Science.gov

Sample records for electronic products volume

  1. Radiofrequency and 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance H- volume production ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Peng, S. X.

    2016-10-01

    The volume production of negative hydrogen ions ({{{H}}}-) in plasma ion sources is based on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules (H2), which is a two-step process requiring both, hot electrons for ionization, and vibrational excitation of the H2 and cold electrons for the {{{H}}}- formation through DEA. Traditionally {{{H}}}- ion sources relying on the volume production have been tandem-type arc discharge sources equipped with biased filament cathodes sustaining the plasma by thermionic electron emission and with a magnetic filter separating the main discharge from the {{{H}}}- formation volume. The main motivation to develop ion sources based on radiofrequency (RF) or electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma discharges is to eliminate the apparent limitation of the cathode lifetime. In this paper we summarize the principles of {{{H}}}- volume production dictating the ion source design and highlight the differences between the arc discharge and RF/ECR ion sources from both, physics and technology point-of-view. Furthermore, we introduce the state-of-the-art RF and ECR {{{H}}}- volume production ion sources and review the challenges and future prospects of these yet developing technologies.

  2. H- ion production in electron cyclotron resonance driven multicusp volume source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Rouillé, C.; Bacal, M.; Arnal, Y.; Béchu, S.; Pelletier, J.

    2004-05-01

    We have used the existing magnetic multicusp configuration of the large volume H- source Camembert III to confine the plasma created by seven elementary multidipolar electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) sources, operating at 2.45 GHz. We varied the pressure from 1 to 4 mTorr, while the total power of the microwave generator was varied between 500 W and 1 kW. We studied the plasma created by this system and measured the various plasma parameters, including the density and temperature of the negative hydrogen ions which are compared to the data obtained in a chamber with elementary ECR sources without multicusp magnetic confinement. The electron temperature is lower than that obtained with similar elementary sources in the absence of the magnetic multicusp field. We found that at pressures in the range from 2 to 4 mTorr and microwave power of up to 1 kW, the electron temperature is optimal for H- ion production (0.6-0.8 eV). This could indicate that the multicusp configuration effectively traps the fast electrons produced by the ECR discharge.

  3. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, Gerald D.

    1998-01-01

    Microwave injection methods for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant "volume" ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources.

  4. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, G.D.

    1998-11-24

    Microwave injection methods are disclosed for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant ``volume`` ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources. 5 figs.

  5. A new grid-type electron filter for volume-production negative-ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafalskyi, D. V.; Dudin, S. V.

    2012-03-01

    A new system providing continuous generation of broad negative-ion beam is described and characterized. The key element of the system is the grid-type electron filter allowing the formation without magnetic field of a stationary highly electronegative plasma which can be biased negatively with respect to a relatively high-area electrode that allows to extract the negative ions. Measurements of negative-ion energy distribution functions conducted using a magnetically filtered energy analyzer show broad (250 mm) negative-ion beam formation with controllable energy starting from several eV. A conclusion is made about the possibility of practical application of the grid-type electron filter in negative ion sources for electric propulsion and etching technologies.

  6. Production of solvated electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. K.

    1969-01-01

    Current research, both theoretical and experimental, relating to the production and kinetics of interactions of solvated electrons is reviewed. Particular attention is focused on solvated electrons generated by ionizing radiation in water, alcohols, and organic systems.

  7. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  8. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  9. Absorbed fractions for electrons in ellipsoidal volumes.

    PubMed

    Amato, E; Lizio, D; Baldari, S

    2011-01-21

    We applied a Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4 in order to calculate the absorbed fractions for monoenergetic electrons in the energy interval between 10 keV and 2 MeV, uniformly distributed in ellipsoids made from soft tissue. For each volume, we simulated a spherical shape, four oblate and four prolate ellipsoids, and one scalene shape. For each energy and for every geometrical configuration, an analytical relationship between the absorbed fraction and a 'generalized radius' was found, and the dependence of the fit parameters from electron energy is discussed and fitted by proper parametric functions. With the proposed formulation, the absorbed fraction for electrons in the 10-2000 keV energy range can be calculated for all volumes and for every ellipsoidal shape of practical interest. This method can be directly applied to evaluation of the absorbed fraction from the radionuclide emission of monoenergetic electrons, such as Auger or conversion electrons. The average deposited energy per disintegration in the case of extended beta spectra can be evaluated through integration. Two examples of application to a pure beta emitter such as (90)Y and to (131)I, whose emission include monoenergetic and beta electrons plus gamma photons, are presented. This approach represent a generalization of our previous studies, allowing a comprehensive treatment of absorbed fractions from electron and photon sources uniformly distributed in ellipsoidal volumes of any ellipticity and volume, in the whole range of practical interest for internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine applications, as well as in radiological protection estimations of doses from an internal contamination.

  10. Absorbed fractions for electrons in ellipsoidal volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, E.; Lizio, D.; Baldari, S.

    2011-01-01

    We applied a Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4 in order to calculate the absorbed fractions for monoenergetic electrons in the energy interval between 10 keV and 2 MeV, uniformly distributed in ellipsoids made from soft tissue. For each volume, we simulated a spherical shape, four oblate and four prolate ellipsoids, and one scalene shape. For each energy and for every geometrical configuration, an analytical relationship between the absorbed fraction and a 'generalized radius' was found, and the dependence of the fit parameters from electron energy is discussed and fitted by proper parametric functions. With the proposed formulation, the absorbed fraction for electrons in the 10-2000 keV energy range can be calculated for all volumes and for every ellipsoidal shape of practical interest. This method can be directly applied to evaluation of the absorbed fraction from the radionuclide emission of monoenergetic electrons, such as Auger or conversion electrons. The average deposited energy per disintegration in the case of extended beta spectra can be evaluated through integration. Two examples of application to a pure beta emitter such as 90Y and to 131I, whose emission include monoenergetic and beta electrons plus gamma photons, are presented. This approach represent a generalization of our previous studies, allowing a comprehensive treatment of absorbed fractions from electron and photon sources uniformly distributed in ellipsoidal volumes of any ellipticity and volume, in the whole range of practical interest for internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine applications, as well as in radiological protection estimations of doses from an internal contamination.

  11. Report on Federal Productivity. Volume 2, Productivity Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Financial Management Improvement Program, Washington, DC.

    Volume 2 contains 15 productivity case studies which illustrate and expand on the causal factors mentioned in volume 1. The cases illustrate many different approaches to productivity measurement improvement. The case studies are: Development of an Output-Productivity Measure for the Air Force Medical Service; Measuring Effectiveness and Efficiency…

  12. EOS Data Products Handbook. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L. (Editor); Greenstone, Reynold (Editor); Closs, James (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Data Products Handbook provides brief descriptions of the data products that will be produced from a range of missions of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and associated projects. Volume 1, originally published in 1997, covers the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Terra mission (formerly named EOS AM-1), and the Data Assimilation System, while this volume, Volume 2, covers the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite (ACRIMSAT), Aqua, Jason-1, Landsat 7, Meteor 3M/Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III). the Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat), the Quick Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (Quik-TOMS), and the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) missions. Volume 2 follows closely the format of Volume 1, providing a list of products and an introduction and overview descriptions of the instruments and data processing, all introductory to the core of the book, which presents the individual data product descriptions, organized into 11 topical chapters. The product descriptions are followed by five appendices, which provide contact information for the EOS data centers that will be archiving and distributing the data sets, contact information for the science points of contact for the data products, references, acronyms and abbreviations, and a data products index.

  13. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  14. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  15. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Morrell, Jonathan S [Knoxville, TN; Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  16. Designing for Small Volume Assembly of Advanced Electronics Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.; Bonner, J. K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a general methodology to Design for Producibility and Reliability (DFPAR) for very small volume production runs. In cases where the entire volume for fabrication is less than five products, traditional Statistical Process Control (SPC) is inadequate due to reliance on statistics of much larger volumes and the Central Limit Theorem. Data acquisition for process parameter estimation from such a small sample size is difficult; however, it is critical to producing high reliability product.

  17. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... as intermediates to produce pesticides are covered by TSCA.) (e) The burden of establishing the...

  18. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... as intermediates to produce pesticides are covered by TSCA.) (e) The burden of establishing the...

  19. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... as intermediates to produce pesticides are covered by TSCA.) (e) The burden of establishing the...

  20. 4f electron delocalization and volume collapse in praseodymium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Joseph A.; Moore, Kevin T.; Lipp, Magnus J.; Mattern, Brian A.; Pacold, Joseph I.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Chow, Paul; Rod, Eric; Xiao, Yuming; Evans, William J.

    2012-04-17

    We study the pressure evolution of the 4f electrons in elemental praseodymium metal compressed through several crystallographic phases, including the large volume-collapse transition at 20 GPa. Using resonant x-ray emission, we directly and quantitatively measure the development of multiple electronic configurations with differing 4f occupation numbers, the key quantum observable related to the delocalization of the strongly correlated 4f electrons. These results provide a high-fidelity test of prior predictions by dynamical mean-field theory, and support the hypothesis of a strong connection between electronic and structural degrees of freedom at the volume-collapse transition.

  1. Improving Organizational Productivity in NASA. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Recognizing that NASA has traditionally been in the forefront of technological change, the NASA Administrator challenged the Agency in 1982 to also become a leader in developing and applying advanced technology and management practices to increase productivity. One of the activities undertaken by the Agency to support this ambitious productivity goal was participation in a 2-year experimental action research project devoted to learning more about improving and assessing the performance of professional organizations. Participating with a dozen private sector organizations, NASA explored the usefulness of a productivity improvement process that addressed all aspects of organizational performance. This experience has given NASA valuable insight into the enhancement of professional productivity. More importantly, it has provided the Agency with a specific management approach that managers and supervisors can effectively use to emphasize and implement continuous improvement. This report documents the experiences of the five different NASA installations participating in the project, describes the improvement process that was applied and refined, and offers recommendations for expanded application of that process. Of particular interest is the conclusion that measuring white collar productivity may be possible, and at a minimum, the measurement process itself is beneficial to management. Volume I of the report provides a project overview, significant findings, and recommendations. Volume II presents individual case studies of the NASA pilot projects that were part of the action research effort.

  2. Voyager electronic parts radiation program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft is subject to radiation from external natural space, from radioisotope thermoelectric generators and heater units, and from the internal environment where penetrating electrons generate surface ionization effects in semiconductor devices. Methods for radiation hardening and tests for radiation sensitivity are described. Results of characterization testing and sample screening of over 200 semiconductor devices in a radiation environment are summarized.

  3. 7 CFR 1280.612 - Volume of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Volume of production. 1280.612 Section 1280.612... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.612 Volume of production. (a) For producers and seedstock producers, the term volume of production means the total number of live...

  4. 7 CFR 1280.612 - Volume of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Volume of production. 1280.612 Section 1280.612... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.612 Volume of production. (a) For producers and seedstock producers, the term volume of production means the total number of live domestic...

  5. 7 CFR 1280.612 - Volume of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Volume of production. 1280.612 Section 1280.612... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.612 Volume of production. (a) For producers and seedstock producers, the term volume of production means the total number of live domestic...

  6. Design study report. Volume 2: Electronic unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The recording system discussed is required to record and reproduce wideband data from either of the two primary Earth Resources Technology Satellite sensors: Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera or Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS). The camera input is an analog signal with a bandwidth from dc to 3.5 MHz; this signal is accommodated through FM recording techniques which provide a recorder signal-to-noise ratio in excess of 39 db, black-to-white signal/rms noise, over the specified bandwidth. The MSS provides, as initial output, 26 narrowband channels. These channels are multiplexed prior to transmission, or recording, into a single 15 Megabit/second digital data stream. Within the recorder, the 15 Megabit/second NRZL signal is processed through the same FM electronics as the RBV signal, but the basic FM standards are modified to provide an internal, 10.5 MHz baseland response with signal-to-noise ratio of about 25 db. Following FM demodulation, however, the MSS signal is digitally re-shaped and re-clocked so that good bit stability and signal-to-noise exist at the recorder output.

  7. Cost of heliostats in low volume production

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, K.; Williams, T. A.; Dilbeck, R. A.; Allison, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    This study indicates that in small volumes, heliostats can be produced at an installed cost of approximately 200 $/M/sup 2/ for a 49.053 m/sup 2/ heliostat. Initial one-time costs of $10 to $15 million would be required, although part of the one-time costs are recoverable. This study provides estimated costs of heliostats that are produced in a plant operating on a continuous basis for a period of four years at a production rate of 2,500 heliostats per year. This scenario was selected somewhat arbitrarily as a scenario that could lead to heliostat market of 5,000 to 10,000 units per year.

  8. Volume scanning electron microscopy for imaging biological ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Titze, Benjamin; Genoud, Christel

    2016-11-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) has been a key imaging method to investigate biological ultrastructure for over six decades. In recent years, novel volume EM techniques have significantly advanced nanometre-scale imaging of cells and tissues in three dimensions. Previously, this had depended on the slow and error-prone manual tasks of cutting and handling large numbers of sections, and imaging them one-by-one with transmission EM. Now, automated volume imaging methods mostly based on scanning EM (SEM) allow faster and more reliable acquisition of serial images through tissue volumes and achieve higher z-resolution. Various software tools have been developed to manipulate the acquired image stacks and facilitate quantitative analysis. Here, we introduce three volume SEM methods: serial block-face electron microscopy (SBEM), focused ion beam SEM (FIB-SEM) and automated tape-collecting ultramicrotome SEM (ATUM-SEM). We discuss and compare their capabilities, provide an overview of the full volume SEM workflow for obtaining 3D datasets and showcase different applications for biological research.

  9. Reliability Advancement for Electronic Engine Controllers. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    mission computer , Maintenance personnel would be alerted through the pilot’s log, reporting any cockpit information faults generated and subsequent...Conditiors Incident to ]he Transportztiin of Materials", Dept. of Transportation Bulletin, PB 204 442, Final Report , Phase I General American Transpor...8217 : ,, "" ’ . v r- AFWAL -TR - 80 -Z063 c: RELIABILITY ADVANCEMENT FOR o ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROLLERS Volume I: Final Report HAMILTON STANDARD

  10. Volumes from which calcium and phosphorus X-rays arise in electron probe emission microanalysis of bone: Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Howell, P G T; Boyde, A

    2003-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of trajectories for electrons with initial energy of 10 keV through 30 keV were used to map the 3D location of characteristic x-ray photon production for the elements C, P, and Ca until the electrons either escaped as backscattered electrons (BSE) or had insignificant energy. The x-ray production volumes for phosphorus slightly exceed those for calcium, but both greatly exceed the volume through which BSE travel prior to leaving the sample. The x-ray volumes are roughly hemispherical in shape, and the oblate spheroid from which BSE derive occupies only the upper third to half the volume of x-ray generation. Energy-dispersive x-ray emission microanalysis (EDX) may not be secure as a method for the quantitation of BSE images of bone in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ca:P elemental ratios from EDX analyses may also be imperfect.

  11. Scalar electron productions at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, H.; Nishikawa, K.; Yamada, S.; Kuroda, M.

    1990-08-01

    The cross section of the process: ep-->e~Γ~X is calculated including resonance state productions and deep inelastic reactions. Comparison is made with the two body process: eq-->e~q~. It is found that some unexamined region of the selectron mass can be investigated at HERA. Permanent address: Department of Physics, Meiji-Gakuin University, Yokohama, Japan.

  12. Electronics reliability fracture mechanics. Volume 2: Fracture mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallis, J.; Duncan, L.; Buechler, D.; Backes, P.; Sandkulla, D.

    1992-05-01

    This is the second of two volumes. The other volume (WL-TR-92-3015) is 'Causes of Failures of Shop Replaceable Units and Hybrid Microcircuits.' The objective of the Electronics Reliability Fracture Mechanics (ERFM) program was to develop and demonstrate a life prediction technique for electronic assemblies, when subjected to environmental stresses of vibration and thermal cycling, based upon the mechanical properties of the materials and packaging configurations which make up an electronic system. The application of fracture mechanics to microscale phenomena in electronic assemblies was a pioneering research effort. The small scale made the experiments very difficult; for example, the 1-mil-diameter bond wires in microelectronic devices are 1/3 the diameter of a human hair. A number of issues had to be resolved to determine whether a fracture mechanics modelling approach is correct for the selected failures; specifically, the following two issues had to be resolved: What fraction of the lifetime is spent in crack initiation? Are macro fracture mechanics techniques, used in large structures such as bridges, applicable to the tiny structures in electronic equipment? The following structural failure mechanisms were selected for modelling: bondwire fracture from mechanical cycling; bondwire fracture from thermal (power) cycling; plated through hole (PTH) fracture from thermal cycling. The bondwire fracture test specimens were A1-1 percent Si wires, representative of wires used in the parts in the modules selected for detailed investigation in this program (see Vol. 1 of this report); 1-mil-diameter wires were tested in this program. The PTH test specimens were sections of 14-layer printed wiring boards of the type used.

  13. Solder technology in the manufacturing of electronic products

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.

    1993-08-01

    The electronics industry has relied heavily upon the use of soldering for both package construction and circuit assembly. The solder attachment of devices onto printed circuit boards and ceramic microcircuits has supported the high volume manufacturing processes responsible for low cost, high quality consumer products and military hardware. Defects incurred during the manufacturing process are minimized by the proper selection of solder alloys, substrate materials and process parameters. Prototyping efforts are then used to evaluate the manufacturability of the chosen material systems. Once manufacturing feasibility has been established, service reliability of the final product is evaluated through accelerated testing procedures.

  14. Commercial Superconducting Electron Linac for Radioisotope Production

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, Terry Lee; Boulware, Charles H.; Hollister, Jerry L.; Jecks, Randall W.; Mamtimin, Mayir; Starovoitova, Valeriia

    2015-08-13

    The majority of radioisotopes used in the United States today come from foreign suppliers or are generated parasitically in large government accelerators and nuclear reactors. Both of these restrictions limit the availability of radioisotopes and discourage the development and evaluation of new isotopes and for nuclear medicine, science, and industry. Numerous studies have been recommending development of dedicated accelerators for production of radioisotopes for over 20 years (Institute of Medicine, 1995; Reba, et al, 2000; National Research Council, 2007; NSAC 2009). The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan for Isotopes again identified electron accelerators as an area for continued research and development. Recommendation 1(c) from the 2015 NSAC Isotope report specifically identifies electron accelerators for continued funding for the purpose of producing medical and industrial radioisotopes. Recognizing the pressing need for new production methods of radioisotopes, the United States Congress passed the American Medical Isotope Production Act of 2012 to develop a domestic production of 99Mo and to eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the production of 99Mo. One of the advantages of high power electron linear accelerators (linacs) is they can create both proton- and neutron-rich isotopes by generating high energy x-rays that knock out protons or neutrons from stable atoms or by fission of uranium. This allows for production of isotopes not possible in nuclear reactors. Recent advances in superconducting electron linacs have decreased the size and complexity of these systems such that they are economically competitive with nuclear reactors and large, high energy accelerators. Niowave, Inc. has been developing a radioisotope production facility based on a superconducting electron linac with liquid metal converters.

  15. Space station human productivity study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary goal was to develop design and operations requirements for direct support of intra-vehicular activity (IVA) crew performance and productivity. It was recognized that much work had already been accomplished which provided sufficient data for the definition of the desired requirements. It was necessary, therefore, to assess the status of such data to extract definable requirements, and then to define the remaining study needs. The explicit objectives of the study were to: review existing data to identify potential problems of space station crew productivity and to define requirements for support of productivity insofar as they could be justified by current information; identify those areas that lack adequate data; and prepare plans for managing studies to develop the lacking data, so that results can be input to the space station program in a timely manner.

  16. Calculation of the volume effect at an electron phase transition in pure cerium and praseodymium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, S. A.; Koval', Yu. N.; Ponomarev, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    The experimental values of the volume effect at an electronic phase transition in several rare-earth metals are discussed. Specifically, volume changes at phase transitions in cerium and praseodymium are calculated using a semiphenomenological relationship derived in terms of the Falikov-Ramirez-Kimball model. A number of factors influencing the amount of the volume effect at electronic phase transitions are analyzed.

  17. Circulating blood volume determination using electronic spin resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Facorro, Graciela; Bianchin, Ana; Boccio, José; Hager, Alfredo

    2006-09-01

    There have been numerous methods proposed to measure the circulating blood volume (CBV). Nevertheless, none of them have been massively and routinely accepted in clinical diagnosis. This study describes a simple and rapid method, on a rabbit model, using the dilution of autologous red cells labeled with a nitroxide radical (Iodoacetamide-TEMPO), which can be detected by electronic spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Blood samples were withdrawn and re-injected using the ears' marginal veins. The average CBV measured by the new method/body weight (CBV(IAT)/BW) was 59 +/- 7 mL/kg (n = 33). Simultaneously, blood volume determinations using the nitroxide radical and (51)Cr (CBV(Cr)) were performed. In the plot of the difference between the methods (CBV(IAT) - CBV(Cr)) against the average (CBV(IAT) + CBV(Cr))/2, the mean of the bias was -1.1 +/- 6.9 mL and the limits of agreement (mean difference +/-2 SD) were -14.9 and 12.7 mL. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient p(c) = 0.988. Thus, both methods are in close agreement. The development of a new method that allows a correct estimation of the CBV without using radioactivity, avoiding blood manipulation, and decreasing the possibility of blood contamination with similar accuracy and precision of that of the "gold standard method" is an innovative proposal.

  18. A simple electronic volume cell sorter for clonogenicity assays.

    PubMed

    Freyer, J P; Wilder, M E; Schor, P L; Coulter, J; Raju, M R

    1989-05-01

    A single-parameter electronic volume flow cell sorter that can be easily and inexpensively constructed using existing technology is described. The instrument is designed for ease and flexibility of operation, including such features as a large open area for recovering sorted cells into a variety of dishes or vessels; a remote, electrically activated fluidics system; a mechanism for heating or cooling samples during sorting; a simple arrangement for monitoring and adjusting the sorting control parameters; and an interface to a standard IBM personal computer for data acquisition, analysis, and control of the sorting windows. Several researchers in our laboratory now routinely use this sorter for plating precise numbers of cells directly into culture dishes in an aseptic manner for clonogenicity assays. The instrument can sort cells at rates of up to approximately 2,000 per second with greater than 80% sorting efficiency and no cytotoxicity. An advantage of this system is that the sorting windows can be set to exclude acellular debris and include either the entire cell volume distribution or a subset thereof. Applications of the instrument are detailed, including 1) precise cell plating for low-dose survival studies, 2) separation of cells into age compartments, and 3) rapid inoculation of single cells into multiwell dishes for cloning studies. Advantages of this technology for cell survival studies are detailed, along with some limitations to its applicability.

  19. Electronic tagging and integrated product intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swerdlow, Martin; Weeks, Brian

    1996-03-01

    The advent of 'intelligent,' electronic data bearing tags is set to revolutionize the way industrial and retail products are identified and tracked throughout their life cycles. The dominant system for unique identification today is the bar code, which is based on printed symbology and regulated by the International Article Numbering Association. Bar codes provide users with significant operational advantages and generate considerable added value to packaging companies, product manufacturers, distributors and retailers, across supply chains in many different sectors, from retailing, to baggage handling and industrial components, e.g., for vehicles or aircraft. Electronic tags offer the potential to: (1) record and store more complex data about the product or any modifications which occur during its life cycle; (2) access (and up-date) stored data in real time in a way which does not involve contact with the product or article; (3) overcome the limitations imposed by systems which rely on line-of-sight access to stored data. Companies are now beginning to consider how electronic data tags can be used, not only to improve the efficiency of their supply chain processes, but also to revolutionize the way they do business. This paper reviews the applications and business opportunities for electronic tags and outlines CEST's strategy for achieving an 'open' standard which will ensure that tags from different vendors can co-exist on an international basis.

  20. Mixed Media: A Roundup of Electronic Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Frank Alan

    2002-01-01

    Presents multicultural materials that are useful for elementary, secondary, and college audiences. The selections represent quality electronic and microfilm products that can help educators, librarians, and researchers better understand ethnic and racial diversity nationally and internationally. Includes CD-ROM, CD/Web-based, Web-based, and…

  1. Agricultural Products: Program Planning Guide: Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Richard; Robb, Sam

    The program planning guide for agricultural products was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of meat and meat byproducts, dairy processing, fruit and vegetable…

  2. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-06-01

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. We have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. We found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.

  3. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    DOE PAGES

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; ...

    2015-06-24

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. Here, we have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the termmore » artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. Moreover, we found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.« less

  4. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-06-24

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. Here, we have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. Moreover, we found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.

  5. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-01-01

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. We have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. We found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity. PMID:26104672

  6. 21 CFR 1010.20 - Electronic products intended for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic products intended for export. 1010.20... (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS: GENERAL Exportation of Electronic Products § 1010.20 Electronic products intended for export. The performance standards prescribed...

  7. 21 CFR 1010.20 - Electronic products intended for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic products intended for export. 1010.20... (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS: GENERAL Exportation of Electronic Products § 1010.20 Electronic products intended for export. The performance standards prescribed...

  8. Controlling the phase-space volume of injected electrons in a laser-plasma accelerator.

    PubMed

    Rechatin, C; Faure, J; Ben-Ismail, A; Lim, J; Fitour, R; Specka, A; Videau, H; Tafzi, A; Burgy, F; Malka, V

    2009-04-24

    To take full advantage of a laser-plasma accelerator, stability and control of the electron beam parameters have to be achieved. The external injection scheme with two colliding laser pulses is a way to stabilize the injection of electrons into the plasma wave, and to easily tune the energy of the output beam by changing the longitudinal position of the injection. In this Letter, it is shown that by tuning the optical injection parameters, one is able to control the phase-space volume of the injected particles, and thus the charge and the energy spread of the beam. With this method, the production of a laser accelerated electron beam of 10 pC at the 200 MeV level with a 1% relative energy spread at full width half maximum (3.1% rms) is demonstrated. This unique tunability extends the capability of laser-plasma accelerators and their applications.

  9. Design for Production Manual. Volume 2. Design/Production Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    assist you and your organization in a re-thinking process concerning shipbuilding design and production. To this end , the writers want to emphasize that... break the design process into a number of stages, which reflect the realities of the overall ship design and production scheme. For each stage a set...consistent with steel unit breaks . At the same time system diagrams will have been developed which indicate the links between system elements and the

  10. How big is the hydrated electron? Thermodynamics of electron solvation and its partial molar volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, David

    2015-03-01

    Several models for the hydrated electron solvation structure have been proposed, which all can do a reasonable job of reproducing the room temperature optical spectrum. As Larsen, Glover and Schwartz demonstrated, tweaking the electron-water pseudopotential can completely change the structure from a cavity to a non-cavity geometry. Deciding between the competing models then requires comparison with other observables. The resonance Raman spectrum and the temperature dependence of the optical spectrum can be cited as evidence in favor of a non-cavity structure. In the present work we will re-examine the thermodynamics of hydration. In particular, we will present new experimental and simulation results for the partial molar volume, which can bear directly on the cavity vs. non-cavity controversy. DMB is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE- FC02-04ER1553.

  11. Electron spectra from decay of fission products

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, J K

    1982-09-01

    Electron spectra following decay of individual fission products (72 less than or equal to A less than or equal to 162) are obtained from the nuclear data given in the compilation using a listed and documented computer subroutine. Data are given for more than 500 radionuclides created during or after fission. The data include transition energies, absolute intensities, and shape parameters when known. An average beta-ray energy is given for fission products lacking experimental information on transition energies and intensities. For fission products having partial or incomplete decay information, the available data are utilized to provide best estimates of otherwise unknown decay schemes. This compilation is completely referenced and includes data available in the reviewed literature up to January 1982.

  12. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Morrell, Jonathan S [Knoxville, TN; Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ludtka, Gerald M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-03-22

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  13. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Methods Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Results Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing wide variation in product configuration and component functionality. Common e-cigarette components include an aerosol generator, a flow sensor, a battery and a nicotine-containing solution storage area. e-cigarettes currently include many interchangeable parts, enabling users to modify the character of the delivered aerosol and, therefore, the product's ‘effectiveness’ as a nicotine delivery product. Materials in e-cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics. Some materials may be aerosolised and have adverse health effects. Several studies have described significant performance variability across and within e-cigarette brands. Patent applications include novel product features designed to influence aerosol properties and e-cigarette efficiency at delivering nicotine. Conclusions Although e-cigarettes share a basic design, engineering variations and user modifications result in differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-cigarette aerosols may include harmful and potentially harmful constituents. Battery explosions and the risks of exposure to the e-liquid (especially for children) are also concerns. Additional research will enhance the current understanding of basic e-cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, and functionality. A standardised e-cigarette testing regime should be developed to allow product comparisons. PMID:24732162

  14. High-Volume Production of Lightweight Multijunction Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youtsey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    MicroLink Devices, Inc., has transitioned its 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable of sustaining large-volume production. This Phase II project improves the ELO process by reducing cycle time and increasing the yield of large-area devices. In addition, all critical device fabrication processes have transitioned to 6-inch production tool sets designed for volume production. An emphasis on automated cassette-to-cassette and batch processes minimizes operator dependence and cell performance variability. MicroLink Devices established a pilot production line capable of at least 1,500 6-inch wafers per month at greater than 80 percent yield. The company also increased the yield and manufacturability of the 6-inch reclaim process, which is crucial to reducing the cost of the cells.

  15. Report on Federal Productivity. Volume 1, Productivity Trends, FY 1967-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Financial Management Improvement Program, Washington, DC.

    Volume 1 reports on Federal productivity and productivity trends for Fiscal Years 1967-1973, and comments on the causes of productivity increases and decreases. The report, prepared to promote improved financial management in individual agencies and on a government-wide scale, includes productivity measurement data supplied by 46 agencies. The…

  16. The SEA of the Future: Prioritizing Productivity. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Betheny, Ed.; Jochim, Ashley, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "The SEA of the Future" is an education publication series examining how state education agencies can shift from a compliance to a performance-oriented organization through strategic planning and performance management tools to meet growing demands to support education reform while improving productivity. This volume, the second in the…

  17. 7 CFR 1280.612 - Volume of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... lambs owned and produced during the most recent calendar year. (b) For feeders, volume of production means the total number of lambs owned and fed during the most recent calendar year. (c) For...

  18. System Development of Estimated Figures of Volume Production Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazhnikov, Maksim A.; Khorina, Irina V.; Minina, Yulia I.; Kolyasnikova, Lyudmila V.; Streltsov, Aleksey V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this problem is primarily determined by a necessity of improving production efficiency in conditions of innovative development of the economy and implementation of Import Substitution Program. The purpose of the article is development of set of criteria and procedures for the comparative assessment of alternative volume production…

  19. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, Th.

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10∗∗4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50°C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the iradiation field in a closed conveyor system.

  20. Treatment of effluents from petroleum production by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Celina Lopes; Geraldo, Lucia Limoeiro; Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino P.; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira

    2004-09-01

    During the offshore oil production large volumes of aqueous waste with high salinity are produced. The produced water originates mainly from the oil-bearing formation but may also include seawater, which has been injected to maintain reservoir pressure. This water is normally separated from oil on the platform generating aqueous effluent with metals, sulfite, ammonium and organic compounds. The conventional treatment used includes filtration, flotation, ionic change and adsorption in activated charcoal, but the high salinity of this water decreases the treatment efficiency. The high efficiency of electron beam irradiation on removing organic compound in industrial effluent has been shown, and the primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of this new technology to treat the oil water production. Experiments were conducted using samples from two platforms processed in the radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 kW power. The results showed that the electron beam technology has high efficiency in destroying organic compounds even in the presence of high salinity and complex effluent.

  1. Looking for Guidelines for the Production of Electronic Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landoni, M.; Wilson, R.; Gibb, F.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of two studies of electronic book production, including production on the World Wide Web, and explains EBONI (Electronic Books On-screen Interface) that focuses on the evaluation of electronic resources and compiling guidelines for publishing electronic materials on the Internet for the United Kingdom higher education…

  2. Looking for Guidelines for the Production of Electronic Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landoni, M.; Wilson, R.; Gibb, F.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of two studies of electronic book production, including production on the World Wide Web, and explains EBONI (Electronic Books On-screen Interface) that focuses on the evaluation of electronic resources and compiling guidelines for publishing electronic materials on the Internet for the United Kingdom higher education…

  3. Electronic cigarettes and alternative nicotine products.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Karmen

    2014-07-01

    (1) Electronic cigarettes currently are not regulated by the FDA. (2) Ingredients and design of electronic cigarettes and vaporizers vary. (3) States are taking action to regulate electronic cigarettes in various ways.

  4. Correlative light and volume electron microscopy: using focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy to image transient events in model organisms.

    PubMed

    Bushby, Andrew J; Mariggi, Giovanni; Armer, Hannah E J; Collinson, Lucy M

    2012-01-01

    The study of a biological event within a live model organism has become routine through the use of fluorescent labeling of specific proteins in conjunction with laser confocal imaging. These methods allow 3D visualization of temporal events that can elucidate biological function but cannot resolve the tissue organization, extracellular and subcellular details of the tissues. Here, we present a method for correlating electron microscopy image data with the light microscopy data from the same sample volume to reveal the 3D structural information: "correlative light and volume electron microscopy." The methods for live video confocal microscopy, fixation and embedding of the tissue for electron microscopy, the focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy method for sequentially slicing and imaging the volume of interest, and the treatment of the resulting 3D dataset are presented. The method is illustrated with data collected during the angiogenesis of blood vessels in a transgenic zebrafish embryo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. WDM production with intense relativistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Josh; Andrews, Heather; Klasky, Mark; Colgan, James; Burris-Mog, Trevor; Creveling, Dan; Miller, Craig; Welch, Dale; Berninger, Mike

    2016-10-01

    The production of warm dense matter (WDM) through collisional heating with intense relativistic electrons is underway. A 100-ns-long monochromatic bunch of electrons with energies of 19.1-19.8 MeV and currents of 0.2-1.7 kA is used to heat 100- μm-thick foils with Z <29. The principal objective of these experiments is to develop a controlled method of measuring the equation of state with particle beams and benchmark numerical models. Measurements indicate the formation of a warm dense plasma near the end of the pulse, which is on the order of the beam size. These plasmas expand 5 mm in the first microsecond and slow down to <0.5 mm/ μs over the next 10 μs. These plasmas also produce both emitted and absorbed spectra amongst a continuum for Ti, Fe, and Cu. Cu-I spectra is dominated by stark broadening, indicating a cool plasma with ne >1018 cm-3. At these densities our plasma is collisionally dominated making it possible to spectrally model the density and temperature in LTE. Preliminary density gradient measurements will also be presented indicating the spatial extent of the solid density cutoff. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Se- curity Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  6. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an electronic...

  7. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an electronic...

  8. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an electronic...

  9. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an electronic...

  10. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an electronic...

  11. 1996 international conference on power electronics, drives and energy systems for industrial growth: Proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, S.S.; Roy, S.; Divan, D.; Doradla, S.R.; Murthy, B.V.

    1995-12-31

    This is volume 2 of the proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems for Industrial Growth held during January 1996, in New Delhi, India. The topics of this volume include AC/DC and AC/AC converters, induction generators, traction and electric vehicle drives, application of neural networks and fuzzy logic systems, power electronics converters and drives, machine analysis and other topics.

  12. Production of deerbrush and mountain whitethorn related to shrub volume and overstory crown closure

    Treesearch

    John G. Kie

    1985-01-01

    Annual production by deerbrush (Ceanothus integerrimus) and mountain whitethorn shrubs (C. cordulatus) in the south-central Sierra Nevada of California was related to shrub volume, volume squared, and overstory crown closure by regression models. production increased as shrub volume and volume squared increased, and decreased as...

  13. Low-loss polysilicon waveguides fabricated in an emulated high-volume electronics process.

    PubMed

    Orcutt, Jason S; Tang, Sanh D; Kramer, Steve; Mehta, Karan; Li, Hanqing; Stojanović, Vladimir; Ram, Rajeev J

    2012-03-26

    We measure end-of-line polysilicon waveguide propagation losses of ~6-15 dB/cm across the telecommunication O-, E-, S-, C- and L-bands in a process representative of high-volume product integration. The lowest loss of 6.2 dB/cm is measured at 1550 nm in a polysilicon waveguide with a 120 nm x 350 nm core geometry. The reported waveguide characteristics are measured after the thermal cycling of the full CMOS electronics process that results in a 32% increase in the extracted material loss relative to the as-crystallized waveguide samples. The measured loss spectra are fit to an absorption model using defect state parameters to identify the dominant loss mechanism in the end-of-line and as-crystallized polysilicon waveguides.

  14. Redesigned Electron-Beam Furnace Boosts Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    1995-01-01

    Redesigned electron-beam furnace features carousel of greater capacity so more experiments conducted per loading, and time spent on reloading and vacuum pump-down reduced. Common mounting plate for electron source and carousel simplifies installation and reduces vibration.

  15. Redesigned Electron-Beam Furnace Boosts Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    1995-01-01

    Redesigned electron-beam furnace features carousel of greater capacity so more experiments conducted per loading, and time spent on reloading and vacuum pump-down reduced. Common mounting plate for electron source and carousel simplifies installation and reduces vibration.

  16. Modular Electronics for Flash Memory Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-28

    3) an electron-deficient tetracationic cyclophane derivative which can bind to the electron-rich guest molecules such as 1,5 dioxynapthalene ( DNP ...selectively to the electron-rich guest molecules, i.e., TTF and DNP . These model systems will be crucial to understand the dynamics of the mechanically...in order to avoid the formation of disulfide bond. Linker L34+ is known to bind selectively to the electron-rich guest molecules, i.e., TTF and DNP

  17. WaferOptics® mass volume production and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolterink, E.; Demeyer, K.

    2010-05-01

    The Anteryon WaferOptics® Technology platform contains imaging optics designs, materials, metrologies and combined with wafer level based Semicon & MEMS production methods. WaferOptics® first required complete new system engineering. This system closes the loop between application requirement specifications, Anteryon product specification, Monte Carlo Analysis, process windows, process controls and supply reject criteria. Regarding the Anteryon product Integrated Lens Stack (ILS), new design rules, test methods and control systems were assessed, implemented, validated and customer released for mass production. This includes novel reflowable materials, mastering process, replication, bonding, dicing, assembly, metrology, reliability programs and quality assurance systems. Many of Design of Experiments were performed to assess correlations between optical performance parameters and machine settings of all process steps. Lens metrologies such as FFL, BFL, and MTF were adapted for wafer level production and wafer mapping was introduced for yield management. Test methods for screening and validating suitable optical materials were designed. Critical failure modes such as delamination and popcorning were assessed and modeled with FEM. Anteryon successfully managed to integrate the different technologies starting from single prototypes to high yield mass volume production These parallel efforts resulted in a steep yield increase from 30% to over 90% in a 8 months period.

  18. 21 CFR 1003.2 - Defect in an electronic product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 1003.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... which relates to the safety of use by reason of the emission of electronic product radiation if: (a) It is a product which does not utilize the emission of electronic product radiation in order...

  19. 21 CFR 1003.2 - Defect in an electronic product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 1003.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... which relates to the safety of use by reason of the emission of electronic product radiation if: (a) It is a product which does not utilize the emission of electronic product radiation in order...

  20. 21 CFR 1003.2 - Defect in an electronic product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 1003.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... which relates to the safety of use by reason of the emission of electronic product radiation if: (a) It is a product which does not utilize the emission of electronic product radiation in order...

  1. Free Volume Related Fluorescence Properties of Electron Irradiated Chalcone Doped PMMA Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindrachary, Ismayil V.; Bhajantri, R. F.; Harisha, A.; Praveena, S. D.

    2011-07-15

    Effect of electron irradiation on free volume related fluorescence properties of chalcone doped Poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) composite films have been studied using Positron Annihilation and Fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. In this polymer composite, enhancement of fluorescence at lower doses and reduction at higher doses has been observed under electron irradiation. From Positron annihilation studies suggests that at lower doses of irradiation induced crosslinking which affect the free volume properties and inturn hinders the chalcone molecular rotation. At higher doses chain scission process affect matrix relaxation. Under the restricted condition the chromophore molecules likely to emit enhanced fluorescence and its mobility is directly related to the free volume around it.

  2. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    DOE PAGES

    Wistisen, T. N.; Uggerhoj, U. I.; Wienands, U.; ...

    2016-07-05

    Here, we present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5, and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15 m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.053, 0.066, 0.099, 0.16, and 0.22 times the critical curvature, respectively. Based on the parameters of fitting functions we have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, themore » surface transmission, and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.« less

  3. Continuous protein production in nanoporous, picolitre volume containers.

    PubMed

    Siuti, Piro; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel J

    2011-10-21

    The synthetic manufacture of functional proteins enables a bottom-up understanding of the workings of biological systems and opens new opportunities for the treatment of disease. Cell-free protein synthesis is a practical approach for enabling such manufacturing, however, it is typically carried out in fairly large volumes, when compared to a natural cell, leading to increases in cost and loss of efficiency. Here we demonstrate continuous cell free protein synthesis in arrays of cellular scale containers that continuously exchange energy and materials with their environment. A multiscale fabrication process allows the monolithic integration of nanoporous silicon containers within an addressable microfluidic network. Synthesis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in the containers continues beyond 24 h and yields more than twice the amount of protein, on a per volume basis, than conventional scale batch reactions. By mimicking the physical volume and controlled flux of a natural cell, the resulting "cell mimic" devices can enable fundamental studies of biological systems as well as serve applications related to the functional screening of proteins and the on-demand production of biologics.

  4. 76 FR 4549 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals; Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 799 RIN 2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of... testing of certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to obtain screening level data for.... 799.5087 Chemical testing requirements for second group of high production volume chemicals...

  5. Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) Streamlining Project. Volume 3. Reference Documentation (Part 2), B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    NUJMBERS Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) Streamlining Project, C OPM-91-2964 Volume IIl, Reference Documentation (Part 2).,18 PR 02T02K 6...NAMEIS) AND ADORESSIES 10. SPONSORINGIMONITORINO AGENCY REPORT NUMBER U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command Intelligence Material Management Center...study was to recommend improvements in logistics support for Army intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) equipment. Report analyzes existing

  6. 48 CFR 23.704 - Electronic product environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...® electronic products are designated “bronze-,” “silver-,” or “gold-” registered. (4) Agencies shall, at a minimum, acquire EPEAT® bronze-registered products. (5) Agencies are encouraged to acquire EPEAT®...

  7. Chinese-English Electronics and Telecommunications Dictionary. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    camera output 17 camera alignment 18 camera angle 19 camera chain 20 camera mount 21 central camera control desk 22 camera framework 23 camera...atrutted pole 18 «»W strutted pole 19 XI ’oubllng 20 KS<(itf« double conversion reception 21 XS^fl double beat 22 MMBLm double reaction 23...KB A* double reaction 28 KlUt double detection 29 xaii«-b«v dual control heptode 30 ^«^««faf^i&^ii dual-sensitivity electronic 31 indicator

  8. 21 CFR 1010.20 - Electronic products intended for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic products intended for export. 1010.20 Section 1010.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS: GENERAL Exportation of...

  9. Electron-positron pairs production in a macroscopic charged core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, Remo; Xue, She-Sheng

    2011-02-01

    Classical and semi-classical energy states of relativistic electrons bounded by a massive and charged core with the charge-mass radio Q/M and macroscopic radius R are discussed. We show that the energies of semi-classical (bound) states can be much smaller than the negative electron mass-energy (-mc2), and energy-level crossing to negative energy continuum occurs. Electron-positron pair production takes place by quantum tunneling, if these bound states are not occupied. Electrons fill into these bound states and positrons go to infinity. We explicitly calculate the rate of pair-production, and compare it with the rates of electron-positron production by the Sauter-Euler-Heisenberg-Schwinger in a constant electric field. In addition, the pair-production rate for the electro-gravitational balance ratio Q/M=10-19 is much larger than the pair-production rate due to the Hawking processes.

  10. Volume production of polarization controlled single-mode VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin; King, Roger; Jäger, Roland; Wiedenmann, Dieter; Gerlach, Philipp; Duckeck, Denise; Wimmer, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Over the past 3 years laser based tracking systems for optical PC mice have outnumbered the traditional VCSEL market datacom by far. Whereas VCSEL for datacom in the 850 nm regime emit in multipe transverse modes, all laser based tracking systems demand for single-mode operation which require advanced manufacturing technology. Next generation tracking systems even require single-polarization characteristics in order to avoid unwanted movement of the pointer due to polarization flips. High volume manufacturing and optimized production methods are crucial for achieving the addressed technical and commercial targets of this consumer market. The resulting ideal laser source which emits single-mode and single-polarization at low cost is also a promising platform for further applications like tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) or miniature atomic clocks when adapted to the according wavelengths.

  11. Space station human productivity study. Volume 5: Management plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The 67 Management Plans represent recommended study approaches for resolving 108 of the 305 Issues which were identified. Each study Management Plan is prepared in three formats: Management Plan Overview (lists the subsumed Issues, study background, and related overview information); Study Plan (details the study approach by tasks, lists special needs, and describes expected study products); Schedule-Task Flow (provides a time-lined schedule for the study tasks and resource requirements). The Management Relationships Matrix, included in this volume, shows the data input-output relationships among all recommended studies. A listing is also included which cross-references the unresolved requirements to Issues to management plans. A glossary of all abbreviations utilized is provided.

  12. Criterion 6, indicator 25 : value and volume of wood and wood products production, including primary and secondary processing

    Treesearch

    James L. Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    Trend data through 2006 are provided on the value and volume of wood and wood products production for the United States to aid in assessing sustainability of socioeconomic benefits of forests. The volume of roundwood used to make products, the weight produced, and the value of U.S. shipments have been stable to declining in recent years. But there have been increases...

  13. Criterion 6, indicator 25: Value and volume of wood and wood products production, including primary and secondary processing

    Treesearch

    James L. Howard; David B. McKeever; Ted Bilek

    2016-01-01

    Trend data through 2011 are provided on the value and volume of wood and wood products production for the United States to aid in assessing sustainability of socioeconomic benefits of forests. The volume of roundwood used to make products, the weight produced, and the value of U.S. shipments have fluctuated in recent years. But there have been decreases in the weight...

  14. A facile electron microscopy method for measuring precipitate volume fractions in AlCuMg alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.Q.; Shi, M.J.; Chen, J.H. Wang, S.B.; Liu, C.H.; Wu, C.L.

    2012-07-15

    Precipitate volume fraction is an important parameter to estimate the strength of precipitation-hardened metals. In this study, a facile method was applied to measure the precipitate volume fractions in an age-hardened AlCuMg alloy. In this method, the precipitate volume fraction values can be obtained by multiplying the volume precipitate number densities with the averaged precipitate volumes, which can be easily measured in scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Compared with the conventional method, in which the specimen thickness has to be measured in transmission electron microscopy, the method proposed in this study is more facile to perform. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have proposed a facile method to measure precipitate volume fractions for precipitation-hardened metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique works well for the square-shaped {theta} Prime -phase nano-precipitates in 2xxx aluminum alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interesting is that the proposed method is easy for materials scientists and engineers to perform.

  15. NIL defect performance toward high volume mass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Kei; Kashiwagi, Hiroyuki; Tokue, Hiroshi; Kono, Takuya; Tetsuro, Nakasugi; Choi, Eun Hyuk; Jung, Wooyung

    2016-03-01

    A low cost alternative lithographic technology is desired to meet with the decreasing feature size of semiconductor devices. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is one of the candidates for alternative lithographic technologies. NIL has advantages such as good resolution, critical dimension (CD) uniformity and smaller line edge roughness (LER). 4 On the other hand, NIL involves some risks. Defectivity is the most critical issue in NIL. The progress in the defect reduction on templates shows great improvement recently. In other words, the defect reduction of the NIIL process is a key to apply NIL to mass production. In this paper, we describe the evaluation results of the defect performance of NIL using an up-to-date tool, Canon FPA-1100 NZ2, and discuss the future potential of NIL in terms of defectivity. The impact of various kinds defects, such as the non-filling defect, plug defect, line collapse, and defects on replica templates are discussed. We found that non-fill defects under the resist pattern cause line collapse. It is important to prevent line collapse. From these analyses based on actual NIL defect data on long-run stability, we will show the way to reduce defects and the possibility of NIL in device high volume mass production. For the past one year, we have been are collaborating with SK Hynix to bring this promising technology into mainstream manufacturing. This work is the result of this collaboration.

  16. 48 CFR 23.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Personal computer products is a category of EPEAT-registered electronic products. (1) The IEEE 1680... detail at http://www.epeat.net. (2) A list of EPEAT-registered products that meet the IEEE 1680 standard can be found at http://www.epeat.net. (3) The IEEE 1680 standard sets forth required and...

  17. Electron positron pair production at RHIC and LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Cem Gueclue, M.

    2008-11-11

    The STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider present data on electron-positron pair production accompanied by nuclear breakup at small impact parameters where the simultaneous excitation of the two ions, mainly the giant dipole resonance GDR, can occur. We calculate the electron-positron pair production cross section relevant for the STAR experimental setup, and compare our results with the other calculations. We have also predictions for the LHC energies.

  18. Electronics reliability fracture mechanics. Volume 1: Causes of failures of shop replaceable units and hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallis, J.; Buechler, D.; Erickson, J.; Westerhuyzen, D. V.; Strokes, R.

    1992-05-01

    This is the first of two volumes. The other volume (WL-TR-91-3119) is 'Fracture Mechanics'. The objective of the Electronics Reliability Fracture Mechanics (ERFM) program was to develop and demonstrate a life prediction technique for electronic assemblies, when subjected to environmental stress of vibration and thermal cycling, based upon the mechanical properties of the materials and packaging configurations which make up an electronic system. A detailed investigation was performed of the following two shop replaceable units (SRUs): Timing and Control Module (P/N 3562102) and Linear Regulator Module (P/N 3569800). The SRUs are in the Programmable Signal Processor (3137042) Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) of the Hughes AN/APG-63 Radar for the F-15 Aircraft.

  19. Excitation of surface and volume plasmons in a metal nanosphere by fast electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gildenburg, V. B. Kostin, V. A.; Pavlichenko, I. A.

    2016-03-15

    Collective multipole oscillations (surface and volume plasmons) excited in a metal nanosphere by moving electron and corresponding inelastic scattering spectra are studied based on the hydrodynamic approach. Along with the bulk (dielectric) losses traditionally taken into account, the surface and radiative ones are also considered as the physical mechanisms responsible for the plasmon damping. The second and third mechanisms are found to be essential for the surface plasmons (at small or large cluster radii, respectively) and depend very differently on the multipole mode order. The differential equations are obtained which describe the temporal evolution of every particular mode as that one of a linear oscillator excited by the given external force, and the electron energy loss spectra are calculated. The changes in spectrum shape with the impact parameter and with the electron passage time are analyzed; the first of them is found to be in good enough agreement with the data of scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments. It is shown that, in the general case, a pronounced contribution to the formation of the loss spectrum is given by the both surface and volume plasmons with low and high multipole indices. In particular, at long electron passage time, the integral (averaged over the impact parameter) loss spectrum which is calculated for the free-electron cluster model contains two main peaks: a broad peak from merging of many high-order multipole resonances of the surface plasmons and a narrower peak of nearly the same height from merged volume plasmons excited by the electrons that travel through the central region of the cluster. Comparatively complex dependences of the calculated excitation coefficients and damping constants of various plasmons on the order of the excited multipole result in wide diversity of possible types of the loss spectrum even for the same cluster material and should be taken into account in interpretation of corresponding

  20. Taper Functions for Predicting Product Volumes in Natural Shortleaf Pines

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Farrar; Paul A. Murphy

    1987-01-01

    Taper (stem-profile) functions are presented for natural shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) trees growing in the West Gulf area. These functions, when integrated, permit the prediction of volume between any two heights on a stem and, conversely by iteration, the volume between any two diameters on a stem. Examples are given of use of the functions...

  1. Effect of MeV electron irradiation on the free volume of polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegaonkar, P. S.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    2004-08-01

    The free volume of the microvoids in the polyimide samples, irradiated with 6 MeV electrons, was measured by the positron annihilation technique. The free volume initially decreased the virgin value from similar to13.70 to similar to10.98 Angstrom(3) and then increased to similar to18.11 Angstrom(3) with increasing the electron fluence, over the range of 5 x 10(14) - 5 x 10(15) e/cm(2). The evolution of gaseous species from the polyimide during electron irradiation was confirmed by the residual gas analysis technique. The polyimide samples irradiated with 6 MeV electrons in AgNO3 solution were studied with the Rutherford back scattering technique. The diffusion of silver in these polyimide samples was observed for fluences >2 x 10(15) e/cm(2), at which microvoids of size greater than or equal to3 Angstrom are produced. Silver atoms did not diffuse in the polyimide samples, which were first irradiated with electrons and then immersed in AgNO3 solution. These results indicate that during electron irradiation, the microvoids with size greater than or equal to3 Angstrom were retained in the surface region through which silver atoms of size similar to2.88 Angstrom could diffuse into the polyimide. The average depth of diffusion of silver atoms in the polyimide was similar to2.5 mum.

  2. Large-volume en-bloc staining for electron microscopy-based connectomics

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yunfeng; Laserstein, Philip; Helmstaedter, Moritz

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale connectomics requires dense staining of neuronal tissue blocks for electron microscopy (EM). Here we report a large-volume dense en-bloc EM staining protocol that overcomes the staining gradients, which so far substantially limited the reconstructable volumes in three-dimensional (3D) EM. Our protocol provides densely reconstructable tissue blocks from mouse neocortex sized at least 1 mm in diameter. By relaxing the constraints on precise topographic sample targeting, it makes the correlated functional and structural analysis of neuronal circuits realistic. PMID:26235643

  3. Enhancement of negative hydrogen ion production at low pressure by controlling the electron kinetics property with transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, June Young; Cho, Won-Hwi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Kim, Seongcheol; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    In a volume production H- ion source, independent control of electron energy distribution between the driver region and the extraction region is crucial for the efficient production of H- ions due to its unique volume production mechanism. However, at the low pressure regime compatible to ITER operation, it is difficult to control electron energy distribution separately because the nonlocal property dominates the electron kinetics. In this work, we suggest a new method to control the locality of electron kinetics. In this method, an additional pair of permanent magnets is introduced in the vicinity of the skin layer, differently from the conventional method in which the magnetic filter field was strengthened in the extraction region. This magnetic field shortens the energy relaxation length and changes the electron kinetics from nonlocal to local even for low pressure discharges. In this paper, we show that the locality of electron kinetics can be effectively controlled by the additional magnetic field near the skin layer by measuring the electron temperature profile along the center of the discharge chamber as well as by comparing electron energy probability function shapes for different strengths of magnetic field. Using this new method, we demonstrate that control of locality of electron kinetics can greatly enhance the production of H- ions in the extraction region by measuring H- ion beam current extracted from the plasma source.

  4. Multivariate regression model for partitioning tree volume of white oak into round-product classes

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; David L. Sonderman

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development of multivariate equations that predict the expected cubic volume of four round-product classes from independent variables composed of individual tree-quality characteristics. Although the model has limited application at this time, it does demonstrate the feasibility of partitioning total tree cubic volume into round-product classes based on...

  5. Large-Scale Production of Carbon Nanotubes Using the Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, Brian C.

    2003-01-01

    We report on our interdisciplinary program to use the Free Electron Laser (FEL) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (J-Lab) for high-volume pulsed laser vaporization synthesis of carbon nanotubes. Based in part on the funding of from this project, a novel nanotube production system was designed, tested, and patented. Using this new system nanotube production rates over 100 times faster than conventional laser systems were achieved. Analysis of the material produced shows that it is of as high a quality as the standard laser-based materials.

  6. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  7. Absolute Emission Spectroscopy of Electronically Excited Products of Dissociative Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypkowski, M. P.; Gougousi, T.; Golde, M. F.; Johnsen, R.

    1997-10-01

    We have employed spatially-resolved optical emission spectroscopy in a flowing afterglow plasma to investigate radiations in the 200-400 nm range resulting from electron-ion dissociative recombination. Calibrated emission data combined with Langmuir probe electron-density measurements are analyzed to obtain branching ratios for electronically excited recombination products. In particular, we will report absolute yields of CO(a^3Π) resulting from recombining CO_2^+ ions, NO(B^2Π) from N_2O^+, OH(A^2Σ^+) from HCO_2^+, as well as NH(A^3Π_i), and OH(A^2Σ^+) from the recombination of N_2OH^+ ions.

  8. SECONDARY ELECTRON PRODUCTION AT THE SNS STORAGE RING COLLIMATOR.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,S.Y.

    1999-03-29

    Secondary electron (SE) production is briefly reviewed. If the collimator of the SNS storage ring allows proton beam scraping to take place, the electron yield might be quite large. At the AGS Booster, by steering the Au{sup 31+} ion beam into the electrostatic inflector, beam scraping effect on SE production is studied. The results of this experiment can be translated into the situation of proton beam scraping at the SNS collimator. It seems sufficient to support a new look of the SNS ring collimator design.

  9. Correlation of live-cell imaging with volume scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Miriam S; Günthert, Maja; Bittermann, Anne Greet; de Marco, Alex; Wepf, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Live-cell imaging is one of the most widely applied methods in live science. Here we describe two setups for live-cell imaging, which can easily be combined with volume SEM for correlative studies. The first procedure applies cell culture dishes with a gridded glass support, which can be used for any light microscopy modality. The second approach is a flow-chamber setup based on Ibidi μ-slides. Both live-cell imaging strategies can be followed up with serial blockface- or focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy. Two types of resin embedding after heavy metal staining and dehydration are presented making best use of the particular advantages of each imaging modality: classical en-bloc embedding and thin-layer plastification. The latter can be used only for focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy, but is advantageous for studying cell-interactions with specific substrates, or when the substrate cannot be removed. En-bloc embedding has diverse applications and can be applied for both described volume scanning electron microscopy techniques. Finally, strategies for relocating the cell of interest are discussed for both embedding approaches and in respect to the applied light and scanning electron microscopy methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Total Sample Conditioning and Preparation of Nanoliter Volumes for Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Stefan A; Albiez, Stefan; Opara, Nadia; Chami, Mohamed; Schmidli, Claudio; Bieri, Andrej; Padeste, Celestino; Stahlberg, Henning; Braun, Thomas

    2016-05-24

    Electron microscopy (EM) entered a new era with the emergence of direct electron detectors and new nanocrystal electron diffraction methods. However, sample preparation techniques have not progressed and still suffer from extensive blotting steps leading to a massive loss of sample. Here, we present a simple but versatile method for the almost lossless sample conditioning and preparation of nanoliter volumes of biological samples for EM, keeping the sample under close to physiological condition. A microcapillary is used to aspirate 3-5 nL of sample. The microcapillary tip is immersed into a reservoir of negative stain or trehalose, where the sample becomes conditioned by diffusive exchange of salt and heavy metal ions or sugar molecules, respectively, before it is deposited as a small spot onto an EM grid. We demonstrate the use of the method to prepare protein particles for imaging by transmission EM and nanocrystals for analysis by electron diffraction. Furthermore, the minute sample volume required for this method enables alternative strategies for biological experiments, such as the analysis of the content of a single cell by visual proteomics, fully exploiting the single molecule detection limit of EM.

  11. Texas Education Product Study, Volume 2. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    The second volume of a study of former Texas high school students who left as graduates or dropouts during the school years 1963-64 and 1968-69 contains the study respondents' comments on school counselors, extracurricular activities, and dropouts, career goals, and employment experiences. Respondents who had contact with counselors questioned the…

  12. SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION. VOLUME I. COST ANALYSIS PROGRAM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT, *COSTS), (*AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY, INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION ), MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING, AIRFRAMES, ECONOMICS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, MONEY, AIRCRAFT ENGINES, FEASIBILITY STUDIES

  13. Channeling, Volume Reection and Gamma Emission Using 14GeV Electrons in Bent Silicon Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Brandon

    2015-08-14

    High energy electrons can be deflected with very tight bending radius using a bent silicon crystal. This produces gamma radiation. As these crystals can be thin, a series of bent silicon crystals with alternating direction has the potential to produce coherent gamma radiation with reasonable energy of the driving electron beam. Such an electron crystal undulator offers the prospect for higher energy radiation at lower cost than current methods. Permanent magnetic undulators like LCLS at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory are expensive and very large (about 100 m in case of the LCLS undulator). Silicon crystals are inexpensive and compact when compared to the large magnetic undulators. Additionally, such a high energy coherent light source could be used for probing through materials currently impenetrable by x-rays. In this work we present the experimental data and analysis of experiment T523 conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We collected the spectrum of gamma ray emission from 14 GeV electrons on a bent silicon crystal counting single photons. We also investigated the dynamics of electron motion in the crystal i.e. processes of channeling and volume reflection at 14 GeV, extending and building off previous work. Our single photon spectrum for the amorphous crystal orientation is consistent with bremsstrahlung radiation and the volume reflection crystal orientation shows a trend consistent with synchrotron radiation at a critical energy of 740 MeV. We observe that in these two cases the data are consistent, but we make no further claims because of statistical limitations. We also extended the known energy range of electron crystal dechanneling length and channeling efficiency to 14 GeV.

  14. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2013-12-15

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma.

  15. Coal combustion by-products and low-volume wastes comanagement survey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ladwig, K.J.

    1997-12-01

    A survey of utilities was performed to obtain information regarding the comanagement of low-volume wastes with high-volume combustion by-products in utility disposal sites. This information will be used to provide technical input for a regulatory determination by the US Environmental Protection Agency on the comanagement practice. The survey found that low-volume wastes are comanaged with high-volume combustion by-products at 80% of the 259 active disposal facilities responding to the survey. The most commonly comanaged low-volume wastes are coal mill rejects, floor/yard drain wastewater, demineralizer regenerant, airheater/precipitator washwater, and coal pile runoff. Comanagement is more common at impoundments than landfills. The median number of low-volume wastes comanaged at impoundments is eight, while the median at landfills is two. While unlined impoundments were typical 20 years ago, the current trend in utility disposal sites appears to be toward lined landfills with groundwater monitoring.

  16. Enhanced production of low energy electrons by alpha particle impact

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong-Keun; Titze, Jasmin; Schöffler, Markus; Trinter, Florian; Waitz, Markus; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Sann, Hendrik; Meckel, Moritz; Stuck, Christian; Lenz, Ute; Odenweller, Matthias; Neumann, Nadine; Schössler, Sven; Ullmann-Pfleger, Klaus; Ulrich, Birte; Fraga, Rui Costa; Petridis, Nikos; Metz, Daniel; Jung, Annika; Grisenti, Robert; Czasch, Achim; Jagutzki, Ottmar; Schmidt, Lothar; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst; Dörner, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Radiation damage to living tissue stems not only from primary ionizing particles but to a substantial fraction from the dissociative attachment of secondary electrons with energies below the ionization threshold. We show that the emission yield of those low energy electrons increases dramatically in ion–atom collisions depending on whether or not the target atoms are isolated or embedded in an environment. Only when the atom that has been ionized and excited by the primary particle impact is in immediate proximity of another atom is a fragmentation route known as interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) enabled. This leads to the emission of a low energy electron. Over the past decade ICD was explored in several experiments following photoionization. Most recent results show its observation even in water clusters. Here we show the quantitative role of ICD for the production of low energy electrons by ion impact, thus approaching a scenario closer to that of radiation damage by alpha particles: We choose ion energies on the maximum of the Bragg peak where energy is most efficiently deposited in tissue. We compare the electron production after colliding He+ ions on isolated Ne atoms and on Ne dimers (Ne2). In the latter case the Ne atom impacted is surrounded by a most simple environment already opening ICD as a deexcitation channel. As a consequence, we find a dramatically enhanced low energy electron yield. The results suggest that ICD may have a significant influence on cell survival after exposure to ionizing radiation. PMID:21730184

  17. Enhanced production of low energy electrons by alpha particle impact.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Keun; Titze, Jasmin; Schöffler, Markus; Trinter, Florian; Waitz, Markus; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Sann, Hendrik; Meckel, Moritz; Stuck, Christian; Lenz, Ute; Odenweller, Matthias; Neumann, Nadine; Schössler, Sven; Ullmann-Pfleger, Klaus; Ulrich, Birte; Fraga, Rui Costa; Petridis, Nikos; Metz, Daniel; Jung, Annika; Grisenti, Robert; Czasch, Achim; Jagutzki, Ottmar; Schmidt, Lothar; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst; Dörner, Reinhard

    2011-07-19

    Radiation damage to living tissue stems not only from primary ionizing particles but to a substantial fraction from the dissociative attachment of secondary electrons with energies below the ionization threshold. We show that the emission yield of those low energy electrons increases dramatically in ion-atom collisions depending on whether or not the target atoms are isolated or embedded in an environment. Only when the atom that has been ionized and excited by the primary particle impact is in immediate proximity of another atom is a fragmentation route known as interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) enabled. This leads to the emission of a low energy electron. Over the past decade ICD was explored in several experiments following photoionization. Most recent results show its observation even in water clusters. Here we show the quantitative role of ICD for the production of low energy electrons by ion impact, thus approaching a scenario closer to that of radiation damage by alpha particles: We choose ion energies on the maximum of the Bragg peak where energy is most efficiently deposited in tissue. We compare the electron production after colliding He(+) ions on isolated Ne atoms and on Ne dimers (Ne(2)). In the latter case the Ne atom impacted is surrounded by a most simple environment already opening ICD as a deexcitation channel. As a consequence, we find a dramatically enhanced low energy electron yield. The results suggest that ICD may have a significant influence on cell survival after exposure to ionizing radiation.

  18. Consumer Electronic Product Servicing. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a consumer electronic product servicing program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of…

  19. Consumer Electronic Product Servicing. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This packet contains a program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for the implementation of a consumer electronic product servicing program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, lists job titles under the program, and includes…

  20. Model of control of glow discharge electron gun current for microelectronics production applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denbnovetsky, S. V.; Melnyk, V. I.; Melnyk, I. V.; Tugay, B. A.

    2003-04-01

    The problems of simulation of discharge current control and its gas-dynamic stabilization for technological glow discharge electron guns with a cold cathode are considered in a paper. Such guns are successfully operated in soft vacuum and can be used in modern microelectronic technologies for providing of thermal operations with using different technological gases including active ones. The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of automatic control system of current of electron gun which were used for deposition of coatings in reactive gas medium are presented in article. Time of regulation for considered system did not exceed 400 ms. Is proved, that the automatic control of a current of a glow discharge electron gun by pressure variation its volume is effective on all operation range of pressure, and the minimum time of a current regulation can be tens -- hundred of ms, and this fact is allow to use in the majority of technological operations for microelectronic production.

  1. Production and characterization of attosecond electron bunch trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Christopher M. S.; Colby, Eric; Ischebeck, Rasmus; McGuinness, Christopher; Nelson, Janice; Noble, Robert; Siemann, Robert H.; Spencer, James; Walz, Dieter; Plettner, Tomas; Byer, Robert L.

    2008-06-01

    We report the production of optically spaced attosecond electron microbunches produced by the inverse free-electron-laser (IFEL) process. The IFEL is driven by a Ti:sapphire laser synchronized with the electron beam. The IFEL is followed by a magnetic chicane that converts the energy modulation into the longitudinal microbunch structure. The microbunch train is characterized by observing coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) at multiple harmonics of the bunching. Experimental results are compared with 1D analytic theory showing good agreement. Estimates of the bunching factors are given and correspond to a microbunch length of 410 attosec FWHM. The formation of stable attosecond electron pulse trains marks an important step towards direct laser acceleration.

  2. Market projections of cellulose nanomaterial-enabled products-- Part 2: Volume estimates

    Treesearch

    John Cowie; E.M. (Ted) Bilek; Theodore H. Wegner; Jo Anne Shatkin

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose has enormous potential to provide an important materials platform in numerous product sectors. This study builds on previous work by the same authors in which likely high-volume, low-volume, and novel applications for cellulosic nanomaterials were identified. In particular, this study creates a transparent methodology and estimates the potential annual...

  3. Electric fields, electron production, and electron motion at the stripper foil in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M.

    1995-05-01

    The beam instability at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) most likely involves coupled oscillations between electrons and protons. For this instability to occur, there must be a strong source of electrons. Investigation of the various sources of electrons in the PSR had begun. Copious electron production is expected in the injection section because this section contains the stripper foil. This foil is mounted near the center of the beam pipe, and both circulating and injected protons pass through it, thus allowing ample opportunity for electron production. This paper discusses various mechanisms for electron production, beam-induced electric fields, and electron motion in the vicinity of the foil.

  4. Electronic structure and volume magnetostriction of rare-earth metals and compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turek, I.; Rusz, J.; Diviš, M.

    2005-04-01

    A first-principle theory of spontaneous volume magnetostriction is presented. It is based on self-consistent electronic structure calculations for a magnetically ordered ground state and a disordered local moment state. The effect of highly localized 4f orbitals of rare-earth (R) atoms is taken into account by an open-core treatment within the local spin-density approximation. The theory is applied to hexagonal gadolinium and to selected intermetallic compounds with the cubic C15 Laves structure: RCo2 (R=Gd, Dy, Er) and GdAl2. The results are compared to those of experiment and discussed in terms of: (i) magnitudes of the local moments and (ii) volume-dependent exchange interactions.

  5. Structural and volume changes and their correlation in electron irradiated alkali silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavenda, Tadeáš; Gedeon, Ondrej; Jurek, Karel

    2017-04-01

    Two binary alkali silicate glasses (15K2O·85SiO2 - denoted as K15 and 15Li2O·85SiO2 - denoted as Li15) were irradiated by 50 keV electron beams with doses within the range of 2.1-15.9 kC/m2. Volume changes induced by electron irradiation were monitored by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Raman spectra were taken from the irradiated spots to observe structural changes. Volume compaction observed at lower doses was correlated with the increase of the D2 peak. Volume expansion at higher doses was related to migration of alkali ions. Irradiated glasses were annealed at 400 °C and 500 °C for 60 min. After annealing irradiated spots were again examined by AFM and Raman spectroscopy in order to determine volume and structural relaxation of radiation induced changes. Annealing at higher temperatures resulted in the levelling of the pits created by irradiation, but only for doses below incubation dose. The pits created by doses above incubation dose were not levelled. Annealing caused decrease of D2 peak and shift of the Si-O-Si vibrations band in direction to original structure. Low-frequency region of annealed Li15 glass was undistinguishable from that of pristine glass, while annealing of K15 glass did not result in the full reversion to the original shape. The differences between glasses were attributed to higher Tg of K15 glass. Q-motives bands of both glasses were not completely restored after annealing due to the absence of alkali ions.

  6. Catalog of NIE Products. Volumes 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This catalog contains descriptive information on 660 products funded, in whole or in part, by the National Institute of Education (NIE). Purpose of the catalog is (1) to inform educational practitioners, developers, policy-makers, and publishers about a wide range of educational products and (2) to help potential consumers select the most…

  7. 78 FR 73563 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products... exclusion order against infringing electronic devices and products of respondents Monsoon Multimedia, Inc... limited exclusion order prohibiting the unlicensed entry of electronic devices having placeshifting or...

  8. Studies on plasma production in a large volume system using multiple compact ECR plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarey, R. D.; Ganguli, A.; Sahu, D.; Narayanan, R.; Arora, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for large volume plasma production using multiple highly portable compact ECR plasma sources (CEPS) (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026). The large volume plasma system (LVPS) described in the paper is a scalable, cylindrical vessel of diameter  ≈1 m, consisting of source and spacer sections with multiple CEPS mounted symmetrically on the periphery of the source sections. Scaling is achieved by altering the number of source sections/the number of sources in a source section or changing the number of spacer sections for adjusting the spacing between the source sections. A series of plasma characterization experiments using argon gas were conducted on the LVPS under different configurations of CEPS, source and spacer sections, for an operating pressure in the range 0.5-20 mTorr, and a microwave power level in the range 400-500 W per source. Using Langmuir probes (LP), it was possible to show that the plasma density (~1  -  2  ×  1011 cm-3) remains fairly uniform inside the system and decreases marginally close to the chamber wall, and this uniformity increases with an increase in the number of sources. It was seen that a warm electron population (60-80 eV) is always present and is about 0.1% of the bulk plasma density. The mechanism of plasma production is discussed in light of the results obtained for a single CEPS (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026).

  9. Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment for irregularly shaped food product volume measurement.

    PubMed

    Siswantoro, Joko; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Abdullah, Azizi; Idrus, Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method.

  10. Metastable Oxygen Production by Electron-Impact of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, J. D.; Malone, C. P.; Kanik, I.; Johnson, P. V.

    2013-12-01

    Electron-impact excitation processes involving atomic and molecular oxygen are important in atmospheric interactions. The production of long-lived metastable O(1S) and O(1D) through electron impact of atomic O and molecular O2 play a significant role in the dynamics of oxygen-containing atmospheres (Earth, Europa, Io). Emissions from metastable O (1S → 1D) produce the well-recognized green light from terrestrial aurora. Electron-impact excitation to 1S and 1D are sensitive channels for determining energy partitioning and dynamics from space weather. Electron-impact excitation cross sections determined through fundamental experimental studies are necessary for modeling of natural phenomena and observation data. The detection of metastable states in laboratory experiments requires a novel approach, since typical detection techniques (e.g., fluorescence by radiative de-excitation) cannot be performed due to the long-lived nature of the excited species. In this work, metastable O is incident on a cryogenically cooled rare gas matrix, where excimer production and subsequent rapid radiative de-excitation provides measurable signal that is directly related to the originating electron-impact excitation process.

  11. Convoy electron production in heavy-ion-solid collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, I.A.; Breinig, M.; Brandt, W.; Laubert, R.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of the sharp v vector/sub e/ approx. = v vector cusps observed in the velocity spectrum of convoy electrons (v vector/sub e/) ejected in heavy ion-solid collisions in the ion velocity range (v vector) 6 to 18 au are compared to the properties of analogous cusps observed in binary electron capture to the continuum (ECC) and electron loss to the continuum (ELC) collisions in gases. Apart from a skew toward v vector/sub e/ > v vector, the v-independent convoy distributions observed are very similar to those for ELC and the cusp widths are the same in both cases. While the shape of convoy peaks is approximately independent of projectile Z, v, and of target material, yields in polycrystalline targets (C, Al, Ag, Au) exhibit a strong dependence on Z and v. Coincidence experiments in which convoy electrons are allocated according to emergent ion charge-state q/sub e/ show a surprising independence of q/sub e/, mirroring the unweighted statistical emergent charge-state fraction. Coincidence experiments of O/sup 6 +/ /sup 7 +/ /sup 8 +/ ions traversing < 110 > and < 100 > channels in Au show a strong yield suppression and a dependence of yield on the channel chosen. Interpretation of these observations, comparisons to convoy production studies using protons, and a discussion of remaining puzzles is given. The history of ECC, ELC, and wake-riding models of convoy electron production is also reviewed.

  12. Coherence in laser-driven electrons at the surface and in the volume of solid matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommelhoff, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The femtosecond frequency comb allows controlling the carrier field of ultrashort laser pulses. We show two examples on how this control over fields oscillating with a few hundred terahertz can be utilized to control electrons at the surface and in the volume of solids. After a brief discussion of strong-field physics at metal needle tips, we show how ultrafast two-color laser pulses allow quantum path interference to dramatically alter the emission current from sharp tips, with an interference visibility of 94%. With carrier-envelope phase-controlled laser pulses, we show furthermore how light-field sensitive currents can be excited in monolayer graphene via an interplay of interband and intraband electron dynamics including multiple Landau-Zener transitions.

  13. Effects of solution volume on hydrogen production by pulsed spark discharge in ethanol solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Y. B.; Sun, B.; Zhu, X. M.; Yan, Z. Y.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y. J.

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen production from ethanol solution (ethanol/water) by pulsed spark discharge was optimized by varying the volume of ethanol solution (liquid volume). Hydrogen yield was initially increased and then decreased with the increase in solution volume, which achieved 1.5 l/min with a solution volume of 500 ml. The characteristics of pulsed spark discharge were studied in this work; the results showed that the intensity of peak current, the rate of current rise, and energy efficiency of hydrogen production can be changed by varying the volume of ethanol solution. Meanwhile, the mechanism analysis of hydrogen production was accomplished by monitoring the process of hydrogen production and the state of free radicals. The analysis showed that decreasing the retention time of gas production and properly increasing the volume of ethanol solution can enhance the hydrogen yield. Through this research, a high-yield and large-scale method of hydrogen production can be achieved, which is more suitable for industrial application.

  14. Effects of solution volume on hydrogen production by pulsed spark discharge in ethanol solution

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Y. B.; Sun, B. Zhu, X. M.; Yan, Z. Y.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y. J.

    2016-07-15

    Hydrogen production from ethanol solution (ethanol/water) by pulsed spark discharge was optimized by varying the volume of ethanol solution (liquid volume). Hydrogen yield was initially increased and then decreased with the increase in solution volume, which achieved 1.5 l/min with a solution volume of 500 ml. The characteristics of pulsed spark discharge were studied in this work; the results showed that the intensity of peak current, the rate of current rise, and energy efficiency of hydrogen production can be changed by varying the volume of ethanol solution. Meanwhile, the mechanism analysis of hydrogen production was accomplished by monitoring the process of hydrogen production and the state of free radicals. The analysis showed that decreasing the retention time of gas production and properly increasing the volume of ethanol solution can enhance the hydrogen yield. Through this research, a high-yield and large-scale method of hydrogen production can be achieved, which is more suitable for industrial application.

  15. Association Between Electronic Medical Record Implementation and Otolaryngologist Productivity in the Ambulatory Setting.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Yarah M; Moshtaghi, Omid; Mahboubi, Hossein; Ghavami, Yaser; Ziai, Kasra; Hojjat, Houmehr; Armstrong, William B; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2017-01-01

    In the current health care era, many medical practices are transitioning to a new electronic health record system. Until now, there has been little information published on the association between electronic medical record (EMR) use and otolaryngologist productivity in the ambulatory setting. To examine the association between transitioning to an EMR system and physician productivity in otolaryngology. Observational study at a tertiary care academic ambulatory center. Participants were 5 full-time otolaryngologists in practice, among whom a retrospective analysis of physician productivity was performed from May 5, 2013, through April 30, 2015. We examined 5 practicing otolaryngologists for 24 months (12 months before and 12 months after transitioning to a new EMR system). Physician productivity was measured using the mean work relative value units (wRVUs) and the mean number of clinic visits. Each practitioner, with his wRVUs and clinic visit volume, was compared before and after implementation of the EMR system. The overall change in wRVUs and clinic visit volume was measured. The mean time spent after a full clinic day editing documentation before and after implementation of the EMR system for each practitioner was also recorded. Among all 5 practitioners (age range, 38-51 years), the monthly wRVUs decreased from a mean of 334 before EMR implementation to a mean of 284 after EMR implementation, with an absolute difference of 50 (95% CI, 6-85). The monthly clinic visit volume decreased from a mean of 132 to 121, with an absolute difference of 11 (95% CI, 0-18). When examined individually, only 1 physician had a significant decrease in wRVUs. The remainder of the physicians did not demonstrate a significant change in wRVUs or clinic visit volume. On average, the physicians spent 2.1 hours after clinic reviewing and editing documentation before the transition to the EMR system and 1.9 hours after the transition. Transitioning to an EMR system in an ambulatory

  16. Electronic properties and free radical production by nitrofuran compounds.

    PubMed

    Paulino-Blumenfeld, M; Hansz, M; Hikichi, N; Stoppani, A O

    1992-01-01

    Substitution of nifurtimox tetrahydrothiazine moiety by triazol-4-yl, benzimidazol-l-yl, pyrazol-l-yl or related aromatic nitrogen heterocycles determines changes in the quantum chemistry descriptors of the molecule, namely, (a) greater negative LUMO energy; (b) lesser electron density on specific atoms, especially on the nitro group atoms, and (c) modification of individual net atomic charges at relevant atoms. These variations correlate with the greater capability of nifurtimox analogues for redox-cycling and oxygen radical production, after one-electron reduction by ascorbate or reduced flavoenzymes. Variation of the nitrofurans electronic structure can also explain the greater activity of nifurtimox analogues as inhibitors of glutathione reductase and Trypanosoma cruzi growth, although other factors, such as molecular hydrophobicity and connectivity may contribute to the latter inhibition.

  17. Electron-Positron Pair Production in the Deep Quantum Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Kathleen A

    1998-10-06

    Electron-positron pair production via real and virtual photons is significant to the design of linear colliders, especially in the deep quantum regime (i.e., beamstrahlung parameter Upsilon >> 1). In this regime, pair production via a virtual photon (the trident process) can become comparable in rate to pair production via a real beamstrahlung photon. We derive characteristics of the e+e- pairs produced via the trident process, using the quasi-classical approach of Baier, Katkov, and Strakhovenko. We have also examined some of the implications of e+e- pair production for the design of very high energy (several TeV in the center of mass) linear colliders in the deep quantum regime.

  18. Investigation of (123)I production using electron accelerator.

    PubMed

    Avetisyan, Albert; Avagyan, Robert; Dallakyan, Ruben; Avdalyan, Gohar; Dobrovolsky, Nikolay; Gavalyan, Vasak; Kerobyan, Ivetta; Harutyunyan, Gevorg

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of (123)I isotope production with the help of the high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons produced by the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator at the A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute [YerPhI]) is considered. The production method has been established and shown to be successful. The (124)Xe(γ,n)(123)Xe→(123)I nuclear reaction has been investigated and the cross-section was calculated by nuclear codes TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2. The optimum parameter of the thickness of the target was determined by GEANT4 code. For the normalized yield of (123)I, the value of 143Bq/(mg·μA·h) has been achieved.

  19. Ozone Production by Irradiation of Intense, Pulsed Relativistic Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Go; Morishima, Nobuyuki; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    Characteristics of ozone production have been investigated by irradiation of intense, pulsed relativistic electron beam (IREB). The 1.8-m-long gas-treatment chamber is filled up with dry-N2-balanced O2 gas mixture with the pressure of 98 kPa and is irradiated by IREB. The kinetic energy, current and pulse width of the IREB are - 2 MeV, - 2.9 kA, and - 80 ns (FWHM), respectively. It is found that - 340 ppm of ozone is produced by firing 10 shots of the IREB. We have also obtained the production yield of ozone of 9 - 21 g/kWh.

  20. Electronic beam steering used with a toroidal HIFU transducer substantially increases the coagulated volume.

    PubMed

    Vincenot, Jeremy; Melodelima, David; Chavrier, Françoise; Vignot, Alexandre; Kocot, Anthony; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2013-07-01

    Treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound is well established but requires extended treatment time. A device composed of 256 elements arranged on a toroidal transducer was developed to increase the coagulated volume. When all the elements are working in phase for 40 s, a volume of 6-8 cm(3) can be ablated. However, the mechanical juxtaposition of single lesions is still necessary for treating one tumor with a diameter of 2 cm. The objective of this study was to combine this toroidal transducer geometry with electronic beam steering to ablate tumors with adequate normal tissue margins and without any mechanical displacement of the high-intensity focused ultrasound device. In vitro tests demonstrated that the coagulated volume obtained from 130 s of total exposure has an average diameter of 41.4 ± 4.0 mm and an average length of 53.3 ± 6.1 mm. This single lesion can be used to treat various size of metastasis, located at depths in the liver ranging 5-45 mm.

  1. A Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Approach to Analyzing Large Volumes of Tissue to Detect Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, Paul J.; Thakor, Avnesh S.; Zavaleta, Cristina; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Sinclair, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer requires the complete characterization of their toxicity, including accurately locating them within biological tissues. Owing to their size, traditional light microscopy techniques are unable to resolve them. Transmission electron microscopy provides the necessary spatial resolution to image individual nanoparticles in tissue but is severely limited by the very small analysis volume, usually on the order of tens of cubic microns. In this work we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) approach to analyze large volumes of tissue for the presence of polyethylene glycol coated Raman-active-silica-gold-nanoparticles (PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs). This approach utilizes the simultaneous bright and dark field imaging capabilities of STEM along with careful control of the image contrast settings to readily identify PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs in mouse liver tissue without the need for additional time consuming analytical characterization. We utilized this technique to analyze 243,000 µm3 of mouse liver tissue for the presence of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs. Nanoparticles injected into the mice intravenously via the tail-vein accumulated in the liver while those injected intrarectally did not, indicating that they remain in the colon and do not pass through the colon wall into the systemic circulation. PMID:23803218

  2. A scanning transmission electron microscopy approach to analyzing large volumes of tissue to detect nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kempen, Paul J; Thakor, Avnesh S; Zavaleta, Cristina; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The use of nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer requires the complete characterization of their toxicity, including accurately locating them within biological tissues. Owing to their size, traditional light microscopy techniques are unable to resolve them. Transmission electron microscopy provides the necessary spatial resolution to image individual nanoparticles in tissue, but is severely limited by the very small analysis volume, usually on the order of tens of cubic microns. In this work, we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) approach to analyze large volumes of tissue for the presence of polyethylene glycol-coated Raman-active-silica-gold-nanoparticles (PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs). This approach utilizes the simultaneous bright and dark field imaging capabilities of STEM along with careful control of the image contrast settings to readily identify PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs in mouse liver tissue without the need for additional time-consuming analytical characterization. We utilized this technique to analyze 243,000 mm³ of mouse liver tissue for the presence of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs. Nanoparticles injected into the mice intravenously via the tail vein accumulated in the liver, whereas those injected intrarectally did not, indicating that they remain in the colon and do not pass through the colon wall into the systemic circulation.

  3. Neutron production during the interaction of monoenergetic electrons with a Tungsten foil in the radiotherapeutic energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Bernal, Tzinnia Gabriela; Baltazar-Raigosa, Antonio; Medina-Castro, Diego; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2017-10-01

    The electron, photon, and neutron spectra produced during the interaction between monoenergetic electron beams (8, 10, 12, 15, and 18 MeV) and a 0.05 cm-thick tungsten scattering foil were estimated using Monte Carlo method. Incoming electrons is a pencil beam that after collide with the foil acquires a broader distribution peaked in the same direction of the incoming electrons. Electron spectra show the influence of the binding energy of electrons in the tungsten shells and the increase of the electron fluence. In the interaction between the electrons in the beam and the tungsten atoms in the foil, bremsstrahlung and characteristic photons are produced. These photons are also peaked in the same direction of the incoming beam, and the electron fluence increases as the energy of the electron beam raises. The electron and photon spectra have particles whose energy is larger than the binding energy of neutron in the nucleus. Thus neutron production was noticed for 10, 12, 15, and 18 MeV electron beam. The neutron fluence becomes larger as the energy of the electron beam increases, the neutron spectra are mainly evaporation neutrons for 10 and 12 MeV, and for 15 and 18 MeV knock-on neutrons are also produced. Neutrons are produced in the foil volume having a quasi-isotropic distribution.

  4. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.

    1998-12-08

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder. 1 fig.

  5. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.

    1998-01-01

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder.

  6. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    DOEpatents

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.

    1998-12-08

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder. 1 fig.

  7. The impact of electronic health record use on physician productivity.

    PubMed

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Huckman, Robert S

    2013-11-01

    To examine the impact of the degree of electronic health record (EHR) use and delegation of EHR tasks on clinician productivity in ambulatory settings. We examined EHR use in primary care practices that implemented a web-based EHR from athenahealth (n = 42) over 3 years (695 practice-month observations). Practices were predominantly small and spread throughout the country. Data came from athenahealth practice management system and EHR task logs. We developed monthly measures of EHR use and delegation to support staff from task logs. Productivity was measured using work relative value units (RVUs). Using fixed effects models, we assessed the independent impacts on productivity of EHR use and delegation. We then explored the interaction between these 2 strategies and the role of practice size. Greater EHR use and greater delegation were independently associated with higher levels of productivity. An increase in EHR use of 1 standard deviation resulted in a 5.3% increase in RVUs per clinician workday; an increase in delegation of EHR tasks of 1 standard deviation resulted in an 11.0% increase in RVUs per clinician workday (P <.05 for both). Further, EHR use and delegation had a positive joint impact on productivity in large practices (coefficient, 0.058; P <.05), but a negative joint impact on productivity in small practices (coefficient, -0.142; P <.01). Clinicians in practices that increased EHR use and delegated EHR tasks were more productive, but practice size determined whether the 2 strategies were complements or substitutes.

  8. Space station human productivity study. Volume 4: Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The 305 Issues contained represent topics recommended for study in order to develop requirements in support of space station crew performance/productivity. The overall subject matter, space station elements affecting crew productivity, was organized into a coded subelement listing, which is included for the reader's reference. Each issue is numbered according to the 5-digit topical coding scheme. The requirements column on each Issue page shows a cross-reference to the unresolved requirement statement(s). Because topical overlaps were frequently encountered, many initial Issues were consolidated. Apparent gaps, therefore, may be accounted for by an Issue described within a related subelement. A glossary of abbreviations used throughout the study documentation is also included.

  9. Interactive Videodisc Design and Production, Workshop Guide. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    shop, instructors, and instructional developers . These can be allocated to a videodisc production, and their salaries, equipment, facilities, benefits ... developing similar programs. The W1orkshop Guide you are now using will be a great benefit , but it is important to gain some hands-on experience to...Interactive Videodisc Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Module 1: Analysis and Project Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Analyze Needs, Goals

  10. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 4: Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implementation plan which is presented was developed to provide the means for the successful implementation of the automated production control system. There are three factors which the implementation plan encompasses: detailed planning; phased implementation; and user involvement. The plan is detailed to the task level in terms of necessary activities as the system is developed, refined, installed, and tested. These tasks are scheduled, on a preliminary basis, over a two-and-one-half-year time frame.

  11. A search for single electron production in electron positron annihilation at E = 29 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, T.R.

    1989-09-01

    This thesis presents experimental results from the ASP detector which took data on e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions in the PEP storage ring at SLAC. Its design was particularly suitable for searching for production of supersymmetric particles. The motivations for and phenomenology of Supersymmetry are discussed. In particular, the production of a single supersymmetric electron ( selectron'', {tilde e}) in combination with a supersymmetric photon ( photino'', {tilde {gamma}}) would result in events in which a single electron and no other particles are observed in the detector at an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider such as PEP, provided the masses of these particles are not too large. Such events would also result from the production of a single supersymmetric W-boson ( wino'', {tilde W}) in combination with a supersymmetric neutrino ( sneutrino'', {tilde {nu}}). These processes make it possible to search for electrons and winos with masses greater than the beam energy. Observation of these unusual events would distinctly indicate the production of new particles. The ASP detector was designed to be hermetic and to provide efficient event reconstruction for low multiplicity events. The detector is described and its performance is evaluated; it is found to be well-suited to this study. The data sample collected with the detector was thoroughly analyzed for evidence of single-electron events. The various possible background processes are considered and Monte Carlo calculations of the distributions from single selectron and single wino production are presented. Using this information an efficient off-line event selection process was developed, and it is described in detail. 82 refs., 41 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Engineering electron metabolism to increase ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGES

    Lo, Jonathan; Olson, Daniel G.; Murphy, Sean Jean-Loup; ...

    2016-10-28

    Here, the NfnAB (NADH-dependent reduced ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase) and Rnf (Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation) complexes are thought to catalyze electron transfer between reduced ferredoxin and NAD(P)+. Efficient electron flux is critical for engineering fuel production pathways, but little is known about the relative importance of these enzymes in vivo. In this study we investigate the importance of the NfnAB and Rnf complexes in Clostridium thermocellum for growth on cellobiose and Avicel using gene deletion, enzyme assays, and fermentation product analysis. The NfnAB complex does not seem to play a major role in metabolism, since deletion of nfnAB genes had little effect onmore » the distribution of fermentation products. By contrast, the Rnf complex appears to play an important role in ethanol formation. Deletion of rnf genes resulted in a decrease in ethanol formation. Overexpression of rnf genes resulted in an increase in ethanol production of about 30%, but only in strains where the hydG hydrogenase maturation gene was also deleted.« less

  13. Engineering electron metabolism to increase ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Jonathan; Olson, Daniel G.; Murphy, Sean Jean-Loup; Tian, Liang; Hon, Shuen; Lanahan, Anthony; Guss, Adam M.; Lynd, Lee R.

    2016-10-28

    Here, the NfnAB (NADH-dependent reduced ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase) and Rnf (Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation) complexes are thought to catalyze electron transfer between reduced ferredoxin and NAD(P)+. Efficient electron flux is critical for engineering fuel production pathways, but little is known about the relative importance of these enzymes in vivo. In this study we investigate the importance of the NfnAB and Rnf complexes in Clostridium thermocellum for growth on cellobiose and Avicel using gene deletion, enzyme assays, and fermentation product analysis. The NfnAB complex does not seem to play a major role in metabolism, since deletion of nfnAB genes had little effect on the distribution of fermentation products. By contrast, the Rnf complex appears to play an important role in ethanol formation. Deletion of rnf genes resulted in a decrease in ethanol formation. Overexpression of rnf genes resulted in an increase in ethanol production of about 30%, but only in strains where the hydG hydrogenase maturation gene was also deleted.

  14. The volumes and value of non-timber forest products harvested in the United States

    Treesearch

    James L. Chamberlain

    2015-01-01

    Non-timber forest products [NTFPs] originate from plants and fungi that are harvested from natural, manipulated or disturbed forests. NTFPs may include fungi, moss, lichen, herbs, vines, shrubs, or trees. People harvest the products for many reasons, including personal, recreational and spiritual uses, as well as commercial gain. The assessment of volumes and values is...

  15. Cost and price estimate of Brayton and Stirling engines in selected production volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortgang, H. R.; Mayers, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The methods used to determine the production costs and required selling price of Brayton and Stirling engines modified for use in solar power conversion units are presented. Each engine part, component and assembly was examined and evaluated to determine the costs of its material and the method of manufacture based on specific annual production volumes. Cost estimates are presented for both the Stirling and Brayton engines in annual production volumes of 1,000, 25,000, 100,000 and 400,000. At annual production volumes above 50,000 units, the costs of both engines are similar, although the Stirling engine costs are somewhat lower. It is concluded that modifications to both the Brayton and Stirling engine designs could reduce the estimated costs.

  16. Fragmentation production of charmed hadrons in electron-positron annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Novoselov, A. A.

    2010-10-15

    Processes involving the production of D* mesons and {Lambda}{sub c} baryons in electron-positron annihilation at the energies of 10.58 and 91.18 GeV are considered. At the energy of 10.58 GeV, the production of pairs of B mesons that is followed by their decay to charmed particles is analyzed along with direct charm production. The violation of scaling in the respective fragmentation functions is taken into account in the next-to-leading-logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. The required nonperturbative fragmentation functions are extracted numerically from experimental data obtained at B factories and are approximated by simple analytic expressions. It is shown that the difference in the nonperturbative fragmentation functions for transitions to mesons and baryons can readily be explained on the basis of the quark-counting rules.

  17. Electron energy loss modelling in small volumes: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaoui, Zine-El-Abidine

    2008-12-01

    In thin target and sub-volumes, electronic energy losses in single collisions vary considerably for individual charged particles. These fluctuations resulting from the stochastic nature of the interactions can be described through a simulation with Monte Carlo calculations. Models used in the present simulations to describe the electron scattering processes are derived from quantum mechanics. The resulting cross sections for energies up to 200 keV are shown for both processes, i.e. elastic and inelastic interactions. Influence of the Monte Carlo strategy adopted to calculate energy loss spectra (straggling functions) is discussed. Straggling functions calculated from the general purpose Monte Carlo code Penelope and the convolution method of Bichsel are included for comparisons. The results are new. In fact, disagreements have been found in the calculated energy spectra when using different strategies. These deviations are explained in the present study by investigating the thickness dependence on the electron energy. As a central result, energy deposition in silicon detectors can be described accurately when event by event Monte Carlo strategy is used.

  18. Estimating increased electronic laboratory reporting volumes for meaningful use: 
implications for the public health workforce.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Brian E; Gibson, P Joseph; Grannis, Shaun J

    2014-01-01

    To provide formulas for estimating notifiable disease reporting volume from 'meaningful use' electronic laboratory reporting (ELR). We analyzed two years of comprehensive ELR reporting data from 15 metropolitan hospitals and laboratories. Report volumes were divided by population counts to derive generalizable estimators. Observed volume of notifiable disease reports in a metropolitan area were more than twice national averages. ELR volumes varied by institution type, bed count, and by the level of effort required of health department staff. Health departments may experience a significant increase in notifiable disease reporting following efforts to fulfill meaningful use requirements, resulting in increases in workload that may further strain public health resources. Volume estimators provide a method for predicting ELR transaction volumes, which may support administrative planning in health departments.

  19. Mitochondrial nitric oxide production supported by reverse electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Bombicino, Silvina S; Iglesias, Darío E; Zaobornyj, Tamara; Boveris, Alberto; Valdez, Laura B

    2016-10-01

    Heart phosphorylating electron transfer particles (ETPH) produced NO at 1.2 ± 0.1 nmol NO. min(-1) mg protein(-1) by the mtNOS catalyzed reaction. These particles showed a NAD(+) reductase activity of 64 ± 3 nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) sustained by reverse electron transfer (RET) at expenses of ATP and succinate. The same particles, without NADPH and in conditions of RET produced 0.97 ± 0.07 nmol NO. min(-1) mg protein(-1). Rotenone inhibited NO production supported by RET measured in ETPH and in coupled mitochondria, but did not reduce the activity of recombinant nNOS, indicating that the inhibitory effect of rotenone on NO production is due to an electron flow inhibition and not to a direct action on mtNOS structure. NO production sustained by RET corresponds to 20% of the total amount of NO released from heart coupled mitochondria. A mitochondrial fraction enriched in complex I produced 1.7 ± 0.2 nmol NO. min(-1) mg protein(-1) and reacted with anti-75 kDa complex I subunit and anti-nNOS antibodies, suggesting that complex I and mtNOS are located contiguously. These data show that mitochondrial NO production can be supported by RET, and suggest that mtNOS is next to complex I, reaffirming the idea of a functional association between these proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proceedings: 13. international symposium on use and management of coal combustion products (CCPs). Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the 1999 International Symposium on the Management and Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs), the thirteenth in a series since 1967, is to publicize innovations in coal ash use technology. These symposia support the mission of the American Coal Ash Association (established originally as the National Ash Association after the first symposium) to promote coal ash technology transfer and commercial utilization. The three-volume publication contains 91 papers, presented in 15 sessions during the January 1999 event. Volume 1 contains papers related to waste aggregates, agricultural uses, beneficiation/quality, and building products. Volume 2 covers the growing market in concrete, environmental performance, FGD material, filler applications, flowable fill, and international perspectives. Volume 3 contains papers on mining applications, regional and State perspectives, stabilized road bases, structural fills, and vitrification/solidification.

  1. Kinematic distributions for electron pair production by muons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsker, R.

    1972-01-01

    Cross sections and kinematic distributions for the trident production process plus or negative muon plus charge yields plus or minus muon plus electron plus positron plus charge (with charge = dipion moment and Fe) are given for beam energies of 100 to 300 GeV at fixed (electron positron) masses from 5 to 15 GeV. This process is interesting as a test of quantum electrodynamics at high energies, and in particular as a test of the form of the photon propagator at large timelike (four-momentum) squared. For this purpose, it is desirable to impose kinematic cuts that favor those Bethe-Heitler graphs which contain a timelike photon propagator. It is found that there are substantial differences between the kinematic distributions for the full Bethe-Heitler matrix element and the distributions for the two timelike-photon graphs alone; these differences can be exploited in the selection of appropriate kinematic cuts.

  2. Metastable S production following electron impact on Thiophosgene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzierski, Wladyslaw; Borbely, Joseph; Mills, Adam; McConkey, William

    2003-05-01

    A novel xenon matrix surface detector is used to study the production of metastable S atoms following controlled electron impact on thiophosgene over an energy range from threshold to 400eV. A crossed-beam apparatus with a pulsed electron beam is used to obtain time-of-flight, and hence energy, spectra of metastable S fragments. Absolute cross-section data are obtained by comparison with previously obtained data from COS targets [Kedzierski et al J. Phys. B 34, 4027, (2001)]. Low resolution spectra, (of direct fluorescence from the interaction region and delayed fluorescence from the detector surface), in the spectral region between 400 and 850 nm, will also be presented.

  3. Convoy electron production in polycrystalline and monocrystalline targets

    SciTech Connect

    Huldt, S.

    1980-01-01

    The velocity distribution of electrons ejected close to the forward direction by 0.8-2 MeV/A ions traversing various solid targets, including a Au monocrystal, is measured in coincidence with emerging charge-selected ions. The velocity spectrum is observed to be independent of outgoing projectile velocity and charge state for polycrystalline targets. Measurements on the Au crystal under channeling conditions show dependences on final charge state, and are tentatively explained by assuming that the main contribution to the production yield comes from the non-channeled fraction of the ions. A simple model for the creation of the forward-ejected electrons is proposed, which accounts for most of the experimental findings.

  4. Earth observing system. Output data products and input requirements, version 2.0. Volume 1: Instrument data product characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi; Chang, Hyo Duck; Krupp, Brian; Kumar, Ravindra; Swaroop, Anand

    1992-01-01

    Information on Earth Observing System (EOS) output data products and input data requirements that has been compiled by the Science Processing Support Office (SPSO) at GSFC is presented. Since Version 1.0 of the SPSO Report was released in August 1991, there have been significant changes in the EOS program. In anticipation of a likely budget cut for the EOS Project, NASA HQ restructured the EOS program. An initial program consisting of two large platforms was replaced by plans for multiple, smaller platforms, and some EOS instruments were either deselected or descoped. Updated payload information reflecting the restructured EOS program superseding the August 1991 version of the SPSO report is included. This report has been expanded to cover information on non-EOS data products, and consists of three volumes (Volumes 1, 2, and 3). Volume 1 provides information on instrument outputs and input requirements. Volume 2 is devoted to Interdisciplinary Science (IDS) outputs and input requirements, including the 'best' and 'alternative' match analysis. Volume 3 provides information about retrieval algorithms, non-EOS input requirements of instrument teams and IDS investigators, and availability of non-EOS data products at seven primary Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's).

  5. Tidal volume measurements in infants: Opto-electronic plethysmography versus pneumotachograph.

    PubMed

    Reinaux, Cyda Maria Albuquerque; Aliverti, Andrea; da Silva, Lívia Gabriely Melo; da Silva, Rafael Justino; Gonçalves, Juliane Neves; Noronha, Jessica Brito; Filho, José Eulálio Cabral; de Andrade, Armèle Dornelas; de Amorim Britto, Murilo Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Tidal breathing measurements by Opto-Electronic Plethysmography (OEP) has been reported for infants limited to protocols with two chest wall compartments. Standard protocol for the analysis of adults, with three compartments of chest wall, has been unavailable for analysis of infants. We aimed to study the agreement of simultaneous measurements of tidal volume by OEP (VT,OEP ) and a heated pneumotachograph (PNT) (VT,PNT ) performed during sleeping in 20 infants (gestational age 35.1 ± 4.6 weeks) at 3-4 months postconceptual age with a three compartment protocol. From PNT and OEP measurements, tidal volume corrected (VT,PNT ) for ambient conditions were calculated with a total number of 200 breaths. The two methods were in good agreement with tidal volume mean difference of 0.02 ml and limit of agreement -4.11 to 4.08 ml (95%CI), no relationship was found between differences and means of OEP and PNT measurements. Pulmonary rib cage, abdominal rib cage and abdomen contributed by 12.4 ± 9.7%, 5.2 ± 5.1%, and 82.4 ± 11.4% to VT,OEP , respectively. The OEP experimental protocol based on 52 markers and a three-compartment model of the chest wall could be used in spontaneously sleeping infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:850-857. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Electronic version of the third volume of the general catalogue of variable stars with improved coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samus', N. N.; Durlevich, O. V.; Zharova, A. V.; Kazarovets, E. V.; Kireeva, N. N.; Pastukhova, E. N.; Williams, D. B.; Hazen, M. L.

    2006-04-01

    We present a new electronic version of the third volume of the fourth edition of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS) that contains data on 13 855 variables in the constellations Pavo-Vulpecula. The Name Lists of Variable Stars from no. 67 to no. 77 were included in the new version. The main distinctive feature of the new version is that improved J2000.0 equatorial coordinates (including those for 6163 stars corrected for the proper motions) based on the identifications with positional catalogues using finding charts and on our new measurements are presented for 13 812 stars. We searched for a number of stars on original plates from the plate stacks of several observatories and using images from digital sky surveys. Apart from the complete update of the positional information, we made several corrections that were found to be necessary after the publication of the GCVS Volume III (1985) and several corrections of the information about the variability features based on photometry from currently available automatic sky surveys. A number of problem identifications are described in detail. The new version completes our long-term work on the complete revision of the positional information in the GCVS. In the Conclusions, we give a list of references to new Internet resources.

  7. EIA directory of electronic products. Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) makes available for public use a series of machine-readable data files and computer models. The data files and models are made available to the public on magnetic tapes. In addition, selected data files/models are available on diskette for IBM-compatible personal computers. EIA, as the independent statistical and analytical branch of the Department of Energy, provides assistance to the general public through the National Energy Information Center (NEIC). Inquirers may telephone NEIC`s information specialists at (202) 586-8800 with any data questions relating to the content of EIA Directory of Electronic Products.

  8. EIA Directory of Electronic Products, Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    EIA makes available for public use a series of machine-readable data files and computer models, on magnetic tapes; selected data files/models are also available on PC diskettes. The data files include: petroleum, natural gas, electricity, coal, integrated statistics, and consumption. Models include: petroleum, natural gas, electricity, coal, nuclear, and multifuel. On-line files and compact discs include: electronic publishing system, federal bulletin board, economic bulletin board, national trade data bank, national economic/social/environmental data bank, and FedWorld Gateway. For each product listed in this directory, an abstract describes the data published. Contact persons are provided, as are indexes.

  9. Screening of potential small volume resuscitation products using a severe hemorrhage sedated swine model

    PubMed Central

    Burns, John W; Baer, Lisa A; Darlington, Daniel N; Dubick, Michael A; Wade, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    Background Small volumes of resuscitation products to sustain survival until definitive care are desired in extreme environments due to limited resources. A severe controlled hemorrhage model in sedated, sexually mature miniature swine has been developed to evaluate these products. Valproic Acid (VPA) and Pentoxifylline (PTX) have been suggested as potential products for small volume resuscitation following hemorrhage predominately in anesthetized small animal models. We evaluated the survival time of VPA and PTX in the swine model. Methods Fifteen male miniature swine weighing 41.1 ± 2.9 kg were sedated and hemorrhaged 60% of estimated blood volume over 1 hr and treated with one of the following: 1) VPA at 400 mg/kg in a volume of 1.33 ml/kg over 2 min (n=4); 2) VPA at 300 mg/kg in a volume of 2 ml/kg over 30 min (n=3); 3) PTX at 50 mg/kg in a volume of 2 ml/kg over 2 min (n=4); 4) saline vehicle at 2 ml/kg over 2 min (n=4). Survival times were compared to non-resuscitated historic controls (n=16). Survival was determined from the end of hemorrhage/initiation of treatment. Results Median (95% CI) survival times were: Control 55.7 (17.5 - 86) min; VPA (400 mg/kg) 6 (4 - 8) min; VPA (300 mg/kg) 17.5 (12 - 24.5) min; PTX 60.8 (21 - 75) min; and vehicle 92 (15 - 180) min. No treatment increased survival time compared to controls and there were no significant differences in percent survival among groups. Conclusion In this sedated severe hemorrhage model VPA and PTX were unacceptable as small volume resuscitation products at the concentrations and delivery rates used because of early deaths. Considering that these drugs are FDA approved for other indications at lower doses the present data suggest that further investigation of mechanisms involved are warranted. PMID:22928168

  10. Using electronic data interchange to report product quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Donald F.; Frank, Donald T.

    1993-03-01

    The Product Quality Deficiency Report (PQDR) is a Department of Defense form that identifies deficiencies in the manufacture, repair, or procurement of materiel. It may be used by DoD employees or contractors to identify defects at any point in the item's life. DoD generates nearly 75,000 such deficiency reports each year. In most cases, when a defect is identified, Standard Form (SF) 368 is completed and sent to the activity managing the contract under which the materiel was procured. That activity, usually in conjunction with the contractor, investigates the complaint, attempts to determine a cause and a corrective action, and must make some disposition of the defective materiel. The process is labor- and paper-intensive and time-consuming. Technology can reduce the costs of the process and at the same time improve timeliness by electronically exchanging discrepancy data between activities. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is one technology for electronically passing PQDR data. It is widely used in industry and increasingly within DoD. DMRD 941 defines DoD's commitment to use EDI and cites the PQDR and other discrepancy reports as early candidates for EDI. In this report, we describe how EDI can be linked to changes in PQDR processing practices to provide further improvements.

  11. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine dependence: evolving products, evolving problems.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Caroline O; Hendricks, Peter S; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-05-21

    Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) use an electric heater to aerosolize a liquid that usually contains propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, flavorants, and the dependence-producing drug nicotine. ECIG-induced nicotine dependence has become an important concern, as some ECIGs deliver very little nicotine while some may exceed the nicotine delivery profile of a tobacco cigarette. This variability is relevant to tobacco cigarette smokers who try to switch to ECIGs. Products with very low nicotine delivery may not substitute for tobacco cigarettes, so that ECIG use is accompanied by little reduced risk of cigarette-caused disease. Products with very high nicotine delivery may make quitting ECIGs particularly difficult should users decide to try. For non-smokers, the wide variability of ECIGs on the market is especially troublesome: low nicotine products may lead them to initiate nicotine self-administration and progress to higher dosing ECIGs or other products, and those that deliver more nicotine may produce nicotine dependence where it was not otherwise present. External regulatory action, guided by strong science, may be required to ensure that population-level nicotine dependence does not rise.

  12. Estimation of the outer-sphere contribution to the activation volume for electron exchange reactions using the mean spherical approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Hideo D.; Swaddle, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    The outer-sphere contribution to the volume of activation of homogeneous electron exchange reactions is estimated for selected solvents on the basis of the mean spherical approximation (MSA), and the calculated values are compared with those estimated by the Strank-Hush-Marcus (SHM) theory and with activation volumes obtained experimentally for the electron exchange reaction between tris(hexafluoroacetylacetonato)ruthenium(III) and -(II) in acetone, acetonitrile, methanol and chloroform. The MSA treatment, which recognizes the molecular nature of the solvent, does not improve significantly upon the continuous-dielectric SHM theory, which represents the experimental data adequately for the more polar solvents.

  13. Key role of the pore volume of zeolite for selective production of propylene from olefins.

    PubMed

    Koyama, To-ru; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Horie, Hironori; Kawauchi, Susumu; Matsumoto, Akihiko; Iwase, Yasuyoshi; Sakamoto, Yasuharu; Miyaji, Akimitsu; Motokura, Ken; Baba, Toshihide

    2010-03-20

    A plausible reaction mechanism for propylene (C(3)H(6)) production from ethylene (C(2)H(4)) was investigated, based on the amounts of effluent hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons produced in the pores of SAPO-34. Propylene was produced via an oligomerization-cracking mechanism. On the basis of this mechanism, the conversions of C(2)H(4), pentenes, and hexenes were examined. The catalytic performance was compared, in order to investigate the role of the pore volume of zeolites with 8-, 10-, and 12-membered rings in the selective production of C(3)H(6). The selectivity for C(3)H(6) was crucially dependent upon the pore volume of the zeolite. Highly selective production of C(3)H(6) from olefins (C(2)H(4), pentenes, and hexenes) can be accomplished by employing a new concept: adjusting the pore volume of a zeolite to accommodate the volume of an olefin and/or its carbenium cations, as opposed to a conventional molecular sieve approach. For example, an unimolecular cracking of pentenes into C(3)H(6) and C(2)H(4) involving primary cations can be controlled by the pore volume of a zeolite.

  14. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? 80.1455 Section 80.1455 Protection of... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  15. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? 80.1455 Section 80.1455 Protection of... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  16. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? 80.1455 Section 80.1455 Protection of... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  17. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? 80.1455 Section 80.1455 Protection of... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  18. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? 80.1455 Section 80.1455 Protection of... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  19. 19 CFR 12.91 - Electronic products offered for importation under the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic products offered for importation under... Human Services. Electronic products offered for importation into the customs territory of the United... the event that any electronic products are not redelivered to Customs custody or exported...

  20. 77 FR 21584 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of... States after importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same... electronics and display devices and products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 2, 3, 5,...

  1. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product Radiation...

  2. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product Radiation...

  3. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product Radiation...

  4. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product Radiation...

  5. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product Radiation...

  6. Catalog of Audiovisual Productions. Volume 3. Air Force and Miscellaneous DoD Productions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    sale , or information of DF AV productions, whether designated cleared or not cleared, classified or not classified .shall be handled as follows: a...Affairs) (ASD(PA)). These productions may be loaned or exhibited to the public with or without restrictions. These productions also are available for sale ...PS. Public Sale . Denotes an AV production that may be purchased through NAC. See paragraph B.5.a., above. 6. Status Designators. All AV productions

  7. The SEA of the Future: Uncovering the Productivity Promise of Rural Education. Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Betheny, Ed.; Jochim, Ashley, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    "The SEA of the Future" is an education publication series examining how state education agencies can shift from a compliance to a performance-oriented organization through strategic planning and performance management tools to meet growing demands to support education reform while improving productivity. This is the fourth volume in the…

  8. 75 FR 51734 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemical Substances; Third Group of Chemical Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Chemicals.'' The proposed rule, when finalized, would require manufacturers, importers, and processors of certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to conduct testing to obtain screening level data...., chemical manufacturing and petroleum refineries. Processors of one or more of the 29 subject...

  9. 75 FR 8575 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Third Group of Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ...EPA is proposing a test rule under section 4(a)(1)(B) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that would require manufacturers, importers, and processors of certain high production volume (HPV) chemicals to conduct testing to obtain screening level data for health and environmental effects and chemical fate.

  10. The SEA of the Future: Building the Productivity Infrastructure. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Betheny, Ed.; Jochim, Ashley, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    "The SEA of the Future" is an education publication series examining how state education agencies can shift from a compliance to a performance-oriented organization through strategic planning and performance management tools to meet growing demands to support education reform while improving productivity. This volume, the third in the…

  11. Electron Production and Collective Field Generation in Intense Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Vay, J; Cohen, R; Friedman, A; Lee, E; Verboncoeur, J; Covo, M K

    2006-02-09

    Electron cloud effects (ECEs) are increasingly recognized as important, but incompletely understood, dynamical phenomena, which can severely limit the performance of present electron colliders, the next generation of high-intensity rings, such as PEP-II upgrade, LHC, and the SNS, the SIS 100/200, or future high-intensity heavy ion accelerators such as envisioned in Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF). Deleterious effects include ion-electron instabilities, emittance growth, particle loss, increase in vacuum pressure, added heat load at the vacuum chamber walls, and interference with certain beam diagnostics. Extrapolation of present experience to significantly higher beam intensities is uncertain given the present level of understanding. With coordinated LDRD projects at LLNL and LBNL, we undertook a comprehensive R&D program including experiments, theory and simulations to better understand the phenomena, establish the essential parameters, and develop mitigating mechanisms. This LDRD project laid the essential groundwork for such a program. We developed insights into the essential processes, modeled the relevant physics, and implemented these models in computational production tools that can be used for self-consistent study of the effect on ion beams. We validated the models and tools through comparison with experimental data, including data from new diagnostics that we developed as part of this work and validated on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL. We applied these models to High-Energy Physics (HEP) and other advanced accelerators. This project was highly successful, as evidenced by the two paragraphs above, and six paragraphs following that are taken from our 2003 proposal with minor editing that mostly consisted of changing the tense. Further benchmarks of outstanding performance are: we had 13 publications with 8 of them in refereed journals, our work was recognized by the accelerator and plasma physics communities by 8 invited papers and we have 5

  12. Electronic health record impact on pediatric ophthalmologists’ productivity and efficiency at an academic center

    PubMed Central

    Redd, Travis K.; Read-Brown, Sarah; Choi, Dongseok; Yackel, Thomas R.; Tu, Daniel C.; Chiang, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To measure the effect of electronic health record (EHR) implementation on productivity and efficiency in the pediatric ophthalmology division at an academic medical center. Methods Four established providers were selected from the pediatric ophthalmology division at the Oregon Health & Science University Casey Eye Institute. Clinical volume was compared before and after EHR implementation for each provider. Time elapsed from chart open to completion (OTC time) and the proportion of charts completed during business hours were monitored for 3 years following implementation. Results Overall there was an 11% decrease in clinical volume following EHR implementation, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.18). The mean OTC time ranged from 5.5 to 28.3 hours among providers in this study, and trends over time were variable among the four providers. Forty-four percent of all charts were closed outside normal business hours (30% on weekdays, 14% on weekends). Conclusions EHR implementation was associated with a negative impact on productivity and efficiency in our pediatric ophthalmology division. PMID:25456030

  13. Decreased blood product usage during extracorporeal life support with reduced circuit volumes.

    PubMed

    Addison, Samuel D; Buck, Marcia L; Fang, Gary Y; Gangemi, James J; Kaufman, David A

    2017-06-01

    Activation and consumption of platelets (PLT) and clotting factors along with hemolysis occurs when blood contacts the extracorporeal life support (ECLS) circuit and its components. The objective was to examine the effects of reducing ECLS circuit volume by decreasing tubing length and changing components on blood product usage in neonatal and pediatric patients. Blood product administration was analyzed in 40 consecutive patients who required ECLS for respiratory or cardiac failure before (PRE) and after (POST) changes in circuit design and components. The total circuit volume was reduced from 500 mL (PRE) to 275 mL (POST). In the POST group, total blood product volume usage was 58% lower compared to the PRE group (81 mL/kg/day vs. 191 mL/kg/day, p = 0.003), 65% lower for fresh-frozen plasma (FFP; 15 mL/kg/day vs. 43 mL/kg/day, p = 0.001), and PLT volumes trended lower. In the subgroup of infants with respiratory or cardiac failure, there was a 55% reduction of a total blood product replacement (61 mL/kg/day vs. 136 mL/kg/day, p = 0.008), red blood cell (RBC) use was 61% lower (28 mL/kg/day vs. 71 mL/kg/day, p < 0.049), and there was a 73% reduction in FFP use (11 mL/kg/day vs. 41 mL/kg/day, p < 0.001). In the subgroup of postoperative infants, there was a 25% decrease in RBC use (86 mL/kg/day vs. 115 mL/kg/day, p = 0.03). Decreasing the ECLS circuit volume by reducing the tubing length and changing the components was associated with a significant reduction in blood product usage. © 2017 AABB.

  14. Production of oxygen by electronically induced dissociations in ice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R E; Cooper, P D; Quickenden, T I; Grieves, G A; Orlando, T M

    2005-11-08

    A solid-state chemical model is given for the production of O2 by electronic excitation of ice, a process that occurs on icy bodies in the outer solar system. Based on a review of the relevant available laboratory data, we propose that a trapped oxygen atom-water complex is the principal precursor for the formation of molecular oxygen in low-temperature ice at low fluences. Oxygen formation then occurs through direct excitation of this complex or by its reaction with a freshly produced, nonthermal O from an another excitation event. We describe a model for the latter process that includes competition with precursor destruction and the effect of sample structure. This allows us to put the ultraviolet photon, low-energy electron, and fast-ion experiments on a common footing for the first time. The formation of the trapped oxygen atom precursor is favored by the preferential loss of molecular hydrogen and is quenched by reactions with mobile H. The presence of impurity scavengers can limit the trapping of O, leading to the formation of oxygen-rich molecules in ice. Rate equations that include these reactions are given and integrated to obtain an analytic approximation for describing the experimental results on the production and loss of molecular oxygen from ice samples. In the proposed model, the loss rate varies, roughly, inversely with solid-state defect density at low temperatures, leading to a yield that increases with increasing temperature as observed. Cross sections obtained from fits of the model to laboratory data are evaluated in light of the proposed solid-state chemistry.

  15. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] quarterly technical report, July 1--September 30, 1991. Volume 2, Energy production research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The report is submitted in two volumes, Volume I representing the work accomplished under Fuels Research and Volume II the work for Energy Production Research during the period July 1--Sept. 30, 1991. Topics covered include: chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience technology, resource assessment technology, microbial technology, environmental technology.

  16. Novel production techniques of radioisotopes using electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Daniel Robert

    Non-traditional radioisotope production techniques using a compact, high power linear electron accelerator have been demonstrated and characterized for the production of 18F, 47Sc, 147 Pm, and 99mTc from a variety of target candidates. These isotopes are used extensively in the medical field as diagnostic and therapy radioisotopes, as well as the space industry as RTG's. Primary focus was placed on 99mTc as it constitutes approximately 80% of all diagnostic procedures in the medical community that use radioactive tracers. It was also the prime focus due to recent events at the Chalk River nuclear reactor, which caused global shortages of this isotope a few years ago. A Varian K15 LINAC was first used to show proof of principle in Las Vegas. Various samples were then taken to the Idaho Accelerator Center where they were activated using an electron LINAC capable of electron energies from 4 to 25 MeV at a beam power of approximately 1 kW. Production rates, cross sections, and viability studies were then performed and conducted to assess the effectiveness of the candidate target and the maximum production rate for each radioisotope. Production rates for 18F from lithium fluoride salts were shown to be ideal at 21MeV, namely 1.7 Ci per kg of LiF salt, per kW of beam current, per 10 hour irradiation time. As the typical hospital consumption of 18F is around 500 mCi per day, it is clear that a large amount of 18F can be made from a small (300 gram) sample of LiF salt. However, since there is no current separation process for 18F from 19F, the viability of this technique is limited until a separations technique is developed. Furthermore, the calculated cross section for this reaction is in good agreement with literature, which supports the techniques for the isotopes mentioned below. Production rates for 47Sc from vanadium oxide targets were shown to be a maximum at 25 MeV with a production rate of 2 mCi per day, assuming a 2 kW beam and a 10 kg target. While this

  17. Component extraction on CT volumes of assembled products using geometric template matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Katsutoshi; Ohtake, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiromasa; Nagai, Yukie

    2017-03-01

    As a method of non-destructive internal inspection, X-ray computed tomography (CT) is used not only in medical applications but also for product inspection. Some assembled products can be divided into separate components based on density, which is known to be approximately proportional to CT values. However, components whose densities are similar cannot be distinguished using the CT value driven approach. In this study, we proposed a new component extraction algorithm from the CT volume, using a set of voxels with an assigned CT value with the surface mesh as the template rather than the density. The method has two main stages: rough matching and fine matching. At the rough matching stage, the position of candidate targets is identified roughly from the CT volume, using the template of the target component. At the fine matching stage, these candidates are precisely matched with the templates, allowing the correct position of the components to be detected from the CT volume. The results of two computational experiments showed that the proposed algorithm is able to extract components with similar density within the assembled products on CT volumes.

  18. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-6 - Noncertified and certified electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... laser products; or (E) Any other electronic products subject to an FDA performance standard. (ii) Only... cabinet X-ray systems; (v) Noncertified laser products; (vi) Noncertified cold-cathode gas discharge...

  19. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-6 - Noncertified and certified electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... laser products; or (E) Any other electronic products subject to an FDA performance standard. (ii) Only... cabinet X-ray systems; (v) Noncertified laser products; (vi) Noncertified cold-cathode gas discharge...

  20. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-6 - Noncertified and certified electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... laser products; or (E) Any other electronic products subject to an FDA performance standard. (ii) Only... cabinet X-ray systems; (v) Noncertified laser products; (vi) Noncertified cold-cathode gas discharge...

  1. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-6 - Noncertified and certified electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... laser products; or (E) Any other electronic products subject to an FDA performance standard. (ii) Only... cabinet X-ray systems; (v) Noncertified laser products; (vi) Noncertified cold-cathode gas discharge...

  2. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-6 - Noncertified and certified electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... laser products; or (E) Any other electronic products subject to an FDA performance standard. (ii) Only... cabinet X-ray systems; (v) Noncertified laser products; (vi) Noncertified cold-cathode gas discharge...

  3. Determination of the volume-specific surface area by using transmission electron tomography for characterization and definition of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Van Doren, Elke A F; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan R H; Francisco, Michel Abi Daoud; Mast, Jan

    2011-05-11

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) remains an important technique to investigate the size, shape and surface characteristics of particles at the nanometer scale. Resulting micrographs are two dimensional projections of objects and their interpretation can be difficult. Recently, electron tomography (ET) is increasingly used to reveal the morphology of nanomaterials (NM) in 3D. In this study, we examined the feasibility to visualize and measure silica and gold NM in suspension using conventional bright field electron tomography. The general morphology of gold and silica NM was visualized in 3D by conventional TEM in bright field mode. In orthoslices of the examined NM the surface features of a NM could be seen and measured without interference of higher or lower lying structures inherent to conventional TEM. Segmentation by isosurface rendering allowed visualizing the 3D information of an electron tomographic reconstruction in greater detail than digital slicing. From the 3D reconstructions, the surface area and the volume of the examined NM could be estimated directly and the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) was calculated. The mean VSSA of all examined NM was significantly larger than the threshold of 60 m(2)/cm(3). The high correlation between the measured values of area and volume gold nanoparticles with a known spherical morphology and the areas and volumes calculated from the equivalent circle diameter (ECD) of projected nanoparticles (NP) indicates that the values measured from electron tomographic reconstructions are valid for these gold particles. The characterization and definition of the examined gold and silica NM can benefit from application of conventional bright field electron tomography: the NM can be visualized in 3D, while surface features and the VSSA can be measured.

  4. 78 FR 11700 - Notice of Availability: Beta Test of Electronic Product Fulfillment for Addressing and Delivery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...) licensees to test a beta web service that allows the electronic download of these products through the USPS... licensees to test a beta web service that allows the electronic download of these products through the USPS..., as Betas will be required to set up a method for downloading the electronic files via Web service...

  5. 21 CFR 1004.4 - Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plans for refunding the cost of electronic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS § 1004.4 Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products. Every plan for refunding the cost of...

  6. 21 CFR 1004.4 - Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plans for refunding the cost of electronic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS § 1004.4 Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products. Every plan for refunding the cost of an...

  7. 76 FR 72439 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...-72440] [FR Doc No: 2011-30184] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2858] Certain Consumer Electronics and... Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same, DN 2858; the Commission is... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same. The...

  8. 77 FR 14422 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt... Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain consumer electronics...

  9. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 3: Product data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is analyzed and the study results are presented. The chronology of the study process is discussed. The separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process is investigated. The production requirements of twelve candidate products including antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and interferon are evaluated.

  10. Capabilities for managing high-volume production of electric engineering equipment at the Electrochemical Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Podlednev, V.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Electromechanical Production Plant is essentially a research center with experimental facilities and power full testing base. Major products of the plant today include heat pipes and devices of their basis of different functions and power from high temperature ranges to cryogenics. This report describes work on porous titanium and carbon-graphite current collectors, electrocatalyst synthesis, and electrocatalyst applications.

  11. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  12. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume I. Technical discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). The first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 referenvces and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2. 18 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Production of neutrinos and secondary electrons in cosmic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.-Y.; Pohl, M.

    2008-05-01

    We study the individual contribution to secondary lepton production in hadronic interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) including resonances and heavier secondaries. For this purpose we use the same methodology discussed earlier [C.-Y. Huang, S.-E. Park, M. Pohl, C.D. Daniels, Astropart. Phys. 27 (2007) 429], namely the Monte-Carlo particle collision code DPMJET3.04 to determine the multiplicity spectra of various secondary particles with leptons as the final decay states, that result from inelastic collisions of cosmic-ray protons and Helium nuclei with the interstellar medium of standard composition. By combining the simulation results with parametric models for secondary particle (with resonances included) for incident cosmic-ray energies below a few GeV, where DPMJET appears unreliable, we thus derive production matrices for all stable secondary particles in cosmic-ray interactions with energies up to about 10 PeV. We apply the production matrices to calculate the radio synchrotron radiation of secondary electrons in a young shell-type SNR, RX J1713.7-3946, which is a measure of the age, the spectral index of hadronic cosmic rays, and most importantly the magnetic field strength. We find that the multi-mG fields recently invoked to explain the X-ray flux variations are unlikely to extend over a large fraction of the radio-emitting region, otherwise the spectrum of hadronic cosmic rays in the energy window 0.1-100 GeV must be unusually hard. We also use the production matrices to calculate the muon event rate in an IceCube-like detector that are induced by muon neutrinos from high-energy γ-ray sources such as RX J1713.7-3946, Vela Jr. and MGRO J2019+37. At muon energies of a few TeV, or in other word, about 10 TeV neutrino energy, an accumulation of data over about 5-10 years would allow testing the hadronic origin of TeV γ-rays.

  14. Ebara electron-beam flue gas treatment process: Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstration unit: Final report: Volume 2, Appendix

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The volume contains the appendicies for Volume I of the final report. The appendicies listed herein correspond to the sections in the text from which they were referenced: AVCO computer code; description of baghouses and electrostatic precipitators; methods for determination of sulfur oxides in flue gas; methods for determination of ammonia in exhaust gas; determination of nitrous oxide emissions; determination of particle size; methods of measuring dust content in flue gas; electron beam power loss in irradiation of process vessel gases; log data tables.

  15. High volume production trial of mirror segments for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oota, Tetsuji; Negishi, Mahito; Shinonaga, Hirohiko; Gomi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Yutaka; Akutsu, Kotaro; Otsuka, Itaru; Mochizuki, Shun; Iye, Masanori; Yamashita, Takuya

    2014-07-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope is a next-generation optical/infrared telescope to be constructed on Mauna Kea, Hawaii toward the end of this decade, as an international project. Its 30 m primary mirror consists of 492 off-axis aspheric segmented mirrors. High volume production of hundreds of segments has started in 2013 based on the contract between National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and Canon Inc.. This paper describes the achievements of the high volume production trials. The Stressed Mirror Figuring technique which is established by Keck Telescope engineers is arranged and adopted. To measure the segment surface figure, a novel stitching algorithm is evaluated by experiment. The integration procedure is checked with prototype segment.

  16. An abbreviated repeat dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity test for high production volume chemicals.

    PubMed

    Scala, R A; Bevan, C; Beyer, B K

    1992-08-01

    A novel protocol is described for obtaining preliminary data on repeated dose systemic effects and reproductive/developmental toxicity. The test protocol was developed by a group of experts at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as part of a Screening Information Data Set on high production volume chemicals. Interest in this protocol is shared by several regulatory agencies, including the Organization for Economic Cooperation, the European Community, and the EPA. To validate the study protocol, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) was used. After a dosing period of approximately 6 weeks, EGME showed both systemic and reproductive/developmental effects similar to those previously reported using standard protocols. Thus, this test protocol may be used as a screening tool for high production volume chemicals.

  17. Staffing and Training Requirements for Electronic Text Production. Report Number Seven of the Electronic Text Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John; Enerson, Meryl

    Based on the responses to a survey sent to 23 electronic text managers, this report provides information on the staffing and training requirements associated with the production of electronic text materials. It is directed primarily towards those in higher education and the nonprofit community, including local colleges, public television stations,…

  18. Survey and Analysis of Environmental Requirements for Shipboard Electronic Equipment Applications. Appendix B. Volume 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-31

    General Requirements, Electronic Equipment, Ground MIL-T-5400, Airborne Electronic Equipment MIL-E-16400, Electronic IC and NAV Equipment...150 nsec access time I I MIL-SPECS AND MIL-STDS: MIL-STD-883, Microelectronics Test Methods/Procedures MIL-E-4158, General Requirements, Electronic...STDS: MIL-STD-883, Microelectronics Test Methods/Procedures MIL-E-4158, General Requirements, Electronic Equipment, Ground MIL-T-5400, Airborne

  19. 12 CFR 7.5002 - Furnishing of products and services by electronic means and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Furnishing of products and services by... products and services by electronic means and facilities. (a) Use of electronic means and facilities. A..., function, product, or service that it is otherwise authorized to perform, provide, or deliver, subject to...

  20. 12 CFR 7.5002 - Furnishing of products and services by electronic means and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Furnishing of products and services by... products and services by electronic means and facilities. (a) Use of electronic means and facilities. A..., function, product, or service that it is otherwise authorized to perform, provide, or deliver, subject to...

  1. 12 CFR 7.5002 - Furnishing of products and services by electronic means and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Furnishing of products and services by... products and services by electronic means and facilities. (a) Use of electronic means and facilities. A..., function, product, or service that it is otherwise authorized to perform, provide, or deliver, subject to...

  2. Electron beam treatment parameters for control of stored product insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleghorn, D. A.; Nablo, S. V.; Ferro, D. N.; Hagstrum, D. W.

    2002-03-01

    The fluidized bed process (EBFB) has been evaluated for the disinfestation of cereal grains. The various life stages from egg to adult have been studied on the 225 kV pilot as a function of surface dose. Three of the most common pests were selected: the rice weevil ( S. oryzae), the lesser grain borer ( R. dominica) and the red flour beetle ( T. castaneum). The major challenge to this process lies in those "protected" life-stages active deeply within the endosperm of the grain kernel. The rice weevil is such an internal feeder in which the larvae develop through several molts during several weeks before pupation and adult emergence. Product velocities up to 2000 m/min have been used for infested hard winter wheat at dose levels up to 1000 Gy. Detailed depth of penetration studies at three life stages of S. oryzae larvae were conducted at 225-700 kV and demonstrated effective mortality at 400 kV×200 Gy. Mortality data are also presented for the radiation labile eggs of these insects as well as the (sterile) adults, which typically lived for several weeks before death. These results are compared with earlier 60Co gamma-ray studies on these same insects. Based upon these studies, the effectiveness of the fluidized bed process employing self-shielded electron beam equipment for insect control in wheat/rice at sub-kilogray dose levels has been demonstrated.

  3. Product specification documentation standard and Data Item Descriptions (DID). Volume of the information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    This is the third of five volumes on Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards which present a well organized, easily used standard for providing technical information needed for developing information systems, components, and related processes. This volume states the Software Management and Assurance Program documentation standard for a product specification document and for data item descriptions. The framework can be applied to any NASA information system, software, hardware, operational procedures components, and related processes.

  4. Rapid specimen preparation to improve the throughput of electron microscopic volume imaging for three-dimensional analyses of subcellular ultrastructures with serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Thai, Truc Quynh; Nguyen, Huy Bang; Saitoh, Sei; Wu, Bao; Saitoh, Yurika; Shimo, Satoshi; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Ichii, Osamu; Kon, Yasuhiro; Takaki, Takashi; Joh, Kensuke; Ohno, Nobuhiko

    2016-09-01

    Serial block-face imaging using scanning electron microscopy enables rapid observations of three-dimensional ultrastructures in a large volume of biological specimens. However, such imaging usually requires days for sample preparation to reduce charging and increase image contrast. In this study, we report a rapid procedure to acquire serial electron microscopic images within 1 day for three-dimensional analyses of subcellular ultrastructures. This procedure is based on serial block-face with two major modifications, including a new sample treatment device and direct polymerization on the rivets, to reduce the time and workload needed. The modified procedure without uranyl acetate can produce tens of embedded samples observable under serial block-face scanning electron microscopy within 1 day. The serial images obtained are similar to the block-face images acquired by common procedures, and are applicable to three-dimensional reconstructions at a subcellular resolution. Using this approach, regional immune deposits and the double contour or heterogeneous thinning of basement membranes were observed in the glomerular capillary loops of an autoimmune nephropathy model. These modifications provide options to improve the throughput of three-dimensional electron microscopic examinations, and will ultimately be beneficial for the wider application of volume imaging in life science and clinical medicine.

  5. Hydrogen negative ion production in a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance compact ion source with a cone-shaped magnetic filter.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, T; Kasuya, T; Kenmotsu, T; Maeno, S; Nishiura, M; Shimozuma, T; Yamaoka, H; Wada, M

    2014-02-01

    The plasma electrode structure of a 14 GHz ECR ion source was modified to enlarge the plasma volume of low electron temperature region. The result shows that the extracted beam current reached about 0.6 mA/cm(2) with about 40 W microwave power. To investigate the correlation between the volume of the low electron temperature region and the H(-) current, a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer had been installed to observe light emission in the VUV wavelength range from the plasma. From the results of the negative ion beam current and that from VUV spectrometry, production rate of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecule seems to be enhanced by increasing the volume of low electron temperature region.

  6. Web-based volume slicer for 3D electron-microscopy data from EMDB.

    PubMed

    Salavert-Torres, José; Iudin, Andrii; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Patwardhan, Ardan

    2016-05-01

    We describe the functionality and design of the Volume slicer - a web-based slice viewer for EMDB entries. This tool uniquely provides the facility to view slices from 3D EM reconstructions along the three orthogonal axes and to rapidly switch between them and navigate through the volume. We have employed multiple rounds of user-experience testing with members of the EM community to ensure that the interface is easy and intuitive to use and the information provided is relevant. The impetus to develop the Volume slicer has been calls from the EM community to provide web-based interactive visualisation of 2D slice data. This would be useful for quick initial checks of the quality of a reconstruction. Again in response to calls from the community, we plan to further develop the Volume slicer into a fully-fledged Volume browser that provides integrated visualisation of EMDB and PDB entries from the molecular to the cellular scale.

  7. Saturn S-2 production operations techniques: Production welding. Volume 1: Bulkhead welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, O. G.

    1970-01-01

    The complex Saturn S-2 welding processes and procedures required considerable development and refinement to establish a production capability that could consistently produce aluminum alloy welds within specified requirements. The special processes and techniques are defined that were established for the welding of gore-to-gore and manhole- or closeout-to-gore.

  8. Catalog of Audiovisual Productions. Volume 2. Navy and Marine Corps Productions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    and supervision. Cryptography. For military law enforcement, see B109 . N. MISSILE TECNOLOGY 01 is~ie..a~mdin Missile handling and launching...EXPERIENCES OF DRINKING OR OTHER BEHAVORIAL PROBLEMS. THIS GARBAGE ? TOAYS WOMAN IN UNIFORM. PRODUCTION IS A VALUABLE TOOL IN POINTING 10 NOTION...BOTH BLACK AND WHITE, BROUGHT YARD WITH THE STAR OF PEACE ON HER BOW TO 20497.DN UNAUTHORIZED DISCLOSUNE HIM TO MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE TO AID A GARBAGE

  9. Electronics-X: A Study of Military Electronics with Particular Reference to Cost and Reliability. Volume 2: Complete Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    Paper design, development, test, and evaluation Director of Defense Research and Engineering defensive electronic countermeasure Disassembly...assignment to IDA, was "to identify and / evaluate current and alternative DOD and industry policies, procedures and practices in development...repair. These standards include such elements as methods and practices to be used, tolerances authorized, and wear limits. Each Navy ship’s

  10. Hot electron production and heating by hot electrons in fast ignitor research

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M.H.; Estabrook, K.; Hammel, B.

    1997-12-01

    In an experimental study of the physics of fast ignition the characteristics of the hot electron source at laser intensities up to 10(to the 20th power) Wcm{sup -2} and the heating produced at depth by hot electrons have been measured. Efficient generation of hot electrons but less than the anticipated heating have been observed.

  11. The Future of Product Design Utilising Printed Electronics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Nicola; Southee, Darren; Evans, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the teaching of emerging technologies to design students, using "printed electronics" as an example as it recently became viable to mass manufacture and is ready for use in designs. Printed electronics is introduced as a disruptive technology, and approaches employed in knowledge transfer to industrial/product…

  12. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3, part 1: Study products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part one of the study products section of the five volume series.

  13. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3: Study products. Part 2: Sections 8-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part two of the study products section of the five volume series.

  14. Mechanical design evolution of the VIRUS instrument for volume production and deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattiat, Brian L.; Hill, Gary J.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Bauer, Svend; Kelz, Andreas; Rafal, M. D.; Savage, Richard; Good, John; Booth, John A.; Smith, M. P.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.

    2010-07-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is an integral field spectrograph to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The VIRUS instrument is fed by more than 33,000 optical fibers and consists of 150 spectrographs in 75 individual, identical units. This paper discusses the evolution in mechanical design of the VIRUS unit spectrographs to maximize the cost benefit from volume production. Design features which enable volume manufacture and assembly are discussed. Strategies for reducing part count while enabling precision alignment are detailed. Design considerations for deployment, operation, and maintenance en mass at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope are also made. In addition, several enabling technologies are described including the use of cast aluminum in vacuum housings, use of cast Invar, and processing cast parts for precision tolerances.

  15. Mechanism of production of crackles after atelectasis during low-volume breathing.

    PubMed

    Ploysongsang, Y; Schonfeld, S A

    1982-09-01

    We compared the effects of shallow breathing of air (LVB-air) and oxygen (LVB-O2) at low lung volumes (below closing capacity) and tidal breathing at FRC (FRC-air, FRC-O2) on the production of crackles in 5 normal volunteers. Two microphones were attached on the right posterior chest wall in the midclavicular line 10 and 20 cm from the apex of the right lung, respectively (M10 and M20), to record crackles during various breathing maneuvers. We found that after LVB-air and LVB-O2, there were changes in residual volume as measured by the body plethysmograph. Both inspiratory and expiratory limbs of the quasi-static pressure volume curve were shifted to the right. Occasionally, some subjects coughed after LVB-air and/or LVB-O2. Inspiratory crackles occurred mostly at the upper third of vital capacity (VC) after LVB-air and LVB-O2 and were confined almost exclusively to the dependent lung zones (M20). The inspiratory transpulmonary pressure at 25% (PL25) and 50% (PL50) of VC correlated with the volume of trapped gas that was absorbed (delta Vtg) (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The quantity of crackles correlated with delta Vtg (p less than 0.01). We conclude that during low lung volume breathing airways in the dependent lung regions are closed. There is absorption of trapped oxygen which causes reversible atelectasis. Upon reinflation, inspired air will go to the lung regions with open airways first and subsequently to the closed dependent regions, producing crackles recorded by the M20 microphone at the upper third of VC. The crackles are produced by inflation of atelectatic lung.

  16. Channeling, volume reflection and gamma emission using 14GeV electrons in bent silicon crystals - Oral presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Brandon

    2015-08-23

    High energy electrons can be deflected with very tight bending radius using a bent silicon crystal. This produces gamma radiation. As these crystals can be thin, a series of bent silicon crystals with alternating direction has the potential to produce coherent gamma radiation with reasonable energy of the driving electron beam. Such an electron crystal undulator offers the prospect for higher energy radiation at lower cost than current methods. Permanent magnetic undulators like LCLS at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory are expensive and very large (about 100 m in case of the LCLS undulator). Silicon crystals are inexpensive and compact when compared to the large magnetic undulators. Additionally, such a high energy coherent light source could be used for probing through materials currently impenetrable by x-rays. In this work we present the experimental data and analysis of experiment T523 conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We collected the spectrum of gamma ray emission from 14 GeV electrons on a bent silicon crystal counting single photons. We also investigated the dynamics of electron motion in the crystal i.e. processes of channeling and volume reflection at 14 GeV, extending and building off previous work. Our single photon spectrum for the amorphous crystal orientation is consistent with bremsstrahlung radiation and the volume reflection crystal orientation shows a trend consistent with synchrotron radiation at a critical energy of 740 MeV. We observe that in these two cases the data are consistent, but we make no further claims because of statistical limitations. We also extended the known energy range of electron crystal dechanneling length and channeling efficiency to 14 GeV.

  17. 75 FR 3154 - Children's Products Containing Lead; Exemptions for Certain Electronic Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1500 Children's Products Containing Lead; Exemptions for Certain Electronic Devices... Commission (CPSC or Commission) is issuing a final rule concerning certain electronic devices for which it is... feasible for certain electronic devices to comply with the lead limits, section 101(b)(4) of the...

  18. 78 FR 34393 - Electronic Submission of Tobacco Product Applications and Other Information; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Common Technical Document (eCTD); vendors of software used to support electronic submissions; and large... software used to support electronic submissions; and large and small tobacco product manufacturers. The... management system used? Are specific technologies used? Is electronic data capture used in clinical trials or...

  19. 78 FR 28633 - TE Connectivity, a Subsidiary of Tyco Electronics Corporation, Relay Products Business Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration TE Connectivity, a Subsidiary of Tyco Electronics Corporation, Relay... Assistance on March 12, 2013, applicable to workers of TE Connectivity, a subsidiary of Tyco Electronics... Connectivity, a subsidiary of Tyco Electronics Corporation, Relay Products Business Unit. The Department...

  20. Voyager electronic parts radiation program. Volume 2: Test requirements and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Documents are presented outlining the conditions and requirements of the test program. The Appendixes are as follows: appendix A -- Electron Simulation Radiation Test Specification for Voyager Electronic Parts and Devices, appendix B -- Electronic Piece-Part Testing Program for Voyager, appendix C -- Test Procedure for Radiation Screening of Voyager Piece Parts, appendix D -- Boeing In Situ Test Fixture, and appendix E -- Irradiate - Anneal (IRAN) Screening Documents.

  1. Immersion defectivity study with volume production immersion lithography tool for 45 nm node and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Katsushi; Nagaoka, Shiro; Yoshida, Masato; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Shiraishi, Kenichi; Owa, Soichi

    2008-03-01

    Volume production of 45nm node devices utilizing Nikon's S610C immersion lithography tool has started. Important to the success in achieving high-yields in volume production with immersion lithography has been defectivity reduction. In this study we evaluate several methods of defectivity reduction. The tools used in our defectivity analysis included a dedicated immersion cluster tools consisting of a Nikon S610C, a volume production immersion exposure tool with NA of 1.3, and a resist coater-developer LITHIUS i+ from TEL. In our initial procedure we evaluated defectivity behavior by comparing on a topcoat-less resist process to a conventional topcoat process. Because of its simplicity the topcoatless resist shows lower defect levels than the topcoat process. In a second study we evaluated the defect reduction by introducing the TEL bevel rinse and pre-immersion bevel cleaning techniques. This technique was shown to successfully reduce the defect levels by reducing the particles at the wafer bevel region. For the third defect reduction method, two types of tool cleaning processes are shown. Finally, we discuss the overall defectivity behavior at the 45nm node. To facilitate an understanding of the root cause of the defects, defect source analysis (DSA) was applied to separate the defects into three classes according to the source of defects. DSA analysis revealed that more than 99% of defects relate to material and process, and less than 1% of the defects relate to the exposure tool. Material and process optimization by collaborative work between exposure tool vendors, track vendors and material vendors is a key for success of 45nm node device manufacturing.

  2. 19 CFR 12.91 - Electronic products offered for importation under the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Electronic Products § 12.91 Electronic products offered for importation under the Act. (a) Standards prescribed by the Department of Health and... Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, in accordance with section 360B...

  3. 77 FR 31876 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not To... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing the same by reason...

  4. Spontaneous and induced radiation by electrons/positrons in natural and photonic crystals. Volume free electron lasers (VFELs): From microwave and optical to X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshevsky, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous and induced radiation produced by relativistic particles passing through natural and photonic crystals has enhanced capabilities for achieving the radiation sources operating in different wavelength ranges. Use of a non-one-dimensional distributed feedback, arising through Bragg diffraction in spatially periodic systems (natural and artificial (electromagnetic, photonic) crystals), establishes the foundation for the development of volume free electron lasers/masers (VFELs/VFEMs) as well as high-energy charged particle accelerators. The analysis of basic principles of VFEL theory demonstrates the promising potential of VFELs as the basis for the development of high-power microwave and optical sources.

  5. Productive Discussion in Science: Gender Equity through Electronic Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsi, Sherry; Hoadley, Christopher M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes how an electronic collaborative discussion tool called the Multimedia Forum Kiosk provides equitable learning opportunities in scientific discourse through generating explanations, revising the ideas of others, and asking questions. Contains 58 references. (DDR)

  6. Surface production operations, Volume 1: Design of oil-handling facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, K.; Stewart, M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Surface Production Operations is intended as a textbook and reference for the design of equipment for separation and treatment of gas, oil and water. This volume discusses separating and treating equipment and their operations, as well as facility types with suggestions on choosing a process. This book covers fluid properties and demonstrates theory and practical design techniques for gas/liquid separators, oil/water separators, oil- and water-treating equipment as well as system piping requirements. It examines two- and three- phase separators along with process calculations and concludes with a look at facility management.

  7. Development of a Gimballed, dual frequency, space-based, microwave antenna for volume production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckie, Martin; Laidig, Dave

    1996-01-01

    A dual-frequency, two-axis Gimballed, Microwave Antenna (GMA) has been developed by COM DEV and Motorola for commercial satellites. The need for volume production of over three hundred antennas at a rate of four per week, a compressed development schedule, and the commercial nature of the effort necessitated a paradigm shift to an 'overall' cost-driven design approach. The translation of these demands into antenna requirements, a description of the resulting GMA design, and examples of development issues are detailed herein.

  8. Moored Surveillance System Field Validation Test Sensor Performance Analysis. Volume 2. Standard Resolution Data Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-31

    calibration nignal intervals. .?.e third )ortion contains the estimated ambient sowid fi•ld (ASF) levels in dgt /lU•[1H2 The o=dire-ctic-nal (0) and vertic-al...loss than the total received SPL technique , such as was used in Ref. 2. This difference is discussed in Volume IV. (C) Data products of the next type...earlier, a simple technique wos used to partially debias the S/N results. (C) The results which appear most anomalous, i.e., those at 55 Hz, were

  9. Water flow calorimetry measurements of heat loads for a volume production H/sup -/ source

    SciTech Connect

    Purgalis, P.; Ackerman, G.; Kwan, J.; Wells, R.P.

    1987-10-01

    The design of volume-production H/sup -/ sources requires the knowledge of heat loads on the source components. The arc and filament heater power input to a 20 cm diameter x 23 cm long source can be 50 kW or higher, practically all of which is absorbed in the cooling water. Water flow calorimetry measurements were made to determine the heat loads on the bucket walls, grid no. 1, and magnetic filter rods. The measurements are presented for two different filament locations, for three different values of arc power, and for three values of source gas pressure. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Web-based volume slicer for 3D electron-microscopy data from EMDB

    PubMed Central

    Salavert-Torres, José; Iudin, Andrii; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Patwardhan, Ardan

    2016-01-01

    We describe the functionality and design of the Volume slicer – a web-based slice viewer for EMDB entries. This tool uniquely provides the facility to view slices from 3D EM reconstructions along the three orthogonal axes and to rapidly switch between them and navigate through the volume. We have employed multiple rounds of user-experience testing with members of the EM community to ensure that the interface is easy and intuitive to use and the information provided is relevant. The impetus to develop the Volume slicer has been calls from the EM community to provide web-based interactive visualisation of 2D slice data. This would be useful for quick initial checks of the quality of a reconstruction. Again in response to calls from the community, we plan to further develop the Volume slicer into a fully-fledged Volume browser that provides integrated visualisation of EMDB and PDB entries from the molecular to the cellular scale. PMID:26876163

  11. Maskless Electron-Beam Lithography for Trusted Microchip Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    lithography has soared and continues to rise unabated. Multibeam has developed maskless electron-beam lithography ( EBL ) for producing advanced Rad-Hard...and other DoD microchips at lower cost. In addition to significant cost savings in mask and lithography equipment, Multibeam’s maskless EBL technology...maskless electron-beam lithography ( EBL ); e-beam direct write (EBDW); complementary e-beam lithography (CEBL); multiple patterning; cycle time

  12. Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G. P.; Filippi, F.; Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Ferrario, M.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10-100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10-100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC_LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.

  13. Microwave electron cyclotron electron resonance (ECR) ion source with a large, uniformly distributed, axially symmetric, ECR plasma volume

    DOEpatents

    Alton, Gerald D.

    1996-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source includes a primary mirror coil disposed coaxially around a vacuum vessel in which a plasma is induced and introducing a solenoidal ECR-producing field throughout the length of the vacuum vessel. Radial plasma confinement is provided by a multi-cusp, multi-polar permanent magnet array disposed azimuthally around the vessel and within the primary mirror coil. Axial confinement is provided either by multi-cusp permanent magnets at the opposite axial ends of the vessel, or by secondary mirror coils disposed on opposite sides of the primary coil.

  14. Learner-Centered Instruction (LCI): Volume 1-A. Systems Approach to Electronics Maintenance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Horace H.

    The report describes the proposed development and evaluation of a learner-centered (LCI) systems approach to electronics maintenance training. An electronics course, appropriate for airmen of various aptitudes, will be prepared to develop proficiency in the specific duties required of a Weapon Control Systems Mechanic/Technician in the F-111A…

  15. Robert Sylwester on Electronic Media and Brain Development. Windows to the Mind, Volume 2. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    This videotape explores the influence of electronic media on children's cognitive development. Posing the "cyberworld" as both a window to the greater world and a mirror to the students' world, the first part of the video examines electronic media and the brain's response systems. This part notes the brain's two response systems--the…

  16. Robert Sylwester on Electronic Media and Brain Development. Windows to the Mind, Volume 2. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    This videotape explores the influence of electronic media on children's cognitive development. Posing the "cyberworld" as both a window to the greater world and a mirror to the students' world, the first part of the video examines electronic media and the brain's response systems. This part notes the brain's two response systems--the…

  17. The correlation of ring distributions with electron conics - Simulations of the production of upper hybrid waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Lin, C. S.; Wong, H. K.

    Using the High Altitude Plasma Instrument on board the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite, an example of electron conics associated with ring (trapped) distributions of warm electrons is shown. Using an electrostatic P-I-C code, numerical simulations of the generation of upper hybrid waves with ring distributions as the free energy source are performed. These waves heat the electrons perpendicular to the magnetic field, and thus provide a very efficient mechanism for the production of electron conics.

  18. A next-generation optical surface form inspection instrument for high-volume production applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, Richard; Freischlad, Klaus

    Despite the introduction of phase-shifting interferometers in the 1980's, high volume catalog and camera production lenses are still inspected using qualitative visual fringe inspection methods. This error-prone inspection technique requires the human operator to quickly judge whether the lens "passes" or "fails" based on the appearance of the fringes. Although this method is sufficient for optics with < 0.25 wave of surface figure irregularity, it is not sensitive enough to properly inspect surfaces in the increasingly common 0.1 wave regime. Furthermore, as visual fringe inspection is not quantitative, it does not produce the statistical surface measurement data that is necessary to monitor and optimize production polish process yields. To overcome these disadvantages, we have developed a robust, quantitative lens surface inspection instrument. A compact, user-friendly, and economical 60 mm aperture Fizeau interferometer directly addresses production optical test applications, providing rapid vibration-robust optical surface measurements of P-V irregularity, RMS irregularity, astigmatism magnitude, and power via a simple touch-screen interface. Pass/Fail criteria are applied to these values, enabling accurate and repeatable sorting of production optics based on these quantitative values and eliminating human interpretive error. Batch statistics are also displayed and stored for customer inspection reports and rapid polish process feedback. This paper will also describe how next-generation Fizeau interferometers serve as part of a total optical production process improvement strategy.

  19. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 7. GPGP Jet Fuels Production Program. Evaluation of Technical Uncertainties for Producing Jet Fuels from Liquid By-Products of the Great Plains Gasification Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    AFWAL-TR-87-2042 VOLUME VII PRODUCTION OF JET FUELS FROM COAL DERIVED LIQUIDS I VOLUME VII -- GPGP JET FUELS PRODUCTION PROGRAM -- EVALUATION OF o...from Coal Derived Liquids, Vol VII - GPGP Jet Fuels Production Program - Evaluation of Technical Uncertainties for Producing Jet Fuels from Liquid By...potential of jet fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant ( GPGP

  20. Cubic-foot tree volumes and product recoveries for eastern redcedar in the Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks

    1979-01-01

    Tree volume tables and equations for eastern redcedar are presented for gross volume, cant volume, and volume of sawmill residue. These volumes, when multiplied by the average value per cubic foot of cants and residue, provide a way to estimate tree value.

  1. Guidelines for estimating volume, biomass, and smoke production for piled slash.

    Treesearch

    Colin C. Hardy

    1998-01-01

    Guidelines in the form of a six-step approach are provided for estimating volumes, oven-dry mass, consumption, and particulate matter emissions for piled logging debris. Seven stylized pile shapes and their associated geometric volume formulae are used to estimate gross pile volumes. The gross volumes are then reduced to net wood volume by applying an appropriate wood-...

  2. Nonperturbative multiphoton processes and electron-positron pair production

    SciTech Connect

    Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Mueller, C.; Keitel, C. H.

    2006-04-07

    Various regimes of pair production in laser fields are analyzed. Particularly, the question of the observability of pair production in a nonperturbative multiphoton regime is discussed. A simple heuristic method is employed which gives order-of-magnitude estimates for probabilities of multiphoton processes and allows to describe its main features. The method is initially probed upon the known process of pair production in a Coulomb and a strong laser field. Then it is applied to the nonperturbative multiphoton regime of the pair production process in a standing laser wave.

  3. Nonperturbative multiphoton processes and electron-positron pair production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Müller, C.; Keitel, C. H.

    2006-04-01

    Various regimes of pair production in laser fields are analyzed. Particularly, the question of the observability of pair production in a nonperturbative multiphoton regime is discussed. A simple heuristic method is employed which gives order-of-magnitude estimates for probabilities of multiphoton processes and allows to describe its main features. The method is initially probed upon the known process of pair production in a Coulomb and a strong laser field. Then it is applied to the nonperturbative multiphoton regime of the pair production process in a standing laser wave.

  4. 48 CFR 23.704 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Contracting for Environmentally Preferable Products and...

  5. 48 CFR 23.704 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Contracting for Environmentally Preferable Products and...

  6. 48 CFR 23.704 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Contracting for Environmentally Preferable Products and...

  7. Enhanced electron attachment to Rydberg states in molecular hydrogen volume discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnaduwage, L. A.; Ding, W. X.; McCorkle, D. L.; Lin, S. H.; Mebel, A. M.; Garscadden, A.

    1999-05-01

    We review recent studies on negative ion formation and studies in other areas that are relevant to the role of high-Rydberg states of H2 and H3 in hydrogen negative ion sources. Possible mechanisms for the formation of these excited states are discussed, including the formation of long-lived superexcited (core-excited) Rydberg states. Experimental evidence for negative ion formation via electron attachment to core-excited Rydberg states in a glow discharge apparatus is presented. An expression for the dissociative electron attachment rate constant for Rydberg molecules is derived based on electron capture by a Rydberg molecule due to polarization interaction.

  8. Estimating the impact of high-production-volume chemicals on remote ecosystems by toxic pressure calculation.

    PubMed

    Harbers, Jasper V; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Posthuma, Leo; Van de Meent, Dik

    2006-03-01

    Although many chemicals are in use, the environmental impacts of only a few have been established, usually on per-chemical basis. Uncertainty remains about the overall impact of chemicals. This paper estimates combined toxic pressure on coastal North Sea ecosystems from 343 high-production-volume chemicals used within the catchment of rivers Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt. Multimedia fate modeling and species sensitivity distribution-based effects estimation are applied. Calculations start from production volumes and emission rates and use physicochemical substance properties and aquatic ecotoxicity data. Parameter uncertainty is addressed by Monte Carlo simulations. Results suggest that the procedure is technically feasible. Combined toxic pressure of all 343 chemicals in coastal North Seawater is 0.025 (2.5% of the species are exposed to concentration levels above EC50 values), with a wide confidence interval of nearly 0-1. This uncertainty appears to be largely due to uncertainties in interspecies variances of aquatic toxicities and, to a lesser extent, to uncertainties in emissions and degradation rates. Due to these uncertainties, the results support gross ranking of chemicals in categories: negligible and possibly relevant contributions only. With 95% confidence, 283 of the 343 chemicals (83%) contribute negligibly (less than 0.1%) to overall toxic pressure, and only 60 (17%) need further consideration.

  9. Enhancing economic competiveness of dish Stirling technology through production volume and localization: Case study for Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larchet, Kevin; Guédez, Rafael; Topel, Monika; Gustavsson, Lars; Machirant, Andrew; Hedlund, Maria-Lina; Laumert, Björn

    2017-06-01

    The present study quantifies the reduction in the levelized cost of electricity (LCoE) and capital expenditure (CAPEX) of a dish Stirling power plant (DSPP) through an increase in localization and unit production volume. Furthermore, the localization value of the plant is examined to determine how much investment is brought into the local economy. Ouarzazate, Morocco, was chosen as the location of the study due to the country's favorable regulatory framework with regards to solar power technologies and its established industry in the concentrating solar power (CSP) field. A detailed techno-economic model of a DSPP was developed using KTH's in-house modelling tool DYESOPT, which allows power plant evaluation by means of technical and economic performance indicators. Results on the basis of LCoE and CAPEX were compared between two different cases of production volume, examining both a minimum and maximum level of localization. Thereafter, the DSPP LCoE and localization value were compared against competing solar technologies to evaluate its competitiveness. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted around key design parameters. The study confirms that the LCoE of a DSPP can be reduced to values similar to solar photovoltaic (PV) and lower than other CSP technologies. Furthermore, the investment in the local economy is far greater when compared to PV and of the same magnitude to other CSP technologies. The competiveness of a DSPP has the potential to increase further when coupled with thermal energy storage (TES), which is currently under development.

  10. Cerium-based, intermetallic-strengthened aluminum casting alloy: High-volume co-product development

    DOE PAGES

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, David; McCall, S. K.; ...

    2016-05-23

    Here, several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanicalmore » properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.« less

  11. Cerium-based, intermetallic-strengthened aluminum casting alloy: High-volume co-product development

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, David; McCall, S. K.; McGuire, Michael A.; Ott, Ryan T.; Geer, Tom; Rios, Orlando; Turchi, P. A. E.

    2016-05-23

    Here, several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanical properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.

  12. Cerium-Based, Intermetallic-Strengthened Aluminum Casting Alloy: High-Volume Co-product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, D.; McCall, S. K.; McGuire, M. A.; Ott, R. T.; Geer, Tom; Rios, Orlando; Turchi, P. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanical properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.

  13. Cerium-based, intermetallic-strengthened aluminum casting alloy: High-volume co-product development

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, David; McCall, S. K.; McGuire, Michael A.; Ott, Ryan T.; Geer, Tom; Rios, Orlando; Turchi, P. A. E.

    2016-05-23

    Here, several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanical properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.

  14. Cerium-based, intermetallic-strengthened aluminum casting alloy: High-volume co-product development

    DOE PAGES

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, David; McCall, S. K.; ...

    2016-05-23

    Here, several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanicalmore » properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.« less

  15. Ultra-fast MTF Test for High-Volume production of CMOS Imaging Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Michael; Heinisch, Josef; Krey, Stefan; Bäumer, Stefan M.; Lurquin, Johan; Chen, Linghua

    2004-01-01

    During the last years compact CMOS imaging cameras have grown into high volume applications such as mobile phones, PDAs, etc. In order to insure a constant quality of the lenses of the cameras, MTF is used as a figure of merit. MTF is a polychromatic, objective test for imaging lens quality including diffraction effects, system aberrations and surface defects as well. The draw back of MTF testing is that the proper measurement of the lens MTF is quite cumbersome and time consuming. In the current investigation we designed, produced and tested a new semi-automated MTF set up that is able to measure the polychromatic lens system MTF at 6 or more field points at best focus in less than 6 seconds. The computed MTF is a real diffraction MTF derived from a line spread function (not merely a contrast measurement). This enables lens manufacturers to perform 100% MTF testing even in high volume applications. Using statistic tools to analyze the data also gives possibility to find even small systematic errors in the production like shift or tilt of lenses and lens elements. Using this as feedback the quality of the product can be increased. The system is very compact and can be put easily in an assembly line. Besides design and test of the MTF set up correlation experiments between several testers have been carried out. A correlation of better than 6% points for all tested systems at all fields has been achieved.

  16. Impact of an electronic health record operating room management system in ophthalmology on documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing.

    PubMed

    Sanders, David S; Read-Brown, Sarah; Tu, Daniel C; Lambert, William E; Choi, Dongseok; Almario, Bella M; Yackel, Thomas R; Brown, Anna S; Chiang, Michael F

    2014-05-01

    Although electronic health record (EHR) systems have potential benefits, such as improved safety and quality of care, most ophthalmology practices in the United States have not adopted these systems. Concerns persist regarding potential negative impacts on clinical workflow. In particular, the impact of EHR operating room (OR) management systems on clinical efficiency in the ophthalmic surgery setting is unknown. To determine the impact of an EHR OR management system on intraoperative nursing documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing requirements. For documentation time and circulating nurses per procedure, a prospective cohort design was used between January 10, 2012, and January 10, 2013. For surgical volume and overall staffing requirements, a case series design was used between January 29, 2011, and January 28, 2013. This study involved ophthalmic OR nurses (n = 13) and surgeons (n = 25) at an academic medical center. Electronic health record OR management system implementation. (1) Documentation time (percentage of operating time documenting [POTD], absolute documentation time in minutes), (2) surgical volume (procedures/time), and (3) staffing requirements (full-time equivalents, circulating nurses/procedure). Outcomes were measured during a baseline period when paper documentation was used and during the early (first 3 months) and late (4-12 months) periods after EHR implementation. There was a worsening in total POTD in the early EHR period (83%) vs paper baseline (41%) (P < .001). This improved to baseline levels by the late EHR period (46%, P = .28), although POTD in the cataract group remained worse than at baseline (64%, P < .001). There was a worsening in absolute mean documentation time in the early EHR period (16.7 minutes) vs paper baseline (7.5 minutes) (P < .001). This improved in the late EHR period (9.2 minutes) but remained worse than in the paper baseline (P < .001). While cataract procedures required more

  17. H- extraction from electron-cyclotron-resonance-driven multicusp volume source operated in pulsed mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svarnas, P.; Bacal, M.; Auvray, P.; Béchu, S.; Pelletier, J.

    2006-03-01

    H2 microwave (2.45GHz) pulsed plasma is produced from seven elementary electron cyclotron resonance sources installed into the magnetic multipole chamber "Camembert III" (École Polytechnique—Palaiseau) from which H- extraction takes place. The negative-ion and electron extracted currents are studied through electrical measurements and the plasma parameters by means of electrostatic probe under various experimental conditions. The role of the plasma electrode bias and the discharge duty cycle in the extraction process is emphasized. The gas breakdown at the beginning of every pulse gives rise to variations of the plasma characteristic parameters in comparison with those established at the later time of the pulse, where the electron temperature, the plasma potential, and the floating potential converge to the values obtained for a continuous plasma. The electron density is significantly enhanced in the pulsed mode.

  18. Global production, use, and emission volumes of short-chain chlorinated paraffins - A minimum scenario.

    PubMed

    Glüge, Juliane; Wang, Zhanyun; Bogdal, Christian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2016-12-15

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) show high persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT properties). Consequently, restrictions on production and use have been enforced in several countries/regions. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants recognized the PBT properties and long-range transport potential of SCCPs in 2015 and is now evaluating a possible global phase-out or restrictions. In this context, it is relevant to know which countries are producing/using SCCPs and in which amounts, and which applications contribute most to their environmental emissions. To provide a first comprehensive overview, we review and integrate all publicly available data on the global production and use of both chlorinated paraffins (CPs) as a whole and specifically SCCPs. Considerable amount of data on production/use of CPs and SCCPs are missing. Based on the available data and reported emission factors, we estimate the past and current worldwide SCCP emissions from individual applications. Using the available data as a minimum scenario, we conclude: (i) SCCP production and use is increasing, with the current worldwide production volume being 165,000t/year at least, whereas the global production of total CPs exceeds 1milliont/year. (ii) The worldwide release of SCCPs from their production and use to air, surface water, and soil between 1935 and 2012 has been in the range of 1690-41,400t, 1660-105,000t, and 9460-81,000t, respectively. (iii) The SCCP manufacture and use in PVC, the use in metal working applications and sealants/adhesives, and the use in plastics and rubber contribute most to the emissions to air, surface water, and soil. Thus, the decrease in the environmental emissions of SCCPs requires reduction of SCCP use in (almost) all applications. (iv) Emissions due to the disposal of waste SCCPs cannot be accurately estimated, because relevant information is missing. Instead, we conduct a scenario analysis to provide some insights into

  19. Electron Production, Electron Attachment, and Charge Recombination Process in High Pressure Gas Discharges.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-10

    mixtures of H2 0-Ar, C3F8 -N2 and C3F8 -CH4 increase with increasing E/N. These characteristics are useful for the application of opening switchef. The...published in the Journal of Applied Physics. 4. Electron Attachment Coefficients of CqFA The electron attachment coefficients of C3F8 in buffer gases of...Ar, N2, and CH 4 were measured as a function of E/N. The 5 electron attachment rate constants of C3F8 in N2 and CR 4 increase with E/N, which are

  20. Design of flow chamber with electronic cell volume capability and light detection optics for multilaser flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Schuette, W H; Shackney, S E; Plowman, F A; Tipton, H W; Smith, C A; MacCollum, M A

    1984-11-01

    A multibeam optical detection system has been developed with a high optical efficiency, achieved through a reduction in the number of optical interfaces employed in the system. This reduction is made possible by a combination of employing simple lenses, gluing the objective lens directly upon the face of the flow cuvette and the extraction of only one fluorescence signal from each laser beam. A modified flow chamber is also described that includes fluidic resistance elements for the elimination of most of the electric shielding normally associated with electronic cell volume measurements.

  1. Shock Versus Solar Flare Production of Heliospheric Relativistic Electron Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Cliver, E. W.

    2006-12-01

    Electrons with relativistic (E > 0.3 MeV) energies are often observed as discrete events in the inner heliosphere. Their sharp onsets and antisunward flows indicate that they are produced in solar transient events. In general their origins can be associated in time with both solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Unlike the solar energetic proton (SEP) and ion events, we do not have the advantage of particle elemental abundances and charge states as source diagnostics. We review the characteristics of the electron events observed on the Helios, Venera, ISEE-3, Phobos, and other inner heliospheric spacecraft to determine whether they are more likely to be produced by broad coronal shocks driven by CMEs or by solar flare processes associated with magnetic reconnection. Electron intensity-time profiles and energy spectra are compared with properties of flares and CMEs for this determination. Recent comparisons of peak electron and SEP event intensities provide strong evidence for the shock interpretation, but definitive results require the observations provided by the Sentinels mission.

  2. Increased fibroblast chymase production mediates procollagen autophagic digestion in volume overload

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lianwu; Wei, Chih-Chang; Powell, Pamela C.; Bradley, Wayne E.; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Collawn, James F.; Dell’Italia, Louis J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous work has identified mast cells as the major source of chymase largely associated with a profibrotic phenotype. We recently reported increased fibroblast autophagic procollagen degradation in a rat model of pure volume overload (VO). Here we demonstrate a connection between increased fibroblast chymase production and autophagic digestion of procollagen in the pure VO of aortocaval fistula (ACF) in the rat. Methods and results Isolated LV fibroblasts taken from 4 and 12 week ACF Sprague–Dawley rats have significant increases in chymase mRNA and chymase activity. Increased intracellular chymase protein is documented by immunocytochemistry in the ACF fibroblasts compared to cells obtained from age-matched sham rats. To implicate VO as a stimulus for chymase production, we show that isolated adult rat LV fibroblasts subjected to 24 h of 20% cyclical stretch induces chymase mRNA and protein production. Exogenous chymase treatment of control isolated adult cardiac fibroblasts demonstrates that chymase is internalized through a dynamin-dependent mechanism. Chymase treatment leads to an increased formation of autophagic vacuoles, LC3-II production, autophagic flux, resulting in increased procollagen degradation. Chymase inhibitor treatment reduces cyclical stretch-induced autophagy in isolated cardiac fibroblasts, demonstrating chymase’s role in autophagy induction. Conclusion In a pure VO model, chymase produced in adult cardiac fibroblasts leads to autophagic degradation of newly synthesized intracellular procollagen I, suggesting a new role of chymase in extracellular matrix degradation. PMID:26807691

  3. CD uniformity optimization at volume ramp up stage for new product introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Ma, Won-Kwang; Kim, Young-Sik; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kwon, Won-Taik; Park, Sung-Ki; Nikolsky, Peter; Otter, Marian; Marun, Maryana Escalante; Anunciado, Roy; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Storms, Greet; van West, Ewould

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we describe the joint development and optimization of the critical dimension uniformity (CDU) at an advanced 300 mm ArFi semiconductor facility of SK Hynix in the high volume device. As the ITRS CDU specification shrinks, semiconductor companies still need to maintain high wafer yield and high performance (hence market value) even during the introduction phase of a new product. This cannot be achieved without continuous improvement of the on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for yield improvement. ASML Imaging Optimizer is one of the most efficient tools to reach this goal. This paper presents experimental results of post-etch CDU improvement by ASML imaging optimizer for immature photolithography and etch processes on critical features of 20nm node. We will show that CDU improvement potential and measured CDU strongly depend on CD fingerprint stability through wafers, lots and time. However, significant CDU optimization can still be achieved, even for variable CD fingerprints. In this paper we will review point-to-point correlation of CD fingerprints as one of the main indicators for CDU improvement potential. We will demonstrate the value of this indicator by comparing CD correlation between wafers used for Imaging Optimizer dose recipe development, predicted and measured CDU for wafers and lots exposed with various delays ranging from a few days to a month. This approach to CDU optimization helps to achieve higher yield earlier in the new product introduction cycle, enables faster technology ramps and thereby improves product time to market.

  4. Using Electronic Data Interchange to Report Product Quality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    C2627 - If LIN26 is present, then LIN27 is required. 13. C2829 - If LIN28 is present, then LIN29 is required. 14. C3031 - If LIN30 is present, then...30 Not Used LIN26 235 Product/Service ID Qualifier 0 ID 2/2 Not Used LIN27 234 Product/Service ID C AN 1/30 Not Used LIN28 235 Product/Service ID...C2425 - If LIN24 is present, then LIN25 is required. 12. C2627 - if LIN26 is present, then LIN27 is required. 13. C2829 - If LIN28 is present, t’en

  5. Production of a sub-10 fs electron beam with 107 electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jang-Hui

    2011-05-01

    We study the possibility to produce a 1.6 pC electron beam (107 electrons) with a bunch length of less than 10 fs and a beam energy of a few MeV. Such a short, relativistic beam will be useful for an electron diffraction experiment with a 10 fs time resolution. An electron beam with 107 electrons will allow a single-shot experiment with a laser pulse pump and an electron beam probe. In this design, an S-band photocathode gun is used for generating and accelerating a beam and a buncher consisting of two S-band four-cell cavities is used for temporally compressing the beam. Focusing solenoids control the beam transverse divergence and size at the sample. Numerical optimization is carried out to achieve a beam with a 4 fs full-width-at-half-maximum length, a 26 microradian root-mean-square divergence, and a 2 nm transverse coherence length at a 3.24 MeV beam energy. When state-of-the-art rf stability is considered, beam arrival time jitter at the sample is calculated to be about 10 fs.

  6. DoD Implementation Guidelines for Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    The maintenance phase continues until experience or time indicates the need for a revision, reaffirmation, or withdrawal 1 -8 SPRWG 11 910602 9.0.27...Procedures are in place for processing these requests; use the Work Request Form (see Section VII). Standards Development Workbooks Three times a...program and for documenting DoD’s EDI data requirements. Volume I contains Chapters 1 -9. Those chapters describe the background, scope, and main issues

  7. Cusp electron production in 75--300 keV He[sup +] + Ar collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Plano, V.L. ); Sarkadi, L.; Zavodszky, P.; Berenyi, D.; Palinkas, J.; Gulyas, L.; Takacs, E.; Toth, L. ); Tanis, J.A. )

    1993-06-05

    Cusp-electron production has been investigated in collisions of 75--300 keV He[sup +] with Ar. The relative contributions from electron capture to the continuum (ECC), transfer ionization (TI), and electron loss to the continuum (ELC) to the total cusp-electron production were measured. Over the energy range investigated, ECC was found to decrease from about 86% to 80%, TI decreased from about 12% to 1%, and ELC increased from about 2% to 20%. The present results are consistent with earlier work for He[sup +] and O[sup q+] projectiles.

  8. Cusp electron production in 75--300 keV He{sup +} + Ar collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Plano, V.L.; Sarkadi, L.; Zavodszky, P.; Berenyi, D.; Palinkas, J.; Gulyas, L.; Takacs, E.; Toth, L.; Tanis, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    Cusp-electron production has been investigated in collisions of 75--300 keV He{sup +} with Ar. The relative contributions from electron capture to the continuum (ECC), transfer ionization (TI), and electron loss to the continuum (ELC) to the total cusp electron production were measured. Over the energy range investigated, ECC was found to decrease from about 86% to 80%, TI decreased from about 12% to 1%, and ELC increased from about 2% to 20%. The present results are consistent with earlier work for He{sup +} and O{sup q+} projectiles.

  9. 21 CFR 1004.3 - Plans for the replacement of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... with a like or equivalent product shall be submitted to the Secretary in writing, and in addition to... product will not be reintroduced into commerce, until it complies with each applicable Federal standard..., will replace the electronic product involved, (2) Of the method by which the manufacturer will obtain...

  10. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  11. Management of Electronic Test Equipment. Volume 4. DoD Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    VOL-4 MDASU3-65-C-1139 I NCLASSIFIED_ F/O 14/2 Nt. EEEEEEE h 1 .01 1 11128 11125 liii, JM3,2 1:1 III"o M CROC PY R I L[J U4 𔄁 P , A 6 (, ’. .5 U...electric/electronic test, measurement , and diagnostic equipment (TMDE), defined to include manual electronic test equipment (ETF). automatic test equipment... shielding against electromagnetic inter- ference are more stringent (because of the shipboard operating environment) than those of the Air Force and

  12. Impact of electron-beam irradiation on free-volume related microstructural properties of PVA:NaBr polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismayil; Vasachar, Ravindrachary; Bhajantri, Rajashekhar F.; Dhola, Praveena S.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Sodium Bromide doped Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA:NaBr, 80:20) polymer composite films were prepared using a solution casting method. These films were subjected to 8 MeV electron beam radiation at a dose of up to 300 kGy in air at room temperature. The free volume related microstructural and electrical properties of these irradiated films were studied using various characterization methods, such as positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and AC & DC conductivity measurement techniques. The variations in the positron lifetime data indicate that the free-volume related properties of the doped polymer are affected by irradiation. From the results, it is found that at lower doses, a cross-linking network provides hopping sites for Na+ ions, and at higher doses, the chain-scission process facilitates ionic transport through segmental motion. Thus, the free volume around the polymer chain leads to mobility of the ions as well as the polymer segments and hence contributes to the enhancement of conductivity.

  13. An Electronic Version of the Second Volume of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars with Improved Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samus', N. N.; Goranskii, V. P.; Durlevich, O. V.; Zharova, A. V.; Kazarovets, E. V.; Kireeva, N. N.; Pastukhova, E. N.; Williams, D. B.; Hazen, M. L.

    2003-07-01

    We present a new electronic version of the second volume of the fourth edition of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS), which contains data on 13 480 variable stars in the constellations Cygnus-Orion (the order of constellations in the Catalogue follows the Latin alphabet). The new version takes into account the Name Lists of Variable Stars from no. 67 to 76 for the same constellations. The main distinctive feature of the new version is that it contains improved equatorial J2000.0 coordinates for 13 446 stars (including those for 5052 stars with an allowance made for proper motions), based on the identifications with positional catalogs using finding charts, as well as on our new measurements. We searched for a number of stars on original plates from the collections of several observatories and using digital sky survey images. The new version also includes a file of remarks to the second and third GCVS volumes. Apart from a complete update of the positional information, we took into account several corrections that were found to be necessary after the publication of the second GCVS volume (1985). We present a list of references to new Internet resources.

  14. Thermodynamics of electron transfer in oxygenic photosynthetic reaction centers: volume change, enthalpy, and entropy of electron-transfer reactions in manganese-depleted photosystem II core complexes.

    PubMed

    Hou, J M; Boichenko, V A; Diner, B A; Mauzerall, D

    2001-06-19

    We have previously reported the thermodynamic data of electron transfer in photosystem I using pulsed time-resolved photoacoustics [Hou et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 7109-7116]. In the present work, using preparations of purified manganese-depleted photosystem II (PS II) core complexes from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we have measured the DeltaV, DeltaH, and estimated TDeltaS of electron transfer on the time scale of 1 micros. At pH 6.0, the volume contraction of PS II was determined to be -9 +/- 1 A3. The thermal efficiency was found to be 52 +/- 5%, which corresponds to an enthalpy change of -0.9 +/- 0.1 eV for the formation of the state P680+Q(A-) from P680*. An unexpected volume expansion on pulse saturation of PS II was observed, which is reversible in the dark. At pH 9.0, the volume contraction, the thermal efficiency, and the enthalpy change were -3.4 +/- 0.5 A3, 37 +/- 7%, and -1.15 +/- 0.13 eV, respectively. The DeltaV of PS II, smaller than that of PS I and bacterial centers, is assigned to electrostriction and analyzed using the Drude-Nernst equation. To explain the small DeltaV for the formation of P680+Q(A-) or Y(Z*)Q(A-), we propose that fast proton transfer into a polar region is involved in this reaction. Taking the free energy of charge separation of PS II as the difference between the energy of the excited-state P680* and the difference in the redox potentials of the donor and acceptor, the apparent entropy change (TDeltaS) for charge separation of PS II is calculated to be negative, -0.1 +/- 0.1 eV at pH 6.0 (P680+Q(A-)) and -0.2 +/- 0.15 eV at pH 9.0 (Y(Z*)Q(A-)). The thermodynamic properties of electron transfer in PS II core reaction centers thus differ considerably from those of bacterial and PS I reaction centers, which have DeltaV of approximately -27 A3, DeltaH of approximately -0.4 eV, and TDeltaS of approximately +0.4 eV.

  15. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part E: Electronics module data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Tests to verify the as-designed performance of all circuits within the thematic mapper electronics module unit are described. Specifically, the tests involved the evaluation of the scan line corrector driver, shutter drivers function, cal lamp controller function, post amplifier function, command decoder verification unit, and the temperature and actuator controllers function.

  16. The Survey of College Marketing Programs. Volume III: Electronic Advertising and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primary Research Group, Inc., New York, NY.

    This report presents 203 tables detailing findings concerning the use of electronic advertising within marketing programs at 68 colleges and universities. Highlights of this report include: colleges in the sample enroll a mean of 5,450 students; 5.6 percent of the colleges produce a CD-ROM version of the viewbook; 39.7 percent enable applicants to…

  17. The Survey of College Marketing Programs. Volume III: Electronic Advertising and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primary Research Group, Inc., New York, NY.

    This report presents 203 tables detailing findings concerning the use of electronic advertising within marketing programs at 68 colleges and universities. Highlights of this report include: colleges in the sample enroll a mean of 5,450 students; 5.6 percent of the colleges produce a CD-ROM version of the viewbook; 39.7 percent enable applicants to…

  18. An Effect of Levels of Learning Ability and Types of Feedback in Electronic Portfolio on Learning Achievement of Students in Electronic Media Production for Education Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koraneekij, Prakob

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study an effect of levels of learning ability and types of feedback in an electronic portfolio on learning achievement of students in electronic media production for education subject. The samples were 113 students registered in Electronic Media Production for Education Subject divided into 6 groups : 3 control…

  19. Thin section casting program. Volume 4: Static cast product bending, straightening, and rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-01-01

    Statically cast 1/2 in., 3/4 in., and 1 in. thick steel slabs were subjected to hot rolling in a laboratory reversing mill and to simulated coiling-uncoiling on a three-point bender-unbender. Tensile properties and microstructures of hot bands thinner than 0.15 in. produced from the statically cast slabs were found to be independent of initial slab thickness and similar to those from conventionally cast 8 to 10 in. thick slabs. Cold rolled and batch annealed product from the statically cast slabs had mechanical properties equivalent to those of conventionally processed deep-drawing quality steel. Overall, the results of this task indicated that 1/2 to 1 in. thick steel sections produced in a twin belt caster can be coiled and uncoiled in a hot coiler box downstream of the caster without generating any cracks in the product, and that the total range of hot and cold rolled sheet and strip products with qualities equivalent to those of conventionally produced can be obtained from the 1/2 in. to 1 in. thick sections. This report is the fifth of a six volume set on thin section casting.

  20. Entropy Production and the Pressure-Volume Curve of the Lung.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cláudio L N; Araújo, Ascânio D; Bates, Jason H T; Andrade, José S; Suki, Béla

    2016-01-01

    We investigate analytically the production of entropy during a breathing cycle in healthy and diseased lungs. First, we calculate entropy production in healthy lungs by applying the laws of thermodynamics to the well-known transpulmonary pressure-volume (P-V) curves of the lung under the assumption that lung tissue behaves as an entropic spring similar to rubber. The bulk modulus, B, of the lung is also derived from these calculations. Second, we extend this approach to elastic recoil disorders of the lung such as occur in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. These diseases are characterized by particular alterations in the P-V relationship. For example, in fibrotic lungs B increases monotonically with disease progression, while in emphysema the opposite occurs. These diseases can thus be mimicked simply by making appropriate adjustments to the parameters of the P-V curve. Using Clausius's formalism, we show that entropy production, ΔS, is related to the hysteresis area, ΔA, enclosed by the P-V curve during a breathing cycle, namely, ΔS=ΔA∕T, where T is the body temperature. Although ΔA is highly dependent on the disease, such formula applies to healthy as well as diseased lungs, regardless of the disease stage. Finally, we use an ansatz to predict analytically the entropy produced by the fibrotic and emphysematous lungs.

  1. Entropy Production and the Pressure–Volume Curve of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Cláudio L. N.; Araújo, Ascânio D.; Bates, Jason H. T.; Andrade, José S.; Suki, Béla

    2016-01-01

    We investigate analytically the production of entropy during a breathing cycle in healthy and diseased lungs. First, we calculate entropy production in healthy lungs by applying the laws of thermodynamics to the well-known transpulmonary pressure–volume (P–V) curves of the lung under the assumption that lung tissue behaves as an entropic spring similar to rubber. The bulk modulus, B, of the lung is also derived from these calculations. Second, we extend this approach to elastic recoil disorders of the lung such as occur in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. These diseases are characterized by particular alterations in the P–V relationship. For example, in fibrotic lungs B increases monotonically with disease progression, while in emphysema the opposite occurs. These diseases can thus be mimicked simply by making appropriate adjustments to the parameters of the P–V curve. Using Clausius's formalism, we show that entropy production, ΔS, is related to the hysteresis area, ΔA, enclosed by the P–V curve during a breathing cycle, namely, ΔS=ΔA∕T, where T is the body temperature. Although ΔA is highly dependent on the disease, such formula applies to healthy as well as diseased lungs, regardless of the disease stage. Finally, we use an ansatz to predict analytically the entropy produced by the fibrotic and emphysematous lungs. PMID:26973540

  2. Materials Science and Technology, Volume 4, Electronic Structure and Properties of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Wolfgang

    1996-12-01

    This volume spans the field of semiconductor physics, with particular emphasis on concepts relevant to semiconductor technology. From the Contents: Lannoo: Band Theory Applied to Semiconductors. Ulbrich: Optical Properties and Charge Transport. Watkins: Intrinsic Point Defects in Semiconductors. Feichtinger: Deep Centers in Semiconductors. Gösele/Tan: Equilibria, Nonequilibria, Diffusion, and Precipitation. Alexander/Teichler: Dislocations. Thibault/Rouvière/Bourret: Grain Boundaries in Semiconductors. Ourmazd/Hull/Tung: Interfaces. Chang: The Hall Effect in Quantum Wires. Street/Winer: Material Properties of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon. Schröter/Seibt/Gilles: High-Temperature Properties of 3d Transition Elements in Silicon.

  3. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Woody, Craig

    2009-03-31

    The nuclear and high energy physics research community is constantly searching for new and improved tracking and radiation detectors. The introduction of micropattern detectors has opened new opportunities for improving the rate capabilities, as well as the spatial and time resolution of particle detectors in these applications. GEM detectors in particular have received enormous interest for use in detectors planned for a number of new and upgraded experiments at many different research facilities. These include both the STAR and PHENIX experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, experiments at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and at the future electron-positron Linear Collider. At the present time, CERN is not able to supply foils in sufficient quantities to accommodate the needs of these experiments. Compounding this problem, there is a strong interest in GEM foils for numerous other applications, such as in astrophysics, medical imaging and detectors for homeland security. It would therefore be of significant benefit to the research community to develop a commercial source of GEM foils for all of these applications. Tech-Etch is in a unique position to develop this technology for commercial use. Tech-Etch has not only experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products, but it also has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven, Yale and MIT) that can help develop and evaluate the performance of the GEM foils produced at Tech-Etch. Additionally, since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, as well as the flexibility to shift production methods, equipment, and chemistry to optimize the GEM foil manufacturing process without being constrained by existing work running on high volume continuous coil equipment.

  4. Commercial and cost effective production of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Crary, David

    2010-05-05

    The nuclear and high energy physics research community is constantly searching for new and improved tracking and radiation detectors. The introduction of micropattern detectors has opened new opportunities for improving the rate capabilities, as well as the spatial and time resolution of particle detectors in these applications. GEM detectors in particular have received enormous interest for use in detectors planned for a number of new and upgraded experiments at many different research facilities. These include both the STAR and PHENIX experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, experiments at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and at the future electron-positron Linear Collider. At the present time, CERN is not able to supply foils in sufficient quantities to accommodate the needs of these experiments. Compounding this problem, there is a strong interest in GEM foils for numerous other applications, such as in astrophysics, medical imaging and detectors for homeland security. It would therefore be of significant benefit to the research community to develop a commercial source of GEM foils for all of these applications. Tech-Etch is in a unique position to develop this technology for commercial use. Tech-Etch has not only experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products, but it also has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven, Yale and MIT) that can help develop and evaluate the performance of the GEM foils produced at Tech-Etch. Additionally, since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, as well as the flexibility to shift production methods, equipment, and chemistry to optimize the GEM foil manufacturing process without being constrained by existing work running on high volume continuous coil equipment.

  5. Electron Beam/Optical Hybrid Lithography For The Production Of Gallium Arsenide Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (Mimics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Rao M.; Rask, Steven D.

    1988-06-01

    beam to optical with t 0.2μm (2 sigma) and (2) Electron beam to electron beam with f 0.lμm (2 sigma). These results suggest that the electron beam/optical hybrid lithography techniques could be used for MIMIC volume production as alignment tolerances required by GaAS chips are met in both cases. These results are discussed in detail.

  6. [Advertising and promotion of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes].

    PubMed

    Canevascini, Michela; Kuendig Hervé; Véron, Claudia; Pasche, Myriam

    2015-06-10

    Switzerland is one of the least restrictive countries in Europe in terms of tobacco advertising. A study conducted between 2013 and 2014 documented the presence of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship in western Switzerland. The first part of this article presents the results of the observations realized in points of sale, in private events sponsored by the tobacco industry and during daily itineraries of young people. The results show that tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship are omnipresent and mainly target young people. The second part of the article analyses the presence of electronic cigarette advertising and promotion, observed in points of sale and on online stores.

  7. Production of relativistic electron bunch with tunable current distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y.-E.; Rihaoui, M.; /Northern Illinois U. /NICADD, DeKalb

    2008-11-01

    We propose a novel method for tailoring the current distribution of relativistic electron bunches. The technique relies on a recently proposed transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange. The bunch is transversely shaped and the phase space exchange mechanism converts this transverse profile into a current profile. The technique provides a tool for generating arbitrary current profiles in a tunable fashion.We demonstrate, via computer simulations, the method and its application to tailor specific current profiles such as, e.g., linearly ramped profiles and train of femtosecond micro-bunches that have application in plasma and dielectric wakefield accelerators.

  8. Production of Relativistic Electron Bunch with Tunable Current Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y.-E; Rihaoui, M.

    2009-01-22

    We proposed a novel method for tailoring the current distribution of relativistic electron bunches. The technique relies on a recently proposed transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange. The bunch is transversely shaped and the phase space exchange mechanism converts this transverse profile into a current profile. The technique provides a tool for generating arbitrary current profiles in a tunable fashion. We demonstrate, via computer simulations, the method and its application to tailor specific current profiles such as, e.g., linearly ramped profiles and train of femtosecond micro-bunches that have application in plasma and dielectric wakefield accelerators.

  9. Spectral-Product Methods for Electronic Structure Calculations (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-12

    and electronically excited potential energy surfaces in Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simula- tions of singly doped inert-gas clusters [27], the...Matsunaga N, Nguyen KA, Su SJ, Windus TL, Dupuis M, Montgomery JA (1993) J Comput Chem 14:1347 3. Pauli W (1925) Z Physik 31:765 4. Heisenberg W (1926) Z...Physik 38:411 5. Heisenberg W (1926) Z Physik 39:499 6. Heisenberg W (1926) Z Physik 40:501 7. Dirac PAM (1926) Proc R Soc (London) A 112:661 8

  10. EIA directory of electronic products, Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    EIA makes available for public use a series of machine-readable data files and computer models on magnetic tapes. Selected data files/models are also available on diskette for IBM-compatible personal computers. For each product listed in this directory, a detailed abstract is provided which describes the data published. Ordering information is given in the preface. Indexes are included.

  11. Electron Microscopy as a Valuable Tool for Designing Biobased Products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efforts are being made worldwide, including USDA laboratories [1-2] to investigate new uses for agriculturally-derived and/or biobased materials as well as to improve and transform such materials to create products of novel functionalities. While the knowledge of biopolymers and material processing ...

  12. DoD Implementation Guidelines for Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    LIN27 is re- quired. 13 If LIN28 is present, then LIN29 is re- quired. 1 4 If LIN30 is present, then LIN31 is re- quired. Data Element Summary Ref. Data...Service ID C AN 1/30 LIN28 235 Product/Service ID Qualifier 0 ID 2/2 L1N29 234 Product/Service ID C AN 1/30 LIN30 235 Product/Service ID Qualifier 0 ID...DEFENSE IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES 11 If LIN24 is present, then LIN25 is re- quired. 12 If LIN26 is present, then LIN27 is re- quired. 13 If LIN28 is

  13. Cost Analysis of an Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System in Selected Annual Production Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company estimated the cost of manufacturing and Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System as designed by the AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corporation. Production costs were estimated at annual volumes of 100; 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 and 1,000,000 units. These costs included direct labor, direct material and manufacturing burden. A make or buy analysis was made of each part of each volume. At high volumes special fabrication concepts were used to reduce operation cycle times. All costs were estimated at an assumed 100% plant capacity. Economic feasibility determined the level of production at which special concepts were to be introduced. Estimated costs were based on the economics of the last half of 1980. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for ach volume. Infrastructure and personnel requirements were also estimated.

  14. Investigation of the boundary layer during the transition from volume to surface dominated H⁻ production at the BATMAN test facility.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, C; Schiesko, L; Fantz, U

    2016-02-01

    BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative ions) is a test facility equipped with a 18 scale H(-) source for the ITER heating neutral beam injection. Several diagnostics in the boundary layer close to the plasma grid (first grid of the accelerator system) followed the transition from volume to surface dominated H(-) production starting with a Cs-free, cleaned source and subsequent evaporation of caesium, while the source has been operated at ITER relevant pressure of 0.3 Pa: Langmuir probes are used to determine the plasma potential, optical emission spectroscopy is used to follow the caesiation process, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy allows for the measurement of the H(-) density. The influence on the plasma during the transition from an electron-ion plasma towards an ion-ion plasma, in which negative hydrogen ions become the dominant negatively charged particle species, is seen in a strong increase of the H(-) density combined with a reduction of the plasma potential. A clear correlation of the extracted current densities (j(H(-)), j(e)) exists with the Cs emission.

  15. Investigation of the boundary layer during the transition from volume to surface dominated H- production at the BATMAN test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, C.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.

    2016-02-01

    BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative ions) is a test facility equipped with a 1/8 scale H- source for the ITER heating neutral beam injection. Several diagnostics in the boundary layer close to the plasma grid (first grid of the accelerator system) followed the transition from volume to surface dominated H- production starting with a Cs-free, cleaned source and subsequent evaporation of caesium, while the source has been operated at ITER relevant pressure of 0.3 Pa: Langmuir probes are used to determine the plasma potential, optical emission spectroscopy is used to follow the caesiation process, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy allows for the measurement of the H- density. The influence on the plasma during the transition from an electron-ion plasma towards an ion-ion plasma, in which negative hydrogen ions become the dominant negatively charged particle species, is seen in a strong increase of the H- density combined with a reduction of the plasma potential. A clear correlation of the extracted current densities (jH-, je) exists with the Cs emission.

  16. Runaway electron production during intense electron beam penetration in dense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, P. B.; Cowan, T. E.

    2007-01-15

    Relativistic electrons are efficiently generated when multiterawatt lasers focused to ultrahigh intensities > or approx. 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} illuminate the surface of dense plasma targets. A theoretical study finds that during typical picosecond pulse widths, significant amounts of Dreicer produced runaway electrons can build up due to the high axial electric field driving the neutralizing return current. An important consequence is that there will be a conversion of plasma current to runaway electron current, which is maximized at some optimum value of the beam-to-plasma density ratio N{sub b}=n{sub b}/n{sub e}, depending on the plasma collisionality. At collisionalities representative of solid target experiments, complete conversion to runaway electrons can only take place over a certain range of N{sub b} values. At higher collisionalities and pulse widths, applicable to the fast ignition concept for inertial confinement fusion, it was found that conversion to runaways has a peak at {approx}90% around N{sub b}{approx}0.06. Significant lessening of target material heating by Joule current dissipation is also possible, since part of the beam energy loss is transferred through the electric field directly to the formation of energetic runaways. Implications for beam transport inhibition by the electric field are also discussed.

  17. MERCURY REDUCTION IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrical and electronics industries have significantly reduced the amount of mercury from various products and processes. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectronic properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some...

  18. 78 FR 18234 - Service of Process on Manufacturers; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ...; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United States; Agent Designation; Change of Address AGENCY... address is 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002. Designation of agent by manufacturers...

  19. MERCURY REDUCTION IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrical and electronics industries have significantly reduced the amount of mercury from various products and processes. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectronic properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some...

  20. The effect of direct electron-positron pair production on relativistic feedback rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodopiyanov, I. B.; Dwyer, J. R.; Cramer, E. S.; Lucia, R. J.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Runaway electron avalanches developing in thunderclouds in high electric field become self-sustaining due to relativistic feedback via the production of backward propagating positrons and backscattered X-rays. To date, only positrons created from pair production by gamma rays interacting with the air have been considered. In contrast, direct electron-positron pair production, also known as "trident process," occurs from the interaction of energetic runaway electrons with atomic nuclei, and so it does not require the generation of a gamma ray mediator. The positrons produced in this process contribute to relativistic feedback and become especially important when the feedback factor value approaches unity. Then the steady state flux of runaway electrons increases significantly. In certain cases, when the strong electrostatic field forms in a narrow area, the direct positrons become one of processes dominating relativistic feedback. Calculations of the direct positron production contribution to relativistic feedback are presented for different electric field configurations.

  1. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for banking purposes or to support its banking business; and (2) Electronic databases... bank's needs for banking purposes include: (1) Data processing services; (2) Production...

  2. Earth observing system. Output data products and input requirements, version 2.0. Volume 2: Analysis of IDS input requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi; Chang, Hyo Duck; Krupp, Brian; Kumar, Ravindra; Swaroop, Anand

    1992-01-01

    On 18 Jan. 1991, NASA confirmed 29 Inter-Disciplinary Science (IDS) teams, each involving a group of investigators, to conduct interdisciplinary research using data products from Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments. These studies are multi-disciplinary and require output data products from multiple EOS instruments, including both FI and PI instruments. The purpose of this volume is to provide information on output products expected from IDS investigators, required input data, and retrieval algorithms. Also included in this volume is the revised analysis of the 'best' and 'alternative' match data products for IDS input requirements. The original analysis presented in the August 1991 release of the SPSO Report was revised to incorporate the restructuring of the EOS platform. As a result of the reduced EOS payload, some of EOS instruments were deselected and their data products would not be available for IDS research. Information on these data products is also presented.

  3. Printing versus coating - What will be the future production technology for printed electronics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glawe, Andrea; Eggerath, Daniel; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The market of Large Area Organic Printed Electronics is developing rapidly to increase efficiency and quality as well as to lower costs further. Applications for OPV, OLED, RFID and compact Printed Electronic systems are increasing. In order to make the final products more affordable, but at the same time highly accurate, Roll to Roll (R2R) production on flexible transparent polymer substrates is the way forward. There are numerous printing and coating technologies suitable depending on the design, the product application and the chemical process technology. Mainly the product design (size, pattern, repeatability) defines the application technology.

  4. Printing versus coating - What will be the future production technology for printed electronics?

    SciTech Connect

    Glawe, Andrea; Eggerath, Daniel; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-02-17

    The market of Large Area Organic Printed Electronics is developing rapidly to increase efficiency and quality as well as to lower costs further. Applications for OPV, OLED, RFID and compact Printed Electronic systems are increasing. In order to make the final products more affordable, but at the same time highly accurate, Roll to Roll (R2R) production on flexible transparent polymer substrates is the way forward. There are numerous printing and coating technologies suitable depending on the design, the product application and the chemical process technology. Mainly the product design (size, pattern, repeatability) defines the application technology.

  5. Automatic mosaicking and volume assembly for high-throughput serial-section transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tasdizen, Tolga; Koshevoy, Pavel; Grimm, Bradley C.; Anderson, James R.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Whitaker, Ross T.; Marc, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a computationally efficient and robust fully-automatic method for large-scale electron microscopy image registration. The proposed method is able to construct large image mosaics from thousands of smaller, overlapping tiles with unknown or uncertain positions, and to align sections from a serial section capture into a common coordinate system. The method also accounts for nonlinear deformations both in constructing sections and in aligning sections to each other. The underlying algorithms are based on the Fourier shift property which allows for a computationally efficient and robust method. We demonstrate results on two electron microscopy datasets. We also quantify the accuracy of the algorithm through a simulated image capture experiment. The publicly available software tools include the algorithms and a Graphical User Interface for easy access to the algorithms. PMID:20713087

  6. 30 CFR 1210.104 - Must I submit these production reports electronically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... handbook may be found on our Internet Web site or you may call your ONRR customer service representative.../payors must report to ONRR electronically via the eCommerce Reporting Web site. All reporters/payors also must report production data directly or upload files using the ONRR electronic web form located at...

  7. 78 FR 22899 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products... the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices having placeshifting... Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, 19 CFR 210.10 (2012). Scope of Investigation: Having...

  8. The Screening Effect in Electromagnetic Production of Electron Positron Pairs in Relativistic Nucleus-Atom Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jianshi; Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.; Strayer, M. R.

    1999-01-01

    We study the screening effects of the atomic electrons in the electromagnetic production of electron-positron pairs in relativistic nucleus-atom collisions for fixed target experiments. Our results are contrasted with those obtained in bare collisions, with particular attention given to its dependence on the beam energy and the target atom.

  9. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for banking purposes or to support its banking business; and (2) Electronic databases... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  10. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for banking purposes or to support its banking business; and (2) Electronic databases... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  11. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for banking purposes or to support its banking business; and (2) Electronic databases... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  12. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for banking purposes or to support its banking business; and (2) Electronic databases... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  13. Evaluation of potential induced radioactivity in medical products as a function of electron energy in electron beam sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial sterilization of medical devices may be performed using electron beam irradiators at various electron energies. The potential for activating components of the devices has been discussed, with current standards stating that electron energy greater than 10 MeV requires assessment of potential induced radioactivity. This paper evaluates the potential for induced activity in medical products sterilized in electron beam as a function of the electron maximum energy. Monte Carlo simulation of a surrogate medical device was used to calculate photon and neutron fields resulting from electron irradiation, which were used to calculate concentrations for several radionuclides. The experiments confirmed that 10 MeV is a conservative assumption for limiting induced radioactivity. However, under the conditions as evaluated, which is a limited total quantity of metal in the material being irradiated and absent a limited number of elements; the amount of induced activity at 12 MeV could also be considered insignificant. The comparison of the sum-of-fractions to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission exempt concentration limits is less than unity for all energies below 12.1 MeV, which suggests that there is minimal probability of significant induced activity at energies above the 10 MeV upper energy limit.

  14. Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) Streamlining Project. Volume 2. Directives and Related Study Documents. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-18

    SYSTEMS AND THE PROLIFERATION OF NONDEVELOPMENTAL AND PROTOTYPE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGYi CONTRACTOR SUPPORT HAS BECOME A KEY CONSIDERATION ON THE AIRLAND...AGE. a mobile flight line maintenance/test set. - STE located In an electronlics shop AN/GSli-271A (IPF maintenance van) and electronics shop At4/ARM...System is a disaster: TACJAM O&0 requires high mobility , but M-1015 reliability negates the O&0. "* Initial provisioning of TACJAM LRUs was low. EMRA

  15. OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series. Volume 13: Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Monolithically - Integrated Circuit for All Optical Generation of Millimeter-Wave Frequencies 91 G. Allen Vawter, Alan Mar, Vince Hietala, John Zolper...generation using hybrid mode-locking of a monolithic DBR laser," Electron. Lett., 1995, 31, pp. 733-734. [3] T. Hoshida, H. F. Liu, M. R. H. Daza, M...400 500 Time (ps) Figure 3. Pulse response of the RCE photodiode A Complete Monolithically - Integrated Circuit for All Optical Generation of

  16. Military Handbook. Grounding, Bonding, and Shielding for Electronic Equipments and Facilities. Volume 1. Basic Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-29

    in Transmission System , Dover Publications, Inc, New York NY, 1968. 2-11. W. W. Lewis , The Protection of Transmission Lines Against Lightning, John...Palo Alto CA 94303, 12 March 1973. 3-3. W.W. Lewis , The Protection of Transmission Systems Ajainst Lightning, Dover Publications, Ine, New York, (1965...Handbook for Electrical Engineers, Tenth Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Ine, New York, 1968. 5-3. P.E. Terman , Electronic and Radio Engfineering

  17. Electron Induced Discharge Modeling, Testing, and Analysis for Scatha. Volume I. Phenomenology Study and Model Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-31

    Design Philosophy .. ................. ....... 46 4.2 P78-2 Description .. ................... ..... 47 4.2.1 Electromagnetic Considerations ... flashover of charge along the insulator surface to an edge; and a blowoff of embedded electrons from the surface of the dielectric. The blowoff mechanism was...the punchthrough or flashover of a small amount of trapped charge triggers the blowoff discharge of the balance. This model remains to be validated by

  18. The Training Information Management System. Volume 6. User’s Manual for the Electronic Clipboard System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    ARI Research Note 86-77/ THE TRAINING INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : U User’s Manual for the (%~J Electronic Clipboard System U Perceptronics for ARI...NUMBER ARI Research Note 86-77 /, TI 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE Of REPORT & PERIOD COVERED THE TRAINING INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : Final Report...Evaluation Field-Portable Computer Unit 20. ANTRACT (rOnme - reree Nid If n ceear, an identify by block nhmtbhe) The Training Information Management System (TItS

  19. Efficient large volume data preparation for electron beam lithography for sub-45nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kang-Hoon; Gutsch, Manuela; Freitag, Martin; Hohle, Christoph; Martin, Luc; Bayle, Sebastien; Manakli, Serdar; Schiavone, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    A new correction approach was developed to improve the process window of electron beam lithography and push its resolution at least one generation further using the same exposure tool. An efficient combination of dose and geometry modulation is implemented in the commercial data preparation software, called Inscale®, from Aselta Nanographics. Furthermore, the electron Resolution Improvement Feature (eRIF) is tested, which is based on the dose modulation and multiple-pass exposure, for not only overcoming the narrow resist process windows and disability of exposure tool but also more accurate correction of exposure data in the application of sub-35nm regime. Firstly, we are demonstrating the newly developed correction method through the comparison of its test exposure and the one with conventional dose modulation method. Secondly, the electron Resolution Improvement Feature is presented with the test application for complementary exposure and with the application of real design, specifically for sub-30nm nodes. Finally, we discuss the requirements of data preparation for the practical applications in e-beam lithography, especially for future technology nodes.

  20. EIA directory of electronic products fourth quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-23

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) makes available for public use a series of machine-readable data files and computer models. The data files and models are made available to the public on magnetic tapes. In addition, selected data files/models are available on diskette for IBM-compatible personal computers. For each product listed in this directory, a detailed abstract is provided which describes the data published.

  1. Modeling electron dynamics coupled to continuum states in finite volumes with absorbing boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Giovannini, Umberto; Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Rubio, Angel

    2015-03-01

    Absorbing boundaries are frequently employed in real-time propagation of the Schrödinger equation to remove spurious reflections and efficiently emulate outgoing boundary conditions. These conditions are a fundamental ingredient for the calculation of observables involving infinitely extended continuum states in finite volumes. In the literature, several boundary absorbers have been proposed. They mostly fall into three main families: mask function absorbers, complex absorbing potentials, and exterior complex-scaled potentials. To date none of the proposed absorbers is perfect, and all present a certain degree of reflections. Characterization of such reflections is thus a critical task with strong implications for time-dependent simulations of atoms and molecules. We introduce a method to evaluate the reflection properties of a given absorber and present a comparison of selected samples for each family of absorbers. Further, we discuss the connections between members of each family and show how the same reflection curves can be obtained with very different absorption schemes.

  2. On production of gamma rays and relativistic runaway electron avalanches from Martian dust storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabshahi, Shahab; Majid, Walid A.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2017-08-01

    Production of runaway electron avalanches and gamma rays originating inside Martian dust storms are studied using Monte Carlo simulations. In the absence of in situ measurements, we use theoretical predictions of electric fields inside dust storms. Electrons are produced through the relativistic runaway electron avalanches process, and energetic photons are results of the bremsstrahlung scattering of the electrons with the air. Characteristic lengths of the runaway electron avalanche for different electric fields and the energy spectrum of electrons are derived and compared to their terrestrial counterparts. It is found that it is possible for Martian dust storms to develop energetic electron avalanches and produce large fluxes of gamma ray photons similar to terrestrial gamma ray flashes from Earth's thunderstorms. The phenomenon could be called Martian gamma ray flash, and due to the very thin atmosphere on Mars, it can be observed by both ground-based instruments or satellites orbiting the planet.

  3. EIA directory of electronic products, first quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) makes available for public use a series of machine-readable data files and computer models. The data files and models are made available to the public on magnetic tapes. In addition, selected data files/models are available on diskette for IBM-compatible personal computers. EIA, as the independent statistical and analytical branch of the Department of Energy, provides assistance to the general public through the National Energy Information Center (NEIC). For each product listed in this directory, a detailed abstract is provided which describes the data published. Specific technical questions may be referred to the appropriate contact person.

  4. Novel transparent electrodes allow sustainable production of electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Constant, Kristen

    2010-12-27

    A novel technique for fabricating inexpensive, transparent electrodes from common metals has been developed by engineers and scientists at Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory. They exhibit very high transparency and are very good electrical conductors. This is a combination of properties that is difficult to achieve with common materials. The most frequently used transparent electrode in today's high-technology devices (such as LCD screens) is indium tin oxide (ITO). While ITO performs well in these applications, the supply of indium is very limited. In addition, it is rapidly decreasing as consumer demand for flat-panel electronics is skyrocketing. According to a 2004 US Geological Survey report, as little as 14 years exploitation of known indium reserves remains. In addition to increasing prices, the dwindling supply of indium suggests its use is not sustainable for future generations of electronics enthusiasts. Solar cells represent another application where transparent electrodes are used. To make solar-energy collection economically feasible, all parts of solar photovoltaics must be made more efficient and cost-effective. Our novel transparent electrodes have the potential to do both. In addition, there is much interest in developing more efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly lighting. Incandescent light bulbs are very inefficient, because most of their energy consumption is wasted as heat. Fluorescent lighting is much more efficient but still uses mercury, an environmental toxin. An attractive alternative is offered by LEDs, which have very high efficiencies and long lifetimes, and do not contain mercury. If made bright enough, LED use for general lighting could provide a viable alternative. We have fabricated electrodes from more commonly available materials, using a technique that is cost effective and environmentally friendly. Most of today's electronic devices are made in specialized facilities equipped with low

  5. Mass production of volume phase holographic gratings for the VIRUS spectrograph array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonis, Taylor S.; Frantz, Amy; Hill, Gary J.; Clemens, J. Christopher; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Adams, Joshua J.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Prochaska, Travis

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple, fiber-fed integral field spectrograph that will be deployed on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS is the first optical astronomical instrument to be replicated on an industrial scale, and represents a relatively inexpensive solution for carrying out large-area spectroscopic surveys, such as the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Each spectrograph contains a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating with a 138 mm diameter clear aperture as its dispersing element. The instrument utilizes the grating in first-order for 350 < λ (nm) < 550. Including witness samples, a suite of 170 VPH gratings has been mass produced for VIRUS. Here, we present the design of the VIRUS VPH gratings and a discussion of their mass production. We additionally present the design and functionality of a custom apparatus that has been used to rapidly test the first-order diffraction efficiency of the gratings for various discrete wavelengths within the VIRUS spectral range. This device has been used to perform both in-situ tests to monitor the effects of adjustments to the production prescription as well as to carry out the final acceptance tests of the gratings' diffraction efficiency. Finally, we present the as-built performance results for the entire suite of VPH gratings.

  6. Variable volume fed-batch fermentation for nisin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis W28.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhaoliang; Wang, Lin; Jing, Yingjun; Li, Xueliang; Zhao, Yanli

    2009-03-01

    A feeding technology that was suitable for improving the nisin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis W28 was established. The effects of initial sucrose concentration (ISC) in the fermentation broth, feeding time, and feeding rate on the fermentation were studied. It was observed that a fed-batch culture (ISC = 10 g l(-1)) with 100 ml sucrose solution (190 g l(-1)) being evenly fed (9-10 ml h(-1)) into the fermenter after 3-h fermentation gave the best performance in terms of biomass and nisin yield. Under these conditions, the total biomass and the total nisin yield were approximately 23% and 51% higher than those in batch fermentation, respectively. When the sucrose concentration was controlled at 5-10 g l(-1) in variable volume intermittent fed-batch fermentation (VVIF) with ISC = 10 g l(-1), the total biomass and the total nisin yield were 29% and 60% above those in batch fermentation, respectively. The VVIF proved to be effective to eliminate the substrate inhibition by maintaining sucrose at appropriate levels. It is also easy to be scaled up, since various parameters involved in industrial production were taken into account.

  7. Implementation of tank volume measurement equipment at the Mayak Production Association

    SciTech Connect

    Darenskikh, O.; Suda, S.C.; Valente, J.U.; Zuhoski, P.B.; Salwen, C.A.

    1997-12-31

    One goal of the United States Russia Cooperative program to improve nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) in Russian facilities is to computerize material accounting techniques for bulk materials. Such materials include liquid solutions at radiochemical plants: dissolver, intermediate product, and waste. Material accounting techniques for tank volume measurements (TVM) are needed to determine the nuclear material content of these solutions (chemical and isotopic analysis are also required). The content is required to close the material balance in a radiochemical plant. Computerization of these techniques can provide unattended measurements of material flows, improved precision and accuracy, reduced operator effort, and lower radiation exposure of operators--with equipment that is predominantly remote from high radiation areas. This paper describes the technical activities that contributed to the successful integration of the TVM system, developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), into the Mayak Production Association radiochemical plant conducted under the US/Russian cooperative MPC and A Program. US assistance with installation and adjustment of the instrumentation was completed in May 1997. After that, Mayak experts on measurement and metrology continued mastering and testing the equipment.

  8. Concentrating-collector mass-production feasibility. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-02

    The Performance Prototype Trough (PPT) Concentrating Collector consists of four 80-foot modules in a 320-foot row. The collector was analyzed, including cost estimates and manufacturing processes to produce collectors in volumes from 100 to 100,000 modules per year. The four different reflector concepts considered were the sandwich reflector structure, sheet metal reflector structure, molded reflector structure, and glass laminate structure. The sheet metal and glass laminate structures are emphasized with their related structure concepts. A preliminary manufacturing plan is offered that includes: documentation of the manufacturing process with production flow diagrams; labor and material costs at various production levels; machinery and equipment requirements including preliminary design specifications; and capital investment costs for a new plant. Of five reflector designs considered, the two judged best and considered at length are thin annealed glass and steel laminate on steel frame panel and thermally sagged glass. Also discussed are market considerations, costing and selling price estimates, design cost analysis and make/buy analysis. (LEW)

  9. Annual Review of Research under the Joint Services Electronics Program. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Products," J. Murray. 0. Theses and Dissertations: 1. A Digital Signal Processing and Display System, J . Scott Hawker, M.S. Thesis, Texas Tech University...Dissertation, Department of Mathematics, Texas Tech University, in preparation. Hawker, J . Scott , "A Digital Signal Processing and Display System

  10. Applications of on-product diffraction-based focus metrology in logic high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, Ben F.; Mokaberi, Babak; Bolton, David; Li, Chen; Palande, Ashwin; Park, Kevin; Noot, Marc; Kea, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The integration of on-product diffraction-based focus (DBF) capability into the majority of immersion lithography layers in leading edge logic manufacturing has enabled new applications targeted towards improving cycle time and yield. A CD-based detection method is the process of record (POR) for excursion detection. The drawback of this method is increased cycle time and limited sampling due to CD-SEM metrology capacity constraints. The DBFbased method allows the addition of focus metrology samples to the existing overlay measurements on the integrated metrology (IM) system. The result enables the addition of measured focus to the SPC system, allowing a faster excursion detection method. For focus targeting, the current method involves using a dedicated focus-exposure matrix (FEM) on all scanners, resulting in lengthy analysis times and uncertainty in the best focus. The DBF method allows the measurement to occur on the IM system, on a regular production wafer, and at the same time as the exposure. This results in a cycle time gain as well as a less subjective determination of best focus. A third application aims to use the novel onproduct focus metrology data in order to apply per-exposure focus corrections to the scanner. These corrections are particularly effective at the edge of the wafer, where systematic layer-dependent effects can be removed using DBFbased scanner feedback. This paper will discuss the development of a methodology to accomplish each of these applications in a high-volume production environment. The new focus metrology method, sampling schemes, feedback mechanisms and analysis methods lead to improved focus control, as well as earlier detection of failures.

  11. 21 CFR 1004.2 - Plans for the repair of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conformity with applicable Federal standards or for remedying any defect in such product shall be submitted to the Secretary in writing, and in addition to other relevant information which the Secretary may..., will repair the electronic product involved, (2) Of the method by which the manufacturer will obtain...

  12. 21 CFR 1004.2 - Plans for the repair of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plans for the repair of electronic products. 1004.2 Section 1004.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., alterations, changes, repairs, corrections, or adjustments to be made to bring the product into conformity...

  13. Photoluminescence properties of new Zn(II) complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline ligands: Dependence on volume and electronic effect of substituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Yanping; Lu, Jiguo; Hu, Sheng; Zhang, Liming; Zhao, Fenghua; Huang, Huarong; Huang, Baohua; Zhang, Li

    2015-03-01

    A series of 2-arylethenyl-8-hydroxyquinoline ligands (A1-A4) with a trimethoxyphenyl, naphthyl, 2-fluoro-4-bromophenyl and anthracenyl group and their corresponding Zn(II) complexes (B1-B4) were synthesized and characterized by means of 1H NMR, ESI-MS, FT-IR and elemental analysis. A1 and A4 were characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The aggregation behavior of zinc salt and ligands in solution was investigated by several techniques, containing 1H NMR, UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL). The electronic nature and volume of arylethenyl substituents affect the absorption wavelength, the emission color, fluorescence lifetime, fluorescence quantum yield and thermostability of Zn(II) complexes. The experiments corroborated that the properties of Zinc(II) complexes can be tuned by introducing different functional substituents.

  14. Atomic spectral-product representations of molecular electronic structure: metric matrices and atomic-product composition of molecular eigenfunctions.

    PubMed

    Ben-Nun, M; Mills, J D; Hinde, R J; Winstead, C L; Boatz, J A; Gallup, G A; Langhoff, P W

    2009-07-02

    Recent progress is reported in development of ab initio computational methods for the electronic structures of molecules employing the many-electron eigenstates of constituent atoms in spectral-product forms. The approach provides a universal atomic-product description of the electronic structure of matter as an alternative to more commonly employed valence-bond- or molecular-orbital-based representations. The Hamiltonian matrix in this representation is seen to comprise a sum over atomic energies and a pairwise sum over Coulombic interaction terms that depend only on the separations of the individual atomic pairs. Overall electron antisymmetry can be enforced by unitary transformation when appropriate, rather than as a possibly encumbering or unnecessary global constraint. The matrix representative of the antisymmetrizer in the spectral-product basis, which is equivalent to the metric matrix of the corresponding explicitly antisymmetric basis, provides the required transformation to antisymmetric or linearly independent states after Hamiltonian evaluation. Particular attention is focused in the present report on properties of the metric matrix and on the atomic-product compositions of molecular eigenstates as described in the spectral-product representations. Illustrative calculations are reported for simple but prototypically important diatomic (H(2), CH) and triatomic (H(3), CH(2)) molecules employing algorithms and computer codes devised recently for this purpose. This particular implementation of the approach combines Slater-orbital-based one- and two-electron integral evaluations, valence-bond constructions of standard tableau functions and matrices, and transformations to atomic eigenstate-product representations. The calculated metric matrices and corresponding potential energy surfaces obtained in this way elucidate a number of aspects of the spectral-product development, including the nature of closure in the representation, the general redundancy or

  15. Production and delivery of a fluid mixture to an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E [Los Alamos, NM; Bland, Ronald Gene [Houston, TX; Foley, Ron Lee [Magnolia, TX; Bloys, James B [Katy, TX; Gonzalez, Manuel E [Kingwood, NM; Daniel, John M [Germantown, TN; Robinson, Ian M [Guisborough, GB; Carpenter, Robert B [Tomball, TX

    2012-01-24

    The methods described herein generally relate to preparing and delivering a fluid mixture to a confined volume, specifically an annular volume located between two concentrically oriented casing strings within a hydrocarbon fluid producing well. The fluid mixtures disclosed herein are useful in controlling pressure in localized volumes. The fluid mixtures comprise at least one polymerizable monomer and at least one inhibitor. The processes and methods disclosed herein allow the fluid mixture to be stored, shipped and/or injected into localized volumes, for example, an annular volume defined by concentric well casing strings.

  16. Photo-production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc with electron linear accelerator beam.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, R; Avetisyan, A; Kerobyan, I; Dallakyan, R

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development of a relatively new method for the production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. The method involves the irradiation of natural molybdenum using high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons from the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator located at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhi). The production method has been developed and shown to be successful. The linear electron accelerator at YerPhi was upgraded to allow for significant increases of the beam intensity and spatial density. The LUE50 was also instrumented by a remote control system for ease of operation. We have developed and tested the (99m)Tc extraction from the irradiation of natural MoO3. This paper reports on the optimal conditions of our method of (99)Mo production. We show the success of this method with the production and separation of the first usable amounts of (99m)Tc.

  17. Phytoplankton Productivity in an Arctic Fjord (West Greenland): Estimating Electron Requirements for Carbon Fixation and Oxygen Production

    PubMed Central

    Hancke, Kasper; Dalsgaard, Tage; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Markager, Stiig; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of pelagic primary production is essential for quantifying the marine carbon turnover and the energy supply to the food web. Knowing the electron requirement (Κ) for carbon (C) fixation (ΚC) and oxygen (O2) production (ΚO2), variable fluorescence has the potential to quantify primary production in microalgae, and hereby increasing spatial and temporal resolution of measurements compared to traditional methods. Here we quantify ΚC and ΚO2 through measures of Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry, C fixation and O2 production in an Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjorden, W Greenland). Through short- (2h) and long-term (24h) experiments, rates of electron transfer (ETRPSII), C fixation and/or O2 production were quantified and compared. Absolute rates of ETR were derived by accounting for Photosystem II light absorption and spectral light composition. Two-hour incubations revealed a linear relationship between ETRPSII and gross 14C fixation (R2 = 0.81) during light-limited photosynthesis, giving a ΚC of 7.6 ± 0.6 (mean ± S.E.) mol é (mol C)−1. Diel net rates also demonstrated a linear relationship between ETRPSII and C fixation giving a ΚC of 11.2 ± 1.3 mol é (mol C)−1 (R2 = 0.86). For net O2 production the electron requirement was lower than for net C fixation giving 6.5 ± 0.9 mol é (mol O2)−1 (R2 = 0.94). This, however, still is an electron requirement 1.6 times higher than the theoretical minimum for O2 production [i.e. 4 mol é (mol O2)−1]. The discrepancy is explained by respiratory activity and non-photochemical electron requirements and the variability is discussed. In conclusion, the bio-optical method and derived electron requirement support conversion of ETR to units of C or O2, paving the road for improved spatial and temporal resolution of primary production estimates. PMID:26218096

  18. Phytoplankton Productivity in an Arctic Fjord (West Greenland): Estimating Electron Requirements for Carbon Fixation and Oxygen Production.

    PubMed

    Hancke, Kasper; Dalsgaard, Tage; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Markager, Stiig; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of pelagic primary production is essential for quantifying the marine carbon turnover and the energy supply to the food web. Knowing the electron requirement (Κ) for carbon (C) fixation (ΚC) and oxygen (O2) production (ΚO2), variable fluorescence has the potential to quantify primary production in microalgae, and hereby increasing spatial and temporal resolution of measurements compared to traditional methods. Here we quantify ΚC and ΚO2 through measures of Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry, C fixation and O2 production in an Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjorden, W Greenland). Through short- (2h) and long-term (24h) experiments, rates of electron transfer (ETRPSII), C fixation and/or O2 production were quantified and compared. Absolute rates of ETR were derived by accounting for Photosystem II light absorption and spectral light composition. Two-hour incubations revealed a linear relationship between ETRPSII and gross 14C fixation (R2 = 0.81) during light-limited photosynthesis, giving a ΚC of 7.6 ± 0.6 (mean ± S.E.) mol é (mol C)-1. Diel net rates also demonstrated a linear relationship between ETRPSII and C fixation giving a ΚC of 11.2 ± 1.3 mol é (mol C)-1 (R2 = 0.86). For net O2 production the electron requirement was lower than for net C fixation giving 6.5 ± 0.9 mol é (mol O2)-1 (R2 = 0.94). This, however, still is an electron requirement 1.6 times higher than the theoretical minimum for O2 production [i.e. 4 mol é (mol O2)-1]. The discrepancy is explained by respiratory activity and non-photochemical electron requirements and the variability is discussed. In conclusion, the bio-optical method and derived electron requirement support conversion of ETR to units of C or O2, paving the road for improved spatial and temporal resolution of primary production estimates.

  19. Planning target volume margins for prostate radiotherapy using daily electronic portal imaging and implanted fiducial markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fiducial markers and daily electronic portal imaging (EPI) can reduce the risk of geographic miss in prostate cancer radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to estimate CTV to PTV margin requirements, without and with the use of this image guidance strategy. Methods 46 patients underwent placement of 3 radio-opaque fiducial markers prior to prostate RT. Daily pre-treatment EPIs were taken, and isocenter placement errors were corrected if they were ≥ 3 mm along the left-right or superior-inferior axes, and/or ≥ 2 mm along the anterior-posterior axis. During-treatment EPIs were then obtained to estimate intra-fraction motion. Results Without image guidance, margins of 0.57 cm, 0.79 cm and 0.77 cm, along the left-right, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior axes respectively, are required to give 95% probability of complete CTV coverage each day. With the above image guidance strategy, these margins can be reduced to 0.36 cm, 0.37 cm and 0.37 cm respectively. Correction of all isocenter placement errors, regardless of size, would permit minimal additional reduction in margins. Conclusions Image guidance, using implanted fiducial markers and daily EPI, permits the use of narrower PTV margins without compromising coverage of the target, in the radiotherapy of prostate cancer. PMID:20537161

  20. Electron Production, Electron Attachment, and Charge Recombination Process in High Pressure Gas Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-25

    Huxley and R. W. Crompton, The Dtiffsion and Drift of Elec- cess that leads to the production of Br-. The current results trons in Gases (Wiley, New...1964). "L. G. H. Huxley and R. W. Crompton, The Diffusion and Drift of Elec- This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scien- irons in Gases...1978), "L. G. H. Huxley and R. W. Crompton, The Diffusion and Drift of Elec- p. 292. trons in Gases (Wiley, New York, 1974), pp. 298-303. ŚD. L

  1. Melt production in large-scale impact events: Calculations of impact-melt volumes and crater scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Grieve, Richard A. F.

    1992-01-01

    Along with an apparent convergence in estimates of impact-melt volumes produced during planetary impact events, intensive efforts at deriving scaling relationships for crater dimensions have also yielded results. It is now possible to examine a variety of phenomena associated with impact-melt production during large cratering events and apply them to planetary problems. This contribution describes a method of combining calculations of impact-melt production with crater scaling to investigate the relationship between the two.

  2. Animal Use and Lessons Learned in the U.S. High Production Volume Chemicals Challenge Program

    PubMed Central

    Manuppello, Joseph R.; Willett, Catherine E.; Sandler, Jessica T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Launched by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1998, the High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program was developed to address the perceived gap in basic hazard information for the 2,800 chemicals produced or imported into the United States in quantities of ≥ 1 million pounds per year. Health and environmental effects data obtained from either existing information or through new vertebrate animal testing were voluntarily submitted by chemical companies (sponsors) to the U.S. EPA. Despite the potential for extensive animal testing, animal welfare guidelines were not provided until after the start of the program. Objectives: We evaluated compliance with the animal welfare principles that arose from an agreement reached between the U.S. EPA and animal protection organizations and tracked the HPV program’s use of animals for testing. Discussion: Under a worst-case scenario, the HPV program had the potential to consume 3.5 million animals in new testing. After application of animal-saving measures, approximately 127,000 were actually used. Categorization of chemicals based on similar structure–activity and application of read-across, along with use of existing test data, were the most effective means of reducing animal testing. However, animal-saving measures were inconsistently used by both sponsors and the U.S. EPA. Conclusions: Lessons learned from the HPV program can be applied to future programs to minimize animal testing and promote more human-relevant chemical risk assessment. PMID:23033452

  3. Animal use and lessons learned in the U.S. High Production Volume Chemicals Challenge Program.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Patricia L; Manuppello, Joseph R; Willett, Catherine E; Sandler, Jessica T

    2012-12-01

    Launched by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1998, the High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program was developed to address the perceived gap in basic hazard information for the 2,800 chemicals produced or imported into the United States in quantities of ≥ 1 million pounds per year. Health and environmental effects data obtained from either existing information or through new vertebrate animal testing were voluntarily submitted by chemical companies (sponsors) to the U.S. EPA. Despite the potential for extensive animal testing, animal welfare guidelines were not provided until after the start of the program. We evaluated compliance with the animal welfare principles that arose from an agreement reached between the U.S. EPA and animal protection organizations and tracked the HPV program's use of animals for testing. Under a worst-case scenario, the HPV program had the potential to consume 3.5 million animals in new testing. After application of animal-saving measures, approximately 127,000 were actually used. Categorization of chemicals based on similar structure-activity and application of read-across, along with use of existing test data, were the most effective means of reducing animal testing. However, animal-saving measures were inconsistently used by both sponsors and the U.S. EPA. Lessons learned from the HPV program can be applied to future programs to minimize animal testing and promote more human-relevant chemical risk assessment.

  4. The Relationship between the Introvert and Extravert Dichotomy and Small Unit Recruiting Volume Production within the Watertown Recruiting Company

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-22

    positive environment where employees will want to work together and improve their performance. The company commander can use analytical recruiting ...THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE INTROVERT AND EXTRAVERT DICHOTOMY AND SMALL UNIT RECRUITING VOLUME PRODUCTION WITHIN THE WATERTOWN... RECRUITING COMPANY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the

  5. Vacuum-thermal-evaporation: the route for roll-to-roll production of large-area organic electronic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. M.

    2015-05-01

    Surprisingly little consideration is apparently being given to vacuum-evaporation as the route for the roll-to-roll (R2R) production of large-area organic electronic circuits. While considerable progress has been made by combining silicon lithographic approaches with solution processing, it is not obvious that these will be compatible with a low-cost, high-speed R2R process. Most efforts at achieving this ambition are directed at conventional solution printing approaches such as inkjet and gravure. This is surprising considering that vacuum-evaporation of organic semiconductors (OSCs) is already used commercially in the production of organic light emitting diode displays. Beginning from a discussion of the materials and geometrical parameters determining transistor performance and drawing on results from numerous publications, this review makes a case for vacuum-evaporation as an enabler of R2R organic circuit production. The potential of the vacuum route is benchmarked against solution approaches and found to be highly competitive. For example, evaporated small molecules tend to have higher mobility than printed OSCs. High resolution metal patterning on plastic films is already a low-cost commercial process for high-volume packaging applications. Similarly, solvent-free flash-evaporation and polymerization of thin films on plastic substrates is also a high-volume commercial process and has been shown capable of producing robust gate dielectrics. Reports of basic logic circuit elements produced in a vacuum R2R environment are reviewed and shown to be superior to all-solution printing approaches. Finally, the main issues that need to be resolved in order to fully develop the vacuum route to R2R circuit production are highlighted.

  6. Guidelines for estimating volume, biomass, and smoke production for piled slash. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, C.C.

    1996-02-01

    Guidelines in the form of a six-step approach are provided for estimating volumes, oven-dry mass, consumption, and particulate matter emissions for piled logging debris. Seven stylized pile shapes and their associated geometric volume formulae are used to estimate gross pile volumes. The gross volumes are then reduced to net wood volume by applying an appropriate wood-to-pile volume packing ratio. Next, the oven-dry mass of the pile is determined by using the wood density, or a weighted-average of two wood densitities, for any of 14 tree species commonly piled and burned in the Western United States. Finally, the percentage of biomass consumed is multiplied by an appropriate emission factor to determine the mass of PM, PM10, and PM2.5 produced from the burned pile. These estimates can be extended to represent multiple piles, or multiple groups of similar piles, to estimate the particulate emissions from an entire burn project.

  7. Performance optimization in mass production of volume holographic optical elements (vHOEs) using Bayfol HX photopolymer film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Grote, Fabian; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Koch, Eberhard; Rewitz, Christian; Walze, Günther; Wewer, Brita

    2017-05-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) gained wide attention as optical combiners for the use in smart glasses and augmented reality (SG and AR, respectively) consumer electronics and automotive head-up display applications. The unique characteristics of these diffractive grating structures - being lightweight, thin and flat - make them perfectly suitable for use in integrated optical components like spectacle lenses and car windshields. While being transparent in Off-Bragg condition, they provide full color capability and adjustable diffraction efficiency. The instant developing photopolymer Bayfol® HX film provides an ideal technology platform to optimize the performance of vHOEs in a wide range of applications. Important for any commercialization are simple and robust mass production schemes. In this paper, we present an efficient and easy to control one-beam recording scheme to copy a so-called master vHOE in a step-and-repeat process. In this contact-copy scheme, Bayfol® HX film is laminated to a master stack before being exposed by a scanning laser line. Subsequently, the film is delaminated in a controlled fashion and bleached. We explain working principles of the one-beam copy concept, discuss the opto-mechanical construction and outline the downstream process of the installed vHOE replication line. Moreover, we focus on aspects like performance optimization of the copy vHOE, the bleaching process and the suitable choice of protective cover film in the re-lamination step, preparing the integration of the vHOE into the final device.

  8. Seed electron production from O{sup -} ions under high-power microwave excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Edmiston, G. F.; Neuber, A. A.; Krompholz, H. G.; Krile, J. T.

    2008-03-15

    Surface and volume breakdown formation during pulsed high-power microwave (HPM) excitation can severely limit the power densities which can be transmitted into an atmospheric medium. Recent studies in this area have focused on developing models which accurately predict flashover formation at either dielectric/air interfaces or in the gas volume directly adjacent to these interfaces. These models are typically validated through comparison with experimentally gathered data. With respect to HPM surface flashover, experiments in the S-band at 5 MW power levels have reported on the contributing factors to flashover development including the effects of gas type, pressure, and relative humidity. A Monte Carlo-type electron motion simulation code, MC, has been developed to calculate the increasing electron density during flashover formation in this case. Results from the MC code have exhibited a quantitative agreement with experimental data over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. A critical parameter to flashover development is the stochastic process involving the appearance of initiatory or ''seed'' electrons, as seen by the reduction in flashover delay time by approximately 10-20% in the presence of external ultraviolet illumination. While the current version of the MC code seeds the flashover location with electron densities on the order of background ion densities produced by cosmic radiation, it fails to incorporate the field-assisted collisional detachment processes which are often assumed to be the primary origin of these electrons on the time scales of interest. Investigation of these processes and development of more accurate seeding in the MC code is a key step toward predicting HPM flashover over a wide range of parameters, particularly in the presence of highly electronegative gases such as SF{sub 6} or O{sub 2}, in which there is an absence of free electrons with zero applied field.

  9. Cross sections for H(-) and Cl(-) production from HCl by dissociative electron attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    A crossed target beam-electron beam collision geometry and a quadrupole mass spectrometer have been used to conduct dissociative electron attachment cross section measurements for the case of H(-) and Cl(-) production from HCl. The relative flow technique is used to determine the absolute values of cross sections. A tabulation is given of the attachment energies corresponding to various cross section maxima. Error sources contributing to total errors are also estimated.

  10. Double K-shell vacancy production in the electron capture decay of 139Ce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindi, M. M.; Kozub, R. L.

    1991-02-01

    The probability of double K-shell vacancy production in the electron capture decay of 139Ce to the 166-keV level of 139La has been investigated. Triple coincidences between the 166-keV gamma ray, the La satellite Kα x ray, and the La hypersatellite Kα x ray were measured using two intrinsic Ge detectors. We looked for the sum of two of the three radiations in one detector in coincidence with the third radiation in the other detector. The probability of double K-shell vacancy production per K-shell electron capture (PKK) was found to be (2.0+/-1.6)×10-6. From this and the known PKK for 131Cs we estimate a probability for zero K-shell vacancy production (shakedown) per K-shell electron capture of <~2.4×10-5 for 139Ce.

  11. Influence of complex impact of the picosecond electron beam and volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air on the electronic properties of MCT epitaxial films surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, Denis V.; Novikov, Vadim A.; Bezrodnyy, Dmitriy A.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shulepov, Michail A.; Dvoretskii, Sergei A.

    2015-12-01

    In the present report we studied the distribution of surface potential of the HgCdTe epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy after the impact of picosecond electron beam and volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air. The surface potential distribution was studied by the Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy. The experimental data obtained for the variation of the contact potential difference (ΔCPD) between the V-defect and the main matrix of the epitaxial film. The investigation of the origin epitaxial films show that variation of the spatial distribution of surface potential in the V-defect region can be related to the variation of the material composition. The experimental data obtained for the irradiated samples show that the mean value of ΔCPD for the original surface differs from the one for the irradiated surface for 55 eV. At the same time the mean value of ΔCPD changes its sign indicating that the original surface of the epitaxial HgCdTe film predominantly contains the grains with increased cadmium content while after the irradiation the grains possess an increased content of mercury. Therefore, during the irradiation process a decrease of the mercury content in the near-surface region of the semiconductor takes place resulting in the alteration of the electrophysical properties in the films near-surface region.

  12. Hot electron production and control with intense green (2w) laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, L.; Kruer, W.; Miller, M.; Kauffman, R.; Oades, K.; Stevenson, M.; Slark, G.; Foster, J.

    2002-11-01

    We report on green light experiments using AWE's HELEN laser to drive a variety of targets including gasbags, gas-filled hohlraums and supersonic jets. These experiments show a clear scaling of hot electron production with density and a very dramatic ability to regulate hot electron production by varying plasma composition. In particular, we find that we can systematically generate hot electrons fractions in excess of 10hot electron production can be quenched by changing to gasses such as C02 or Kr. Accompanying the quenching is a near disappearance of raman backscatter. In small scale-length, turbulent plasmas we find it more difficult to generate hot electrons than in homogeneous plasma. In all these experiments hot electron temperatures are 30keV, independent of density, an effect that may be due to ion mobility coupled with relatively low Il2 (<1e15). This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  13. Mesospheric NO2 production due to relativistic electron precipitation from 2007 till 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friederich, Felix; Sinnhuber, Miriam; Funke, Bernd; von Clarmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele; Orphal, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    Electrons of the radiation belts and the aurora can precipitate into the Earth's atmosphere. Depending on their energy they intrude into different altitudes and can excitate, ionize, and dissociate molecular nitrogen. Subsequent (ion-)chemical reactions result in an effective NOx-production (NOx=NO+NO2). NOx is produced mostly by auroral electrons in the thermosphere at ca. 110 km altitude. But relativistic electrons from the radiation belts can also reach the stratosphere. However, in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere, no direct NOx-production due to electron precipitation has been detected yet. We use NO2 observations from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat in the altitude range from 40 km to 60 km in order to search for direct NOx-production. We show that the AP index correlates with the nighttime NO2 abundance between 44 km and 54 km altitude at 65±5°N geomagnetic latitude. At these altitudes the NO2 ratio of nighttime NOx is between 80 % and 100 %. Because of the correlation between AP index and nighttime NO2, we conclude, that there is direct NOx-production caused by relativistic electrons about 0.5 ppb at the most.

  14. Studies of slow-positron production using low-energy primary electron beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Lessner, E.

    1999-04-20

    Slow-positron beams produced from negative-work-function solid-state moderators have found numerous applications in condensed matter physics. There are potential advantages in using low-energy primary electron beams for positron production, including reduced radiation damage to single-crystal moderators and reduced activation of nearby components. We present numerical calculations of positron yields and other beam parameters for various target-moderator configurations using the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) [1] and Advanced Photon Source (APS) [2] electron linacs [3] as examples of sources for the primary electron beams. The status of experiments at these facilities is reviewed.

  15. Double K-shell vacancy production in the electron capture decay of 125I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindi, M. M.; Kozub, R. L.

    1992-03-01

    We have measured the probability of double K-shell vacancy production in the electron capture decay of 125I to the 35-keV level of 125Te. The probability was deduced from the number of triple coincidences between the Te hypersatellite and satellite x rays produced in filling the double vacancy, and the subsequent normal x ray accompanying the K internal conversion of the 35-keV level. The probability of double K-shell vacancy production per K-shell electron capture (PKK) was found to be (1.35+/-0.15)×10-5.

  16. Managing Leaf Area for Maximum Volume Production in a Loblolly Pine Plantation

    Treesearch

    Shufang Yu; Quang V. Cao; Jim L. Chambers; Zhenmin Tang; James D. Haywood

    1999-01-01

    To manage loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands for maximum volume growth, the relationships between volume growth and leaf area at the tree and stand level under different cultural practices (thinning and fertilization) were examined. Forty-eight trees were harvested in 1995, six years after treatment, for individual tree measurements, and 336...

  17. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    PubMed Central

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications. PMID:26883390

  18. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  19. Dissociative Ionization and Product Distributions of Benzene and Pyridine by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Huo, Winifred M.; Fletcher, Graham D.

    2003-01-01

    We report a theoretical study of the dissociative ionization (DI) and product distributions of benzene (C6H6) and pyridine (C5H5N) from their low-lying ionization channels. Our approach makes use of the fact that electronic motion is much faster than nuclear motion allowing DI to be treated as a two-step process. The first step is the electron-impact ionization resulting in an ion with the same nuclear geometry as the neutral molecule. In the second step, the nuclei relax from the initial geometry and undergo unimolecular dissociation. For the ionization process we use the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model [W.M. Huo, Phys. Rev. A64,042719-I (2001)]. For the unimolecular dissociation, we use multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) methods to determine the steepest descent pathways to the possible product channels. More accurate methods are then used to obtain better energetics of the paths which are used to determine unimolecular dissociation probabilities and product distributions. Our analysis of the dissociation products and the thresholds of their productions for benzene are compared with the recent dissociative photoionization meausurements of benzene by Feng et al. [R. Feng, G. Cooper, C.E. Brion, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 123,211 (2002)] and the dissociative photoionization measurements of pyridine by Tixier et al. [S. Tixier, G. Cooper, R. Feng, C.E. Brion, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 123,185 (2002)] using dipole (e,e+ion) coincidence spectroscopy.

  20. A systematic procedure for modeling usability based on product design variables: a case study in audiovisual consumer electronic products.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Jae; Han, Sung H; Yun, Myung Hwan; Kwahk, Jiyoung

    2002-01-01

    A systematic modeling approach to describing, prescribing, and predicting usability of a product has been presented. Given the evaluation results of the usability dimension (UD) and the measurement of the product's design variables, referred to as the human interface elements (HIEs), the approach enables one to systematically assess the relationship between the UD and HIEs. The assessed relationship is called a usability model. Once built, such a usability model can relate, in a quantitative manner, the HIEs directly to the UDs, and thus can serve as an effective aid to designers by evaluating and predicting the usability of an existing or hypothetical product. A usability model for elegance of audiovisual consumer electronic products has been demonstrated.

  1. A quality-based cost model for new electronic systems and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shina, Sammy G.; Saigal, Anil

    1998-04-01

    This article outlines a method for developing a quality-based cost model for the design of new electronic systems and products. The model incorporates a methodology for determining a cost-effective design margin allocation for electronic products and systems and its impact on manufacturing quality and cost. A spreadsheet-based cost estimating tool was developed to help implement this methodology in order for the system design engineers to quickly estimate the effect of design decisions and tradeoffs on the quality and cost of new products. The tool was developed with automatic spreadsheet connectivity to current process capability and with provisions to consider the impact of capital equipment and tooling purchases to reduce the product cost.

  2. Automated Transmission-Mode Scanning Electron Microscopy (tSEM) for Large Volume Analysis at Nanoscale Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M.; Lindsey, Laurence F.; Harris, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM) on a field emission SEM platform was developed for efficient and cost-effective imaging of circuit-scale volumes from brain at nanoscale resolution. Image area was maximized while optimizing the resolution and dynamic range necessary for discriminating key subcellular structures, such as small axonal, dendritic and glial processes, synapses, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, polyribosomes, and endosomes which are critical for neuronal function. Individual image fields from the tSEM system were up to 4,295 µm2 (65.54 µm per side) at 2 nm pixel size, contrasting with image fields from a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM) system, which were only 66.59 µm2 (8.160 µm per side) at the same pixel size. The tSEM produced outstanding images and had reduced distortion and drift relative to TEM. Automated stage and scan control in tSEM easily provided unattended serial section imaging and montaging. Lens and scan properties on both TEM and SEM platforms revealed no significant nonlinear distortions within a central field of ∼100 µm2 and produced near-perfect image registration across serial sections using the computational elastic alignment tool in Fiji/TrakEM2 software, and reliable geometric measurements from RECONSTRUCT™ or Fiji/TrakEM2 software. Axial resolution limits the analysis of small structures contained within a section (∼45 nm). Since this new tSEM is non-destructive, objects within a section can be explored at finer axial resolution in TEM tomography with current methods. Future development of tSEM tomography promises thinner axial resolution producing nearly isotropic voxels and should provide within-section analyses of structures without changing platforms. Brain was the test system given our interest in synaptic connectivity and plasticity; however, the new tSEM system is readily applicable to other biological systems. PMID:23555711

  3. Automated transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM) for large volume analysis at nanoscale resolution.

    PubMed

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M; Lindsey, Laurence F; Harris, Kristen M

    2013-01-01

    Transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM) on a field emission SEM platform was developed for efficient and cost-effective imaging of circuit-scale volumes from brain at nanoscale resolution. Image area was maximized while optimizing the resolution and dynamic range necessary for discriminating key subcellular structures, such as small axonal, dendritic and glial processes, synapses, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, polyribosomes, and endosomes which are critical for neuronal function. Individual image fields from the tSEM system were up to 4,295 µm(2) (65.54 µm per side) at 2 nm pixel size, contrasting with image fields from a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM) system, which were only 66.59 µm(2) (8.160 µm per side) at the same pixel size. The tSEM produced outstanding images and had reduced distortion and drift relative to TEM. Automated stage and scan control in tSEM easily provided unattended serial section imaging and montaging. Lens and scan properties on both TEM and SEM platforms revealed no significant nonlinear distortions within a central field of ∼100 µm(2) and produced near-perfect image registration across serial sections using the computational elastic alignment tool in Fiji/TrakEM2 software, and reliable geometric measurements from RECONSTRUCT™ or Fiji/TrakEM2 software. Axial resolution limits the analysis of small structures contained within a section (∼45 nm). Since this new tSEM is non-destructive, objects within a section can be explored at finer axial resolution in TEM tomography with current methods. Future development of tSEM tomography promises thinner axial resolution producing nearly isotropic voxels and should provide within-section analyses of structures without changing platforms. Brain was the test system given our interest in synaptic connectivity and plasticity; however, the new tSEM system is readily applicable to other biological systems.

  4. The relationship between perceived quality and divulgation strategies of products in the electronic marketplace.

    PubMed

    Costa, João; Horn, Milton

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces concepts regarding management design, the electronic marketplace and recommendation systems, as well as uses a revised bibliography proposing the relationship between applied management design strategies and recommendation products identified through Cazella and the different types of perceived quality developped by Michalos and Schwartz.

  5. 22 CFR 62.71 - Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019. 62.71 Section 62.71 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.71 Control...

  6. 22 CFR 62.71 - Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019. 62.71 Section 62.71 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.71 Control...

  7. 22 CFR 62.71 - Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019. 62.71 Section 62.71 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.71 Control...

  8. 22 CFR 62.71 - Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019. 62.71 Section 62.71 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.71 Control...

  9. 22 CFR 62.71 - Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019. 62.71 Section 62.71 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.71 Control...

  10. PowerCore{trademark}, NiMH production prototype for portable electronics. Quarterly report R02

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, P.C.

    1998-01-30

    The objective of this project is to build a production prototype of Power Core structural battery for applications as a hard case for portable electronic devices. The reports summarizes the work completed since the last report. It briefly describes the problems that were experienced. It also gives details of progress versus statement of work task definitions.

  11. 77 FR 20416 - Used Electronic Products: An Examination of U.S. Exports; Proposed Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... electronic products from the United States. The Commission will base its report on a review of available data and other information, including the collection of primary data through a survey of enterprises... Questionnaire. (3) Type of request: New. (4) Frequency of use: Industry questionnaire, single data gathering...

  12. 21 CFR 1004.4 - Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... electronic product shall be submitted to the Secretary in writing, and in addition to other relevant... applicable Federal standard and has no defect relating to the safety of its use. (e) A time limit, reasonable...) Of the amount to be refunded exclusive of transportation costs, (3) Of the method by which the...

  13. Electron-positron pair production in the Aharonov-Bohm potential

    SciTech Connect

    Skarzhinsky, V.D. |; Audretsch, J.; Jasper, U.

    1996-02-01

    In the framework of QED we evaluate the cross section for electron-positron pair production by a single photon in the presence of the external Aharonov-Bohm potential in first order of perturbation theory. We analyze energy, angular, and polarization distributions at different energy regines: near the threshold and at high photon energies. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2006-01-01

    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year…

  15. Using the scanning electron microscope on the production line to assure quality semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adolphsen, J. W.; Anstead, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    The use of the scanning electron microscope to detect metallization defects introduced during batch processing of semiconductor devices is discussed. A method of determining metallization integrity was developed which culminates in a procurement specification using the scanning microscope on the production line as a quality control tool. Batch process control of the metallization operation is monitored early in the manufacturing cycle.

  16. 12 CFR 7.5002 - Furnishing of products and services by electronic means and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Establishing, registering, and hosting commercially enabled web sites in the name of sellers; (ii) Establishing... a collection of links to web sites of third-party vendors, organized by-product type and made available to bank customers; (iii) Hosting an electronic marketplace on the bank's Internet web site...

  17. Dissociation of CH4 by electron impact: Production of metastable hydrogen and carbon fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, T. G.; Carnahan, B. L.; Zipf, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    Metastable fragments produced by electron impact excitation of CH4 have been investigated for incident electron energies from threshold to 300 eV. Only metastable hydrogen and carbon atoms were observed. Onset energies for the production of metastable hydrogen atoms were observed at electron impact energies of 22.0 + or - .5 eV, 25.5 + or - .6 eV, 36.7 + or - .6 eV and 66 + or - 3 eV, and at 26.6 + or - .6 eV for the production of metastable carbon atoms. Most of the fragments appear to have been formed in high-lying Rydberg states. The total metastable hydrogen cross section reaches a maximum value of approximately 1 X 10 to the minus 18th power sq cm at 100 eV. At the same energy, the metastable carbon cross section is 2 x 10 to the minus 19th power sq cm.

  18. Bound-free electron-positron pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengül, M. Y.; Güçlü, M. C.; Fritzsche, S.

    2009-10-01

    The bound-free electron-positron pair production is considered for relativistic heavy ion collisions. In particular, cross sections are calculated for the pair production with the simultaneous capture of the electron into the 1s ground state of one of the ions and for energies that are relevant for the relativistic heavy ion collider and the large hadron colliders. In the framework of perturbation theory, we applied Monte Carlo integration techniques to compute the lowest-order Feynman diagrams amplitudes by using Darwin wave functions for the bound states of the electrons and Sommerfeld-Maue wave functions for the continuum states of the positrons. Calculations were performed especially for the collision of Au+Au at 100 GeV/nucleon and Pb+Pb at 3400 GeV/nucleon.

  19. Spatial Correlations and Distributions in Energetic Electron Production by Meter-Scale Sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, B. E.; Scherrer, Z.; Weber, K.; LeCaptain, K.; Ostgaard, N.; Grøndahl; Kochkin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Energetic radiation produced by meter-scale sparks implies the existence of a large population of energetic electrons. These electrons are believed to be produced by negative streamers in the high-field region as the spark develops. Detectors placed in the high-field region can directly detect these energetic electrons and the x-rays they produce, but the data is difficult to interpret as radiation production varies strongly from one spark to the next and may vary strongly with position within a single spark. We overcome this difficulty by collecting data from sparks with multiple detectors present to measure both intra- and inter-spark variability. Specifically, we present radiation intensity distributions over many sparks and many detector positions, together with correlations between detectors within sparks and how such correlations vary with detector separation. These statistics shed light on the scale of energetic radiation production by streamers and how and where such radiation is produced in lab sparks.

  20. Electron transfer pathways of formate-driven H2 production in Desulfovibrio.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mónica; Mourato, Cláudia; Morais-Silva, Fabio O; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D; Pereira, Inês A C

    2016-09-01

    The potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as biocatalysts for H2 production from formate was recently demonstrated, but the electron transfer pathways involved were not described. In the present work, we analyzed the H2 production capacity of five Desulfovibrio strains: Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio alaskensis, Desulfovibrio fructosivorans, and Desulfovibrio gigas. D. vulgaris showed the highest H2 productivity (865 mL Lmedium (-1)), and D. gigas the lowest one (374 mL Lmedium (-1) of H2). The electron transfer pathways involved in formate-driven H2 production by these two organisms were further investigated through the study of deletion mutants of hydrogenases (Hases) and formate dehydrogenases (Fdhs). In D. vulgaris, the periplasmic FdhAB is the key enzyme for formate oxidation and two pathways are apparently involved in the production of H2 from formate: a direct one only involving periplasmic enzymes and a second one that involves transmembrane electron transfer and may allow energy conservation. In the presence of selenium, the Hys [NiFeSe] Hase is the main periplasmic enzyme responsible for H2 production, and the cytoplasmic Coo Hase is apparently involved in the ability of D. vulgaris to grow by converting formate to H2, in sparging conditions. Contrary to D. vulgaris, H2 production in D. gigas occurs exclusively by the direct periplasmic route and does not involve the single cytoplasmic Hase, Ech. This is the first report of the metabolic pathways involved in formate metabolism in the absence of sulfate in SRB, revealing that the electron transfer pathways are species-specific.

  1. Hot electron production using the Texas Petawatt Laser irradiating thick gold targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Devin; Liang, Edison; Clarke, Taylor; Henderson, Alexander; Chaguine, Petr; Wang, Xin; Dyer, Gilliss; Serratto, Kristina; Riley, Nathan; Donovan, Michael; Ditmire, Todd

    2013-06-01

    We present data for relativistic hot electron production by the Texas Petawatt Laser irradiating solid Au targets with thickness between 1 and 4 mm. The experiment was performed at the short focus target chamber TC1 in July 2011, with intensities on the order of several ×1019 W/cm2 and laser energies around 50 J. We discuss the design of an electron-positron magnetic spectrometer to record the lepton energy spectra ejected from the Au targets and present a deconvolution algorithm to extract the lepton energy spectra. We measured hot electron spectra out to ˜50 MeV, which show a narrow peak around 10-20 MeV, plus high energy exponential tail. The hot electron spectral shapes appear significantly different from those reported for other PW lasers.

  2. A study of Channeling, Volume Reflection and Volume Capture of 3.35 - 14.0 GeV Electrons in a bent Silicon Crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Wistisen, T. N.; Uggerhoj, U. I.; Wienands, U.; Markiewicz, T. W.; Noble, R. J.; Benson, B. L.; Smith, T.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Holtzapple, R.; Tucker, S.

    2015-12-03

    We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasi-mosaic silicon crystal. Additionally, these phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5 and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.070, 0.088, 0.13, 0.22 and 0.29 times the critical curvature respectively. We have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  3. Bio-Nano ECRIS: An electron cyclotron resonance ion source for new materials production

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, T.; Minezaki, H.; Tanaka, K.; Asaji, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Kato, Y.; Biri, S.

    2010-02-15

    We developed an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for new materials production on nanoscale. Our main target is the endohedral fullerenes, which have potential in medical care, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. In particular, iron-encapsulated fullerene can be applied as a contrast material for magnetic resonance imaging or microwave heat therapy. Thus, our new ECRIS is named the Bio-Nano ECRIS. In this article, the recent progress of the development of the Bio-Nano ECRIS is reported: (i) iron ion beam production using induction heating oven and (ii) optimization of singly charged C{sub 60} ion beam production.

  4. Earth observing system. Output data products and input requirements, version 2.0. Volume 3: Algorithm summary tables and non-EOS data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi; Chang, Hyo Duck; Krupp, Brian; Kumar, Ravindar; Swaroop, Anand

    1992-01-01

    Volume 3 assists Earth Observing System (EOS) investigators in locating required non-EOS data products by identifying their non-EOS input requirements and providing the information on data sets available at various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's), including those from Pathfinder Activities and Earth Probes. Volume 3 is intended to complement, not to duplicate, the the EOSDIS Science Data Plan (SDP) by providing detailed data set information which was not presented in the SDP. Section 9 of this volume discusses the algorithm summary tables containing information on retrieval algorithms, expected outputs and required input data. Section 10 describes the non-EOS input requirements of instrument teams and IDS investigators. Also described are the current and future data holdings of the original seven DAACS and data products planned from the future missions and projects including Earth Probes and Pathfinder Activities. Section 11 describes source of information used in compiling data set information presented in this volume. A list of data set attributes used to describe various data sets is presented in section 12 along with their descriptions. Finally, Section 13 presents the SPSO's future plan to improve this report .

  5. A spherical electron cloud hopping model for studying product branching ratios of dissociative recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2008-05-01

    A spherical electron cloud hopping (SECH) model is proposed to study the product branching ratios of dissociative recombination (DR) of polyatomic systems. In this model, the fast electron-captured process is treated as an instantaneous hopping of a cloud of uniform spherical fractional point charges onto a target M+q ion (or molecule). The sum of point charges (-1) simulates the incident electron. The sphere radius is determined by a critical distance (ReMc) between the incoming electron (e -) and the target, at which the potential energy of the e--M+q system is equal to that of the electron-captured molecule M+q-1 in a symmetry-allowed electronic state with the same structure as M+q. During the hopping procedure, the excess energies of electron association reaction are dispersed in the kinetic energies of M+q-1 atoms to conserve total energy. The kinetic energies are adjusted by linearly adding atomic momenta in the direction of driving forces induced by the scattering electron. The nuclear dynamics of the resultant M+q-1 molecule are studied by using a direct ab initio dynamics method on the adiabatic potential energy surface of M+q-1, or together with extra adiabatic surface(s) of M+q-1. For the latter case, the "fewest switches" surface hopping algorithm of Tully was adapted to deal with the nonadiabaticity in trajectory propagations. The SECH model has been applied to study the DR of both CH + and H3O+(H2O)2. The theoretical results are consistent with the experiment. It was found that water molecules play an important role in determining the product branching ratios of the molecular cluster ion.

  6. A spherical electron cloud hopping model for studying product branching ratios of dissociative recombination.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2008-05-21

    A spherical electron cloud hopping (SECH) model is proposed to study the product branching ratios of dissociative recombination (DR) of polyatomic systems. In this model, the fast electron-captured process is treated as an instantaneous hopping of a cloud of uniform spherical fractional point charges onto a target M+q ion (or molecule). The sum of point charges (-1) simulates the incident electron. The sphere radius is determined by a critical distance (Rc eM) between the incoming electron (e-) and the target, at which the potential energy of the e(-)-M+q system is equal to that of the electron-captured molecule M+q(-1) in a symmetry-allowed electronic state with the same structure as M(+q). During the hopping procedure, the excess energies of electron association reaction are dispersed in the kinetic energies of M+q(-1) atoms to conserve total energy. The kinetic energies are adjusted by linearly adding atomic momenta in the direction of driving forces induced by the scattering electron. The nuclear dynamics of the resultant M+q(-1) molecule are studied by using a direct ab initio dynamics method on the adiabatic potential energy surface of M+q(-1), or together with extra adiabatic surface(s) of M+q(-1). For the latter case, the "fewest switches" surface hopping algorithm of Tully was adapted to deal with the nonadiabaticity in trajectory propagations. The SECH model has been applied to study the DR of both CH+ and H3O+(H2O)2. The theoretical results are consistent with the experiment. It was found that water molecules play an important role in determining the product branching ratios of the molecular cluster ion.

  7. Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay for detection and quantitation of endotoxin in a small-volume parenteral product.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, K; Steindler, K A; Harrison, S J

    1980-01-01

    A Limulus amoebocyte lysate gel-clotting method for the determination of endotoxin in a small-volume parenteral product has been described. Sample dilution with 0.1 M potassium phosphate monobasic buffer (pH 8.0) effectively eliminated assay interference, whereas dilution with water did not. The threshold pyrogenic dose for Escherichia coli EC-2 and O127:B8 endotoxins was determined to be 1.0 ng of endotoxin per kg of body weight. Not more than 1.0 ng of endotoxin (the threshold pyrogenic dose) per the highest recommended human dose or the USP pyrogen test dose per kg of body weight, whichever dose is more stringent, is a logical limit for the quantity of bacterial endotoxin in small-volume parenteral products. Excellent correlation was attained when this criterion was used to compare the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay with the USP pyrogen test. PMID:6448582

  8. Production of Volume Wave Plasma with Internally Mounted Cylindrical Planar Microwave Launcher and Two-Dimensional Field Analysis Using Finite Difference Time Domain Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogino, Akihisa; Naito, Katsutoshi; Terashita, Fumie; Nanko, Shohei; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we presented experimental results on the production of volume wave plasma (VWP) using an internally mounted cylindrical planar microwave launcher, for application to novel plasma processings, such as inner wall coating, impurity-free etching or internal sterilization of medical instruments using VWP. It was demonstrated that the ellipsoidal VWP is produced in front of a microwave launcher in He or Ar gas atmosphere. Numerical analyses of microwave fields radiated from a planar launcher have been carried out using the two-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method to determine the mechanism of VWP production in middle of the chamber. It was shown that the calculation results showed fairly good agreements with the experimental results measured using a dipole antenna probe. The spatial distributions of plasma density and the temperature of VWP were also measured using a double probe. It was found that the electron density is comparable to or slightly less than cutoff density of 7.4 × 1010 cm-3 corresponding to the microwave frequency of fm=2.45 GHz, and that the electron temperature is approximately 6 eV at the plasma center.

  9. Inclusive electron spectrum in the region of pion production in electron-nucleus interaction and the effect of the quasi-elastic interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasu, Tadaaki; Sakuda, Makoto; Nakamura, Hiroki; Benhar, Omar

    2007-12-01

    In this report, we show the calculation for the inclusive spectrum in the region of pion production in electron-nucleon and electron-nucleus scattering in the GeV region. We combine the calculation of quasi-elastic scattering with the spectral function and the pion production using MAID model. The calculated results are in fairly good agreement with experimental data over the whole range of energy transfer, between the quasielastic peak and the first resonance. In the calculation, we show the contributions of quasielastic cross section, the Δ cross section and the pion production at each W or equivalently at each scattered electron energy, separately.

  10. High speed InAs electron avalanche photodiodes overcome the conventional gain-bandwidth product limit.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Andrew R J; Ker, Pin Jern; Krysa, Andrey; David, John P R; Tan, Chee Hing

    2011-11-07

    High bandwidth, uncooled, Indium Arsenide (InAs) electron avalanche photodiodes (e-APDs) with unique and highly desirable characteristics are reported. The e-APDs exhibit a 3dB bandwidth of 3.5 GHz which, unlike that of conventional APDs, is shown not to reduce with increasing avalanche gain. Hence these InAs e-APDs demonstrate a characteristic of theoretically ideal electron only APDs, the absence of a gain-bandwidth product limit. This is important because gain-bandwidth products restrict the maximum exploitable gain in all conventional high bandwidth APDs. Non-limiting gain-bandwidth products up to 580 GHz have been measured on these first high bandwidth e-APDs.

  11. Control and reduction of immersion defectivity for yield enhancement at high volume production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Katsushi; Seki, Rei; Sekito, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Masato; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Owa, Soichi

    2009-03-01

    Volume device manufacturing using immersion lithography is widely accepted as the solution for patterning IC features below 40 nm half pitch. In order to ensure high yield and steady productivity tight control of defectivity is essential. A major source of defects and tool contamination is the particles introduced by incoming wafers. Particles can be categorized in two groups: particles attached to wafer surface or residues on the wafer edge. Surface or edge peeling of topcoats can also be a source of particle. Adhesion force between topcoat or topcoat-less (TC-less) resist and wafer is one of the most important parameter for particle reduction. Peeling test results proved that TC-less resist has better adhesion performance than topcoat. One of the most commonly used adhesion promoting material is hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). Application condition of this material is an important factor in preventing wafer edge and surface topcoat peeling. Studies have shown lower temperature and longer application of HMDS shows better adhesion result. Maintaining a clean wafer surface is also a very important factor for particle reduction. Pre-rinse, which can rinse off particles before exposure, was evaluated and the efficiency was confirmed. Edge particles are more effectively reduced by pre-rinse, because weakly attached topcoat and wafer edge residues were effectively removed by pre-rinse. For further particle reduction, edge residue reduction and cut line roughness improvement were evaluated and their effectiveness was confirmed. Lower cut position achieved improved particle counts on both topcoat and TC-less resist; more frequent contact between water and cut-line can weaken the adhesion and consequently peel off topcoat or TC-less resist. Finally the relationship between defectivity and hydrophobicity is analyzed, high Receding Contact Angle (RCA) showed better defectivity result. Topcoat and TC-less process is compared for each defectivity reduction methodology and for

  12. Assessing the risks of trace gases that can modify the stratosphere. Volume 6. Technical support documentation production projections

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.S.

    1987-12-01

    This document is one of a series that examines the human health, environmental, and atmospheric risks associated with a decrease in stratospheric ozone. This volume includes reports on: Probabilistic projections of chlorofluorocarbon consumption; Scenarios of chlorofluorocarbon use: 1985-2075; Product uses and market trends for potential ozone depleting substance 1985-2000; and An analytic method for constructing scenarios from a subjective joint possibility distribution.

  13. Matrix of small-radius radio-frequency discharges as a volume-production based source of negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Lishev, St.; Paunska, Ts.; Shivarova, A.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2012-02-15

    Based on experience from a work - both theoretical and experimental one - on negative hydrogen ion beam sources studied regarding fusion applications, a novel design of a rf source with volume production of the ions is proposed. The suggestion is for a source constructed as a matrix of small-radius tandem discharges (with magnetic filters largely extended over the discharge length), inductively driven (by a single coil, for the whole matrix) and with a single aperture extraction from each of them.

  14. From electronic consumer products to e-wastes: Global outlook, waste quantities, recycling challenges.

    PubMed

    Tansel, Berrin

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in technology, materials development, and manufacturing processes have changed the consumer products and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) since 1960s. Increasing quantities of discarded consumer products remain a major challenge for recycling efforts, especially for discarded electronic products (also referred as e-waste). The growing demand for high tech products has increased the e-waste quantities and its cross boundary transport globally. This paper reviews the challenges associated with increasing e-waste quantities. The increasing need for raw materials (especially for rare earth and minor elements) and unregulated e-waste recycling operations in developing and underdeveloped counties contribute to the growing concerns for e-waste management. Although the markets for recycled materials are increasing; there are major challenges for development of the necessary infrastructure for e-waste management and accountability as well as development of effective materials recovery technologies and product design.

  15. Effect of fusion reaction products heating on the volume ignition of DT and D3He fuel pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoda-Bakhsh, R.

    1996-05-01

    Laser fusion simulations are carried out for the DT and D-3He pellets by using a hydrodynamic code including heating from all charged reaction products and neutron. It is shown that, the inclusion of the side reactions and heating from all reactions products in the fuel pellets has an appreciable affect on the plasma temperature, the ICF drive energy requirement, fusion gain and the ignition conditions. The total input energy is decreased, the burn efficiency and total gain are increased compared to the results of simple volume ignition calculations.

  16. Integrated LSP Modeling of Fast-electron Production and Transport in a Wire Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mingsheng; Pasley, John; Beg, Farhat; Stephens, Richard; Welch, Dale

    2007-11-01

    Integrated simulations using the implicit PIC code LSP^# have been performed to study the production of relativistic electrons from ultra-intense (I ˜ 7 x 10^19 W/cm^2) sub-picosecond laser solid interactions including a preformed plasma and the transport of such beam in a thin (50 μm in diameter), 100's μm long wire target. Our 3D simulations show that greater than 40% of laser energy is transferred to fast electrons whose energy spectrum can be fitted to a two-temperature Maxwellian distribution. The fast electrons have a typical propagation length of about 100 μm inside the wire target. A very small fraction of the fast electrons is confined in the wire target surface by strong electric and magnetic fields and these electrons have a much longer range. The simulation results agree well with recent Titan wire experiments [1], as well as with other collisional PIC modeling. [1] F. N. Beg, Invited talk, 9th International Fast Ignition Workshop, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 3-5, 2006; J. Pasley et al., to be submitted to Phys. of Plasmas. ^# LSP is a software product of ATK Mission Research.

  17. Efficient Production of O- by Dissociative Attachment of Slow Electrons to Highly Excited Metastable Oxygen Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Daiyu; Kadota, Kiyoshi

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanism for efficient production of O- in the afterglow of a low-pressure and high-density oxygen plasma has been described. We proposed a new production process, the dissociative attachment of slow electrons to highly excited metastable oxygen molecules O2 (A3 Σu+, A'3Δu, c1Σu-). The electron attachment frequency has been obtained from the experimental results, and was significantly high for the electron temperature of less than 2 eV. The cross section, σDA, for this process was evaluated by a quantum mechanical approach. σDA at 0.1 eV was larger by two-orders of magnitude than the peak value at 6.7 eV for the ground state O2 (X3Σg+). The enhancement of the electron attachment frequency at low temperature can be explained by dissociative attachment of slow electrons to O2 (A3Σu+, A'3Δu, c1Σu-).

  18. Environmental, scanning electron and optical microscope image analysis software for determining volume and occupied area of solid-state fermentation fungal cultures.

    PubMed

    Osma, Johann F; Toca-Herrera, José L; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a software for the estimation of the occupied area and volume of fungal cultures. This software was developed using a Matlab platform and allows analysis of high-definition images from optical, electronic or atomic force microscopes. In a first step, a single hypha grown on potato dextrose agar was monitored using optical microscopy to estimate the change in occupied area and volume. Weight measurements were carried out to compare them with the estimated volume, revealing a slight difference of less than 1.5%. Similarly, samples from two different solid-state fermentation cultures were analyzed using images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an environmental SEM (ESEM). Occupied area and volume were calculated for both samples, and the results obtained were correlated with the dry weight of the cultures. The difference between the estimated volume ratio and the dry weight ratio of the two cultures showed a difference of 10%. Therefore, this software is a promising non-invasive technique to determine fungal biomass in solid-state cultures.

  19. Propagation of gamma rays and production of free electrons in air

    SciTech Connect

    Dimant, Y. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Granatstein, V. L.; Sprangle, P.; Penano, J.

    2012-10-15

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of production of free electrons in air by gamma-rays leaking from radioactive materials. A model based on the Klein-Nishina scattering theory is used to calculate scattering cross sections and approximate the electron production rate. The model includes the effects of primary gamma-quanta radiated by the source as well as that scattered in air. Comparison of the model with the mcnpx kinetic code (http://mcnpx.lanl.gov/) in a sample problem shows excellent agreement. The motivation for this research comes from the recently proposed concept of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials [V. L. Granatstein and G. S. Nusinovich, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063304 (2010)]. The concept is based on the breakdown in air at the focal point of a high-power beam of electromagnetic waves produced by a THz gyrotron with a 10-20 {mu}s pulse. The presence of a radioactive material can greatly exceed the production rate of free electrons over the natural background rate. Additional electrons act as seeds to initiate the breakdown and create sufficiently dense plasma at the focal region. The dense plasma can then be remotely detected as an unambiguous effect of the concealed radioactive material.

  20. Insights into proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms of electrocatalytic H2 oxidation and production

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Samantha; Fernandez, Laura E.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The design of molecular electrocatalysts for H2 oxidation and production is important for the development of alternative renewable energy sources that are abundant, inexpensive, and environmentally benign. Recently, nickel-based molecular electrocatalysts with pendant amines that act as proton relays for the nickel center were shown to effectively catalyze H2 oxidation and production. We developed a quantum mechanical approach for studying proton-coupled electron transfer processes in these types of molecular electrocatalysts. This theoretical approach is applied to a nickel-based catalyst in which phosphorous atoms are directly bonded to the nickel center, and nitrogen atoms of the ligand rings act as proton relays. The catalytic step of interest involves electron transfer between the nickel complex and the electrode as well as intramolecular proton transfer between the nickel and nitrogen atoms. This process can occur sequentially, with either the electron or proton transferring first, or concertedly, with the electron and proton transferring simultaneously without a stable intermediate. The electrochemical rate constants are calculated as functions of overpotential for the concerted electron-proton transfer reaction and the two electron transfer reactions in the sequential mechanisms. Our calculations illustrate that the concerted electron-proton transfer standard rate constant will increase as the equilibrium distance between the nickel and nitrogen atoms decreases and as the pendant amines become more flexible to facilitate the contraction of this distance with a lower energy penalty. This approach identifies the favored mechanisms under various experimental conditions and provides insight into the impact of substituents on the nitrogen and phosphorous atoms. PMID:22529352

  1. Redox behaviour of nifuroxazide: generation of the one-electron reduction product.

    PubMed

    Squella, J A; Letelier, M E; Lindermeyer, L; Nuñez-Vergara, L J

    1996-01-05

    The electrochemical properties of nifuroxazide have been investigated in aqueous and aqueous-DMF mixed solvents. In aqueous media, a single, irreversible four-electron reduction occurs to give the hydroxylamine derivative. In mixed media, a reversible one-electron reduction to form a nitro radical anion takes place. Cyclic voltammetric studies show that the anion radical product is stable, although the nitro radical anion intermediate shows a tendency to undergo further chemical reactions. A comparison with the voltammetric behaviour of other nitrofurans such as nifurtimox, nitrofurazone and furazolidone is made. The electrochemically-obtained parameters are correlated with the in vivo studies of oxygen consumption on Trypanosoma cruzi cell suspensions.

  2. Defect production in electron-irradiated, n-type GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Look, D. C.; Sizelove, J. R.

    1987-11-01

    Energies and production rates for a pure vapor-phase epitaxial GaAs layer irradiated by 1-MeV electrons were obtained from measurements of temperature-dependent Hall (TDH) effect and were compared with published data based on deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The TDH energy and production rates of two dominant defect centers, C2 and C3, were in good agreement with DLTS data. The most important result of this study is a very high production rate (4 + or - 1/cm) for 'shallow' acceptors C(AS) lying below C3-energy. C(AS) were found to be produced at a much higher rate than all of the DLTS traps observed in this energy range, indicating that close to half of the primary defects in electron-irradiated GaAs are not seen by DLTS. For microscopic models of the electron traps C1 and C2, the high C(AS) production rate renders unnecessary the assumption that one of these centers must be an acceptor in order to explain the Hall-effect results. It is shown that all available HDT and DLTS data are consistent with the C(AS) representing Ga-sublattice damage, a fact which has not been observed before.

  3. Consumption-weighted life cycle assessment of a consumer electronic product community.

    PubMed

    Ryen, Erinn G; Babbitt, Callie W; Williams, Eric

    2015-02-17

    A new approach for quantifying the net environmental impact of a "community" of interrelated products is demonstrated for consumer electronics owned by an average U.S. household over a 15-year period (1992-2007). This consumption-weighted life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology accounts for both product consumption (number of products per household) and impact (cumulative energy demand (MJ) and greenhouse gas emissions (MT CO2 eq) per product), analyzed using a hybrid LCA framework. Despite efficiency improvements in individual devices from 1992 to 2007, the net impact of the entire product community increased, due primarily to increasing ownership and usage. The net energy impact for the product community is significant, nearly 30% of the average gasoline use in a U.S. passenger vehicle in 2007. The analysis points to a large contribution by legacy products (cathode ray tube televisions and desktop computers), due to historically high consumption rates, although impacts are beginning to shift to smaller mobile devices. This method is also applied to evaluate prospective intervention strategies, indicating that environmental impact can be reduced by strategies such as lifespan extension or energy efficiency, but only when applied to all products owned, or by transforming consumption trends toward fewer, highly multifunctional products.

  4. Sales of Nicotine-Containing Electronic Cigarette Products: United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Marynak, Kristy L; Gammon, Doris G; Rogers, Todd; Coats, Ellen M; Singh, Tushar; King, Brian A

    2017-05-01

    To assess the proportion of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products sold in the United States that contain nicotine according to retail scanner data. We obtained unit sales data from January 11, 2015, to December 12, 2015, from The Nielsen Company for convenience stores; supermarkets; mass merchandisers; drug, club, and dollar stores; and Department of Defense commissaries. The data did not include purchases from tobacco specialty shops, "vape shops," or online sources. Nicotine content was assessed by product type (disposables, rechargeables, and refills), region, and flavor status based on nicotine strength listed in the Universal Product Codes. For the 36.7% of entries lacking nicotine content information, we conducted Internet searches by brand, product, and flavor. In 2015, 99.0% of e-cigarette products sold contained nicotine, including 99.0% of disposables, 99.7% of rechargeables, and 98.8% of refills. Overall, 98.7% of flavored e-cigarette products and 99.4% of nonflavored e-cigarette products contained nicotine. In 2015, almost all e-cigarette products sold in US convenience stores and other assessed channels contained nicotine. Public Health Implications. Findings reinforce the importance of warning labels for nicotine-containing products, ingredient reporting, and restrictions on sales to minors.

  5. Effects of the imposed magnetic field on the production and transport of relativistic electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hong-bo; Zhu, Shao-ping; He, X. T.

    2013-07-01

    The effects of the imposed uniform magnetic field, ranging from 1 MG up to 50 MG, on the production and transport of relativistic electron beams (REBs) in overdense plasmas irradiated by ultraintense laser pulse are investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell numerical simulations. This study gives clear evidence that the imposed magnetic field is capable of effectively confining the relativistic electrons in space even when the source is highly divergent since it forces the electrons moving helically. In comparison, the spontaneous magnetic fields, generated by the helically moving electrons interplaying with the current filamentation instability, are dominant in scattering the relativistic electrons. As the imposed magnetic field was increased from 1 MG to 50 MG, overall coupling from laser to the relativistic electrons which have the potential to heat the compressed core in fast ignition was found to increase from 6.9% to 21.3% while the divergence of the REB increases significantly from 64° to 90°. The simulations show that imposed magnetic field of the value of 3-30 MG could be more suitable to fast-ignition inertial fusion.

  6. Production of high-angular-momentum electron beams in laser-plasma interactions.

    PubMed

    Ju, L B; Zhou, C T; Huang, T W; Jiang, K; Zhang, H; Wu, S Z; Qiao, B; Ruan, S C

    2017-05-01

    It was shown that in the interactions of ultra-intense circularly polarized laser pulse with the near-critical plasmas, the angular momentum can be transferred efficiently from the laser beam to electrons through the resonance acceleration process. The transferred angular momentum increases almost linearly with the acceleration time t_{a} when the electrons are resonantly accelerated by the laser field. In addition, it is shown analytically that the averaged angular momentum of electrons is proportional to the laser amplitude a_{L}, and the total angular momentum of the accelerated electron beam is proportional to the square of the laser amplitude a_{L}^{2} for a fixed parameter of n_{e}/n_{c}a_{L}. These results are verified by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. This regime provides an efficient and compact alternative for the production of high angular momentum electron beams, which may have many potential applications in condensed-matter spectroscopy, new electron microscopes, and bright x-ray vortex generation.

  7. Production of high-angular-momentum electron beams in laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, L. B.; Zhou, C. T.; Huang, T. W.; Jiang, K.; Zhang, H.; Wu, S. Z.; Qiao, B.; Ruan, S. C.

    2017-05-01

    It was shown that in the interactions of ultra-intense circularly polarized laser pulse with the near-critical plasmas, the angular momentum can be transferred efficiently from the laser beam to electrons through the resonance acceleration process. The transferred angular momentum increases almost linearly with the acceleration time ta when the electrons are resonantly accelerated by the laser field. In addition, it is shown analytically that the averaged angular momentum of electrons is proportional to the laser amplitude aL, and the total angular momentum of the accelerated electron beam is proportional to the square of the laser amplitude aL2 for a fixed parameter of n/encaL . These results are verified by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. This regime provides an efficient and compact alternative for the production of high angular momentum electron beams, which may have many potential applications in condensed-matter spectroscopy, new electron microscopes, and bright x-ray vortex generation.

  8. Study of the value of information and the effect on value of intermediary organizations, timeliness of services and products, and comprehensiveness of the EDB. Volume 1, Volume 2, and Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.W.; Griffiths, J.M.; Sweet, E.A.; Wiederkehr, R.R.V.; Roderer, N.K.

    1984-09-01

    A previous study demonstrated that energy information has substantial value when considered from the standpoints of amount of use, purposes of use, and value measured by what users are willing to pay for the information and the savings in labor, equipment, etc., derived from use of the information. Furthermore, energy information services and products derived from the Energy Data Base clearly contribute greatly to the value of energy information by making it more accessible and, therefore, more usable. The purpose of this study was to determine what contribution intermediary information transfer organizations such as libraries and information analysis centers make to the value of information. Also, other factors such as timeliness of primary publishing and distribution and comprehensiveness of the Energy Data Base were considered to be important as well. The results are presented in 3 sections (volumes). Volume 1 gives an analysis of the value of the services provided by libraries. The library study estimated the value of library services (in terms of willingness to pay and savings). It also provided the relationships of the use of library services and factors such as performance attributes (i.e., quality and timeliness of services), distance to the library, awareness of services and economics of library use. Volume 2 gives results of a study of two software Information Analysis Centers and the value of software that is attributable to the centers. Volume 3 provides an analysis of the value of the timeliness and comprehensiveness of the Energy Data Base. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each section for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  9. The Social Production of Scientific Knowledge. Sociology of the Sciences, Volume I - Yearbook 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Everett, Ed.; And Others

    This is the first volume of an annual publication that deals with the sociology of the sciences. The aim of the yearbook is to consider sociology from a very broad perspective and to develop a comparative, cross disciplinary understanding of the sciences. It does this by publishing papers from a number of perspectives and approaches on a specific…

  10. Effects of exchange rate volatility on export volume and prices of forest products

    Treesearch

    Sijia Zhang; Joseph Buongiorno

    2010-01-01

    The relative value of currencies varies considerably over time. These fluctuations bring uncertainty to international traders. As a result, the volatility in exchange rate movements may influence the volume and the price of traded commodities. The volatility of exchange rates was measured by the variance of residuals in a GARCH(1,1) model of the exchange rate. We...

  11. Relationship Between Canopy Dynamics and Stem Volume Production of Four Species Receiving Irrigation and Fertilization

    Treesearch

    Chrisopher B Allen; Rodney E. Will; Terry Sarigumba; Marshall A. Jacobson; Richard F. Daniels; Stephen A. Kennerly

    2004-01-01

    We measured the effects of irrigation and varying levels of fertilization on intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR), projected leaf area index (LAI), and foliar nitrogen concentration ([N]) in order to determine the relationship between resource availability, canopy size, and stem-volume growth. Stands of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis...

  12. Auto-thermal reforming using mixed ion-electronic conducting ceramic membranes for a small-scale H₂ production plant.

    PubMed

    Spallina, Vincenzo; Melchiori, Tommaso; Gallucci, Fausto; van Sint Annaland, Martin

    2015-03-18

    The integration of mixed ionic electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes for air separation in a small-to-medium scale unit for H2 production (in the range of 650-850 Nm3/h) via auto-thermal reforming of methane has been investigated in the present study. Membranes based on mixed ionic electronic conducting oxides such as Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) give sufficiently high oxygen fluxes at temperatures above 800 °C with high purity (higher than 99%). Experimental results of membrane permeation tests are presented and used for the reactor design with a detailed reactor model. The assessment of the H2 plant has been carried out for different operating conditions and reactor geometry and an energy analysis has been carried out with the flowsheeting software Aspen Plus, including also the turbomachines required for a proper thermal integration. A micro-gas turbine is integrated in the system in order to supply part of the electricity required in the system. The analysis of the system shows that the reforming efficiency is in the range of 62%-70% in the case where the temperature at the auto-thermal reforming membrane reactor (ATR-MR) is equal to 900 °C. When the electric consumption and the thermal export are included the efficiency of the plant approaches 74%-78%. The design of the reactor has been carried out using a reactor model linked to the Aspen flowsheet and the results show that with a larger reactor volume the performance of the system can be improved, especially because of the reduced electric consumption. From this analysis it has been found that for a production of about 790 Nm3/h pure H2, a reactor with a diameter of 1 m and length of 1.8 m with about 1500 membranes of 2 cm diameter is required.

  13. 77 FR 5275 - Used Electronic Products: An Examination of U.S. Exports; Institution of Investigation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... exportation; The forms, activities and characteristics of domestic exporting enterprises (e.g., original... COMMISSION Used Electronic Products: An Examination of U.S. Exports; Institution of Investigation and..., Used Electronic Products: An Examination of U.S. Exports. DATES: April 16, 2012: Deadline for...

  14. 75 FR 38127 - Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ryder Integrated Logistics and Including On-Site Workers From Span... Systems, LLC, North Penn Plant, Electronics Products Group, including on-site leased workers from...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  19. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  20. Electron and hole transfer from DNA base radicals to oxidized products of guanine in DNA.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhongli; Sevilla, Michael D

    2003-03-01

    An investigation of electron and hole transfer to oxidized guanine bases in DNA is reported. Guanine in DNA was preferentially oxidized by Br(2)(*-) at 298 K to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine (8-oxo-G) and higher oxidation products. HPLC-EC analysis of irradiated DNA shows that the formation of 8-oxo-G could not be increased above the ratio of one 8-oxo-G to 127 +/- 6 bp regardless of dose. 8-oxo-G can be produced only at low levels because it is further oxidized to other species. These oxidation products of guanine have been extensively investigated and identified by others. Our electron spin resonance studies suggest that at 77 K 8-oxo-G is a trap for radiation-produced holes, but certain further oxidation products of 8-oxo-G (G(ox)) are found to be efficient electron traps. Gamma irradiation of oxidized DNA samples in frozen (D(2)O) aqueous ices and glassy 7 M LiBr solutions resulted in radicals formed by electron attachment to the G(ox) sites that were monitored by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) at 77 K. These ESR spectra suggest that those oxidation products of 8-oxo-G containing alpha-diketo groups account for the electron traps (G(ox)) in oxidized DNA with oxaluric acid a likely major trap. Electron transfer from DNA anion radicals to G(ox) was followed by monitoring of their ESR signals with time at 77 K. Using typical values for the tunneling constant beta estimates of the relative amount of G(ox) to base pairs were obtained. Radicals formed by UV photolysis of oxidized DNA in 8 M NaClO(4) glassy aqueous solutions were also investigated. The 8-oxo-G cation accounts for less than 10% of all the radicals observed after either gamma irradiation of oxidized DNA in frozen (D(2)O) aqueous solution or UV photolysis of oxidized DNA in 8 M NaClO(4) glassy aqueous solutions. We estimate hole transfer distances of about 7 +/- 1 bp at 1 min from G(*+) to 8-oxo-G.

  1. Electronic states of MgO: Spectroscopy, predissociation, and cold atomic Mg and O production

    SciTech Connect

    Maatouk, A.; Ben Houria, A.; Yazidi, O.; Jaidane, N.; Hochlaf, M.

    2010-10-14

    We used multiconfigurational methods and a large basis set to compute the potential energy curves of the valence and valence-Rydberg electronic states of MgO molecule. New bound electronic states are found. Using these highly correlated wave functions, we evaluated their mutual spin-orbit couplings and transition moment integrals. For the bound electronic states of MgO, we deduced an accurate set of spectroscopic constants that agree remarkably well with experimental results. Moreover, our potentials, transition moments, and spin-orbit coupling evolutions are incorporated into Fermi golden rule calculations to deduce the radiative lifetimes of MgO(B {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}) rovibrational levels and the natural lifetimes of MgO(A {sup 1}{Pi}) vibrational levels, where a good agreement is found with experimental values. Finally, we suggest new routes for the production of cold Mg and O atoms and cold MgO molecules.

  2. Exit charge state dependence of convoy electron production in heavy-ion solid collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Huelskoetter, H.P.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Sellin, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    The dependence of the yield of convoy electrons emitted near the forward direction in collisions involving fast ions and thin solid targets on the emergent projectile charge state is presented and described in terms of primary electron loss events in the solid. The data include a large array of projectiles, projectile energies and charge states, as well as targets ranging in thickness from the non-equilibrium well into the equilibrium thickness region. The description presented is consistent with other experimental and theoretical results indicating that the convoy electron production is closely linked to the ELC process observed in binary ion-atom collisions, with the dominant contribution to the convoy yield stemming from excited states of the projectiles. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Electron Beam Production and Characterization for the PLEIADES Thomson X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W J; Hartemann, F V; Tremaine, A M; Springer, P T; Le Sage, G P; Barty, C P J; Rosenzweig, J B; Crane, J K; Cross, R R; Fittinghoff, D B; Gibson, D J; Slaughter, D R; Anderson, S

    2002-10-14

    We report on the performance of an S-band RF photocathode electron gun and accelerator for operation with the PLEIADES Thomson x-ray source at LLNL. Simulations of beam production, transport, and focus are presented. It is shown that a 1 ps, 500 pC electron bunch with a normalized emittance of less than 5 {pi}mm-mrad can be delivered to the interaction point. Initial electron measurements are presented. Calculations of expected x-ray flux are also performed, demonstrating an expected peak spectral brightness of 10{sup 20} photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% bandwidth. Effects of RF phase jitter are also presented, and planned phase measurements and control methods are discussed.

  4. Bound free electron-positron pair production accompanied by giant dipole resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Senguel, M. Y.; Gueclue, M. C.

    2011-01-15

    At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), for example, virtual photons produce many particles. At small impact parameters where the colliding nuclei make peripheral collisions, photon fluxes are very large and these are responsible for the multiple photonuclear interactions. Free pair productions, bound free pair productions, and nuclear Coulomb excitations are important examples of such interactions, and these processes play important roles in the beam luminosity at RHIC and LHC. Here we obtained the impact parameter dependence of bound free pair production cross sections and by using this probability we obtained bound free electron-positron pair production with nuclear breakup for heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. We also compared our results to the other calculations.

  5. Production decline analysis for a multi-fractured horizontal well considering elliptical reservoir stimulated volumes in shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mingqiang; Duan, Yonggang; Fang, Quantang; Zhang, Tiantian

    2016-06-01

    Multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs) are an effective technique for developing shale gas reservoirs. After fracturing, stimulated reservoir volumes (SRVs) invariably exist around the wellbore. In this paper, a composite elliptical SRV model for each hydraulic fracturing stage is established, based on micro-seismic events. Both the SRV and the outer regions are assumed as single-porosity media with different formation physical parameters. Based on unstructured perpendicular bisection (PEBI) grids, a mathematical model considering Darcy flow, diffusion and adsorption/desorption in shale gas reservoirs is presented. The numerical solution is obtained by combining the control volume finite element method with the fully implicit method. The model is verified by a simplified model solution. The MFHW Blasingame production decline curves, which consider elliptical SRVs in shale gas reservoirs, are plotted by computer programming. The flow regions can be divided into five flow regimes: early formation linear flow, radial flow in the SRV region, transient flow, pseudo radial flow and boundary dominated flow. Finally, the effect of six related parameters, including the SRV area size, outer region permeability, SRV region permeability, Langmuir pressure, Langmuir volume and diffusion coefficient, are analyzed on type curves. The model presented in this paper can expand our understanding of MFHW production decline behaviors in shale gas reservoirs and can be applied to estimate reservoir properties, the SRV area, and reserves in these types of reservoirs by type curve matching.

  6. Electron Impact Ionization/Dissociation of Molecules: Production of Energetic Radical Ions and Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feil, S.; Sulzer, P.; Mauracher, A.; Beikircher, M.; Wendt, N.; Aleem, A.; Denifl, S.; Zappa, F.; Matt-Leubner, S.; Bacher, A.; Matejcik, S.; Probst, M.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.

    2007-10-01

    In order to provide quantitative information on electron collision processes involving various plasma constituents (in particular hydrocarbons) and to elucidate the properties of cations and anions produced we have carried out the past years a series of studies with a variety of techniques in our laboratory in Innsbruck. In the present review we will present some recent results on electron impact ionization and attachment in order to illustrate recent progress in this field in particular concerning the production of energetic fragment cations for hydrocarbons and differences in the attachment of isomers for nitro-organics. Using a Nier type electron impact ion source in combination with a double focusing two sector field mass spectrometer, partial cross sections for electron impact ionization of acetylene, propene and other hydrocarbons have been measured for electron energies up to 1000 eV. Discrimination factors for ions have been determined using the deflection field method in combination with a three-dimensional ion trajectory simulation of ions produced in the ion source. Analysis of the ion yield curves obtained by scanning the deflectors allows the assignment of ions with the same mass-to-charge ratio to specific production channels on the basis of their different kinetic energy distributions. This analysis also allows to determine, besides kinetic energy distributions of fragment ions, partial cross sections differential in kinetic energy. Moreover charge separation reactions (for instance in case of acetylene the Coulomb explosion of the doubly-charged parent ions C2H2++ into the fragment ions C2H+ and H+) are investigated by means of a number of metastable mass spectrometry methods and the associated mean kinetic energy release is deduced. Free electron attachment to the three different isomers of mono-nitrotoluene molecules in the gas phase is studied using two different crossed electron-molecule beams technique. In contrast to previous studies for a

  7. Ceramic transactions: Case studies in ceramic product development, manufacturing, and commercialization. Volume 75

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.; Barks, R.E.; Hiremath, B.

    1997-12-31

    This document presents studies on ceramic development and manufacturing. Topics include general manufacturing, the manufacture of electronic optical components, and bioceramic components. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  8. Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Forward and Reverse Electron Fluxes in the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain

    PubMed Central

    Selivanov, Vitaly A.; Votyakova, Tatyana V.; Pivtoraiko, Violetta N.; Zeak, Jennifer; Sukhomlin, Tatiana; Trucco, Massimo; Roca, Josep; Cascante, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) are primary signals that modulate cellular adaptation to environment, and are also destructive factors that damage cells under the conditions of hypoxia/reoxygenation relevant for various systemic diseases or transplantation. The important role of ROS in cell survival requires detailed investigation of mechanism and determinants of ROS production. To perform such an investigation we extended our rule-based model of complex III in order to account for electron transport in the whole RC coupled to proton translocation, transmembrane electrochemical potential generation, TCA cycle reactions, and substrate transport to mitochondria. It fits respiratory electron fluxes measured in rat brain mitochondria fueled by succinate or pyruvate and malate, and the dynamics of NAD+ reduction by reverse electron transport from succinate through complex I. The fitting of measured characteristics gave an insight into the mechanism of underlying processes governing the formation of free radicals that can transfer an unpaired electron to oxygen-producing superoxide and thus can initiate the generation of ROS. Our analysis revealed an association of ROS production with levels of specific radicals of individual electron transporters and their combinations in species of complexes I and III. It was found that the phenomenon of bistability, revealed previously as a property of complex III, remains valid for the whole RC. The conditions for switching to a state with a high content of free radicals in complex III were predicted based on theoretical analysis and were confirmed experimentally. These findings provide a new insight into the mechanisms of ROS production in RC. PMID:21483483

  9. Use of a MS-electronic nose for prediction of early fungal spoilage of bakery products.

    PubMed

    Marín, S; Vinaixa, M; Brezmes, J; Llobet, E; Vilanova, X; Correig, X; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2007-02-28

    A MS-based electronic nose was used to detect fungal spoilage (measured as ergosterol concentration) in samples of bakery products. Bakery products were inoculated with different Eurotium, Aspergillus and Penicillium species, incubated in sealed vials and their headspace sampled after 2, 4 and 7 days. Once the headspace was sampled, ergosterol content was determined in each sample. Different electronic nose signals were recorded depending on incubation time. Both the e-nose signals and ergosterol levels were used to build models for prediction of ergosterol content using e-nose measurements. Accuracy on prediction of those models was between 87 and 96%, except for samples inoculated with Penicillium corylophilum where the best predictions only reached 46%.

  10. Double K -shell vacancy production in the electron capture decay of sup 125 I

    SciTech Connect

    Hindi, M.M.; Kozub, R.L. )

    1992-03-01

    We have measured the probability of double {ital K}-shell vacancy production in the electron capture decay of {sup 125}I to the 35-keV level of {sup 125}Te. The probability was deduced from the number of triple coincidences between the Te hypersatellite and satellite x rays produced in filling the double vacancy, and the subsequent normal x ray accompanying the {ital K} internal conversion of the 35-keV level. The probability of double {ital K}-shell vacancy production per {ital K}-shell electron capture ({ital P}{sub {ital K}{ital K}}) was found to be (1.35{plus minus}0.15){times}10{sup {minus}5}.

  11. ILU industrial electron accelerators for medical-product sterilization and food treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglov, V. V.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Vlasov, A. Yu.; Voronin, L. A.; Panfilov, A. D.; Radchenko, V. M.; Tkachenko, V. O.; Shtarklev, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Pulse linear electron accelerators of the ILU type have been developed and produced by the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, for more than 30 years. Their distinctive features are simplicity of design, convenience in operation, and reliability during long work under conditions of industrial production. ILU accelerators have a range of energy of 0.7-10 MeV at a power of accelerated beam of up to 100 kW and they are optimally suitable for use as universal sterilizing complexes. The scientific novelty of these accelerators consists of their capability to work both in the electron-treatment mode of production and in the bremsstrahlung generation mode, which has high penetrating power.

  12. Reestimation of the production spectra of cosmic ray secondary positrons and electrons in the ISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, C. M.; Ng, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed calculation of the production spectra of charged hadrons produced by interactions of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium is presented along with a thorough treatment of pion and muon decays. Newly parameterized inclusive cross sections of hadrons were used and exact kinematic limitations were taken into account. Single parametrized expressions for the production spectra of both secondary positrons and electrons in the energy range .1 to 100 GeV are presented. The results are compared with other authors' predictions. Equilibrium spectra using various models are also presented.

  13. Front-End Electronics Characterization, Production, and QA for the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elia, Sophia; Majorana Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay ββ (0 ν) of the isotope 76Ge. In anticipation of the future tonne-scale experiments, its goal is to demonstrate a path forward to a background rate of one cnt/(ROI-t-y) in a 4 keV region around the Q-value of the 76Ge ββ (0 ν) . Such a background requirement significantly constrains the design of the front end electronics. Low background and low noise qualifications are a necessity. This poster first presents the characterization and noise performance in single and multi detector systems of the front end electronics developed for Majorana. The poster next reviews the full production process and finally describes the Quality Assurance tests developed for the electronics before installation in the experiment. The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay ββ (0 ν) of the isotope 76Ge. In anticipation of the future tonne-scale experiments, its goal is to demonstrate a path forward to a background rate of one cnt/(ROI-t-y) in a 4 keV region around the Q-value of the 76Ge ββ (0 ν) . Such a background requirement significantly constrains the design of the front end electronics. Low background and low noise qualifications are a necessity. This poster first presents the characterization and noise performance in single and multi detector systems of the front end electronics developed for Majorana. The poster next reviews the full production process and finally describes the Quality Assurance tests developed for the electronics before installation in the experiment. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the DOE Office of Science, the Particle and Nuclear Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  14. Diffractive ρ production at small x in future electron-ion colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, V. P.; Navarra, F. S.; Spiering, D.

    2016-09-01

    The future electron-ion (eA) collider is expected to probe the high energy regime of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD), with the exclusive vector meson production cross section being one of the most promising observables. In this paper we complement previous studies of exclusive processes presenting a comprehensive analysis of diffractive ρ production at small x. We compute the coherent and incoherent cross sections taking into account non-linear QCD dynamical effects and considering different models for the dipole-proton scattering amplitude and vector meson wave function. The dependence of these cross sections on the energy, photon virtuality, nuclear mass number and squared momentum transfer is analysed in detail. Moreover, we compare the non-linear predictions with those obtained in the linear regime. Finally, we also estimate the exclusive photon, J/{{\\Psi }} and ϕ production and compare with the results obtained for ρ production. Our results demonstrate that the analysis of diffractive ρ production in future electron-ion colliders will be important in understanding the non-linear QCD dynamics.

  15. Sensitivity of Δ G Through Open Heavy Quark Production using Electron Decay Channels at PHENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wei

    2000-10-01

    The PHENIX experiment at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory is capable of directly measuring the portion of the proton spin carri ed by gluons spin(Δ G)in several channels including direct photon product ion, π production and heavy flavor production. The extraction of Δ G throu gh independent channels gives good control of systematic and theoretical uncerta inty. In this paper we report on PHENIX's Δ G measurement in open heavy q uark production using electron decay channels. Heavy flavor production, cbarc and bbarb, is dominated by gluon-gluon interactions and gives rise to a double spin asymmetry A_LL ~ fracΔ G(x_A)G(x_A)øtimes fracΔ G(x_B)G(x_B)øtimes a_LL^ggarrow qbarq , from which Δ G can be extracted. We will report a full detector simulation which includes the effects of electron trigger and dilutions due to the conversion in inner chamber and π^0 Dalitz decays.

  16. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 2: Technical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A technical analysis on the feasibility of commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is presented. The method of obtaining pharmaceutical company involvement, laboratory results of the separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process, the selection and study of candidate products, and their production requirements is described. The candidate products are antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon. Production mass balances for antihemophelic factor, beta cells, and erythropoietin were compared for space versus ground operation. A conceptual description of a multiproduct processing system for space operation is discussed. Production requirements for epidermal growth factor of alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon are presented.

  17. Overdense Plasma Production in a Low-power Microwave Discharge Electron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, Ikkoh; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    2001-04-01

    Plasma characterization of a low-power microwave discharge electron source was conducted. The electron source, which was developed for the neutralization of the 150 mA-class ion beam exhausted from an ion thruster, consists of a small discharge chamber of 18 mm diameter, into which an L-shape antenna is directly inserted into the magnetic circuit comprised of permanent magnets and iron yokes. An overdense plasma production for the 4.2 GHz microwave was observed for an input power range from 3 to 26 W and for the mass flow rate of 0.5-2.0 sccm. In such a wide range, the plasma density inside the discharge chamber can be proportionally increased as the microwave input power. This is because the direct insertion of the microwave antenna into the ECR magnetic field removes the accessibility difficulty of the microwave, and enables energy transmission from the antenna to the plasma even in the overdense mode. In addition, high-energy electrons above the ionization energy were observed for the large microwave input power above 10 W, and these electrons from the antenna also contribute to plasma production.

  18. Note: Production of a mercury beam with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Pardo, R.; Scott, R.

    2013-11-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been utilized to produce mercury beams with intensities of 4.5 eμA of {sup 202}Hg{sup 29+} and 3.0 eμA of {sup 202}Hg{sup 31+} from natural abundance mercury metal. The production technique relies on the evaporation of liquid mercury into the source plasma vacuum region and utilizes elemental mercury instead of a volatile organic compound as the neutral feed material.

  19. Note: Production of a mercury beam with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Vondrasek, R; Pardo, R; Scott, R

    2013-11-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been utilized to produce mercury beams with intensities of 4.5 eμA of (202)Hg(29+) and 3.0 eμA of (202)Hg(31+) from natural abundance mercury metal. The production technique relies on the evaporation of liquid mercury into the source plasma vacuum region and utilizes elemental mercury instead of a volatile organic compound as the neutral feed material.

  20. High-energy electron-induced damage production at room temperature in aluminum-doped silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbett, J. W.; Cheng, L. J.; Jaworowski, A.; Karins, J. P.; Lee, Y. H.; Lindstroem, L.; Mooney, P. M.; Oehrlen, G.; Wang, K. L.

    1979-01-01

    DLTS and EPR measurements are reported on aluminum-doped silicon that was irradiated at room temperature with high-energy electrons. Comparisons are made to comparable experiments on boron-doped silicon. Many of the same defects observed in boron-doped silicon are also observed in aluminum-doped silicon, but several others were not observed, including the aluminum interstitial and aluminum-associated defects. Damage production modeling, including the dependence on aluminum concentration, is presented.

  1. How log-normal is your country? An analysis of the statistical distribution of the exported volumes of products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annunziata, Mario Alberto; Petri, Alberto; Pontuale, Giorgio; Zaccaria, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    We have considered the statistical distributions of the volumes of 1131 products exported by 148 countries. We have found that the form of these distributions is not unique but heavily depends on the level of development of the nation, as expressed by macroeconomic indicators like GDP, GDP per capita, total export and a recently introduced measure for countries' economic complexity called fitness. We have identified three major classes: a) an incomplete log-normal shape, truncated on the left side, for the less developed countries, b) a complete log-normal, with a wider range of volumes, for nations characterized by intermediate economy, and c) a strongly asymmetric shape for countries with a high degree of development. Finally, the log-normality hypothesis has been checked for the distributions of all the 148 countries through different tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Cramér-Von Mises, confirming that it cannot be rejected only for the countries of intermediate economy.

  2. Double K -shell vacancy production in the electron capture decay of sup 139 Ce

    SciTech Connect

    Hindi, M.M.; Kozub, R.L. )

    1991-02-01

    The probability of double {ital K}-shell vacancy production in the electron capture decay of {sup 139}Ce to the 166-keV level of {sup 139}La has been investigated. Triple coincidences between the 166-keV gamma ray, the La satellite {ital K}{alpha} x ray, and the La hypersatellite {ital K}{alpha} x ray were measured using two intrinsic Ge detectors. We looked for the sum of two of the three radiations in one detector in coincidence with the third radiation in the other detector. The probability of double {ital K}-shell vacancy production per {ital K}-shell electron capture ({ital P}{sub {ital K}{ital K}}) was found to be (2.0{plus minus}1.6){times}10{sup {minus}6}. From this and the known {ital P}{sub {ital K}{ital K}} for {sup 131}Cs we estimate a probability for zero {ital K}-shell vacancy production (shakedown) per {ital K}-shell electron capture of {approx lt}2.4{times}10{sup {minus}5} for {sup 139}Ce.

  3. Enhanced electron-positron pair production by ultra intense laser irradiating a compound target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Xun; Ma, Yan-Yun; Yu, Tong-Pu; Zhao, Jun; Yang, Xiao-Hu; Gan, Long-Fei; Zhang, Guo-Bo; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Liu, Jin-Jin; Zhuo, Hong-Bin; Shao, Fu-Qiu; Kawata, Shigeo

    2016-12-01

    High-energy-density electron-positron pairs play an increasingly important role in many potential applications. Here, we propose a scheme for enhanced positron production by an ultra intense laser irradiating a gas-Al compound target via the multi-photon Breit-Wheeler (BW) process. The laser pulse first ionizes the gas and interacts with a near-critical-density plasma, forming an electron bubble behind the laser pulse. A great deal of electrons are trapped and accelerated in the bubble, while the laser front hole-bores the Al target and deforms its front surface. A part of the laser wave is thus reflected by the inner curved target surface and collides with the accelerated electron bunch. Finally, a large number of γ photons are emitted in the forward direction via the Compton back-scattering process and the BW process is initiated. Dense electron-positron pairs are produced with a maximum density of 6.02× {{10}27} m-3. Simulation results show that the positron generation is greatly enhanced in the compound target, where the positron yield is two orders of magnitude greater than that in only the solid slab case. The influences of the laser intensity, gas density and length on the positron beam quality are also discussed, which demonstrates the feasibility of the scheme in practice.

  4. Use of electronic noses for detection of odour from animal production facilities: a review.

    PubMed

    Nimmermark, S

    2001-01-01

    In the field of controlling livestock and poultry odours in the internal and external environment and in derived food products, one main obstacle is how to measure the odour in a suitable way. Olfactometry and a human panel have been used in most studies of farm odour until now. Alternatives like electronic noses are interesting considering disadvantages for olfactometry regarding cost and labour requirement. An electronic device can produce an almost instant response which is useful in many applications. Studies have shown detection of farm odour for some electronic noses and also response to odour concentrations. Other studies have shown very high odour threshold values compared to human noses. Electronic noses with a large number of sensors have been developed since a base was formed in the 1950s. The fast progress in data processing and sensor development in the latest years have made the electronic noses interesting for a large number of industrial applications in the food processing industry, as well as in other areas. Materials like manure produce a complex mixture of odorous compounds and the interaction between these creates a unique odour where no specific dominating and characterising compound seems to exist. Related to swine farms almost 200 different odorous compounds have been reported. The electronic noses can, depending on the sensitivity of its sensors, detect some compounds at lower levels than the human nose, while other compounds offensive to a human nose cannot be detected. Proper function of the electronic noses with sensitivity for the odorous gases in the application must be followed by satisfying properties regarding ageing, temperature stability, humidity and other environmental factors.

  5. Bromine in plastic consumer products - Evidence for the widespread recycling of electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Filella, Montserrat

    2017-12-01

    A range of plastic consumer products and components thereof have been analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry in a low density mode for Br as a surrogate for brominated flame retardant (BFR) content. Bromine was detected in about 42% of 267 analyses performed on electronic (and electrical) samples and 18% of 789 analyses performed on non-electronic samples, with respective concentrations ranging from 1.8 to 171,000μgg(-1) and 2.6 to 28,500μgg(-1). Amongst the electronic items, the highest concentrations of Br were encountered in relatively small appliances, many of which predated 2005 (e.g. a fan heater, boiler thermostat and smoke detector, and various rechargers, light bulb collars and printed circuit boards), and usually in association with Sb, a component of antimony oxide flame retardant synergists, and Pb, a heavy metal additive and contaminant. Amongst the non-electronic samples, Br concentrations were highest in items of jewellery, a coffee stirrer, a child's puzzle, a picture frame, and various clothes hangers, Christmas decorations and thermos cup lids, and were often associated with the presence of Sb and Pb. These observations, coupled with the presence of Br at concentrations below those required for flame-retardancy in a wider range of electronic and non-electronic items, are consistent with the widespread recycling of electronic plastic waste. That most Br-contaminated items were black suggests the current and recent demand for black plastics in particular is met, at least partially, through this route. Given many Br-contaminated items would evade the attention of the end-user and recycler, their disposal by conventional municipal means affords a course of BFR entry into the environment and, for food-contact items, a means of exposure to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mass-independent area (or entropy) and thermodynamic volume products in conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of conformal gravity in four dimensions. We compute the area (or entropy) functional relation for this black hole (BH). We consider both de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) cases. We derive the Cosmic-Censorship-Inequality which is an important relation in general relativity that relates the total mass of a spacetime to the area of all the BH horizons. Local thermodynamic stability is studied by computing the specific heat. The second-order phase transition occurs at a certain condition. Various types of second-order phase structure have been given for various values of a and the cosmological constant Λ in the Appendix. When a = 0, one obtains the result of Schwarzschild-dS and Schwarzschild-AdS cases. In the limit aM ≪ 1, one obtains the result of Grumiller spacetime, where a is nontrivial Rindler parameter or Rindler acceleration and M is the mass parameter. The thermodynamic volume functional relation is derived in the extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure and its conjugate variable as a thermodynamic volume. The mass-independent area (or entropy) functional relation and thermodynamic volume functional relation that we have derived could turn out to be a universal quantity.

  7. A methodology for evaluating the usability of audiovisual consumer electronic products.

    PubMed

    Kwahk, Jiyoung; Han, Sung H

    2002-09-01

    Usability evaluation is now considered an essential procedure in consumer product development. Many studies have been conducted to develop various techniques and methods of usability evaluation hoping to help the evaluators choose appropriate methods. However, planning and conducting usability evaluation requires considerations of a number of factors surrounding the evaluation process including the product, user, activity, and environmental characteristics. In this perspective, this study suggested a new methodology of usability evaluation through a simple, structured framework. The framework was outlined by three major components: the interface features of a product as design variables, the evaluation context consisting of user, product, activity, and environment as context variables, and the usability measures as dependent variables. Based on this framework, this study established methods to specify the product interface features, to define evaluation context, and to measure usability. The effectiveness of this methodology was demonstrated through case studies in which the usability of audiovisual products was evaluated by using the methods developed in this study. This study is expected to help the usability practitioners in consumer electronics industry in various ways. Most directly, it supports the evaluators' plan and conduct usability evaluation sessions in a systematic and structured manner. In addition, it can be applied to other categories of consumer products (such as appliances, automobiles, communication devices, etc.) with minor modifications as necessary.

  8. Electrochemical Potential Influences Phenazine Production, Electron Transfer and Consequently Electric Current Generation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bosire, Erick M.; Rosenbaum, Miriam A.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has gained interest as a redox mediator (phenazines) producer in bioelectrochemical systems. Several biotic and abiotic factors influence the production of phenazines in synergy with the central virulence factors production regulation. It is, however, not clear how the electrochemical environment may influence the production and usage of phenazines by P. aeruginosa. We here determined the influence of the electrochemical potential on phenazine production and phenazine electron transfer capacity at selected applied potentials from -0.4 to +0.4 V (vs. Ag/AgClsat) using P. aeruginosa strain PA14. Our study reveals a profound influence of the electrochemical potential on the amount of phenazine-1-carboxylate production, whereby applied potentials that were more positive than the formal potential of this dominating phenazine (E° ′PCA = -0.24 V vs. Ag/AgClsat) stimulated more PCA production (94, 84, 128, and 140 μg mL-1 for -0.1, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 V, respectively) compared to more reduced potentials (38, 75, and 7 μg mL-1 for -0.4, -0.3, and -0.24 V, respectively). Interestingly, P. aeruginosa seems to produce an additional redox mediator (with E° ′ ∼ 0.052 V) at applied potentials below 0 V, which is most likely adsorbed to the electrode or present on the cells forming the biofilm around electrodes. At fairly negative applied electrode potentials, both PCA and the unknown redox compound mediate cathodic current generation. This study provides important insights applicable in optimizing the BES conditions and cultures for effective production and utilization of P. aeruginosa phenazines. It further stimulates investigations into the physiological impacts of the electrochemical environment, which might be decisive in the application of phenazines for electron transfer with P. aeruginosa pure- or microbial mixed cultures. PMID:28572797

  9. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of the commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is examined. The method of obtaining pharmaceutical company involvement, laboratory results of the separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process, the selection and study of candidate products, and their production requirements is presented. Antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon were studied. Production mass balances for antihemophilic factor, beta cells, and erythropoietin were compared for space verus ground operation.

  10. The GLAS Standard Data Products Specification--Level 2, Version 9. Volume 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document defines the Level-2 GLAS standard data products. This document addresses the data flow, interfaces, record and data formats associated with the GLAS Level 2 standard data products. The term standard data products refers to those EOS instrument data that are routinely generated for public distribution. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC) distribute these products. Each data product has a unique Product Identification code assigned by the Senior Project Scientist. The Level 2 Standard Data Products specifically include those derived geophysical data values (i.e., ice sheet elevation, cloud height, vegetation height, etc.). Additionally, the appropriate correction elements used to transform the Level 1A and Level 1B Data Products into Level 2 Data Products are included. The data are packaged with time tags, precision orbit location coordinates, and data quality and usage flags.

  11. Use of poisons information resources and satisfaction with electronic products by Victorian emergency department staff.

    PubMed

    Luke, Stephen; Fountain, John S; Reith, David M; Braitberg, George; Cruickshank, Jaycen

    2014-10-01

    ED staff use a range of poisons information resources of varying type and quality. The present study aims to identify those resources utilised in the state of Victoria, Australia, and assess opinion of the most used electronic products. A previously validated self-administered survey was conducted in 15 EDs, with 10 questionnaires sent to each. The survey was then repeated following the provision of a 4-month period of access to Toxinz™, an Internet poisons information product novel to the region. The study was conducted from December 2010 to August 2011. There were 117 (78%) and 48 (32%) responses received from the first and second surveys, respectively, a 55% overall response rate. No statistically significant differences in professional group, numbers of poisoned patients seen or resource type accessed were identified between studies. The electronic resource most used in the first survey was Poisindex® (48.68%) and Toxinz™ (64.1%) in the second. There were statistically significant (P < 0.01) improvements in satisfaction in 26 of 42 questions between surveys, and no decrements. Although the majority of responders possessed mobile devices, less than half used them for poisons information but would do so if a reputable product was available. The order of poisons information sources most utilised was: consultation with a colleague, in-house protocols and electronic resources. There was a significant difference in satisfaction with electronic poisons information resources and a movement away from existing sources when choice was provided. Interest in increased use of mobile solutions was identified. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  12. Production of High Energy Tail Electrons by Electron Bernstein Waves during the Current Start-up Discharges in the LATE Device

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Uchida, M.; Watanabe, F.; Noguchi, Y.; Maekawa, T.

    2011-12-23

    Toroidal plasma current is started and ramped up by injecting microwave power in the electron cyclotron range of frequency without induction in the LATE device. Radial scanning with hard X-ray pulse height analysis reveals the production of high energy electrons with average energy {approx}100 keV in the radial region from R = 28 cm to 40.5 cm, which are heated by electron Bernstein wave. The radial profile of photon counts in the energy range from 25 to 200 keV is very similar to that of perpendicular pressure obtained by magnetic measurement and equilibrium analysis, suggesting that a significant portion of trapped electrons exists outside the last closed flux surface. The plasma current inside the LCFS is carried mainly by passing electrons, while some portion of the outside current may be generated as a result of the toroidal precession of trapped electrons.

  13. Introduction to Poultry Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 31, Number 3 [and] Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Katherine

    This packet contains both teacher and student materials for a unit on poultry production in vocational agriculture courses and covers the following lessons: (1) overview of the poultry industry; (2) selection and evaluation; (3) production; (4) reproduction; (5) health issues; and (6) processing and marketing. The lessons include the following…

  14. Introduction to Poultry Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 31, Number 3 [and] Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Katherine

    This packet contains both teacher and student materials for a unit on poultry production in vocational agriculture courses and covers the following lessons: (1) overview of the poultry industry; (2) selection and evaluation; (3) production; (4) reproduction; (5) health issues; and (6) processing and marketing. The lessons include the following…

  15. Properties of colloidal corrosion products and their effects on nuclear plants. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Matijevic, E.

    1982-10-01

    The properties of aqueous dispersions of finely divided oxides of iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium, and copper are described in overview fashion. More detailed aspects of this work will be found in a separate, larger report, NP-2606, Volume 2. The properties of these oxide corrosion products of importance to nuclear reactor water system technology are emphasized: adhesion, desorption, dissolution, transformation, and adsorption of dissolved species such as Co/sup 60/ ions. The work is fundamental to many LWR problems - radiation transport to piping surfaces, avoidance of crud buildup on nuclear fuel rods, decontamination and chemical cleaning of heat exchangers, and control of corrosion of piping.

  16. Proceedings: 11th International Symposium on use and management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, S.S.; Blackstock, T.H.; Hunger, J.; Marshall, A.

    1995-01-01

    Topics discussed at the llth symposium on CCB use and management included fundamental CCB use research, product marketing, applied research, CCB management and the environment, and commercial uses. There is a continuing, international research interest in CCB use because of the prospects of avoiding disposal costs and generating revenue from CCB sales. Volume two contains the following sections on: Flowable fill; handling systems and equipment; international and regional perspectives; manufactured aggregate; mine reclamation; physical and chemical properties; structural fill and stabilized base; and waste management. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Electronics Come of Age: A Taxonomy for Miscellaneous and LowPower Products

    SciTech Connect

    Nordman, Bruce; Sanchez, Marla C.

    2006-08-01

    Most energy end uses such as space conditioning or waterheating are apparently well-defined in what is included, and haveterminology that derives from the professionals who work in the relevantfield. The topic of miscellaneous consumption lacks such clarity forhistorical and practical reasons. As this end use grows in size andinterest for the energy community, the confusion and ambiguity around thetopic is an increasing barrier to progress. This paper providesdefinitions for key terms and concepts with the intent that that futurework can be more correctly and consistently reported and interpreted. Inaddition, it provides a taxonomy of product types and categories, whichcovers both residential and commercial miscellaneous consumption. A keyelement is identification of "electronics" as a distinct energy end use.Finally, products are identified as to whether they commonly have alow-power mode, and product types that have such modes within thetraditional end uses are also listed.

  18. Negative hydrogen ion production in multicusp volume source with a pulsed discharge (abstract)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacal, M.; Belchenko, Yu. I.

    1996-03-01

    The pulsed operation of a negative ion volume source has been investigated, both with a magnetic filter present and without it, under conditions of full-scale acceleration of the extracted negative hydrogen ion beam. We report the observation of three afterglow negative ion peaks. As the negative ion current during the discharge pulse, each of the afterglow peaks can be optimized by varying the pressure, the plasma electrode bias and the extraction voltage. Under optimum conditions, the negative ion current during the discharge pulse exceeds the afterglow peaks.

  19. Electron Microscopic Analysis of Surface Inorganic Substances on Oral and Combustible Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, Mary M.; Watson, Clifford H.; Pappas, R. Steven

    2015-01-01

    Though quantitative trace toxic metals analyses have been performed on tobacco products, little has been published on inorganic particulate constituents on and inside the products. We analyzed these constituents using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The nature of SEM-EDS instrumentation makes it an ideal choice for inorganic particulate analyses and yields relevant information to potential exposures during consumption of oral tobacco products, and possibly as a consequence of smoking. Aluminum silicates, silica, and calcium compounds were common inorganic particulate constituents of tobacco products. Aluminum silicates and silica from soil were found on external leaf surfaces. Phytolithic silica, found in the lumen of the plant leaf, is of biogenic origin. Calcium oxalate was also apparently of biogenic origin. Small mineral deposits on tobacco could have health implications. Minerals found on the surfaces of smokeless tobacco products could possibly abrade the oral mucosa and contribute to the oral inflammatory responses observed with smokeless tobacco product use. If micron and sub-micron size calcium particles on cigarette filler were transported in mainstream smoke, they could potentially induce a pulmonary irritant inflammation when inhaled. The transport of aluminum silicate and silica in smoke could potentially also contribute to chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:26286581

  20. Electron Microscopic Analysis of Surface Inorganic Substances on Oral and Combustible Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Mary M; Watson, Clifford H; Pappas, R Steven

    2015-01-01

    Although quantitative trace toxic metal analyses have been performed on tobacco products, little has been published on inorganic particulate constituents on and inside the products. We analyzed these constituents using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The nature of SEM-EDS instrumentation makes it an ideal choice for inorganic particulate analyses and yields relevant information to potential exposures during consumption of oral tobacco products, and possibly as a consequence of smoking. Aluminum silicates, silica and calcium compounds were common inorganic particulate constituents of tobacco products. Aluminum silicates and silica from soil were found on external leaf surfaces. Phytolithic silica, found in the lumen of the plant leaf, is of biogenic origin. Calcium oxalate was also apparently of biogenic origin. Small mineral deposits on tobacco could have health implications. Minerals found on the surfaces of smokeless tobacco products could possibly abrade the oral mucosa and contribute to the oral inflammatory responses observed with smokeless tobacco product use. If micron and sub-micron size calcium particles on cigarette filler were transported in mainstream smoke, they could potentially induce a pulmonary irritant inflammation when inhaled. The transport of aluminum silicate and silica in smoke could potentially also contribute to chronic inflammatory disease.

  1. Forward electron production in heavy ion-atom and ion-solid collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    A sharp cusp in the velocity spectrum of electrons, ejected in ion-atom and ion-solid collisions, is observed when the ejected electron velocity vector v/sub e/ matches that of the emergent ion vector v/sub p/ in both speed and direction. In ion-atom collisions, the electrons originate from capture to low-lying, projectile-centered continuum states (ECC) for fast bare or nearly bare projectiles, and from loss to those low-lying continuum states (ELC) when loosely bound projectile electrons are available. Most investigators now agree that ECC cusps are strongly skewed toward lower velocities, and exhibit full widths half maxima roughly proportional to v/sub p/ (neglecting target-shell effects, which are sometimes strong). A close examination of recent ELC data shows that ELC cusps are instead nearly symmetric, with widths nearly independent on v/sub p/ in the velocity range 6 to 18 a.u., a result only recently predicted by theory. Convoy electron cusps produced in heavy ion-solid collisions at MeV/u energies exhibit approximately velocity-independent widths very similar to ELC cusp widths. While the shape of the convoy peaks is approximately independent of projectile Z, velocity, and of target material, it is found that the yields in polycrystalline targets exhibit a strong dependence on projectile Z and velocity. While attempts have been made to link convoy electron production to binary ECC or ELC processes, sometimes at the last layer, or alternatively to a solid-state wake-riding model, our measured dependences of cusp shape and yield on projectile charge state and energy are inconsistent with the predictions of available theories. 10 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  2. The Equivalence of Dissipation from Gibbs’ Entropy Production with Phase-Volume Loss in Ergodic Heat-Conducting Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Puneet Kumar; Hoover, William Graham; Hoover, Carol Griswold; Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Gibbs’ thermodynamic entropy is given by the logarithm of the phase volume, which itself responds to heat transfer to and from thermal reservoirs. We compare the thermodynamic dissipation described by (i) phase-volume loss with (ii) heat-transfer entropy production. Their equivalence is documented for computer simulations of the response of an ergodic harmonic oscillator to thermostated temperature gradients. In the simulations one or two thermostat variables control the kinetic energy or the kinetic energy and its fluctuation. All of the motion equations are time-reversible. We consider both strong and weak control variables. In every case, the time-averaged dissipative loss of phase-space volume coincides with the entropy produced by heat transfer. Linear-response theory nicely reproduces the small-gradient results obtained by computer simulation. The thermostats considered here are ergodic and provide simple dynamical models, some of them with as few as three ordinary differential equations, while remaining capable of reproducing Gibbs’ canonical phase-space distribution and are precisely consistent with irreversible thermodynamics.

  3. Pair production from vacuum at the focus of an X-ray free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwald, A.

    2001-06-01

    There are definite plans for the construction of X-ray free electron lasers (FEL), both at DESY, where the so-called XFEL is part of the design of the electron-positron linear collider TESLA, as well as at SLAC, where the so-called Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has been proposed. Such an X-ray laser would allow for high-field science applications: one could make use of not only the high energy and transverse coherence of the X-ray beam, but also of the possibility of focusing it to a spot with a small radius, hopefully in the range of the laser wavelength. Along this route one obtains very large electric fields, much larger than those obtainable with any optical laser of the same power. In this Letter we discuss the possibility of obtaining an electric field so high that electron-positron pairs are spontaneously produced in vacuum (Schwinger pair production). We find that if X-ray optics can be improved to approach the diffraction limit of focusing, and if the power of the planned X-ray FELs can be increased to the terawatt region, then there is ample room for an investigation of the Schwinger pair production mechanism.

  4. Production of O2 on icy satellites by electronic excitation of low-temperature water ice.

    PubMed

    Sieger, M T; Simpson, W C; Orlando, T M

    1998-08-06

    The signature of condensed molecular oxygen has been reported in recent optical-reflectance measurements of the jovian moon Ganymede, and a tenuous oxygen atmosphere has been observed on Europa. The surfaces of these moons contain large amounts of water ice, and it is thought that O2 is formed by the sputtering of ice by energetic particles from the jovian magnetosphere. Understanding how O2 might be formed from low-temperature ice is crucial for theoretical and experimental simulations of the surfaces and atmospheres of icy bodies in the Solar System. Here we report laboratory measurements of the threshold energy, cross-section and temperature dependence of O2 production by electronic excitation of ice in vacuum, following electron-beam irradiation. Molecular oxygen is formed by direct excitation and dissociation of a stable precursor molecule, rather than (as has been previously thought) by diffusion and chemical recombination of precursor fragments. The large cross-section for O2 production suggests that electronic excitation plays an important part in the formation of O2 on Ganymede and Europa.

  5. Visible Light Sensitized Production of Hydroxyl Radicals Using Fullerol as an Electron-Transfer Mediator.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jonghun; Kim, Hyejin; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Lee, Jaesang; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-10-04

    Fullerenes and their derivatives are known to photosensitize the production of singlet oxygen ((1)O2), but their role in generating hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) under visible light has not been reported. Here, we demonstrate that fullerol can mediate the electron transfer from Rhodamine B dye to O2 under visible light irradiation, achieving simultaneous dye decolorization and (•)OH-induced degradation of 4-chlorophenol. The hydroxyl radical is proposed to be produced via a consecutive reduction of molecular oxygen by fullerol anion radical, which is formed through the electron transfer from the dye to the triplet state of fullerol. Mechanistic investigations using various probe reagents such as superoxide dismutase (superoxide quencher), t-butanol ((•)OH quencher), and coumarin ((•)OH probe) provided indirect evidence for the generation of (•)OH under visible light. Furthermore, spin trapping technique directly detected the oxidizing species such as (•)OH, HO2(•), and (1)O2 in the visible light irradiated solution of RhB/fullerol mixture. It was proposed that the photochemical oxidation mechanism depends on pH: (•)OH production is favored at acidic pH through fullerol-mediated sequential electron transfer while (1)O2 is generated as a main oxidant at neutral and alkaline condition through the energy-transfer process. Therefore, the photochemical oxidation can be switchable between (•)OH-driven and (1)O2-driven mechanism by a simple pH adjustment.

  6. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  7. Detachment-induced electron production in the early afterglow of pulsed cc-rf oxygen plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kuellig, C.; Dittmann, K.; Meichsner, J.

    2012-07-15

    Line integrated electron densities are measured by 160.28 GHz Gaussian beam microwave interferometry in a 10 Hz pulsed (50% duty cycle) cc-rf oxygen discharge, operating at 13.56 MHz. Depending on the processing parameters, the oxygen rf discharge displays two different operation modes regarding its electronegativity. For higher rf power with negative self-bias voltage above -220 V, the oxygen discharge acts as electropositive plasma (n{sub -}/n{sub e} Much-Less-Than 1), whereas at lower rf power and self-bias voltage the plasma becomes strongly electronegative (n{sub -}/n{sub e}>2). In the latter mode, a significant electron density increase is measured in the early afterglow (<100 {mu}s) within a pressure range from 20 to 100 Pa. By use of a simple rate equation model, the temporal behavior of the electron density could be reproduced for both modes of electronegativity. The electron production in the early afterglow is mainly caused due to the detachment of negative atomic oxygen ions by metastable oxygen molecules.

  8. Emission characteristics and electron kinetic coefficients of the plasma of a transverse volume discharge initiated in a mixture of heavy inert gases with chlorine molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Chygin, V. I.; Shimon, L. L.; Shevera, I. V.; Gorun, P. P.; Obukhovskii, R. O.

    2010-05-01

    The results of studying the radiation due to argon, krypton, and xenon monochloride bands, as well as to the bands of chlorine molecules, from the plasma of a transverse Ar-Kr-Xe-Cl2 volume discharge are reported. The working mixture of a pulse radiation source is optimized with regard to its pressure and elemental composition and parameters of an excitation system. By numerically solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation for the electron energy distribution function, the transport characteristics of plasma electrons and discharge power specific losses are found for different values of the reduced electric field strength. The plasma parameters are simulated for the quaternary mixture, which is most appropriate for a multiwave UV-VUV source. Qualitative analysis is conducted for the most important electron processes in the multicomponent plasma that govern the joint formation of argon, krypton, and xenon monochlorides in the transverse discharge.

  9. Large-Volume Reconstruction of Brain Tissue from High-Resolution Serial Section Images Acquired by SEM-Based Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M.; Harris, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    With recent improvements in instrumentation and computational tools, serial section electron microscopy has become increasingly straightforward. A new method for imaging ultrathin serial sections is developed based on a field emission scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector. This method is capable of automatically acquiring high-resolution serial images with a large field size and very little optical and physical distortions. In this chapter, we describe the procedures leading to the generation and analyses of a large-volume stack of high-resolution images (64 μm × 64 μm × 10 μm, or larger, at 2 nm pixel size), including how to obtain large-area serial sections of uniform thickness from well-preserved brain tissue that is rapidly perfusion-fixed with mixed aldehydes, processed with a microwave-enhanced method, and embedded into epoxy resin. PMID:23086880

  10. Large-volume reconstruction of brain tissue from high-resolution serial section images acquired by SEM-based scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M; Harris, Kristen M

    2013-01-01

    With recent improvements in instrumentation and computational tools, serial section electron microscopy has become increasingly straightforward. A new method for imaging ultrathin serial sections is developed based on a field emission scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector. This method is capable of automatically acquiring high-resolution serial images with a large field size and very little optical and physical distortions. In this chapter, we describe the procedures leading to the generation and analyses of a large-volume stack of high-resolution images (64 μm × 64 μm × 10 μm, or larger, at 2 nm pixel size), including how to obtain large-area serial sections of uniform thickness from well-preserved brain tissue that is rapidly perfusion-fixed with mixed aldehydes, processed with a microwave-enhanced method, and embedded into epoxy resin.

  11. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  12. Laser Encapsulation of Organic Electronics with Adapted Diode Lasers in Flexible Production Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosda, Maximilian; Olowinsky, Alexander; Pelzer, Alexander

    Flexible organic electronics such as OLPV and OLED modules are highly sensitive against water and oxygen. To protect them against the environment and to ensure a long lifetime visual transparent ultra high barrier films are used for the encapsulation process. These multilayer films usually consist of a polymer substrate on which, depending on the requirements, various functional layers are applied. The organic device is then fully packed in this films. Instead of conventional joining these film with adhesive, a flexible laser based process can be an interesting alternative especially for roll2roll applications. According to a precise spectral analysis and a consideration of the interaction between the laser radiation and the individual layers of the film a suitable laser beam source is selected. With this laser beam source the weldability of the films is investigated. For analysis of the weldseam and the melted volume cross sections and scanning-electron-microscopy-images are prepared. The strength of the weld is determined by T-Peel tensile tests.

  13. Skill Training Analysis. Volume 1. The Linkage of Unit Level Skill Training and Unit Productivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-14

    Air Force training and the linkage with maintenance productivity. It also describes the MCR I examination of Army installation- level training and a ...Service skill training conducted at the installation level and to analyze its - impact on unit productivity. MCR also conducted a special pur- pose...the local school, but FTD training helps to get a person on the job at a particular skill level in a shorter period of time. This fact, combined with

  14. Volume production of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1982-06-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm/sup 2/) for H/sup -/ and of 4.1 mA(42 mA/cm/sup 2/) for D/sup -/ are obtained continuously. The impurity is less than 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed.

  15. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  16. Constraints on geothermal reservoir volume change calculations from InSAR surface displacements and injection and production data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaven, J. Ole; Barbour, Andrew J.; Ali, Tabrez

    2017-04-01

    Continual production of geothermal energy at times leads to significant surface displacement that can be observed in high spatial resolution using InSAR imagery. The surface displacement can be analyzed to resolve volume change within the reservoir revealing the often-complicated patterns of reservoir deformation. Simple point source models of reservoir deformation in a homogeneous elastic or poro-elastic medium can be superimposed to provide spatially varying, kinematic representations of reservoir deformation. In many cases, injection and production data are known in insufficient detail; but, when these are available, the same Green functions can be used to constrain the reservoir deformation. Here we outline how the injection and production data can be used to constrain bounds on the solution by posing the inversion as a quadratic programming with inequality constraints and regularization rather than a conventional least squares solution with regularization. We apply this method to InSAR-derived surface displacements at the Coso and Salton Sea Geothermal Fields in California, using publically available injection and production data. At both geothermal fields the available surface deformation in conjunction with the injection and production data permit robust solutions for the spatially varying reservoir deformation. The reservoir deformation pattern resulting from the constrained quadratic programming solution is more heterogeneous when compared to a conventional least squares solution. The increased heterogeneity is consistent with the known structural controls on heat and fluid transport in each geothermal reservoir.

  17. The GLAS Standard Data Products Specification-Data Dictionary, Version 1.0. Volume 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document contains the data dictionary for the GLAS standard data products. It details the parameters present on GLAS standard data products. Each parameter is defined with a short name, a long name, units on product, type of variable, a long description and products that contain it. The term standard data products refers to those EOS instrument data that are routinely generated for public distribution. These products are distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC).

  18. Feasibility study for a 40-MGY/80-MGY fuel-alcohol production plant. Volume 1. Appendices. Executive overview. [Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The results of a study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a 40 to 80 million gallon per year alcohol fuels plant in Talladega County, Alabama are presented. This volume briefly outlines the transformation of the US fermentation industry since its inception in 1979; identifies the current status of the ethanol industry including its existing resources and markets; assesses the most important factors which will effect the development of the industry; and provides an assessment of the impact of GRASP's proposed facility on the US ethanol market. In addition, this document contains 7 appendices entitled: total US ethanol production capacity; US gasohol sales; regional refineries; fermentation ethanol imports for fuel use; state excise tax exemptions; alcohol fuels industry report; and US corn production and prices. (DMC)

  19. The model and the planning method of volume and variety assessment of innovative products in an industrial enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, V. G.; Anisimov, E. G.; Saurenko, T. N.; Sonkin, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the long term, the innovative development strategy efficiency is considered as the most crucial condition for assurance of economic system competitiveness in market conditions. It determines the problem relevance of such justification strategies with regard to specific systems features and conditions of their operation. The problem solution for industrial enterprises can be based on mathematical models of supporting the decision-making on the elements of the innovative manufacturing program. An optimization model and the planning method of innovative products volume and variety are suggested. The feature of the suggested model lies in the nonlinear nature of the objective function. It allows taking into consideration the law of diminishing marginal utility. The suggested method of optimization takes into account the system features and enables the effective implementation of manufacturing capabilities in modern conditions of production organization and sales in terms of market saturation.

  20. The Navy Supply Corps Newsletter. Contracting Innovations: Navy Electronic Commerce Online Navy Afloat Purchase Card Program. Volume 62, No. 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    tf • lovy Electronic Commerce Online m Afloat Purchase Card Program4 % y5.ll ’ ’"’#K5&. ifekj 1IÜN AB iräri.1 . ■■-■ 11...Contracting Innovations NAVSUP Electronic Commerce in Contracting for Beginners 8 The Afloat Purchase Card Program: Decentralizing Purchasing for...there. J- May/June NAVSUP Electronic Commerce in Contracting for Beginners By Matt Nielsen, NECO Project Manager, Naval Supply Systems Command M he