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, V. G.; Anisimov, E. G.; Saurenko, T. N.; Sonkin, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the long term, the innovative development strategy efficiency is considered as the most crucial condition for assurance of economic system competitiveness in market conditions. It determines the problem relevance of such justification strategies with regard to specific systems features and conditions of their operation. The problem solution for industrial enterprises can be based on mathematical models of supporting the decision-making on the elements of the innovative manufacturing program. An optimization model and the planning method of innovative products volume and variety are suggested. The feature of the suggested model lies in the nonlinear nature of the objective function. It allows taking into consideration the law of diminishing marginal utility. The suggested method of optimization takes into account the system features and enables the effective implementation of manufacturing capabilities in modern conditions of production organization and sales in terms of market saturation.

  1. The Navy Supply Corps Newsletter. Contracting Innovations: Navy Electronic Commerce Online Navy Afloat Purchase Card Program. Volume 62, No. 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    tf • lovy Electronic Commerce Online m Afloat Purchase Card Program4 % y5.ll ’ ’"’#K5&. ifekj 1IÜN AB iräri.1 . ■■-■ 11...Contracting Innovations NAVSUP Electronic Commerce in Contracting for Beginners 8 The Afloat Purchase Card Program: Decentralizing Purchasing for...there. J- May/June NAVSUP Electronic Commerce in Contracting for Beginners By Matt Nielsen, NECO Project Manager, Naval Supply Systems Command M he

  2. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  3. Volume production of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1982-06-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm/sup 2/) for H/sup -/ and of 4.1 mA(42 mA/cm/sup 2/) for D/sup -/ are obtained continuously. The impurity is less than 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed.

  4. Skill Training Analysis. Volume 1. The Linkage of Unit Level Skill Training and Unit Productivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-14

    Air Force training and the linkage with maintenance productivity. It also describes the MCR I examination of Army installation- level training and a ...Service skill training conducted at the installation level and to analyze its - impact on unit productivity. MCR also conducted a special pur- pose...the local school, but FTD training helps to get a person on the job at a particular skill level in a shorter period of time. This fact, combined with

  5. The GLAS Standard Data Products Specification-Data Dictionary, Version 1.0. Volume 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document contains the data dictionary for the GLAS standard data products. It details the parameters present on GLAS standard data products. Each parameter is defined with a short name, a long name, units on product, type of variable, a long description and products that contain it. The term standard data products refers to those EOS instrument data that are routinely generated for public distribution. These products are distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC).

  6. The National Shipbuilding Research Program 1985 Ship Production Symposium Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    34, and Zones. E. For Electrical - Cableway installation for each module/zone including part lists. Cable lengths and numbers per section for each...Fittings Task S-43, Cableway Standards: o Standard for Cableway Components and Ass,emblies Task S-44, Deck Covering Guide: o Standard Guide for Deck...MIL-C-4556) Deck Covering in Electrical/Electronic Gear Fibrous Double–Braided Polyester Rope Acceptable Methods for Fitting Chocks Water Trap for

  7. Adjustable mounting device for high-volume production of beam-shaping systems for high-power diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Henning; Rübenach, Olaf; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In many applications for high-power diode lasers, the production of beam-shaping and homogenizing optical systems experience rising volumes and dynamical market demands. The automation of assembly processes on flexible and reconfigurable machines can contribute to a more responsive and scalable production. The paper presents a flexible mounting device designed for the challenging assembly of side-tab based optical systems. It provides design elements for precisely referencing and fixating two optical elements in a well-defined geometric relation. Side tabs are presented to the machine allowing the application of glue and a rotating mechanism allows the attachment to the optical elements. The device can be adjusted to fit different form factors and it can be used in high-volume assembly machines. The paper shows the utilization of the device for a collimation module consisting of a fast-axis and a slow-axis collimation lens. Results regarding the repeatability and process capability of bonding side tab assemblies as well as estimates from 3D simulation for overall performance indicators achieved such as cycle time and throughput will be discussed.

  8. Training Effects on ROS Production Determined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Master Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Porcelli, Simone; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Pavei, Gaspare; Bellistri, Giuseppe; Montorsi, Michela; Tacchini, Philippe; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise induces an increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production dependent on exercise intensity with highest ROS amount generated by strenuous exercise. However, chronic repetition of exercise, that is, exercise training, may reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6-weeks high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT), characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on ROS production and antioxidant capacity in sixteen master swimmers. Time course changes of ROS generation were assessed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in capillary blood by a microinvasive approach. An incremental arm-ergometer exercise (IE) until exhaustion was carried out at both before (PRE) and after (POST) training (Trg) period. A significant (P < 0.01) increase of ROS production from REST to the END of IE in PRE Trg (2.82 ± 0.66 versus 3.28 ± 0.66 µmol·min−1) was observed. HIDT increased peak oxygen consumption (36.1 ± 4.3 versus 40.6 ± 5.7 mL·kg−1·min−1 PRE and POST Trg, resp.) and the antioxidant capacity (+13%) while it significantly decreased the ROS production both at REST (−20%) and after IE (−25%). The observed link between ROS production, adaptive antioxidant defense mechanisms, and peak oxygen consumption provides new insight into the correlation between ROS response pathways and muscle metabolic function. PMID:25874024

  9. Hydrogen production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: an elaborate interplay of electron sources and sinks.

    PubMed

    Hemschemeier, Anja; Fouchard, Swanny; Cournac, Laurent; Peltier, Gilles; Happe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses a [FeFe]-hydrogenase HydA1 (EC 1.12.7.2), which is coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Large amounts of H2 are produced in a light-dependent reaction for several days when C. reinhardtii cells are deprived of sulfur. Under these conditions, the cells drastically change their physiology from aerobic photosynthetic growth to an anaerobic resting state. The understanding of the underlying physiological processes is not only important for getting further insights into the adaptability of photosynthesis, but will help to optimize the biotechnological application of algae as H2 producers. Two of the still most disputed questions regarding H2 generation by C. reinhardtii concern the electron source for H2 evolution and the competition of the hydrogenase with alternative electron sinks. We analyzed the H2 metabolism of S-depleted C. reinhardtii cultures utilizing a special mass spectrometer setup and investigated the influence of photosystem II (PSII)- or ribulosebisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco)-deficiency. We show that electrons for H2-production are provided both by PSII activity and by a non-photochemical plastoquinone reduction pathway, which is dependent on previous PSII activity. In a Rubisco-deficient strain, which produces H2 also in the presence of sulfur, H2 generation seems to be the only significant electron sink for PSII activity and rescues this strain at least partially from a light-sensitive phenotype. The latter indicates that the down-regulation of assimilatory pathways in S-deprived C. reinhardtii cells is one of the important prerequisites for a sustained H2 evolution.

  10. Laser-driven wavebreaking, electron trapping, and mono-energetic beam production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esarey, Eric

    2006-10-01

    Recent breakthrough results reported in Nature demonstrate that laser-plasma accelerators can produce high quality (e.g., narrow energy spread) electron bunches at the 100 MeV level that may be useful for numerous applications. More recently, high quality electron beams at 1 GeV were produced in experiments at LBNL using 40 TW laser pulse interacting with a 3.3 cm plasma channel. In these experiments, the accelerated electrons were self-trapped from the background plasma, often attributed to the process of wavebreaking. Using a warm fluid model, a general analytic theory of wavebreaking has been developed that is valid for all regimes of interest, i.e., arbitrary temperature and phase velocity. This theory indicates that the maximum electric field obtainable by a relativistic plasma wave is lower that previously calculated. The relation between wavebreaking and particle trapping is discussed, and various quantities, such as the fraction of electrons trapped (i.e., the dark current), are calculated. A variety of methods for particle trapping relevant to present experiments, including 2D wavebreaking, density ramps, and laser injection, will be described. Limitations from dephasing and pump depletion will be summarized. Also presented will be 2D and 3D simulations modeling the production high quality electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators. C.G.R. Geddes et al., Nature 431, 538 (2004); S.P.D. Mangles et al., ibid., p. 535; J. Faure et al., ibid., p. 541. W.P. Leemans et al., submitted. C.B. Schroeder et al., Phys. Rev. E bf 72, 055401 (2005). C.B. Schroeder et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 033103 (2006). G. Fubiani et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 026402 (2006).

  11. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume I. Introduction and background. [Storage losses of 28 products and by-products

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The proposed plant site consists of 1594 acres along the Ohio River in Breckinridge County, Kentucky. An option to purchase the site has been secured on behalf of the Breckinridge Project by the Commonwealth of Kentucky Department of Energy. Figure 1 is an area map locating the site with respect to area cities and towns. The nearest communities to the site are the hamlet of Stephensport, Kentucky, about 3-1/2 miles northeast and Cloverport, Kentucky, which is 6 miles to the southwest. The nearest major cities are Owensboro, Kentucky, 45 road miles to the west and Louisville, Kentucky, 65 miles to the northeast. The Breckinridge facility will convert about 23,000 TPD of run-of-mine (ROM) coal into a nominal 50,000 BPD of hydrocarbon liquids including a significant quantity of transportation fuels. Major products refined for marketing include pipeline gas, propane, butane, 105 RONC gasoline reformate, middle distillate and heavy distillate. By-products include sulfur, anhydrous ammonia, and commercial-grade phenol. Care is being taken to minimize the impact of the facility operations on the environment. Water and wastewater treatment systems have been designed to achieve zero discharge. Waste solids will be disposed of in a carefully designed and well-monitored landfill operation. Also, special design features have been included to minimize air emissions.

  12. Spin-polarized relativistic linear-muffin-tin-orbital method: Volume-dependent electronic structure and magnetic moment of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyev, I.V. ); Liechtenstein, A.I. ); Gubanov, V.A. ); Antropov, V.P. ); Andersen, O.K. )

    1991-06-15

    The linear-muffin-tin-orbital method is generalized to the case of relativistic and spin-polarized self-consistent band calculations. Our formalism is analogous to the standard orthogonal--linear-muffin-tin-orbital formalism, except that the potential functions and the potential parameters are now matrices. The method is used to perform density-functional calculations for fcc plutonium with different atomic volumes. The formation of spin and orbital magnetic moments, as well as the changes in the energy bands for volume changes corresponding to the {alpha}-{delta} transition, are investigated. The calculated magnetic moments agree quite well with the experimental ones.

  13. Dynamics of energy transport and entropy production in ac-driven quantum electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludovico, María Florencia; Moskalets, Michael; Sánchez, David; Arrachea, Liliana

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the time-resolved energy transport and the entropy production in ac-driven quantum coherent electron systems coupled to multiple reservoirs at finite temperature. At slow driving, we formulate the first and second laws of thermodynamics valid at each instant of time. We identify heat fluxes flowing through the different pieces of the device and emphasize the importance of the energy stored in the contact and central regions for the second law of thermodynamics to be instantaneously satisfied. In addition, we discuss conservative and dissipative contributions to the heat flux and to the entropy production as a function of time. We illustrate these ideas with a simple model corresponding to a driven level coupled to two reservoirs with different chemical potentials.

  14. Accessibility condition of wave propagation and multicharged ion production in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-15

    A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred.

  15. Experimental verification of bremsstrahlung production and dosimetry predictions for 15. 5 MeV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Beutler, D.E.; Halbleib, J.A. ); Knott, D.P. )

    1991-11-01

    The radiation produced by a 15.5-Mev mono-energetic electron beam incident on optimized and non-optimized bremsstrahlung targets is characterized using the ITS Monte Carlo code and measurements with equilibrated and non-equilibrated TLD dosimetry. Comparisons between calculations and measurements verify the calculations and demonstrate that the code can be used to predict both bremsstrahlung production and TLD response for radiation fields that are characteristic of those produced by pulsed simulators of gamma rays. At optimum bremsstrahlung production, the predicted total forward radiation fluence detected in equilibrated TLD dosimetry agrees with that measured within the {plus minus}6% uncertainty of the measurement. The absolute comparisons made here provide independent confirmation of the validity of the TLD calibration for photon fields characteristic of gamma-ray simulators. The empirical Martin equation, which is often used to calculate radiation dose from optimized bremsstrahlung targets, is examined, and its range of validity is established from the data presented.

  16. Experimental verification of bremsstrahlung production and dosimetry predictions for 15.5 MeV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Beutler, D.E.; Halbleib, J.A.; Knott, D.P.

    1991-11-01

    The radiation produced by a 15.5-Mev mono-energetic electron beam incident on optimized and non-optimized bremsstrahlung targets is characterized using the ITS Monte Carlo code and measurements with equilibrated and non-equilibrated TLD dosimetry. Comparisons between calculations and measurements verify the calculations and demonstrate that the code can be used to predict both bremsstrahlung production and TLD response for radiation fields that are characteristic of those produced by pulsed simulators of gamma rays. At optimum bremsstrahlung production, the predicted total forward radiation fluence detected in equilibrated TLD dosimetry agrees with that measured within the {plus_minus}6% uncertainty of the measurement. The absolute comparisons made here provide independent confirmation of the validity of the TLD calibration for photon fields characteristic of gamma-ray simulators. The empirical Martin equation, which is often used to calculate radiation dose from optimized bremsstrahlung targets, is examined, and its range of validity is established from the data presented.

  17. Accessibility condition of wave propagation and multicharged ion production in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-01

    A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred.

  18. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bołd, T.; Bolilyi, O.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Boutle, S. K.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brümmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, S.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Fourletov, S.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Göttlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bołd, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Horton, K.; Hüttmann, A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jakob, H.-P.; Januschek, F.; Jimenez, M.; Jones, T. W.; Jüngst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kamaluddin, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, I.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotański, A.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kulinski, P.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Loizides, J. H.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Y.; Łużniak, P.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J. F.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Morris, J. D.; Mujkic, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nicholass, D.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Noor, U.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Y.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycień, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Ron, E.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salii, A.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schönberg, V.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Słomiński, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terrón, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomalak, O.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Vázquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Volynets, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Whitmore, J. J.; Whyte, J.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yagües-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zhou, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zolko, M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zulkapli, Z.

    2011-02-01

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q 2>10 GeV2, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb-1. The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9 < pTe < 8 GeV and pseudorapidity | η e |<1.5. Cross sections for beauty production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty contribution to the proton structure function F 2 was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken- x and Q 2.

  19. Survey of hydrogen production and utilization methods. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, D. P.; Pangborn, J. B.; Gillis, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The use of hydrogen as a synthetic fuel is considered. Processes for the production of hydrogen are described along with the present and future industrial uses of hydrogen as a fuel and as a chemical feedstock. Novel and unconventional hydrogen-production techniques are evaluated, with emphasis placed on thermochemical and electrolytic processes. Potential uses for hydrogen as a fuel in industrial and residential applications are identified and reviewed in the context of anticipated U.S. energy supplies and demands. A detailed plan for the period from 1975 to 1980 prepared for research on and development of hydrogen as an energy carrier is included.

  20. LLNL medical and industrial laser isotope separation: large volume, low cost production through advanced laser technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Scheibner, K. F.; Shaw, M.; Wilder, J.

    1998-09-02

    The goal of this LDRD project was to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of applying laser isotope separation technology to the commercial enrichment (>lkg/y) of stable isotopes. A successful demonstration would well position the laboratory to make a credible case for the creation of an ongoing medical and industrial isotope production and development program at LLNL. Such a program would establish LLNL as a center for advanced medical isotope production, successfully leveraging previous LLNL Research and Development hardware, facilities, and knowledge.

  1. A normative price for a manufactured product: The SAMICS methodology. Volume 2: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards provide standard formats, data, assumptions, and procedures for determining the price a hypothetical solar array manufacturer would have to be able to obtain in the market to realize a specified after-tax rate of return on equity for a specified level of production. The methodology and its theoretical background are presented. The model is sufficiently general to be used in any production-line manufacturing environment. Implementation of this methodology by the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Simultation computer program is discussed.

  2. One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.

    1993-12-31

    The project deals with understanding the fundamental biochemical mechanisms that physiologically control and regulate carbon and electron flow in anaerobic chemosynthetic bacteria that couple metabolism of single carbon compounds and hydrogen to the production of organic acids (formic, acetic, butyric, and succinic) or methane. The authors compare the regulation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism by fermentation, enzyme, and electron carrier analysis using Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, Anaeroblospirillum succiniciproducens, Methanosarcina barkeri, and a newly isolated tri-culture composed of a syntrophic butyrate degrader strain IB, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanobacterium formicicum as model systems. To understand the regulation of hydrogen metabolism during butyrate production or acetate degradation, hydrogenase activity in B. methylotrophicum or M. barkeri is measured in relation to growth substrate and pH; hydrogenase is purified and characterized to investigate number of hydrogenases; their localization and functions; and, their sequences are determined. To understand the mechanism for catabolic CO{sub 2} fixation to succinate the PEP carboxykinase enzyme and gene of A. succiniciproducens are purified and characterized. Genetically engineered strains of Escherichia coli containing the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase gene are examined for their ability to produce succinate in high yield. To understand the mechanism of fatty acid degradation by syntrophic acetogens during mixed culture methanogenesis formate and hydrogen production are characterized by radio tracer studies. It is intended that these studies provide strategies to improve anaerobic fermentations used for the production of organic acids or methane and, new basic understanding on catabolic CO{sub 2} fixation mechanisms and on the function of hydrogenase in anaerobic bacteria.

  3. QUARKONIUM PRODUCTION IN RELATIVISTIC NUCLEAR COLLISIONS. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 12

    SciTech Connect

    KHARZEEV,D.

    1999-04-20

    The RIKEN-BNL Workshop on Quarkonium Production in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions was held September 28--October 2, 1998, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Workshop brought together about 50 invited participants from around the world and a number of Brookhaven physicists from both particle and nuclear physics communities.

  4. Poultry Production for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. Volume 19, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timko, Joseph J.; Stewart, Bob R.

    This unit is designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. Intended to be taught to ninth-grade students of vocational agriculture, the unit contains six lessons for developing competencies needed in poultry production. The lessons are as follows: (1) the importance of the poultry…

  5. Greenhouse Crop Production; A Student Handbook, Teacher Education Series, Volume 10 Number 3s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    This study guide, developed by the Department of Agricultural Education of The Pennsylvania State University and field-tested by 54 teachers, is for student use in a unit on greenhouse crop production. Learning objectives, key questions, vocabulary terms, subject matter, and references are included for each of these problem areas: (1) Occupational…

  6. Greenhouse Crop Production; A Teacher's Manual. Teacher Education Series, Volume 10 Number 3t.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    Developed by the Department of Agricultural Education of the Pennsylvania State University and field-tested by 54 teachers, this guide is for teacher use in planning a unit in greenhouse crop production. The unit is intended for upper high school and post-high school students interested in careers in this field. Teacher suggestions, references,…

  7. Fruit and Vegetable Production Unit for Plant Science Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. Volume 16, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bob R.; Mullinix, Mark K.

    This curriculum guide, part of a plant science core curriculum, consists of materials for use in teaching a unit on fruit and vegetable production. Provided in the first part of the guide are a list of objectives, a bibliography, and a competency profile. The remainder of the guide consists of 11 lessons dealing with the following topics: planning…

  8. WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE WASTE STREAM: CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. (NOTE: Waste wood is wood that is separated from a solid-waste stream, processed into a uniform-sized product, and reused for o...

  9. WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE WASTE STREAM: CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. (NOTE: Waste wood is wood that is separated from a solid-waste stream, processed into a uniform-sized product, and reused for o...

  10. Production development of organic nonflammable spacecraft potting, encapsulating and conformal coating compounds. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    Appendices are presented which include: statement of work; material vendor contacts; formulation/processing data sheet; upward propagation test; flammability test conditions/results sheet; odor test; vacuum stability requirements; flammability test facility; determination of offgassing products and carbon monoxide test; and pneumatic and mechanical impact test guidelines.

  11. Space station human productivity study. Volume 2: Executive summary and oral review presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Definition of design/operations requirements for support of human productivity, identification of problem areas lacking data for requirements definition, generation of management plans for conduct of studies to acquire needed data for timely space station program impact, and correlation of all issue study management plans with space station progam milestone need dates were addressed.

  12. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)

  13. Repeatability and reproducibility of product ion abundances in electron capture dissociation mass spectrometry of peptides.

    PubMed

    Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Vorobyev, Aleksey; Tsybin, Yury O

    2011-01-01

    Site-specific reproducibility and repeatability of electron capture dissociation (ECD) in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) are of fundamental importance for product ion abundance (PIA)-based peptide and protein structure analysis. However, despite the growing interest in ECD PIA-based applications, these parameters have not yet been investigated in a consistent manner. Here, we first provide a detailed description of the experimental parameters for ECD-based tandem mass spectrometry performed on a hybrid linear ion trap (LTQ) FT-ICR MS. In the following, we describe the evaluation and comparison of ECD and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) PIA methodologies upon variation of a number of experimental parameters, for example, cathode potential (electron energy), laser power, electron and photon irradiation periods and pre- irradiation delays, as well as precursor ion number. Ranges of experimental parameters that yielded an average PIA variation below 5% and 15% were determined for ECD and IRMPD, respectively. We report cleavage site-dependent ECD PIA variation below 20% and correlation coefficients between fragmentation patterns superior to 0.95 for experiments performed on three FT-ICR MS instruments. Overall, the encouraging results obtained for ECD PIA reproducibility and repeatability support the use of ECD PIA as a complementary source of information to m/z data in radical-induced dissociation applied for peptide and protein structure analysis.

  14. The electronic NOSE and its application to the manufacture of food products

    PubMed Central

    Hodgins, Diana; Sirnmonds, Derek

    1995-01-01

    The Electronic NOSE (Neotronics Olfactory Sensing Equipment) is an instrument which mimics the human olfactory sensory system. It analyses complex vapours and produces a simple output. In the food industry there are numerous examples where the aroma from the raw ingredients through to the final product are important. These aromas are currently analysed using human sensory panels or analytical equipment such as gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The Electronic NOSE described in this paper was not developed to replace the GC/MS or the sensory panel but to provide an instrumental measure of aroma quality which would be related to and complement the current methodology. The Electronic NOSE is a robust system which can detect complex vapours at levels similar to the human, which means typically in the parts per billion range. The system produces an output which can be easily related to sensory data and is easy to interpret by a non-skilled operator. No part of this system reacts with the sample under test. PMID:18925038

  15. Electron Acceleration and Ionization Production in High-Power Heating Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, E. V.; Pedersen, T.

    2012-12-01

    Recent ionospheric modification experiments with the 3.6 MW transmitter at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska led to discovery of artificial ionization descending from the nominal interaction altitude in the background F-region ionosphere by ~60-80 km. Artificial ionization production is indicated by significant 427.8 nm emissions from the 1st negative band of N2+ and the appearance of transmitter-induced bottomside traces in ionosonde data during the periods of most intense optical emissions. However, the exact mechanisms producing the artificial plasmas remain to be determined. Yet the only existing theoretical models explain the development of artificial plasma as an ionizing wavefront moving downward due to ionization by electrons accelerated by HF-excited strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) generated near the plasma resonance, where the pump frequency matches the plasma frequency. However, the observations suggest also the significance of interactions with upper hybrid and electron Bernstein waves near multiples of the electron gyrofrequency. We describe recent observations and discuss suitable acceleration mechanisms.

  16. Direct electron-pair production by high energy heavy charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Dong, B. L.

    1989-01-01

    Direct electron pain production via virtual photons by moving charged particles is a unique electro-magnetic process having a substantial dependence on energy. Most electro-magnetic processes, including transition radiation, cease to be sensitive to the incident energy above 10 TeV/AMU. Thus, it is expected, that upon establishment of cross section and detection efficiency of this process, it may provide a new energy measuring technique above 10 TeV/AMU. Three accelerator exposures of emulsion chambers designed for measurements of direct electron-pains were performed. The objectives of the investigation were to provide the fundamental cross-section data in emulsion stacks to find the best-fit theoretical model, and to provide a calibration of measurements of direct electron-pairs in emulsion chamber configurations. This paper reports the design of the emulsion chambers, accelerator experiments, microscope measurements, and related considerations for future improvements of the measurements, and for possible applications to high energy cosmic ray experiments. Also discussed are the results from scanning 56m of emulsion tracks at 1200x magnification so that scanning efficiency is optimized. Measurements of the delta-ray range spectrum were also performed for much shorter track lengths, but with sufficiently large statistics in the number of measured delta-rays.

  17. Modelling Methane Production and Sulfate Reduction in Anaerobic Granular Sludge Reactor with Ethanol as Electron Donor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Xiaohu; Wang, Qilin; Pan, Yuting; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a mathematical model based on growth kinetics of microorganisms and substrates transportation through biofilms was developed to describe methane production and sulfate reduction with ethanol being a key electron donor. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data from two case studies conducted in granule-based Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactors. The results suggest that the developed model could satisfactorily describe methane and sulfide productions as well as ethanol and sulfate removals in both systems. The modeling results reveal a stratified distribution of methanogenic archaea, sulfate-reducing bacteria and fermentative bacteria in the anaerobic granular sludge and the relative abundances of these microorganisms vary with substrate concentrations. It also indicates sulfate-reducing bacteria can successfully outcompete fermentative bacteria for ethanol utilization when COD/SO42‑ ratio reaches 0.5. Model simulation suggests that an optimal granule diameter for the maximum methane production efficiency can be achieved while the sulfate reduction efficiency is not significantly affected by variation in granule size. It also indicates that the methane production and sulfate reduction can be affected by ethanol and sulfate loading rates, and the microbial community development stage in the reactor, which provided comprehensive insights into the system for its practical operation.

  18. Relationship between kinetics of growth and production of exo-electrons: Case study with Geobacter toluenoxydans.

    PubMed

    Szöllősi, Attila; Narr, László; Kovács, Attila G; Styevkó, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    Kinetics of growth and product formation of G. toluenoxydans DSMZ 19350 strain were investigated using sodium-acetate as substrate and Fe(3+)-ions and fumarate as electron acceptor. Response surface method was adapted for evaluation of growth of bacteria. Results showed that maximum growth was detected in the case of 2.2 g/L substrate concentration. Application of higher substrate concentration (>2.5 g/L sodium acetate) significantly inhibits the bacterial growth. Luong's model was found to be the most suitable to determine kinetic parameters (μ(max) = 0.033 1/h, KS = 0.205 g/L) of growth of G.toluenoxydans strain, and the growth was completely inhibited at substrate concentration higher than 3.1 g/L. In the case of product formation the Haldane model was used and kinetic parameters are μ(Pmax) = 0.123 mg/h, K(PS)= 0.184 g/L. Correlation between microbial growth and product formation was observed using the Luedeking-Piret empirical method. Both factors (growth and number of cells) affected significantly iron(III)-reduction, thus the product formation. These results are important and open the possibility to design a continuous MFC setting operating with G. toluenoxydans as biocatalyst.

  19. Modelling Methane Production and Sulfate Reduction in Anaerobic Granular Sludge Reactor with Ethanol as Electron Donor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Xiaohu; Wang, Qilin; Pan, Yuting; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a mathematical model based on growth kinetics of microorganisms and substrates transportation through biofilms was developed to describe methane production and sulfate reduction with ethanol being a key electron donor. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data from two case studies conducted in granule-based Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactors. The results suggest that the developed model could satisfactorily describe methane and sulfide productions as well as ethanol and sulfate removals in both systems. The modeling results reveal a stratified distribution of methanogenic archaea, sulfate-reducing bacteria and fermentative bacteria in the anaerobic granular sludge and the relative abundances of these microorganisms vary with substrate concentrations. It also indicates sulfate-reducing bacteria can successfully outcompete fermentative bacteria for ethanol utilization when COD/SO42− ratio reaches 0.5. Model simulation suggests that an optimal granule diameter for the maximum methane production efficiency can be achieved while the sulfate reduction efficiency is not significantly affected by variation in granule size. It also indicates that the methane production and sulfate reduction can be affected by ethanol and sulfate loading rates, and the microbial community development stage in the reactor, which provided comprehensive insights into the system for its practical operation. PMID:27731395

  20. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Kevin; Beeghly, Joel H.

    2000-11-30

    About 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable. This Executive Summary describes efforts to dewater the magnesium hydroxide and gypsum slurries and then process the solids into a more user friendly and higher value form. To eliminate the cost of solids disposal in its first generation Thiosorbic® system, the Dravo Lime Company developed the ThioClear® process that utilizes a magnesium based absorber liquor to remove S02 with minimal suspended solids. Magnesium enhanced lime is added to an oxidized bleed stream of thickener overflow (TOF) to produce magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and gypsum (CaS04 • 2H20), as by-products. This process was demonstrated at the 3 to 5 MW closed loop FGD system pilot plant at the Miami Fort Station of Cinergy, near Cincinnati, Ohio with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-91-6. A similar process strictly for'recovery and reuse of Mg(OH)2 began operation at the Zimmer Station of Cinergy in late 1994 that can produce 900 pounds of Mg(OH)2 per hour and 2,600 pounds of gypsum per hour. This by-product plant, called the Zimmer Slipstream Magnesium Hydroxide Recovery Project Demonstration, was conducted with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-921-004. Full scale ThioClear® plants began operating in 1997 at the 130 MW Applied Energy Services plant, in Monaca, PA, and in year 2000 at the 1,330 MW Allegheny Energy Pleasants Station at St. Marys, WV.

  1. Draft environmental impact statement siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 4, Appendices D-R

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains 15 appendices.

  2. Rerouting Cellular Electron Flux To Increase the Rate of Biological Methane Production

    PubMed Central

    Catlett, Jennie L.; Ortiz, Alicia M.

    2015-01-01

    Methanogens are anaerobic archaea that grow by producing methane, a gas that is both an efficient renewable fuel and a potent greenhouse gas. We observed that overexpression of the cytoplasmic heterodisulfide reductase enzyme HdrABC increased the rate of methane production from methanol by 30% without affecting the growth rate relative to the parent strain. Hdr enzymes are essential in all known methane-producing archaea. They function as the terminal oxidases in the methanogen electron transport system by reducing the coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethane sulfonate) and coenzyme B (7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine sulfonate) heterodisulfide, CoM-S-S-CoB, to regenerate the thiol-coenzymes for reuse. In Methanosarcina acetivorans, HdrABC expression caused an increased rate of methanogenesis and a decrease in metabolic efficiency on methylotrophic substrates. When acetate was the sole carbon and energy source, neither deletion nor overexpression of HdrABC had an effect on growth or methane production rates. These results suggest that in cells grown on methylated substrates, the cell compensates for energy losses due to expression of HdrABC with an increased rate of substrate turnover and that HdrABC lacks the appropriate electron donor in acetate-grown cells. PMID:26162885

  3. Rerouting Cellular Electron Flux To Increase the Rate of Biological Methane Production.

    PubMed

    Catlett, Jennie L; Ortiz, Alicia M; Buan, Nicole R

    2015-10-01

    Methanogens are anaerobic archaea that grow by producing methane, a gas that is both an efficient renewable fuel and a potent greenhouse gas. We observed that overexpression of the cytoplasmic heterodisulfide reductase enzyme HdrABC increased the rate of methane production from methanol by 30% without affecting the growth rate relative to the parent strain. Hdr enzymes are essential in all known methane-producing archaea. They function as the terminal oxidases in the methanogen electron transport system by reducing the coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethane sulfonate) and coenzyme B (7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine sulfonate) heterodisulfide, CoM-S-S-CoB, to regenerate the thiol-coenzymes for reuse. In Methanosarcina acetivorans, HdrABC expression caused an increased rate of methanogenesis and a decrease in metabolic efficiency on methylotrophic substrates. When acetate was the sole carbon and energy source, neither deletion nor overexpression of HdrABC had an effect on growth or methane production rates. These results suggest that in cells grown on methylated substrates, the cell compensates for energy losses due to expression of HdrABC with an increased rate of substrate turnover and that HdrABC lacks the appropriate electron donor in acetate-grown cells.

  4. Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-10-01

    Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH(4)) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH(4) production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt(-1)), while observed CO(2) production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH(4) emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha(-1)) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha(-1) application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH(4) emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH(4) production rates as well as total seasonal CH(4) flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH(4) emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity.

  5. Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-10-15

    Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH{sub 4}) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH{sub 4} production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt{sup -1}), while observed CO{sub 2} production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH{sub 4} emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha{sup -1}) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha{sup -1} application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH{sub 4} emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH{sub 4} production rates as well as total seasonal CH{sub 4} flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH{sub 4} emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity.

  6. 30 CFR 202.551 - How do I determine the volume of production for which I must pay royalty if my lease is not in an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine the volume of production for... (AFA)? 202.551 Section 202.551 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases § 202.551 How do...

  7. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 2: System requirements and conceptual description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the development of the business system for the SRB automated production control system, special attention had to be paid to the unique environment posed by the space shuttle. The issues posed by this environment, and the means by which they were addressed, are reviewed. The change in management philosphy which will be required as NASA switches from one-of-a-kind launches to multiple launches is discussed. The implications of the assembly process on the business system are described. These issues include multiple missions, multiple locations and facilities, maintenance and refurbishment, multiple sources, and multiple contractors. The implications of these aspects on the automated production control system are reviewed including an assessment of the six major subsystems, as well as four other subsystem. Some general system requirements which flow through the entire business system are described.

  8. Computer model for refinery operations with emphasis on jet fuel production. Volume 1: Program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, D. N.; Tunnah, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program is described for predicting the flow streams and material, energy, and economic balances of a typical petroleum refinery, with particular emphasis on production of aviation turbine fuel of varying end point and hydrogen content specifications. The program has provision for shale oil and coal oil in addition to petroleum crudes. A case study feature permits dependent cases to be run for parametric or optimization studies by input of only the variables which are changed from the base case.

  9. AgRISTARS: Foreign Commodity production forecasting. Project procedures designation and description document, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waggoner, J. T.; Phinney, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The crop estimation analysis procedures documentation of the AgRISTARS - Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting Project (FCPF) is presented. Specifically it includes the technical/management documentation of the remote sensing data analysis procedures prepared in accordance with the guidelines provided in the FCPF communication/documentation standards manual. Standard documentation sets are given arranged by procedural type and level then by crop types or other technically differentiating categories.

  10. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 8. Heteroatom Removal by Catalytic Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    distillation profiles of JP-4, JP-8, and GPGP tar oil stream ....................................... 7 2 Autoclave system used during tar oil upgrading...Table Title Page 1 Properties of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X aviation turbine fuels .... 3 2 Results of the elemental analyses of the GPGP liquid by...product streams ............................................ 4 3 Proton and carbon-13 NMR data for GPGP liquid streams ......... 5 4 Results of ASTM D86

  11. Non-mass-analyzed ion implantation equipment for high volume solar cell production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armini, A. J.; Bunker, S. N.; Spitzer, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    Equipment designed for junction formation in silicon solar cells is described. The equipment, designed for a production level of approximately one megawatt per year, consists of an ion implanter and annealer. Low cost is achieved by foregoing the use of mass analysis during the implantation, and by the use of a belt furnace for annealing. Results of process development, machine design and cost analysis are presented.

  12. Production Systems as a Programming Language for Artificial Intelligence Applications. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    System Implementation of EPAM. ............... 111-1 Start of Appendices .. ............... 111-27 End of Appendices. ................. 111-40 IV. GPSR: A...Production System Implementation of GPS .. .......... V-I Start of Appendices .. ................. IV-79 End of Appendices .. ................ V-108...describes an implementation of the classic means- ends problem- solving system, GPS. Each chapter has an abstract and a detailed table of contents. It is

  13. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 1: Study background and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The solid rocket boosters assembly environment is described in terms of the contraints it places upon an automated production control system. The business system generated for the SRB assembly and the computer system which meets the business system requirements are described. The selection software process and modifications required to the recommended software are addressed as well as the hardware and configuration requirements necessary to support the system.

  14. Electronic Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  15. Phase 1 of the North Site cleanup: Definition of product streams. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sorini, S.; Merriam, N.

    1994-03-01

    Various materials and equipment have accumulated at the Western Research Institute (WRI) North Site Facility since its commissioning in 1968. This facility was built by the US Bureau of Mines, transferred to the US Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA) in 1976, and transferred once again to the US Department of Energy (DOE) shortly thereafter. In 1983, the North Site Facility became part of WRI. The materials that have accumulated over the years at the site have been stored in drums, tanks, and open piles. They vary from oil shale, tar sand, and coal feedstocks to products and materials associated with in situ simulation and surface process developments associated with these feedstocks. The majority of these materials have been associated with DOE North Site activities and work performed at the North Site under DOE-WRI cooperative agreement contracts. In phase I of the North Site Facility cleanup project, these materials were sampled and evaluated to determine their chemical characteristics for proper disposal or use in accordance with current local, state, and federal regulations. Phase I of the North Site Facility cleanup project involved dividing the stored materials into product streams and dividing each product stream into composite groups. Composite groups contain materials known to be similar in composition, source, and process exposure. For each composite group, materials, which are representative of the composite, were selected for sampling, compositing, and analysis.

  16. Volume production of negative ions in the reflex type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1982-01-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm/sup 2/) for H/sup -/ and of 4.1 mA (42 mA/cm/sup 2/) for D/sup -/ are obtained continuously. The impurity is less then 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed. When anomalous diffusion in the positive column was found by Lehnert and Hoh (1960), it was pointed out that the large particle loss produced by anomalous diffusion is compensated by the large particle production inside the plasma, i.e., the plasma tries to maintain itself. The self-sustaining property of the plasma is applied to the reflex-type negative ion source. Anomalous diffusion was artificially encouraged by changing the radial electric field inside the reflex discharge. The apparent encouragement of negative ion diffusion by the increase of density fluctuation amplitude is observed. Twice as much negative ion current was obtained with the artificial encouragement as without. It is found from the quasilinear theory that the inwardly directed radial electric field destabilizes the plasma in the reflex-type ion source. The nonlinear theory based on Yoshikawa method (1962) is extended, and the anomalous diffusion coefficient in a weakly ionized plasma is obtained. The electrostatic sheath trap, which increases the confinement of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source, is also discussed.

  17. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD

    SciTech Connect

    Båth, Magnus Svalkvist, Angelica; Söderman, Christina

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. Methods: DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. Results: A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. Conclusions: A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  18. Single impacts of keV fullerene ions on free standing graphene: Emission of ions and electrons from confined volume

    SciTech Connect

    Verkhoturov, Stanislav V.; Geng, Sheng; Schweikert, Emile A.; Czerwinski, Bartlomiej; Young, Amanda E.; Delcorte, Arnaud

    2015-10-28

    We present the first data from individual C{sub 60} impacting one to four layer graphene at 25 and 50 keV. Negative secondary ions and electrons emitted in transmission were recorded separately from each impact. The yields for C{sub n}{sup −} clusters are above 10% for n ≤ 4, they oscillate with electron affinities and decrease exponentially with n. The result can be explained with the aid of MD simulation as a post-collision process where sufficient vibrational energy is accumulated around the rim of the impact hole for sputtering of carbon clusters. The ionization probability can be estimated by comparing experimental yields of C{sub n}{sup −} with those of C{sub n}{sup 0} from MD simulation, where it increases exponentially with n. The ionization probability can be approximated with ejecta from a thermally excited (3700 K) rim damped by cluster fragmentation and electron detachment. The experimental electron probability distributions are Poisson-like. On average, three electrons of thermal energies are emitted per impact. The thermal excitation model invoked for C{sub n}{sup −} emission can also explain the emission of electrons. The interaction of C{sub 60} with graphene is fundamentally different from impacts on 3D targets. A key characteristic is the high degree of ionization of the ejecta.

  19. Studies of fullerene absorption and production using an infrared free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Affatigato, M.; Haglund, R.F.; Ying, Z.C.; Compton, R.N.

    1995-12-31

    Tunable photon sources such as free-electron lasers are potentially valuable tools in spectroscopic studies of fullerenes, a new class of carbon materials with unique cage structures. We have used the infrared free-electron-laser facility at Vanderbilt University to study the infrared absorption of gas-phase fullerene molecules and also to investigate the effects of an infrared laser in the synthesis and crystallization of fullerene materials. In one experiment, fullerene vapor was created in a heat pipe through which the FEL beam was passed; the transmission of the FEL beam relative to a reference detector was measured as a function of wavelength. A large (>10%) absorption of the IR laser was observed when it passed through C{sub 60} vapor at {approximately}800{degrees}C. Due to the broad spectral width of the FEL as well as spectral congestion, no spectral peaks were seen when the laser wavelength was tuned across a T{sub 1u}C{sub 60} IR mode near 7.0 {mu}. However, it is expected that the vibrational features can be resolved experimentally by passing the transmitted beam through a monochromator. In a separate experiment, the FEL beam was focused onto a surface of graphite or graphite/metal mixture target. Various fullerene molecules, including endohedral types, were produced when the soot was recovered from the ablation chamber. The yield of the products was measured to be {approximately}0.4 g/J of the incident laser energy. However, both the yield and the product distribution are virtually, the same as those in experiments using a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser. This suggests that the laser wavelength is not a crucial parameter in making fullerenes by laser ablation. Even when the laser is at resonance with one of the vibrational modes of C{sub 60}, the fullerene production is neither substantially enhanced nor suppressed.

  20. Production and loss of H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ in the volume of a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, G.W.; Bacal, M.

    1981-10-22

    The study of the production and loss of negative ions, H/sup -/ and D/sup -/, in the volume of a plasma has received considerable attention since the measurement of anomalously high densities of H/sup -/ in 1977. The most probable mechanism for production is dissociative attachment (DA) to vibrationally highly-excited hydrogen molecules. New diagnostics developed for this purpose are photodetachment and the extension of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) systems to the sensitivity required for low-pressure gases. Measurements and calculations indicate that the important loss mechanisms are diffusion to the walls at low densities and collisional destruction of several types at plasma densities above 10/sup 10/ cm/sup -3/. Production mechanisms must be highly efficient to compete with the losses. It appears to be straightforward to extrapolate measurements and theory to the densities above 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/ that are required for an intense source of D/sup -/ for neutral beam injection into magnetically-confined fusion devices.

  1. The unrecognized effects of the volume and composition of the resuscitation fluid used during the administration of blood products

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, C. Robert; Veech, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent publications have reported the severe adverse events associated with blood products but have not considered the effect of the volume and composition of the resuscitative fluids infused with the blood products. Methods Injury leads to cellular reaction characterized by insulin resistance during which glucose cannot enter muscle and fat cells. In all cells, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase activity is decreased during insulin deficiency leaving cells deficient in substrates needed to power the Krebs cycle and make ATP. Results d-β-Hydroxybutyrate, a normal ketone body metabolite, enters cells on the monocarboxylate transport mimicking the action of insulin and bypassing the enzymatic block at PDH. Metabolism of ketone bodies increases efficiency of mitochondrial energy production and cellular ATP level. Conclusion Infusion of 250 ml of 600 mM Na d-β-hydroxybutyrate solution, with the same osmotic strength as the hypertonic NaCl solution currently being used, would correct insulin resistance, provide energy substrates for cells to produce ATP, correct the tendency of injured tissue to swell due to decreased energy of ionic gradients and correct acidosis observed in hemorrhage. PMID:22364841

  2. Needle coke and carbon fiber production from Venezuelan oil residues. (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.

    1992-01-01

    The conversion of high boiling petroleum residues to carbonaceous materials is investigated. A new integrated approach is presented in which Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, optical microscopy, physico-chemical separations, and pilot plant operations are combined to better understand the carbonization process and to develop criteria for prediction of product quality. This methodology is applied to several Venezuelan oil residues obtained from refinery and pilot plant operations to evaluate their potential for producing high value carbon products such as needle coke and carbon fibers. Feedstocks, reaction intermediates, and products are characterized by [sup 1]H and [sup 13]C NMR in terms of basic hydrocarbon constituents, and changes in carbon and proton distributions are measured. The extent of aromatization and other structural changes resulting from thermal cracking reactions are calculated for the first time by combining pilot plant data with NMR spectroscopic data in both the liquid and solid states. Improved methods for interpreting NMR data of liquid and solid materials from petroleum residues are developed. The effects of operating conditions and the role of different fractions obtained by distillation, n-pentane extraction and high performance liquid chromatography during reaction are documented. Delayed coking and thermal cracking pilot plant experiments were designed and carried out to simulate refinery operation and to provide samples for further characterization. Representative samples of coke were evaluated for use as electrodes in electric arc furnaces. It is shown that by proper selection of feedstock and operational parameters, premium quality needle cokes can be produced. A laboratory scale melt spinning apparatus to produce continuous mesophase pitch carbon fibers was designed and built. The ability to produce thin filaments (less than 20 [mu]m diameter) from petroleum pitches was demonstrated.

  3. Space Shuttle production verification motor 1 (PV-1) field joint protection system, volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of the field joint protection system (FJPS) of the Space Shuttle Production Verification Motor 1 (PV-1), as evaluated by postfire hardware inspection. Compliance with the specifications is shown for the FJPS assembly and components. The simplified FJPS and field joint heaters performed nominally, maintaining all joint seal temperatures within the required range. One anomally was noted on the igniter-to-case joint heater during postfire inspection. The heater buckled off the surface in two areas, resulting in two hot spots on the heater and darkened heater insulation. The condition did not affect heater performance during ignition countdown and all igniter seals were maintained within required temperature limits.

  4. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume I of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    In fulfillment of the NWPPC's 3-Step Process for the implementation of new hatcheries in the Columbia Basin, this Step 1 submission package to the Council includes four items: (1) Cover letter from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe, Interdisciplinary Team Chair, and the USFWS; (2) References to key information (Attachments 1-4); (3) The updated Master Plan for the Tribe's native cutthroat restoration project; and (4) Appendices. In support of the Master Plan submitted by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe the reference chart (Item 2) was developed to allow reviewers to quickly access information necessary for accurate peer review. The Northwest Power Planning Council identified pertinent issues to be addressed in the master planning process for new artificial production facilities. References to this key information are provided in three attachments: (1) NWPPC Program language regarding the Master Planning Process, (2) Questions Identified in the September 1997 Council Policy, and (3) Program language identified by the Council's Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP). To meet the need for off-site mitigation for fish losses on the mainstem Columbia River, in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a trout production facility located adjacent to Coeur d'Alene Lake on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. The updated Master Plan (Item 3) represents the needs associated with the re-evaluation of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Trout Production Facility (No.199004402). This plan addresses issues and concerns expressed by the NWPPC as part of the issue summary for the Mountain Columbia provincial review, and the 3-step hatchery review process. Finally, item 4 (Appendices) documents the 3-Step process correspondence to date between the Coeur d'Alene Tribe and additional relevant entities. Item 4 provides a chronological account of previous ISRP reviews

  5. Influence of inoculum density and aeration volume on biomass and bioactive compound production in bulb-type bubble bioreactor cultures of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Moh, Sang-Hyun; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2011-07-01

    This study deals with the effects of initial inoculum density and aeration volume on biomass and bioactive compound production in adventitious roots of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai in bulb-type bubble bioreactors (3-L capacity). While the fresh and dry weights of the roots increased with increasing inoculum density, the highest percentage dry weight and accumulation of total target compounds (eleutheroside B and E, chlorogenic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids) were noted at an inoculum density of 5.0 g L(-1). Poor aeration volume (0.05 vvm) stunted root growth, and high aeration volume (0.4 vvm) caused physiological disorders. Moreover, an inoculum density of 5.0 g L(-1) and an aeration volume of 0.1 vvm resulted in the highest concentration of total target compounds and least root death. Such optimization of culture conditions will be beneficial for the large-scale production of E. koreanum biomass and bioactive compounds.

  6. Multiresidue determination of pesticides in agricultural products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with large volume injection.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yukio; Kodama, Shuji; Matsunaga, Akinobu; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    A method is described for the rapid determination of pesticide residues in agricultural products. Pesticides were extracted from samples with acetonitrile. To remove pigments and fatty acids, an aliquot of the extract was cleaned up by a minicolumn that was packed both with graphitized carbon black and primary secondary amine. Analysis was performed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry with programmable temperature vaporizer-based large volume injection using a liner packed with phenylmethylsilicone chemically bonded silica. The method was evaluated for 114 pesticides by spiking into tomato, spinach, Japanese pear, grape, and brown rice at various concentrations of each pesticide (0.02-0.4 microg/g). The method, which gave good recovery (>60%) for 108 pesticides, is characterized by high cleanup efficiency and short cleanup time, and is useful as a rapid screening analysis.

  7. First-principles computation of electron transfer and reaction rate at a perovskite cathode for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Liu, C T; Chu, J F; Lin, C K; Hong, C W

    2017-03-22

    The focus of this research is on the electron transfer and its reaction rate at the perovskite cathode of a photoelectrochemical cell for hydrogen production. By employing the density functional theory (DFT), the electron density, projected density of states (PDOS), electron distribution and electron transfer path between [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase and the perovskite cathode can be obtained. Simulation results show that the perovskite cathode is better than traditional cathodes for hydrogen production. Before transmission to the [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase, electron clouds mainly aggregate at the periphery of amine molecules. Simulations also show that the key to hydrogen production at the perovskite structure lies in the organic molecules. Electrons are transferred to the hydrocarbon structural chain before reaching the Fe atoms. The Rice, Ramsperger, Kassel and Marcus (RRKM) theory was used to predict the reaction rates at different temperatures. It was found that the reaction rates are in good agreement with the experimental results. This research provides more physical insight into the electron transfer mechanism during the hydrogen production process.

  8. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Mechanism of high-energy electron production in a laser plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. S.

    2004-01-01

    A mechanism of high-energy electron production in the interaction of high-intensity short laser pulses with a solid target is proposed and analysed. The theoretical dependences of fast-electron kinetic energy on the parameters of laser radiation and target material are given. The effect of ionisation of the target material is considered. The generation of ultrastrong magnetic fields in the laser plasma is shown to play the key part in the formation, transfer, and acceleration of electron beams. This results in the production of vortex electric fields accelerating electrons. The theoretical dependences yield well-proved limits for the electron energy and are in good agreement with the results of experiments performed on high-intensity laser setups, including the results obtained with participation of the author.

  9. Magnetite nanoparticles facilitate methane production from ethanol via acting as electron acceptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiman; Shi, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Chuanshui; Wang, Lin; Guo, Rongbo

    2015-11-12

    Potential for interspecies hydrogen transfer within paddy soil enrichments obtained via addition of magnetite nanoparticles and ethanol (named as PEM) was investigated. To do this, PEM derived from rice field of Hangzhou (named as PEM-HZ) was employed, because it offered the best methane production performance. Methane production and Fe (III) reduction proceeded in parallel in the presence of magnetite. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethane sulfonate (BES) or phosphate showed that interspecies hydrogen transfer and Fe (III) reduction also occurred in methane production from ethanol. 16S rRNA-based Illumina sequencing results showed that Dechloromonas, Thauera, Desulfovibrio and Clostridium were the dominant putative Fe (III) -reducers, and that hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium accounted for about 88% of the total archaeal community. These results indicated that magnetite nanoparticles that acted as electron acceptor could facilitate rapid oxidation of ethanol by members of the Fe (III) -reducers in PEM-HZ and establishment of the syntrophic relationship of Fe (III) -reducers with Methanobacterium via interspecies hydrogen transfer. Our results could offer a model to understand the microbial interaction with magnetite from a novel angle during methanogenesis.

  10. Magnetite nanoparticles facilitate methane production from ethanol via acting as electron acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiman; Shi, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Chuanshui; Wang, Lin; Guo, Rongbo

    2015-01-01

    Potential for interspecies hydrogen transfer within paddy soil enrichments obtained via addition of magnetite nanoparticles and ethanol (named as PEM) was investigated. To do this, PEM derived from rice field of Hangzhou (named as PEM-HZ) was employed, because it offered the best methane production performance. Methane production and Fe (III) reduction proceeded in parallel in the presence of magnetite. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethane sulfonate (BES) or phosphate showed that interspecies hydrogen transfer and Fe (III) reduction also occurred in methane production from ethanol. 16S rRNA-based Illumina sequencing results showed that Dechloromonas, Thauera, Desulfovibrio and Clostridium were the dominant putative Fe (III) -reducers, and that hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium accounted for about 88% of the total archaeal community. These results indicated that magnetite nanoparticles that acted as electron acceptor could facilitate rapid oxidation of ethanol by members of the Fe (III) -reducers in PEM-HZ and establishment of the syntrophic relationship of Fe (III) -reducers with Methanobacterium via interspecies hydrogen transfer. Our results could offer a model to understand the microbial interaction with magnetite from a novel angle during methanogenesis. PMID:26559132

  11. Magnetite nanoparticles facilitate methane production from ethanol via acting as electron acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiman; Shi, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Chuanshui; Wang, Lin; Guo, Rongbo

    2015-11-01

    Potential for interspecies hydrogen transfer within paddy soil enrichments obtained via addition of magnetite nanoparticles and ethanol (named as PEM) was investigated. To do this, PEM derived from rice field of Hangzhou (named as PEM-HZ) was employed, because it offered the best methane production performance. Methane production and Fe (III) reduction proceeded in parallel in the presence of magnetite. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethane sulfonate (BES) or phosphate showed that interspecies hydrogen transfer and Fe (III) reduction also occurred in methane production from ethanol. 16S rRNA-based Illumina sequencing results showed that Dechloromonas, Thauera, Desulfovibrio and Clostridium were the dominant putative Fe (III) -reducers, and that hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium accounted for about 88% of the total archaeal community. These results indicated that magnetite nanoparticles that acted as electron acceptor could facilitate rapid oxidation of ethanol by members of the Fe (III) -reducers in PEM-HZ and establishment of the syntrophic relationship of Fe (III) -reducers with Methanobacterium via interspecies hydrogen transfer. Our results could offer a model to understand the microbial interaction with magnetite from a novel angle during methanogenesis.

  12. Regulation of Product Formation in Bacteroides xylanolyticus X5-1 by Interspecies Electron Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Biesterveld, Steven; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteroides xylanolyticus X5-1 was grown in pure culture and in mixed culture with Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1 under xylose limitation in the chemostat. In the pure culture, ethanol, acetate, CO2, and hydrogen were the products. In the mixed culture, acetate, CO2, and presumably hydrogen were the only products formed by B. xylanolyticus X5-1. The biomass yield of B. xylanolyticus X5-1 increased because of cocultivation. In cell extracts of the pure culture, both NAD- and NADP-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and ethanol dehydrogenase activities were found. In cell extracts of the mixed culture, activities of these enzymes were not detected. Inhibition of methanogenesis in the mixed culture by the addition of bromoethanosulfonic acid (BES) resulted in an accumulation of H2, ethanol, and formate. Immediately after the addition of BES, NAD-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and ethanol dehydrogenase activities were detected. After a short lag phase, a NADP-dependent ethanol dehydrogenase was also detectable. The induction of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and ethanol dehydrogenase was inhibited by chloramphenicol, suggesting de novo synthesis of these enzymes. These results are consistent with a model in which the shift in product formation caused by interspecies electron transfer is regulated at the level of enzyme synthesis. PMID:16349240

  13. FY94 CAG trip reports, CAG memos and other products: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-15

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) of the US DOE is tasked with designing, constructing, and operating an Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the YMP is to provide detailed characterization of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential mined geologic repository for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Detailed characterization of properties of the site are to be conducted through a wide variety of short-term and long-term in-situ tests. Testing methods require the installation of a large number of test instruments and sensors with a variety of functions. These instruments produce analog and digital data that must be collected, processed, stored, and evaluated in an attempt to predict performance of the repository. The Integrated Data and Control System (IDCS) is envisioned as a distributed data acquisition that electronically acquires and stores data from these test instruments. IDCS designers are responsible for designing and overseeing the procurement of the system, IDCS Operation and Maintenance operates and maintains the installed system, and the IDCS Data Manager is responsible for distribution of IDCS data to participants. This report is a compilation of trip reports, interoffice memos, and other memos relevant to Computer Applications Group, Inc., work on this project.

  14. Enhanced production of runaway electrons during electron cyclotron resonance heating and in the presence of supersonic molecular beam injection in the HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y. P.; Liu, Yi; Yang, J. W.; Song, X. Y.; Yuan, G. L.; Zhou, J.; Yao, L. H.; Feng, B. B.; Li, X.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; Pan, C. H.; Liu, Y.

    2010-07-15

    In the present paper, it is reported that a large production of runaway electrons has been observed during the flattop phase of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) discharges and in the presence of supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) in the HuanLiuqi-2A (commonly referred to as HL-2A) [Q. W. Yang, Nucl. Fusion 47, S635 (2007)] tokamak. For the set of discharges carried out in the present experiment, the ranges of ECRH power and plasma electron density are 0.8-1.0 MW and (3.0-4.0)x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, respectively. A large number of superthermal electrons are produced through the avalanche effect [A. Lazaros, Phys. Plasmas 8, 1263 (2001)] during ECRH. The loop voltage increase due to SMBI gives rise to a decline in the critical runaway energy, which leads to that many superthermal electrons could be converted into runaway region. Therefore, this phenomenon may come from the synergetic effects of ECRH and SMBI. That is, the superthermal electrons created by ECRH are accelerated into runaway regime via the Dreicer process which is triggered by SMBI. The experimental results are in well agreement with the calculational ones based on the superthermal electron avalanche effect and the Dreicer runaway theory.

  15. Coal gasification via the Lurgi process: Topical report: Volume 1, Production of SNG (substitute material gas)

    SciTech Connect

    Zahnstecher, L.W.

    1984-09-01

    A Lurgi baseline study was requested by the DOE/GRI Operating Committee of the Joint Coal Gasification Program for the purpose of updating the economics of earlier Lurgi coal gasification plant studies for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) based on commercially advanced technologies. The current study incorporates the recent experience with large size Lurgi plants in an effort to improve capital and operating costs of earlier plant designs. The present coal gasification study is based on a mine mouth plant producing 250 billion Btu (HHV) per day of SNG using the Lurgi dry bottom coal gasification technology. A Western subbituminous coal was designated as the plant food, obtained from the Rosebud seam at Colstrip, Montana. This study presents the detailed description of an integrated facility which utilizes coal, air, and water to produce 250 billion Btu (HHV) per day of SNG. The plant consists of coal handling and preparation, twenty-six Lurgi dry bottom gasifiers, shift conversion, acid gas removal, methanation, compression and drying of product gas, sulfur recovery, phenol and ammonia recovery, as well as necessary support facilities. The plant is a grass roots, mine mouth facility located in a Western location similar to the town of Colstrip in Rosebud County, Montana. The Lurgi Corporation assisted in this study, under subcontract to Foster Wheeler, by supplying the heat and material balances, flow sheets, utilities, catalysts and chemical requirements, and cost data for Lurgi designed process sections. Details of material supplied by Lurgi Corporation are presented in Appendix A. 52 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  16. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume II of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This appendices covers the following reports: (1) Previous ISRP Reviews (Project 199004400) Implement Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities-Coeur d'Alene Reservation; (2) Step 1 review of the hatchery master plan (Memorandum from Mark Fritsch, Fish Production Coordinator, Draft version March 10, 2000); (3) Coeur d'Alene Tribe response to ISRP comments on Project No. 199004402; includes attachment A Water Quantity Report. This is an incomplete document Analysis of Well Yield Potential for a Portion of the Coeur d'Alene Reservation near Worley, Idaho, February 2001; (4) Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program, Rainbow Trout Feasibility Report on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation prepared by Ronald L. Peters, February 2001; (5) Coeur d'Alene Tribe response letter pursuant to the questions raised in the Step 1 review of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility from Ronald L. Peters, March 27, 2001 ; includes attachments Water quantity report (this is the complete report), Appendix A Logs for Test Wells and 1999 Worley West Park Well, letters from Ralston, Appendix B Cost of Rainbow Purchase Alternative; (6) NPPC response (memorandum from Mark Fritsch, March 28, 2001); (7) Response to NPPC (letter to Frank Cassidy, Jr., Chair, from Ernest L. Stensgar, April 18, 2001); (8) Final ISRP review (ISRP 2001-4: Mountain Columbia Final Report); (9) Response to ISRP comment (letter to Mark Walker, Director of Public Affairs, from Ronald Peters, May 7, 2001); (10) Final comments to the Fish 4 committee; (11) Scope of Work/Budget FY 2001-2004; (12) Letter from City of Worley concerning water service; (13) Letter to BPA regarding status of Step 1 package; (14) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1990 annual report; (15) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1991 annual report; and (16) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1992 annual

  17. Probing anomalous couplings using di-Higgs production in electron-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Ruan, Xifeng; Islam, Rashidul; Cornell, Alan S.; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Mellado, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    A proposed high energy Future Circular Hadron-Electron Collider would provide sufficient energy in a clean environment to probe di-Higgs production. Using this channel we show that the azimuthal angle correlation between the missing transverse energy and the forward jet is a very good probe for the non-standard hhh and hhWW couplings. We give the exclusion limits on these couplings as a function of integrated luminosity at a 95% C.L. using the fiducial cross sections. With appropriate error fitting methodology we find that the Higgs boson self coupling could be measured to be ghhh(1) = 1.00-0.17(0.12)+0.24(0.14) of its expected Standard Model value at √{ s} = 3.5 (5.0) TeV for an ultimate 10 ab-1 of integrated luminosity.

  18. O/S-1/ interactions - The product channels. [collisional electron quenching and chemical reaction pathway frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Black, G.

    1978-01-01

    The first measurements are reported of the reaction pathways for the interaction between oxygen atoms in the 4.19 eV S-1 state, and four molecules, N2O, CO2, H2O, and NO. Distinction is made between three possible paths - quenching to O(D-1), quenching to O(P-3), and chemical reaction. With N2O, the most reasonable interpretation of the data indicates that there no reaction, in sharp contrast with the interaction between O(D-1) and N2O, which proceeds entirely by reaction. Similarly, there is no reaction with CO2. With H2O, the reactive pathway is the dominant one, although electronic quenching is not negligible. With NO, O(D-1) is the preferred product.

  19. Absolute cross sections for ethylene-dication production by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigaud, L.; Montenegro, E. C.

    2017-01-01

    This work reports absolute cross-section measurements for the production of ethylene dications by electron impact, with the energy ranging between 25 and 800 eV. Separation of the entangled C2H42 + and CH2+ fragments with the same mass-to-charge ratio, in the time-of-flight spectrum, is properly carried out using the DETOF technique. This separation shows that stable C2H42 + can be produced either by two primary vacancies or by a single primary vacancy in an inner valence shell, with its subsequent de-excitation through Auger-like decay. Our findings show that the latter process can be an important player in dication formation, prevailing in the case of ethylene at projectile energies above 500 eV.

  20. Modelling and Simulation of National Electronic Product Code Network Demonstrator Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, John P. T.

    The National Electronic Product Code (EPC) Network Demonstrator Project (NDP) was the first large scale consumer goods track and trace investigation in the world using full EPC protocol system for applying RFID technology in supply chains. The NDP demonstrated the methods of sharing information securely using EPC Network, providing authentication to interacting parties, and enhancing the ability to track and trace movement of goods within the entire supply chain involving transactions among multiple enterprise. Due to project constraints, the actual run of the NDP was 3 months only and was unable to consolidate with quantitative results. This paper discusses the modelling and simulation of activities in the NDP in a discrete event simulation environment and provides an estimation of the potential benefits that can be derived from the NDP if it was continued for one whole year.

  1. Observation of exclusive electron-positron production in hadron-hadron collisions.

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Caron, B; Carosi, R; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Almenar, C Cuenca; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; Daronco, S; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; Cecco, S De; Deisher, A; Lentdecker, G De; Dell'orso, M; Paoli, F Delli; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Pedis, D De; Derwent, P F; Giovanni, G P Di; Dionisi, C; Ruzza, B Di; Dittmann, J R; Dituro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Fernandez, P Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pinfold, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Denis, R St; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-03-16

    We present the first observation of exclusive e(+)e(-) production in hadron-hadron collisions, using pp[over] collision data at (square root) s = 1.96 TeV taken by the run II Collider Detector at Fermilab, and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 532 pb(-1). We require the absence of any particle signatures in the detector except for an electron and a positron candidate, each with transverse energy E(T) > 5 GeV and pseudorapidity |eta| < 2. With these criteria, 16 events are observed compared to a background expectation of 1.9+/-0.3 events. These events are consistent in cross section and properties with the QED process pp[over] --> p + e(+)e(-) + p[over] through two-photon exchange. The measured cross section is 1.6(-0.3)(+0.5)(stat) +/- 0.3(syst) pb. This agrees with the theoretical prediction of 1.71+/-0.01 pb.

  2. Computer simulation of electron-positron pair production by channeling radiation in amorphous converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdrashitov, S. V.; Bogdanov, O. V.; Dabagov, S. B.; Pivovarov, Yu L.; Tukhfatullin, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the radiator-converter approach at 200 MeV channeled electrons (the SPARC_LAB LNF facility energies) for the case of using W crystalline radiator and W amorphous converter. A comparison of the positron production by the axial channeling radiation and the bremsstrahlung is performed. The positron stopping in the convertor is studied by means of computer simulations. It is shown that for the maximum yield of positrons the thickness of the W amorphous converter should be taken 0.35 cm in the case of using the axial channeling radiation resulting to total yield of positrons 5 10-3 e+/e- and 0.71 cm in the case of using the bremsstrahlung resulting to total yield of positrons 3.3 10-3 e+/e-.

  3. Electron accelerator-based production of molybdenum-99: Bremsstrahlung and photoneutron generation from molybdenum vs. tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsechanski, A.; Bielajew, A. F.; Archambault, J. P.; Mainegra-Hing, E.

    2016-01-01

    A new "one-stage" approach for production of 99Mo and other radioisotopes by means of an electron linear accelerator is described. It is based on using a molybdenum target both as a bremsstrahlung converter and as a radioisotope producing target for the production of 99Mo via the photoneutron reaction 100Mo(γ,n)99Mo. Bremsstrahlung characteristics, such as bremsstrahlung efficiency, angular distribution, and energy deposition for molybdenum targets were obtained by means of the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code system. As a result of our simulations, it is concluded that a 60 MeV electron beam incident on a thick Mo target will have greater bremsstrahlung efficiency than the same thickness (in units of r0) W target, for target thickness z > 1.84r0, where r0 is the electron range. A 50 MeV electron beam incident on a Mo target will result in greater bremsstrahlung efficiency than the same thickness W target (in units of r0) for target thickness case: z ⩾ 2.0r0. It is shown for the one-stage approach with thicknesses of (1.84-2.0)r0, that the 99Mo-production bremsstrahlung efficiency of a molybdenum target is greater by ∼100% at 30 MeV and by ∼70% at 60 MeV compared to the values for tungsten of the same thickness (in units of the appropriate r0) in the traditional two-stage approach (W converter and separate 99Mo producing target). This advantage of the one-stage approach arises from the fact that the bremsstrahlung produced is attenuated only once from attenuation in the molybdenum converter/target. In the traditional, two-stage approach, the bremsstrahlung generated in the W-converter/target is attenuated both in the converter in the 99Mo-producing molybdenum target. The photoneutron production yield of molybdenum and tantalum (as a substitute for tungsten) target was calculated by means of the MCNP5 transport code. On the basis of these data, the specific activity for the one-stage approach of three enriched 100Mo-targets of a 2 cm diameter and

  4. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams.

  5. Color-Center Production and Formation in Electron-Irradiated Magnesium Aluminate Spinel and Ceria

    DOE PAGES

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Lelong, Gerald; Guillaumet, Maxime; ...

    2016-06-20

    Single crystals of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) with (100) or (110) orientations and cerium dioxide or ceria (CeO2) were irradiated by 1.0-MeV and 2.5-MeV electrons in a high fluence range. Point-defect production was studied by off-line UV-visible optical spectroscopy after irradiation. For spinel, regardless of both crystal orientation and electron energy, two characteristic broad bands centered at photon energies of 5.4 eV and 4.9 eV were assigned to F and F+ centers (neutral and singly-ionized oxygen vacancies), respectively, on the basis of available literature data. No clear differences in colour-centre formation were observed for the two crystal orientations. Using calculationsmore » of displacement cross sections by elastic collisions, these results are consistent with a very large threshold displacement energy (200 eV) for oxygen atoms at RT. A third very broad band centered at 3.7 eV might be attributed either to an oxygen hole center (V-type center) or an F2 dimer center (oxygen di-vacancy). The onset of recovery of these color centers took place at 200°C with almost full bleaching at 600°C. Activation energies (~0.3-0.4 eV) for defect recovery were deduced from the isochronal annealing data by using a first-order kinetics analysis. For ceria, a sub band-gap absorption feature peaked at ~3.1 eV was recorded for 2.5-MeV electron irradiation only. Assuming a ballistic process, we suggest that the latter defect might result from cerium atom displacement on the basis of computed cross sections.« less

  6. Color-Center Production and Formation in Electron-Irradiated Magnesium Aluminate Spinel and Ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Lelong, Gerald; Guillaumet, Maxime; Weber, William J.; Takaki, Seiya; Yasuda, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-20

    Single crystals of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) with (100) or (110) orientations and cerium dioxide or ceria (CeO2) were irradiated by 1.0-MeV and 2.5-MeV electrons in a high fluence range. Point-defect production was studied by off-line UV-visible optical spectroscopy after irradiation. For spinel, regardless of both crystal orientation and electron energy, two characteristic broad bands centered at photon energies of 5.4 eV and 4.9 eV were assigned to F and F+ centers (neutral and singly-ionized oxygen vacancies), respectively, on the basis of available literature data. No clear differences in colour-centre formation were observed for the two crystal orientations. Using calculations of displacement cross sections by elastic collisions, these results are consistent with a very large threshold displacement energy (200 eV) for oxygen atoms at RT. A third very broad band centered at 3.7 eV might be attributed either to an oxygen hole center (V-type center) or an F2 dimer center (oxygen di-vacancy). The onset of recovery of these color centers took place at 200°C with almost full bleaching at 600°C. Activation energies (~0.3-0.4 eV) for defect recovery were deduced from the isochronal annealing data by using a first-order kinetics analysis. For ceria, a sub band-gap absorption feature peaked at ~3.1 eV was recorded for 2.5-MeV electron irradiation only. Assuming a ballistic process, we suggest that the latter defect might result from cerium atom displacement on the basis of computed cross sections.

  7. Color-center production and recovery in electron-irradiated magnesium aluminate spinel and ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Lelong, Gérald; Guillaumet, Maxime; Weber, William J.; Takaki, Seiya; Yasuda, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Single crystals of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) with (1 0 0) or (1 1 0) orientations and cerium dioxide or ceria (CeO2) were irradiated by 1.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV electrons in a high-fluence range. Point-defect production was studied by off-line UV-visible optical spectroscopy after irradiation. For spinel, regardless of both crystal orientation and electron energy, two characteristic broad bands centered at photon energies of 5.4 eV and 4.9 eV were assigned to F and F+ centers (neutral and singly ionized oxygen vacancies), respectively, on the basis of available literature data. No clear differences in color-center formation were observed for the two crystal orientations. Using calculations from displacement cross sections by elastic collisions, these results are consistent with a very large threshold displacement energy (200 eV) for oxygen atoms at room temperature. A third very broad band centered at 3.7 eV might be attributed either to an oxygen hole center (V-type center) or an F2 dimer center (oxygen di-vacancy). The onset of recovery of these color centers took place at 200 °C with almost full bleaching at 600 °C. Activation energies (~0.3-0.4 eV) for defect recovery were deduced from the isochronal annealing data by using a first-order kinetics analysis. For ceria, a sub-band-gap absorption feature, which peaked at ~3.1 eV, was recorded for 2.5 MeV electron irradiation only. Assuming a ballistic process, we suggest that the latter defect might result from cerium atom displacement on the basis of computed cross sections.

  8. Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1993-03-01

    Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

  9. Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1993-01-01

    Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

  10. Electronic Cigarette Marketing Online: a Multi-Site, Multi-Product Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Anupreet K; Valente, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarette awareness and use has been increasing rapidly. E-cigarette brands have utilized social networking sites to promote their products, as the growth of the e-cigarette industry has paralleled that of Web 2.0. These online platforms are cost-effective and have unique technological features and user demographics that can be attractive for selective marketing. The popularity of multiple sites also poses a risk of exposure to social networks where e-cigarette brands might not have a presence. Objective To examine the marketing strategies of leading e-cigarette brands on multiple social networking sites, and to identify how affordances of the digital media are used to their advantage. Secondary analyses include determining if any brands are benefitting from site demographics, and exploring cross-site diffusion of marketing content through multi-site users. Methods We collected data from two e-cigarette brands from four social networking sites over approximately 2.5 years. Content analysis is used to search for themes, population targeting, marketing strategies, and cross-site spread of messages. Results Twitter appeared to be the most frequently used social networking site for interacting directly with product users. Facebook supported informational broadcasts, such as announcements regarding political legislation. E-cigarette brands also differed in their approaches to their users, from informal conversations to direct product marketing. Conclusions E-cigarette makers use different strategies to market their product and engage their users. There was no evidence of direct targeting of vulnerable populations, but the affordances of the different sites are exploited to best broadcast context-specific messages. We developed a viable method to study cross-site diffusion, although additional refinement is needed to account for how different types of digital media are used. PMID:27227129

  11. Influence of oxygen on defect production in electron-irradiated, boron-doped silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deangelis, H. M.; Drevinsky, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were made on float-zone and crucible-grown, boron-doped silicon irradiated with 1-MeV electrons. The minority carrier trap attributed to a boron-related state, was not seen in low-resistivity, float-zone silicon. However, a new majority carrier trap was observed in these samples. In the case of more lightly doped material the minority carrier trap was present, and its introduction rate was lower in float-zone than in crucible-grown silicon. For 1- and 10-ohm-cm float-zone material that was oxidized during processing, the introduction rates for this trap were comparable to those for crucible-grown silicon. This behavior indicates that the minority carrier trap involves oxygen and that it may be due to a boron-oxygen complex. The majority carrier trap seen in heavily doped, float-zone silicon may also involve boron but not oxygen. Observed trap concentrations suggest that oxygen content in the regions examined by DLTS is affected by processing techniques. Other differences were observed in defect production and annealing behavior of electron-irradiated, float-zone and crucible-grown silicon.

  12. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L.

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  13. Computing uncertainties in ionosphere-airglow models: I. Electron flux and species production uncertainties for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronoff, Guillaume; Simon Wedlund, Cyril; Mertens, Christopher J.; Lillis, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    The ionization and excitation of atoms and molecules in the upper atmospheres of the Earth and planets are computed by a number of physical models. From these calculations, quantities measurable by dedicated satellite experiments such as airglow and electron fluxes can be derived. It is then possible to compare model and observation to derive more fundamental physical properties of the upper atmospheres, for example, the density as a function of altitude. To ensure the accuracy of these retrieval techniques, it is important to have an estimation of the uncertainty of these models and to have ways to account for these uncertainties. The complexity of kinetic models for computing the secondary production of excited state species (including ions) makes it a difficult evaluation, and studies usually neglect or underestimate it. We present here a Monte-Carlo approach to the computation of model uncertainties. As an example, we studied several aspects of the model uncertainties in the upper atmosphere of Mars, including the computed secondary electron flux and the production of the main ion species. Our simulations show the importance of improving solar flux models, especially on the energy binning and on the photon impact cross sections, which are the main sources of uncertainties on the dayside. The risk of modifying cross sections on the basis of aeronomical observations is highlighted for the case of Mars, while accurate uncertainties are shown to be crucial for the interpretation of data from the particle detectors onboard Mars Global Surveyor. Finally, it shows the importance of AtMoCiad, a public database dedicated to the evaluation of aeronomy cross section uncertainties. A detailed study of the resulting emissions cross sections uncertainties is the focus of a forthcoming paper (Gronoff et al., 2012) in which the outputs discussed in the present paper are used to compute airglow uncertainty, and the overall result is compared with the data from the SPICAM UV

  14. Coal gasification via the Lurgi process: Topical report: Volume 2, Production of IFG (industrial fuel gas)

    SciTech Connect

    Zahnstecher, L.W.

    1984-12-01

    A Lurgi baseline study was requested by the DOE/GRI Operating Committee of the Joint Coal Gasification Program for the purpose of updating the economics of earlier Lurgi coal gasification plant studies for the production of industrial fuel gas (IFG) based on commercially advanced technologies. The current study incorporates the recent experience with large size Lurgi plants in an effort to improve capital and operating costs of earlier plant designs. The present coal gasification study is based upon a plant producing 73.3 billion Btu (HHV) per day of IFG using the Lurgi dry bottom coal gasification technology. A Western subbituminous coal was designated as the plant feed, obtained from the Rosebud seam at Colstrip, Montana. This study presents the detailed description of an integrated facility which utilizes coal, air, and water to produce 73.3 billion Btu (HHV) per day of industrial fuel gas. The plant consists of coal handling and preparation, seven Lurgi dry bottom gasifiers, acid gas removal, sulfur recovery, phenol and ammonia recovery, as well as necessary support facilities. The plant is a grass roots facility located in the area of Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Lurgi Corporation assisted in this study, under subcontract to Foster Wheeler, by supplying the heat and material balances, flow sheets, utilities, catalysts and chemical requirements, and cost data for Lurgi designed process sections. Details of material supplied by Lurgi Corporation are presented in Appendix A. 39 refs., 33 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. An economic model of the manufacturers' aircraft production and airline earnings potential, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Hill, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    A behavioral explanation of the process of technological change in the U. S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries is presented. The model indicates the principal factors which influence the aircraft (airframe) manufacturers in researching, developing, constructing and promoting new aircraft technology; and the financial requirements which determine the delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk airlines. Following specification and calibration of the model, the types and numbers of new aircraft were estimated historically for each airline's fleet. Examples of possible applications of the model to forecasting an individual airline's future fleet also are provided. The functional form of the model is a composite which was derived from several preceding econometric models developed on the foundations of the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change and represents an important contribution to the improved understanding of the economic and financial requirements for aircraft selection and production. The model's primary application will be to forecast the future types and numbers of new aircraft required for each domestic airline's fleet.

  16. Development of SRC-I product analysis. Volume 3. Documentation of procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Schweighardt, F.K.; Kingsley, I.S.; Cooper, F.E.; Kamzelski, A.Z.; Parees, D.M.

    1983-09-01

    This section documents the BASIC computer program written to simulate Wilsonville's GC-simulated distillation (GCSD) results at APCI-CRSD Trexlertown. The GC conditions used at APCI for the Wilsonville GCSD analysis of coal-derived liquid samples were described in the SRC-I Quarterly Technical Report, April-June 1981. The approach used to simulate the Wilsonville GCSD results is also from an SRC-I Quarterly Technical Report and is reproduced in Appendix VII-A. The BASIC computer program is described in the attached Appendix VII-B. Analysis of gases produced during coal liquefaction generates key information needed to determine product yields for material balance and process control. Gas samples from the coal process development unit (CPDU) and tubing bombs are the primary samples analyzed. A Carle gas chromatographic system was used to analyze coal liquefaction gas samples. A BASIC computer program was written to calculate the gas chromatographic peak area results into mole percent results. ICRC has employed several analytical workup procedures to determine the amount of distillate, oils, asphaltenes, preasphaltenes, and residue in SRC-I process streams. The ASE procedure was developed using Conoco's liquid column fractionation (LC/F) method as a model. In developing the ASE procedure, ICRC was able to eliminate distillation, and therefore quantify the oils fraction in one extraction step. ASE results were shown to be reproducible within +- 2 wt %, and to yield acceptable material balances. Finally, the ASE method proved to be the least affected by sample composition.

  17. Electron Transfer Dissociation: Effects of Cation Charge State on Product Partitioning in Ion/Ion Electron Transfer to Multiply Protonated Polypeptides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of cation charge state on product partitioning in the gas-phase ion/ion electron transfer reactions of multiply protonated tryptic peptides, model peptides, and relatively large peptides with singly charged radical anions has been examined. In particular, partitioning into various competing channels, such as proton transfer (PT) versus electron transfer (ET), electron transfer with subsequent dissociation (ETD) versus electron transfer with no dissociation (ET,noD), and fragmentation of backbone bonds versus fragmentation of side chains, was measured quantitatively as a function of peptide charge state to allow insights to be drawn about the fundamental aspects of ion/ion reactions that lead to ETD. The ET channel increases relative to the PT channel, ETD increases relative to ET,noD, and fragmentation at backbone bonds increases relative to side-chain cleavages as cation charge state increases. The increase in ET versus PT with charge state is consistent with a Landau-Zener based curve-crossing model. An optimum charge state for ET is predicted by the model for the ground state-to-ground state reaction. However, when the population of excited product ion states is considered, it is possible that a decrease in ET efficiency as charge state increases will not be observed due to the possibility of the population of excited electronic states of the products. Several factors can contribute to the increase in ETD versus ET,noD and backbone cleavage versus side-chain losses. These factors include an increase in reaction exothermicity and charge state dependent differences in precursor and product ion structures, stabilities, and sites of protonation. PMID:23264749

  18. Characterization of potential impurities and degradation products in electronic cigarette formulations and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Flora, Jason W; Meruva, Naren; Huang, Chorng B; Wilkinson, Celeste T; Ballentine, Regina; Smith, Donna C; Werley, Michael S; McKinney, Willie J

    2016-02-01

    E-cigarettes are gaining popularity in the U.S. as well as in other global markets. Currently, limited published analytical data characterizing e-cigarette formulations (e-liquids) and aerosols exist. While FDA has not published a harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) list for e-cigarettes, the HPHC list for currently regulated tobacco products may be useful to analytically characterize e-cigarette aerosols. For example, most e-cigarette formulations contain propylene glycol and glycerin, which may produce aldehydes when heated. In addition, nicotine-related chemicals have been previously reported as potential e-cigarette formulation impurities. This study determined e-liquid formulation impurities and potentially harmful chemicals in aerosols of select commercial MarkTen(®) e-cigarettes manufactured by NuMark LLC. The potential hazard of the identified formulation impurities and aerosol chemicals was also estimated. E-cigarettes were machine puffed (4-s duration, 55-mL volume, 30-s intervals) to battery exhaustion to maximize aerosol collection. Aerosols analyzed for carbonyls were collected in 20-puff increments to account for analyte instability. Tobacco specific nitrosamines were measured at levels observed in pharmaceutical grade nicotine. Nicotine-related impurities in the e-cigarette formulations were below the identification and qualification thresholds proposed in ICH Guideline Q3B(R2). Levels of potentially harmful chemicals detected in the aerosols were determined to be below published occupational exposure limits.

  19. The sequential production profiles of growth factors and their relations to bone volume in ossifying bone marrow explants.

    PubMed

    Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Gargac, Joshua; Akkus, Ozan

    2010-07-01

    Osteogenesis is a complex process that involves the synergistic contribution of multiple cell types and numerous growth factors (GFs). To develop effective bone tissue engineering strategies employing GFs, it is essential to delineate the complex and interconnected role of GFs in osteogenesis. The studies investigating the temporal involvement of GFs in osteogenesis are limited to in vitro studies with single cell types or complex in vivo studies. There is a need for platforms that embody the physiological characteristics and the multicellular environment of natural osteogenesis. Marrow tissue houses various cell types that are known to be involved in osteogenesis, and in vitro cultures of marrow inherently undergo osteogenesis process. Self-inductive ossification of marrow explants in vitro can be employed as a representative multicellular and three-dimensional model of osteogenesis. Therefore, the aims of this study were to employ the rat bone marrow explant ossification model to determine (1) the temporal production profiles of key GFs involved in osteogenesis, (2) the relation between GF production and ossification, and (3) the relations between the GF levels throughout ossification. Temporal production profiles of transforming GF beta-1 (TGF-beta1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), vascular endothelial GF (VEGF), and insulin-like GF-1 (IGF-1) and the bone-related proteins alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays conducted at days 2, 7, 12, 14, 19, and 21. The final amount of ossification (ossified volume [OV]) was measured by microcomputed tomography at day 21. TGF-beta1, BMP-2, VEGF, IGF-1, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin were produced by the ossifying marrow explants differentially over time. The early production of IGF-1 (day 2) correlated positively (r = 0.868) with OV; however, latent production of IGF-1 correlated negatively (day 14: r = -0.813; day 19: r = -0.865) with OV. OV also correlated

  20. Perceived Harm, Addictiveness, and Social Acceptability of Tobacco Products and Marijuana Among Young Adults: Marijuana, Hookah, and Electronic Cigarettes Win

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Stratton, Erin; Schauer, Gillian L.; Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Windle, Michael; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in non-daily smoking, alternative tobacco product and marijuana use among young adults in recent years. Objectives This study examined perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of cigarettes, cigar products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, electronic cigarettes, and marijuana among young adults and correlates of such perceptions. Methods In Spring 2013, 10,000 students at two universities in the Southeastern United States were recruited to complete an online survey (2,002 respondents), assessing personal, parental, and peer use of each product; and perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of each of these products. Results Marijuana was the most commonly used product in the past month (19.2%), with hookah being the second most commonly used (16.4%). The least commonly used were smokeless tobacco products (2.6%) and electronic cigarettes (4.5%). There were high rates of concurrent product use, particularly among electronic cigarette users. The most positively perceived was marijuana, with hookah and electronic cigarettes being second. While tobacco use and related social factors, related positively, influenced perceptions of marijuana, marijuana use and related social factors were not associated with perceptions of any tobacco product. Conclusions/Importance Marketing efforts to promote electronic cigarettes and hookah to be safe and socially acceptable seem to be effective, while policy changes seem to be altering perceptions of marijuana and related social norms. Research is needed to document the health risks and addictive nature of emerging tobacco products and marijuana and evaluate efforts to communicate such risks to youth. PMID:25268294

  1. High‐Volume Processed, ITO‐Free Superstrates and Substrates for Roll‐to‐Roll Development of Organic Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Hösel, Markus; Angmo, Dechan; Søndergaard, Roar R.; dos Reis Benatto, Gisele A.; Carlé, Jon E.; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of substrates and superstrates prepared by scalable roll‐to‐roll methods is reviewed. The substrates and superstrates that act as the flexible carrier for the processing of functional organic electronic devices are an essential component, and proposals are made about how the general availability of various forms of these materials is needed to accelerate the development of the field of organic electronics. The initial development of the replacement of indium‐tin‐oxide (ITO) for the flexible carrier materials is described and a description of how roll‐to‐roll processing development led to simplification from an initially complex make‐up to higher performing materials through a more simple process is also presented. This process intensification through process simplification is viewed as a central strategy for upscaling, increasing throughput, performance, and cost reduction. PMID:27980893

  2. Localized Hartree product treatment of multiple protons in the nuclear-electronic orbital framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Benjamin; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2010-02-01

    An approximation for treating multiple quantum nuclei within the nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) framework for molecular systems is presented. In the approximation to NEO-Hartree-Fock, the nuclear wave function is represented by a Hartree product rather than a Slater determinant, corresponding to the neglect of the nuclear exchange interactions. In the approximation to NEO-density functional theory, the nuclear exchange-correlation functional is chosen to be the diagonal nuclear exchange interaction terms, thereby eliminating the nuclear self-interaction terms. To further enhance the simplicity and computational efficiency, the nuclear molecular orbitals or Kohn-Sham orbitals are expanded in terms of localized nuclear basis sets. These approximations are valid because of the inherent localization of the nuclear orbitals and the numerical insignificance of the nuclear exchange interactions in molecular systems. Moreover, these approximations lead to substantial computational savings due to the reduction in both the number of integrals that must be calculated and the size of the matrices that must be diagonalized. These nuclear Hartree product approximation (HPA) methods scale linearly with the number of quantum protons and are highly parallelizable. Applications to a water hexamer, glycine dimer, and 32-water cluster, where all hydrogen nuclei are treated quantum mechanically, illustrate the accuracy and computational efficiency of the nuclear HPA methods. These strategies will facilitate the implementation of explicitly correlated NEO methods for molecular systems with multiple quantum protons.

  3. Experimental verification of bremsstrahlung production and dosimetry predictions for 15. 5 MeV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Beutler, D.E.; Halbleib, J.A.; Knott, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation produced by a 15.5-MeV monoenergetic electron beam incident on optimized and nonoptimized bremsstrahlung targets is characterized using the ITS Monte Carlo code and measurements with equilibrated and non-equilibrated TLD dosimetry. Comparisons between calculations and measurements verify the calculations and demonstrate that the code can be used to predict both bremsstrahlung production and TLD response for radiation fields that are characteristic of those produced by pulsed simulators of gamma rays. At optimum bremsstrahlung production, the predicted total forward radiation fluence detected in equilibrated TLD dosimetry agrees with that measured within the {plus minus}6% uncertainty of the measurement. The absolute comparisons made here provide independent confirmation of the validity of the TLD calibration for photon fields characteristic of gamma-ray simulators. The empirical Martin equation, which is often used to calculate radiation dose from optimized bremsstrahlung targets, is examined, and its range of validity is established from the data presented. 23 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Experimental verification of bremsstrahlung production and dosimetry predictions for 15. 5 MeV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Beutler, D.E.; Halbleib, J.A. ); Knott, D.P. )

    1991-12-01

    In this paper the radiation produced by a 15.5-MeV mono-energetic electron beam incident on optimized and non-optimized bremsstrahlung targets is characterized using the ITS Monte Carlo code and measurements with equilibrated and non-equilibrated TLD dosimetry. Comparisons between calculations and measurements verify the calculations and demonstrate that the code can be used to predict both bremsstrahlung production and TLD response for radiation fields that are characteristic of those produced by pulsed simulators of gamma rays. At optimum bremsstrahlung production, the predicted total forward radiation fluence detected in equilibrated TLD dosimetry agrees with that measured with the {plus minus} 6% uncertainty of the measurement. The absolute comparisons made here provide independent confirmation of the validity of the TLD calibration for photon fields characteristic of gamma-ray simulators. The empirical Martin equation, which is often used to calculate radiation dose from optimized bremsstrahlung targets, is examined, and its range of validity is established from the data presented.

  5. OSA Proceedings on Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics Held in San Francisco, California on January 25 -27, 1993. Volume 14,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-27

    Venkatesan, Zhi- Yuan Shen, Philip Pang, Dennis J. Kountz, and William L Holstein Response of a Nb/A1203/Nb Tunnel Junction to Picosecond Electrical Pulses...Mwhra (edo) 0 1993 Optical Sockty ofAnierica 152 Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics core cladding COW MAD 75. 4UHN 1058nm 50Ps A A optical...Maryland. College Park; Maryland 20742 7hi-Yuan Shen, Philip Pang, Dennis J. Kountz, and William L. Holstein Central Research and Development, Du Pont, PO

  6. Collisions of carbon and oxygen ions with electrons, H, H/sub 2/ and He: Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Phaneuf, R.A.; Janev, R.K.; Pindzola, M.S.

    1987-02-01

    This report provides a handbook for fusion research of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for collisions of carbon and oxygen ions with electrons, hydrogen atoms and molecules, and helium atoms. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical, and parametrized form. Processes considered include exciation, ionization, and charge exchange at collision energies appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  7. Production of Highly Polarized Positrons Using Polarized Electrons at MeV Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D.; Adderley, P.; Adeyemi, A.; Aguilera, P.; Ali, M.; Areti, H.; Baylac, M.; Benesch, J.; Bosson, G.; Cade, B.; Camsonne, A.; Cardman, L. S.; Clark, J.; Cole, P.; Covert, S.; Cuevas, C.; Dadoun, O.; Dale, D.; Dong, H.; Dumas, J.; Fanchini, E.; Forest, T.; Forman, E.; Freyberger, A.; Froidefond, E.; Golge, S.; Grames, J.; Guèye, P.; Hansknecht, J.; Harrell, P.; Hoskins, J.; Hyde, C.; Josey, B.; Kazimi, R.; Kim, Y.; Machie, D.; Mahoney, K.; Mammei, R.; Marton, M.; McCarter, J.; McCaughan, M.; McHugh, M.; McNulty, D.; Mesick, K. E.; Michaelides, T.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Moser, D.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Muraz, J. -F.; Opper, A.; Poelker, M.; Réal, J. -S.; Richardson, L.; Setiniyaz, S.; Stutzman, M.; Suleiman, R.; Tennant, C.; Tsai, C.; Turner, D.; Ungaro, M.; Variola, A.; Voutier, E.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-05-27

    The Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons experiment at the injector of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility has demonstrated for the first time the efficient transfer of polarization from electrons to positrons produced by the polarized bremsstrahlung radiation induced by a polarized electron beam in a high-Z target. Positron polarization up to 82% have been measured for an initial electron beam momentum of 8.19~MeV/c, limited only by the electron beam polarization. We report that this technique extends polarized positron capabilities from GeV to MeV electron beams, and opens access to polarized positron beam physics to a wide community.

  8. Measurement of the Electron Charge Asymmetry in Inclusive W Production in pp Collisions at s=7TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Wagner, P.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Maes, T.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Charaf, O.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Vanelderen, L.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, S.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Azzolini, V.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Brun, H.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tosi, S.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.

    2012-09-01

    A measurement of the electron charge asymmetry in inclusive pp→W+X→eν+X production at s=7TeV is presented based on data recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 840pb-1. The electron charge asymmetry reflects the unequal production of W+ and W- bosons in pp collisions. The electron charge asymmetry is measured in bins of the absolute value of electron pseudorapidity in the range of |η|<2.4. The asymmetry rises from about 0.1 to 0.2 as a function of the pseudorapidity and is measured with a relative precision better than 7%. This measurement provides new stringent constraints for parton distribution functions.

  9. Cross sections for the production of energetic cations by electron impact on N2 and CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iga, I.; Srivastava, S. K.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Katayama, D. H.

    1995-01-01

    Dissociative ionization cross sections for the production of singly charged energetic ions by electron impact on N2 and CO2 have been measured. The ions were divided into two groups: one with energies less than 1 eV and the other with energies greater than 1 eV. The ions detected were N+ from N2 and C+, O+, and CO+ from CO2. The electron impact energy range, and cross section data on ions is given.

  10. Direct Production of Electron-Positron Pairs by 200-GeV/Nucleon Oxygen and Sulfur Ions in Nuclear Emulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derrickson, J. H.; Eby, P. B.; Moon, K. H.; Parnell, T. A.; King, D. T.; Gregory, J. C.; Takahashi, Y.; Ogata, T.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of direct Coulomb electron-positron pair production have been made on the tracks of relativistic heavy ions in nuclear track emulsion. Tracks of 0(16) and S(32) at 200 GeV/nucleon were studied. The measured total cross sections and energy and emission angle distributions for the pair members are compared to theoretical predictions. The data are consistent with some recent calculations when knock-on electron contamination is accounted for.

  11. An objective method for the production of isopach maps and implications for the estimation of tephra deposit volumes and their uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Engwell, S L; Aspinall, W P; Sparks, R S J

    Characterization of explosive volcanic eruptive processes from interpretation of deposits is a key for assessing volcanic hazard and risk, particularly for infrequent large explosive eruptions and those whose deposits are transient in the geological record. While eruption size-determined by measurement and interpretation of tephra fall deposits-is of particular importance, uncertainties for such measurements and volume estimates are rarely presented. Here, tephra volume estimates are derived from isopach maps produced by modeling raw thickness data as cubic B-spline curves under tension. Isopachs are objectively determined in relation to original data and enable limitations in volume estimates from published maps to be investigated. The eruption volumes derived using spline isopachs differ from selected published estimates by 15-40 %, reflecting uncertainties in the volume estimation process. The formalized analysis enables identification of sources of uncertainty; eruptive volume uncertainties (>30 %) are much greater than thickness measurement uncertainties (~10 %). The number of measurements is a key factor in volume estimate uncertainty, regardless of method utilized for isopach production. Deposits processed using the cubic B-spline method are well described by 60 measurements distributed across each deposit; however, this figure is deposit and distribution dependent, increasing for geometrically complex deposits, such as those exhibiting bilobate dispersion.

  12. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 42; Satellite Primary Productivity Data and Algorithm Development: A Science Plan for Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falkowski, Paul G.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Balch, William; Campbell, Janet W.; Iverson, Richard L.; Kiefer, Dale A.; Morel, Andre; Yoder, James A.; Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Two issues regarding primary productivity, as it pertains to the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Program and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) are presented in this volume. Chapter 1 describes the development of a science plan for deriving primary production for the world ocean using satellite measurements, by the Ocean Primary Productivity Working Group (OPPWG). Chapter 2 presents discussions by the same group, of algorithm classification, algorithm parameterization and data availability, algorithm testing and validation, and the benefits of a consensus primary productivity algorithm.

  13. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  14. High acceptor production rate in electron-irradiated n-type GaAs: Impact on defect models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Look, D. C.

    1987-09-01

    Defect production rates have been studied in electron-irradiated GaAs by temperature-dependent Hall-effect (TDH) measurements. The TDH results agree well with deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) results for the well-known electron traps E1, E2, and E3, but conclusively demonstrate a much higher production rate (4±1 cm-1) of acceptors below E3 than the total of all other DLTS traps. These findings strongly affect current defect models, and, e.g., are consistent with the existence of Ga sublattice damage, not seen before.

  15. Measurements of absolute M-subshell X-ray production cross sections of Th by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, A.; Merlet, C.; Dugne, O.

    2014-08-01

    Measurements of absolute M-subshell X-ray production cross sections for element Th were made by electron impact for energies ranging from the ionization threshold up to 38 keV. Experimental data were obtained by measuring the X-ray intensity emitted from ultrathin Th films deposited onto self-supporting C backing films. The measurements were conducted with an electron microprobe using high-resolution wavelength dispersive spectrometers. Recorded intensities were converted into absolute X-ray production cross sections by means of atomic data and estimation of the number of primary electrons, target thickness, and detector efficiency. Our experimental X-ray production cross sections, the first to be reported for the M subshells of Th, are compared with X-ray production cross sections calculated with the mean of ionization cross sections obtained from the distorted-wave Born approximation. The Mα X-ray production cross section calculated is in excellent agreement with the measurements, allowing future use for standardless quantification in electron probe microanalysis.

  16. Volume production of high quality SiC substrates and epitaxial layers: Defect trends and device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, St. G.; Sanchez, E. K.; Hansen, D. M.; Drachev, R. D.; Chung, G.; Thomas, B.; Zhang, J.; Loboda, M. J.; Dudley, M.; Wang, H.; Wu, F.; Byrappa, S.; Raghothamachar, B.; Choi, G.

    2012-08-01

    We review the progress of silicon carbide (SiC) bulk growth by the sublimation method, highlighting recent advances at Dow Corning, which resulted in the commercial release of 100 mm n-type 4H-SiC wafers with median micropipe densities (MPD) in production wafers <0.1 cm-2 and the demonstration of micropipe free material over a full 100 mm diameter. Investigations by Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXRT) and molten KOH etch pit analysis of 100 mm wafers demonstrate threading screw dislocation densities <500 cm-2. Additional results indicate the positive impact of maintaining thermo-mechanical stress levels in the growing crystal below the critical resolved shear stress on reducing basal plane dislocation densities to values as low as ˜300-400 cm-2 in 100 mm crystals. We summarize the steps of systematic quality improvements on increasing wafer diameter, utilizing numerical simulations of the SiC growth system as a critical tool to guide this process. For the economical production of SiC epitaxy, a 10×100 mm wafer platform has been established in a warm-wall planetary chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor. The combined improvements in the epitaxy process, pre-epi wafer surface preparation and the underlying substrate quality itself have led to a reduction of the device killer defect density from 8 cm-2 to 1.5 cm-2 on a volume product like 100 mm 4° off-axis 6.5 μm epi-wafers. Dow Corning production epi-wafers routinely show Schottky diode yields above 90% at a die size of 2 mm×2 mm. Additionally, 50-100 μm thick epitaxy on 76 mm 4° off-axis wafers with morphological defect densities of 2-6 cm-2, a surface roughness (RMS) ≤1 nm as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and carrier lifetimes consistently in the range of 2-3 μs has been demonstrated.

  17. Production of potent polyvalent antivenom against three elapid venoms using a low dose, low volume, multi-site immunization protocol.

    PubMed

    Chotwiwatthanakun, C; Pratanaphon, R; Akesowan, S; Sriprapat, S; Ratanabanangkoon, K

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare a potent polyvalent antivenom against three elapids namely, the Thai cobra (Naja kaouthia, NK), the King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah, OH) and the banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus, BF). Two groups of horses were immunized. Group 1, comprising five horses, was immunized twice with a mixture of postsynaptic neurotoxins followed by an additional six immunizations with a mixture of crude venoms of the three elapids. Group 2, comprising four horses, was immunized with a mixture of crude venoms throughout the course. For the first immunization, the immunogens were emulsified in Complete Freund's adjuvant and injected using a low dose, low volume multi-site immunization protocol previously developed in this laboratory (Pratanaphon, R., Akesowan, S., Khow, O., Sriprapat, S. and Ratanabanangkoon, K. (1997) Production of highly potent horse antivenom against the Thai cobra (Naja kaouthia). Vaccine 15, 1523-1528). The second immunization was carried out with the immunogens in Incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Blood was drawn to assay the antibody titer by ELISA. Sera at the peak of ELISA titers were pooled and assayed for the median effective dose (ED(50)). The ED(50)'s of antivenom from Group 1 horses against NK, OH and BF venoms were 1.44, 0.22 and 0.23 ml serum/mg venom, respectively, while those from Group 2 horse sera were 0.88, 0.20 and 0.49 ml serum/mg venom, respectively. The potency of sera from Group 2 against BF venom was significantly higher, while the potencies against NK and OH venoms were comparable to those of the corresponding monovalent antivenoms produced under the same protocol. This potent, truly polyvalent antivenom should be useful in saving lives of victims envenomed by these elapids and the immunization protocol should be useful in the production of potent polyvalent antivenoms against other medically important elapids.

  18. Observations of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Volume Loss and Its Impact on Ocean-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Ice Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Worthen, D. L.; Boisvert, L. N.

    2011-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques we estimate snow and sea ice thickness distributions for the Arctic basin through the combination of freeboard data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and a snow depth model. These data are used with meteorological data and a thermodynamic sea ice model to calculate ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and ice volume production during the 2003-2008 fall and winter seasons. The calculated heat fluxes and ice growth rates are in agreement with previous observations over multiyear ice. In this study, we calculate heat fluxes and ice growth rates for the full distribution of ice thicknesses covering the Arctic basin and determine the impact of ice thickness change on the calculated values. Thinning of the sea ice is observed which greatly increases the 2005-2007 fall period ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes compared to those observed in 2003. Although there was also a decline in sea ice thickness for the winter periods, the winter time heat flux was found to be less impacted by the observed changes in ice thickness. A large increase in the net Arctic ocean-atmosphere heat output is also observed in the fall periods due to changes in the areal coverage of sea ice. The anomalously low sea ice coverage in 2007 led to a net ocean-atmosphere heat output approximately 3 times greater than was observed in previous years and suggests that sea ice losses are now playing a role in increasing surface air temperatures in the Arctic.

  19. Shaped cathodes for the production of ultra-short multi-electron pulses

    PubMed Central

    Petruk, Ariel Alcides; Pichugin, Kostyantyn; Sciaini, Germán

    2017-01-01

    An electrostatic electron source design capable of producing sub-20 femtoseconds (rms) multi-electron pulses is presented. The photoelectron gun concept builds upon geometrical electric field enhancement at the cathode surface. Particle tracer simulations indicate the generation of extremely short bunches even beyond 40 cm of propagation. Comparisons with compact electron sources commonly used for femtosecond electron diffraction are made. PMID:28191483

  20. Raman scattering and associated fast electron production. Final technical report, April 16, 1984-April 15, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.; Pietrzyk, Z.A.

    1985-08-01

    High energy electrons in plasmas have been attributed to various causes including trapping by electron plasma waves created by stimulated Raman scattering. A theory, consistent with experimental results, based on the acceleration of trapped electrons by such electron plasma waves as they propagate in the presence of a density gradient away from the region where they are created is presented. Single particle simulations show accelerating voltages as high as 20 GV/m.

  1. What Do Electronic Health Record Vendors Reveal About Their Products: An Analysis of Vendor Websites

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Natalie K; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2013-01-01

    Background Purchasing electronic health records (EHRs) typically follows a process in which potential adopters actively seek information, compare alternatives, and form attitudes towards the product. A potential source of information on EHRs that can be used in the process is vendor websites. It is unclear how much product information is presented on EHR vendor websites or the extent of its value during EHR purchasing decisions. Objective To explore what features of EHR systems are presented by vendors in Ontario, Canada, on their websites, and the persuasive means they use to market such systems; to compare the online information available about primary care EHR systems with that about hospital EHR systems, and with data compiled by OntarioMD, a regional certifying agency. Methods A list of EHR systems available in Ontario was created. The contents of vendor websites were analyzed. A template for data collection and organization was developed and used to collect and organize information on the vendor, website content, and EHR features. First, we mapped information on system features to categories based on a framework from the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Second, we used a grounded theory–like approach to explore information for building consumer confidence in the vendor and product, and the various persuasive strategies employed on vendor websites. All data were first coded by one researcher. A peer reviewer independently analyzed a randomly chosen subset of the websites (10 of 21; 48%) and provided feedback towards a unified coding scheme. All data were then re-coded and categorized into themes. Finally, we compared information from vendor websites and data gathered by OntarioMD. Results Vendors provided little specific product information on their websites. Only two of five acute care EHR websites (40%) and nine of 16 websites for primary care systems (56%) featured seven or all eight of the IOM components. Several vendor websites included system interface

  2. 30 CFR 1210.104 - Must I submit these production reports electronically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... at http://www.onrr.gov/FM/PDFDocs/eCommerce_FAQ.pdf. (c) Refer to our electronic reporting guidelines...-4058 electronically unless you qualify for an exception under § 1210.105. (b) As of December 31, 2011, all reporters/payors must report to ONRR electronically via the eCommerce Reporting Web site....

  3. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  4. Biomass Production from Electricity Using Ammonia as an Electron Carrier in a Reverse Microbial Fuel Cell

    PubMed Central

    West, Alan C.; Chandran, Kartik; Banta, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The storage of renewable electrical energy within chemical bonds of biofuels and other chemicals is a route to decreasing petroleum usage. A critical challenge is the efficient transfer of electrons into a biological host that can covert this energy into high energy organic compounds. In this paper, we describe an approach whereby biomass is grown using energy obtained from a soluble mediator that is regenerated electrochemically. The net result is a separate-stage reverse microbial fuel cell (rMFC) that fixes CO2 into biomass using electrical energy. We selected ammonia as a low cost, abundant, safe, and soluble redox mediator that facilitated energy transfer to biomass. Nitrosomonas europaea, a chemolithoautotroph, was used as the biocatalyst due to its inherent capability to utilize ammonia as its sole energy source for growth. An electrochemical reactor was designed for the regeneration of ammonia from nitrite, and current efficiencies of 100% were achieved. Calculations indicated that overall bioproduction efficiency could approach 2.7±0.2% under optimal electrolysis conditions. The application of chemolithoautotrophy for industrial bioproduction has been largely unexplored, and results suggest that this and related rMFC platforms may enable biofuel and related biochemical production. PMID:23028643

  5. Biomass production from electricity using ammonia as an electron carrier in a reverse microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Khunjar, Wendell O; Sahin, Asli; West, Alan C; Chandran, Kartik; Banta, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The storage of renewable electrical energy within chemical bonds of biofuels and other chemicals is a route to decreasing petroleum usage. A critical challenge is the efficient transfer of electrons into a biological host that can covert this energy into high energy organic compounds. In this paper, we describe an approach whereby biomass is grown using energy obtained from a soluble mediator that is regenerated electrochemically. The net result is a separate-stage reverse microbial fuel cell (rMFC) that fixes CO₂ into biomass using electrical energy. We selected ammonia as a low cost, abundant, safe, and soluble redox mediator that facilitated energy transfer to biomass. Nitrosomonas europaea, a chemolithoautotroph, was used as the biocatalyst due to its inherent capability to utilize ammonia as its sole energy source for growth. An electrochemical reactor was designed for the regeneration of ammonia from nitrite, and current efficiencies of 100% were achieved. Calculations indicated that overall bioproduction efficiency could approach 2.7±0.2% under optimal electrolysis conditions. The application of chemolithoautotrophy for industrial bioproduction has been largely unexplored, and results suggest that this and related rMFC platforms may enable biofuel and related biochemical production.

  6. Alternate charging and discharging of capacitor to enhance the electron production of bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Wu, Wenlong; Wei, Jincheng; Yuan, Lulu; Xia, Xue; Huang, Xia

    2011-08-01

    A bioelectrochemical system (BES) can be operated in both "microbial fuel cell" (MFC) and "microbial electrolysis cell" (MEC) modes, in which power is delivered and invested respectively. To enhance the electric current production, a BES was operated in MFC mode first and a capacitor was used to collect power from the system. Then the charged capacitor discharged electrons to the system itself, switching into MEC mode. This alternate charging and discharging (ACD) mode helped the system produce 22-32% higher average current compared to an intermittent charging (IC) mode, in which the capacitor was first charged from an MFC and then discharged to a resistor, at 21.6 Ω external resistance, 3.3 F capacitance and 300 mV charging voltage. The effects of external resistance, capacitance and charging voltage on average current were studied. The average current reduced as the external resistance and charging voltage increased and was slightly affected by the capacitance. Acquisition of higher average current in the ACD mode was attributed to the shorter discharging time compared to the charging time, as well as a higher anode potential caused by discharging the capacitor. Results from circuit analysis and quantitatively calculation were consistent with the experimental observations.

  7. Observation of Exclusive Electron-Positron Production in Hadron-Hadron Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.

    2006-11-01

    We present the first observation of exclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} production in hadron-hadron collisions, using p{bar p} collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV taken by the Run II Collider Detector at Fermilab, and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 532 pb{sup -1}. We require the absence of any particle signatures in the detector except for an electron and a positron candidate, each with transverse energy E{sub T} > 5 GeV and pseudorapidity |{eta}| < 2. With these criteria, 16 events are observed compared to a background expectation of 1.9 {+-} 0.3 events. These events are consistent in cross section and properties with the QED process p{bar p} {yields} p + e{sup +}e{sup -} + {bar p} through two-photon exchange. The measured cross section is 1.6{sub -0.3}{sup +0.5}(stat) {+-} 0.3(syst) pb. This agrees with the theoretical prediction of 1.71 {+-} 0.01 pb.

  8. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research quarterly technical report, July 1--September 30, 1992. Volume 2, Energy production research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Volume II includes: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; and microbial technology.

  9. Worldwide research productivity in the field of electronic cigarette: a bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarette (EC) is an emerging phenomenon that is becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. There is a lack of data concerning the evaluation of research productivity in the field of EC originating from the world. The main objectives of this study were to analyse worldwide research output in EC field, and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database. Methods Data were searched for documents with specific words regarding EC as “keywords” in the title. Scientific output was evaluated based on the methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies by investigation: (a) total and trends of contributions in EC research during all previous years up to the date of data analysis (June 13, 2014); (b) authorship patterns and research productivity; (c) countries contribution; and (d) citations received by the publications. Results Three hundred and fifty-six documents were retrieved comprising 31.5% original journal articles, 16% letters to the editor, 7.9% review articles, and 44.6% documents that were classified as other types of publications, such as notes or editorials or opinions. The retrieved documents were published in 162 peer-reviewed journals. All retrieved documents were published from 27 countries. the largest number of publications in the field of EC was from the United States of America (USA); (33.7%), followed by the United Kingdom (UK); (11.5%), and Italy (8.1%). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis was 2.277, with an average of 6.4 citations per document and median (interquartile range) of 0.0 (0.0–5.0). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 27. The most productive institutions were Food and Drug Administration, USA (4.2% of total publications) followed by Universita degli Studi di Catania, Italy (3.9%), University of California, San Francisco, USA (3.7%). Conclusions This bibliometric study is a testament to the progress in EC research from

  10. Beauty production in pp collisions at √{ s} = 2.76 TeV measured via semi-electronic decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.

    2014-11-01

    The ALICE Collaboration at the LHC reports measurement of the inclusive production cross section of electrons from semi-leptonic decays of beauty hadrons with rapidity | y | < 0.8 and transverse momentum 1 Electrons not originating from semi-electronic decay of beauty hadrons are suppressed using the impact parameter of the corresponding tracks. The production cross section of beauty decay electrons is compared to the result obtained with an alternative method which uses the distribution of the azimuthal angle between heavy-flavour decay electrons and charged hadrons. Perturbative QCD predictions agree with the measured cross section within the experimental and theoretical uncertainties. The integrated visible cross section, σb→e = 3.47 ± 0.40 (stat)-1.33+1.12 (sys) ± 0.07 (norm) μb, was extrapolated to full phase space using Fixed Order plus Next-to-Leading Log (FONLL) calculations to obtain the total b b bar production cross section, σbbbar = 130 ± 15.1 (stat)-49.8+42.1 (sys)-3.1+3.4 (extr) ± 2.5 (norm) ± 4.4 (BR) μb.

  11. Plasma properties in electron-bombardment ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matossian, J. N.; Beattie, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a technique for computing volume-averaged plasma properties within electron-bombardment ion thrusters, using spatially varying Langmuir-probe measurements. Average values of the electron densities are defined by integrating the spatially varying Maxwellian and primary electron densities over the ionization volume, and then dividing by the volume. Plasma properties obtained in the 30-cm-diameter J-series and ring-cusp thrusters are analyzed by the volume-averaging technique. The superior performance exhibited by the ring-cusp thruster is correlated with a higher average Maxwellian electron temperature. The ring-cusp thruster maintains the same fraction of primary electrons as does the J-series thruster, but at a much lower ion production cost. The volume-averaged predictions for both thrusters are compared with those of a detailed thruster performance model.

  12. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 1, Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L.

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The research has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc. (Beckley) and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Phase 1 of the project consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in selected areas of Raleigh County, West Virginia, ultimately narrowed to the Eccles, West Virginia, 7 {1/2} minute Quadrangle. The Phase 1 analysis identified key parameters contributing to the accumulation and production of natural gas in Raleigh County, developed analog models relating geological factors to gas production, and identified specific sites to test and verify the analysis methodologies by drilling. Based on the Phase 1 analysis, five sites have been identified with high potential for economic gas production. Phase 2 will consist of drilling, completing, and producing one or more wells at the sites identified in the Phase 1 analyses. The initial well is schedules to the drilled in April 1991. This report summarizes the results of the Phase 1 investigations. For clarity, the report has been prepared in two volumes. Volume 1 presents the Phase 1 overview; Volume 2 contains the detailed geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study.

  13. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health related research. Volume 4: Production and materials handling

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This is the fourth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume 4 is to describe record series pertaining to production and materials handling activities at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of production and materials handling practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to production and materials handling policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records.

  14. Maintenance, Manufacturing Cell, and Industrial Engineering/Product Engineering Training Needs Assessment Project. Volumes 1-5. Project Number Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geroy, Gary D.; And Others

    This five-volume report details an effort undertaken by Ingersoll-Rand (IR) to restore a professional tool plant in Athens, Pennsylvania, as a viable asset to the IR corporation. Volume 1, the final report, presents a historical perspective of the Athens plant, discusses the major skill and knowledge issues facing the plant, and provides the…

  15. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  16. Graphene synthesis on cubic SiC/Si wafers. perspectives for mass production of graphene-based electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Aristov, Victor Yu; Urbanik, Grzegorz; Kummer, Kurt; Vyalikh, Denis V; Molodtsova, Olga V; Preobrajenski, Alexei B; Zakharov, Alexei A; Hess, Christian; Hänke, Torben; Büchner, Bernd; Vobornik, Ivana; Fujii, Jun; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Ossipyan, Yuri A; Knupfer, Martin

    2010-03-10

    The outstanding properties of graphene, a single graphite layer, render it a top candidate for substituting silicon in future electronic devices. The so far exploited synthesis approaches, however, require conditions typically achieved in specialized laboratories and result in graphene sheets whose electronic properties are often altered by interactions with substrate materials. The development of graphene-based technologies requires an economical fabrication method compatible with mass production. Here we demonstrate for the fist time the feasibility of graphene synthesis on commercially available cubic SiC/Si substrates of >300 mm in diameter, which result in graphene flakes electronically decoupled from the substrate. After optimization of the preparation procedure, the proposed synthesis method can represent a further big step toward graphene-based electronic technologies.

  17. Photodissociating methyl vinyl ether to calibrate O+ethylene product branching and to test propensity rules for product channel electronic accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, M. L.; Szpunar, D. E.; Butler, L. J.

    2001-07-01

    These experiments investigate the photodissociation of methyl vinyl ether at 193 nm in a crossed laser-molecular beam apparatus. We observe two C-O bond fission channels, a minor channel producing CH3+CH2CHO (X˜ 2A″) and the major channel yielding CH3+CH2CHO (à 2A'). Some of the neutral à state vinoxy product undergoes secondary dissociation to produce ketene+H. These experiments on the photodissociation of methyl vinyl ether, which produce nascent vinoxy and methyl radicals cleanly in a one-to-one ratio, serve two purposes. First, using the measured photofragment velocities and product branching we calibrate the relative sensitivity of mass spectrometric detection to the methyl and vinoxy polyatomic radical products at the m/e=15 daughter ion, taking into account the loss of neutral vinoxy to ketene+H formation. This relative mass spectrometric sensitivity calibration factor is determined to be 0.116±0.022. Knowledge of this factor allows us to extract the product branching ratio between the two major competing primary product channels from the O(3P)+ethylene reaction, a branching ratio that has been much disputed in the literature. Our results give a CH3+HCO/H+CH2CHO product branching ratio of R=0.61±.11, corresponding to 38% (±5%) branching to the CH3+HCO channel. Second, we use the result that the channel producing Östate vinoxy dominates over the formation of ground-state vinoxy to test propensity rules being developed to help predict what product channels may be suppressed by electronically nonadiabatic effects in chemical reactions. These propensity rules discriminate between channels that are "electronically facile" and "electronically difficult/prohibitive." We find that a qualitative analysis of the changes in electronic configuration along the reaction coordinates for the photodissociation of methyl vinyl ether correctly predicts the dominant channel to be the production of excited state (Ã) vinoxy, the electronically facile channel.

  18. Storm/Quiet Ratio Comparisons Between TIMED/SABER NO (sup +)(v) Volume Emission Rates and Incoherent Scatter Radar Electron Densities at E-Region Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, J. R.; Mertens, C. J.; Bilitza, D.; Xu, X.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Broadband infrared limb emission at 4.3 microns is measured by the TIMED/SABER instrument. At night, these emission observations at E-region altitudes are used to derive the so called NO+(v) Volume Emission Rate (VER). NO+(v) VER can be derived by removing the background CO2(v3) 4.3 microns radiance contribution using SABER-based non-LTE radiation transfer models, and by performing a standard Abel inversion on the residual radiance. SABER observations show that NO+(v) VER is significantly enhanced during magnetic storms in accordance with increased ionization of the neutral atmosphere by auroral electron precipitation, followed by vibrational excitation of NO+ (i.e., NO+(v)) from fast exothermic ion-neutral reactions, and prompt infrared emission at 4.3 m. Due to charge neutrality, the NO+(v) VER enhancements are highly correlated with electron density enhancements, as observed for example by Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR). In order to characterize the response of the storm-time E-region from both SABER and ISR measurements, a Storm/Quiet ratio (SQR) quantity is defined as a function of altitude. For SABER, the SQR is the ratio of the storm-to-quiet NO+(v) VER. SQR is the storm-to-quiet ratio of electron densities for ISR. In this work, we compare SABER and ISR SQR values between 100 to 120 km. Results indicate good agreement between these measurements. SQR values are intended to be used as a correction factor to be included in an empirical storm-time correction to the International Reference Ionosphere model at E-region altitudes.

  19. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 07: Design and production of 3D printed bolus for electron radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Shiqin; Moran, Kathryn; Robar, James L.

    2014-08-15

    This is a proof-of-concept study demonstrating the capacity for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) using 3D printed bolus. Previous reports have involved bolus design using an electron pencil beam model and fabrication using a milling machine. In this study, an in-house algorithm is presented that optimizes the dose distribution with regard to dose coverage, conformity and homogeneity within planning target volume (PTV). The algorithm uses calculated result of a commercial electron Monte Carlo dose calculation as input. Distances along ray lines from distal side of 90% isodose to distal surface of PTV are used to estimate the bolus thickness. Inhomogeneities within the calculation volume are accounted for using coefficient of equivalent thickness method. Several regional modulation operators are applied to improve dose coverage and uniformity. The process is iterated (usually twice) until an acceptable MERT plan is realized, and the final bolus is printed using solid polylactic acid. The method is evaluated with regular geometric phantoms, anthropomorphic phantoms and a clinical rhabdomyosarcoma pediatric case. In all cases the dose conformity is improved compared to that with uniform bolus. The printed boluses conform well to the surface of complex anthropomorphic phantoms. For the rhabdomyosarcoma patient, the MERT plan yields a reduction of mean dose by 38.2% in left kidney relative to uniform bolus. MERT using 3D printed bolus appears to be a practical, low cost approach to generating optimized bolus for electron therapy. The method is effective in improving conformity of prescription isodose surface and in sparing immediately adjacent normal tissues.

  20. Production of and Dissociative Electron Attachment to the Simplest Criegee Intermediate in an Afterglow.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Justin P; Shuman, Nicholas S; Viggiano, Albert A

    2015-02-05

    The simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, has been produced in a flowing afterglow using a novel technique. CH2I is produced by dissociative electron attachment to CH2I2, leading to the established reaction CH2I + O2 → CH2OO + I. The presence of CH2OO is established by observation of dissociative electron attachment to yield O(-) using the variable electron and neutral density attachment mass spectrometry (VENDAMS) technique. The measurements establish the electron attachment rate coefficient of thermal electrons at 300 K to CH2OO as 1.2 ± 0.3 × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1). Thermal electron attachment is solely dissociative and is not a promising route to producing stable CH2OO(-). The results open the possibility of measuring ion-molecule chemistry involving Criegee intermediates, as well as the reactivity of other unstable radicals produced in an analogous manner.